From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Enbridge Inc.
S&P/TSX 60 Component
IndustryOil and gas
FoundedApril 30, 1949 (1949-04-30)
(as Interprovincial Pipe Line Company)
FounderImperial Oil
Key people
Gregory L. Ebel (Chair)
Al Monaco (CEO)
ServicesPipeline transport
Oil storage
RevenueIncreaseC$50.069 billion(2019)[1]
IncreaseC$8.260 billion(2019)
IncreaseC$5.827 billion (2019)[1]
Total assetsDecreaseC$163.269 billion(2019)[1]
Total equityDecreaseC$66.043 billion(2019)[1]
Number of employees
SubsidiariesEnbridge Pipelines
Enbridge Gas Inc.
Websitewww.enbridge.com Edit this at Wikidata

Enbridge Inc. is a multinational pipeline company headquartered in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. It focuses on the transportation of crude oil and natural gas, primarily in North America. Enbridge's expansive pipeline system is the longest in North America, with over 5,000 kilometres (3,100 mi) of pipelines in Canada and the United States.

Enbridge's pipelines transport 20% of the natural gas consumed in the United States. It owns and operates Canada's largest natural gas distribution network, providing distribution services in Ontario and Quebec.[2] Union Gas in Ontario now fully operates under Enbridge as well.[3]


The company was initially incorporated by Imperial Oil as Interprovincial Pipe Line Company (IPL) on April 30, 1949, after Canada's first major oil discovery, in 1947, at Leduc, Alberta.[4][5][6] In the same year, the company built its first oil pipeline from Leduc to Regina, Saskatchewan.[4][6] In 1950, it was expanded through Gretna, Manitoba, to Superior, Wisconsin, in the United States.[4] To operate the United States portion of the pipeline, the Lakehead Pipe Line Company (now Enbridge Energy Partners) was created. In 1953, the pipeline was expanded to Sarnia, Ontario, and in 1956 to Toronto and Buffalo, New York.[4]

In 1953, IPL was listed on the Toronto and Montreal stock exchanges.[4] In 1983, IPL built the Norman Wells pipeline and joined Frontier Pipeline Company.[4] In 1986, through a series of stakes exchanges, IPL gained control of Home Oil and in 1988, it changed its name to Interhome Energy Inc.[4][7] In 1991, it changed its name to Interprovincial Pipe Line Inc.[7]

In 1992, Interprovincial Pipe Line Inc. was acquired by Interprovincial Pipe Line System Inc., which changed its name to IPL Energy Inc. in 1994, after the acquisition of Consumers' Gas (now Enbridge Gas Inc.) and diversification into the gas distribution business.[4][7] In addition, it acquired stakes in AltaGas Services and the electric utility of Cornwall, Ontario.[4] Through the 1990s, the company expanded its gas pipeline network and acquired a stake in the Chicap oil pipeline. It also built the Athabasca Pipeline from northeastern Alberta to the main pipeline system.[4] In 1995, the company expanded its activities outside of North America by taking a stake in the Ocensa pipeline. This stake was sold in 2009.[8] IPL Energy became Enbridge Inc in 1998.[7] The Enbridge name is a portmanteau from "energy" and "bridge".[4]

In the 2000s, Enbridge introduced several large projects. Enbridge made their first investment into renewable energy in 2002 with the purchase of a wind farm, and since then has been consistently making efforts to become a leader in renewable energy in Canada.[9][10] In 2006, it announced the Enbridge Northern Gateway Pipelines Project from Athabasca to Kitimat, British Columbia.[11] The same year, it announced the Alberta Clipper pipeline project from Hardisty, Alberta to Superior, Wisconsin, to connect oil sands production area with the existing network. This pipeline became operational in 2010.[12]

In 2009, Enbridge bought the Sarnia Photovoltaic Power Plant and expanded it up to 80 MW, which was the world's largest photovoltaic power station at that time.[13][14]

In January 2017, Enbridge acquired Midcoast Energy Partners for $170 million in cash, and later in 2018, ArcLight acquired Midcoast Operating, L.P. from Enbridge for $1.1 billion.[15][16]

Enbridge released its first annual sustainability report in 2001, and in November 2020, Enbridge expanded its environmental, social and governance (ESG) goals and targets.[17][18] The company aims to achieve net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050, with an interim target to reduce emissions intensity by 35% by 2030.[19] That same year, President and CEO Al Monaco said that renewable power is now "the fourth Enbridge platform."[20] Enbridge's ESG goals also aim to diversify its workforce with 28% representation from racial and ethnic groups and 40% from women by 2025.[21]  

In 2021, Enbridge was recognized as one of Canada's top 100 employers for the 18th time, and as one of Canada's best diversity employers for the seventh time.[22]

Merger with Spectra Energy[edit]

On September 6, 2016, Enbridge agreed to buy Spectra Energy in an all-stock deal valued at about $28 billion.[23] Spectra, headquartered in Houston, Texas, operated in three key areas of the natural gas industry: transmission and storage, distribution, and gathering and processing. Spectra was formed in late 2006 as a spin-off from Duke Energy. Spectra owned the Texas Eastern Pipeline (TETCo), a major natural gas pipeline transporting gas from the Gulf of Mexico coast in Texas to the New York City area; TETCo was one of the largest pipeline systems in the United States.[24] Spectra also operated three oil pipelines, numerous other gas pipelines and was proposing to build still 3 more gas pipelines in the U.S.[25] The merger was completed on February 27, 2017.[26]


Enbridge Centre in Edmonton, Alberta

Crude oil and liquids pipelines[edit]

The company is the largest transporter of crude oil in Canada with 3 million barrels per day of oil and liquids.[6] The Enbridge Pipeline System is the world's longest crude oil and liquids pipeline system, with 27,564 km (17,127 mi) of active crude pipeline in both Canada and the United States.[27] This pipeline network delivers 3 million barrels of oil per day.[28]

Enbridge delivered more than 3.77 billion barrels of crude oil in 2020, and more than 29.5 billion barrels over the past decade, from 2011 through 2020 inclusive.[29]

Enbridge has several new capacities and expansion projects, including the expansion of the Alberta Clipper, replacing of Line 6B, reversal of Line 9 and others.[30] Its Light Oil Market Access initiative is a project to deliver light crude oil from North Dakota and Western Canada to refineries in Ontario, Quebec, and the U.S. Midwest. Eastern Access, including a reversal of Line 9, is a project to deliver oil to Western Canada and Bakken to refineries in Eastern Canada and the midwest and eastern U.S.[30][31] Western Gulf Coast Access, including reversal and expansion of the Seaway Pipeline and the Flanagan South Pipeline, is a plan to connect Canadian heavy oil supply to refineries along the Gulf Coast of the United States.[32][33]

Enbridge's oil pipelines cross North America, with 13,833 km (8,672 mi) of active pipe in the United States and 13,681 km (8500 mi) of active pipe in Canada.[29] The list below outlines eight of those lines.

