Arthur Ashe

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Arthur Ashe
Arthur Ashe (cropped).jpg
Arthur Ashe, winning the 1975 ABN World Tennis Tournament in Rotterdam
Country (sports) United States
Born(1943-07-10)July 10, 1943
Richmond, Virginia, U.S.
DiedFebruary 6, 1993(1993-02-06) (aged 49)
New York City, New York, U.S.
Height6 ft 1 in (1.85 m)
Turned pro1969 (amateur tour from 1959)
PlaysRight-handed (one-handed backhand)
Prize money$1,584,909 (ATP)
Int. Tennis HoF1985 (member page)
Career record1188–371 (76.2%) in pre Open-Era & Open Era[1]
Career titles76 [1] (44 open era titles listed by ATP)
Highest rankingNo. 1 (1975, Bud Collins)
No. 2 (May 10, 1976) by ATP
Grand Slam Singles results
Australian OpenW (1970)
French OpenQF (1970, 1971)
WimbledonW (1975)
US OpenW (1968)
Other tournaments
Tour FinalsF (1978)
WCT FinalsW (1975)
Career record323–176[a]
Career titles18 (14 Grand Prix and WCT titles)
Highest rankingNo. 15 (August 30, 1977)
Grand Slam Doubles results
Australian OpenW (1977)
French OpenW (1971)
WimbledonF (1971)
US OpenF (1968)
Team competitions
Davis CupW (1963, 1968, 1969, 1970)

Arthur Robert Ashe Jr. (July 10, 1943 – February 6, 1993) was an American professional tennis player who won three Grand Slam singles titles. He was the first Black player selected to the United States Davis Cup team and the only Black man ever to win the singles title at Wimbledon, the US Open, and the Australian Open. He retired in 1980. He was ranked world No. 1 by Rex Bellamy,[3] Bud Collins,[4] Judith Elian,[5] Lance Tingay,[6] World Tennis[7] and Tennis Magazine (U.S.)[8] in 1975. In 1975 Ashe was awarded the 'Martini and Rossi' Award, voted for by a panel of journalists,[9] and the ATP Player of the Year award. In the ATP computer rankings, he peaked at No. 2 in May 1976.[10]

Ashe is believed to have contracted HIV from a blood transfusion he received during heart bypass surgery in 1983. He publicly announced his illness in April 1992 and began working to educate others about HIV and AIDS. He founded the Arthur Ashe Foundation for the Defeat of AIDS and the Arthur Ashe Institute for Urban Health before his death from AIDS-related pneumonia at the age of 49 on February 6, 1993. On June 20, 1993, he was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by United States President Bill Clinton.


Early life[edit]

Arthur Ashe was born in Richmond, Virginia, to Arthur Ashe Sr. (d. 1989) and Mattie Cordell Cunningham Ashe on July 10, 1943. He had a brother, Johnnie, who was five years younger than he.[11] Both brothers were born into a family that claimed direct descent from Amar, a West African woman who was enslaved and brought to America in 1735 aboard a ship called The Doddington.[12] Ashe family members were owned by North Carolina Governor Samuel Ashe.[13]

In March 1950, Ashe's mother Mattie died from complications related to a toxemic pregnancy (now known as pre-eclampsia) at the age of 27.[14] Ashe and his brother were raised by their father who worked as a handyman and salaried caretaker/Special Policeman for Richmond's recreation department.[11]

Ashe Sr. was a caring father and strict disciplinarian who encouraged Arthur to excel both in school and in sports, but forbade him to play American football, a popular game for many Black children, due to his son's slight build, something that meant Arthur's childhood nicknames were "Skinny" and "Bones".[citation needed] The Ashes lived in the caretaker's cottage in the grounds of 18-acre Brookfield park, Richmond's largest blacks-only public playground, which had basketball courts, four tennis courts, a pool and three baseball diamonds. Ashe started playing tennis at seven years of age and began practicing on the courts where his natural talent was spotted by Virginia Union University student and part-time Brookfield tennis instructor, Ron Charity, who as the best Black tennis player in Richmond at the time began to teach Ashe the basic strokes and encouraged him to enter local tournaments.

