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The New Unger’s Bible Dictionary Merrill F. Unger R.K. HARRISON Editor HOWARD F. VOS CYRIL J. BARBER Contributing Editors Unger, M. F., Harrison, R. K., Vos, H. F., Barber, C. J., & Unger, M. F. (1988). The new Unger's Bible dictionary. Revision of: Unger's Bible dictionary. 3rd ed. c1966. (Rev. and updated ed.). Chicago: Moody Press. Because the Bible came into being in a different age, many readers have difficulty understanding its details. A Bible dictionary, defining and clarifying unfamiliar names, places, and objects, is an indispensable tool for the Bible student. Since its introduction in 1957, the Unger's Bible Dictionary has proved its value as an authoritative reference work. Prepared by Merrill F. Unger, Th.D., Ph.D., this volume has been a long‐standing favorite among students of the Bible. Today, after years of exhaustive revisions and updates, The New Unger's Bible Dictionary offers up‐to‐date scholarship. Cross‐referencing and bibliographies make this information easily accessible, no matter which Bible translation you choose. Due to copyright constraints this edition does not include photographs. Book Description This has been one of the best‐selling Bible dictionaries on the market since its introduction almost 50 years ago. Now, this timehonored classic is more valuable than ever. Packed with current scholarship, more than 67,000 entries are supplemented with detailed essays, colorful photography and maps, and dozens of charts and illustrations to enhance your understanding of God’s Word. About the Author MERRILL F. UNGER (A.B., Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University; Th.M., Th.D., Dallas Theological Seminary) was a pastor and a professor of Old Testament Studies at Dallas Theological Seminary. He was the author of many books as well as several invaluable reference works including Unger’s Bible Handbook. A AARON (ārʹun; Heb. derivation uncertain). The son of Amram the Levite and Jochebed (Ex. 6:20) and the first high priest of Israel. Third in line of descent from Levi, he was the brother of Moses and his senior by three years, although he was younger than his sister Miriam (which see). His wife was Elisheba, the daughter of Amminadab, by whom he had four sons: Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar (6:23). Moses’ Assistant. He was eloquent of speech and divinely appointed to be Moses’ mouthpiece (prophet). God specifically told Moses that Aaron would be his spokesman and that “he shall be as a mouth for you, and you shall be as God to him” (Ex. 4:16). Together with Moses he withstood Pharaoh and saw the deliverance of the Israelites from Egypt by great signs and miracles. In the battle with Amalek, Aaron and Hur supported Moses’ arms, which held the official rod, the uplifting of which brought victory to Israel. When Moses went up to Mt. Sinai to receive the tables of the law (24:12), Aaron and his sons, Nadab and Abihu, and the seventy elders accompanied him part of the way, being granted a glimpse of the divine presence (24:1–11). While Moses was on the mountain, Aaron in a moment of weakness and under pressure from the people made a golden image of a male calf as a visible symbol of Jehovah (32:4). The choice of this animal was doubtless suggested by the vigor and strength symbolized by it and by the people’s recollection of bull worship in Egypt. High Priest. In the divine institution of the priesthood Aaron was appointed high (Heb. “great”) priest, and his sons and descendants priests. The tribe of Levi was consecrated as the priestly caste. After the Tabernacle was erected according to the divine plan and the ritual established (Ex. 24:12–31; 18; 35:1–40:38), Aaron and his sons were solemnly consecrated to their priestly office by Moses (Lev. 8:6) about 1440 B.C. (cf. 1 Kings 6:1). Tragedy overtook the family shortly thereafter, when Nadab and Abihu, his elder sons, died because they conducted the worship improperly (Lev. 10:1–2). The elaborate description of the high priest’s garments of glory and beauty (Ex. 28:2), including the jeweled ephod, turban, and crown, is not an interpolation from a later period. Archaeology has shown that in the Desert of Sinai at Serabit el-Khadem turquoise and copper were being mined for Egyptian craftsmen at this early period. The jewels of silver and gold that the Israelites obtained from the Egyptians (11:2) are illustrated from ancient times. Artistic gold and jeweled ornaments were recovered from the ruins of Sumerian Ur over a millennium before the Mosaic period, and there is nothing in the furnishing of the Tabernacle or the clothing of the high priest that would be out of keeping with the artistic accomplishments of contemporary craftsmen. In his invidious conduct against Moses (Num. 12:1–15) the same weak side of Aaron’s character appears as in the incident of the golden calf. In the conspiracy formed against Aaron and Moses led by Korah, a Levite, and Dathan and Abiram, Reubenites, the destruction of the conspirators by the hand of God resulted in the vindication of the Aaronic priesthood (chap. 16). An added attestation of Aaron’s divine priestly appointment was the budding of his rod, which was preserved for “a sign against the rebels” (17:10). Aaron shared Moses’ sin at Meribah (20:8–13, 24) and consequently was not allowed to enter the Promised Land, dying soon after (20:22–29) on Mt. Hor at the borders of Edom. Type of Christ. In Scripture typology Aaron is a figure of Christ, our High Priest (Ex. 28:1), who executes His priestly office after the Aaronic pattern (Heb. 9). This type is seen (1) in Aaron’s offering sacrifice; (2) in his being anointed with oil by pouring (Ex. 29:7; Lev. 8:12), prefiguring our Lord’s measureless anointing with the Holy Spirit (John 3:34); and (3) in his bearing the names of the Israelite tribes upon his breast and shoulders, thus presenting them perpetually before God as our Lord bears our cause before the Father (John 17; Heb. 7:25). Aaron entered into the Holy Place on the Day of Atonement (Lev. 16) as Christ has entered “heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us” (Heb. 9:24). BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. W. Soltau, The Tabernacle, the Priesthood and the Offerings (1884); H. G. Judge, Journal of Theological Studies 7 (1956): 70ff.; R. H. Mount, Jr., The Law Prophesied (1963), pp. 156–65; R. L. Honeycutt, Review and Expositor 74 (1977): 523–36. AAR´ONITE. Descendants of Aaron, and therefore priests, who to the number of 3,700 fighting men under Jehoiada joined David at Hebron (1 Chron. 12:27). Later we find that their leader was Zadok (27:17). AB (āb). Babylonian name of the fifth ecclesiastical and the eleventh civil month of the Jewish year. It was introduced after the Babylonian captivity, and is not mentioned in Scripture, in which it is known as the fifth month (Num. 33:38), i.e., July-August. AB (āb; “father”). The first member of several Hebrew compound names, e.g., Absalom. ABAD´DON (a-badʹdon; Gk. Abaddon, “destruction”). The angel of the bottomless pit (Rev. 9:11), and corresponding to Apollyon, “destroyer.” The word abaddon means destruction (Job 31:12), or the place of destruction, i.e., Hades or the region of the dead (Job 26:6; 28:22; Prov. 15:11). ABAG´THA (a-bagʹtha). One of the seven chief eunuchs of Xerxes who were commanded by the king to bring Queen Vashti into the royal presence (Esther 1:10), 483 B.C. ABA´NA. See Abanah. ABA´NAH (a-bāʹna). One of the rivers of Damascus (2 Kings 5:12; marg., Amanah; Gk. Chrysorrhoas, “golden river”). It is, no doubt, the present Barada, about fifteen miles NW of Damascus, and has its source in the Anti-Lebanon Mts. and flows through the city of Damascus; thence after fifty miles it is lost in the marshy lake Bahret el-Kibliyeh. It was one of the rivers that Naaman would have washed in rather than the Jordan River. BIBLIOGRAPHY: D. Baly, The Geography of the Bible (1957), pp. 109ff. AB´ARIM (abʹā-rîm; “regions beyond”). A mountain chain SE of the Dead Sea, at the N end of which stands Mt. Nebo (Deut. 32:49). It also featured an elevated outcrop (Heb. happisgâ) from which Moses viewed the Promised Land (3:27). Israel had an encampment in the mountains of Abarim (Num. 33:47–48). marg. margin, marginal reading AB´BA (abʹa). A customary title of God in prayer (Mark 14:36; Rom. 8:15; Gal. 4:6). It was in common use in the mixed Aram. dialect of Palestine and was used by children in addressing their father. It answers to our “papa.” The right to call God “Father” in a special and appropriative sense pertains to all who have received the testimony of the Spirit to their forgiveness. See Adoption. BIBLIOGRAPHY: N. Turner, Christian Words (1980), p. 1. AB´DA (abʹdā; “the servant,” i.e., “of God”). 1. The father of Adoniram, who was “over the men subject to forced labor” under Solomon (1 Kings 4:6), about 960 B.C. 2. The son of Shammua, and a Levite of the family of Jeduthun, resident in Jerusalem after the Exile (Neh. 11:17), 444 B.C. Elsewhere (1 Chron. 9:16) he is called Obadiah the son of Shemaiah. AB´DEEL (abʹdē-ēl; “servant of God”). The father of Shelemaiah, one of those appointed to seize Jeremiah (Jer. 36:26), before 606 B.C. AB´DI (abʹdī; “my servant”). 1. A Levite and the grandfather of Ethan, and one of the singers appointed by David for the sacred service (1 Chron. 6:44). 2. A Levite, in the reign of Hezekiah, father of Kish (2 Chron. 29:12). 3. A son of Elam who put away his Gentile wife after the return from Babylon (Ezra 10:26), 456 B.C. AB´DIEL (abʹdi-ēl; “servant of God”). Son of Guni and father of Ahi, one of the Gadites resident in Gilead (1 Chron. 5:15). AB´DON (abʹdōn; “servile”). 1. The son of Hillel, a Pirathonite, of the tribe of Ephraim. He ruled Israel for eight years, about 1120–1112 B.C. The only other fact respecting him is that he had forty sons and thirty grandsons, who rode on young asses—a mark of their consequence before the introduction of the horse into Israel. Upon his death he was buried in Pirathon (Judg. 12:13–15), a place probably six miles WSW of Shechem. 2. A son of Shashak and one of the chief Benjamites dwelling in Jerusalem (1 Chron. 8:23), before 1200 B.C. 3. The firstborn of Gibeon (or, as in NIV, Jeiel), a Benjamite resident at Jerusalem (1 Chron. 8:30; 9:36), ancestor of King Saul. 4. The son of Micah, and one of those sent by King Josiah to Huldah to inquire concerning the recently discovered books (2 Chron. 34:20), about 624 B.C. In 2 Kings 22:12 he is called Achbor (or Acbor). 5. A Levitical city of Asher, about nine miles NE of Acco (Josh. 21:30; 1 Chron. 6:74). ABED´NEGO (a-bēdʹne-gō; “servant of Nego or Nebo”). The Babylonian god of wisdom, connected with the planet Mercury. Abednego was the Aram. name given by the king of Babylon’s officer to Azariah, one of the three Jewish youths who, with Daniel, were selected by Ashpenaz (master of the eunuchs) to be educated in the language and wisdom of the Chaldeans (Dan. 1:3–7). Abednego and his friends Shadrach and Meshach were cast into the fiery furnace for refusing to worship the golden statue set up by Nebuchadnezzar, but were miraculously delivered (chap. 3), about 603 B.C. The Heb. name Azariah means “Jehovah has helped.” The folly of NIV New International Version trying to change inward character by an outward name is hereby illustrated. A tyrant may change the name but not the nature of one true to God. M.F.U. A´BEL (āʹbēl; Heb. hebel, “breath”). Probably applied to the younger son of Adam and Eve anticipatively because of the brevity of his life, being slain by his elder brother, Cain. Abel, a shepherd and a righteous man (Matt. 23:35; 1 John 3:12), speaks of a regenerate believer. Cain, the farmer, on the other hand, well illustrates the unregenerate natural man, whose worship was destitute of any adequate sense of sin or need of atonement, and who offered the works of his hands instead of faith as a basis of acceptance with God. Abel by contrast “brought of the firstlings of his flock and of their fat portions” (Gen. 4:4) and shed atoning blood (Heb. 9:22). By this act he confessed his sense of sin and need of atonement and exercised faith in the interposition of a coming Substitute (Gen. 3:15; Heb. 11:4) instead of presenting the works of his hands as a ground for acceptance with God. M.F.U. A´BEL (Heb. ˒ābēl, “watercourse”). 1. A word used as a prefix in a number of cases (2 Sam. 20:14, 18). See Abel- beth-maachah. 2. A great stone (1 Sam. 6:18) near Beth-shemesh, upon which the Philistines set the Ark when they returned it to Israel. A´BEL-BETH-MA´ACHAH, or Abel Beth Maacah, Abel Bethmaacah (NIV; āʹbel-beth-māʹa-kā; “brook [?] of the house of oppression,” 2 Sam. 20:14–15; 1 Kings 15:20; 2 Kings 15:29). A place in the north of Palestine, identified with Abil el- Qamh, twelve miles N of Lake Huleh. In 2 Sam. 20:14, 18, it is called simply Abel. It was a place of importance, a metropolis, and called a “mother in Israel” (20:19). It was besieged by Joab, Ben-hadad, and Tiglath-pileser (20:14; 1 Kings 15:20; 2 Kings 15:29). A´BEL-KERA´MIM (āʹbel-keramim), or Abel Keramim (NIV). A place E of the Jordan to which Jephthah pursued the Ammonites (Judg. 11:33), and possibly now represented by a ruin bearing the name of Biet el-kerm—“house of the vine”—to the N of Kerak. Its location cannot be definitely determined. A´BEL-MA´IM (āʹbel-māʹim; “water brook” [?]), or Abel Maim (NIV). Either the name by which Abel-beth-maachah is called in 2 Chron. 16:4 or the name of a nearby city. A´BEL-MEHO´LAH (āʹbel-me-hōʹlā; “watercourse of dancing”), or Abel Meholah (NIV). A place in the Jordan Valley and the home of Elisha (1 Kings 19:16; Judg. 7:22). It was in the tribe of Issachar. Identified by Nelson Glueck with Tell el-Maqlub (see The River Jordan, pp. 166–74), but by others with Tell Abu Sifri, a neighboring site. A´BEL-MIZ´RAIM (āʹbel-mizʹra-im; “mourning of Egypt”), or Abel Mizraim (NIV). The scene of the lament of Egypt over Jacob (Gen. 50:11); the name the Canaanites gave to the “threshing floor of Atad” in Transjordan. A´BEL-SHIT´TIM (āʹbel-shitʹtim; “watercourse of acacias”), or Abel Shittim (NIV). The last halting place of Israel during the Exodus (Num. 33:49). Identified with Khirbet Kefrein or Abila in the plains of Moab opposite Jericho, the acacias still fringe the upper terraces of the Jordan with green. Near Mt. Peor at Shittim in the shade of the acacia groves, Israel was lured into the licentious rites of Baal worship M.F.U. Merrill F. Unger (Num. 25:1; Josh. 2:1; Mic. 6:5), resulting in the death of twenty-four thousand by plague. A´BEZ (āʹbez). In the KJV, the same as Ebez (so NIV), a town in Issachar (Josh. 19:20). A´BI (āʹbī; “my father”). The daughter of Zechariah and mother of King Hezekiah (2 Kings 18:2). The fuller form of the name, Abijah, is given in 2 Chron. 29:1, NASB, and in 2 Kings 18:2, NIV. A´BI (ăbī; an old construct form of “father of”). Forms the first part of several Heb. proper names. ABI´A. See Abijah. ABI´AH. See Abijah. A´BI-AL´BON (aʹbī-alʹbôn; “valiant”). One of David’s mighty men (2 Sam. 23:31), called in the parallel passage (1 Chron. 11:32) by the equivalent name Abiel (which see). ABI´ASAPH (a-bīʹa-saf; “my father has gathered”). The last mentioned (Ex. 6:24) of the sons of Korah, the Levite. His identity with Ebiasaph (which see) (1 Chron. 6:23, 37) is a matter of much uncertainty and difference of opinion. The probability is that they are the same person. ABI´ATHAR (a-bīʹa-thar; “the father is preeminent”). A high priest and fourth in descent from Eli, who alone of the sons of the high priest Ahimelech escaped death when Saul, in revenge for aid given to David, attempted to wipe out this entire line of priests (1 Sam. 22). Fleeing to David, Abiathar inquired of the Lord for him in the fierce struggle with Saul (23:9–10; 30:7) and became David’s lifelong friend. When David became king, he appointed Abiathar high priest (1 Chron. 15:11). David did not depose Zadok, whom Saul had appointed after Ahimelech’s decease. Both appointments accordingly stood, and Zadok and Abiathar constituted a double high priesthood (1 Kings 4:4). They jointly superintended the transfer of the Ark to Jerusalem (1 Chron. 15:11). During Absalom’s rebellion Abiathar remained loyal to David (2 Sam. 15:24). However, he adhered to Adonijah when the latter attempted to gain the royal succession at David’s death, while Zadok cast his lot with Solomon (1 Kings 1:19). For this unwise move Solomon banished Abiathar to Anathoth, deposing him from his office (2:26–27) and confining the high-priestly succession to Zadok of the elder line of Aaron’s sons. In this manner the rule of Eli’s house terminated in fulfillment of prophecy (1 Sam. 2:31–35). The reference to Ahimelech, the son of Abiathar, as priest with Zadok (2 Sam. 8:17) is most unusual and is regarded by many as a simple copyist’s error, in which the names of the father and the son were accidentally transposed. But this solution of the difficulty is unlikely since the references to Ahimelech, the son of Abiathar, as priest are so clear that a mistake is not easily explained (1 Chron. 18:16, LXX; 24:3, 6, 31). The best explanation seems to be that the reference is to Ahimelech, who was a son of Abiathar (2 Sam. 8:17; 1 Chron. 18:16; 24:3, 6, 31). He should not be confused with his grandfather. (See Ahimelech, no. 2.) The reference to Abiathar in Mark 2:26 as high priest at Nob (instead of his father Ahimelech, as recounted in 1 Sam. 21:1) is to be explained under the supposition either that our Lord used the name of the more KJV King James Version NASB New American Standard Bible LXX Septuagint famous priest of the two, who, though not then actually high priest, was at the Tabernacle at the time alluded to, or that the son acted as coadjutor to his father as Eli’s sons apparently did (4:4). M.F.U.; R.K.H. BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. G. Judge, Journal of Theological Studies 7 (1956): 70ff. A´BIB (āʹbib; “an ear of corn”). The month the Hebrews were divinely directed to make the first of the year as a memorial of their deliverance from Egypt (Ex. 12:1–2; 13:4). The Passover and the feast of unleavened bread occurred in it, and it marked the beginning of the barley harvest. On the tenth day the Passover lamb was selected and on the fourteenth day was slain and eaten. On the fifteenth day the Jews began harvesting by gathering a sheaf of the barley firstfruits and on the sixteenth day offered it (Lev. 23:4–14). The slaying of the lamb was typical of the death of Christ, the feast of unleavened bread of the believer’s separated walk, while the waving of the sheaf of firstfruits spoke of the resurrection of Christ. The Jewish months were lunar and do not exactly correspond to ours, which are fixed. Abib corresponds to March-April, and its name was changed to Nisan (which see) after the Exile (Neh. 2:1; Esther 3:7). M.F.U. ABI´DA (a-biʹda; “father of knowledge,” i.e., “knowing”). The fourth of the five sons of Midian, the son of Abraham by Keturah (Gen. 25:4; 1 Chron. 1:33). ABI´DAN (a-biʹdan; “father is judge”). The son of Gideoni and head of the tribe of Benjamin (Num. 1:11; 2:22; 10:24; cf. 7:60, 65). A´BIEL (aʹbi-el; “God is my father”). 1. A Benjamite, son of Zeror (1 Sam. 9:1) and father of Ner (14:51), who was the grandfather of King Saul (1 Chron. 8:33, 9:39). In 1 Sam. 9:1 the phrase “son of Abiel” should be “grandson of Abiel.” 2. One of David’s mighty men (1 Chron. 11:32). He is the same as Abi-albon (or Abi-Albon, NIV), the Arbathite (2 Sam. 23:31), about 1000 B.C. ABIE´ZER (aʹbi-ēʹzer; “father of help”). 1. The second son of Hammoleketh, sister of Gilead and granddaughter of Manasseh (1 Chron. 7:17–18). He was the founder of the family to which Gideon belonged, and which bore his name as a patronymic (Josh. 17:2; Judg. 6:34); before 1170 B.C. He is elsewhere called Iezer, and his descendants Iezerites (Num. 26:30). 2. The Anathothite, one of David’s thirty chief warriors (2 Sam. 23:27). Abiezer commanded the ninth division of the army (1 Chron. 27:12), 1000 B.C. 3. Another name for Bukki’s father Abishua (which see; the term Abiezar appears in Josephus Ant. 5.11.5.). ABI´EZRITE (a-biʹez-rīt; “father of the Ezrite”). A patronymic designation of the descendants of Abiezer (Judg. 6:11, 24; 8:32). AB´IGAIL (abʹi-gāl; “my father rejoices”). 1. The wife of Nabal (which see), a sheep master of Carmel (1 Sam. 25:3), about 1000 B.C. In sheep-shearing time David sent some of his young men to Nabal for a present, which was insolently refused. David was greatly enraged and set out with four hundred men to avenge the insult. Abigail, having been informed of her husband’s conduct and the impending danger, went to meet David with an abundant supply of bread, grain, and wine. She prayed for David’s forbearance, arguing from Nabal’s character (v. 25), the leadings of God by which David had been kept from R.K.H. R. K. Harrison murder by her coming to meet him, and the fact that God is the avenger of the wicked (v. 26). David was mollified by Abigail’s tact and beauty, and he recalled his vow. Returning home, Abigail found her husband intoxicated and told him nothing of her conduct and his danger until morning. The information produced so great a shock that “his heart died within him so that he became as stone” (v. 37), and he died about ten days after. Abigail became David’s wife and shared his varying fortunes, dwelling at Gath (27:3), being among the captives taken by the Amalekites from Ziklag (30:5), and accompanying her husband to Hebron when he was anointed king (2 Sam. 2:2). She bore David a son named Chileab (3:3; Kileab, NIV), also called Daniel (1 Chron. 3:1). 2. A daughter of Nahash (Jesse) and sister of David, and wife of Jether, or Ithra, an Ishmaelite, by whom she had Amasa (2 Sam. 17:25; 1 Chron. 2:16–17). BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. E. Macartney, Ancient Wives and Modern Husbands (1934), pp. 123– 40; id., Great Women of the Bible (1942), pp. 105–20; C. J. and A. A. Barber, You Can Have a Happy Marriage (1984), pp. 81–93. AB´IHAIL (abʹi-hāl; “father of might”). 1. The father of Zuriel and chief of the Levitical family of Merari when Moses numbered the Levites at Sinai (Num. 3:35), c. 1440 B.C. 2. The wife of Abishur (of the family of Jerahmeel) and the mother of Ahban and Molid (1 Chron. 2:29). 3. The son of Huri and one of the chiefs of the family of Gad, who settled in Bashan (1 Chron. 5:14). 4. The “daughter,” i.e., descendant, of Eliab, David’s oldest brother and second wife of Rehoboam. She could hardly have been the daughter of Eliab, as David, his youngest brother, was thirty years old when he began to reign, some eighty years before her marriage (2 Chron. 11:18). 5. The father of Esther and uncle of Mordecai (Esther 2:15; 9:29), c. 500 B.C. ABI´HU (a-biʹhū; “He [God] is my father”). One of Aaron’s sons, who with his brother Nadab offered “strange [i.e., “unauthorized,” as in NIV] fire before the Lord, which He had not commanded them” (Lev. 10:1). As a result both priests were struck dead by the divine Presence manifested in fire (v. 2). The sin of Nadab and Abihu, illustrative of the sin of a believer unto physical death (1 Cor. 5:5; 1 John 5:16), was in acting in the things of God without first seeking the mind of God. It was “will worship” (cf. Col. 2:23). Supernatural fire from the divine Presence had kindled the natural fire that burned upon the altar of burnt offering. It was the priests’ duty to keep this fire burning continuously. No command, however, had been given as to how the incense should be kindled (Lev. 16:12). Not waiting for instruction concerning taking the sacred fire from the brazen altar, but taking common fire that they themselves had kindled, they lighted the incense on the golden altar. This flagrant sacrilege at the commencement of a new dispensation (the legal) had to be divinely punished to serve as a warning, as the sin of Ananias and Sapphira at the beginning of the NT church age was similarly severely dealt with (Acts 5:1–11). Aaron’s disobedient sons seem, moreover, to have committed their serious trespass under the influence of wine (cf. Lev. 10:8–9). The true source of exhilaration for the genuine spiritual priest is not wine, with its attendant temptations and perils, but the Holy Spirit (Eph. 5:18). M.F.U. ABI´HUD (a-biʹhud; “father of renown”). One of the sons of Bela, the son of Benjamin (1 Chron. 8:3). ABI´JAH (a-biʹjā; “God is my father” or “daddy”). 1. A son of Jeroboam I, king of Israel. On his falling ill Jeroboam secretly sought help from the God whom he had openly forsaken. He sent his wife, disguised and bearing a present of bread and honey, to Ahijah, the prophet, who was at Shiloh. The prophet was blind but had been warned by God of her coming. He revealed to her that, though the child was to die, yet because there was found in Abijah only, of all the house of Jeroboam, “something good … toward the Lord,” he only, of all that house, should come to his grave in peace and be mourned in Israel (1 Kings 14:14). The queen returned home, and the child died as she crossed the threshold. “And all Israel buried him and mourned for him” (1 Kings 14:18), about 922 B.C. 2. The second king of Judah, the son of Rehoboam and grandson of Solomon (1 Chron. 3:10). He is called Abijam in 1 Kings 14:31; 15:1–8 (though Abijah throughout in NIV). Two names are given for his mother. In 1 Kings 15:2 we read, “His mother’s name was Maacah the daughter of Abishalom” (cf. 2 Chron. 11:20, 22); but in 2 Chron. 13:2 it is written, “His mother’s name was Micaiah [or Maacah in NIV], the daughter of Uriel of Gibeah.” The solution of the difficulty probably is that the mother of Abijah had two names, and that Abishalom was her grandfather. Abijah began to reign 913 B.C., in the eighteenth year of Jeroboam, king of Israel, and reigned three years. Considering the separation of the ten tribes of Israel as rebellion, Abijah made a vigorous attempt to bring them back to their allegiance. He marched with four hundred thousand men against Jeroboam, who met him with eight hundred thousand men. In Mt. Ephraim he addressed a speech to Jeroboam and the opposing army, in which he advocated a theocratic institution, referred to the beginning of the rebellion, showed the folly of opposing God’s kingdom, and concluded with urging Israel not to fight against God. His view of the political position of the ten tribes with respect to Judah, though erroneous, was such as a king of Judah would be likely to take. He gained a signal victory over Jeroboam, who lost five hundred thousand men, and though he did not bring Israel to their former allegiance, he took Bethel, Jeshanah, and Ephraim (Ephron, NIV), with their dependent towns, from them, and Jeroboam never again warred with him (2 Chron. 13:1–20). He imitated his father’s sins (1 Kings 15:3) and had fourteen wives, by whom he had twenty-two sons and sixteen daughters (2 Chron. 13:21). He was succeeded by his son Asa (14:1). 3. The second son of Samuel, appointed with Joel, his elder brother, judge of Beersheba by his father. The brothers “turned aside after dishonest gain and took bribes and perverted justice” (1 Sam. 8:3). By reason of their conduct Israel demanded of Samuel a king (8:2, 6; 1 Chron. 6:28), before 1030 B.C. 4. The wife of Hezron and mother of Ashhur (1 Chron. 2:24). 5. One of the sons of Becher (or Beker, NIV), the son of Benjamin (1 Chron. 7:8). 6. One of the descendants of Eleazar, the son of Aaron, and chief of one of the twenty-four divisions or orders into which the whole body of the priesthood was divided by David (1 Chron. 24:10). Of these the division of Abijah was the eighth; 1000 B.C. 7. The daughter of Zechariah and mother of King Hezekiah (2 Chron. 29:1) and, consequently, the wife of Ahaz. She is also called Abi (2 Kings 18:2); before 719 B.C. 8. One of the priests, probably, who affixed their signatures to the covenant made with God by Nehemiah (Neh. 10:7). He seems to be the same (notwithstanding the great age this implies) who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel (12:4), and who had a son Zichri (12:17; Zicri, NIV); 445 B.C. BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. F. Keil, The Books of Kings (1950), pp. 217ff.; W. F. Albright, The Biblical Period from Abraham to Ezra (1963), pp. 60f.; E. R. Thiele, Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings (1983), pp. 34, 81. ABI´JAM (a-biʹjam; “father of the sea”). The name always given in the book of Kings to the king of Judah (1 Kings 14:31; 15:1, 7–8); elsewhere called Abijah (see NIV, however, where Abijah is used consistently). First Kings 14:1 refers to another person. Abijam is probably a clerical error, some manuscripts giving Abijah. ABILE´NE (ab-i-lēʹne; Gk. Abilēnē, so called from its capital, Abila, which probably in turn was derived from Heb. ˒ābēl, “watercourse”). A tetrarchy on the eastern slope of Lebanon, governed in the fifteenth year of Tiberius by Lysanias (Luke 3:1). Abila lay on the Barada (Abana) some fourteen miles NW of Damascus, where the modern village of Suk Wadi Barada now stands. Tradition, in naming the spot as the location of the tomb of Abel, the first martyr, is the result of confusing Abel, properly Heb. hebel, with ˒ābēl, “a watercourse.” Latin inscriptions found here mentioning repairs to the local road by the “Abileni” and having reference to the sixteenth legion, identify the place. Archaeological remains cover two small hills— Tell Abil and Tell umm el-Amad—and include a temple, a theater, and a basilica. M.F.U. ABIM´AEL (a-bimʹā-ēl; “my father is God” [?]). One of the sons of Joktan, in Arabia (Gen. 10:28; 1 Chron. 1:22). He has been supposed to be the founder of an Arabian tribe called Maël. ABIM´ELECH (a-bimʹe-lek; “my father is king,” or “royal father”). Probably a general title of royalty, as Pharaoh among the Egyptians. 1. The Philistine king of Gerar in the time of Abraham (Gen. 20:1–16), about 2086 B.C. After the destruction of Sodom, Abraham moved into his territory and remained some time at Gerar. Abimelech took Sarah, whom Abraham had announced to be his sister, into his harem, being either charmed with her beauty or desirous of allying himself with Abraham. God appeared to Abimelech in a dream and threatened him with death on account of Sarah, because she was married. Abimelech, who had not yet come near her, excused himself on the ground that he supposed Sarah to be Abraham’s sister. That Abimelech, in taking Sarah, should have supposed that he was acting “in the integrity of my heart and the innocence of my hands” (20:5) is accounted for by considering the customs of that day. The next morning Abimelech obeyed the divine command and restored Sarah to Abraham, providing him with a liberal present of cattle and servants and offering him settlement in any part of the country. He also gave him a thousand pieces of silver as, according to some, an atoning or vindicating present. Others think that the money was to procure a veil for Sarah to conceal her beauty, that she might not be coveted for her beauty. Thus she was “cleared” for not having worn a veil, which as a married woman, according to the custom of the country, she ought to have done. Some years after, Abimelech, accompanied by Phichol (or Phicol, NIV), “the commander of his army” (21:22), went to Beer-sheba to make a covenant with Abraham, which is the first league on record. Abimelech restored a well that had been dug by Abraham but seized by the herdsmen of Abimelech without his knowledge (21:22–34). 