  • Line 1 is a 1,767 km (1,098 mi) pipeline that starts in Enbridge's Edmonton Terminal in Alberta, and runs to its Superior Terminal in Wisconsin. On average, this pipeline delivers 237,000 barrels of light crude, natural gas liquids, and refined products daily.[34]
  • Line 2A is a 966 km (600 mi) pipeline that runs from an Enbridge terminal in Edmonton, Alberta, to its Cromer Terminal in Manitoba. On average, per day this pipeline carries 442,000 barrels of condensates, light crude, and heavy crude. Line 2B is an 808 km (502 mi) pipeline that runs from the same Cromer Terminal to the Superior Terminal in Wisconsin. That pipeline delivers on average 442,000 barrels of light crude oil per day.[35]
  • Line 3 is a 1,769 km (1,099 mi) pipeline that runs from the Edmonton terminal to the Superior Terminal. Over half (1,070 km) of the pipeline is located in Canada, between Alberta and Manitoba. Per day, the pipeline transports an average of 390,000 barrels of light, medium and heavy crude oil.[35]
  • Line 4 is a 1,722 km (1,101 mi) crude oil pipeline starting at the Edmonton terminal to the Superior terminal. This pipeline carries, on average, 390,000 barrels of light, medium and heavy crude oil per day.[35]
  • Line 5 is a 1,038 km (645 mi) crude oil pipeline running from the Superior terminal in Wisconsin to Sarnia, Ontario. On average, this pipeline moves 540,000 barrels of natural gas liquids and light crude oil per day.[35]
  • Alberta clipper Pipeline (Line 67) is a 1,790 km (1,112 mi) pipeline that runs from Hardisty, Alberta to Superior, Wisconsin. An average of 800,000 barrels of heavy crude oil is moved through this pipeline per day.[35]
  • Southern Lights Pipeline (Line 13) is a 2,560 km (1,591 mi) pipeline that runs from Manhattan, Illinois to the Edmonton terminal. This pipeline carries on average, 180,000 barrels of diluent per day.[35]

Natural gas pipelines[edit]

Enbridge gas meters

Enbridge builds, owns and operates a network of natural gas transmission pipelines across North America, connecting the continent's prolific natural gas supply to major markets in Canada, the United States, Mexico, and further abroad.[36]

Enbridge's natural gas network currently covers 38,375 km (23,850 mi) across five Canadian provinces, 30 U.S. states, and offshore in the Gulf of Mexico, transporting roughly 16.2 Bcf (billions of cubic feet per day) of natural gas.[37]

Canadian gas transmission: major assets[edit]

  • B.C. Pipeline (2.9 Bcf/d): this pipeline system runs from Fort Nelson in northeastern British Columbia to the U.S. border at Huntington-Sumas stretching 2,858 km (1,776 mi). It transports 60 percent of all natural gas produced in B.C., and provides natural gas service to the province as well as US states including Oregon, Idago, and Washington.[38]
  • Alliance Pipeline (1.6bcf/d): running 3,848 km (2,391 mi) from northern British Columbia across the U.S.-Canada border to Aux Sable gas processing plant in Chicago, Illinois. Enbridge owns 50 percent of the Alliance Pipeline and 42% of the Aux Sable processing facility.[39][40][41]

U.S. gas transmission: major assets[edit]

  • Algonquin Gas Transmission (3.12 Bcf/d): this pipeline is 1,129 miles long, and transports natural gas to markets in New York, New Jersey, and New England.[42]
  • East Tennessee (1.86 Bcf/d): a natural gas pipeline 1,526 miles long, extending from Tennessee to the Southeast and Mid-Atlantic states, ending in Virginia.[43]
  • Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline: this pipeline brings natural gas produced in Atlantic Canada through to other Canadian provinces (Nova Scotia and New Brunswick), and into U.S. states (Main, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts).[44][45]
  • NEXUS Gas Transmission: measuring 257 miles long, this pipeline supplies natural gas markets in the U.S. Midwest and the Dawn Hub in Ontario. This is a 50/50 joint partnership between Enbridge and DTE Energy.[46]
  • Sabal Trail: carries natural gas via a 287 mile pipeline to the U.S. Southeast. This is a joint partnership between Enbridge, NextEra Energy and Duke Energy.[47]
  • Southeast Supply Header (SESH) (1.09 Bcf/d): a natural gas pipeline 287 miles in length, connecting gas supply in Texas and Louisiana to other natural gas markets in the Southeast US.[48]
  • Texas Eastern (11.69 Bcf/d): delivers natural gas from Texas and the Gulf Coast through 8.83 miles of pipeline to markets in the Northeastern UW including New York, Boston, and Pittsburgh.[49]
  • Valley Crossing Pipeline (2.6 Bcf/d): placed into service in November 2018, this pipeline moves Texas sourced natural gas to a Mexico State-owned power utility, the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE).[50]
  • Vector Pipeline: this pipeline acts as a connector for other pipelines including the Alliance pipeline and NEXUS Gas Transmission to the Union Gas Dawn Hub.[51]

DCP Midstream[edit]

DCP Midstream is a joint venture between Enbridge and Phillips 66. Phillips 66 is one of the largest petroleum services companies in the US, owning and operating 39 natural gas plants and 51,000 miles of gathering pipe.[52] Headquartered in Denver, Colorado, DCP operates a portfolio of natural gas gathering, logistics, marketing and processing services across nine states.[53]

Renewable energy generation[edit]

Enbridge made its first investment into renewable energy in 2002 with the purchase of a wind farm, and is now one of the largest renewable energy companies in Canada.[54][55] To date Enbridge has invested in 23 wind farms, 7 solar energy projects, 5 waste heat recovery facilities, 1 geothermal project, 1 power transmission project and 1 hydroelectric facilitiy.[56]

Enbridge has a growing interest in European offshore wind energy, and its renewable assets are part of the company's plan to achieve net-zero emissions by 2050.[57][58]

In 2020, President and CEO Al Monaco said that renewable power is now "the fourth Enbridge platform."[20]

Major wind assets[edit]

  • Hohe See Offshore Wind Project (497 megawatt): 98 km off the coast of Germany in the North Sea, this project came online in October 2019. It has 71 wind turbines and is equal to servicing over 560,000 homes. Enbridge has 25.5 percent ownership of the project.[59]
  • Rampion Offshore Wind Project (400 megawatt): as Enbridge's first offshore wind project and first power generation project outside of North America, this site entered service in November 2018. This project has 116 turbines, equal to servicing over 310,000 homes. Enbridge has a 24.9 percent ownership of the project.[60]
  • Lac-Alfred Wind Project (300 megawatt): located in the Bas-Saint-Laurent region of Quebec, Canada, 150 wind turbines generate enough electricity to service over 60,000 homes. Enbridge has a 34.4 percent ownership of the project.[61][62]
  • Blackspring Ridge Wind Project (300 megawatt): a 166 turbine project is the biggest in Western Canada, serving over 119,000 homes.[63]

Major solar projects[edit]