Ashe attended Maggie L. Walker High School where he continued to practice tennis. Ron Charity brought him to the attention of Robert Walter Johnson, a physician, and the coach of Althea Gibson, who founded and funded the Junior Development Program of the American Tennis Association (ATA). Ashe was coached and mentored by Johnson at his tennis summer-camp home in Lynchburg, Virginia, from 1953 when Ashe was aged 10, until 1960. Johnson helped fine-tune Ashe's game and taught him the importance of racial socialization through sportsmanship, etiquette and the composure that would later become an Ashe hallmark. He was told to return every ball that landed within two inches of a line and never to argue with an umpire's decision. In 1958, Ashe became the first African American to play in the Maryland boys' championships. It was also his first integrated tennis competition.

In 1960, Ashe was precluded from competing against Caucasian youths in segregated Richmond during the school year and unable to use the city's indoor courts that were closed to Black players. He accepted an offer from Richard Hudlin, a 62-year-old St. Louis teacher, tennis coach and friend of Dr. Johnson, to move to St. Louis and spend his senior year attending Sumner High School,[15] where he could compete more freely. Ashe lived with Hudlin and his family for the year, during which time Hudlin coached and encouraged him to develop the serve-and-volley game that Ashe's now stronger physique allowed. Ashe was able to practice at the National Guard Armory indoor courts and in 1961, after lobbying by Dr. Johnson, was granted permission to compete in the previously segregated U.S. Interscholastic tournament and won it for the school.

In December 1960 and again in 1963, Ashe was featured in Sports Illustrated, appearing in their Faces in the Crowd segment.[16] He became the first African American to win the National Junior Indoor tennis title and was awarded a tennis scholarship to the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) in 1963. During his time at UCLA, he was coached by J. D. Morgan and practiced regularly with his sporting idol, Pancho Gonzales, who lived nearby and helped hone his game. Ashe was also a member of the ROTC, which required him to enter active military service after graduation in exchange for money for tuition. He was active in other things, joining the Upsilon chapter of the Kappa Alpha Psi fraternity on campus. After graduating with a bachelor's degree in Business Administration, Ashe joined the United States Army on August 4, 1966. Ashe completed his basic training in Washington and was later commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Adjutant General Corps. He was assigned to the United States Military Academy at West Point where he worked as a data processor. During his time at West Point, Ashe headed the academy's tennis program. He was temporarily promoted to 1st Lieutenant on February 23, 1968, and was discharged from the Army on February 22, 1969, as a 2nd Lieutenant. He was awarded the National Defense Service Medal for his service. He served a total of 2 years in the United States Army.[17][18]


In 1963, Ashe became the first Black player ever selected for the United States Davis Cup team. In 1965, ranked the number 3 player in the United States, Ashe won both the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) singles title and the doubles title (with Ian Crookenden of New Zealand), helping UCLA win the team NCAA tennis championship.

In 1966 and 1967, Ashe reached the final of the Australian Championship but lost on both occasions to Roy Emerson.

In 1968 Ashe won the United States Amateur Championships against Davis Cup Teammate Bob Lutz, and the first US Open of the open era, becoming the first Black male to capture the title and the only player to have won both the amateur and open national championships in the same year.[19] In order to maintain Davis Cup eligibility and have time away from army duty for important tournaments, Ashe was required to maintain his amateur status. Because of this, he could not accept the $14,000 first-prize money, which was instead given to runner-up Tom Okker,[20] while Ashe received just $20 daily expenses for his historic triumph. His ability to compete in the championship (and avoid the Vietnam war) arose from his brother Johnnie's decision to serve an additional tour in Vietnam in Arthur's place.[21] In December 1968, Ashe helped the U.S. team become Davis Cup champions after victory in the final in Adelaide against defending champions, Australia. His only loss in the 12 Davis Cup tournament singles matches he played that year, was in the last dead rubber game after the U.S team had already clinched victory. The season closed with Ashe the winner of 10 of 22 tournaments with a 72–10 win-loss match record.

In September 1969, the U.S. Davis Cup team retained the cup, beating Romania in the final challenge round, with Ashe winning both his singles matches. The same year, Ashe applied for a visa to play in the South African Open but was denied the visa by the South African government who enforced a strict apartheid policy of racial segregation. He continued to apply for visas in the following years and the country continued to deny him one. In protest, he used this example of discrimination to campaign for U.S. sanctions against South Africa and the expulsion of the nation from the International Lawn Tennis Federation (ILTF) but, in defense of the individual South African players, refused the call from activists to forfeit matches against them.