2. Another king of Gerar in the time of Isaac (Gen. 26:1–31), about 1986 B.C. Supposed to have been the son of the preceding Abimelech. Isaac sought refuge with Abimelech from famine and dwelt at Gerar. Having the same fear concerning his wife, Rebekah, as his father entertained respecting Sarah, he reported her to be his sister. Abimelech discovered the untruthfulness of Isaac’s statement (v. 8), whereupon he reproved him for what he had said and forbade any of his people to touch Rebekah on pain of death. The agricultural operations of Isaac in Gerar were highly successful, returning him in one year a hundredfold. He also claimed his proprietary right to the soil by reopening the wells dug by his father. The digging of wells, according to the custom of those times, gave one a right to the soil. His success made the Philistines envious, so that even Abimelech requested him to depart, fearing his power. Isaac complied, and encamped in the open country (“the valley of Gerar,” v. 17). In this valley he opened the old wells of Abraham’s time, and his people dug three new ones. But Abimelech’s herdsmen contended concerning two of these, and the patriarch moved to so great a distance that there was no dispute respecting the third. Afterward Abimelech visited Isaac at Beersheba and desired to make a covenant of peace with him. Isaac referred to the hostility that the Philistines had shown, to which Abimelech replied that they not strike him, i.e., drive him away by force, but let him depart in peace, and he closed by recognizing Isaac as being one blessed of God (vv. 27–29). Isaac entertained Abimelech and his companions with a feast, contracted the desired covenant with them, and dismissed them in peace (vv. 30–31). See also Gerar. 3. King of Shechem (Judg. 9). After Gideon’s death Abimelech (Judg. 9:1–5), son of Jerubbaal (Jerub-Baal, NIV), formed a conspiracy with his mother’s family, who seem to have had considerable influence in Shechem. The argument used was the advantage of the rule of one person to that of seventy. He also reminded them that he was one of themselves. Thus influenced, the Shechemites furnished him with money out of the treasure of Baal-berith, with which Abimelech hired desperate men and, returning to Ophrah with them, killed all his brothers save Jotham, the youngest, who hid himself. At a general assemblage of the men of Shechem (which see) and the house of Millo (which see) Abimelech was declared king, c. 1108–1105 B.C. When Jotham was told of the election of Abimelech he went to the top of Mt. Gerizim, where the Shechemites were assembled for some public purpose, perhaps to inaugurate Abimelech (Kitto), and rebuked them in his famous parable of the trees choosing a king (Judg. 9:6–21). Judgment against Abimelech was not long delayed, for in three years “God sent an evil spirit between” him “and the men of Shechem,” and they “dealt treacherously with Abimelech” (9:23). They caused ambushes to be laid in the mountains and robbed all that passed. The design was, probably, to bring the government into discredit by allowing such lawlessness, or to waylay Abimelech himself. The insurgents found a leader in Gaal (which see), the son of Ebed, who, while they were cursing Abimelech in the excitement of a village feast to Baal, called upon them to revolt from Abimelech and declared that he would dethrone him. He then challenged the king to battle (9:25–29). Zebul, the ruler of Shechem, sent word to Abimelech of the revolt and requested him to place himself in ambush that night and be prepared to surprise Gaal in the morning. As was expected, Gaal started out in the morning, was met and defeated by Abimelech, and prevented by Zebul from entering the city. The next day, when the people went out into the field, possibly to continue their vine dressing, Abimelech and two companies of troops killed them. At the same time his remaining company seized the city gates. After fighting against the city all day he took it, destroyed it utterly, and strewed it with salt (9:30–45). When the leaders of Shechem, who took refuge in the city’s tower, heard of the fate of the city they went to the temple of Baal-berith (which see; El-Berith, NIV). Their purpose in so doing was evidently not to defend themselves, but to seek safety at the sanctuary of their god from the vengeance of Abimelech. When he heard of this, Abimelech went with his men to Mt. Zalmon and brought from there branches of trees. These were piled against the building and set on fire. The building was consumed with all its occupants, about one thousand men and women (9:46–49). At last the fate predicted by Jotham (9:20) overtook Abimelech. He went from Shechem to Thebez, besieged the town, and took it. This town possessed a strong tower, and in this the inhabitants took refuge. When Abimelech approached the door to set it on fire a woman threw a piece of millstone (the upper millstone) upon him, crushing his skull. Seeing that he was mortally wounded, he called upon his armor- bearer to thrust him through with a sword, lest it should be said, “A woman slew him” (v. 54). After Abimelech’s death his army was dissolved. “Thus God repaid the wickedness of Abimelech, which he had done to his father, in killing his seventy brothers” (v. 56). 4. The son of Abiathar and high priest in the time of David (1 Chron. 18:16). The name is probably an error of transcription for “Ahimelech,” as in NIV (2 Sam. 8:17). 5. In the title of Ps. 34 the name Abimelech is interchanged for that of Achish (which see), king of Gath, to whom David fled for refuge from Saul (1 Sam. 21:10). BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. J. Wood, Distressing Days of the Judges (1975), pp. 227–29, 234–52; F. J. Delitzsch, A New Commentary on Genesis (1978), 2:65–72, 80–84; G. Bush, Notes on Genesis (1981), 1:335–46, 360–64. ABIN´ADAB (a-binʹa-dab; “father is noble”). 1. A Levite of Kiriath-jearim (or Kiriath Jearim, NIV) in whose house the Ark was deposited after it was returned by the Philistines (1 Sam. 7:1; 2 Sam. 6:3–4; 1 Chron. 13:7); before 1030 B.C. 2. The second of the eight sons of Jesse (1 Sam. 17:13; 1 Chron. 2:13) and one of the three who followed Saul to the campaign against the Philistines in which Goliath defied Israel (1 Sam. 17:13). 3. One of the four sons of King Saul (1 Chron. 8:33; 9:39; 10:2). He was slain by the Philistines in the battle of Gilboa (1 Sam. 31:2; 1 Chron. 10:2), c. 1004 B.C. His name appears as Ishvi in the list in 1 Sam. 14:49. 4. The father of one of Solomon’s purveyors (or, rather, Ben-Abinadab is to be regarded as the name of the purveyor himself) who presided over the district of Dor and married Taphath, the daughter of Solomon (1 Kings 4:11); after 960 B.C. ABIN´OAM (a-binʹō-am; “father of pleasantness”). The father of Barak, the judge (Judg. 4:6, 12; 5:1, 12), about 1190 B.C. ABI´RAM (a-biʹram; “exalted father”). 1. One of the sons of Eliab, a Reubenite, who with his brother Dathan, and with On, of the same tribe, joined Korah, a Levite, in conspiracy against Moses and Aaron, about 1430 B.C. He and the other conspirators were destroyed by an earthquake (Num. 16:1–33; 26:9–10; Deut. 11:6). See Korah. 2. The eldest son of Hiel, the Bethelite, who died prematurely (for such is the evident import of the statement) for the presumption or ignorance of his father, in fulfillment of the doom pronounced upon the posterity of him who should undertake to rebuild Jericho (1 Kings 16:34). Perhaps what is really involved in the prophecy and its fulfillment is infant sacrifice. It was a common practice of Canaanites to make a sacrifice of an infant and bury it in the foundation of a structure in order to placate a god and assure divine blessing on a people or a project. For prophecy, see Josh. 6:26. AB´ISHAG (abʹi-shag; “father of error”). A beautiful young woman of Shunem, in the tribe of Issachar, who was selected by the servants of David to minister to him in his old age (1 Kings 1:3–4), 965 B.C. She became his wife, but the marriage was never consummated (1:4). Soon after David’s death Adonijah sought, through the intercession of Bathsheba, Solomon’s mother, the hand of Abishag. But as the control and possession of the harem of the deceased king were associated with rights and privileges peculiarly regal, Solomon supposed this demand to be part of a conspiracy against the throne. Adonijah was therefore put to death. (2:17–25). See Adonijah. ABISH´AI (a-bishʹa-ī; “father of a gift”). A son of Zeruiah, sister of David (by an unknown father), and brother to Joab and Asahel (1 Chron. 2:16). The first we learn of Abishai is his volunteering to accompany David to the camp of Saul, about 1006 B.C. The two went down by night and found Saul and his people asleep. Abishai begged of David that he might slay Saul with his spear, which was stuck in the ground near his head (1 Sam. 26:6–12). With his brother Joab, Abishai pursued after Abner (who had just slain Asahel) until sundown, and until they had reached the hill of Ammah (2 Sam. 2:24) and aided in the treacherous assassination of Abner (3:30). In the war against Hanun, undertaken by David to punish the Ammonites for insulting his messengers, Abishai, as second in command, fought the army of the Ammonites before the gates of Rabbah and drove them headlong into the city (2 Sam. 10:10, 14; 1 Chron. 19:11, 15). The same impetuous zeal and regard for David that he showed in the night adventure to Saul’s camp Abishai manifested in his desire to slay Shimei, when the latter cursed David (2 Sam. 16:9, 11; 19:21). When the king fled beyond Jordan, Abishai remained faithful to David and was entrusted with the command of one of the three divisions of the army that crushed the rebellion (18:2, 12), 967 B.C. In the revolt of Sheba the Benjamite, David ordered Amasa to muster the forces of Judah in three days. His tardiness compelled David to again have recourse to the sons of Zeruiah, and Abishai was appointed to pursue Sheba, which he did (accompanied by Joab), leading the Cherethites (or Kerethites, NIV), the Pelethites, and all the mighty men (2 Sam. 20:4–10). Later, when David’s life was imperiled by Ishbi-benob (or Ishbi-Benob, NIV), Abishai came to his help and slew the giant (21:15–17). He was chief of the three “mighty men” (23:8) who performed the chivalrous exploit of breaking through the host of the Philistines, to procure David a draught of water from the well of his native Bethlehem (23:14–17). Among the exploits of this hero it is mentioned (23:18) that he withstood three hundred men and slew them with his spear, but the occasion of this adventure, and the time and manner of his death, are equally unknown. In 2 Sam. 8:13, the victory over the Edomites in the Valley of Salt is ascribed to David, but in 1 Chron. 18:12, to Abishai. It is hence probable that the victory was actually gained by Abishai but is ascribed to David as king and commander. ABISH´ALOM (a-bishʹa-lom). A fuller form (1 Kings 15:2, 10) of the name Absalom (which see). ABISH´UA (a-bishʹū-a; “father of salvation”). 1. The son of Phinehas (grandson of Aaron), and fourth high priest of the Jews (1 Chron. 6:4–5, 50; Ezra 7:5). 2. One of the sons of Bela, the son of Benjamin (1 Chron. 8:4); possibly the same as Jerimoth (7:7). AB´ISHUR (abʹi-shūr; “my father is a wall,” i.e., “stronghold,” or perhaps “mason”). The second son of Shammai, of the tribe of Judah. He was the husband of Abihail, and father of two sons, Ahban and Molid (1 Chron. 2:28–29). AB´ITAL (abʹi-tal, “father of the dew,” i.e., “fresh”). The fifth wife of David and mother of Shephatiah, who was born in Hebron (2 Sam. 3:4; 1 Chron. 3:3). AB´ITUB (abʹi-tūb; “father of goodness,” i.e., “good”). A son of Shaharaim, a Benjamite, by his wife Hushim, in Moab (1 Chron. 8:11). ABI´UD (a-biʹūd). A Gk. form (Matt. 1:13) of Abihud (which see). The great-great- grandson of Zerubbabel and father of Eliakim, among the paternal ancestry of Jesus (Matt. 1:13). He is probably the same as Judah, son of Joanna, and father of Joseph in the maternal line (Luke 3:26), and also as Obadiah, son of Arnan and father of Shechaniah (or Shecaniah, NIV) in 1 Chron. 3:21. ABLUTION. A ceremonial washing, it might be of the person (or part thereof), clothing, vessels, or furniture, as a symbol of purification. 1. Cleansing from the taint of an inferior condition preparatory to initiation into a higher one. Of this sort was the washing with water of Aaron and his sons before they were invested with the priestly robes and anointed with the holy oil (Ex. 29:4; Lev. 8:6). The same is doubtless true of the ablution of persons and clothing that was required of the Israelites as a preparation to their receiving the law from Sinai (Ex. 19:10–15). 2. Preparation for a special act of religious service. Before they entered into the service of the Tabernacle the priests were required, under penalty of death, to wash their hands and feet. For this purpose a large basin of water always stood in readiness (Ex. 30:18–21; Lev. 16). The Egyptian priests carried the practice to a burdensome extent. Herodotus tells us (2. 37) that they shaved their bodies every third day and that no insect or other filth might be upon them when they served the gods. The Muslim law requires ablution before each of the five daily prayers, permitting it to be performed with sand when water is not to be had, as in the desert. 3. Purification from actual defilement. Eleven species of uncleanness of this nature are recognized by the Mosaic law (Lev. 12–15), the purification for which ceased at the end of a prescribed period, provided the unclean person then washed his body and his clothes. In a few cases, such as leprosy and the defilement caused by touching a dead body, he remained unclean seven days. The Jews afterward introduced many other causes of defilement, being equaled, however, by the Muslims. 4. Declaration of freedom from guilt of a particular action. An instance of this is the expiation for the murder of a man by unknown hands, when the elders of the nearest village washed their hands over a slain heifer, saying, “Our hands have not shed this blood, nor did our eyes see it” (Deut. 21:1–9). The Pharisees carried the practice of ablution to such excess, from the affectation of purity while the heart was left unclean, that our Lord severely rebuked them for their hypocrisy (Matt. 23:25). All these practices come under the head of purification from uncleanness; the acts involved were made so numerous that persons of the stricter sect could scarcely move without contracting some involuntary pollution. Therefore, they never entered their houses without ablution, from the strong probability that they had unknowingly contracted some defilement on the streets. They were especially careful never to eat without washing their hands (Mark 7:1–5). A distinction must be made between this ceremonial washing and ordinary cleansing of the hands as a matter of decency. When the charge was made against our Lord’s disciples that they ate with unwashed hands, it was not meant that they did not wash their hands at all, but that they did not do it ceremonially. These ceremonial washings were prescribed with such minute details as to be not only burdensome but sometimes impossible. Before the ceremony one had to decide the kind of food to be partaken of—whether it was prepared firstfruits, common food, or holy, i.e., sacrificial food. “The water was poured on both hands, which must be free from anything covering them, such as gravel, mortar, etc. The hands were lifted up, so as to make the water run to the wrist, in order to insure that the whole hand was washed and that the water polluted by the hand did not again run down the fingers. Similarly, each hand was rubbed with the other (the fist), provided the hand that rubbed had been affused; otherwise the rubbing might be done against the head, or even against a wall. But there was one point on which special stress was laid. In the ‘first affusion,’ which was all that originally was required when the hands were not Levitically ‘defiled,’ the water had to run down to the wrist. If the water remained short of the wrist, the hands were not clean. Accordingly, the words of St. Mark can only mean that the Pharisees eat not ‘except they wash their hands to the wrist.’ If the hands were ‘defiled’ two affusions were required: the first to remove the defilement, and the second to wash away the waters that had contracted the defilement of the hands. Accordingly, on the affusion of the first waters the hands were elevated, and the water made to run down at the wrist, while at the second waters the hands were depressed, so that the water might run off by the finger joints and tips” (Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus, 2:11). BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah (1956), 2:11; R. deVaux, Ancient Israel: Its Life and Institutions (1961), pp. 460–61. AB´NER (abʹner; “my father is Ner” [?]). The son of Ner and uncle of Saul (being the brother of his father, Kish). Under Saul. Abner was a renowned warrior and the commander in chief of the army of Saul (1 Sam. 14:50), 1030 B.C. He was the person who conducted David into the presence of Saul after the death of Goliath (17:57). He was doubtless held in high esteem by Saul, and with David and Jonathan sat at the king’s table (20:25). He accompanied Saul to Hachilah (Hakilah, NIV) in his pursuit of David, who sarcastically reproached him for not guarding his master more securely (26:1, 5, 15). Under Ish-bosheth. After the death of Saul, 1004 B.C., Abner, taking advantage of the feeling entertained in the other tribes against Judah, took Ish-bosheth, a surviving son of Saul, to Mahanaim, proclaimed him king, and ruled in his name. This happened five years after Saul’s death, the intervening time being probably occupied in recovering land from the Philistines and in gaining influence with the other tribes. Desultory warfare was kept up for two years between the armies of David and Ish- bosheth. The only engagement of which we have an account is the battle of Gibeah, Joab and Abner commanding the opposing forces. Slays Asahel. Abner was beaten and fled for his life but was pursued by Asahel (brother of Joab and Abishai). Not wishing to have a blood feud with Joab (for according to usage, Joab would become the avenger of his brother Asahel, in case he was slain), Abner begged Asahel to cease following him and pursue someone else. Asahel refused, and Abner thrust him through with a back stroke of his spear. The pursuit was kept up by Joab and Abishai until sunset, when a conference of the leaders was held, and Joab sounded the trumpet of recall. Abner withdrew to Mahanaim and Joab to Hebron (2 Sam. 2:8–30). Breaks with Ish-bosheth. At last Abner took a step that was so presumptuous and significant of his consciousness of power that even the feebler Ish-bosheth protested. It was the exclusive right of the successor to the throne to cohabit with the concubines of the deceased king. Yet Abner took to his own harem Rizpah, one of Saul’s concubines. The rebuke of Ish-bosheth so greatly enraged Abner that he declared his purpose of abandoning the house of Saul and allying himself with David (2 Sam. 3:6–9). To excuse his conduct he asserted that he was aware of the divine purpose concerning David. Joins David. Abner made overtures through messengers to David, who required, as a preliminary, the restoration of his wife, Michal, who had been given to Paltiel by Saul. Abner made a tour among the elders of Israel and Benjamin, advocating the cause of David. He then went in person to David, who showed him great attention and respect, giving him and the twenty men accompanying him a feast. In return Abner promised to gather all Israel to the standard of David and was then dismissed in peace (2 Sam. 3:9–22). Slain by Joab. Joab, returning from Hebron from a military expedition and fearing the influence of such a man as Abner, resolved to avenge his brother’s death. Unknown to the king, but doubtless in his name, he sent messengers after Abner to call him back. Drawing Abner aside under the pretence of private conversation, he struck him under the fifth rib so that he died (2 Sam. 3:26–30). Abner was buried at Hebron with the honors due to a prince and chieftain, David himself following the bier (vv. 31–32). David’s lamentation over Abner exonerated him in public opinion from any blame, and his declaration to his servants (3:38–39) showed that he could properly estimate the character even of an enemy and that he would have punished his murderer had he the power to do so. ABOMINATION (Heb. piggûl, “filth,” Lev. 7:18; shiqqûṣ, “unclean,” Deut. 29:17, etc., sheqeṣ, “rejected,” Lev. 7:21, etc.; tô˓ēbâ, “causing abhorrence,” Gen. 43:32; Gk. bdelugma, Matt. 24:15, etc.). This word is used to denote that which is particularly offensive to the moral sense, the religious feeling, or the natural inclination of the soul. Israel became an abomination (“stench,” NIV) to the Philistines because of the antipathy caused by war (1 Sam. 13:4); David, for his distressed condition, was an abomination (“repulsive,” NIV) to his friends (Ps. 88:8). The practices of sin—such as the swellings of pride, lips of falsehood, the sacrifices of the wicked, and the foul rites of idolatry—are stigmatized as abominations (Prov. 6:16; 12:22; 15:8; Jer. 6:15; “detestable” in Prov., “loathsome” in Jer., NIV). There are some peculiar applications of the term, to which attention is called: 1. “The Egyptians could not eat bread with the Hebrews, for that is loathsome [tô˓ēbâ; “detestable,” NIV] to the Egyptians” (Gen. 43:32). The explanation probably is that the Egyptians thought themselves ceremonially defiled if they ate with strangers. The primary reason may have been that the cow was the most sacred animal to the Egyptians, and the eating of it was obnoxious to them; whereas it was eaten and sacrificed by the Jews and most other nations. The Jews themselves, in later times, considered it unlawful to eat or drink with foreigners in their houses, or even to enter their dwellings (John 18:28; Acts 10:28; 11:3). 2. Joseph told his brothers to answer when questioned by Pharaoh, “Your servants have been keepers of livestock from our youth even until now, both we and our fathers.” Joseph adds as a reason for giving this statement, “That you may live in the land of Goshen; for every shepherd is loathsome [“detestable,” NIV] to the Egyptians” (Gen. 46:34). The origin of this feeling is nowhere given either in sacred or secular history, but the fact is beyond dispute, being amply attested by the evidence of the monuments, on which shepherds are always represented in a low and degrading attitude. 3. When Pharaoh told the Israelites to sacrifice to “your God” without going to the desert, Moses replied, “It is not right to do so, for we shall sacrifice to the Lord our God what is an abomination to the Egyptians. If we sacrifice what is an abomination [“detestable,” NIV] to the Egyptians before their eyes, will they not then stone us?” (Ex. 8:26). Some think the abomination to consist in the sacrifice of the cow. Others (K. & D., Com., ad loc.) think that “the Israelites would not carry out the rigid regulations observed by the Egyptians with regard to the cleanness of the sacrificial animals, and in fact would not observe the sacrificial rites of the Egyptians at all.” The Egyptians would, doubtless, consider this a manifestation of contempt for themselves and their gods, and this would so enrage them that they would stone the Israelites. BIBLIOGRAPHY: R. L. Harris, ed., Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (1980), 2:955, 976. ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION. Interpreted by premillennialists as the idolatrous image to be set up by the final Antichrist (the “beast,” or “man of lawlessness” of 2 Thess. 2:3–4) in the restored Temple at Jerusalem in the latter half of Daniel’s seventieth week (Dan. 9:27; 12:11). For the first part of the three and one- half days (years) of the prophetic week of years, the Antichrist keeps his covenant with the Jews. At the beginning of the last half of the week he breaks it (Zech. 11:16– 17), compelling the Jews to worship his image. This is “the abomination (idol) of the desolator” or “the idol that causes desolation” (cf. Dan. 11:31; 12:11), inaugurating the period of “Jacob’s trouble” (Jer. 30:7), a time of terrible suffering to Palestinian Jews of the end time, of which our Lord spoke (Matt. 24:15). In Dan. 11:31 the reference is to the act of Antiochus Epiphanes, prototype of the final Antichrist, who, in June 168 B.C. desecrated the Temple at Jerusalem. He built an altar to Jupiter Olympus on the altar of burnt offering, dedicated the Temple to this heathen deity, and offered swine’s flesh. Premillennialists maintain that neither Antiochus Epiphanes nor the Romans under Titus in A.D. 70 exhausted Daniel’s prophecy, which still awaits fulfillment. Amillennial interpretation, however, sees a fulfillment in the advance of the Romans against Jerusalem in A.D. 70 with their image-crowned standards, which were regarded as idols by the Jews. BIBLIOGRAPHY: D. Daube, The New Testament and Rabbinic Judaism (1956), pp. 418– 37; L. Gaston, No Stone on Another (1970); J. F. Walvoord, Daniel: Key to Prophetic Revelation (1971), pp. 235–37; G. R. Beasley-Murray, New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology (1975), 1:74–75. A´BRAHAM (āʹbra-ham; “father of a multitude”). Up to Gen. 17:5, also in 1 Chron. 1:27; Neh. 9:7, he is uniformly called Abram, “high father.” The name Abram—Abu- ramu, “the exalted father”—is found in early Babylonian contracts. Family. Abraham was a native of Chaldea, and descendant in the ninth generation from Shem, the son of Noah. His father’s name was Terah, and he was born in Ur, 2161 B.C. (Gen. 11:27). K. & Johann Karl Friedrich Keil and Franz Julius Delitzcsh, Old Testament Commentaries (1875) Com. Commentary Personal History. The life of Abraham, from his call to his death, consists of four periods, the commencement of each of which is marked by a divine revelation of sufficient importance to constitute a distinct epoch. The First Period. The call and Abraham’s journey to Canaan, to Egypt, and back again to Canaan occurred during this period. Moves to Haran. When Abraham was about seventy years of age he, with his father, Terah, his nephew Lot, and his wife Sarah, went to live in Haran (Gen. 11:27– 31). The reason for this movement is given in Acts 7:2–3: “The God of glory appeared to our father Abraham when he was in Mesopotamia, before he lived in Haran, and said to him, ‘Depart from your country and your relatives, and come into the land that I will show you.’” Departs from Haran. At the death of his father the call to Abraham was renewed. “Now the Lord said to Abram, ‘Go forth from your country, and from your relatives and from your father’s house, to the land which I will show you’” (Gen. 12:1). A condition was annexed to the call that he should separate from his father’s house and leave his native land. He left his brother Nahor’s family (who had also come to Haran, cf. Gen. 22:20, 23; 24:29; and 27:43) and departed, taking with him Lot, probably regarded as his heir (Josephus Ant. 1.7.1), and all his substance, to go “not knowing where he was going” (Heb. 11:8). Genesis 12:5 states that Abraham “set out for the land of Canaan,” but Heb. 11:8 states that “he went out, not knowing where he was going.” At first the name of the country was not revealed to him. It is designated simply as a “land which I will show you” (Gen. 12:1). But even if the name Canaan had been mentioned at the onset, it might still be true that he went forth “not knowing where he was going.” For, in those days of slow transit, imperfect communication, and meager geographical knowledge, the mere name of a country several hundred miles distant would convey almost no idea of the country itself (Haley). Arrival in Canaan. He traveled until he came into the land of Canaan, and there he formed his first encampment beside the oak of Moreh, between the mountains of Ebal and Gerizim, where his strong faith was rewarded by the second promise that his seed should possess this land. Abraham built “an altar there to the Lord who had appeared to him” (12:6–7). It is probable that the Canaanites were jealous of Abraham, and that he therefore soon removed to the mountainous district between Bethel and Ai, where he also built an altar to Jehovah. In Egypt. He still moved southward until, at length, compelled by a famine, he went into Egypt. Fearing that the beauty of Sarah would tempt the Egyptians and endanger his life, he caused her to pass for his sister, which was partly true, for she was his half sister, having the same father but a different mother (Gen. 20:12). Sarah was taken to the royal harem, and Abraham was loaded with valuable gifts which he did not deserve, that could not be refused without an insult to the king. Warned of his mistake, Pharaoh summoned Abraham, and indignantly rebuked him for his subterfuge. He then dismissed Abraham, who went out of Egypt, taking his wife and Lot and his great wealth with him (Gen. 12). Return to Canaan. Having reached his former encampment between Bethel and Ai, he again established the worship of Jehovah (Gen. 13:3–4). The increased wealth of Abraham and Lot became the cause of their separation. The country did not furnish sufficient pasture for the flocks and herds of both Abraham and Lot, and dissensions arose between their herdsmen. In order to avoid strife and consequent weakness before their enemies, Abraham proposed that they occupy different districts. He gave the choice of locality to Lot, who selected the plain of the Jordan and pitched his tent there. The childless Abraham was rewarded with a third blessing, in which God reiterated His promise to give him the land and a posterity as numerous as the dust of the earth. Then Abraham moved his tent, dwelt in Mamre, near Hebron, and built an altar (Gen. 13). Rescue of Lot. Lot was now involved in danger. The five cities of the plain had become tributary to Chedorlaomer (Kedorlaomer, NIV), king of Elam. In the thirteenth year of their subjection they revolted, and Chedorlaomer (Kedorlaomer) marched against them with three allied kings. The kings of Sodom and Gomorrah fell, their cities were spoiled, and Lot and his goods were carried off (Gen. 14:1–12). Word was brought to Abraham, who immediately armed his dependents, 318 men, and with his Amorite allies overtook and defeated them at Dan, near the springs of Jordan. Abraham and his men pursued them as far as the neighborhood of Damascus and then returned with Lot and all the men and goods that had been taken away, about 2080 B.C. Meeting with Melchizedek. Arriving at Salem on their return, they were met by Melchizedek (which see), king of Salem, and “priest of God Most High,” who brought him refreshments. He also blessed Abraham in the name of the most high God, and Abraham presented him with a tenth of the spoils. By strict right, founded on the war usages still subsisting in Arabia, Abraham had a claim to all the recovered goods. The king of Sodom recognized this right, but Abraham refused to accept anything, even from a thread to a shoe latchet, lest any should say, “I have made Abram rich” (Gen. 14:17–24). The Second Period. The promise of a lineal heir and the conclusion of the covenant (Gen. 15–16) took place in this period. Vision of Abraham. Soon after this Abraham’s faith was rewarded and encouraged by a distinct and detailed repetition of former promises and by a solemn covenant contracted between himself and God. He was told, and he believed, that his seed should be as numerous as the stars of heaven, that his posterity should grow up into a nation under foreign bondage, and that after four hundred years they should come up and possess the land in which he sojourned (Gen. 15). Birth of Ishmael. Abraham had lived ten years in Canaan, and still he had no child. Sarah, now seventy-five years of age, followed contemporary custom and allowed Abraham to take Hagar, her Egyptian handmaid, who bore him Ishmael (Gen. 16), 2075 B.C. The Third Period. The establishment of the covenant, the change of Abraham’s name, and the appointment of the covenant sign of circumcision (Gen. 17–21) occurred during this period. Change of Name. Thirteen more years passed, and Abraham reached his ninety- ninth year. God appeared to him and favored him with still more explicit declarations of His purpose. He changed his name from Abram to Abraham, renewed his covenant, and in token of it commanded that he and the males of his company should receive circumcision. Abraham was assured that Sarah, then ninety years old, should in a year become the mother of Isaac, the heir of the special promises. Abraham wavered in faith and prayed for Ishmael, whom God promised abundantly to bless, but declared that He would establish his covenant with Isaac. Circumcision. That very day Abraham, his son Ishmael, and all the males of his household were circumcised (Gen. 17). Visit of Angels. Abraham was favored, shortly after, with another interview with God. Sitting in