  • Silver State North Solar Project (52 megawatt): located in Clark County, Nevada, this was the first large scale solar energy project on U.S. public lands in NV, servicing over 10,000 homes. Enbridge has 51 percent ownership.[64]
  • Sarnia Solar Project (80 megawatt): located in Sarnia, Ontario, it generates enough electricity to service over 12,000 homes.[65]

Power transmission[edit]

In February, 2020, Enbridge sold its shares of Montana-Alberta Tie-Line (MATL) to Berkshire Hathaway Energy. The MATL project is a 300-megawatt (MW), 230-kilovolt (kV) electrical transmission line allowing movement of power between Alberta and Montana. The MATL project, which was placed in service the fall of 2013, supports ongoing development of a rich wind-powered generation resource and allows electrical energy to flow in both directions. The transmission line is 210 miles (345 km) long and runs between the Lethbridge, Alberta area and the Great Falls, Montana area. Roughly one third of the line is in Canada and two thirds in the U.S.[66][67]

Natural gas utility[edit]

Enbridge Gas Inc. was formed on January 1, 2019 with the combination of Enbridge Gas Distribution and Union Gas.[68] Its network consists of 5,471 km of gas transmission lines, 66,787 km of gas distribution service lines, and 78,214 km of gas distribution main lines.[69]

They deliver to over 15 million people in Ontario and Quebec through 3.8 million residential, commercial, industrial, and institutional meter connections and distribute roughly 2.3 bcf/d of natural gas.[70] Additionally, in southwestern Ontario they have the largest integrated underground storage facility in Canada, and one of North America's top natural gas trading hubs.[71]

Enbridge's natural gas distribution also includes interest ownership in two additional natural gas distributors. This includes Gazfiére, serving people in Outaouais region of Quebec,[72] and Ènergir LP, a company that operates gas transmission, gas distribution, and power distribution throughout Quebec and Vermont.[73]

Technology and innovation[edit]

Enbridge has two Technology + Innovation labs. In January 2019, the first lab opened in Calgary, Alberta.[74] In April 2019, the second lab opened in Houston, Texas.[74] The labs use industrial predictive algorithms, machine learning, and sentiment analysis to find efficiencies within the company and help improve safety and reliability of their pipeline infrastructure.[75]

The labs have developed ways to get sensor data from pipelines, helping to improve flows of natural gas and crude oil terminals.[76] Additionally, the labs have helped enhance pipeline leak detection, and ensure better maintenance schedules.[76] For renewable energy projects, the labs have developed different ways to reposition wind turbine blades to help maximize wind power generation.[77][78]


Dollar amounts in millions of Canadian dollars unless otherwise noted, with the exception of employee numbers. Additionally, earnings are after income tax and unadjusted.

Year 2014[79][80] 2015[81][82] 2016[83][84] 2017[85][86] 2018[87][88] 2019[89] 2020[90] 2021 Q1[91]
Operating Revenue 37,641 33,794 34,560 44,378 46,378 50,069 39,087 12,187
Earnings 1,608 1,866 2,078 2,529 2,515 5,827 3,416 2,014
Total Assets 72,857 84,664 85,832 162,093 166,905 163,269 160,276
Enbridge Employees 11,000 11,000 7,733 15,000 13,600 11,300 13,000

Operational Projects[edit]

25 longest crude oil pipelines[edit]

Name Country Length Capacity and Transportation
Bakken Pipeline System US DAPL 1,886 km; ETCOP 1,194 km Average capacity of 570,000 bpd. DAPL starts at 6 locations in the Bakken/Three Forks region of North Dakota, then travels to markets approximately 1,886 km away in Patoka, IL. ETCOP starts in Patoka, IL., and ends at the Sunoco Terminal in Nederland, TX. This is a joint venture between Enbridge Energy Partners, L.P. (EEP), and the Marathon Petroleum Corporation. EEP has just over 25 percent interest in the system.[92]
Southern Lights Pipeline US to Canada 2,556 km Delivers approximately 180,000 bpd of Diluent. Starts in Manhattan, IL, and ends at the Edmonton Terminal near Edmonton, AB.[92][93]
Alberta Clipper Pipeline Canada to US 1,790 km Moves on average 800,000 bpd of heavy crude. Starts at the Edmonton Terminal near Edmonton, AB, and terminates in Superior, WI.[92]
Line 4 Canada to US 1,770 km Transports an average total of 390,000 bpd of light, medium, and heavy crude. Begins at the Enbridge Edmonton Terminal and runs to the Enbridge Superior Terminal.[92]
Line 3 Canada to US 1,769 km Delivers approximately 390,000 bpd of light, medium, and select heavy crude. This pipeline starts in Edmonton, AB, and terminates in Superior, WI, at the Superior Terminal[92]
Line 1 Canada to US 1,767 km Moves an average of 237,000 bpd of refined products and light crude oil. It starts at the Edmonton Terminal and finishes at the Superior Terminal.[92]
Platte Pipeline US 1,511 km Delivers an average of 164,000 bpd from Casper, WY., to Guernsey, WY. Also transports an additional 145,000 bpd from Guernsey to Wood River, IL.[92]
**Gray Oak Pipeline US 1,368 km Moves an average of 900,000 bpd of crude oil. This pipeline is built and operated by Phillips 66. It runs from West Texas to New Mexico, and from South Texas to the US Gulf Coast. It connects markets in Corpus Christi, and Freeport, TX.[92]
Express Pipeline Canada to US 1,263 km Can deliver up to 280,000 bpd of heavy, medium, and light cruide oil from Hardisty, AB, to Casper, WY.[92][94]
Line 5 Canada to US 1,038 km Moves both natural gas liquids and light crude oil, totalling an average of 540,000 bpd. Starts at the Edmonton Terminal and ends at the Superior Terminal.[92]
Line 2A Canada 966 km On average, transports 442,000 bpd of condensates, and light and heavy crude. Begins at the Edmonton Terminal, and finishes at Enbridge's Cromer Terminal near Cromer, MB.[92]
Flanagan South Pipeline (Line 59) US 954 km Delivers approximately 585,000 bpd of light, medium and heavy crude products. Originates at the Flanagan Terminal near Pontiac, IL, and ends at Enbridge's Cushing Terminal in Cushing, OK.[92]
Spearhead Pipeline (Line 55) US 938 km Transports around 193,000 bpd of light, medium and heavy crude oil. Starts at the Flanigan Terminal, and finishes at the Cushing Terminal.[92]
Line 21 (Norman Wells Pipeline) US to Canada 870 km Moves roughly 45,000 bpd of only light crude oil. Begins at Norman Wells, NT (Canada), and ends in Zama, AB.[92]
Seaway Crude Pipeline US 846 km Delivers 350,000 bpd of light, medium, and heavy crude oils on average. Starts at the Cushing Terminal, and ends in the Gulf Coast Refinery Region by Houston, TX. Enbridge only has a 50 percent ownership interest in the project.[92]
Seaway Twin/Loop Crude Pipeline US 846 km Moves an average of 600,000 barrels of light, medium and heavy crude oil. Starts at the Cushing Terminal, and ends at the Gulf Coast refinery region. Enbridge has a 50 percent ownership interest.[92]
Line 9 US to Canada 832 km Transports approximately 300,000 bpd of light, medium, and heavy crude oil. Starts in Sarnia, ON, and ends in Montreal, QC. This pipeline operates in two sections: Line 9A travels from Sarnia to Hamilton, ON, and Line 9B travels the rest of the way from Hamilton to Montreal, QC.[92]
Line 2B Canada to US 808 km Delivers on average 442,000 bpd of only light crude oil. Starts in Cromer, MB, and terminals at the Superior Terminal.[92]
Line 14/64 US 784 km Moves 343,000 bpd on average, of light and medium crude oil. Begins at the Superior Terminal, and ends at Enbridge's Griffith/Hartsdale Terminal near Griffith, IN.[92]
Line 6 US 748 km Transports roughly 667,000 bpd of light, medium, and heavy crude oil. Starts at the Superior Terminal, and ends at the Griffith/Hartsdale Terminal, IN.[92]
Line 61 US 744 km Moves an average of 996,000 bpd of light, medium, and heavy crude oil. Originates at the Superior Terminal, and ends at the Flanagan Terminal.[92]
Line 78 US to Canada 602 km Delivers an average of 570,000 bpd of light, medium and heavy crude oil from Flanagan, IL, Terminal to Stockbridge, MI, Terminal. Then moves 500,000 bpd from Stockbridge to Sarnia, ON.[92]
Athabasca Pipeline (Line 19) Canada 542 km Transports 570,000 bpd of light and heavy crude oil from Fort McMurray, AB, to Hardisty, AB.[92]
Line 65 Canada to US 504 km Starting at the Cromer Terminal, and ending at the Clearbrook Terminal near Clearbrook, MN, this pipeline moves an average of 186,000 bpd of heavy crude oil.[92]
Athabasca Pipeline Twin (Line 45) Canada 454 km Moves 800,000 bpd of light and heavy crude oil from Fort McMurray to Hardisty, AB.[92]