In January 1970, Ashe won his second Grand Slam singles title at the Australian Open. With the competition somewhat depleted by the absence of some world-class National Tennis League (NTL) professional players barred by their league from entering because the financial guarantees were deemed too low, Ashe defeated Dick Crealy in straight sets in the final to become the first non-Australian to win the title since 1959. In March 1970, triggered by South Africa's refusal to grant Ashe a visa to play there, the country was expelled from the Davis Cup competition for its racial policy. In September 1970, shortly after helping the U.S Davis cup team defeat West Germany in the challenge round to win their third consecutive Davis Cup, Ashe signed a five-year contract with Lamar Hunt's World Championship Tennis.[22]

In March 1971, Ashe reached the final of the Australian Open again but lost in straight sets to Ken Rosewall. In June that year, Ashe won the French Open men's doubles with partner Marty Riessen.

In 1972, due to a dispute between the ILTF and the WCT, Ashe, as one of the 32 contracted WCT players, was barred from taking part in any ILTF Grand Prix tennis circuit tournaments from January to July. This ban meant Ashe was unable to play at the French Open and Wimbledon Grand Slam tournaments. In September, Ashe reached the final of the US Open for the second time. After leading his opponent, Ilie Năstase by 2 sets to 1 and with a break point to take a 4–1 lead in the fourth set, he eventually lost in five sets. The loss from such a winning position was the biggest disappointment of Ashe's professional tennis career. At the post-match award ceremony, irritated by some of Năstase's on-court antics during the game, Ashe praised Năstase as a tough opponent and 'colourful' player, then suggested, "... and when he brushes up on some of his court manners, he is going to be even better". At this tournament, concerned that men's tennis professionals were not receiving winnings commensurate with the sport's growing popularity and to protect players from promoters and associations, Ashe supported the founding of the Association of Tennis Professionals. He went on to become its elected president in 1974.

In June 1973, as a result of an ATP boycott, Ashe was one of 13 seeded players and 81 players in total who withdrew from the Wimbledon tournament to much public criticism. The catalyst for the boycott was that Yugoslavian ATP member Niki Pilić had been suspended for nine months by his tennis federation after allegedly refusing to represent them in a Davis Cup tie against New Zealand in May, something Pilić denied. The ban was upheld by the ILTF though they reduced it to just one month. The ATP contested the ban but lost a lawsuit to force Pilić's participation at Wimbledon during the ban period. As a member of the ATP board, Ashe voted to boycott the tournament, a vote that was only narrowly passed when ATP chairman, Cliff Drysdale abstained. Commentators considered that the boycott demonstrated the power of the fledgling ATP, and showed the tennis associations that professional players could no longer be dictated to.[23]

In November 1973, with the South African government seeking to end their Olympic ban and re-join the Olympic movement, Ashe was finally granted a visa to enter the country for the first time to play in the South African Open. He lost in the final to Jimmy Connors, but won the doubles with partner Tom Okker. Despite boycotts against South African sport, Ashe believed that his presence could help break down stereotypes and that by competing and winning the tournament, it would stand as an example of the result of integration, and help bring about change in apartheid South Africa. He reached the singles final again in 1974, losing in straight sets to Connors for the second consecutive year. Later, in 1977, Ashe addressed a small crowd of boycott supporters at the U.S. Open and admitted that he had been wrong to participate in South Africa and once again supported the boycott of South African players after he had tried to purchase tickets for some young Africans for a tennis match in South Africa, and was told to use an "Africans only" counter.[24] In the media, Ashe called for South Africa to be expelled from the professional tennis circuit and Davis Cup competition.

In May 1975, Ashe beat Björn Borg to win the season-ending championship WCT Finals in Dallas, Texas.