his tent door under the oaks of Mamre he saw three travelers approaching and offered them his hospitality. They assented, and partook of the fare provided, Abraham standing in respectful attendance, according to oriental custom. These three persons were, doubtless, the “Angel of Jehovah” and two attending angels. The promise of a son by Sarah was renewed, and her incredulity rebuked. The strangers continued their journey, Abraham walking some way with them. Destruction of Sodom. The Lord revealed to him the coming judgment upon Sodom and Gomorrah; and then followed that wondrous pleading in behalf of the cities (Gen. 18). Abraham rose early the next morning to see the fate of the cities and saw their smoke rising “up as the smoke of a furnace” (19:27–29), 2063 B.C. Sarah Taken by Abimelech. After this Abraham journeyed southward, and dwelt between Kadesh and Shur, and sojourned in Gerar. Abimelech, king of Gerar, sent for and took Sarah, but was warned of God in a dream and sent her back the next morning to Abraham, whom he reproved for the deceit he had employed. He was healed in answer to Abraham’s prayer (Gen. 20). Isaac Born. At length, when Abraham was one hundred years old, and Sarah ninety, the long-promised heir was born, 2061 B.C. The altered position of Ishmael in the family excited the ill will of himself and his mother. This was so apparent in the mocking behavior of Ishmael at the weaning of Isaac that Sarah insisted that he and Hagar should be sent away, to which Abraham reluctantly consented. Abraham, after settling a dispute concerning a well taken by Abimelech’s servants, made a treaty with him (Gen. 21). The Fourth Period. In this period occurred the test of Abraham’s faith and his final years. Abraham’s Great Trial (Gen. 22–25:11), 2036 B.C. When Isaac was nearly grown (twenty-five years old, says Josephus Ant. 1.13.2) God subjected Abraham to a terrible trial of his faith and obedience. He commanded him to go to Mt. Moriah (perhaps where the Temple afterward stood) and there offer up Isaac, whose death would nullify all his hopes and the promises. Probably human sacrifices already existed, and therefore the peculiar trial lay in the singular position of Isaac and the improbability of his being replaced. Abraham decided to obey, because “he considered that God is able to raise men even from the dead” (Heb. 11:19). Assisted by his two servants, he made preparations for the journey and started early the next morning. On the third day he saw the place and told his servants that he and his son would proceed on further to worship, then return. Upon Isaac’s asking, “Where is the lamb for the burnt offering?” Abraham replied, “God will provide for Himself the lamb.” The altar was built and Isaac placed upon it. The uplifted hand of the father was arrested by the angel of Jehovah, and a ram caught in the thicket was substituted for Isaac. Abraham called the name of the place Jehovah-jireh, “The Lord Will Provide.” The promises formerly made to Abraham were then confirmed in the most solemn manner. Abraham returned to his young men and with them went to Beersheba and dwelt there (Gen. 22:1–19). Some have found it difficult to reconcile God’s command to sacrifice Isaac with His prohibition of human sacrifices (Lev. 18:21; 20:2). We answer, “God’s design was not to secure a certain outward act, but a certain state of mind, a willingness to give up the beloved object to Jehovah” (Haley). “The divine command was given in such a form that Abraham could not understand it in any other way than as requiring an outward burnt offering, because there was no other way in which Abraham could accomplish the complete surrender of Isaac than by an actual preparation for really offering the desired sacrifice” (K. & D., Com.). Moreover, any criticism of Abraham’s sacrifice of his son must be modified by his evident belief in God’s ability to raise that son from the dead. Death of Sarah. The next event recorded in Abraham’s life is the death of Sarah, 127 years of age, at or near Hebron (which see). Abraham purchased from Ephron the Hittite the cave of Machpelah (which see), the field in which it stood, and all the trees in the field, and there he buried Sarah (Gen. 23). Marriage of Isaac. His next care was to procure a suitable wife for Isaac. He commissioned his eldest servant to go to Haran, where Nahor had settled, and get a wife for his son from his own family. The servant went and, directed by God, chose Rebekah, the daughter of Bethuel son of Nahor. In due time he returned, and Rebekah was installed in Sarah’s tent (Gen. 24). Some time after Abraham took another wife, Keturah, by whom he had several children. These, together with Ishmael, seem to have been portioned off by their father in his lifetime and sent away to the E, that they might not interfere with Isaac. Death. Abraham died when he was 175 years old and was buried by Isaac and Ishmael in the cave of Machpelah (Gen. 25), 1986 B.C. Man of Faith. The spiritual experience of Abraham was marked by four far- reaching crises in which his faith was tested, and which, in each case, called forth the surrender of something naturally most dear to him: first, his giving up country and kindred (Gen. 12:1); second, his breaking off with his nephew, Lot, particularly close to Abraham by virtue of kinship as a fellow believer and possible heir (Gen. 13:1–18); third, the abandonment of his own cherished plans for Ishmael and his being called upon to center his hope in the promise of the birth of Isaac (Gen. 17:17–18); fourth, the supreme test of his mature life of faith in his willingness to offer up Isaac, his only son, whom he loved passionately and in whom all his expectations centered (Gen. 22:1–19; Heb. 11:17–18). Man of Covenant Promise. As a friend of God and a man who implicitly trusted the divine promises, Abraham was the recipient of an important covenant involving not only himself, but his posterity, natural as well as spiritual. The Abrahamic covenant as originally given (Gen. 12:1–4) and reaffirmed (Gen. 13:14–17; 15:1–7; 17:1–8), contains the following elements: (1) “I will make you a great nation,” fulfilled: (a) in a natural posterity, “as the dust of the earth,” the Hebrew people (13:16, John 8:37), (b) in a spiritual progeny (John 8:39; Rom. 4:16; Gal. 3:6–7, 29), comprising all persons of faith, whether Jew or Gentile, (c) in the descendants of Ishmael (Gen. 17:18–20). (2) “I will bless you,” fulfilled in a double sense: (a) temporally (Gen. 13:14–18; 15:18) and (b) spiritually (Gen. 15:6; John 8:56). (3) “And make your name great.” In three great world religions—Judaism, Islam, and Christianity—Abraham is revered as one of the eminent men of all time. (4) “And so you shall be a blessing.” By his personal example of faith and that faith as manifested in his descendants, Abraham has been a worldwide blessing. (5) “I will bless those who bless you, and the one who curses you I will curse.” This has been remarkably fulfilled in the Jewish dispersion. Nations who have persecuted the Jews have fared ill, and those who have protected them have prospered. Prophecy, both fulfilled and unfulfilled, substantiates this principle (Deut. 30:7; Mic. 5:7–9; Hag. 2:22; Zech. 14:1–3; Jer. 50:11–18; 51:24–36; Ezek. 25:2; 26:2–3). (6) “In you all the families of the earth shall be blessed.” This is the great messianic promise fulfilled in Abraham’s descendant, Christ (John 8:56–58; Gal. 3:16). Abraham and Archaeology. Archaeological evidence related to the time of Abraham has been found in Mesopotamia and Palestine. Life in Ur. The biblical chronology would place Abraham’s birth in lower Mesopotamia about 2161 B.C. According to one chronology, he lived there under the new Sumero-Akkadian empire of Ur Nammu, the founder of the famous Third Dynasty of Ur (c. 2135–2035 B.C.), who took the title of “King of Sumer and Akkad,” and whose mightiest work was the erection of the great ziggurat (temple tower) at Ur. Abraham left “Ur of the Chaldeans” (Gen. 11:31) when it was entering the heyday of its commercial and political prestige. According to the new minimal chronology, Abraham was born in Ur and left it during the period when the hated Guti ruled the land (2180–2070 B.C.). He then left Haran for Canaan about the time Ur entered her golden age (Ur III period). The new chronology dates Ur III 2070–1960 B.C. It was the appearance of “the God of glory” to him “when he was in Mesopotamia, before he lived in Haran” (Acts 7:2) that enabled Abraham to leave a famous center of wealth and culture for an unknown destination. In addition to a lucrative woolen trade, Ur was the center of numerous other industries that centered about the worship of the moon god Sin (Nannar) and his consort Nin-gal. The great temples and ziggurat of this deity made Ur a mecca for thousands of pilgrims. The far-flung commercial ventures of Ur gave her so much economic power in Mesopotamia that she virtually controlled the region. The total population of the city-state at that time has been estimated at 360,000. At Haran. The town of Haran (Gen. 11:31; 12:5) in NW Mesopotamia to which Abram migrated on his way to Canaan is still in existence on the Balikh River sixty miles W of Tell Halaf. It was a flourishing city in the nineteenth and eighteenth centuries B.C., as is known from frequent references to it in cuneiform sources (Assyr. Harranu, “road”). It was on the great east-west trade route, and like Ur, it was the seat of the worship of the moon god. Whether Terah chose Haran as a place to settle because he had not made a clean break with the idolatry of his youth, or perhaps for commercial reasons, can only be surmised. The city of Nahor, which was Rebekah’s home (Gen. 24:10) is also attested by the Mari Tablets, discovered in 1935 and belonging to the eighteenth century B.C. Evidence of Hebrew occupation of this region also appears in names of Abraham’s forefathers, which correspond to the names of towns near Haran: Serug (Assyr. Sarugi) and Terah (Til Turakhi, “Mound of Terah”) in Assyrian times. Other immediate ancestors of Abraham listed in Gen. 11:10–30 have left their trace in this territory called Padan-Aram (Paddan Aram, NIV; Aram. “field or plain of Aram,” Gen. 25:20; 28:2–7). Reu corresponds to later names of towns in the Middle Euphrates Valley, and Peleg recalls later Paliga on the Euphrates just above the mouth of the Habur River. In Canaan. After the death of Terah, Abraham left Haran and came into Canaan (Gen. 12:4–5). Archaeological and historical studies show that in Palestine and much of Syria deurbanization had set in as early as the twenty-fourth century B.C. and certainly characterized the land during the period 2200–2000 B.C. Newer discoveries indicate that this abandonment of towns resulted not from invasion but from a significant shift to drier conditions combined with a greatly weakened economy and disruption of trade systems. After 2000 B.C. reurbanization of Palestine gradually occurred once more, but the central and southern hill country of Palestine continued to be rather thinly settled even after the rapid growth of urbanization elsewhere. Thus the patriarchal period in Palestine fits admirably into what is now known of the historical context. No great cities or city-states could have confronted the patriarch. And when reurbanization occurred, it was less pronounced in the central and southern hill country, where the patriarchs spent most of their time. The places that appear in connection with the movements of the patriarchs are not the sites of later periods, such as Mizpah or Gibeah, but include Shechem, Bethel, Dothan, Gerar, and Jerusalem (Salem)—all known by means of exploration and excavation to have been inhabited in the patriarchial age. The five cities of the plain of the Jordan (Gen. 13–14) that appear prominently in the story of Abraham and Lot, namely, Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboiim, and Zoar also belong to this early period (c. 2065 B.C.), being located at the southern end of the Dead Sea. This area “full of tar pits” (Gen. 14:10) was overwhelmed by a catastrophe of fire, which with the salt and sulphur of the region, doubtless accompanied by earthquakes common in this area of the Arabah, was the natural aspect of the supernatural destruction of the cities of the plain. These cities are now probably under the slowly rising waters at the southern end of the Dead Sea. The account of Lot’s wife turned into a pillar of salt is reminiscent of the great salt mass, five miles long, stretching N and S at the SW end of the Dead Sea. Clash with the Mesopotamian Kings. The fourteenth chapter of Genesis is the pivotal passage in the patriarchal narratives from a historical point of view. Although archaeology has not yet furnished a link to tie it into the general context of ancient Near Eastern history, evidence is continually increasing of its historical character, which used to be almost universally denied by critics. A remarkable fact about this chapter, demonstrating its great age and authenticity, is its use of archaic words and place names, often appended with a scribal explanation to make them comprehensible to a later generation when the name had changed. Examples are “Bela (that is, Zoar)” in v. 2; “the vale of Siddim (that is, the Salt Sea)” in v. 3; “En-mishpat (that is, Kadesh)” in v. 7; “the valley of Shaveh (that is, the King’s Valley)” in v. 17. Interesting examples of the confirmation of place names occur in the reference to Ashteroth-karnaim and Ham (Gen. 14:5). These two cities, mentioned in the invasion of Chedorlaomer and the kings with him, have both been shown to have been occupied at this early period, as archaeological examination of their sites has demonstrated. Ham was first surmised to be identical with a modern place by the same name in eastern Gilead, and examination of the site by A. Jirku and W. F. Albright (1925 and 1929) disclosed a small but ancient mound going back to the Bronze Age. Thutmose III lists the place among his conquests in the early fifteenth century B.C. Archaeology has likewise confirmed the general line of march followed by the invading kings, later known as “The King’s Highway.” Added Archaeological Light. The site of Nuzi near modern Kirkuk (excavated between 1925 and 1941) dates from the fifteenth century B.C. and has yielded several thousand tablets illustrating vividly adoption (cf. Gen. 15:2), marriage laws (cf. Gen. 16:1–16), rights of primogeniture (Gen. 25:27–34), the teraphim (Gen. 31:34), and other customs and practices appearing in the life of Abraham and the Hebrew patriarchs. Also the discoveries at Mari (which see), a site near modern Abou Kemal on the Middle Euphrates, since 1933 have shed a great deal of indirect light on the age of Abraham. Moreover, the name Abraham (not of course the biblical character) has been found in Mesopotamia in the second millennium B.C., showing that it was actually a name in use at an early date. Certain radical literary critics such as J. L. Thompson (The Historicity of the Patriarchal Narratives [1974]) and J. Van Seters (Abraham in History and Tradition [1975]) have dismissed the validity of Early and Middle Bronze Age archaeology for the dating of Abraham. Van Seters actually proposed locating the patriarch about 600 B.C., but Near Eastern history simply does not support such a late date. Additional archaeological evidence to that inadequately “disproved” or suppressed by Thompson and Van Seters supports a much earlier date than they propose through the use of literary critical methods. See Sacrifice, Human. H.R.H; H.F.V.; R.K.H. H.F.V. Howard F. Vos BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. O. Dykes, Abraham the Friend of God (1877); H. G. Thomkins, Abraham and His Age (1897); W. H. Thomson, Life and Times of the Patriarchs (1912); H. H. Rowley, Recent Discovery and the Patriarchal Age (1949); F. B. Meyer, Abraham: The Obedience of Faith (1953); A. Edersheim, Bible History (1954), 1:51–106; J. Finegan, Light from the Ancient Past (1959), pp. 66–73, 145f., 179, 461, 466, 480f., 490, 497f.; C. F. Pfeiffer, The Patriarchal Age (1961); K. A. Kitchen, Ancient Orient and Old Testament (1966); A. C. Swindell, Expository Times 87 (1975): 50–53; D. J. Wiseman, Bibliotheca Sacra 134 (1977): 123–30; F. J. Delitzsch, A New Commentary on Genesis (1978), 1:364–2:112; G. Bush, Notes on Genesis (1981), 1:188–2:58. ABRAHAM’S BOSOM. The phrase “to be in one’s bosom” applies to the person who so reclines at the table that his head is brought almost into the bosom of the one sitting next above him. To be in Abraham’s bosom signified to occupy the seat next to Abraham, i.e., to enjoy felicity with Abraham. Jesus, accommodating His speech to the Jews, describes the condition of Lazarus after death by this figure (Luke 16:22– 23). “Abraham’s bosom” is also an expression of the Talmud for the state of bliss after death. Father Abraham was, to the Israelites, in the corrupt times of their later superstitions, almost what the virgin Mary is to the Roman church. He was constantly invoked as though he could hear the prayers of his descendants, wherever they were; and he was pictured standing at the gate of paradise to receive and embrace his children as they entered, and the whole family of his faithful descendants was gathered to his arms. A´BRAM (āʹbram; “high father”). The original name (Gen. 17:5) of Abraham. ABRO´NAH (ab-rōʹna; “passage”). The thirtieth station of the Israelites on their way from Egypt to Canaan (Num. 33:34–35). Since it lay near Ezion-geber on the W as they left Jotbathah, it was probably in the plain “Kâ´a en-Năkb,” immediately opposite the pass of the same name at the head of the Elamitic branch of the Red Sea. In the KJV this term is rendered Ebronah. AB´SALOM (abʹsa-lom; “father of peace”). The third son of David, and his only one by Maacah, the daughter of Talmai, king of Geshur (2 Sam. 3:3), born about 1000 B.C. He was known for his personal beauty—“In all Israel was no one as handsome as Absalom” (2 Sam. 14:25). Though his hair was doubtless very heavy, and thus was considered beautiful, the weight given, two hundred shekels, is too much and is evidently a scribal error (K. & D., Com.; 2 Sam. 14:26). Avenges Tamar. Absalom’s sister, Tamar, became the object of the lustful desire of Amnon, her half brother, David’s eldest son, and was violated by him (2 Sam. 13:1–18). According to Eastern notions the duty of avenging his sister’s wrong fell upon Absalom. He therefore took Tamar and kept her secluded in his own house, saying nothing to Amnon “either good or bad.” After two years had passed he found an opportunity for revenge. He then invited all his brothers, including Amnon, to a great sheep-shearing at Baal-hazor, and, to lull suspicion, requested the presence of his father also. Amid the mirth of the feast, while they were warm with wine, the servants of Absalom, at a preconcerted signal, fell upon Amnon and killed him (13:23–29). Absalom fled to his grandfather Talmai and remained there three years (vv. 37–38). Return to Jerusalem. David, yearning for his exiled son Absalom (v. 39), yielded easily to the scheme of Joab and permitted Absalom to return to Jerusalem, but not to appear before him. Absalom lived for two whole years in Jerusalem, and then sent for Joab, who refused to see him until Absalom ordered his servants to burn Joab’s barley field. Then Joab secured an interview for him with the king (2 Sam. 14). Preparations for Revolt. But Absalom proved himself false and faithless. He secretly plotted a revolt, winning over the people by his handsomeness and charisma and by the magnificence of his trappings, riding in a chariot with fifty outriders. He also fostered the discontent of the people by insinuations against his father’s justice. Other causes, doubtless, were favorable for Absalom: the affair of Bathsheba, the probable disaffection of Judah for being merged in one common Israel, and less attention on the part of David, because of his age, to individual complaints (2 Sam. 15:1–6). Revolt. When the plot was ripe, Absalom obtained leave to go to Hebron, to pay a vow that he had made at Geshur in case he should be permitted to return to Jerusalem. (The reference in 2 Sam. 15:7 to “forty years” is a scribal error, for David reigned but forty years in all [1 Kings 2:11], and he certainly had reigned many years before Absalom’s rebellion. The Syr. and Arab. versions read “four years,” and with this Josephus and NIV agree.) Absalom had sent spies throughout all the tribes of Israel, summoning those favorable to his cause to assemble at Hebron, where he went attended by two hundred unsuspecting adherents (2 Sam. 15:7–11). His next step was to send for Ahithophel, David’s counselor, and secure his approval and advice (15:12), Ahithophel being an oracle in Israel (16:23). Entry into Jerusalem. When David heard the sad tidings of revolt he at once prepared for flight and, leaving Jerusalem, went to Mahanaim, beyond the Jordan (2 Sam. 15:13–17). Absalom now entered Jerusalem (15:37) and, through the advice of Ahithophel, publicly took possession of the portion of his father’s harem left in the city. The motive in this latter act was to gain the more unreserved support of the people, from the assurance that any reconcilement between Absalom and his father would thereafter be impossible (16:20–22). Absalom had already met Hushai, who had been sent to join him by David, that he might be instrumental in thwarting the counsels of Ahithophel (15:33–37; 16:16–19). A council of war was held to consider the course to be pursued against David. Ahithophel advised the immediate pursuit and death of the king—that one death would close the war. Hushai, to gain time for David, urged the king’s skill and bravery, the number and might of his warriors, and the possibility and disastrous consequences of defeat, and he advised a general gathering against David and the total annihilation of him and his followers. The advice was accepted by Absalom. Information was secretly sent to David, who then went beyond Jordan and there collected a force sufficient to oppose Absalom (17:1–14, 21–24). Anointed King. Absalom was formally anointed king (2 Sam. 19:10), appointed Amasa captain of his host, and crossed over Jordan in pursuit of his father (17:25–26). A battle was fought in the wood of Ephraim. The army of Absalom was defeated, twenty thousand were slain, and a still greater number perished in the defiles of the forest. Death. Absalom fled on a swift mule, and as he was riding through the forest, his “head” became wedged between two branches. When he raised his hands to try to dislodge himself, he let go of the bridle and the unrestrained mule kept going. More than likely Absalom was riding without a saddle, and he simply slipped off the animal’s back and hung suspended in midair. The text does not say he was caught by his hair; the historian Josephus stated that. He probably had a helmet over his hair on this occasion; so his hair would not have caught in the branches. Joab, being informed Syr. Syriac of what had happened to Absalom, hastened to the spot and killed him, notwithstanding David’s request that he should be spared. The body was taken down and cast into a pit, over which the people raised a great heap of stones as a mark of abhorrence, a burial that the historian contrasts with the splendid monument prepared by Absalom for himself in the “King’s Valley” (2 Sam. 18:1–18), about 967 B.C. The so-called tomb of Absalom that stands today in the Valley of the Kidron can have no connection with the monument Absalom erected for himself; it probably dates to the first century A.D. Absalom had three sons and one daughter, the latter named Tamar (14:27), who alone survived him (18:18) and became the mother of Maacah, the wife of Rehoboam (2 Chron. 11:20–21). H.F.V. BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. E. Macartney, Chariots of Fire (1951), pp. 93–103; R. N. Whybray, The Succession Narrative: A Study of 2 Sam. 9–20 (1968); W. G. Blaikie, The Second Book of Samuel (1978); R. Battenhouse, Christianity and Literature 31, no. 3 (1982): 53–57; L. Rost, The Succession to the Throne of David (1982). ABSTINENCE. A general term signifying to refrain from something or some action. In the ecclesiastical sense it means the refraining from certain kinds of food or drink on certain days. Jewish. The first mention of abstinence in Scripture is found in Gen. 9:4, where the use of blood was forbidden to Noah. The next is in Gen. 32:32: “Therefore, to this day the sons of Israel do not eat the sinew of the hip which is on the socket of the thigh, because he touched the socket of Jacob’s thigh in the sinew of the hip.” The law confirmed abstinence from blood (Lev. 3:17) and the use even of lawful animals if the manner of their death rendered it likely that they were not properly bled (Ex. 22:31; Deut. 14:21). Whole classes of animals that might not be eaten are given in Lev. 11. See Animal: clean and unclean. Certain parts of lawful animals, as being sacred to the altar, were forbidden, namely, the caul (or fat covering the liver), the kidneys and the fat upon them, the fat covering the entrails, and also the “entire fat tail” (Lev. 3:9–11). Everything consecrated to idols was also interdicted (Ex. 34:15). While engaged in their official duties, the priests were commanded to abstain from wine and strong drink (Lev. 10:9), and the Nazirites had to abstain from strong drink and the use of grapes during the whole time of their separation (Num. 6:3). The Rechabites (which see) voluntarily assumed a constant abstinence from wine (Jer. 35:6). The Essenes (which see), a Jewish sect, were stringent in their abstinence, refusing all pleasant food, eating nothing but coarse bread and drinking only water, while some abstained from all food until evening. Christian. Some among the early Christian converts thought themselves bound by Mosaic regulations respecting food, and abstained from flesh sacrificed to idols and from animals accounted unclean by the law. Others considered this a weakness, and boasted of the freedom with which Christ had set them free. Paul discusses this matter in Rom. 14:1–3 and 1 Cor. 8 and teaches that everyone is at liberty to act according to his own conscience, but that the stronger should refrain from that which might prove a stumbling block to his weaker brother. In 1 Tim. 4:3–4 he reproves certain persons who forbid marriage and enjoin abstinence from meats. The council of the apostles at Jerusalem limited enforced abstinence upon the converts to that of meats offered to idols, blood, and “things strangled” (Acts 15:29). In the early church catechumens were required, according to Cyril and Jerome, to observe a season of abstinence and prayer for forty days; according to others, twenty days. Superstitious abstinence on the part of the clergy was considered a crime, and if that abstinence arose from the notion that any creature of God was not good they were liable to be deposed from office. Strict observance of the church fasts was enjoined. ABYSS´ (ȧ-bĭsʹ; Gk. hēabussos). In the NT the abyss is the abode of the imprisoned demons (Rev. 9:1–21). At least many of the demons whom Jesus expelled in His earthly ministry were commanded to return to the abyss (cf. Luke 8:31), but these evil spirits dreaded to go there before their predetermined time. Myriads of demons will be let loose during the period of Tribulation to energize age-end apostasy and revolt against God and His Christ, but will be shut up again in this prison together with Satan at the second advent of Christ (20:1–3). The abyss is therefore to be distinguished from sheol (hell) or hades (which see). This “unseen world” is revealed as the place of departed human spirits between death and the resurrection (Matt. 11:23; 16:18; Luke 10:15; Rev. 1:18; 20:13–14). It is also to be distinguished from “tartarus,” the “prison abode of fallen angels” (cf. 2 Pet. 2:4) and “the lake of fire” (Rev. 19:20; 20:10; 21:8), or the eternal abode of all wicked, unrepentant creatures, including Satan, angels, and men. The LXX renders Heb. tƒhôm, “the primeval ocean” (Gen. 1:2; Ps. 24:2, etc.) as “abyss.” In classical Gk. the word abussos is always an adjective meaning “very deep” (“bottomless”) or “unfathomable” (“boundless”). See Hell; Lake of Fire. ACACIA, ACCACIA. See Vegetable Kingdom: Acacia. AC´BOR. See Achbor. AC´CAD or Akkad (ăkʹăd). An ancient center of Hamitic imperial power founded by Nimrod (Gen. 10:10). The city is evidently Agade, which Sargon I brought into great prominence as the capital of his far-flung Semitic empire, which dominated the Mesopotamian world from about 2360 to 2180 B.C. The location of Accad cannot presently be identified, but it must be in the vicinity of Babylon, perhaps N of it. The country was named after its capital and embraces the stoneless alluvial plain of southern Babylonia N of Sumer (which see). The term “the land of Shinar,” in which the world’s first imperial power developed embracing “Babel [Babylon, NIV] and Erech [Uruk] and Accad and Calneh” (Gen. 10:10), is descriptive of the entire alluvial plain of Babylonia between the Tigris and the Euphrates, in approximately the last two hundred miles of the course of those great rivers as they flowed in ancient times. In the cuneiform inscriptions the region is divided into a northern part called Accad (Akkad), in which Babel (Babylon) and the city of Accad (Agade) were situated; and a southern part called Sumer, in which Erech (ancient Uruk, modern Warka) was located. At Uruk the first sacred temple tower (Babylonian, ziggurat) was found, as well as evidence of the first cylinder seals (Finegan, Light from the Ancient Past, pp. 19–23). The inhabitants of this region were originally non-Semitic Sumerians, who racially must have been of Hamitic origin, according to Gen. 10:8–10, and who were the inventors of cuneiform writing and the cultural precursors of their later conquerors, the Babylonian Semites. The city of Accad (Agade) disappeared in ancient times and by Assyrian times was utterly unknown. M.F.U.; H.F.V. BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. Frankfort, The Art and Architecture of the Ancient Orient (1954), pp. 41–46; J. Finegan, Light from the Ancient Past (1959), pp. 19–23; C. J. Gadd, “The Dynasty of Agade and the Gutian Invasion,” The Cambridge Ancient History, rev. ed. (1963), 1:xix. ACCEPT, ACCEPTABLE, ACCEPTED (Heb. rāṣâ, “to take pleasure in”; Gk. dechomai, “to take with the hand,” i.e., “to receive with hospitality”). To accept is to receive with pleasure and kindness (Gen. 32:20) and is the opposite of to reject, which is a direct refusal with disapprobation (Jer. 6:30; 7:29). An accepted or acceptable time (Ps. 69:13; 2 Cor. 6:2) is the time of favor, a favorable opportunity. Luke 4:24 means that no prophet is welcomed or appreciated favorably in his own country. Acceptance also means that relation to God in which He is well-pleased with His children, for by children of God only is it enjoyed. In Acts 10:35 we learn that “in every nation the man who fears Him and does what is right, is welcome to Him.” The Christian scheme bases acceptance by God on justification. Paul in Eph. 1:6 refers to the grace of God, “which He freely bestowed on us in the Beloved.” In Christ only are we acceptable to God. Out of Him we are sinners and subjects of wrath. The Calvinist teaches that the sins that are pardoned in justification include all sins, past, present, and future, and that God will not deal with the believer according to his transgressions; whereas the Arminian holds that the state of acceptance can be maintained only by perpetually believing in and appropriating to himself the atoning merits of Jesus, and obediently keeping God’s holy commandments. ACCESS TO GOD (Gk. prosagōgē, “act of moving to”). That friendly relation with God whereby we are acceptable to Him and have assurance that He is favorably disposed toward us (Rom. 5:2; Eph. 2:18; 3:12). In substance it is not different from the “peace of God,” i.e., the peaceful relation of believers toward God, brought about through Christ’s death. By the continuous power and efficiency of His atoning act, Jesus is the constant Bringer to the Father. Access means the obtaining of a hearing with God, and if a hearing, the securing in some form an answer to our requests. The apostle John (1 John 5:14–15) says: “This is the confidence which we have before Him, that, if we ask anything according to His will, He hears us. And if we know that He hears us in whatever we ask, we know that we have the requests which we have asked from Him.” Here we learn that access to God involves asking according to His will. A child has right of access to his father. Such right and privilege are granted to, and should be enjoyed by, every child of God. We must not infer that our access is cut off if we do not realize direct answers to some of our requests, but we must believe that God always hears His children and does the best things for them. AC´CO (ȧcʹkō). A town on the Mediterranean coast, thirty miles S of Tyre, and ten from Mt. Carmel (Judg. 1:31). It was known to the ancient Greeks and Romans as Ptolemais, from Ptolemy the king of Egypt, who rebuilt it in 100 B.C. During the Middle Ages it was called Acra, and subsequently called St. Jean d’Acre. Paul visited this place (Acts 21:7). The original site is a mound called Tell-el-Fukhar, located one mile E of the present city. Archaeological activity at Acre has concentrated on Crusader structures under the present city. In 1955 the Israel Department of Antiquities cleared the refectory of the Knights of St. John, and in 1956 and from 1959 to 1962 the Department of Antiquities and the National Parks Authority cleared a hospital and chapel of the order. Other finds in the town include sections of the wall of the Hellenistic city (10–15 feet thick), and a glass furnace and temple dating to the same period. In 1976 Moshe Dothan worked at the harbor area where he uncovered a large tower and defensive wall of the Hellenistic town of Ptolemais. See Ptolemais. H.F.V. ACCOUNTABILITY. Not a Bible word but an abstract term for that return for his talents and opportunities that every soul must make to God day by day, and especially at the judgment, as we are taught in Matt. 12:36, Rom. 4:10, Heb. 13:17, and 1 Pet. 4:5. It is a well-established doctrine of Holy Scripture, attested to by human consciousness, that we are free moral agents, entirely dependent upon our Creator for H.F.V. Howard F. Vos our existence and maintenance, and rightly answerable to Him for our conduct; and that God consequently has a right to our perfect obedience and service. It is accordingly easy for us to feel that He is justified in calling us to a strict reckoning for all He has entrusted us with. Disabled by our fall into sin, gracious strength has been provided for us in the atonement, so that we are without excuse if we fail to do God’s will. ACCURSED. See Anathema; Oath. ACCUSER (Heb. shāpaṭ “judge”; śāṭān “adversary”; in the NT, Gk. katēgoros, “prosecutor”). 