10 longest natural gas pipelines[edit]

Name Country Length Capacity
Texas Eastern Transmission US 14,202 km 11.69 bcf/d[92]
Big Sandy Pipeline US 3,848 km 0.23 bcf/d

This pipeline interconnects with the East Tennessee Natural Gas Pipeline system, linking the Huron Shale and Appalachian Basin natural gas markets in the Northeast and mid-Atlantic.[92]

Alliance Pipeline Canada to US 3,848 km 1.325 bcf/d[92]
BC Pipeline Canada to US 2,858 km 2.9 bcf/d[92]
East Tennessee Natural Gas US 2,456 km 1.86 bcf/d[92]
Gulfstream Natural Gas US 1,199 km 1.31 bcf/d[92]
Algonquin Gas Transmission US 1,820 km 3.12 bcf/d[92]
Gulf Coast Express Pipeline US 795 km 1.98 bcf/d[92]
Destin Pipeline US 620 km 1.2 bcf/d[92]
Vector Pipeline US 560 km 1.745 bcf/d[92]

Note: capacity is measured in billion cubic feet per day (bcf/d) of natural gas.

Wind assets[edit]

Name[95] Location[95] Capacity[95] Homes served[95]
Albatros Offshore Wind Project Emden, Germany 112 MW 127,460
Blackspring Ridge Wind Project Carmangay, Alberta 301 MW 119,000
Cedar Point Wind Farm Limon, Colorado 252 MW 63,400
Chapman Ranch Wind Project Nueces County, Texas 249 MW 64,100
Chin Chute Wind Farm Taber, Alberta 30 MW 12,000
Greenwich Wind Farm Project Dorion, Ontario 99 MW 36,600
Hohe See Offshore Wind Project Emden, Germany 497 MW 565,600
Keechi Wind Project Jack County, Texas 110 MW 33,300
Lac-Alfred Wind Project Bas-Saint-Laurent, Quebec 307 MW 62,000
Magic Valley I Wind Farm Harlingen, Texas 203 MW 74,800
Magrath Wind Project Project Lethbridge, Alberta 30 MW 10,700
Massif du Sud Wind Project Saint-Luc-de-Bellechasse, Quebec 150 MW 31,700
New Creek Wind Project Grant County, West Virginia 102 MW 23,000
Ontario Wind Power Project Kincardine, Ontario 190 MW 57,000
Rampion Offshore Wind Project English Channel (13 to 20 kilometre south of Brighton) 400 MW 315,900
Saint-Robert-Bellarmin Wind Project Bas-Saint-Laurent, Quebec 82 MW 16,700
SunBridge Wind Project Gull Lake, Saskatchewan 11 MW 4,150
Talbot Wind Energy Project Ridgetown, Ontario 99 MW 36,600
Wildcat Wind Farm Elwood, Indiana 202 MW 57,800

Note: capacity is measured in megawatts (MW). Homes served is based on gross generation figures.

Solar assets[edit]

Name[96] Location[96] Capacity[96] Homes served[96]
Amherstburg II Solar Project Amherstburg, Ontario 15 MW 2,800
Lambertville Solar Project West Amwell, New Jersey 2.25 MW 405
Sarnia Solar Project Sarnia, Ontario 80 MW 14,500
Silver State North Solar Project Clark County, Nevada 52 MW 11,600
Tilbury Solar Project Tilbury, Ontario 5 MW 800
Alberta Solar One Burdett, Alberta 10.5 MW 1,850
Heidlersburg Solar Tyrone Township, Pennsylvania 2.5 MW 500

Note: capacity is measured in megawatts (MW). Homes served is based on gross generation figures.

Oil spills and violations[edit]

Enbridge's pipeline was responsible for the largest inland oil spill in the United States[97] in 1991, when 1.7 million gallons of oil ruptured from a buried pipeline in Grand Rapids, Minnesota, spilling crude into a wetland and a tributary of the Mississippi River.[97]

Using data from Enbridge's own reports, the Polaris Institute calculated that 804 spills occurred on Enbridge pipelines between 1999 and 2010. These spills released approximately 161,475 barrels (25,672.5 m3) of crude oil into the environment.[98]

On July 4, 2002, an Enbridge pipeline ruptured in a marsh near the town of Cohasset, Minnesota, in Itasca County, spilling 6,000 barrels (950 m3) of crude oil. In an attempt to keep the oil from contaminating the Mississippi River, the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources set a controlled burn that lasted for one day and created a smoke plume about 1-mile (1.6 km) high and 5 miles (8.0 km) long.[99]

In 2006, there were 67 reportable spills totaling 5,663 barrels (900.3 m3) on Enbridge's energy and transportation and distribution system; in 2007 there were 65 reportable spills totalling 13,777 barrels (2,190.4 m3).[100] On March 18, 2006, approximately 613 barrels (97.5 m3) of crude oil were released when a pump failed at Enbridge's Willmar terminal in Saskatchewan.[101] According to Enbridge, roughly half the oil was recovered.