On July 5, 1975, in the first all-American Wimbledon final since 1947, Ashe, seeded sixth and just a few days short of his 32nd birthday, won Wimbledon at his ninth attempt, defeating the overwhelming favourite and defending champion, Jimmy Connors. Ashe had never beaten Connors in any of their previous encounters and Connors had not dropped a set in any of the six earlier rounds, but Ashe played an almost perfect game of tactical tennis to win in four sets.[25][26] In the lead-up to the final, the two players' relationship was already strained. Connors was suing the ATP, with Ashe as its president, for $10 million for alleged restraint of trade after opposition from the ATP and French officials meant he was refused entry to the 1974 French Open as a contracted member of World Team Tennis (WTT). Just two days before the start of the Wimbledon tournament, it had been announced that Connors was now suing Ashe for $5 million for comments in a letter Ashe had written to ATP members in his role as president, criticizing Connors' insistence that Davis Cup captain Dennis Ralston should be fired and Connors' "unpatriotic" boycott of the competition which had started after Ralston left him out of the team against the West Indies in Jamaica in March 1972. On the final day, Ashe pointedly and symbolically wore red, white and blue wristbands throughout the match and wore his U.S.A.-emblazoned Davis Cup warm-up jacket when walking out onto Centre Court and during the award ceremony while receiving the trophy and winner's cheque for GBP £10,000 (1975 equivalent US$23,000). Soon after the final, Connors dropped the libel suit.

Ashe played for a few more years and won the Australian Open doubles with Tony Roche in January 1977, but a left foot heel injury requiring surgery a month later and subsequent long-term rehabilitation saw his world ranking drop to a lowly 257th before a remarkable comeback saw him rise back to 13th in the world again the following year at the age of 35. However, after undergoing heart surgery in December 1979, Ashe officially retired on April 16, 1980, at the age of 36. His career record was 818 wins, 260 losses and 51 titles.

President Reagan greets Arthur Ashe (left) in 1982.

Ashe remains the only Black man to win the singles title at Wimbledon, the US Open, or Australian Open. He is one of only two men of black African ancestry to win any Grand Slam singles title, the other being France's Yannick Noah, who won the French Open in 1983. He also led the United States to victory for three consecutive years (1968–70) in the Davis Cup.

In his 1979 autobiography, Jack Kramer, the long-time tennis promoter and a world no. 1 player himself in the 1940s, ranked Ashe as one of the 21 best players of all time.[27]

Retirement and heart issues[edit]

After his retirement, Ashe took on many roles, including writing for Time magazine and The Washington Post, commentating for ABC Sports and HBO from the early 1980s until a few months before his death, founding the National Junior Tennis League, and serving as captain of the U.S. Davis Cup team from 1981 to 1985. He was elected to the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1985.[28]

Ashe promoting heart health after his heart attack

In July 1979, at the age of 36, Ashe had suffered a heart attack while holding a tennis clinic in New York. In view of his high level of fitness as an athlete, his condition drew attention to the hereditary aspect of heart disease; his mother already had cardiovascular disease at the time of her death, aged 27, and his father had suffered a first heart attack, aged 55, and a second, aged 59, just a week before Ashe's own attack. Cardiac catheterization revealed one of Ashe's arteries was completely closed, another was 95 percent closed, and a third was closed 50 percent in two places. He underwent a quadruple bypass operation, performed by John Hutchinson on December 13, 1979.[29]

A few months after the operation, Ashe was on the verge of making his return to professional tennis. However, during a family trip in Cairo, Egypt, he developed chest pains while running. He stopped running and returned to see a physician accompanied by his close friend Douglas Stein. Stein urged him to return to New York City so he could be close to his cardiologist, his surgeon and top-class medical facilities.[29] In 1983, he underwent a second round of heart surgery to correct the previous bypass surgery. After the surgery, Ashe became national campaign chairman for the American Heart Association.

Civil Rights[edit]

During this period, Ashe was an active civil rights supporter. He was a member of a delegation of 31 prominent African Americans who visited South Africa to observe political change in the country as it approached racial integration. He was arrested on January 11, 1985, for protesting outside the Embassy of South Africa, Washington, D.C., during an anti-apartheid rally. He was arrested again on September 9, 1992, outside the White House for protesting on the recent crackdown on Haitian refugees.

HIV diagnosis and later life[edit]

In September 1988, Ashe was hospitalized after experiencing paralysis in his right arm. After undergoing exploratory brain surgery and a number of tests, doctors discovered that he had toxoplasmosis, a parasitic disease that is commonly found in people infected with HIV. A subsequent test later revealed that he was HIV positive. Ashe and his doctors believed he contracted the virus from blood transfusions he received during his second heart surgery.[30][31] He and his wife decided to keep his illness private for the sake of their daughter, who was then two years old.