1. One who has a cause or matter of contention; the accuser, opponent, or plaintiff in any suit (Judg. 12:2; Matt. 5:25; Luke 12:58). 2. In Scripture, in a general sense, an adversary or enemy (Luke 18:3; 1 Pet. 5:8). In the latter passage reference is made to the old Jewish teaching that Satan was the accuser of men before God (Job 1:6–11; Rev. 12:10). See Adversary. ACEL´DAMA (a-selʹdā-mā; ASV and NIV, Akeldama). Called at present “Hak ed- damm,” it signifies “Field of Blood” (Matt. 27:8; Acts 1:18–19), now at the E end and on the southern slope of the valley of Hinnom. The tradition that fixes this spot reaches back to the age of Jerome. Once the tradition was that the soil of this spot, a deep pit or cellar, was believed to have the power of consuming dead bodies in the space of twenty-four hours, so that whole shiploads of it are said to have been carried away in A.D. 1218, in order to cover the famous Campo Santo in Pisa. ACHAI´A (a-kāʹya). The name once applied to the NW portion of the Peloponnesus and afterward applied to the entire Peloponnesus, called now the Morea. It was one of the two provinces, of which Macedonia was the other, into which the Romans divided Greece (27 B.C.). It was under a proconsular government at the time when Luke wrote the Acts, so that the title given to Gallio, “proconsul,” was proper (Acts 18:12), A.D. 51 or 52. ACHA´ICUS (a-kāʹi-kus; “an Achaean”). A Christian of Corinth who had rendered Paul personal aid, and by him was kindly commended to the Corinthian church (1 Cor. 16:17), A.D. 54. A´CHAN (āʹkan; “troublesome”). A son of Carmi, of the tribe of Judah; called also Achar (1 Chron. 2:7). Achan’s Sin. By one incident of his life Achan attained a disgraceful notoriety. Before Jericho was taken, the city was put under that awful ban whereby all the inhabitants (excepting Rahab and her family) were consigned to destruction, all the combustible goods to be burned, and the metals consecrated to God (Deut. 7:16, 23– 26; Josh. 6:17–19). After Jericho fell (1400 B.C.) the whole nation kept the vow, with the exception of Achan. His covetousness made him unfaithful, and, the opportunity presenting, he took a “beautiful mantle from Shinar [or Babylonia, NIV] and two hundred shekels of silver and a bar of gold fifty shekels’ in weight” (7:21). Result of Achan’s Sin. Ai had been visited by spies, who declared that it could easily be taken. An expedition of three thousand men sent against the city was repulsed, and they returned to Joshua, who inquired of the Lord concerning the cause of the disaster. The answer was that “Israel has sinned,… they have even taken some of the things under the ban and have both stolen and deceived” (Josh. 7:11). This was the reason for Israel’s defeat, and Joshua was commanded to sanctify the people and NIV New International Version on the morrow to cast lots for the offender. Achan was chosen and, being exhorted by Joshua, made a confession of his guilt, which was verified by the finding of the spoil in his tent. Objection has been urged against the use of the lot to discover the guilty party. We answer that the decision by lot, when ordered by God, involved no chance but was under His special direction, as is evident from the expressions “which the Lord takes” (Josh. 7:14), and “the lot is cast into the lap, but its every decision is from the Lord” (Prov. 16:33). Achan’s Punishment. Achan was conveyed with his family, property, and spoils to the valley (afterward called Achor, “trouble,” or “disaster” as in NIV), where they “stoned them with stones; and they burned them with fire” (Josh. 7:25). The severity of the punishment of Achan, as regards his family, has excited considerable comment. Some vindicate it by saying that Achan by his sin had fallen under the ban pronounced against Jericho and was exposed to the same punishment as a town that had fallen away into idolatry (Deut. 13:16–17); others believe that the family of Achan were aware of his crime and therefore were deserving of a share in his punishment (K. & D., Com.); others, again, consider it as the result of one of those sudden impulses of indiscriminate popular vengeance to which the Jewish people were exceedingly prone (Kitto). The real explanation is evidently to be found in the fact that the iniquity of the inhabitants of Canaan was now “complete” (cf. Gen. 15:16), and God’s righteous wrath was poured out upon them. BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. R. Porter, Vetus Testamentum 15 (1965): 367–73; J. Kitto, Daily Bible Illustrations (1981), 1: 540–42. A´CHAR (āʹkār; “trouble”). Another form of the name Achan (which see), and given to that person in 1 Chron. 2:7. ACH´BOR (akʹbor; “mouse”), or Acbor (NIV). 1. The father of Baal-hanan, the seventh Edomite king, mentioned in Gen. 36:38– 39. 2. The son of Micaiah and one of the courtiers whom Josiah sent to Huldah to inquire about the course to be pursued respecting the newly discovered book of the law (2 Kings 22:12, 14), 624 B.C. In the parallel passage (2 Chron. 34:20) he is called Abdon the son of Micah. He is doubtless the same person whose son, Elnathan, was courtier of Jehoiakim (Jer. 26:22; 36:12). A´CHIM (āʹkim; perhaps the same word as Jachin, “whom God makes firm”), or Akim (NIV). The son of Zadok and father of Eliud, among the paternal ancestors of Christ (Matt. 1:14), after 410 B.C. A´CHISH (āʹkish). Probably a general title of royalty, like Abimelech (which see), another Philistine kingly name, with which, indeed, it is interchanged in the title of Ps. 34. 1. A Philistine king of Gath with whom David sought refuge from Saul (1 Sam. 21:10–15). The servants of Achish soon recognized David as the successful champion of Israel against Goliath, and he escaped only by pretending madness, “well knowing that the insane were held inviolable, as smitten but protected by the Deity” (De Rothschild, Hist. of Israel). This is undoubtedly the same King Achish to whom K. & Johann Karl Friedrich Keil and Franz Julius Delitzcsh, Old Testament Commentaries (1875) Com. Commentary David again returned. Achish received him kindly, probably considering their common enmity against Saul as a strong bond of union. After living for a while at Gath, David received from Achish the town of Ziklag for a possession (27:2–6). He made numerous forays against the neighboring nomads, which activity he persuaded Achish was as much in his interest as his own (27:8–12). Achish still had great confidence in David, and he proposed making him chief of his bodyguard (28:1–2). He took David and his men with him when he went up to the battle that sealed the fate of Saul but was led to dismiss them by the jealousy and opposition of the Philistine leaders. Thus David was spared from participating in the battle (29:2–11), about 999 B.C. 2. Another king of Gath, the son of Maacah, to whom two servants of Shimei fled. Shimei went to reclaim them, and thus, by leaving Jerusalem, broke his parole and met his death (1 Kings 2:39–40), 957 B.C. ACH´METHA (akʹmē-tha; “a station, fortress”). The capital of Media. The classical name is Ecbatana, modern Hamadân, high in the Zagros Mountains, about 180 miles WSW of Tehran. Cyrus II, the Great, founder of the Persian Empire (died 530 B.C.) held his court here during the summer. It is stated (Ezra 6:2) that here was found in the palace a scroll upon which was the decree of Cyrus for the rebuilding of the Temple at Jerusalem. A considerable amount of Persian treasure has been unearthed at Achmetha, often by illegal diggers. Much of it has found its way to the Archaeological Museum in Tehran. The Iranian Archaeological Service has begun clearing old buildings on the mounds at the city’s northern outskirts, but so far scientific excavations are only in their infancy. Excavations at the NE corner of Hamadan have uncovered remains of walls and foundations of the palaces of Median and Persian kings. H.F.V. A´CHOR (āʹkôr; “trouble”). A place SW of Jericho; now identified with the el- Buqei‘ah plain near Qumran. Its name resulted from the sin and consequent punishment of Achan (Josh. 7:24–26). The term “valley of Achor” was proverbial, and the expression of the prophet (Hos. 2:15), “the valley of Achor, a door of hope,” is suggestive of the good results of discipline. ACH´SA (akʹsā), or Acsah (NIV). A less correct mode (1 Chron. 2:49) of anglicizing the name Achsah (which see). ACH´SAH (akʹsāh; “anklet”), or Acsah (NIV). The name of Caleb’s daughter (1 Chron. 2:49). Caleb offered her in marriage to the man who should capture the city of Debir, c. 1362 B.C. His own nephew, Othniel, won the prize. On her way to her future home Achsah asked of her father an addition to her dower of lands. She received the valley full of springs situated near Debir. Her request was probably secured the more readily as it was considered ungracious to refuse a daughter under such circumstances (Josh. 15:16–17; Judg. 1:12–13). ACH´SHAPH (akʹshaf; “sorcery”), or Acshaph (NIV). Identified with Tell Kı ̄sân. It belonged to Asher (Josh. 19:25). ACH´ZIB (akʹzib; “falsehood, deceit”), or Aczib (NIV). A town of Asher (Josh. 19:29; Judg. 1:31), identical with ez-Zib, about ten miles N of Accho. The town of the same name in Judah (Josh. 15:44; Mic. 1:14) is probably the same as Chezib (Gen. 38:5). ACRE (Heb. ṣemed, “a yoke”). Given as the translation of the Heb. word that is used as a measure of land, i.e., so much as a yoke of oxen can plow in a day (1 Sam. 14:14; Isa. 5:10). ACROP´OLIS (a-cropʹo-lis). A fortified hill overlooking many Greco-Roman cities. When the apostle Paul visited Athens, the most famous center of art and culture in Greece, the acropolis was adorned with splendid temples. The renowned sculptor Phidias, who died about 432 B.C., made a colossal statue of Athena Promachos, the goddess who fights in front, which was erected on the acropolis. Then the magnificent Parthenon was built, housing a great gold and ivory statue of Athena by Phidias. Later, the stately entrance, the Propylaea, was completed, as were the beautiful temples, the Erechtheum and the shrine of Athena Nike, the goddess of victory. Paul in his second missionary journey visited other cities with a fortified acropolis, such as Philippi and Corinth. But at Athens “his spirit was being provoked within him as he was beholding the city full of idols” (Acts 17:16). M.F.U. ACROSTIC. An ode in which the first, the first and last, or certain other letters of the lines taken in order, spell a name or sentence. They are not found in this form in the Bible. In the poetical parts of the OT are what may be called alphabetical acrostics: e.g., Ps. 119 has as many stanzas or strophes as there are letters in the Hebrew alphabet. Each strophe has eight lines, each beginning with the same letter, the first eight lines beginning with Aleph, the next with Beth, and so on. In Bibles the divisions of Ps. 119 are sometimes indicated by the placement of the Heb. character and its name immediately above the successive sections of the psalm. Thus “‫ א‬Aleph” appears before vv. 1–8, “‫ ב‬Beth” before vv. 9–16, and “‫ ג‬Gimmel” before vv. 17–24, the process continuing through the last letter, ‫( ת‬Tav), which marks the close of the psalm, vv. 169–76. Psalms 25 and 34 have one verse to each letter in its order. In others, as Pss. 111 and 112, each verse is divided into two parts following the alphabet. The Lamentations of Jeremiah are mostly acrostic, and the last chapter of Proverbs has the initial letters of its last twenty-two verses in alphabetical order. In ecclesiastical history the term acrostic is used to describe a mode of performing the psalmody of the ancient church. A precentor began a verse and the people joined him at the close. It was then much used for hymns, as follows: J esus, who for me hast borne E very sorrow, pain, and scorn, S tanding at man’s judgment seat, U njust judgment there to meet: S ave me by thy mercy sweet, etc. The acrostic was also commonly used for epitaphs. But the most famous of all ancient acrostics is the one used by ancient Christians as a secret symbol of faith. This is the Gk. word ichthus, “fish,” formed from the initial letters of five titles of our Lord, “Jesus Christ, God’s Son, Savior.” ʼΙ ησου̂ς Χ ριστὸς Θ εου Υ ἱὸς M.F.U. Merrill F. Unger Σ ωτὴρ ACSAH. See Achsa; Achsah. ACSHAPH. See Achshaph. ACTS, BOOK OF. The fifth book of the NT. The Name. Commonly called “The Acts of the Apostles,” a more accurate title would be “The Acts of the Holy Spirit,” since He fills the scene. As the presence of the Son, exalting and manifesting the Father, is the central theme of the four gospels, the presence of the Holy Spirit, who came at Pentecost (Acts 2), magnifying and revealing the risen and ascended Son, is the underlying truth of the Acts. The Date . The book was probably written about A.D. 63 or a little later, since it concludes with the account of Paul’s earliest ministry in Rome. The Author . Luke, the “beloved physician,” who also wrote the gospel of Luke (Acts 1:1), was the author. Both the gospel and the Acts are addressed to “most excellent Theophilus,” who was evidently a distinguished Gentile. The numerous “we” sections (16:10–17; 20:5–21:18; 27:1–28:16) indicate where Luke joined Paul as a fellow traveler. The Theme . Acts is the continuation of the account of Christianity begun in the gospel of Luke. In the “first account” Luke relates what Jesus “began to do and teach” and catalogs in the Acts what Jesus continued to do and teach through the Holy Spirit sent down from heaven. The book, accordingly, records the ascension and promised return of the risen Lord (Acts 1); the advent of the Spirit and the first historical occurrence of the baptism of the Spirit (Acts 2; cf. 1:5 with 11:16); with the consequent formation of the church as the mystical Body of Christ (1 Cor. 12:13). It also recounts Peter’s use of the keys of the kingdom of the heavens in opening gospel opportunity for this age to Jew (Acts 2), Samaritan (Acts 8), and Gentile (Acts 10). It describes Paul’s conversion and the extension of Christianity through him to the “remotest part of the earth.” The Content . The book is arranged about the threefold outline given in 1:8: I. The apostles as witnesses “in Jerusalem” (1:1–8:3) II. “In all Judea and Samaria” (8:4–12:24) III. Paul as a witness “even to the remotest part of the earth” (12:25–28:31) Acts and Archaeology. Researches have greatly strengthened the historical credibility of the Acts. Early in this century William M. Ramsay pioneered in NT archaeology, especially as it bore on the accuracy of Luke’s narratives. Among the more useful of his voluminous works is The Bearing of Recent Discovery on the Trustworthiness of the New Testament. Subsequently, A. T. Robertson made an important contribution with his Luke the Historian in the Light of Historical Research. In 1981 Jack Finegan published the second volume of his The Archeology of the New Testament, which bears particularly on the narrative of Acts. A multitude of excavations and explorations has now been conducted at places mentioned in the book of Acts. Reference to some of this activity is included in the articles on those places appearing in this dictionary. Besides being accurate in detail, Luke gives a remarkably vivid account of many phases of first-century life in the Mediterranean world, for example, the philosophical inquisitiveness of the Athenians (Acts 17:17–18) and the commercial monopoly of the silversmiths at the temple of Artemis in Ephesus (19:24–34). His picture of modes of travel of the day is far clearer than that set forth in the Odyssey. Whether on land by foot or horse (23:24, 32) or chariot (8:27–38), or on sea by coastal freighter (21:1–3; 27:1–5), Luke’s account is filled with local color. The story of the wreck of Paul’s ship is the most exciting and dramatic narrative of sea adventure in ancient literature (Acts 27–28). M.F.U.; H.F.V. BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. B. Hackett, A Commentary in the Acts of the Apostles (1851); C. J. Vaughan, The Church of the First Days, 3 vols. (1864); R. B. Rackham, The Acts of the Apostles (1904); F. J. Foakes-Jackson and K. Lake, The Beginnings of Christianity, 5 vols. (1920–33); G. C. Morgan, Acts of the Apostles (1924); F. F. Bruce, Commentary on the Book of Acts, New International Commentary on the New Testament (1954); W. M. Ramsay, Pictures of the Apostolic Church (1959); C. K. Barrett, Luke the Historian in Recent Study (1961); G. Ogg, Odyssey of Paul (1968); A. Ehrhardt, The Acts of the Apostles (1969); E. Haenchen, The Acts of the Apostles (1971); W. W. Gasque, A History of the Criticism of the Acts of the Apostles (1975); E. F. Harrison, Acts: The Expanding Church (1976); P. J. Gloag, The Acts of the Apostles, 2 vols. (1979); I. H. Marshall, The Acts of the Apostles, Tyndale New Testament Commentaries (1980). ACZIB. See Achzib. ADADAH´ (a-da-dahʹ). A city in the southern part of Judah (Josh. 15:22). A´DAH (āʹdā; “adornment”). 1. One of the two wives of Lamech and the mother of Jabal and Jubal (Gen. 4:19– 23). 2. Daughter of Elon the Hittite, the first of the three wives of Esau, and the mother of Eliphaz (Gen. 36:2, 4, 10, 12, 16). She is elsewhere (26:34) called Basemath. ADA´IAH (ād-āʹyā; “whom Jehovah adorns”). 1. A native of Boscath (Bozkath, in the valley of Judah, Josh. 15:39), and father of Jedidah, the mother of Josiah, king of Judah (2 Kings 22:1), the latter born 632 B.C. 2. The son of Ethni and the father of Zerah, of the Levitical family of Gershom, in the ancestry of Asaph, the celebrated musician (1 Chron. 6:41). Probably the same as Iddo (v. 21). 3. A son of Shimei and one of the chief Benjamites living in Jerusalem before the captivity (1 Chron. 8:21), before 586 B.C. 4. A priest, son of Jeroham, who, after the return from Babylon, was employed in the work of the sanctuary (1 Chron. 9:12; Neh. 11:12). 5. The father of Maaseiah, one of the “captains of hundreds” during the protectorate of Jehoiada (2 Chron. 23:1). 6. A “son of Bani” and an Israelite who divorced his Gentile wife after the captivity (Ezra 10:29). 7. Another of the sons of Bani (probably not the same Bani as in no. 6) who put away his Gentile wife (Ezra 10:39). 8. The son of Joiarib and the father of Hazaiah, of the tribe of Judah (Neh. 11:5), some of whose posterity dwelt in Jerusalem after the captivity, 445 B.C. ADALIA (a-daʹli-a). The fifth son of Haman (which see), a Persian ruler under Ahasuerus (Esther 9:8). E.H.M. AD´AM (Heb. ˒ādām, “red”; hence ˒ădāmâ, “the ground”). The first man and “son of God” (Luke 3:38) by special creation. The name that God gave him (Gen. 5:2) is founded upon the earthly side of his being: Adam from ˒ădāmâ, earth, the earthly element, to guard him from self-exaltation; not from the red color of his body, since E.H.M. Eugene H. Merrill this is not a distinctive characteristic of man, but common to him and to many other creatures. Creation. In the first nine chapters of Genesis there appear to be three distinct histories relating more or less to the life of Adam. The first (1:1–2:3) records the creation; the second (2:4–4:26) gives an account of paradise, the original sin of man, and the immediate posterity of Adam; the third (5:1–9:29) contains mainly the history of Noah, referring to Adam and his descendants principally in relation to that patriarch. “The Lord God formed man of dust from the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being” (2:7). In Eden. God gave him dominion over all the lower creatures (Gen. 1:26), and placed him in Eden that he might cultivate it and enjoy its fruits (2:15–16). The beasts of the field and the birds of the air were brought to Adam, who examined them and gave them names. This examination gave him an opportunity to develop his intellectual capacity and also led to this result, that there was not found a helper suitable for man. Creation of Eve. “So the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and he slept; then He took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh at that place. And the Lord God fashioned into a woman the rib which He had taken from the man” (2:21). The design of God in the creation of the woman was perceived by Adam when she was brought to him by God: “This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man” (Gen. 2:21–23). Thus Adam was given charge of the earth and its inhabitants and was endowed with everything requisite for the development of his nature and the fulfillment of his destiny. In the fruit of the trees he found sustenance; in the tree of life, preservation from death; in the tree of knowledge, a positive law for the training of his moral nature; in the care of the garden, exercise of his physical strength; in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, a capacious region for the development of his intellect; and in the woman, a suitable companion and helper. The first man was a true man, with the powers of a man and the innocence of a child. Fall. But Eve, having been beguiled by the tempter to eat of the forbidden fruit, persuaded her husband to do the same. When called to judgment before God, Adam blamed his wife, who in turn blamed the tempter. God punished the tempter by degradation and dread, the woman by painful travail and submission (see Eve), and the man by a life of labor. With the loss of innocence came a feeling of shame, and they sought to hide their nakedness with leaves, but were afterward taught by God to make clothing from the skins of animals. Adam and Eve were expelled from the garden, at the eastern side of which cherubim and a sword of flame turning every way were placed. The object of these was to guard the way of the Tree of Life (which see), and prevent Adam’s return to it (Gen. 3). Subsequent History. It is not known how long Adam lived in Eden, and therefore we cannot determine the length of his life after the expulsion. Shortly after leaving Eden, Eve gave birth to Cain (Gen. 4:1). Scripture gives the names of only three sons of Adam—Cain, Abel, and Seth—but contains an allusion (5:4) to “other sons and daughters.” Figurative. Paul declares that Adam was a figure of Christ, “a type of Him who was to come” (Rom. 5:14); hence our Lord is sometimes called the second Adam. This typical relation stands sometimes in likeness, sometimes in contrast. In likeness, Adam was formed immediately by God, as was the human nature of Christ; in each the nature was holy; both were invested with dominion over the earth and its creatures (see Ps. 8). In contrast, Adam and Christ were each a federal head to the whole race of mankind, but the one was the fountain of sin and death, the other of righteousness and life (Rom. 5:14–19); Adam communicated a living soul to all his posterity, Christ is a “life-giving spirit” to restore life and immortality to them (1 Cor. 15:45). Chronology. The opening chapters of the Bible leave both the date of the creation of the world and of man an open question. Genesis 1:1 places the origin of the universe in the dateless past. Man’s appearance upon the earth is set forth as the result of a direct creative act of God, which took place at least over 4,000 years B.C. and perhaps as early as 7,000 or 10,000 years B.C., “which is more in the spirit of the Biblical record than either Ussher’s compressed chronology or the evolutionist’s greatly expanded ages” (Laird Harris, “The Date of the Flood and the Age of Man,” Bible Today 37, no. 9 [Sept. 1943]: 570). Byron Nelson, a conservative, argues for a still greater antiquity for man (Before Abraham, Prehistoric Man in Biblical Light [1948], p. 95). In dealing with the genealogies of Gen. 5–11 it must be remembered that they are not exhaustive or complete and most certainly are abbreviated. B. B. Warfield demonstrated long ago that there are gaps in biblical genealogies (Ex. 6:16– 24, Ezra 7:1–5, Matt. 1:1–17; see “The Antiquity and Unity of the Human Race,” Studies in Theology [1932], pp. 235–58). Furthermore, Semitic idiom dealing with “beget,” “begotten,” “father” and “son,” and so on, differs strikingly from our usage, and thus “son” may be an actual son, a grandson, a great-grandson, or even, in the case of royalty, no blood relation at all. To employ the genealogical lists of Genesis to calculate the creation of man about 4004 B.C., as Archbishop Ussher has done, is not only unwarranted from the text of Scripture, but is incontrovertibly disproved by the well-attested facts of archaeology. M.F.U. BIBLIOGRAPHY: K. Barth, Christ and Adam: Man and Humanity in Romans 5 (1956); P. Ramsey, Moravian Theological Seminary Bulletin (1960): 35–60; C. K. Barrett, From First Adam to Last (1962); A. C. Custance, Genesis and Early Man (1975); id., Man in Adam and in Christ (1975). ADAM. A town near the Jordan, and beside Zaretan (Josh. 3:16; Zarethan, NIV). It is identified with Tell ed-Damieh on the E bank of the river, near the mouth of the Jabbok and eighteen miles above Jericho. Here the waters miraculously rose in a heap while the Israelites crossed the Jordan River. AD´AMAH (adʹā-mā; “earth, ground”). A fenced city of Naphtali (Josh. 19:36). The modern Tell ed-Damiyeh. ADAMANT. See Mineral Kingdom: Diamond. AD´AMI (adʹā-mī; “pertaining to [red] earth, earthy”). A place in Palestine near the border of Naphtali, now identified with Khirbet Damiyeh. ADA´MI. See Adami-nekeb. ADA´MI-NE´KEB (adāʹmī-neʹkeb; “a hollow, narrow passage”). A town on the border of Naphtali (Josh. 19:33), halfway between Tiberias and Mt. Tabor. A´DAR (aʹdār; from Akkad. adaru, addaru, probably “dark” or “cloudy”). A later name of the twelfth month of the Jewish year borrowed by the Jews from the Babylonian calendar during the Exile. It extended from the new moon of February to that of March (Ezra 6:15; Esther 3:7, 13; 9:15). See Time. For the city, see Hazaraddar. ADBEEL (adʹbēl). The third son of Ishmael (which see) (Gen. 25:13; 1 Chron. 1:29). E.H.M. AD´DAN (adʹdān). Another form (Ezra 2:59) of the name (Neh. 7:61) Addon (which see). AD´DAR (adʹdār; “threshing floor,” or “wide, open place”). A son of Bela and grandson of Benjamin (1 Chron. 8:3), elsewhere (Gen. 46:21) called Ard. For the city, see Hazaraddar. AD´DER (adʹder). The rendering in the KJV of four Heb. words, each of which probably signifies some kind of venomous serpent. See Animal Kingdom: Serpent. AD´DI (adʹdī; “ornament”). The son of Cosam and father of Melchi (Melki, NIV) in the maternal ancestry of Jesus (Luke 3:28). AD´DON (adʹdon). The name of the second of three persons (Neh. 7:61) who, when they returned from the captivity to Palestine, were unable to “show their fathers’ houses or their descendants, whether they were of Israel,” 536 B.C. In Ezra 2:59, this person is called Addan. ADER. See Eder. A´DIEL (aʹdī-el; “ornament of God”). 1. One of the family heads of the tribe of Simeon, who seem to have dispossessed the aborigines of Gedor (1 Chron. 4:36). 2. A priest and the son of Jahzerah and father of Maasai, which last was active in reconstructing the Temple after the captivity (1 Chron. 9:12), 563 B.C. 3. The father of Azmaveth, the treasurer under David (1 Chron. 27:25). A´DIN (aʹdin; “effeminate” [?]). 1. The head of one of the Israelite families, of which a large number returned with Zerubbabel to Jerusalem from Babylon, 536 B.C. The number is given in Ezra 2:15 as 454; in Neh. 7:20 as 655, the discrepancy being occasioned by an error in the hundreds and the including or excluding of himself. Fifty more of the family returned (with Ebed, the son of Jonathan) under Ezra (Ezra 8:6), 457 B.C. 2. One of those who sealed the covenant made by Nehemiah and the people after their return to Jerusalem (Neh. 10:16), about 445 B.C. AD´INA (adʹī-na; “slender, delicate” [?]). The son of Shiza, a Reubenite, and captain of thirty of his tribesmen, Adina was one of David’s mighty men (1 Chron. 11:42), before 1000 B.C. AD´INO (adʹī-nō; “slender as a spear” [?]). The name given in 2 Sam. 23:8 (but lacking in the NIV) as one of David’s mighty men. Much difference of opinion respecting it exists. Some think the passage has been corrupted. It is clear that these words “Adino the Eznite” are not proper names, although their grammatical construction is not easy. See also the parallel passage (1 Chron. 11:11). ADITHA´IM (ad-i-thāʹim). A place in Palestine, but location unknown (Josh. 15:36). ADJURATION (Heb. ˒ālâ, in Hiphel, “to cause to swear,” in 1 Kings 8:31; 2 Chron. 6:22, “to make swear”; Gk. exorkidzō, “to exact an oath”). 1. An act or appeal whereby a person in authority imposes upon another the obligation of speaking or acting as if under the solemnity of an oath (1 Kings 22:16; 2 Chron. 18:15). In the NT we have an example of this where the high priest calls upon KJV King James Version Jesus to avow His character as the Messiah (Matt. 26:63; cf. Mark 5:7). Such an oath, although imposed upon one without his consent, was binding in the highest degree; and when it was connected with a question, it made an answer compulsory. 2. In Acts 19:13, the term occurs with reference to the expulsion of demons. 3. In the Roman Catholic church, the use of the name of God, or of some holy thing, to induce one to do what is required of him. AD´LAI (adʹlā-i). The father of Shaphat, a chief herdsman under David (1 Chron. 27:29), after 1000 B.C. AD´MAH (adʹmāh; “red earth”). A city in the Siddim Valley (cf. Gen. 10:19; 14:1– 3), destroyed with Sodom (19:24; Deut. 29:23). Supposed by some to be identical with Adam of Josh. 3:16. AD´MATHA (adʹmā-thā; perhaps “earthly, dark-colored”). The third named of the princes or courtiers of Ahasuerus (or Xerxes, NIV; Esther 1:14). ADMINISTRATION (Gk. diakonia, “service”). In the NT it signifies “to relieve,” “to minister,” as in 2 Cor. 8:19–20. AD´NA (adʹnā; “pleasure”). 