On January 1, 2007, an Enbridge pipeline that runs from Superior, Wisconsin to near Whitewater, Wisconsin cracked open and spilled ~50,000 US gallons (190 m3) of crude oil onto farmland and into a drainage ditch.[102] The same pipeline was struck by construction crews on February 2, 2007, in Rusk County, Wisconsin, spilling ~201,000 US gallons (760 m3) of crude, of which about 87,000 gallons were recovered. Some of the oil filled a hole more than 20 feet (6.1 m) deep and contaminated the local water table.[103][104]

In April 2007, roughly 6,227 barrels (990.0 m3) of crude oil spilled into a field downstream of an Enbridge pumping station near Glenavon, Saskatchewan.[101]

In January 2009, an Enbridge pipeline leaked about 4,000 barrels (640 m3) of oil southeast of Fort McMurray at the company's Cheecham Terminal tank farm. Most of the spilled oil was contained within berms but about 1% of the oil, about 40 barrels (6.4 m3), sprayed into the air and coated nearby snow and trees.[105]

On January 2, 2010, Enbridge's Line 2 ruptured near Neche, North Dakota, releasing about 3,784 barrels of crude oil, of which 2,237 barrels were recovered.[104][106] In April 2010, an Enbridge pipeline ruptured spilling more than 9.5 barrels (1.51 m3) of oil in Virden, Manitoba. This oil leaked into the Boghill Creek, which eventually connects to the Assiniboine River.[107]

The 2010 Kalamazoo River oil spill resulted in over 1,000,000 US gallons (3,800 m3) of oil leaking into Talmadge Creek and the Kalamazoo River

In the July 2010 Kalamazoo River oil spill, a leaking pipeline spilled more than 1,000,000 US gallons (3,800 m3) of oil sands crude oil into Talmadge Creek leading to the Kalamazoo River in southwest Michigan on July 26, near Marshall, Michigan.[108][109] A United States Environmental Protection Agency update of the Kalamazoo River spill concluded the pipeline rupture "caused the largest inland oil spill in Midwest history" and reported the cost of the cleanup at $36.7 million (US) as of November 14, 2011.[108] PHMSA raised concerns in a Corrective Action Order (CAO) about numerous anomalies that had been detected on this pipeline by internal line inspection tools, yet Enbridge had failed to check a number of those anomalies in the field.[110] The Michigan spill affected more than 31 miles (50 km) of waterways and wetlands and about 320 people reported symptoms from crude oil exposure.[111] The National Transportation Safety Board said at $800 million, it was the costliest onshore spill cleanup in U.S. history.[112] The NTSB found Enbridge knew of a defect in the pipeline five years before it burst.[113] In June 2013, a Kalamazoo man lodged himself into an Enbridge pipeline in Marshall, MI to protest Enbridge's lack of accountability for the 2010 spill and to encourage landowners along Enbridge's Line 6B expansion to offer increased resistance to construction in 2013.[114][115] In 2014, Enbridge completed cleanup of the river per EPA's order.[116]

On September 9, 2010, a broken water line caused a rupture on Enbridge's Line 6A pipeline near Romeoville, Illinois, released an estimate 7,500 barrels (1,190 m3) of oil into the surrounding area.[108][117]

On June 22, 2013, Enbridge subsidiary Athabasca pipelines reported a pipeline leak of approximately 750 barrels of light synthetic crude oil from Line 37 near Enbridge's Cheecham, Alberta, terminal about 70 kilometres (43 mi) southeast of Fort McMurray. The 17-kilometre-long, 12-inch diameter pipe was constructed in 2006 and links the Long Lake oilsands upgrader to the Cheetham terminal as part of Enbridge's Athabasca system.[118] Unusually heavy rainfall in the region, also responsible for the 2013 Alberta floods, may have caused "ground movement on the right-of way that may have impacted the pipeline."[119] Enbridge's Athabasca (Line 19) shares a portion of right of way with Line 37 and Enbridge's Wood Buffalo/Waupisoo (Line 75/18) which also shares a portion of right of way with Line 37, a major part of the network that serves Alberta's oilsands,[118] were closed down as a precautionary measure. Operations between Hardisty and Cheecham were restored on June 23 when Enbridge's Athabasca pipeline (Line 19) was restored to service.[119][unreliable source?]

On July 1, 2013, WWMT News in Michigan reported that the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality had issued a citation against Enbridge for contamination of North Ore Creek by an Enbridge pipeline maintenance activity.[120]

On January 30, 2017, a road crew in Texas punctured the Seaway S-1 crude oil pipeline, which is jointly owned by Enterprise Products Partners and Enbridge through the joint venture Seaway Crude Pipeline Company. Two days later, it was unclear how much oil had spilled over the nearby Highway 121 northeast of Dallas. After the incident, supply concerns reportedly helped push "oil prices 2% higher in early trading to nearly $54 a barrel."[121]

On October 9, 2018, Enbridge's Westcoast Pipeline exploded in Shelley, British Columbia,[122] sparking a massive fireball and leading to shortages of natural gas throughout British Columbia.[123]


In May 2012, West Coast First Nations members and supporters protested near Enbridge's Annual Shareholder's meeting, against the proposed Northern Gateway Project[124] and on May 31, 2012, the Vancouver Observer reported about 40 protesters outside the Canadian Oil and Gas Export Summit, protesting the proposed Enbridge Northern Gateway Project.[125]

On July 17, 2012, a group calling itself "We are the Kalamazoo" protested against Enbridge's response to the Kalamazoo spill and its plans to construct the line 6B pipeline. This protest was on the second anniversary of the Kalamazoo spill.[126]

On November 12, 2012, the Lansing State Journal reported that the head of the Line 6B Pipeline project stated that he had never seen as much organized landowner resistance despite 30 years in the pipeline industry. They noted that this was probably because of the 2010 Kalamazoo River spill.[127]

In May 2013, Hamilton area residents protested the reversal of flow in Line 9 and temporarily closed Ontario Highway 6.[128] Later that year, on June 6, 2013, a group called Hamilton 350 sent a letter of complaint to the Hamilton (Ontario) police service (HPS) for accepting over $44,000 in donations from Enbridge. The letter questions whether police officers would be impartial during any anti-Enbridge protests, given the donation.[129]

On June 26, 2013, Hamilton Police arrested at least 10 people who occupied an Enbridge compound for six days to protest the expansion of Enbridge's Line 9 and intent to ship diluted bitumen through the line.[130]

On July 22, 2013, a group of protesters locked themselves to equipment at an Enbridge pipeline construction site in Stockbridge, Michigan. Protesters stated that they had to take matters into their own hands given that state regulators were failing the public, "We felt that there was no other option."[131]

A September 16, 2013, "Inside Climate News" report by journalist David Hasemeyer describes how many Michigan landowners are concerned about the safety of new Enbridge pipeline being laid within a few feet of their homes, and the lack of regulations for how close a pipeline can be constructed to an existing home. The article quotes Richard Kuprewicz, President of an engineering consulting company and an adviser to Pipeline Hazardous Materials Administration: "Clearly the pipeline safety regulations aren't adequate in this area and the siting regulations aren't adequate," Kuprewicz said. "It's a bad combination."[132]