In 1988, Ashe published a three-volume book titled A Hard Road to Glory: A History of the African-American Athlete,[32] after working with a team of researchers for nearly six years.[33] Ashe stated that the book was more important than any tennis titles.[34]

In 1992, a friend of Ashe who worked for USA Today heard that he was ill and called him to confirm the story. Ashe decided to preempt USA Today's plans to publish the story about his illness and, on April 8, 1992, publicly announced he had contracted HIV. He blamed USA Today for forcing him to go public with the news but also stated that he was relieved that he no longer had to lie about his illness. After the announcement, hundreds of readers called or wrote letters to USA Today criticizing their choice to run the story about Ashe that forced him to publicize his illness.[35]

After Ashe went public with his illness, he founded the Arthur Ashe Foundation for the Defeat of AIDS, working to raise awareness about the virus and advocated teaching sex education and safe sex. He also fielded questions about his own diagnosis and attempted to clear up the misconception that only homosexual and bisexual men, or IV drug users were at risk for contracting HIV.[30] In September 1992, he suffered a mild heart attack. In a speech to the United Nations General Assembly on World AIDS Day, December 1, 1992, he addressed the growing need for AIDS awareness and increased research funding, saying: "We want to be able to look back and say to all concerned that we did what we had to do, when we had to do it, and with all the resources required."

Two months before his death, he founded the Arthur Ashe Institute for Urban Health to help address issues of inadequate health care delivery and was named Sports Illustrated magazine's Sportsman of the Year. He also spent much of the last years of his life writing his memoir Days of Grace, finishing the manuscript less than a week before his death.


On February 6, 1993, Ashe died from AIDS-related pneumonia at New York Hospital at the age of 49. His funeral was held at the Arthur Ashe Athletic Center in Richmond, Virginia, on February 10.[31] Then-governor Douglas Wilder, who was a friend of Ashe, allowed his body to lie in state at the Governor's Mansion in Richmond. More than 5,000 people lined up to walk past the casket. Andrew Young, who had performed the service for Ashe's wedding in 1977, officiated at his funeral. Over 6,000 mourners attended.[36] Ashe requested that he be buried alongside his mother, Mattie, who died in 1950, in Woodland Cemetery in Richmond, Virginia.[37]

On February 12, 1993, a memorial service for Ashe was held at the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in Manhattan.[38] In Richmond, Virginia, where his statue by sculptor Paul DiPasquale is on Monument Avenue, his legacy lives on.[39]

Personal life[edit]

In October 1976, Ashe met photographer and graphic artist Jeanne Moutoussamy at a United Negro College Fund benefit. Moutoussamy, who is of mixed Indo-Guadeloupean and African-American heritage, is the daughter of architect John Moutoussamy. On February 20, 1977, they were married in the Church Center for the United Nations in New York City in a ceremony officiated by Andrew Young, the United States Ambassador to the United Nations.[40]

In December 1986, Ashe and Moutoussamy adopted a daughter they named Camera, after Moutoussamy's mother's profession.[41]

Ashe's cousin was Br Booker Ashe, OFM Cap., a well-known Catholic religious brother, thespian, and social justice activist in Milwaukee.[42]


In popular media[edit]

Ashe appeared in Ken Burns' 1994 documentary Baseball discussing Jackie Robinson's impact on the game.

Awards and honors[edit]

The Arthur Ashe Stadium at the 2007 US Open
The Arthur Ashe Student Health and Wellness Center, on the campus of UCLA

Grand Slam finals[edit]

Singles: 7 (3 titles, 4 runner-ups)[edit]

Result Year Championship Surface Opponent Score
Loss 1966 Australian Open Grass Australia Roy Emerson 4–6, 8–6, 2–6, 3–6
Loss 1967 Australian Open Grass Australia Roy Emerson 4–6, 1–6, 4–6
↓ Open Era ↓
Win 1968 US Open Grass Netherlands Tom Okker 14–12, 5–7, 6–3, 3–6, 6–3
Win 1970 Australian Open Grass Australia Dick Crealy 6–4, 9–7, 6–2
Loss 1971 Australian Open Grass Australia Ken Rosewall 1–6, 5–7, 3–6
Loss 1972 US Open Grass Romania Ilie Năstase 6–3, 3–6, 7–6, 4–6, 3–6
Win 1975 Wimbledon Grass United States Jimmy Connors 6–1, 6–1, 5–7, 6–4

Doubles: 5 finals (2 titles, 3 runners-up)[edit]