1. An Israelite of the family of Pahath-moab, who divorced his Gentile wife after the captivity (Ezra 10:30). 2. A chief priest, son of Harim, and contemporary with Joiakim (Neh. 12:15), about 536 B.C. AD´NAH (adʹnāh; “pleasure”). 1. One of the captains of the tribe of Manasseh who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chron. 12:20), before 1000 B.C. 2. A warrior of the tribe of Judah and principal general under Jehoshaphat (2 Chron. 17:14), about 872–852 B.C. ADO´NI-BE´ZEK (a-dōʹnī-beʹzek; “lord of Bezek”). King or lord of Bezek, a city of the Canaanites. He had subdued seventy of the petty kings around him and, after having cut off their thumbs and great toes, compelled them to gather their food under his table. At the head of the Canaanites and Perizzites he opposed the men of Judah and Simeon and, being defeated, was served in the same manner as he had treated his own captives; about 1375 B.C. He died of his wounds at Jerusalem, where he was carried by his captors (Judg. 1:5–7). BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. E. Macartney, Chariots of Fire (1951), pp. 76–84; A. E. Cundall, Judges, Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries (1968), pp. 51–54. ADONI´JAH (a-dō-nīʹjāh; “my lord is Jehovah”). 1. The fourth son of David and second by Haggith, born in Hebron while his father reigned over Judah only (2 Sam. 3:4); about 1003 B.C. According to oriental usages Adonijah might have considered his claim superior to that of his eldest brother, Amnon, who was born while his father was in a private station; but not to that of Absalom, who was not only his elder brother, and born while his father was a king, but was of royal descent on the side of his mother. When Amnon and Absalom were dead, Adonijah became heir apparent to the throne, but this order had been set aside in favor of Solomon, who was born while his father was king over all Israel. Adonijah aspired to the throne, prepared a guard of chariots and horsemen and fifty foot runners, and gained over to his side Joab and Abiathar, the priest. He was also a man of handsome appearance and likely to win the people. Waiting until David seemed to be at the point of death, he called around him his brothers (excepting Solomon) and other influential men and was proclaimed king at Zoheleth by the spring of En-rogel at the S end of the Kidron Valley. The plot was defeated by the prompt action of the aged king, who, through the influence of Nathan and Bathsheba, caused Solomon to be proclaimed king and to be anointed by Zadok, the priest, at the Spring Gihon, a few hundred yards N of En-rogel. Adonijah fled for refuge to the altar, which he refused to leave until pardoned by Solomon. He received pardon but was told that a future attempt of the same kind would be fatal (1 Kings 1:5–53). Some time after David’s death he covertly asserted his claim in asking for Abishag (which see) the virgin widow of his father in marriage. Adonijah was immediately put to death by the order of Solomon (1 Kings 2:23–25), about 960 B.C. The execution of Adonijah by Solomon must not be judged by the standards of the present day. According to the custom of Eastern princes a thousand years before Christ, Solomon would probably have slain all his brothers upon ascending the throne, whereas we learn of the death of Adonijah alone, and that only after his second treasonable attempt. 2. One of the Levites sent by King Jehoshaphat to assist in teaching the law to the people of Judah (2 Chron. 17:8), after 875 B.C. 3. A chief Israelite after the captivity (Neh. 10:16), probably the same elsewhere (Ezra 2:13; 8:13; Neh. 7:18) called Adonikam (which see). ADONI´KAM, (a-dōn-ī-kam; “my Lord has risen”). One whose descendants, to the number of 666, returned to Jerusalem with Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:13), 536 B.C. He himself is included in Neh. 7:18. Somewhat later, three of his immediate descendants, with sixty male followers, came with Ezra (Ezra 8:13), 458 B.C. He appears (from the identity of the associated names) to have been the Adonijah who joined in the religious covenant of Nehemiah (Neh. 10:16). ADONI´RAM (ă-dŏ-nīʹrăm; “high lord”). The son of Abda, and receiver-general of the imposts in the reigns of David, Solomon, and Rehoboam (1 Kings 4:6). During his extended term of office he rendered both himself and the tribute so odious to the people, in sustaining the immense public works of Solomon, that when Rehoboam rashly sent him to enforce the collection of the taxes the exasperated populace rose upon him and stoned him to death. This was the signal for the revolt under Jeroboam (1 Kings 12:18), 922 B.C. Adoniram is called, by contraction, Adoram (2 Sam. 20:24; 1 Kings 12:18) and Hadoram (2 Chron. 10:18). ADO´NI-ZE´DEK (a-dōʹnī-zeʹdek; “just lord”). The king of Jerusalem when the Israelites invaded Palestine (Josh. 10:1), about 1400 B.C. After Jericho and Ai were taken and the Gibeonites had succeeded in forming a treaty with the Israelites, Adoni- zedek induced the Amorite kings of Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish, and Eglon to join him in a confederacy against the enemy. They began operations by besieging the Gibeonites, who sent to Joshua for help. Joshua marched all night from Gilgal and, falling unexpectedly upon the besiegers, put them to flight. The five kings took refuge in a cave at Makkedah but were detected, and the cave’s mouth was closed by placing huge stones against it. When the Israelites returned from the pursuit the cave was opened and the kings taken out. The chief men of Israel then set their feet upon the necks of the prostrate monarchs—an ancient mark of triumph. The five kings were then slain, and their bodies hung on trees until evening, when, as the law forbade a longer exposure of the dead (Deut. 21:23), they were taken down and cast into the cave. The mouth of the cave was filled up with large stones, which remained long after (Josh. 10:1–27). In considering the severe treatment of these kings we must remember that the war was one of extermination and that the treatment of the Jews was neither better nor worse than those of the people with whom they fought. ADOPTION (Gk. huiothesia, the “placing” as a “son”). The admission of a person to some or all of the privileges of natural kinship. As the practice of adoption was confined almost exclusively to sons—the case of Esther being an exception—it probably had its origin in the natural desire for male offspring. This would be especially true where force, rather than well-observed laws, decided the possession of estates. Hebrew. Abraham speaks of Eliezer (Gen. 15:3), a house-born slave, as his heir, having probably adopted him as his son. Jacob adopted his grandsons Ephraim and Manasseh, and counted them as his sons (48:6), thus enabling him to bestow through them a double portion upon his favorite son Joseph. Sometimes a man without a son would marry his daughter to a freed slave, the children then being accounted her father’s; or the husband himself would be adopted as a son (1 Chron. 2:34). Most of the early instances of adoption mentioned in the Bible were the acts of women who, because of barrenness, gave their female slaves to their husbands with the intention of adopting any children they might have. Thus Sarah gave Hagar to Abraham, and the son (Ishmael) was considered the child of Abraham and Sarah (Gen. 16:1–15). The childless Rachel gave her maid, Bilhah, to her husband (30:1–7) and was imitated by Leah (30:9–13). In such cases the sons were regarded as fully equal in the right of heritage with those by the legitimate wife. Roman. Adoption was a familiar social phenomenon, and its initial ceremonies and incidents occupied a large and important place in their laws. By adoption an entire stranger in blood became a member of the family in a higher sense than some of the family kin, emancipated sons, or descendants through females. Such a one assumed the family name, engaged in its sacrificial rites, and became, not by sufferance or at will, but to all intents and purposes, a member of the house of his adoption. The tie thus formed could only be broken through the ceremony of emancipation, and formed as complete a barrier to intermarriage as relationship by blood. At Rome there were two kinds of adoption, both requiring the adopter to be a male and childless: arrogatio and adoption proper. The former could only take place where the person to be adopted was independent (sui juris) and his adopter had no prospect of male offspring. The adopted one became, in the eyes of the law, a new creature. He was born again into a new family. This custom was doubtless referred to by Paul (Rom. 8:14–16). The ceremony of adoption took place in the presence of seven witnesses. The fictitious sale and resale, and the final “vindication” or claim, were accompanied by the legal formula, and might mean the sale of a son into slavery or his adoption into a new family, according to the words used. The touch of the festuca or ceremonial wand might be accompanied by the formula, “I claim this man as my son,” or “I claim this man as my slave.” It was the function of the witnesses, upon occasion, to testify that the transaction was in truth the adoption of the child. Greek. In Athens adoption took place either in the lifetime of the adopter or by will; or if a man died childless and intestate, the state interfered to bring into his house the man next entitled by the Attic law of inheritance, as heir and adopted son. If there were daughters, one of them was usually betrothed to the adopted son. If after that a male heir was born, he and the adopted son had equal rights. ADOPTION (Theological). This term as used in a theological sense commonly denotes that act of God by which He restores penitent and believing men to their privileges as members of the divine family and makes them heirs of heaven. 1. Theology owes its use of the word adoption in this way to the apostle Paul. He is the only Scripture writer who employs the term thus translated. The passages in Paul’s writings in which the doctrine of adoption is stated in connection with the use of that term are Rom. 8:15–17; Gal. 4:4–6; Eph. 1:5. These are not by any means, however, the only passages in his writings in which the essential thought is plainly declared (2 Cor. 6:18). And more generally speaking this may be said to be one of the doctrines upon which the NT lays special stress. That we who have forfeited and lost our place and privileges as children of God may be fully reinstated therein was one of the great teachings of Jesus Christ. For that the parable of the prodigal son was spoken. Taking the Scripture teachings as a whole, adoption, it appears, while not the same as our justification, is necessarily connected with it, as forgiveness would be empty without restoration to the privileges forfeited by sin. Adoption and regeneration are two phases of the same fact, regeneration meaning the reproduction of the filial character, and adoption the restoration of the filial privilege. See Justification; Regeneration. Adoption is a word of position rather than relationship. The believer’s relation to God as a child results from the new birth (John 1:12–13), whereas adoption is the divine act whereby one who is already a child is, through redemption from the law, placed in the position of an adult son (Gal. 4:1–5). 2. The word adoption is also used by the apostle Paul with reference to the full and final outcome of salvation, the complete “revealing of the sons of God” and perfect investiture with all their heavenly privileges, for which Christians must wait. So he writes of waiting “for the revealing of the sons of God” and “waiting eagerly for our adoption as sons, the redemption of our body” (Rom. 8:19, 23). 3. Another use of this word by the same apostle is in Rom. 9:4, where he speaks of the Israelites “to whom belongs the adoption.” By this is meant the special place that was given to Israel among the nations as the chosen people of God. BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. H. Strong, Systematic Theology (1907), p. 857; L. S. Chafer, Systematic Theology (1948), 3:242, 243; 7:9–11; J. B. Lightfoot, St. Paul’s Epistle to the Galatians (1966), pp. 168–69; C. E. B. Cranfield, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans, International Critical Commentary (1975), 1:396–98; F. F. Bruce, Epistle to the Galatians, New International Greek Testament Commentary (1982), pp. 196–98. ADORA´IM (a-dō-rāʹim). A town, doubtless in the SW of Judah, since it is enumerated among the cities fortified by Rehoboam (2 Chron. 11:9). It is met with in 1 Macc. 13:20 as an Edomite city, “Adora,” and so also frequently in Josephus. It was taken by Hyrcanus. Robinson has identified it with the present Dûra, a village about five miles to the W of Hebron. ADO´RAM (a-dōʹram). An officer in charge of the forced labor (2 Sam. 20:24; 1 Kings 12:18), elsewhere called Adoniram (which see). ADORATION. In its true sense, the act of paying honor to a divine being. In the Scriptures various forms of adoration are mentioned; e.g., putting off the shoes (Ex. 3:5; Josh. 5:15), bowing the knee (Gen. 41:43), falling prostrate (43:26; Dan. 2:46), and kissing (Luke 7:38). The passage “If I have looked at the sun when it shone, or the moon going in splendor, and my heart became secretly enticed, and my hand threw a kiss from my mouth, that too would have been an iniquity calling for judgment” (Job 31:26–28) clearly intimates that kissing the hand was considered an overt act of worship in the East. In the same manner respect was shown to kings and other persons of exalted station. “Put your hand over your mouth” (Job 21:5; 29:9; Ps. 39:9) implied the highest degree of reverence and submission. ADORN (Gk. kosmeō, “to ornament”). To embellish with honor, gain; followed by a participle designating the act by which the honor is gained (Titus 2:10; 1 Pet. 3:5). ADRAM´MELECH (a-dramʹmel-ek; “splendor of the king” [?]). 1. A son of Sennacherib, king of Assyria. The king was dwelling at Nineveh after his disastrous expedition against Hezekiah. While worshiping his god in the house of Nisroch, Sennacherib was murdered by Adrammelech and his brother Sharezer, 681 B.C. Having accomplished the crime, the two brothers fled into the land of Ararat (2 Kings 19:37; Isa. 37:38). 2. The name of a Sepharvite god (2 Kings 17:31). See Gods, False. ADRAMYT´TIUM (a-dra-mitʹti-um; “the mansion of death”). A seaport of Mysia, in Asia Minor (Acts 27:2–5), whence Paul sailed in an Alexandrian ship to Italy. The site is known today as Karatash, and a nearby town is named Edremit. R.K.H. A´DRIA (aʹdri-a). Called the “Adriatic Sea” in the NASB and NIV (Acts 27:27). It is the modern Gulf of Venice, the Mare Supernum of the Romans, as distinguished from the Mare Inferum or the Tyrrhenian Sea. It probably derived its name from Adria, a city in Istria. A´DRIEL (aʹdri-ēl; “God is my help”). A son of Barzillai the Meholathite. Saul gave to him in marriage his daughter Merab, who had been promised to David (1 Sam. 18:17–19). His five sons were among the seven descendants of Saul whom David surrendered to the Gibeonites (2 Sam. 21:8) in satisfaction for the endeavors of Saul to extirpate them, although a league had been made between them and the Israelites (Josh. 9:15). ADUL´LAM (a-dūlʹlam). A town SW of Jerusalem about midway to Lachish and 4½ miles NE of Beit Jibrin; now identified as Tell esh-Sheikh Madhkur. It first appears as the resident city of a Canaanite king (Josh. 12:15; 15:35) but is most famous for its cave in which David hid as a fugitive from Saul (1 Sam. 22:1; 2 Chron. 11:7). ADUL´LAMITE (a-dulʹla-mīt). An inhabitant (Gen. 38:1, 12, 20) of Adullam (which see). ADULTERY. In Jewish thought adultery was seen as the willful violation of the marriage contract by either of the parties through sexual intercourse with a third party. The divine provision was that the husband and wife should become “one flesh,” each being held sacred to the other. Jesus taught: “Have you not read, that He who created them from the beginning made them male and female …. and the two shall become one flesh.” When the Pharisees, with the apparent hope of eliciting some modification in favor of the husband, put the question, “Why then did Moses command to give her a certificate and divorce her?” Jesus replied, “Because of your hardness of heart, Moses permitted you to divorce your wives; but from the beginning it has not been this way …. whoever divorces his wife, except for immorality, and marries another R.K.H. R. K. Harrison NASB New American Standard Bible commits adultery” (Matt. 19:3–9). In perfect accord with this also is the teaching of the apostle Paul (Eph. 5:25–33; 1 Cor. 7:1–13; 1 Tim. 3:12). It will be seen that according to the fundamental law it is adultery for the man as well as the woman to have a sexual relationship with a person other than the legal spouse. In ancient times, however, exception was made among the nations generally in favor of the man. He might have more wives than one or have intercourse with a person not espoused or married to him without being considered an adulterer. Adultery was sexual intercourse with the married wife, or what was equivalent, the betrothed bride of another man, for this act exposed the husband to the danger of having a spurious offspring imposed upon him. In the seventh commandment (Ex. 20:14) all manner of lewdness or unchastity in act or thought seems to be meant (Matt. 5:28). The Roman law appears to have made the same distinction as the Hebrew between the unfaithfulness of the husband and wife, by defining adultery to be the violation of another man’s bed. The infidelity of the husband did not constitute adultery. The Greeks held substantially the same view. Trial of Adultery. A man suspecting his wife of adultery, not having detected her in the act, or having no witness to prove her supposed guilt, brought her to the priest that she might be submitted to the ordeal prescribed in Num. 5:11–31. See Jealousy, Offering of. When adultery ceased to be a capital crime, as it doubtless did, this trial probably fell into disuse. No instance of the ordeal being undergone is given in Scripture, and it appears to have been finally abrogated about forty years before the destruction of Jerusalem. The reason given for this is that the men were at that time so generally adulterous that God would not fulfill the imprecations of the ordeal oath upon the wife. Penalties. The Mosaic law assigned the punishment of death to adultery (Lev. 20:10) but did not state the mode of its infliction. From various passages of Scripture (e.g., Ezek. 16:38, 40; John 8:5) we infer that it was by stoning. When the adulteress was a slave the guilty parties were scourged, the blows not to exceed forty; the adulterer was to offer a trespass offering (a ram) to be offered by the priest (Lev. 19:20–22). Death does not appear to have been inflicted, perhaps by reason of guilt on the part of those administering the law (John 8:9–11). We find no record in the OT of a woman taken in adultery being put to death. The usual remedy seems to have been a divorce, in which the woman lost her dower and right of maintenance, thus avoiding public scandal. The expression “to disgrace her” (Matt. 1:19) probably means to bring the matter before the local Sanhedrin, the usual course. The Roman civil law looked upon adultery as “the violation of another man’s bed,” and thus the husband’s incontinence could not constitute the offense. The punishment was left to the husband and parents of the adulteress, who under the old law suffered death. The most usual punishment of the man was mutilation, castration, and cutting off the nose and ears. Other punishments were banishment, heavy fines, burning at the stake, and drowning. Among the Greeks and other ancient nations the adulterer might lose eye, nose, or ear. Among savage nations of the present time the punishment is generally severe. The Muslim code pronounces it a capital offense. Spiritual. In the symbolical language of the OT adultery means idolatry and apostasy from the worship of Jehovah (Jer. 3:8–9; Ezek. 16:32; 23:37; Rev. 2:22). This figure resulted from the sort of married relationship, the solemn engagement between Jehovah and Israel (Jer. 2:2; 3:14; 13:27; 31:32; Hos. 8:9). Our Lord used similar language when He charged Israel with being an “adulterous generation” (Matt. 12:39; 16:4; Mark 8:38), meaning a faithless and unholy generation. An “adulterous” church or city is an apostate one (cf. Isa. 1:21; Jer. 3:6–9; Ezek. 16:22; 23:7). Ecclesiastical. The following views prevailed in the early church: 1. Under Justinian the wife was regarded as the real criminal, and her paramour as a mere accomplice. This view seems to have been held during the whole early Christian period. Gregory of Nyssa makes a distinction between fornication and adultery. A canon of Basle furnishes this definition: “We name him who cohabits with another woman (not his own wife) an adulterer.” Ambrose says: “All unchaste intercourse is adultery; what is illicit for the woman is illicit for the man.” Gregory Nazianzen argues that the man should not be left free to sin while the woman is restrained. Chrysostom says: “It is commonly called adultery when a man wrongs a married woman. I, however, affirm it of a married man who sins with the unmarried.” Jerome contends that 1 Cor. 6:16 applies equally to both sexes. 2. A convicted adulterer cannot receive orders. An adulterer or adulteress must undergo seven years’ penance. A presbyter so offending is to be excommunicated and brought to penance. The layman whose wife is guilty cannot receive orders, and if already ordained must put her away under pain of deprivation. An unchaste wife must be divorced, but not the husband, even if adulterous. The adulterer must undergo fifteen years of penitence but only seven for unchastity. Two conclusions were drawn by canonists and divines: (1) divorce, except for adultery, is adultery; (2) to retain an adulterous wife is adultery. A woman must not leave her husband for blows, waste of dower, unchastity, nor even disbelief (1 Cor. 7:16), under penalty of adultery. An offending wife is an adulteress and must be divorced, but not so the husband. The Catholic church holds that marriage is not and ought not to be dissolved by the adultery of either party (Council of Trent, sess. xxiv, can. 7). 3. The following are treated as guilty of actual adultery: a man marrying a betrothed maiden; a girl seduced marrying someone other than her seducer; consecrated virgins who sin, and their paramours; a Christian marrying a Jew or an idolater. BIBLIOGRAPHY: E. Neufeld, Ancient Hebrew Marriage Laws (1944), pp. 163–75; L. M. Epstein, Sex Laws and Customs in Judaism (1948), pp. 194–215; R. de Vaux, Ancient Israel: Its Life and Institutions (1961), pp. 36–37, 158–59; M. Fishbane, Hebrew Union College Annual 45 (1974): 25–45; P. Davies, Christian Century 95 (1978): 360–63; Z. C. Hodges, Bibliotheca Sacra 136 (1979): 318–32; M. Lamm, The Jewish Way in Love and Marriage (1980), pp. 41–48, 76–79. ADUM´MIM (a-dumʹim; “red” or “bloody”). A place on the road from Jerusalem to Jericho (Josh. 15:7; 18:17) and supposed to be the scene of the Good Samaritan’s rescue of the man who fell among thieves. It has the modern name of Tal ‘at ed- Damm (“ascent of blood”). ADVENT, SECOND. See Millennium. ADVERSARY. In its general meaning refers to an enemy, as in the expression “The Lord takes vengeance on His adversaries” (Nah. 1:2). Frequently it is derived from Heb. ṣûr, “to bind”; in 1 Sam. 2:10, rı ̂b, “to strive.” In the NT we have antikeimenos, hupenantios, “one who opposes”; and antidikos, “opponent in law.” In Isa. 50:8 the expression Baal mispāṭ, means “he who has a judicial cause or lawsuit against me”; just as in Roman law dominus lilit is distinguished from the procurator, i.e., from the person who represents him in court (Delitzsch, Com.). Specifically (Heb. śāṭān) the devil, as the general enemy of mankind (1 Pet. 5:8). ADVOCATE (Gk. paraklētos, “paraclete”). One who pleads the cause of another. The term is applied by Jesus to the Holy Spirit (John 14:16; 15:26; 16:7), where it is rendered Helper; and by John to Christ Himself (1 John 2:1). The word advocate (Lat. advocatus) might designate a consulting lawyer or one who presents his client’s case in open court; or one who, in times of trial or hardship, sympathizes with the afflicted and administers suitable direction and support. See also Helper; Holy Spirit. AENE´AS (e-nēʹas). A paralytic of Lydda cured by Peter (Acts 9:33–34). AE´NON (ēʹnon; “springs”). The place “near Salim” where John baptized (John 3:23). Site uncertain. AE´ON (ēʹon; Gk. aiōn, “age”). A human lifetime, life itself (according to Homer, Herodotus, and others); an unbroken age, perpetuity of time, eternity. With this signification the Hebrew and rabbinic idea of the word ˓ôlām, “concealed,” combines in the biblical and ecclesiastical writers. Hence in the NT aeon is used in the following ways: 1. In the phrases eis tōn aiōna, i.e., forever (John 6:51, 58; 14:16; Heb. 5:6; 6:20; Jude 13; with a negative, never (John 4:14; 8:51; 10:28; 11:26); unto the ages, i.e., as long as time shall be, forever (Luke 1:33; Rom. 1:25; 9:5; 11:36). In the expression unto the ages of the ages (Gal. 1:5; 2 Tim. 4:18; 1 Pet. 4:11; Rev. 1:6, 18) the endless future is divided up into various periods, the shorter of which are comprehended in the longer. From the age is used in the sense of from the most ancient time, from of old (Luke 1:70; Acts 3:21; 15:18). 2. As the Jews distinguished the time before the Messiah and the time after the Messiah, so most of the NT writers distinguish this age (and similar expressions), the time before the appointed return or truly messianic advent of Christ, and aiōn mellōn, the future age (Matt. 12:32; Eph. 1:21) or Millennium. Figurative. The container is used for the contained, and hoi aiōnes denotes “the worlds,” the universe, i.e., the aggregate of things contained in time (Heb. 11:3; cf. 1:2). AFFLICTION (usually Heb. ˓ōnê, “depressed”; Gk. thlipsis, “pressure”). Other Heb. and Gk. words are used, and if they were all literally rendered we should have iniquity, straitness, lowered, evil, breach, suffering. This last word expresses its meaning in common use. The English word comes from the Lat. adflictus, a striking, as one thing against another; pain; grief; distress of body or mind. Respecting the well-known and often quoted passage which begins “For momentary, light affliction is producing for us” (2 Cor. 4:17), we quote from Meyer, Com., Notes by American Editor: “The Revision of 1881 gives this weighty and impressive verse in a rendering which is exact, and yet faithful to our Engish idiom. The verse contains the whole philosophy of the Christian view of affliction. It does not deny the reality of earthly sorrows or underrate their power, as did the Stoics; but after allowing them all their force, calmly says that they dwindle into insignificance when compared with the exceeding and eternal glory to which they lead. But this applies only to believers, as appears by the next verse, ‘while we look,’ etc. Afflictions have a salutary operation, provided that we look at the things which are eternal.” AFTERNOON (Heb. n ṭôt hayyôm, “the day’s declining,” Judg. 19:8). According to the Jewish reckoning, the fifth of the six divisions of the day. See Time. AG´ABUS (agʹa-bus). A prophet, supposed to have been one of the seventy disciples of Christ. He came with others from Jerusalem to Antioch while Paul and Barnabas were there and predicted an approaching famine, which actually occurred the following year. The expression “all over the world” (Acts 11:28) was probably used in a national sense, and by it Judea was doubtless meant, and the words must be understood to apply to that famine which, in the fourth year of Claudius, spread throughout Palestine. The poor Jews in general were then relieved by the queen of Adiabne, who sent to Egypt to purchase corn for them (Josephus Ant. 20.2.5; 5.2). For the relief of the Christians in Judea contributions were raised by their brethren in Antioch and taken to Jerusalem by Paul and Barnabas (Acts 11:28–30). Many years after, this same Agabus met Paul at Caesarea and warned him of the sufferings that awaited him if he continued his journey to Jerusalem (21:10–12). Agabus took Paul’s belt and fastened it around his own hands and feet and said, “This is what the Holy Spirit says: ‘In this way the Jews at Jerusalem will bind the man who owns this belt and deliver him into the hands of the Gentiles.’” A´GAG (āʹgag). Probably a common name of all the Amalekite kings, like pharaoh in Egypt. 1. The king, apparently, of one of the hostile neighboring nations at the time of the Exodus, 1441 B.C. He is referred to by Balaam (Num. 24:7) in a manner implying that the king of the Amalekites was, then at least, a great monarch, and his people a greater people, than is commonly imagined. 