In September 2016, a group of Native Americans protested the construction of the Dakota Access Pipeline, which Enbridge had announced plans to acquire a portion of in a $2 billion deal.[133]

In November 2020, Michigan Governor Gretchen Whitmer revoked a 1953 easement for an Enbridge pipeline connecting two parts of the Great Lakes through the Straits of Mackinac.[134]

In June 2021, Enbridge resumed construction on the Line 3 replacement project in Northern Minnesota after taking a brief planned break.[135] Enbridge's plans to expand its Line 3 pipeline in Minnesota along a new route have been met with prolonged resistance from Native communities and activists calling themselves water protectors.[136][137]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d "Enbridge 2019 Annual Report" (PDF).
  2. ^ Maverick, J. B. "The 5 Biggest Canadian Oil Companies". Investopedia. Retrieved March 23, 2021.
  3. ^ "Enbridge Gas Inc". www.uniongas.com. Retrieved May 2, 2021.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Enbridge Inc. - Company Profile, Information, Business Description, History, Background Information on Enbridge Inc". Reference for Business. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
  5. ^ Gray, Earle (2008). Ontario's Petroleum Legacy: The Birth, Evolution and Challenges of a Global Industry. Heritage Community Foundation. p. 73. ISBN 9780973989229.
  6. ^ a b c "Crude success: Enbridge". Pipeline International. June 2011. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
  7. ^ a b c d "Canadian Corporate Reports. McGill Digital Archive. Company Detail: Enbridge". McGill University. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
  8. ^ "Enbridge Sells Interest In Colombian Pipeline". Pipeline & Gas Journal. 236 (5). May 2009. Archived from the original on February 25, 2014. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
  9. ^ Institute, Pembina (June 28, 2002). "Milestone in Renewable Energy Applauded: Sunbridge Wind Farm". Pembina Institute. Retrieved July 6, 2021.
  10. ^ Morgan, Geoffrey (June 8, 2020). "North America's largest pipeline company aims to pivot to natural gas and renewable energy". Financial Post. Retrieved July 6, 2021.
  11. ^ Jones, Jeffrey (February 21, 2008). "Enbridge rekindles oil sands pipeline plan". Reuters. Retrieved February 14, 2010.
  12. ^ "Alberta Clipper Project". Downstream Today. October 1, 2010. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
  13. ^ "Enbridge completes Sarnia solar farm". CBC News. October 4, 2010. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
  14. ^ "Enbridge buys major solar farm". thestar.com. October 3, 2009. Retrieved March 23, 2021.
  15. ^ "Deals of the day-Mergers and acquisitions". Reuters. January 27, 2017.
  16. ^ Pulsinelli, Olivia (May 9, 2018). "Update: Enbridge closes deal to sell U.S. natural gas and NGL business for $1.1B". Houston Business Journal. Retrieved July 6, 2021.
  17. ^ "Archived Sustainability Reports". www.enbridge.com. Retrieved July 6, 2021.
  18. ^ Rotchild, Leor (November 24, 2020). "Enbridge Becomes First Midstream Company in Canada to Set Bold ESG Goals". Canadian Business for Social Responsibility. Retrieved July 6, 2021.
  19. ^ Holbrook, Emily (November 9, 2020). "Enbridge Steps Up Climate Pledge with Net Zero Emission Target". Environment + Energy Leader. Retrieved July 6, 2021.
  20. ^ a b Laverty, Gene (November 6, 2020). "Enbridge gears up for energy transition with renewable natural gas, power focus". www.spglobal.com. Retrieved July 6, 2021.
  21. ^ Olivero, Tino (July 3, 2021). "ENBRIDGE: Progressive Sustainability goals". Our Great Minds. Retrieved July 6, 2021.
  22. ^ Leung, Kristina; Leung, Stephanie (March 1, 2021). "Top Employer: Enbridge Inc". reviews.canadastop100.com. Retrieved July 6, 2021.
  23. ^ Dawson, Chester; McKinnon, Judy (September 6, 2016). "Enbridge to Buy Spectra Energy in $28 Billion Deal". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved September 7, 2016.
  24. ^ FERC pipeline codes Archived 2013-01-20 at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ Spectra Energy (2015). "Spectra Energy Liquids". Spectra Energy. Archived from the original on 22 August 2015. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
  26. ^ "Enbridge and Spectra Energy Complete Merger". Media Centre News Releases. Enbridge. February 27, 2017. Retrieved October 10, 2017.
  27. ^ "Enbridge Quick Facts". www.enbridge.com. Retrieved March 23, 2021.
  28. ^ Reuters, Thomson (May 4, 2020). "Enbridge makes deal to store oil in Mainline pipeline as oil glut grows". CBC News. Retrieved July 8, 2020.
  29. ^ a b Enbridge. "Enbridge's crude oil and liquids pipelines network". www.enbridge.com. Retrieved July 8, 2021.
  30. ^ a b Fielden, Sandy (August 12, 2014). "Take a Pipe On The East Side? – Light Oil Market Access Into Eastern Canada". RBN Energy. Retrieved September 17, 2014.
  31. ^ Smith, Christopher E. (April 18, 2013). "Enbridge updates Eastern Access crude project progress". Oil & Gas Journal. PennWell Corporation. Retrieved September 27, 2014.
  32. ^ "Western Gulf Coast Access: An Enbridge Growth Projects Series (Part 4)" (Press release). Enbridge. July 7, 2014. Retrieved June 2, 2015.
  33. ^ Harvey, Christine; Polson, Jim; Murtaugh, Dan (February 15, 2013). "Enbridge, Energy Transfer to Convert Trunkline to Carry Oil". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved June 2, 2015.
  34. ^ Canada Energy Regulator (February 19, 2021). "Canada's Pipeline Transportation System 2016". Canada Energy Regulator. Retrieved July 7, 2021.
  35. ^ a b c d e f Enbridge (June 10, 2021). "Enbridge's Energy Infrastructure Assets" (PDF). Enbridge. Retrieved July 9, 2021.
  36. ^ "Canada Pipeline Maps & Facts | Trans Mountain Pipeline, Keystone XL, Enbridge Line 3". CAPP. Retrieved July 12, 2021.
  37. ^ Canada Energy Regulator (June 9, 2021). "Pipeline Profiles: Enbridge Mainline". Canada Energy Regulator. Retrieved July 12, 2021.
  38. ^ Canada Energy Regulator (June 9, 2021). "Pipeline Profile: Westcoast or BC Pipeline". Canada Energy Regulator. Retrieved July 12, 2021.
  39. ^ Canada Energy Regulator (June 9, 2021). "Pipeline Profiles: Alliance". Canada Energy Regulator. Retrieved July 12, 2021.
  40. ^ "Aux Sable". Williams Companies. Retrieved July 12, 2021.