Result Year Championship Surface Partner Opponents Score
Loss 1968 US Open Grass Spain Andrés Gimeno United States Robert Lutz
United States Stan Smith
9–11, 1–6, 5–7
Loss 1970 French Open Clay United States Charlie Pasarell Romania Ilie Năstase
Romania Ion Țiriac
2–6, 4–6, 3–6
Win 1971 French Open Clay United States Marty Riessen United States Tom Gorman
United States Stan Smith
6–8, 4–6, 6–3, 6–4, 11–9
Loss 1971 Wimbledon Grass United States Dennis Ralston Australia Roy Emerson
Australia Rod Laver
6–4, 7–9, 8–6, 4–6, 4–6
Win 1977 (Jan) Australian Open Grass Australia Tony Roche United States Charlie Pasarell
United States Erik van Dillen
6–4, 6–4

Grand Slam singles performance timeline[edit]

(W) Won; (F) finalist; (SF) semifinalist; (QF) quarterfinalist; (#R) rounds 4, 3, 2, 1; (RR) round-robin stage; (Q#) qualification round; (DNQ) did not qualify; (A) absent; (NH) not held. SR=strike rate (events won/competed)
Tournament 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 19771 1978 1979 SR W–L
Australian Open A A A A A A A F F A A W F A A A A A QF A SF A 1 / 6 25–5
French Open A A A A A A A A A A 4R QF QF A 4R 4R A 4R A 4R 3R 0 / 8 25–8
Wimbledon A A A A 3R 4R 4R A A SF SF 4R 3R A A 3R W 4R A 1R 1R 1 / 12 35–11
US Open 1R 2R 2R 2R 3R 4R SF 3R A W SF QF SF F 3R QF 4R 2R A 4R A 1 / 18 53–17
Win–Loss 0–1 1–1 1–1 1–1 4–2 6–2 8–2 7–2 4–1 11–1 13–3 15–3 15–4 6–1 5–2 9–3 10–1 7–3 3–1 10–4 2–2 3 / 44 138–41

1The Australian Open was held twice in 1977, in January and December.

Singles titles (76)[edit]