2. The king of the Amalekites, who, being taken prisoner by Saul, was spared by him, contrary to the solemn vow of devotion to destruction whereby the nation, as such, had of old precluded itself from giving any quarter to that people (Ex. 17:14; Deut. 25:19). When Samuel came to the camp of Saul he chided him, told him of his rejection, and ordered Agag to be brought to him. Agag came “cheerfully,” i.e., in a joyous state of mind, thinking that his life would still be spared (K. & D., Com.). But the prophet ordered him to be cut in pieces, and in the expression which he employed—“As your sword has made women childless, so shall your mother be childless among women”—indicates that, apart from the obligations of the vow, some such example of retributive justice was intended as had been exercised in the case of Adoni-bezek (which see). Perhaps Agag had treated prisoners in the same way he was now treated by Samuel (1 Sam. 15:8–33), about 1020 B.C. A´GAGITE (āʹga-gīt). Found (Esther 3:1, 10; 8:3, 5; 9:24) in connection with Haman, the enemy of Mordecai. Josephus (Ant. 11.6.5) explains it as a synonym of Amalek, and so it possibly was. AG´APE (agʹa-pē), pl. Agapae (Gk. agapē, “love”). A simple meal of brotherly love celebrated daily in the apostolic times in connection with the Eucharist, the two being spoken of together as the Lord’s Supper. At this meal the Christians, in connection with their common Redeemer, ignored all distinctions of rank, wealth, and culture, and met as members of one family. At the feast the bishop (or presbyter) presided, the food having been prepared at home, or at the place of meeting, according to circumstances. Before eating, the guests washed their hands, prayer was offered, and the Scriptures were read. After the meal a collection was taken for widows and orphans, the kiss of charity was given, and communications from other congregations were read and answered. The Agape was never enjoined by divine command, and gradually, losing its peculiar feature of childlike unity, it led to all sorts of abuses, such as we find rebuked by the apostle Paul. Another cause for its discontinuance was that the Third Council of Carthage (A.D. 391) decreed that the Eucharist should be taken while fasting. Later several councils forbade its being held in the church buildings. Vestiges of the practice remained as late as the Council of Basle, in the fifteenth century. See Lord’s Supper. Apparently the Lord’s Supper and the Agape were originally one (1 Cor. 11:17– 34). The common conservative view unites a simple repast with the Lord’s Supper on the general plan of the Last Supper. A. Arnold maintains this view and traces the beginning of the separation of the two in the Didache 9.11 (cf. Didascalia Apostolorum, Martyrdom of Polycarp 18; Justin Martyr Apologia 65–67; A. Arnold, Der Ursprung des christlichen Abendmahls, 1937). The view that the Lord’s Supper was once connected with the Agape was taken by J. F. Keating at the beginning of the century. Following the conservative view, Keating maintained that the excesses narrated in the Pauline epistles were the first reasons for the gradual separation of the Lord’s Supper and the Agape Feast (The Agape, 1901). The thesis that the Lord’s Supper constituted the sacramental portion of a meal, which was later differentiated from the common repast, was espoused by J. Hoffmann (Das Abendmahl im Urchristentum, 1903). Both Keating’s and Hoffmann’s views clashed with the view of a number of German scholars of the nineteenth century that the Agape meal was first, and the Lord’s Supper grew out of this common repast. Pierre Batiffol, on the other hand, was of the opinion that the Agape was connected with the Lord’s Supper only by way of excess (Etudes, 1907). E. Baumgartner likewise distinguished between the Agape and the Supper. The results of his research were that the Lord’s Supper was a midnight or early Sunday morning ritual and that the Agape was a separate Sunday evening function going back to ancient Jewish practices (cf. E. Baumgartner, Eucharistic und Agape im Urchristentum, 1901). A. J. McLean (Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, 1908) posited a Jewish pagan origin of the Agape. This view is reflected in R. L. Cole (Love-Feasts, 1916). Another scholar who saw a Jewish origin for the Agape was W. O. E. Oesterley in his The Jewish Background of the Christian Liturgy, 1925. Hans Lietzmann, while positing a Jewish influence, sees less of this than Oesterley or Baumgartner. Karl Voelker argues a Gnostic beginning in the latter part of the second century (Mysterium und Agape, 1927). The Agape was related to the funeral banquet by H. Leclercq (Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907). See also G. Kittel and G. Friedrich, eds., Theological Dictionary of the New Testament (1966–1976), vol. 1, s.v. “agape.” M.F.U. BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. H. Kelly, Love Feasts (1916); R. C. Trench, Synonyms of the New Testament (1948), pp. 41–44; W. Barclay, More New Testament Words (1958), pp. 11–23; N. Turner, Christian Words (1980), pp. 261–66. A´GAR. See Hagar. AGATE. See Mineral Kingdom. AG´EE (agʹē; “fugitive”). A Hararite, father of Shammah, who was one of David’s chief warriors (2 Sam. 23:11). AGONY (Gk. agōnia, “struggle”). Used both in classical and NT Gk. of severe mental struggles and emotions; our anguish. The Gk. word is used in the NT only by Luke (22:44) to describe the fearful struggle through which our Lord passed in the Garden of Gethsemane. The circumstances of this mysterious transaction are recorded in Matt. 26:36–46; Mark 14:32–42; and Heb. 5:7–8. Luke alone notices the agony, the bloody sweat, and the appearance of the strengthening angel. All agree that He prayed for the removal of “this cup” and are careful to note that He qualified this petition by a preference of His Father’s will to His own. The question is, What did He mean by “this cup”? What was the cause of this sorrow unto death? In answer we quote Edersheim: “Not fear, either of bodily or mental suffering: but death. Man’s nature, created of God immortal, shrinks (by the law of its nature) from the dissolution of the bond that binds body to soul. Yet to fallen man death is not by any means fully death, for he is born with the taste of it in his soul. Not so Christ. It was the unfallen Man dying; it was He, who had no experience of it, tasting death, and that not for Himself but for every man, emptying the cup to its bitter dregs. It was the Christ undergoing death by man and for man; the incarnate God, the God-man, submitting Himself vicariously to the deepest humiliation, and paying the utmost penalty: death—all death. No one could know what death was (not dying, which men dread, but Christ dreaded not); no one could taste its bitterness as He. His going into death was His final conflict with Satan for man, and on his behalf. By submitting to it He took away the power of death. He disarmed Death by burying his shaft in His own heart. And beyond this lies the deep, unutterable mystery of Christ bearing the penalty due to our sin, bearing our death, bearing the penalty of the broken law, the accumulated guilt of humanity, and the holy wrath of the righteous Judge upon them” (Life of Jesus, 2:538–39). AG´ORA (agʹo-ra). The marketplace or public square of a Greek city, where men assembled to debate or transact civic business. In the agora at Athens the apostle Paul met daily and disputed with those who were there (Acts 17:17). The Athenian marketplace has been completely excavated by the American School of Classical Studies (in the 1930s and to completion since 1946). Remains of this famous area include the round Tholos, where standard measures and weights were kept; the Metroon, where archives were deposited; the Bouleuterion or council chamber; and several stoas (including the great Stoa of Attalos). The entire complex of agora structures was dominated by the temple of Hephaisteion, the god of metal craftsmen. In addition to buildings many small finds have been made such as Mycaenean urns (fourteenth century B.C.), ostraca, pottery, jewelry, and objets d’art. Paul was also familiar with the agora at Corinth and other Greek cities. The Greek agora corresponds to the forum of Roman cities. M.F.U. AGRAPHA (Gk. agraphos, “unwritten”). A term applied to the sayings of our Lord not recorded in the gospels. Naturally, there would be many of these, and this fact is recorded (John 21:25). The sources of our knowledge of these sayings are fivefold. 1. The first and surest is to be found in the books of the NT itself. An unquestionable example is given in Acts 20:35: “Remember the words of the Lord Jesus, that He Himself said, ‘It is more blessed to give than to receive.’” Mayor, in his comments on James 1:12, “He will receive the crown of life, which the Lord has promised to those who love Him,” thinks these words a semiquotation of some saying of Christ. 2. The next source, both in amount and authority, is supplied by some manuscripts of the NT, among them the well-known addition in Codex Bezae to Luke 6:4. “On the same day, beholding one working on the Sabbath, He said unto him. ‘Man, if thou knowest what thou doest, blessed art thou; but if thou knowest not, accursed art thou and a transgressor of the law.’” 3. Quotations in early Christian writers and in lost gospels. The quotations of these sayings ceased almost entirely after the fourth century, when the current gospel text had won its way to acceptance. Of these unrecorded sayings Resch has collected 74 that he regards as genuine, and 103 apocryphal. In the main, these sayings neither have historical settings nor do they affect the truth of our Lord’s life. They do, however, often illustrate His teaching and express it perhaps in a terser, more remarkable form than is found elsewhere. The following are two of the most remarkable of these sayings: “He that is near me is near the fire; he that is far from me is far from the kingdom”; “that which is weak shall be saved by that which is strong.” 4. “The Logia, or Sayings of our Lord,” found in Oxyrhynchus, 120 miles S of Cairo, Egypt, by B. F. Grenfell and Arthur S. Hunt, 1896. Logion 1. “… and then shalt thou see clearly to cast out the mote that is in the brother’s eye.” Logion 2. “Jesus saith, Except ye fast to the world, ye shall in no wise find the kingdom of God; and except ye keep the sabbath, ye shall not see the Father.” Logion 3. “Jesus saith, I stood in the midst of the world, and in the flesh was I seen of them, and I found all men drunken, and none found I athirst among them; and my soul grieveth over the sons of men, because they are blind in their heart….” Logion 4. Undecipherable. Logion 5. “Jesus saith, Wherever there are … and there is one … alone, I am with him. Raise the stone and there thou shalt find me; cleave the wood, and there am I.” Logion 6. “Jesus saith, A prophet is not acceptable in his own country, neither doth a physician work cures upon them that know him.” Logion 7. “Jesus saith, A city built upon the top of a high hill, and stablished, can neither fall nor be hid.” Logion 8. Undecipherable. 5. Near Nag Hammadi in Upper Egypt about 1945 a Gnostic library of thirteen volumes was found. In volume 3 appears The Gospel According to Thomas, a Coptic text that dates to the fourth or fifth century and is a translation or adaptation of a Gk. text that must have been produced in the second century A.D. This work has numerous sayings attributed to Christ but bearing a Gnostic bias. H.F.V. BIBLIOGRAPHY: D. S. Margoliouth, Expository Times 5 (1893): 59, 107, 177; M. R. James, The Apocryphal New Testament (1924), pp. 33–37. AGRICULTURE. The cultivation of the soil dates back to Adam, to whom God assigned the occupation of cultivating and keeping the garden (Gen. 2:15). We are told that “Cain was a tiller of the ground” (4:2). The ancestors of the Hebrews in Mesopotamia followed pastoral pursuits, which were kept up by Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, whose sons settled as shepherds on the fruitful pasturelands of Goshen (chap. 47). During their four hundred years’ residence in Egypt the Israelites engaged in the pursuit of agriculture (Deut. 11:10), so that they were prepared to make the cultivation of the soil their principal employment, and in this sense the Mosaic state was founded on agriculture. As the soil could not be alienated, but reverted to the owner in the year of Jubilee, each family had a stake in the soil, and its culture was held in high esteem (1 Sam. 11:5; 1 Kings 19:19; 2 Chron. 26:10). As the pastoral life of Israel had kept it from mixture and local attachment, especially while in Egypt, so agriculture in Canaan tended to check a nomadic life of plunder. Irrigation. In all countries climate and soil have much to do with the methods of agriculture and sorts of crops. In Eastern countries generally, the heat and dryness of the greater portion of the year make irrigation by canals and aqueducts indispensable. This is true to a considerable extent of Palestine, although its rains are more frequent than in Egypt or Assyria. There is reference, however, to natural irrigation by conduits palƒgê-mayim, “water-partings, canals” (Job 38:25; Prov. 21:1). These were well known to the Israelites in Egypt (Deut. 11:10). Care of Soil. The several portions of the land were carefully marked off (1 Sam. 114:14; Prov. 22:28); divided for the various products of the soil (Isa. 28:25); secured against injury from wild animals by hedges and walls (Isa. 5:5; Num. 22:24); and the soil fertilized by manuring (Ps. 83:10). The preparation of manure from straw trodden in the manure pile appears from Isa. 25:10. The dung, the carcasses, and the blood of animals were used to enrich the soil (2 Kings 9:37; Ps. 83:10; Jer. 9:22). Salt, either by itself or mixed in the manure pile in order to promote putrefaction, is specifically mentioned as a compost (Matt. 5:13; Luke 14:34–35). The land was burned over to destroy the seed of noxious herbs (Prov. 24:31; Isa. 32:13) and was then enriched with ashes. The cultivation of hillsides in terraces cannot be proved from any clear statement of Scripture, but the nature of its soil makes it necessary. Terraces are still seen on the mountain slopes, rising above one another, frequently to the number of sixty or eighty, and on them fields, gardens, and plantations. The soil was broken up by the plow (which see), a crude affair, probably similar to those used in Egypt. Early in the year the ground was cleared of stones and thorns (Isa. 5:2), sowing or gathering from among thorns being a proverb for slovenly husbandry (Job 5:5; Prov. 24:30–31). New land was plowed a second time. The plow was followed by men using hoes to break the clods (Isa. 28:24), but in later times a harrow was employed. This appears to have been then, as now, merely a thick block of wood pressed down by the weight of a stone or a man (Job 39:10; Isa. 28:24). The seed appears to have been sowed and harrowed at the same time, although sometimes the seed was plowed in by a cross furrow. Crops. The principal crops of Palestine were, undoubtedly, wheat and barley, from which was derived the common bread of the country. Mention is also made of spelt, millet, lentils, flax, cucumbers, melons, beans, cummin, and so forth. Hay was not in use, and, therefore, barley with chopped straw was fed to cattle (Gen. 24:25, 32; Judg. 19:19). The sowing began after the feast of Tabernacles (the end of October and in November), in the time when the autumn rains come gradually, thus leaving the farmer time to sow his wheat and barley. Summer fruits (millet, beans, and so forth) were sown in January and February. Harvest began with barley (2 Sam. 21:9; Ruth 2:23), which ripens in Palestine from two to three weeks before wheat, and was begun by law on the 16th Nisan with the presentation of the first barley sheaf. Lentils were ready at the same time as barley. Then came wheat and spelt, so that the chief part of the grain harvest closed about Pentecost. The OT gives little information regarding the cultivation of flax and cotton. The Israelites probably learned the working of these in Egypt (Ex. 9:31), and they seem to have grown them in Palestine, for according to Hos. 2:9 and Prov. 31:13, flax and wool were to be found in every house. Cotton must have been introduced into Israel shortly after the captivity (c. 525 B.C.) and into Assyria and Egypt about 700 B.C., and cultivated early by the Israelites, for in 1 Chron. 4:21 among the ancient households of Judah is named a family of workers in linen. Harvest. Grain was cut with a sickle (Deut. 16:9). The reapers lived on parched grain and bread dipped in vinegar (Ruth 2:14). It is probable, however, that the modern custom of pulling up by the roots prevailed to a considerable extent in ancient times. This was done to save all the straw, as it grew very short. When cut it was gathered on the arms (Ps. 129:7), bound in sheaves, and laid in heaps (song of Sol. 7:2; Ruth 3:7) to be threshed. Threshing floors were placed in the open air, leveled and tramped hard, generally on elevated ground, so that in winnowing the wind might carry away the chaff (Hos. 13:3; Jer. 4:11). Threshing was done by oxen driven over the grain to tread out the kernels with their hoofs (Hos. 10:11); by machines made either of planks with stones or bits of iron fastened to the lower surface to make it rough, and rendered heavy by some weight upon it; or by small wagons with low cylindrical wheels like saws (Isa. 28:27; 41:15). Flails were used for threshing tender cereals or small quantities of grain (Ruth 2:17; Isa. 28:27). Winnowing was done with a broad shovel or a wooden fork with bent prongs. The mass of chaff, straw, and grain was thrown against the wind so that the chaff might be blown away. This was usually done in the evening, when there was generally a breeze (Ruth 3:2; see Jer. 4:11; 51:2). The chaff and stubble were burned (Isa. 5:24; Matt. 3:12). Finally, the grain was sifted (Amos 9:9). Israel owed its possession of Palestine and its fertility to Jehovah; hence its cultivation was put under obedience to the Lord’s commands. The Sabbath rest was to be observed (Lev. 19:3), for the soil was to lie fallow in the sabbatic (25:3–5) and jubilee years (25:11). The Israelites were forbidden to yoke an ox and donkey together (Deut. 22:10), the one being a clean and the other an unclean animal; to sow with mingled seed (Lev. 19:19; Deut. 22:9); or to sow moistened seed on which the carcass of an unclean animal had fallen (Lev. 11:37–38). The corners of the fields were not reaped, and the gleanings of the fields were left for the poor (19:9; Deut. 24:19; cf. Ruth 2:2). Israelites passing along in the path were allowed to pluck the heads of ripened grain left in the field (Deut. 23:25; Matt. 12:1; Luke 6:1). The firstfruits of all kinds of planting belonged to Jehovah, in recognition of His being the giver of all good things. The fruit of the orchard the first three years was considered uncircumcised (unclean) and not to be eaten. All of the fourth year’s yield was consecrated to Jehovah. The first eating by men was to be that of the fifth year (Lev. 19:23–25). For cultivation of the vine and the olive, see under respective words. BIBLIOGRAPHY: N. Glueck, Rivers in the Desert (1959); J. Pedersen, Israel, Its Life and Culture (1959), 3-4:376–465; D. Baly, Geographical Companion to the Bible (1963); F. Schwanitz, The Origin of Cultivated Plants (1966); N. Glueck, The Other Side of Jordan (1970), pp. 40–58, 138–244. AGRIP´PA (a-gripʹa). The name of two members of the Herodian family. See Herod. AGUE. See Diseases: Fever. A´GUR (aʹgūr; “gathered”). The author of the sayings contained in Prov. 30, which the inscription describes as being composed of the precepts delivered by “Agur the son of Jakeh.” Beyond this, everything that has been stated of him, and of the time in which he lived, is pure conjecture. AH- (“brother of”). The former part of many Heb. words, signifying relationship or property. A´HAB (āʹhab; “father’s brother”). The name of two biblical personages. 1. The son of the seventh king of Israel, Omri, and second of the dynasty of Omri. He succeeded his father in the thirty-eighth year of Asa, king of Judah, and reigned twenty-two years in Samaria, 874–853 B.C. His wife was Jezebel, a heathen princess, daughter of Ethbaal, king of Sidon. Jezebel was a decided and energetic character, and soon acquired complete control over her husband, so that he eventually established the worship of the Phoenician idols, and especially of the storm god Baal-Melcarth. Ahab built him a temple and an altar in Samaria and made a grove for the impure orgies of the goddess Asherah (1 Kings 16:29–33). So strong was the tide of corruption that it appeared as if the knowledge of the true God would be lost among the Israelites. But a man suited to this emergency was raised up in the person of Elijah (chap. 18), who opposed the royal power and succeeded in retaining many of his countrymen in the worship of the true God. See Elijah. Ahab had a taste for splendid architecture, which he indulged by building an ivory house and several cities (22:39). He erected his royal residence at Jezreel, in the Plain of Esdraelon, still keeping Samaria as capital of his kingdom. Refused a neighboring vineyard, which he desired to add to his pleasure grounds, Ahab, through the influence of Jezebel, caused its proprietor, Naboth, to be put to death on a false charge of blasphemy. For this crime Elijah prophesied the total extinction of the house of Ahab. The execution of the sentence was delayed in consequence of Ahab’s repentance (1 Kings 21). Ahab undertook three campaigns against Ben-hadad I, king of Damascus, two defensive and one offensive. In the first, Ben-hadad had laid siege to Samaria, and Ahab, encouraged by God’s prophets, made a sudden attack upon him while at a banquet and totally routed the Syrians. Ben-hadad was again defeated the next year by Ahab, who spared his life and released him on the condition of restoring the cities of Israel he had held and of allowing Ahab certain commercial and political privileges (1 Kings 20:34). For three years Ahab enjoyed peace, when, with Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, he attacked Ramoth-gilead. Micaiah told Ahab that the expedition would fail. The prophet was imprisoned for giving this warning, but Ahab was so impressed that he took the precaution of disguising himself when he went into battle. He was slain by a man who “drew a bow at random,” and although he stayed up in his chariot for a time he died at evening, and his army was dispersed (1 Kings 22). When he was brought to be buried in Samaria the dogs licked up his blood as a servant was washing his chariot, thus fulfilling the prophecy of Elijah (21:19). Ahab appears prominently on the Assyrian monuments of the great conqueror Shalmaneser III (859–824 B.C.). The Monolith Inscription, now in the British Museum, recounts the clash of Assyrian arms in 853 B.C. with a Syrian coalition of kings at Qarqar N of Hamath, a fortress guarding the approaches to all lower Syria. Conspicuously mentioned among those who successfully withstood Assyria’s advance is “Ahab, the Israelite.” The Israelite ruler’s prominence is indicated by the large number of chariots he is said to have thrown into the battle—2,000 as compared with the next largest number of 1,200 supplied by Hadadezer of Damascus. Ahab ran a close race with the Damascene state as heading the foremost power in central and lower Syria in the middle of the ninth century B.C., as is represented by the Bible and proved by the monuments. M.F.U. 2. A false prophet who deceived the Israelites at Babylon and was threatened by Jeremiah, who foretold that he should be put to death by the king of Babylon in the presence of those whom he had beguiled, and that in following times it should become a common malediction to say, “May the Lord make you like Zedekiah and like Ahab, whom the king of Babylon roasted in the fire” (Jer. 29:21–22). AHAR´AH (a-harʹāh). The third son of Benjamin (1 Chron. 8:1). Elsewhere he is called Ehi (Gen. 46:21), Ahiram (Num. 26:38), and Aher (1 Chron. 7:12). AHAR´HEL (a-harʹhel). A son of Harum whose families are named among the lineage of Koz, a descendant of Judah (1 Chron. 4:8). AHAS´BAI (a-hasʹbī). A Maacathite and the father of Eliphelet, one of David’s warriors (2 Sam. 23:34). In 1 Chron. 11:35, he is apparently called Ur (which see). AHASUE´RUS (a-haz-ū-ēʹrus). The Heb. form of the name representing the Persian Khshayarsha of which the Gk. form is Xerxes (so NIV), and appearing as the title of two Median and Persian monarchs mentioned in the Bible. 1. The Persian king mentioned in the book of Esther and in Ezra 4:6. He is probably identical with Xerxes, whose regal state and affairs tally with all that is here said of Ahasuerus. His kingdom was extensive, extending from India to Ethiopia (Esther 1:1). In the third year of his reign he made a sumptuous banquet for his nobility. On that occasion, being partially intoxicated, he ordered Vashti, his wife, to be brought before him, that he might exhibit her beauty to his courtiers. She, however, refused to appear, for it was contrary to Persian etiquette as well as to female propriety. Thereupon Ahasuerus indignantly divorced her and published a royal decree asserting the superiority of husbands over their wives. In the seventh year of his reign (2:16) he married Esther, the beautiful Jewess, who, however, concealed her parentage. His prime minister, Haman, was enraged with Mordecai, the Jew, because he did not give him reverence and, in the twelfth year of the king’s reign, offered him ten thousand talents of silver for the privilege of ordering a general massacre of the Jews in the kingdom on an appointed day. The king refused the money but granted the request. Couriers were dispatched to the most distant parts of the realm to order the execution of the decree. Mordecai immediately sent word to Esther of the impending danger and through her intercession the decree was so far annulled as to empower the Jews to defend themselves against their enemies. Ahasuerus disgraced and hanged Haman and his ten sons (7:10; 9:14) and made Mordecai his prime minister (10:3). Xerxes (486–465 B.C.), the son of Darius I the Great, is undoubtedly the Ahasuerus of the book of Esther and in Ezra 4:6. The third year of his reign in which he held a great feast and assembly at Susa (Shushan), the palace, corresponds identically to the third year of the reign of Xerxes when he arranged the Grecian war. In the seventh year of his reign Xerxes returned defeated from Greece and consoled himself in the pleasures of his palace. It was then that Ahasuerus sought “beautiful young virgins” and replaced Vashti by marrying Esther. An important historical inscription of Xerxes discovered at Persepolis lists the numerous subject nations over which he ruled, and fully corroborates Esther 1:1, that he ruled “from India to Ethiopia.” 2. The father of Darius the Mede (Dan. 9:1). It is generally agreed that the person referred to here is the Astyages of secular history, but some identify him with Cyaxares. BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. T. Olmstead, History of the Persian Empire (1948); H. H. Rowley, Darius the Mede and the Four World Empires in the Book of Daniel (1953); J. C. Whitcomb, Jr., Darius the Mede (1959); R. C. Zaehner, The Dawn and Twilight of Zoroastrianism (1961); A. R. Burn, Persia and the Greeks (1962); R. N. Frye, Heritage of Persia (1966). AHA´VA (a-hāʹva). The river itself or a place beside the river, where the Jewish exiles who were to return from Babylon to Jerusalem gathered (Ezra 8:21). A´HAZ (āʹhaz; “possessor”). 1. The twelfth king of the separate kingdom of Judah, being the son and successor of Jotham. He reigned sixteen years (according to some authorities, two years as viceroy), 735–715 B.C. In 2 Kings 16:2 the age of Ahaz, at his accession, is given as twenty years. This probably refers to some earlier viceroyship, otherwise he would have been only eleven years old at the birth of his son Hezekiah (cf. 2 Kings 16:2, 20; 18:2). In the latter passage his age is given as twenty-five years. At the time of his accession, Pekah, king of Israel, and Rezin, king of Syria, were in league against Judah. They proceeded to lay siege to Jerusalem, intending to place on the throne Ben-Tabeel, probably a Syrian noble (Isa. 7:6). Isaiah hastened to announce to him the destruction of the allied monarchs, who failed in their attack upon Jerusalem, although they inflicted serious damage on him elsewhere. Rezin, king of Syria, captured Elath (2 Kings 16:6); Zichri, an Ephraimite, slew the king’s son, the ruler of his house, and his prime minister; and Pekah, king of Israel, gained a great advantage over him in a battle in Judah, killing 120,000 men and taking captive 200,000 of his people. These, however, were returned through the remonstrance of the prophet Oded (2 Chron. 28:3–15). In his extremity Ahaz applied to Tiglath-pileser, king of Assyria, for assistance, who freed him from his most formidable enemies by invading Syria, taking Damascus, and killing Rezin. He purchased this help at great cost, becoming tributary to Tiglath-pileser. He sent him the treasures of the Temple and of his own palace, and even appeared before him at Damascus as his vassal. While he was there his idolatrous propensities induced him to take the pattern of a heathen altar and have one like it built in Jerusalem. Upon his return he offered upon the altar, closed the Temple, removed its sacred utensils, and raised shrines to heathen deities everywhere. He died unlamented, and his body was not deposited in the sacred sepulchers (vv. 16–27). In an inscription of the famous Assyrian emperor Tiglath-pileser III (744–727 B.C.), referred to as Pul (Pulu) in 2 Kings 15:19, occurs the name of Ahaz. In an account of the payment of tribute by various vassal states of Syria-Palestine including the kings of Hamath, Arvad, Moab, Gaza, Ashkelon, Edom, and others, occurs “Iauhazi [Jehoahaz, i.e., Ahaz] of Judah.” Tribute is mentioned as consisting of “gold, silver, lead, iron, tin, brightly colored woolen garments, linen, the purple garments of their lands … all kinds of costly things, the products of the sea and the dry land … the royal treasure, horses, mules, broken to the yoke … (D. D. Luckenbill, Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylonia, vol. 1, sec. 801). M.F.U. 2. A great-grandson of Jonathan, son of King Saul, being one of the four sons of Micah and the father of Jehoaddah or Jarah (1 Chron. 8:35–36; 9:42; in the NIV Jarah is replaced by Jadah). AHAZI´AH (ā-ha-zīʹa; “has grasped Jehovah”). 1. The son of Ahab, king of Israel, whom he succeeded in every sense, being as completely under the control of Jezebel and idolatry as was his father (1 Kings 22:51– 53). He was the ninth king of Israel and reigned two years, 853–852 B.C. The single most public event of his reign was the revolt of the vassal king of the Moabites, who took the opportunity of the defeat and death of Ahab to discontinue the tribute that he had paid to the Israelites, consisting of one hundred thousand lambs and as many rams with their wool (2 Kings 1:1; 3:4–5). Ahaziah became a party with Jehoshaphat to revive the maritime traffic of the Red Sea. Because of this alliance God was displeased with Jehoshaphat and the vessels were destroyed (2 Chron. 20:35–37). Soon after Ahaziah was injured by falling from the roof gallery of his palace in Samaria (the “lattice” of the text probably meaning a balustrade to keep persons from falling). He sent to inquire of Baal-zebub, the idol of Ekron, what should be the result of his injury. But the messengers were met and sent back by Elijah, who announced that he should rise no more from the bed upon which he lay (2 Kings 1:2–4). He died shortly after and was succeeded by his brother Jehoram (1:17; 3:1). 2. The son of Jehoram by Athaliah and sixth king of Judah, 841 B.C. He is also called Jehoahaz (2 Chron. 21:17; 25:23) and Ahaziah (22:6). He followed the example of his father-in-law, Ahab, and was given to idolatry (2 Kings 8:25–27; 2 Chron. 22:1–4). He joined his uncle, Joram, of Israel, in an expedition against Hazael, king of Syria, which proved disastrous. The king of Israel was wounded, and Ahaziah visited him in Jezreel. During this visit Jehu was secretly anointed king of Israel and conspired against Joram. The two kings rode out in their chariots to meet Jehu, and when Joram was shot through the heart Ahaziah attempted to escape but was pursued as far as the pass of Gur and, being mortally wounded there, only had strength to reach Megiddo, where he died. His body was conveyed by his servants to Jerusalem for burial (2 Kings 9:1–28). AH´BAN (aʹbān; “brother of the wise”). The first named of the two sons of Abishur by Abihail, of the descendants of Judah (1 Chron. 2:29). A´HER (aʹhẽr; “another”). A descendant of Benjamin (1 Chron. 7:12); probably the same person as Ahiram (Num. 26:38). A´HI (aʹhī; “brotherly”). 1. A son of Abdiel, and head of the tribe of Gad, resident in Bashan (1 Chron. 5:15). 2. The first named of the four sons of Shemer (Shomer, NIV), a leader of the tribe of Asher (1 Chron. 7:34). AHI´AH (a-hīʹa; “little brother”). Another mode of anglicizing the name of Ahijah. The term is variously rendered in the KJV, NIV, and NASB. In 1 Sam. 14:3, 18; 1 Kings 4:3; and 1 Chron. 8:7, the term is given as Ahiah in the KJV and Ahijah (which see) in the NASB and NIV. In Neh. 10:26, where the term refers to one of those who subscribed the covenant, drawn up by Nehemiah, to serve the Lord, 445 B.C., the KJV renders Ahijah and the NASB and NIV render Ahiah. AHI´AM (a-hīʹam; perhaps for Achiab˒, “father’s brother”). A son of Sharar, the Hararite, and one of David’s thirty heroes (2 Sam. 23:33; 1 Chron. 11:35), 1000 B.C. AHI´AN (a-hīʹan; “brotherly”). The first named of the four sons of Shemidah, of the tribe of Manasseh (1 Chron. 7:19). AHIE´ZER (a-hī-ēʹzēr; “brother of help,” i.e., “helpful”). 1. The son of Ammishaddai and the head of the tribe of Dan when the people were numbered at Sinai (Num. 1:12), about 1438 B.C. He made an offering for the service of the Tabernacle, like the other leaders (Num. 7:66). 2. The chief of the Benjamite warriors who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chron. 12:3), before 1000 B.C. AHI´HUD. The English form of two similar Heb. names. 1. Heb. ˒Aḥı ̂ḥûd, “brother of renown,” refers to the son of Shelomi and head of the tribe of Asher (Num. 34:27). He was one of those appointed by Moses to oversee the partition of Canaan, about 1401 B.C. 2. Heb. ˒Aḥı ̂ḥud, “brother of a riddle,” i.e., “mysterious,” refers to the second named of the two later sons of Ehud, the son of Benjamin (1 Chron. 8:7). AHI´JAH (ā-hī-jā; ”brother of Jehovah”). 1. The son of Phinehas’s son Ahitub, and high priest in the reign of Saul (1 Sam. 14:3, 18), about 1020 B.C. He is here described as “the priest of the Lord at Shiloh [and] wearing an ephod.” In 14:18 it appears that the Ark was under his care. There is some difficulty in reconciling this with the statement in 1 Chron. 