  41. ^ "Pipeline Sending Natural Gas from Western Canada to Chicago Considers Expanding Capacity". Pipeline and Gas Journal. April 28, 2017. Retrieved July 12, 2021.
  42. ^ Enbridge. "Algonquin Gas Transmission". www.enbridge.com. Retrieved July 14, 2021.
  43. ^ Enbridge. "East Tennessee Natural Gas". www.enbridge.com. Retrieved July 14, 2021.
  44. ^ Canada Energy Regulator (June 9, 2021). "Pipeline Profiles: Maritimes & Northeast". Canada Energy Regulator. Retrieved July 14, 2021.
  45. ^ Enbridge. "Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline". www.enbridge.com. Retrieved July 14, 2021.
  46. ^ LINK Systems Informational Postings. "NEXUS Gas Transmission". infopost.enbridge.com. Retrieved July 14, 2021.
  47. ^ Hydrocarbons Technology. "Sabal Trail Transmission Project". www.hydrocarbons-technology.com. Retrieved July 14, 2021.
  48. ^ LINK System Informational Postings. "Southeast Supply Header". infopost.enbridge.com. Retrieved July 16, 2021.
  49. ^ LINK Systems Informational Postings. "Texas Eastern Transmission". infopost.enbridge.com. Retrieved July 16, 2021.
  50. ^ "Enbridge-Annova LNG Deal to Expand Valley Crossing Pipeline". Pipeline and Gas Journal. January 22, 2020. Retrieved July 16, 2021.
  51. ^ Canada Energy Regulator (June 9, 2021). "Pipeline Profiles: Vector". Canada Energy Regulator.
  52. ^ "Phillips 66 Announces Quarterly Dividend". finance.yahoo.com. Retrieved July 16, 2021.
  53. ^ Bloomberg. "DCP Midstream LLC". www.bloomberg.com. Retrieved July 16, 2021.
  54. ^ Institute, Pembina (June 28, 2002). "Milestone in Renewable Energy Applauded: Sunbridge Wind Farm". Pembina Institute. Retrieved July 19, 2021.
  55. ^ Bakx, Kyle (April 9, 2021). "Big oil companies have 'diametrically opposed' views on renewables". CBC News. Retrieved July 19, 2021.
  56. ^ Enbridge (2019). "Advancing Renewable Energy" (PDF). Enbridge. Retrieved July 19, 2021.
  57. ^ Bloomberg News (May 10, 2016). "Enbridge Inc bulks up EU offshore wind investment with $282-million purchase from Dong Energy". Financial Post. Retrieved July 19, 2021.
  58. ^ Holbrook, Emily (November 9, 2020). "Enbridge Steps Up Climate Pledge with Net Zero Emission Target". Environment + Energy Leader. Retrieved July 19, 2021.
  59. ^ "Hohe See Offshore Wind Farm, North Sea". Power Technology. Retrieved July 19, 2021.
  60. ^ RWE. "Rampion offshore wind farm". uk-ireland.rwe.com. Retrieved July 19, 2021.
  61. ^ Kryzanowski, Tony (October 2013). "Multi-billion dollar wind investment". enerG. Retrieved July 19, 2021.
  62. ^ "EDF EN Canada sells 12.5% stake in 300MW Lac-Alfred wind project". Power Technology. September 8, 2014. Retrieved July 19, 2021.
  63. ^ "Blackspring Ridge Wind Project, Alberta". Power Technology. Retrieved July 19, 2021.
  64. ^ Pickerel, Kelly (October 12, 2012). "Enbridge Dedicates 50-MW Silver State North Solar Project". Solar Builder Magazine. Retrieved July 19, 2021.
  65. ^ Dobson, Cathy (May 6, 2015). "Sunny days: GM says $400M solar farm is living up to expectations". The Sarnia Journal. Retrieved July 19, 2021.
  66. ^ "Montana-Alberta tie line now fully operational". Alberta Electric System Operators (AESO). Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved July 1, 2014.
  67. ^ Kessler, Richard A. "Montana–Alberta Wind Power Line Seen Nearing Completion". NHST Media Group. Retrieved July 1, 2014.
  68. ^ "Enbridge Gas Distribution Inc. and Union Gas Limited to Amalgamate". NewsWire. October 15, 2015. Retrieved July 21, 2021.
  69. ^ Enbridge. "Map". www.enbridge.com. Retrieved July 21, 2021.
  70. ^ "About Us | Enbridge Gas". www.enbridgegas.com. Retrieved July 21, 2021.
  71. ^ Morden, Paul (June 15, 2021). "Enbridge Gas spending more than $500 million in Lambton County". The Observer. Retrieved July 21, 2021.
  72. ^ "Enbridge to Begin "Greening" of Pipeline Operations in Canada | Pipeline Technology Journal". www.pipeline-journal.net. February 6, 2021. Retrieved July 21, 2021.
  73. ^ "Natural gas distribution | Our energies | Énergir". www.energir.com. Retrieved July 21, 2021.
  74. ^ a b Chapa, Sergio (December 5, 2019). "Digital roughnecks: Oil and gas workforce changing as tech's role grows". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved July 26, 2021.
  75. ^ Stastny, Paul (February 4, 2020). "Climate change, oil and gas innovation, and a Q&A with Calgary-based Enbridge Inc. discussing how its new "Lab" harnesses data for better operational, safety and environmental performance". Information and Communications Technology Council. Retrieved July 26, 2021.
  76. ^ a b Mistretta, A.J (December 6, 2019). "Tech A Growing Focus in Energy Sector". Greater Houston Partnership. Retrieved July 26, 2021.
  77. ^ Enbridge (February 18, 2018). "Harnessing big data, analytics and AI for a green energy game-changer". www.enbridge.com. Retrieved July 26, 2021.
  78. ^ Enbridge (November 18, 2020). "Helping birds of a feather to stay together at new refuge". Enbridge. Retrieved July 29, 2021.
  79. ^ Enbridge (2015). "2014 Annual Report" (PDF). Enbridge. Retrieved August 3, 2021.
  80. ^ Enbridge (December 31, 2014). "Consolidated Financial Statements" (PDF). Enbridge. Retrieved August 3, 2021.
  81. ^ Enbridge (2016). "2015 Annual Report" (PDF). Enbridge. Retrieved August 3, 2021.
  82. ^ Enbridge (February 19, 2016). "Release Details - Enbridge Inc". Enbridge. Retrieved August 3, 2021.
  83. ^ Enbridge (2017). "2016 Annual Report" (PDF). Enbridge. Retrieved August 3, 2021.
  84. ^ Enbridge (February 17, 2017). "Release Details - Enbridge Inc". Enbridge. Retrieved August 3, 2021.
  85. ^ Enbridge (2018). "2017 Annual Report" (PDF). Enbridge. Retrieved August 3, 2021.
  86. ^ Enbridge (February 16, 2018). "Release Details - Enbridge Inc". www.enbridge.com. Retrieved August 3, 2021.
  87. ^ Enbridge (2019). "2018 Annual Report" (PDF). Enbridge. Retrieved August 3, 2021.
  88. ^ Enbridge (February 15, 2019). "Release Details - Enbridge Inc". Enbridge. Retrieved August 3, 2021.
  89. ^ Enbridge (2020). "2019 Annual Report" (PDF). Enbridge. Retrieved August 3, 2021.
  90. ^ Enbridge (2021). "2020 Annual Report" (PDF). Enbridge. Retrieved August 3, 2021.
  91. ^ Enbridge (March 31, 2021). "First Quarter: Interim Report to Shareholders" (PDF). Enbridge. Retrieved August 3, 2021.