Note: Ashe won 28 titles before the Open Era

No. Date Tournament Surface Opponent Score
1. July 2, 1961 Eastern Clay Court Championships, Hackensack Clay United States Robert M. Baker 6–3, 2–6, 6–3, 4–6, 6–4[55]
2. August 20, 1961 American Tennis Association Championships, Hampton ? United States Wilbur H. Jenkins 6–1, 6–1, 6–3[56]
3. April 30, 1962 Ojai Tennis Tournament, Ojai Hard United States David R. Reed 6–3, 6–2[57]
4. January 15, 1962 Detroit Invitational, Detroit ? United States William (Bill) H.Wright 6–2, 6–2[58]
5. August 26, 1962 American Tennis Association Championships, Wilberforce ? United States Wilbur H. Jenkins 6–1, 6–2, 6–0[59]
6. September 22, 1963 Pacific South West Championships, Los Angeles Hard United States Whitney Reed 2–6, 9–7, 6–2[60]
7. December 8, 1963 U.S. Hard Court Championships Hard United States Allen Fox 6–3, 12–10[61]
8. August 2, 1964 Eastern Grass Court Championships, New Jersey Grass United States Clark Graebner 4–6, 8–6, 6–4, 6–3[62]
9. September 13, 1964 Perth Amboy Invitational, Australia ? United States Gene Scott 6–3, 8–6, 6–2[63]
10. September 19, 1965 Colonial National Invitational, Texas ? Australia Fred Stolle 6–3, 6–4[64]
11. November 7, 1965 Queensland Lawn Tennis Championship, Australia Grass Australia Roy Emerson 3–6, 6–2, 6–3, 3–6, 6–1[65]
12. December 11, 1965 South Australian Championships Grass Australia Roy Emerson 7–9, 7–5, 6–0, 6–4[66]
13. January 9, 1966 West Australian Championships, Perth ? United States Cliff Richey 3–6, 6–2, 6–3, 6–4[67]
14. January 16, 1966 Tasmanian Championships, Australia ? Australia John Newcombe 6–4, 6–4, 12–10[68]
15. March 20, 1966 Thunderbird Invitational, Phoenix ? United States Jim Osborne 3–6, 6–3, 6–2[69]
16. April 3, 1966 Caribe Hilton Invitational, Puerto Rico ? United States Cliff Richey 6–3, 6–4, 6–3[70]
17. April 24, 1966 Dallas Invitational, Texas ? United States Charles Pasarell 7–9, 6–4, 6–4[71]
18. February 12, 1967 Philadelphia International, USA ? United States Charles Pasarell 7–5, 9–7, 6–3[72]
19. February 22, 1967 Concord International Indoor, Kiamesha Lake Hard (i) Brazil Thomaz Koch 6–3, 2–6, 6–2[73]
20. February 26, 1967 Western Indoor Championship ? United States Clark Graebner 3–6, 6–3, 6–3[74]
21. April 2, 1967 Long Island Invitational ? round-robin [75]
22. July 23, 1967 National Clay Court Championship, USA Clay United States Marty Riessen 4–6, 6–3, 6–1, 7–5[76]
23. 1967 Long Island Masters, New York ? United States Ronald Holmberg 31–27[77]
24. January 14, 1968 Caribe Hilton Invitational, Puerto Rico ? United States Ronald Holmberg 6–4, 6–4[78]
25. February 4, 1968 *Fidelity Bankers Invitational, Richmond ? United States Chuck McKinley 6–2, 6–1[79]
26. February 28, 1968 Concord International Indoor, Kiamesha Lake Hard (i) United States Jan Leschly 6–3, 15–13[80]
27. March 30, 1968 *Garden Challenge Trophy, New York ? Australia Roy Emerson 6–4, 6–4, 7-5[81]
28. April 21, 1968 *Charlotte Invitation, Charlotte ? United States Ronald Holmberg 6–2, 6–4[82]
↓  Open Era  ↓
29. June 16, 1968 West of England Championships, Bristol Grass United States Clark Graebner 6–4, 6–3[83]
30. July 28, 1968 *Pennsylvania Lawn Tennis Championship, Haverford Grass United States Marty Riessen 6–2, 6–3, 6–3[84]
31. August 1, 1968 *U.S. Amateur Championships, Boston Grass United States Bob Lutz 4–6, 6–3, 8–10, 6–0, 6–4
32. September 9, 1968 *US Open, New York Grass Netherlands Tom Okker 14–12, 5–7, 6–3, 3–6, 6–3[85]
33. September 13, 1968 Las Vegas Invitational ? United States Clark Graebner 9–7, 6–3[86]
34. December 15, 1968 *Queensland Championships, Brisbane, Australia Grass United States Stan Smith 6–4, 1–6, 9–7, 4–6, 7-5[87]
35. February 23, 1969 Balboa Bay Club Invitational ? United States Charles Pasarell shared title, rain[88]
36. April 6, 1969 *Caribe Hilton International, San Juan, Puerto Rico ? United States Charles Pasarell 5–7, 5–7, 6–0, 6–4, 6–3[89]
37. January 19, 1970 *Australian Open, Melbourne Grass Australia Dick Crealy 6–4, 9–7, 6–2
38. February 15, 1970 *Richmond WCT, Richmond Carpet (i) United States Stan Smith 6–2, 13–11[90]