13:3 that they did not seek the Ark in the days of Saul. Some avoid the difficulty by inserting “ephod” for “ark” (K. & D., Com., ad loc.); others, by interpreting ark, in this case, to mean a chest for carrying the ephod. Others apply the expression only to all the latter years of the reign of Saul, when we know that the priestly establishment was at Nob and not at Kiriath-jearim, where the Ark was. But probably the last time that Ahijah inquired of the Lord before the Ark was on the occasion related in 1 Sam. 14:36, when Saul marred his victory over the Philistines by a rash oath, which nearly cost Jonathan his life. But it seems God returned no answer in consequence of Saul’s curse. If, as is commonly supposed, Ahijah is the same person as Ahimelech (cf. 1 Sam. 14:3; 22:16; 24:3), this failure to obtain an answer may have led to an estrangement between the king and the high priest, and predisposed the king to suspect Ahimelech’s loyalty and to take that terrible revenge upon him for his favor to David. Gesenius supposes (Thesaurus Heb., p. 65) that Ahimelech may have been a brother to Ahijah, and that they officiated simultaneously, the one at Gibeah, or Kiriath-jearim, and the other at Nob. 2. Son of Shisha and a secretary of King Solomon (1 Kings 4:3), about 960 B.C. 3. A prophet of Shiloh (1 Kings 14:2) and hence called the Shilonite (11:29). There are two remarkable prophecies of Ahijah extant. The one in 1 Kings 11:31–40 is addressed to Jeroboam, about 940 B.C. In this he foretold the rending of the kingdom of Solomon in punishment for his idolatries and the transference of ten tribes after his death to Jeroboam. Solomon, hearing of this prophecy, sought to kill Jeroboam, who fled to Shishak, king of Egypt, and remained there until Solomon’s death. The other prophecy (1 Kings 14:6–16) was delivered to the wife of Jeroboam, who came to him in disguise to inquire concerning the king’s son, who was sick. In this he foretold the death of the son, the destruction of Jeroboam’s house on account of the images he had set up, and the captivity of Israel. In 2 Chron. 9:29 reference is made to a record of the events of Solomon’s reign contained in the “prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonite.” 4. An Israelite of the tribe of Issachar and the father of Baasha, king of Israel (1 Kings 15:27), before 911 B.C. 5. The last named of the five sons of Jerahmeel by his first wife (1 Chron. 2:25). 6. One of the sons of Bela, son of Benjamin (1 Chron. 8:7), elsewhere (v. 4) called Ahoah (which see). 7. A Pelonite, one of David’s famous heroes (1 Chron. 11:36), apparently the same called Eliam (which see), the son of Ahithophel the Gilonite in the parallel passage (2 Sam. 23:34). 8. A Levite appointed, in the arrangement by David, over the sacred treasure of dedicated gifts at the Temple (1 Chron. 26:20; see marg.), 1000 B.C. 9. In the KJV of Neh. 10:26, one of those who subscribed the covenant, drawn up by Nehemiah, to serve the Lord. Rendered Ahiah in the NASB and NIV. BIBLIOGRAPHY: W. F. Albright, Archaeology and the Religion of Israel (1956), pp. 201ff. marg. margin, marginal reading AHI´KAM (a-hīʹkam; “my brother has risen”). One of the four persons sent by King Josiah to inquire of the prophetess Huldah concerning the proper course to be pursued in relation to the acknowledged violations of the newly discovered book of the law (2 Kings 22:12–14; 2 Chron. 34:20–22), 624 B.C. He afterward protected the prophet Jeremiah from the persecuting jury of Jehoiakim (Jer. 26:24), about 609 B.C. His son, Gedaliah, showed Jeremiah a like kindness (Jer. 39:14). He was the son of Shaphan and the father of Gedaliah, who was appointed over Judea after the capture of Jerusalem by the Babylonians (2 Kings 25:22; Jer. 40:5–16). AHI´LUD (a-hīʹlud; “brother’s child”). The father of Jehoshaphat, recorder under David and Solomon (2 Sam. 8:16; 20:24; 2 Kings 4:3), and also of Baana, one of Solomon’s deputies (1 Kings 4:12), 960 B.C. AHIM´AAZ (a-himʹa-az; “brother of anger”). 1. The father of Ahinoam, wife of King Saul (1 Sam. 14:50), about 1020 B.C. 2. The son and successor of Zadok (1 Chron. 6:8, 53) in the high priesthood. When Absalom revolted, David refused to allow the Ark to be removed from Jerusalem, believing that God would bring him back to the city. The high priests, Zadok and Abiathar, necessarily remained in attendance upon it; but their sons, Ahimaaz and Jonathan, concealed themselves outside the city to be in readiness to relate to David any important movements and designs of Absalom that they might receive from within. When, therefore, Hushai informed the priests that Absalom had preferred his own counsel to that of Ahithophel, they sent word to Ahimaaz and Jonathan by a girl, doubtless to avoid suspicion. A lad saw the transaction and informed Absalom, who dispatched servants after them. They were hid by a woman in a dry well, the mouth of which was covered and strewn over with grain. She told the pursuers that the messengers had passed on in haste, and when all was safe she released them, and they made their way to David (2 Sam. 15:24–27; 17:15–22), 967 B.C. After the death of Absalom, Ahimaaz prevailed upon Joab to let him run after the Cushite who had been sent to inform David. He outstripped him, being doubtless swift of foot and taking another route, and proceeded to break the news gently to David, telling him at first only of the victory. While he spoke the Cushite entered and bluntly revealed the truth. The estimate in which he was held by David is shown in his answer to the watchman who announced his coming: “This is a good man and comes with good news” (2 Sam. 18:19–32). 3. Solomon’s deputy in Naphtali, who married Basemath, daughter of Solomon (1 Kings 4:15), about 950 B.C. AHI´MAN (a-hīʹman; “generous” [?]). 1. One of the three famous giants of the race of Anak, who dwelt at Hebron when the Hebrew spies explored the land (Num. 13:22), about 1440 B.C., and who (or their descendants) were afterward expelled by Caleb (Josh. 15:14) and eventually slain by the Judaites (Judg. 1:10). 2. A Levite who was one of the gatekeepers of the Temple (1 Chron. 9:17). AHIM´ELECH (a-himʹe-lek; “brother of the king”). 1. High priest of the Jews and the son of Ahitub (1 Sam. 22:11) and father of Abiathar (v. 20); he was probably the same as Ahijah (which see). He was a descendant of the line of Ithamar through Eli (1 Chron. 24:3, 6; Josephus Ant. 5.11.5; 8.1.3). When David fled from Saul (about 1010 B.C.) he went to Nob, where the Tabernacle then was. His unexpected appearance alarmed Ahimelech, whose anxious inquiry was answered by David’s falsehood, “The king has commissioned me with a matter” (1 Sam. 21:2). Under this pretext Ahimelech was induced to give him bread and the sword of Goliath (21:3–9). A servant of Saul, Doeg, an Edomite, witnessed the transaction, and informed King Saul, who immediately sent for Ahimelech and the other priests then at Nob, and charged them with treason. But they declared their ignorance of any hostile designs on the part of David. This, however, availed them nothing, for the king ordered his guards to slay them. Upon their refusing to do so he commanded Doeg, who slew the priests, eighty-five in number. He then marched to Nob and put to the sword everything it contained (1 Sam. 22:9–20). The only priest that escaped was Abiathar, Ahimelech’s son, who fled to David, and who afterward became high priest (23:6; 30:7). The names in 2 Sam. 8:17 and 1 Chron. 24:6 are commonly regarded as having been transposed by a copyist. (But see the article Abiathar and also no. 2, below, for another explanation.) 2. A son of Abiathar (2 Sam. 8:17; 1 Chron. 18:16; 24:3, 6, 31). 3. A Hittite, one of David’s warriors, whom David invited to accompany him at night into the camp of Saul in the wilderness of Ziph; but Abishai alone seems to have gone with him (1 Sam. 26:6–7), about 1010 B.C. AHI´MOTH (a-hīʹmōth). One of the sons of Elkanah, a Levite (1 Chron. 6:25). In v. 26 he is called Nahath. AHIN´ADAB (a-hinʹa-dab; “noble brother”). Son of Iddo, and one of the twelve deputies of Solomon. His district was Mahanaim, the southern half of the region beyond Jordan (1 Kings 4:14), about 950 B.C. AHIN´OAM (a-hinʹō-am; “my brother is pleasantness”). 1. The daughter of Ahimaaz and the wife of King Saul (1 Sam. 14:50), about 1020 B.C. 2. A Jezreelitess and one of David’s wives taken before he was king (1 Sam. 25:43), 1004 B.C. She and his other wife, Abigail, lived with him at the court of Achish (27:3). They were taken prisoners by the Amalekites when they plundered Ziklag (30:5) but were rescued by David (v. 18). She went with him to Hebron and resided with him while he remained there as king of Judah (2 Sam. 2:2). She was mother of his eldest son, Amnon (3:2). AHI´O (a-hīʹō; “brotherly”). 1. One of the sons of the Levite Abinadab, to whom, with his brother, was entrusted the care of the Ark when David first attempted to move it to Jerusalem. Ahio probably guided the oxen, while his brother Uzzah walked by the cart (2 Sam. 6:3–4; 1 Chron. 13:7), 992 B.C. 2. A Benjamite, one of the sons of Beriah (1 Chron. 8:14). 3. One of the sons of Jeiel, a Gibeonite, by Maacah (1 Chron. 8:31; 9:37). AHI´RA (a-hīʹra). The son of Enan and the leader of the tribe of Naphtali (Num. 2:29). He was appointed as “head man” of his tribe to assist Moses in numbering the people (1:15) and made his contribution to the sacred service on the twelfth day of offering (7:78, 83; 10:27), c. 1440 B.C. AHI´RAM (a-hīʹram). 1. A son of Benjamin (Num. 26:38). 2. A Phoenician king of Gebal (later Byblos) whose magnificent sarcophagus inscribed with Phoenician writing (c. eleventh century B.C.) was recovered and forms an important link in the development of the Phoenician alphabet. The sarcophagus and jewels of Ahiram are in the National Museum at Beirut. Ahiram of Byblos, however, is not to be identified with Hiram of Tyre, Solomon’s ally, although the names are evidently identical, and they lived perhaps contemporaneously. M.F.U. AHI´RAMITE (a-hīʹra-mīt). A descendant (Num. 26:38) of the Benjamite Ahiram (which see). AHIS´AMACH (a-hisʹa-mach; “my brother helps”). Father of one of the famous workers upon the Tabernacle, Oholiab, the Danite (Ex. 31:6; 35:34; 38:23), c. 1440 B.C. AHISH´AHAR (a-hishʹa-har; “brother of the dawn”). A warrior, last named of the sons of Bilhan, of the tribe of Benjamin (1 Chron. 7:10). AHI´SHAR (a-hīʹshar; “my brother has sung”). The officer who was “over the household” of Solomon (1 Kings 4:6), i.e., steward, or governor of the palace, a place of great importance and influence in the East, 960 B.C. AHITH´OPHEL (a-hithʹo-fel; “brother of folly”). A counselor of David whose wisdom was so highly esteemed that his advice had the authority of a divine word (2 Sam. 16:23). Absalom, when he revolted, sent to Ahithophel, who was at Giloh, his native city, and secured his support. He perhaps thought to wield a greater sway under the prince than he had done under David, and he also resented David’s conduct to his granddaughter, Bathsheba (cf. 2 Sam. 11:3 with 23:34). When David heard of Ahithophel’s defection, he prayed that God would turn his counsel to “foolishness” (doubtless alluding to his name) and induced Hushai, his friend, to go over to Absalom to defeat the counsels of this now dangerous enemy (15:31–37). Ahithophel’s advice to Absalom was to show that the breach between him and his father was irreparable by publicly taking possession of the royal harem (16:20–23). He also recommended immediate pursuit of David and would probably have succeeded had not Hushai’s plausible advice been accepted by the council. When Ahithophel saw that his counsel was rejected for that of Hushai, the far-seeing man gave up the cause of Absalom for lost; and he returned to his home in Giloh, hanged himself, and was buried in the grave of his father (17:1–23), 967 B.C. BIBLIOGRAPHY: W. G. Blaikie, David, King of Israel (1981), pp. 279–83; F. W. Krummacher, David the King of Israel (1983), pp. 422–27. AHI´TUB (a-hīʹtūb; “good brother”). 1. The son of Phinehas and grandson of Eli. He probably succeeded the latter in the high priesthood, his father being slain in battle, 1050 B.C. He was succeeded by his son Ahijah, or Ahimelech (1 Sam. 14:3; 22:9, 11, 20). 2. The son of Amariah and father of Zadok, who was made high priest by Saul after the death of Ahimelech (2 Sam. 8:17; 1 Chron. 6:7). It is not probable that this Ahitub was ever high priest. The coincidence of the names (1 Chron. 6:8, 11, 12) would lead us to infer that by the Ahitub found therein is meant Azariah (2 Chron. 31:10). Of the Ahitub mentioned in 1 Chron. 9:11 and Neh. 11:11 nothing definite is known, save that he was “leader of the house of God” (11:11). AH´LAB (ahʹlāb; “fertile”). A town of Asher, whose inhabitants the Israelites were unable to expel (Judg. 1:31). It has not been identified successfully. AH´LAI (aʹlī; “Oh that!”). 1. The “son” of Sheshan, a descendant of Judah (1 Chron. 2:31). In v. 34 we read that Sheshan had “no sons, only daughters,” that he gave his Egyptian servant, Jarha, his daughter to be his wife, and that this daughter bore a son named Attai (vv. 34–35). Some suppose Ahlai to be the name of Jarha’s wife, but the masculine form of the word and the use of Ahlai (1 Chron. 2:31; 11:41) for a man is adverse to this conclusion. Others suppose Ahlai to be a clerical error for Attai; still others believe that Ahlai was a name given to Jarha on his incorporation into the family of Sheshan; some conjecture that Ahlai was a son of Shesan, born after the marriage of his daughter. 2. The father of one of David’s “valiant men” (1 Chron. 11:41), about 995 B.C. AHO´AH (a-hōʹah; “brotherly”). The son of Bela, the son of Benjamin (1 Chron. 8:4); called also Ahijah (v. 7) and perhaps Iri (7:7), probably about 1600 B.C. It is probably he whose descendants are called Ahohites (2 Sam. 23:9, 28). AHO´HITE (a-hōʹhīt). A patronymic applied to Dodo, or Dodai, one of the captains under Solomon (1 Chron. 27:4). His son Eleazar was one of David’s three chief warriors (2 Sam. 23:9; 1 Chron. 11:12); and Zalmon, or Ilai, was another bodyguard (2 Sam. 23:28; 1 Chron. 11:29); probably from their descent from Ahoah (which see). AHO´LAH. See Oholah. AHO´LIAB. See Oholiab. AHOL´IBAH. See Oholibah. AHOLIBA´MAH. See Oholibamah. AHU´MAI (a-hūʹmī; “brother of water”). The son of Jahath, a descendant of Judah, and of the family of the Zorathites (1 Chron. 4:2). AHU´ZZAM (a-hūʹzam; “their possession”). The first named of the four sons of Ashhur (“father of Tekoa”) by one of his wives, Naarah; of the tribe of Judah (1 Chron. 4:6). AHUZ´ZATH (a-hūzʹzath; “possession”). One of the friends (perhaps “favorite”) of the Philistine king Abimelech, who accompanied him on his visit to Isaac (Gen. 26:26), about 2040 B.C. AH´ZAI (ahʹzī; perhaps a prolonged form of Ahaz, “possessor,” or contracted form of Ahaziah, “whom Jehovah holds”). A grandson of Immer and one whose descendants dwelt in Jerusalem after the return from Babylon (Neh. 11:13). Gesenius thinks he is the same with Jahzerah (which see), who is made the grandson of Immer (1 Chron. 9:12). A´I (āʹī; KJV Hai, “the Ruin”). A city near Bethel where Abraham sojourned upon his arrival in Canaan (Gen. 12:8) and which the conquering Israelites under Joshua are said to have destroyed (Josh. 7:2–5; 8:1–29). The site is commonly identified with Et- Tell, 1½ miles from Bethel and excavated in 1933–35 by Judith Marquet-Krause. The diggings revealed an occupational gap in the history of the mound from 2200 B.C. till after 1200 B.C., so that if Ai is represented by Et-Tell, there was nothing but a ruin there when Joshua and the Israelites are said to have destroyed it. Some critics, like Martin Noth, dismiss the biblical story as an etiological legend, which supposedly explains how the place came to be in ruins and to be called “Ruin,” the meaning of Ai in Heb. (Palaestina Jahrbuch [1938]: 7–20). Others, such as W. F. Albright (Bull. Am. Schs. 74: 16ff.), assume that the narrative of Josh. 8 originally referred to the destruction of Bethel in the thirteenth century B.C. but that the etiological interest in the ruins of Ai caused the story to be attached to this site instead of Bethel. But this explanation, besides being objectionable in reflecting upon the historicity of the KJV King James Version biblical account, is extremely unlikely because the biblical narrative carefully distinguishes between the two cities (Josh. 8:12), and there is not the slightest evidence of any destruction of Bethel at this time (c. 1401 B.C.). More reasonable is the explanation of Hugues Vincent (Revue Biblique [1937]: 231–66) that the inhabitants of Ai had merely a military outpost at Ai of such modest proportions and temporary nature that it left no remains to give a clue of its existence to the archaeologist, although the narrative clearly indicates an inhabited city. To deal with the continuing problem of Ai, Professor Joseph A. Callaway of Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, in cooperation with several other institutions, conducted five major archaeological expeditions at Et-Tell (1964, 1966, 1968, 1969, 1970) and two small digs (1971–72). Excavation revealed that the earliest village at the site dated to about 3100 B.C. This was rebuilt several times until its destruction and abandonment about 2200 B.C. A small village was built on the site about 1200 B.C. and lasted until the final abandonment of the place in about 1050 B.C. Callaway tended to assume that Et-Tell was Ai, but there is no solid evidence for the identification; scholars such as J. Simon have argued against the identification. D. Livingston (Westminster Theological Journal 33 [1970]: 20–44) suggested that the true site of Ai lay to the SE near a hill named Et-Tawil, but further work at the site is necessary to confirm this suggestion. M.F.U.; H.F.V. BIBLIOGRAPHY: W. F. Albright, Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research 4 (1924): 141–49; id., Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 74 (1939): 11–23; J. A. Callaway, Pottery from the Tombs at Ai (et Tell) (1964); id., BASOR 178 (1965): 13–40; id., BASOR 183 (1966): 12–19: R. Amiran, Israel Exploration Journal 17 (1967): 185–86; J. A. Callaway, Journal of Biblical Literature 87 (1968): 312–20; id., BASOR 199 (1969): 2–16; id., BASOR 200 (1970): 7–31; id., BASOR 201 (1971): 9–19; F. M. Cross and D. N. Freedman, BASOR 201 (1971): 19–22; Y. Aharoni, IEJ 21 (1971): 130–35; J. A. Callaway, Biblical Archaeologist 39 (1976): 18–30; Z. Zevit, Biblical Archaeologist Review 11, no. 2 (1985): 58–69; J. A. Callaway, BAR 11, no. 2 (1985): 68–69. AI´AH (ā-īʹāh; “a cry,” often “hawk”). 1. The first named of the two sons of Zibeon the Horite (Gen. 36:24; 1 Chron. 1:40), or rather Hivite (Gen. 36:2). 2. The father of Rizpah, Saul’s concubine (2 Sam. 3:7; 21:8, 10–11), about 1053 B.C. AI´ATH (ā-īʹāth; Isa. 10:28). Another form of the city Ai (which see). AI´JA (ā-īʹja; Neh. 11:31). Another form of Ai (which see). AI´JALON (āʹja-lon; “place of deer” or “gazelles”). 1. A Levitical city of Dan (Josh. 19:42); a city of refuge (Josh. 21:24; 1 Sam. 14:31; 1 Chron. 6:69). It was with reference to the valley named after this town that Joshua said, “O sun, stand still at Gibeon, and O moon in the valley of Aijalon” (Josh. 10:12). Aijalon is the modern Yalo, fourteen miles from Jerusalem, N of the Jaffa road and mentioned as Aialuna in the Amarna Letters. 2. A city in the tribe of Zebulun (Judg. 12:12). Elon, the judge, was buried there. The modern site is uncertain. M.F.U. Merrill F. Unger H.F.V. Howard F. Vos BIBLIOGRAPHY: F.-M. Abel, Géographie de la Palestine (1938), 2:241; Y. Aharoni, The Land of the Bible (1967), pp. 311–55. AI´JELETH HASHSHA´HAR. Occurs in the title of Ps. 22; it is probably the name of the tune to which the psalm was set. A´IN (āʹin). Literally, an eye, and also, in the simple but vivid imagery of the East, a spring or natural burst of living water, always to be distinguished from the well or tank of artificial formation, which is designated by the words Beer and Bor. The term Ain most frequently occurs in combination with other words to form the names of definite localities, as Engedi, En-gannim, and so forth. It occurs alone in two cases: 1. One of the landmarks on the eastern boundary of Palestine, as described by Moses (Num. 34:11). It is probably ’Ain el-’Azy, the main source of the Orontes, a spring remarkable for its force and magnitude. 2. One of the southernmost cities of Judah (Josh. 15:32), afterward allotted to Simeon (Josh. 19:7; 1 Chron. 4:32) and given to the priests (Josh. 21:16). In the list of priests’ cities in 1 Chron. 6:59 Ashan takes the place of Ain. AIR (Gk. aēr, “the air,” particularly the lower and denser, as distinguished from the higher and rarer, ho aithēr, “ether”). The atmospheric region (Acts 22:23; 1 Thess. 4:17; Rev. 9:2; 16:17). In Eph. 2:2 “the prince of the power of the air” is the devil, the prince of the demons that fill the realm of the air. It is not to be considered as equivalent to darkness (Gk. skotos). “Beating the air” (1 Cor. 9:26) refers to boxers who miss their aim, and means “to contend in vain.” “Speaking into the air” (1 Cor. 14:9, i.e., without effect) is used of those who speak what is not understood by their hearers. A´JAH. Another form of Aiah (which see). AJ´ALON. Another form of Aijalon (which see). A´KAN (āʹkan; “twisted”). The last named of the three sons of Ezer, the son of Seir, the Horite (Gen. 36:27), called also (1 Chron. 1:42) Jaakan. AKELDAMA. See Aceldama. AKIM. See Achim. AKKAD. See Accad. AK´KUB (akʹkūb; “pursuer”). 1. The fourth named of the seven sons of Elioenai, or Esli, a descendant of David (1 Chron. 3:24). 2. One of the Levitical gatekeepers of the Temple after the captivity (1 Chron. 9:17; Neh. 11:19; 12:25), 536 B.C. Perhaps the same who assisted Ezra in expounding the law to the people (8:7). His descendants appear to have succeeded to the office (Ezra 2:42). 3. The head of one of the families of Temple servants that returned from Babylon (Ezra 2:45), 536 B.C. AKRAB´BIM (a-krabʹbim; “scorpions”). A place, as the name suggests, which abounded in scorpions; it is located where the country ascends from the neighborhood of the southern end of the Dead Sea to the level of Palestine, and is called the ascent of Akrabbim (Num. 34:4). AKRAB´BIM, ASCENT OF (a-krabʹbim; “steep of scorpions,” i.e., “scorpion hill”). A pass in the SE border of Palestine (Num. 34:4; Josh. 15:3). It is identified with the steep pass of es Sufah. ALABASTER. See Mineral Kingdom. AL´AMETH. Another form of Alemeth (which see). ALAM´MELECH. Another form of Allammelech (which see). AL´AMOTH (alʹaʹmōth). A musical term (1 Chron. 15:20; title of Ps. 46). ALARM (Heb. t rû˓â, “a loud noise” or “shout”). The peculiar sound of the silver trumpet of the Hebrews, giving them signals while on their journey (Lev. 23:24; 25:9; Num. 10:5–6; 29:1). In times of peace, when the people or rulers were to be assembled together, the trumpet was blown softly. When the camps were to move forward, or the people march to war, it was sounded with a deeper note. A war note, or call to arms, or other public emergency (Jer. 4:19; 49:2). AL´EMETH (alʹe-meth; “covering”). 1. The last named of the nine sons of Becher (Beker, NIV), the son of Benjamin (1 Chron. 7:8). 2. The first named of the sons of Jehoaddah, or Jarah, the son of Ahaz, of the posterity of Saul (1 Chron. 8:36; 9:42), about 1030 B.C. A´LEPH (‫( )א‬āʹlef; “ox”). The first letter of the Heb. alphabet, corresponding to Gk. alpha (α), cf. English “a.” But Heb. aleph is a consonant and has no representative in English. It is transliterated by the apostrophe (’). This letter heads Ps. 119, each of the first eight verses beginning with aleph in the Heb. ALERT (Gk. grēgoreō, to “keep awake,” to “watch”). To take care lest some destructive calamity suddenly overtake one (Matt. 24:42; 25:13; Mark 13:35; Rev. 16:15, “stay awake”), or lest one fall into sin (1 Cor. 16:13; 1 Thess. 5:6; 1 Pet. 5:8). To keep alert (Col. 4:2) is to employ to most punctilious care. ALEXAN´DER (ăl-ĕx-ănʹdẽr; “man-defender”). 1. A man, whose father, Simon, a Cyrenian Jew, was compelled to bear the cross of Jesus (Mark 15:21). 2. A kinsman, probably of the high priest, and one of the chief men in Jerusalem, present at the examination of Peter and John before the Sanhedrin for the cure of the lame man (Acts 4:6), A.D. 30. 3. A Jew of Ephesus, known only from the part he took in the uproar about Artemis, which was raised there by the preaching of Paul (Acts 19:33), A.D. 58. He was probably put forward by the Jews to defend them from any connection with the Christians. His appeal to them for opportunity was in vain; an uproar followed for two hours. 4. A coppersmith or brazier, who, with Hymenaeus and others, apostatized (1 Tim. 1:20). It is not certain, but not at all improbable, that he is the same person as the one mentioned in 2 Tim. 4:14, who seems to have opposed and hindered Paul. ALEXAN´DRIA. A celebrated city and seaport of Egypt situated on a narrow stretch of land between Lake Mareotis and the Mediterranean, fourteen miles from the Canopic mouth of the Nile. It was named for Alexander the Great, who founded it in 331 B.C. The long, narrow island of Pharos was formed into a breakwater to the port by joining the middle of the island to the mainland by means of a mole, seven stadia in length, and hence called the Hepta-stadium. Upon the island of Pharos the famous lighthouse, which Alexander called after his friend Hephaestion, was constructed, but it was not finished until the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, 284–246 B.C. NIV New International Version The most famous of all the public buildings planned by Ptolemy Soter were a library and museum, or college of philosophy, the professors of which were supported out of the public income. The library soon became the largest in the world, numbering over a half million volumes in the second century B.C. Alexandria is not named in the OT and only incidentally in the NT (Acts 6:9; 18:24; 27:6; 28:11), and yet it is very important to the history of the Jews. There the Gk. translation of the OT called the Septuagint (LXX) was produced during the third and second centuries B.C. In the third century A.D. the city became an important center of Christianity as a result of the work of Clement and Origen. During the fourth century both the heretical leader Arius and the great orthodox theologian Athanasius came from Alexandria. It was also a great center for the production of copies of Scripture, and several early NT manuscripts evidently were produced there; e.g., Codex Alexandrinus (A). H.F.V. BIBLIOGRAPHY: V. Tcherikover, Hellenistic Civilization and the Jews (1961), pp. 320– 28, 409–15; E. Badian, Studies in Greek and Roman History (1964), pp. 179–91. ALEXAN´DRIAN. An inhabitant of Alexandria in Egypt, particularly a Jewish resident there (Acts 6:9; 18:24). The Jews, being highly valued as citizens, were encouraged to settle in the city and were admitted into the first of its three classes of citizens, having equal rights with the Greek inhabitants. In the reign of Tiberius (A.D. 16), the Jews in Alexandria numbered about one-third of the population. Nothwithstanding many persecutions and massacres, they continued to form a large proportion of the population and retained their civil rights until A.D. 415, when forty thousand of them were expelled at the instigation of Cyril, the Christian patriarch. They recovered their strength and appear to have been numerous at the time of the Muslim conquest. ALGUM TREE, ALMUG TREE, ALGUMWOOD. See Vegetable Kingdom: Algum Tree. ALI´AH (a-līʹah). A less correct form of Alvah (which see). The second named of the chiefs of Edom, descended from Esau (1 Chron. 1:51). ALI´AN (a-līʹan). A less correct form of the name Alvan (which see). This person is the first named of the five sons of Shobal, a descendant of Seir (1 Chron. 1:40), about 1853 B.C. ALIEN (Heb. gēr,, lit., “stranger”; Gk. allotrios, “belonging to another,” i.e., “foreign”). A foreigner, or person born in another country, and thus not entitled to the rights of citizenship in the country in which he lives (Deut. 14:21; Ps. 69:8). See Foreigner. A LITTLE WAY. “Some distance,” NASB. See Metrology: Linear Measures. ALLAM´MELECH (a-lamʹme-lek; “oak of [the] king”). A town in the territory of Asher (Josh. 19:26). ALLEGORY (Gk. allegoreō). The term occurs only once (Gal. 4:24), “This is allegorically speaking,” NASB; “these things are an allegory,” KJV; “these things may be taken figuratively,” NIV. “To allegorize” means to express or explain one thing under the image of another. “St. Paul is here declaring, under the influence of the Holy Spirit, that the passage he has cited has a second and deeper meaning than it appears to have: that it has that meaning, then, is a positive, objective, and LXX Septuagint NASB New American Standard Bible indisputable truth” (Ellicott, Com.). To say that a history is allegorized is quite different from saying that it is allegory itself. “As Hagar bore children to bondage, so does the Sinaitic covenant produce sons under circumcisional bondage to the heavy ritual” (Whedon, Com.). Dean Trench says, “The allegory needs not, as the parable, an interpretation to be brought to it from without, since it contains its interpretation within itself.” The real object of the allegory is to convey a moral truth. Every allegory is a kind of parable, containing a statement of a few simple facts followed by the explanation or allegorical interpretation (Luke 8:5–15). The allegories found in Scripture are its parabolical representation, such as, in the OT, Song of Sol., Pss. 45, 80, Isa. 5:1–7, and in the NT the parables of our Lord. In early times there was an allegorical mode of interpreting the historical portions of the OT, which reached its climax in the writings and school of Origen. It assumed a double or threefold sense of the Scriptures, an obvious literal sense, and a hidden spiritual sense, both being intended by the author. Thus the book of Joshua has been treated as an allegory of the soul’s victory over sin and self. The allegorical interpretation of the Bible arose among the Alexandrian Jews in their attempt to reconcile the Mosaic account with Greek philosophy. Thus the four rivers of paradise were seen as Plato’s four cardinal virtues, and Adam as the lower, sensuous man, and so forth. The early Christian church received allegorical interpretation also from the Jews of Alexandria, wishing to reconcile Christianity with Greek thought. Origen taught a threefold sense of Scripture, corresponding to man’s body, soul, and spirit. As we come to the Middle Ages, four senses were found in Scripture: historical, allegorical, moral, and anagogical; e.g., Jerusalem is, literally, a city of Palestine; allegorically, the church; morally, the believing soul; anagogically, the heavenly Jerusalem. Swedenborg held that “all and every part of Scripture, even the most minute, not excepting the smallest jot or tittle, signify and involve spiritual and celestial things” (Arcana Coelestia. 2). This mode of interpreting Scripture is fascinating and yet dangerous, because there is a temptation to read into the word one’s imaginings and not to be content with its plain and simple teachings. BIBLIOGRAPHY: R. M. Grant, A Short History of the Interpretation of the Bible (1948); J. F. Walvoord, ed., Inspiration and Interpretation (1957); R. P. C. Hanson, Allegory and Event (1959); F. W. Farrar, History of Interpretation (1961). ALLELUIA. A Gk. form of Hallelujah (which see). ALLIANCE. The political or social relations formed between nations by treaty. In Scripture such compacts are known as leagues, covenants, treaties, and so forth. In this article we treat them only as related to the Israelites. Pre-Mosaic. The patriarchs entered into international relations with the peoples of Canaan for their subsistence in the land of promise, not yet given in actual possession. Abraham was allied with some of the Canaanite princes (Gen. 14:13), and he also entered into an alliance with Abimelech the Philistine king (21:22–24, 32), which was renewed by his son (26:27). Mosaic. Israel, as the covenant people of Jehovah, was to hold itself aloof from heathen influences and idolaters; and, therefore, when they settled in Palestine, alliance with such nations was strongly prohibited (Lev. 18:3–4; 20:23–24). The Israelites’ country and occupation protected them from mixing with peoples that would have endangered their nationality and mission. But it was by no means intended that they should live without any dealings with other nations; rather they Com. Commentary were to cultivate friendly relations with them and seek their good. The Mosaic legislation taught Israel to love and respect strangers (Ex. 22:21; 23:9; Lev. 19:33–34; Deut. 10:18–19). The law commanded Israel to root out the nations of Canaan because of their abominations and to make no covenant with them (Ex. 23:32–33; 34:12–16; Deut. 7:1–4); also the Amalekites were to be destroyed (Ex. 17:14, 16; Deut. 25:17–19) because of their cruel attack upon the Israelites. Yet it forbade them to make war upon the other peoples, the Edomites, Ammonites, and Moabites, or to conquer their land (Deut. 2:4–5, 9, 19). The law, therefore, was not opposed to Israel’s forming friendly and peaceful relations with other peoples, nor was it opposed to Israel’s maintaining peace with them by covenants and treaties. In Later Times. When the commonwealth of Israel was fully established in Canaan, formal alliances sprang up between it and other nations. Thus David entered into friendly relations with Hiram, king of Tyre (2 Sam. 5:11), and with King Hanun, the Ammonite (10:2); and Solomon made a treaty with Hiram to furnish materials and workmen for the Temple (1 Kings 5:2). In neither case was their theocratic standing falsified or endangered. Solomon also entered into treaty relations with a pharaoh, by which he secured the monopoly of trade in horses and other products (10:28–29). We find Asa, when at war with Baasha, king of Israel, sending an embassy to Ben-hadad, king of Syria, reminding him of a league existing between Israel and Judah (2 Chron. 