  92. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai Enbridge (August 4, 2021). "Enbridge's Energy Infrastructure Assets" (PDF). Enbridge. Retrieved August 23, 2021.
  93. ^ Canada Energy Regulator (June 9, 2021). "Pipeline Profiles: Southern Lights". Canada Energy Regulator. Retrieved August 6, 2021.
  94. ^ Canada Energy Regulator (June 9, 2021). "Pipeline Profiles: Express Pipeline". Canada Energy Regulator. Retrieved August 6, 2021.
  95. ^ a b c d Enbridge. "Infrastructure Map: Wind Assets". Enbridge. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  96. ^ a b c d Enbridge. "Infrastructure Map: Solar Assets". Enbridge. Retrieved September 1, 2021.
  97. ^ a b Nelson, Cody (April 23, 2018). "Line 3 timeline: From construction to present day battles". MPRNews.
  98. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 19, 2011. Retrieved November 18, 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  99. ^ "National Transportation Safety Board Report Pipeline Accident Report" (PDF). NTSB.gov. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 30, 2009.
  100. ^ Enbridge Inc. 2008 Corporate Social Responsibility Report Archived May 30, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  101. ^ a b "Spills and Releases". Enbridge. 2007. Archived from the original on September 3, 2009.
  102. ^ Content, Thomas (January 4, 2007). "Oil group cleans spill in Clark County". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Archived from the original on May 20, 2013. Retrieved December 12, 2012.
  103. ^ Bergquist, Lee (February 16, 2007). "Oil spill tainted water table". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Archived from the original on May 20, 2013. Retrieved December 12, 2012.
  104. ^ a b "PHMSA: Stakeholder Communications". Primis.phmsa.dot.gov. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
  105. ^ "Enbridge still mopping up Anzac spill" from edmontonjournal.com[dead link]
  106. ^ "Correction Action Order: Neche, ND", PHMSA, January 19, 2010.
  107. ^ "CBC News: Oil Spill Into Manitoba Creek". CBC.ca. April 7, 2010. Archived from the original on April 11, 2010. Retrieved December 12, 2012.
  108. ^ a b c "EPA Response to Enbridge Spill in Michigan | US EPA". Epa.gov. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
  109. ^ EPA Raises Oil Spill Estimate In Michigan River Archived October 4, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  110. ^ "Link" (PDF).
  111. ^ Enbridge proposes changes to Northern Gateway pipeline July 20, 2012 Canadian Press[dead link]
  112. ^ Enbridge to Spend Up to C$500 Million More on Northern Gateway Safety July 20, 2012, foxbusiness.com[dead link]
  113. ^ Michigan lawmaker wary of Enbridge plans July 19, 2012
  114. ^ AP Photo/EPA (June 24, 2013). "Man climbs into pipeline in protest of Enbridge Inc. in Marshall". MLive.com. Retrieved February 13, 2014.
  115. ^ Felton, Ryan (June 24, 2013). "Man Skateboards Inside Pipeline To Protest 2010 Michigan Oil Spill". Detroit.jalopnik.com. Retrieved February 13, 2014.
  116. ^ US EPA, REG 05 (February 12, 2016). "Enbridge Spill Response Timeline". US EPA. Retrieved March 23, 2021.
  117. ^ "Enbridge US". Romeoville.enbridgeus.com. Retrieved July 23, 2012.[permanent dead link]
  118. ^ a b "Enbridge Says Spill from Line 37 Near Fort McMurray, Alta., is Being Cleaned Up". Edmonton Journal. Canadian Press. June 25, 2013. Archived from the original on August 28, 2013.
  119. ^ a b "Line 37 Release". Enbridge Media Centre. June 25, 2013. Archived from the original on June 27, 2013. Retrieved June 25, 2013.
  120. ^ "deq-issues-violation-notice-enbridge". Archived from the original on July 3, 2013.
  121. ^ Molinski, Dan (January 31, 2017), "Shutdown of Texas Pipeline Boosting Oil Prices", The Wall Street Journal, New York City, retrieved February 1, 2017
  122. ^ "'It Was Huge': Enbridge Gas Pipeline Ruptures, Sparking Massive Fire and evacuation north of Prince George, B.C." Financial Post. October 10, 2018. Retrieved March 17, 2019.
  123. ^ "B.C.'s Natural Gas Supply Could be Reduced as Much as 50% This Winter". CBC. October 23, 2018. Retrieved March 17, 2019.
  124. ^ Colin Perkel (May 9, 2012). "First Nations Northern Gateway Protest Set To Take Place At Enbridge Shareholder Meeting". Huffingtonpost.ca. Retrieved February 13, 2014.
  125. ^ "Enbridge oilsands pipeline protested outside Canadian Oil and Gas Export Summit". Vancouver Observer. May 31, 2012. Retrieved February 13, 2014.
  126. ^ "Enbridge Energy officials respond to 'We are the Kalamazoo' oil spill protest at Capitol". MLive.com. July 18, 2012. Retrieved February 13, 2014.
  127. ^ "Enbridge executives address local homeowner opposition". Lansing State Journal. Archived from the original on July 1, 2013. Retrieved August 16, 2015.
  128. ^ "Enbridge Pipeline Protesters Close Ontario Highway". CBC.ca. Retrieved February 13, 2014.
  129. ^ "Group protests Enbridge donations to Hamilton police - Hamilton - CBC News". Cbc.ca. June 5, 2013. Retrieved February 13, 2014.
  130. ^ "Enbridge protesters evicted, arrested | Toronto Star". Thestar.com. June 26, 2013. Retrieved February 13, 2014.
  131. ^ "'We Felt There Was No Other Option Than to Take Matters into Our Own Hands,' Pipeline Protester Says". MLive.com. Retrieved February 13, 2014.
  132. ^ "Americans Finding Themselves Powerless to Stop Pipeline Companies From Taking Their Land". InsideClimate News. September 16, 2013. Retrieved February 13, 2014.
  133. ^ Dalrymple, Amy (August 3, 2016). "Enbridge buys into Dakota Access Pipeline, Sandpiper future unclear". Duluth News Tribune.
  134. ^ "Michigan governor seeks shutdown of Great Lakes oil pipeline". Fox News.
  135. ^ Karnowski, Steve (June 14, 2021). "Minnesota court affirms approval of Enbridge's Line 3 oil pipeline". Calgary. Retrieved September 12, 2021.
  136. ^ Partlow, Joshua (June 8, 2021). "Pipeline protesters seize Minnesota construction site in bid to stop $4 billion project". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on June 10, 2021. Retrieved June 13, 2021.
  137. ^ Tabuchi, Hiroko; Furber, Matt; Davenport, Coral (June 7, 2021). "Police Make Mass Arrests at Protest Against Oil Pipeline". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 12, 2021. Retrieved June 13, 2021.

External links[edit]