39. March 29, 1970 *Jacksonville Open, Florida ? New Zealand Brian Fairlie 6–3, 4–6, 6–3[91]
40. April 5, 1970 *Caribe Kilton International, San Juan, Puerto Rico Hard United States Cliff Richey 6–4, 6–3, 1–6, 6–3[92]
41. April 12, 1970 Bacardi Invitational, Bermuda ? Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Zeljko Franulovic 8–6, 7–5[93]
42. May 3, 1970 *Glenwood Manor Invitational, Kansas City ? United States Clark Graebner 7–6, 6–1[94]
43. May 10, 1970 *Central California Championships, Sacramento ? United States Barry MacKay 6–4, 6–2, 3–6, 10–8[95]
44. June 13, 1970 John Player tournament ? round-robin [96]
45. September 20, 1970 Seattle Tennis Invitational ? United States Tom Gorman 6–3, 6–4[97]
46. September 28, 1970 *Berkeley, California Hard United States Cliff Richey 6–4, 6–2, 6–4
47. October 11, 1970 *Denver Invitational, Denver, USA ? United States Charlie Pasarell 6–2, 5–6, 6–3[98]
48. November 8, 1970 *Paris, France Carpet (i) United States Marty Riessen 7–6, 6–4, 6–3
49. April 18, 1971 *Charlotte, USA Hard United States Stan Smith 6–3, 6–3
50. November 1, 1971 *Stockholm WCT, Sweden Hard (i) Czechoslovakia Jan Kodeš 6–1, 3–6, 6–2, 1–6, 6–4
51. July 29, 1972 *Louisville WCT Clay United Kingdom Mark Cox 6–4, 6–4
52. September 11, 1972 *Montreal WCT Carpet (i) Australia Roy Emerson 7–5, 4–6, 6–2, 6–3
53. November 18, 1972 *Rotterdam WCT Carpet (i) Netherlands Tom Okker 3–6, 6–2, 6–1
54. November 26, 1972 *Rome WCT Winter Finals Carpet (i) United States Bob Lutz 6–2, 3–6, 6–3, 3–6, 7–6
55. February 26, 1973 *Chicago WCT Carpet (i) United Kingdom Roger Taylor 3–6, 7–6(11–9), 7–6(7–2)
56. July 23, 1973 *Washington Clay Netherlands Tom Okker 6–4, 6–2
57. February 11, 1974 *Bologna WCT Carpet (i) United Kingdom Mark Cox 6–4, 7–5
58. March 3, 1974 *Barcelona WCT Carpet (i) Sweden Björn Borg 6–4, 3–6, 6–3
59. November 4, 1974 *Stockholm Open Hard (i) Netherlands Tom Okker 6–2, 6–2
60. February 17, 1975 *Barcelona WCT Carpet (i) Sweden Björn Borg 7–6, 6–3
61. February 24, 1975 *Rotterdam WCT Carpet (i) Netherlands Tom Okker 3–6, 6–2, 6–4
62. March 10, 1975 *Munich WCT Carpet (i) Sweden Björn Borg 6–4, 7–6
63. April 21, 1975 *Stockholm WCT Carpet (i) Netherlands Tom Okker 6–4, 6–2
64. May 7, 1975 *Dallas WCT Finals Carpet (i) Sweden Björn Borg 3–6, 6–4, 6–4, 6–0
65. June 14, 1975 Kent Championships Grass United States Roscoe Tanner 7–5, 6–4[99]
66. June 23, 1975 *Wimbledon Grass United States Jimmy Connors 6–1, 6–1, 5–7, 6–4
67. September 15, 1975 *Los Angeles Carpet United States Roscoe Tanner 3–6, 7–5, 6–3
68. September 22, 1975 *San Francisco Carpet Argentina Guillermo Vilas 6–0, 7–6(7–4)
69. January 7, 1976 *Columbus WCT Carpet (i) Rhodesia Andrew Pattison 3–6, 6–3, 7–6(7–4)
70. January 12, 1976 *Indianapolis WCT Carpet (i) United States Vitas Gerulaitis 6–2, 6–7, 6–4
71. February 4, 1976 *Richmond WCT Carpet (i) United States Brian Gottfried 6–2, 6–4
72. February 17, 1976 *Rome WCT Clay United States Bob Lutz 6–2, 0–6, 6–3
73. February 23, 1976 *Rotterdam WCT Carpet (i) United States Bob Lutz 6–3, 6–3
74. April 17, 1978 *San Jose Carpet South Africa Bernard Mitton 6–7, 6–1, 6–2
75. August 7, 1978 *Columbus Clay United States Bob Lutz 6–3, 6–4
76. September 18, 1978 *Los Angeles Carpet United States Brian Gottfried 6–2, 6–4
  • * 44 Open Era titles listed by the ATP website


  • Ashe, Arthur; Clifford George Gewecke (1967). Advantage Ashe. University of Michigan: Coward-McCann. p. 192. Retrieved September 9, 2009.
  • Ashe, Arthur; Neil Amdur (1981). Off the court. New American Library. p. 230. ISBN 0-453-00400-8.
  • Ashe, Arthur; Rampersad, Arnold (1993). Days of Grace: A Memoir. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-679-42396-6.
  • Ashe, Arthur (1993). A Hard Road to Glory: A History of the African-American Athlete. New York, NY: Amistad. ISBN 1-56743-006-6.


  1. ^ In Grand Prix, WCT, Grand Slam-main draws, and Davis Cup.[2]


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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Awards and achievements
Preceded by
Player of the Year
Succeeded by
Preceded by BBC Overseas Sports Personality of the Year
Succeeded by