16:2–3), which ceased in Jehu’s reign. When Pekah, king of Israel, with Rezin, king of Syria, laid siege to Jerusalem, Ahaz formed a league with Tiglath-pileser, king of Assyria (2 Kings 16:5–10). Later we find the kings of Judah alternately allying themselves with Egypt and Assyria, according as the one or other of these powers was most likely to aid them. The prophets, however, rightly denounced the treaties by which Israel, distrusting the help of its God, sought to find support from the invasion of nations by allowing themselves to become entangled in idolatrous practices and licentious habits (Ezek. 16:20–43; Hos. 5). Respecting the rites by which treaties were ratified, see Covenants. BIBLIOGRAPHY: D. J. M. McCarthy, Analecta Biblica 21a (1978): 368. AL´LON (alʹlon; “an oak”). 1. The expression in the KJV of Josh. 19:33, “from Allon to Zaanannim,” is more correctly rendered in the NASB, “from the oak in Zaanannim” (cf. NIV, “the large tree”), which served as a landmark. 2. The son of Jedaiah and father of Shiphi, a chief Simeonite, of the family of those who expelled the Hamites from the valley of Gedor (1 Chron. 4:37). AL´LON-BAC´UTH (alʹlon-bakʹūth; “oak of weeping”). A landmark consisting of a tree marking the spot where Deborah, Rebekah’s nurse, was buried (Gen. 35:8). ALMIGHTY. The word used in the OT as the translation of the Heb. shadday, “mighty,” as, “I am God Almighty” (Gen. 17:1). In the NT it is the word for the Gk. pantokratōr, “all-powerful.” ALMO´DAD (al-mōʹdad). The son of Joktan, of the family of Shem (Gen. 10–26; 1 Chron. 1:20). He is said to have been the founder of an Arabian tribe, the locality of which is unknown. AL´MON (alʹmōn; “hidden”). The last named of the four priestly cities of Benjamin (Josh. 21:18; Allemeth, 1 Chron. 6:60). It is identified with the mound of Khirbet ‘Almit between Geba and Anathoth. ALMOND. See Vegetable Kingdom. ALMOND BLOSSOMS (Heb. shāqad, “the awakening one,” probably from its early blossoming). Cups “shaped like almond blossoms” or flowers are referred to in the NASB and NIV of Ex. 25:33–34; 37:19–20 in connection with the design of the golden lampstand in the Tabernacle. The KJV renders “almond.” See Tabernacle of Israel. For the almond as a plant, see Vegetable Kingdom. AL´MON-DIBLATHA´IM (alʹmon-dib-lā-thaʹim). The fifty-first station of the Israelites in the wilderness E of the Dead Sea (Num. 33:46–47). Perhaps the same with Beth-diblathaim (Jer. 48:22) and Diblah (Ezek 6:14). Identified with Deleilat el- Gharbiyeh, a town commanding three roads, 2½ miles NE of Libb. ALMS, ALMSDEEDS (Gk. eleēmosunē, “beneficence,” or “benefaction” itself). In Heb. ṣ dāqâ, “righteousness,” is the usual equivalent for alms (Ps. 24:5; Prov. 10:2; 11:4; Mic. 6:5). The word alms is not found in the OT but is met with frequently in the Apocrypha. The great antiquity of almsgiving is shown in Job 29:13–17. Jewish Almsgiving. The general distribution of property in Israel, and the precautions taken to prevent the alienation of inheritances on the one hand, as well as the undue accumulation of wealth on the other, with the promised blessing of Jehovah in case of obedience, tended to make extreme poverty rare. Still there would arise cases of need. Moses imposed for all time the obligation “Therefore I command you, saying, ‘You shall freely open your hand to your brother, to your needy and poor in your land’” (Deut. 15:11). Specific provisions were made for the regular distribution of alms on a large scale among the poorer members of the commonwealth—the Sabbatical year—“so that the needy of your people may eat” (Ex. 23:11); the gleanings of field and fruit and the forgotten sheaf (Lev. 23:22; Deut. 24:19–22); the tithings laid up in store every third year for the Levite, the stranger, the fatherless, and the widow (Deut. 14:28–29); the freeing at Jubilee of the poor (Lev. 25:39–54); the law giving the poor the right to enter a field or vineyard and satisfy hunger (Deut. 23:24–25); interest forbidden on loans to the poor (Ex. 22:25; Lev. 25:35–36); the command to entertain at the annual festivals the Levite, stranger, orphan, and poor (Deut. 16:11–14). It is only as we remember these laws that we can understand the expression righteousness, which the OT uses to express the idea of charity (Deut. 24:13; Prov. 10:2; 11:4). Literally meaning “right” or “acts of right,” or “justice,” ṣ dāqâ came to mean “charity,” because according to the Mosaic law the poor had an inalienable right to certain produce of the soil. Hence it does not exactly correspond to our term alms but occupies a midway position between deeds of right and love. Naturally, almsgiving came to be considered a virtue (Ezek. 18:7, 9; Prov. 19:17), and a violation of the statutes regarding it a heinous sin (Isa. 58:6–7). Among the later Jews poverty became quite prevalent, owing to foreign dominion and the oppression of wealthy Israelites. The Mosaic statutes were changed to meet the increasing claims upon the charity and benevolence of the community. Two collections were ordered: (1) a daily collection of food (Heb. tamhû, “alms for the dish”) distributed every morning and (2) a weekly collection of money (quppâ, “alms for the box”) distributed weekly. There was also a chamber in the Temple where alms were deposited for the poor of good families who did not wish to receive charity openly. Almsgiving came to be associated with merit and was looked upon as a means of conciliating God’s favor and warding off evil (Dan. 4:27). It was among the essential virtues of the godly (Isa. 58:4–7; Ezek. 18:7, 9; Amos 2:6–7). To be reduced to soliciting alms was regarded as a curse from God, and Judaism gave no encouragement to begging as a sacred calling. Christian. Almsgiving was noticed by Jesus in His warning against following the example of those who gave “to be noticed by” men. He urged His followers to give without ostentation, looking to God alone for reward (Matt. 6:1–4). The Christian spirit of caring for the needy is forcibly expressed (1 John 3:17). Christianity does not encourage indolence and consequent poverty (2 Thess. 3:10), and yet it is emphatic in insisting upon the general duty of ministering to those in distress (Luke 3:11; 6:30; 12:33; Acts 9:36; 10:2, 4). The disposition of the giver is of more account than the amount of the gift (Mark 12:41–44; 2 Cor. 8:12; see also Acts 11:29; Rom. 12:13; Eph. 4:28; 1 Tim. 6:18; Heb. 13:16). BIBLIOGRAPHY: R. deVaux, Ancient Israel: Its Life and Institutions (1961), pp. 72–76, 514ff.; J. Lawson, Theological and Historical Introduction, to the Apostolic Fathers (1961); R. Bultmann, ελεημοσονη, Theological Dictionary of the New Testament (1964), 2:77–487; D. Seccombe, Journal of Theological Studies 29 (1978): 140–43. ALMUG TREE, ALMUGWOOD. See Vegetable Kingdom: Algum Tree. ALOE, ALOES. See Vegetable Kingdom. A´LOTH. See Bealoth. AL´PHA AND O´MEGA (Α, Ω) (Gk. alpha, ōmega). The first and last letters of the Gk. alphabet, used to express the eternity of God (Rev. 1:8; 21:6; 22:13; see also Isa. 44:6). The early Christians frequently placed the letters Α, alpha, and Ω, omega, on either side of the cruciform monogram, formed from the letters Χ, chi, and Ρ, rho, the first two letters of the name Christ, in Gk. ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ. ALPHAE´US (al-fēʹus). 1. The putative father of James the Less (Matt. 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13) and husband of that Mary who, with the mother of Jesus and others, was standing by the cross during the crucifixion (John 19:25). By comparing John 19:25 with Luke 24:18 and Matt. 10:3, it appears that Alphaeus is the Gk., and Cleopas or Clopas, the Heb. or Syr., name of the same person. 2. In the KJV and NIV, the father of the evangelist Levi, or Matthew (Mark 2:14). Rendered Alpheus in the NASB. ALPHE´US (al-fēʹus). The father of the evangelist Levi, or Matthew (Mark 2:14). ALTAR (from Lat. altus, “high”; ara, “elevation”; Heb. mizbēaḥ; Gk. thusiastērion, “place of sacrifice”). Early. The altar was originally a simple elevation made of earth, rough stones, or turf. The altars for constant use, especially in temple service, were generally of stone, though they might be of other materials. Thus, in Greece, several were built of the ashes of burnt offerings, as that of Zeus at Olympia; and one at Delos made of goats’ horns. The probability is that some of the ancient monuments of unhewn stones, usually thought to be Druidical remains, were derived from altars of primitive times, as cromlechs, in the form of a table, one large stone being supported in a horizontal position upon other stones. Another form of altar was a heap of small stones with a large, flat stone placed upon its top. Many of these cairns still remain. In some instances, as at Stonehenge, a Syr. Syriac circle of stones encloses a central one, somewhat similar in construction to those found in Persia. Two pictures discovered at Herculaneum represent sacred Egyptian ceremonies, probably in honor of Isis. The altars in these pictures have at each corner a rising, which continues square to about one-half its height, gradually sloping off to an edge or point. These are, no doubt, the “horns” of the altar (Ex. 27:2). Heathen altars generally faced the E, standing one behind the other, and so placed that the images of the gods appeared behind them. Upon them were carved the name of the deity or some appropriate symbols. They were of two kinds, higher and lower: the higher for the celestial gods, and called by the Romans altaria; the lower for terrestrial deities, and called arae. There was a third kind of altar, anclabris, or enclabris, a sort of table on which the sacrificial utensils were placed and the entrails of victims laid. The mensa sacra was a table on which incense was sometimes presented and offerings not intended to be burned. Some altars, as well as temples, were dedicated to more than one god; we even read of some being dedicated to all the gods. Hebrew. The first altar on record is the one built by Noah after leaving the ark (Gen. 8:20). Mention is made of altars erected by Abraham (12:7; 13:4; 22:9), by Isaac (26:25), by Jacob (33:20; 35:1, 3), and by Moses (Ex. 17:15; 20:24–26). In the Tabernacle and Temple two altars were erected, the one for sacrifices and the other for incense. The Altar of Burnt Offering (Heb. mizbah hā˓ōlâ, Ex. 30:28; “bronze altar,” mizbah hann hōshet, Ex. 39:39; “table of the Lord,” Mal. 1:7, 12). This altar differed in construction, etc., at different times. In the Tabernacle (Ex. 27:1–8). Here the altar was a hollow square, five cubits in length and breadth and three cubits high, and was made of acacia wood overlaid with bronze (probably copper). The corners terminated in horns (which see). The altar had a grating, which projected through openings on two sides, and had four rings fastened to it for the poles with which the altar was carried. These poles were made of the same materials as the altar. The priests were forbidden to go up to the altar by steps (20:26); the earth was probably raised about the altar to enable them to serve easily. The utensils for the altar (Ex. 27:3), made of bronze (copper), were ash pans; shovels, for cleaning the altar; basins, for receiving the blood to be sprinkled on the altar; flesh hooks, i.e., large forks, to handle the pieces of flesh; fire pans (38:3), snuffers (25:38). According to Lev. 6:13, the fire on this altar was never to be allowed to go out. In Solomon’s Temple. In adapting the instruments of worship to the larger proportions of the Temple, the altar of burnt offering was, naturally, increased in size. It became now a square of twenty cubits, with a height of ten cubits (2 Chron. 4:1), made of bronze (copper). This is the altar that was restored by Asa (15:8), removed by Ahaz, probably to make room for the one erected after a model seen by him in Damascus (2 Kings 16:14); “cleansed” by Hezekiah (2 Chron. 29:18); and rebuilt by Manasseh (33:16). In the Second Temple. This altar was erected before the Temple (Ezra 3:3, 6), and on the place occupied by the former (Josephus Ant. 11.4.1). It was probably made of unhewn stone (Ex. 20:25), for in the account of the Temple service by Judas Maccabaeus it is said, “They took whole stones according to the law, and built a new altar according to the former” (1 Macc. 4:47). In Herod’s Temple. According to Josephus, this altar was a square whose sides were fifty cubits each, with a height of fifteen cubits. It had corners like horns, “and the passage up to it was by [a gradual rise from the south]. It was formed without any iron tool, nor did any iron tool so much as touch it at any time” (Wars 5.5.6). According to the Mishna, it was a square thirty-two cubits at the base, and decreasing at intervals until it was twenty-four cubits. The Mishna states, according to Josephus, that the stones were unhewn, and whitewashed every year at the Passover and the feast of Tabernacles. A pipe connected with the SW horn conveyed the blood of victims by a subterranean passage to the Kidron. Altar of Incense (Heb. mizbēaḥ miqṭar q ṭōret, “altar of incensing of incense,” cf. Ex. 30:1; called also the “golden altar,” mizbaḥ hazzāhāb, cf. Ex. 39:38; Num. 4:11). In the Tabernacle. This would seem to be the “altar … of wood,” further described as “the table that is before the Lord” (Ezek. 41:22). It was made of acacia wood overlaid with gold, and was one cubit square, with a height of two cubits having horns of the same materials (Lev. 4:7). Running around the sides near the top was a border of gold, beneath which were rings for the staves of acacia wood covered with gold, “with which to carry it” (Ex. 30:1–5). Its place was in front of the veil, midway between the walls (Lev. 16:12; Ex. 30:6). In Ex. 40:5 Moses was commanded to place this altar “before the ark of the testimony,” and in Heb. 9:4 it is enumerated among the articles within the second veil, i.e., in the Holy of Holies. The meaning, probably, is that the great typical and symbolical importance of this altar associated it with the Holy of Holies. In Solomon’s Temple. In the Temple Solomon built this altar was similar but made of cedar (1 Kings 6:20; 7:48; 1 Chron. 28:18). Upon this altar incense was burned every morning and evening (Ex. 30:7–8), and the blood of atonement was sprinkled upon it (v. 10). Being placed immediately before the throne of Jehovah (Ark of the Covenant), it was the symbol of believing and acceptable prayer. This is the only altar that appears in the heavenly Temple (Isa. 6:6; Rev. 8:3). It was the altar at which Zacharias was ministering when the angel appeared to him (Luke 1:11). Other Altars. Mention is made in Isa. 65:3 of “burning incense on bricks,” which may have reference to a Babylonian custom of burning incense on bricks covered with magical formulas or cuneiform inscriptions. An Assyrian-Damascene altar erected by Ahaz from a model seen by him in Damascus is referred to in 2 Kings 16:10–13. In Acts 17:23 Paul observes that he has “found an altar [dedicated] ‘TO AN UNKNOWN GOD.’” Reliable authorities assure us that there were several altars in Athens with this inscription. Meyer (Com., ad loc.) says, with reference to the meaning of this inscription, “On important occasions, when the reference to a god known by name was wanting, as in public calamities of which no definite god could be assigned as the author, in order to honor or propitiate the god concerned by sacrifice, without lighting on a wrong one, altars were erected which destined and designated the unknown god.” Typology of the Hebrew Altars. The altar of burnt offering (bronze altar) is commonly thought to be a type of the cross upon which Christ, our whole burnt offering (Lev. 1:1–17), offered Himself without blemish unto God (Heb. 9:14), the brass speaking of divine judgment as in the bronze serpent (Num. 21:9; John 3:14; 12:31–33). The altar of incense is a type of Christ our Intercessor (John 17:1–16; Heb. 7:25), through whom our prayers and praises ascend to God (Heb. 13:15; Rev. 8:3–4) and, in turn, pictures the believer-priest’s sacrifice of praise and worship (Heb. 13:15). BIBLIOGRAPHY: R. deVaux, Ancient Israel: Its Life and Institutions (1961), pp. 406–14; N. H. Snaith, Vetus Testamentum 28 (1978): 330–35; Y. Yadin, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 222 (1976): 5–17. AL-TAS´CHITH. See Al-tashheth. AL-TASH´HETH (al-tashʹheth). A term found in the titles of Pss. 57, 58, 59, 75. A´LUSH (aʹlūsh). The place of encampment of Israel in the desert, next to Rephidim, where there was no water (Num. 33:13–14). AL´VAH (alʹvā). The second named of the Edomite chieftains descended from Esau (Gen. 36:40). The name is translated Aliah in some versions of 1 Chron. 1:51. AL´VAN (alʹvān; “tall”). The first named of the five sons of Shobal, the Horite, of Mt. Seir (Gen. 36:23); called also Alian in some versions (1 Chron. 1:40). A´MAD (āʹmad; “station” [?]). A town near the border of Asher (Josh. 19:26); not identified. A´MAL (āʹmal; “toil”). The last named of the four sons of Helem, of the tribe of Asher (1 Chron. 7:35). AM´ALEK (amʹa-lek). The son of Eliphaz (the firstborn of Esau) by his concubine, Timna (Gen. 36:12; 1 Chron. 1:36), and chieftain of an Edomite tribe (Gen. 36:16). This tribe was probably not the same as the Amalekites so often mentioned in Scriptures, for Moses speaks of the Amalekites long before this Amalek was born (Gen. 14:7). See Amalekites. AM´ALEKITES (amʹa-lek-īts; also “Amalek, Amalekite”). An ancient race whose history is thus summed up by Balaam (Num. 24:20): “Amalek was the first of the nations, but his end shall be destruction.” Although this people is prominent in the OT, archaeology has as yet revealed nothing concerning them. In Abraham’s time we find the Amalekites SW of the Dead Sea (Gen. 14:7). In the time of Moses they occupied all the desert of et Tih to the borders of Egypt, and most of the Sinaitic peninsula, with the S country of Palestine. There was also a “hill country of the Amalekites” in Ephraim (Judg. 12:15). Two routes lay through the land of Amalek, one by the Isthmus of Suez to Egypt, the other by the Aelanitic arm of the Red Sea (i.e., the Gulf of Akabah). It has been thought that the expedition noted in Gen. 14 may have been connected with the opening of the latter route. According to the view that we have taken, Amalek, the “son” of Esau (Gen. 36:12, 16) may have been progenitor of a tribe that was merged with the original Amalekites so as to form part of the great Amalekite race, or he may have taken his name from some connection with the Amalekites, possible as Scipio won his name Africanus, or it may have been a mere coincidence. Historical accounts of Amalekites in southern Arabia will then refer to a time subsequent to their dispossession by the Israelites. Some have supposed that all the Amalekites were descended from Amalek, “son” of Esau. In that case the language of Gen. 14:7 would mean what was “all the country of the Amalekites.” The Amalekites were always bitter foes of Israel, sometimes alone, sometimes in conjunction with other tribes. Their first attack was made in time of distress at Rephidim. They were doomed to utter destruction; but though they suffered heavily, especially at the hands of Saul and David, the sentence was so imperfectly executed that there was a remnant to be smitten in the days of Hezekiah (1 Chron. 4:43). This is their last appearance in Bible history. In the Sinaitic peninsula are massive stone buildings averaging seven feet high by eight feet diameter inside, which may perhaps be remains of the Amalekites. BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. A. Smith, The Historical Geography of the Holy Land (1896), p. 282; D. Baly, The Geography of the Bible (1957), p. 159; D. J. Wiseman, ed., Peoples of Old Testament Times (1973), pp. 125, 232. A´MAM (aʹmam). A city in the S of Judah (Josh. 15:26), probably in the tract afterward assigned to Simeon (19:1–9). AMA´NA (ā-manʹa; “fixed”). A mountain (song of Sol. 4:8), part of Anti-Libanus, from which the waters of Abana flow. AMA´NAH (a-māʹna; “constant”). In the NASB of 2 Kings 5:12, the marg. reading of Abanah (which see). The KJV and NIV render Abana. AMARANTHINE (Gk. amarantinos, “unfading”). The original of KJV “that fadeth not away” (1 Pet. 5:4; cf. 1:4, Gk. amarantos), and “meaning composed of amaranth, a flower so called because it never withers or fades, and when plucked off revives if moistened with water; hence it is a symbol of perpetuity and immortality.” AMARI´AH (am-a-rīʹa; “said [i.e, promised] by Jehovah”). 1. A person mentioned in 1 Chron. 6:7, 52, in the list of the descendants of Aaron by his eldest son, Eleazar, as the son of Meraioth and father of Ahitub, 1440 B.C. There is no means of determining whether Amariah was ever high priest, but it is probable that he was the last of the high priests of Eleazar’s line prior to its transfer to the line of Ithamar in the person of Eli (which see). Josephus calls him Arophaeus and says he lived in private, the pontificate being at the time in the family of Ithamar. 2. A high priest at a later date (probably 740 B.C.), son of another Azariah and father of another Ahitub (1 Chron. 6:11; Ezra 7:3). 3. A Levite, second son of Hebron and grandson of Kohath and of the lineage of Moses (1 Chron. 23:19; 24:23). 4. A chief priest active in the reforms instituted by King Jehoshaphat (2 Chron. 19:11), 873–849 B.C. 5. One of the Levites appointed by Hezekiah to superintend the distribution of the Temple dues among the sacerdotal cities (2 Chron. 31:15), 726 B.C. 6. A Jew, son of Bani, who divorced his Gentile wife, whom he had married after the return from Babylon (Ezra 10:42), 456 B.C. 7. One of the priests who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel (Neh. 11:4), 536 B.C.; and probably the same person who years after (445 B.C.) sealed the covenant with Nehemiah (10:3). He appears to have been identical with the chief priest, the father of Jehohanan (12:13). 8. The son of Shephatiah and father of Zechariah. His descendant Athaiah was one of the Judahite residents in Jerusalem after the captivity (Neh. 11:4), 445 B.C. 9. The great-grandfather of the prophet Zephaniah (Zeph. 1:1). AMARNA, EL- (“city of the horizon”). The modern name of ancient Akhetaton, the capital city of Amenhotep IV (Akhnaton), who reigned c. 1387–1366 B.C. At this place, located some 190 miles S of present-day Cairo, a peasant woman in 1887 accidentally discovered some three hundred clay tablets in Akkadian cuneiform, the lingua franca of the fifteenth and fourteenth centuries B.C. These constituted the diplomatic correspondence of petty Canaanite princelings with their Egyptian marg. margin, marginal reading overlords Amenophis III and Amenophis IV (Akhnaton) in the first half of the fourteenth century B.C. Although many difficulties of interpretation remain, this earliest known international diplomatic correspondence seems to portray the general situation in Palestine during the Israelite invasion under Joshua. This is to be expected if the early date of the Exodus (c. 1440) and of the conquest (c. 1440) is accepted; moreover, the evidence in the letters of a large number of city-states owing allegiance to Egypt and yet free to form alliances to deal with local problems tallies with indications in the Joshua narrative. The Habiru, who appear prominently in the letters of Abdi-Hiba, governor of Jerusalem, to Akhnaton asking for Egyptian troops to stem off these invaders, were once thought to have been the invading Hebrews under Joshua. The linguistic equation making Habiru equal to Hebrew is no longer accepted by scholars. R.K.H.; H.F.V. BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Blaikie, The Amarna Age (1926); H. Frankfort, The City of Akhenaten (1933); W. C. Hayes, The Scepter of Egypt (1959), 2:280–325; W. F. Albright, Yahweh and the Gods of Canaan (1968), pp. 73–91; P. Artzi, Orientalia 36 (1967): 432; C. F. Pfeiffer, Tell el Amarna and the Bible (1963); R. Silverberg, The Rebel Pharaoh (1965); R. F. Youngblood, International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1979), 1: 105–8. AM´ASA (amʹa-sa; “burden”). 1. The son of Abigail, a sister of King David, by Jether, or Jithra (which see), an Ishmaelite (2 Sam. 17:25; 1 Kings 2:5, 32; 1 Chron. 2:17). His paternity probably led David to neglect him in comparison with the more honored sons of David’s other sister, Zeruiah. He joined Absalom in his rebellion and was appointed by him commander in chief in the place of Joab, by whom he was totally defeated in the forest of Ephraim (2 Sam. 18:6–7). Afterward David gave him command of his army in place of Joab, who had incurred displeasure by his overbearing conduct and his slaying of Absalom (19:13), after 1000 B.C. On the breaking out of Sheba’s rebellion, Amasa was so tardy in his movements (probably from the reluctance of the troops to follow him) that David dispatched Abishai with the household troops in pursuit of Sheba, and Joab joined his brother as a volunteer. Amasa overtook them at the great stone of Gibeon, and Joab, while in the act of saluting him, struck and killed him with his sword, thus ridding himself of a dangerous rival. Joab continued the pursuit of Sheba and, by his popularity with the army, prevented David from removing him from command or calling him to account for his bloody deed (2 Sam. 20:4–13). Whether Amasa be identical with the Amasai who is mentioned among David’s commanders (1 Chron. 12:18) is uncertain. 2. A son of Hadlai and chief of Ephraim, who with others vehemently and successfully resisted the retention as prisoners the persons whom Pekah, king of Israel, had taken captive in a campaign against Ahaz, king of Judah (2 Chron. 28:12), about 735 B.C. AMAS´AI (a-masʹā-ī; “burden bearer”). 1. A Levite, son of Elkanah, and father of Mahath, of the ancestry of Samuel (1 Chron. 6:25, 35). 2. One of the chief captains of Judah who, with a considerable body of men from Judah and Benjamin, joined David while an outlaw at Ziklag. He, with others, was made captain of David’s band (1 Chron. 12:18), about 1015 B.C. This is the Amasai who is supposed by some to be identical with Amasa. R.K.H. R. K. Harrison 3. One of the priests appointed to precede the Ark with blowing of trumpets on its removal from the house of Obed-edom to Jerusalem (1 Chron. 15:24). 4. Another Levite, and father of the Mahath who assisted Hezekiah in restoring the worship of God and was active in cleansing the Temple (2 Chron. 29:12), 726 B.C. AMASH´AI. See Amashsai. AMASH´SAI (a-mashʹsā-ī; probably an incorrect form of the name Amasai). The son of Azarel, and one of the priests appointed by Nehemiah to reside at Jerusalem and do the work of the Temple (Neh. 11:13), 445 B.C AMASI´AH (am-a-sīʹā; “burden of Jehovah”). The son of Zichri, a chieftain of Judah, who volunteered to assist King Jehoshaphat in his religious reform, with 200,000 chosen troops (2 Chron. 17:16), 872 B.C. AMAZI´AH (am-a-zīʹā; “Jehovah is mighty”). 1. The son and successor of Jehoash, or Joash, and the ninth ruler of Judah. He ascended the throne at the age of twenty-five and reigned twenty-nine years (2 Kings 14:1–2; 2 Chron. 25:1), 796–767 B.C. He began his reign by killing the persons who had murdered his father but spared their children according to the Mosaic injunction (Deut. 24:16). In the twelfth year of his reign he prepared a great expedition for the recovery of Edom, which had revolted from Jehoram. He raised a large army (300,000) of his own and increased it by hiring 100,000 Israelites, the first example of a mercenary army that occurs in the history of the Jews. At the command of the prophet he dismissed these mercenaries, who returned in anger and sacked several of the cities of Judah. The obedience of Amaziah was rewarded by a great victory over the Edomites, ten thousand of whom were slain in battle and ten thousand more dashed to pieces from the rocks of Sela, which Amaziah took and called Joktheel. Among the spoil that he took were the idols of Mt. Seir, in the worship of which Amaziah allowed himself to be engaged. Then began his disasters. A prophet was sent to reprove him, and he resented his faithful admonition. The prophet then foretold his downfall. Urged by arrogance or provoked by the conduct of the disbanded mercenaries, he sent a challenge to the king of Israel to meet him in battle. The king returned him a scornful reply through a parable and advised him to remain at home. Amaziah, still belligerent, was met by Jehoash and by him defeated, taken prisoner, and brought to Jerusalem, his own metropolis. The N city wall was broken down, the Temple and palace despoiled, and hostages taken. Amaziah was allowed to remain on the throne and survived about fifteen years, when a conspiracy was formed against him and he was slain at Lachish. His body was brought “on horses” to Jerusalem and buried in the royal sepulcher (2 Kings 14:1–20; 2 Chron. 25:2–28). 2. The father of Joshah, one of the Simeonite chiefs who expelled the Amalekites from the valley of Gedor in the time of Hezekiah (1 Chron. 4:34), after 726 B.C. 3. The son of Hilkiah and father of Hashabiah, a Levite of the ancestry of Ethan, a singer of the Temple (1 Chron. 6:45), considerably before 1000 B.C. 4. The priest of the golden calves at Bethel in the time of Jeroboam II, c. 793–753 B.C. He complained to the king of Amos’s prophecies of coming evil and urged the prophet to withdraw into the kingdom of Judah and prophesy there. Amos in reply told him of the severe degradation his family should undergo in the approaching captivity of the Northern Kingdom (Amos 7:10–17), c. 770 B.C. AMBASSADOR (Heb. ṣı ̂r, one who goes on an “errand”; lûṣ, “interpreter”; mal˒āk, “messenger”). The isolated position of ancient Israel rendered comparatively unnecessary the employment of ambassadors, although examples are afforded of the employment of such functionaries. They do not seem to have known of “ministers resident” at a foreign court, all the embassies of which we read being “extraordinary.” David sent ambassadors to Hanun, king of the Ammonites, to congratulate him upon his accession to the throne (2 Sam. 10:2), and Hiram sent them to Solomon for a like purpose (1 Kings 5:1). Toi, king of Hamath, sent his son Joram to David “to greet him and bless him” after his victory over Hadadezer (2 Sam. 8:10). Ambassadors were also sent to protest against a wrong (Judg. 11:12), to solicit favors (Num. 20:14), and to contract alliances (Josh. 9:3–6). Ambassadors were not considered as representing the person of the sovereign according to present thought, but rather as distinguished and privileged messengers, and their dignity was rather that of heralds (2 Sam. 10:1–5). More frequent mention is made of them after Israel came to have relations with Syria, Babylon, etc. They were usually men of high rank. The word occurs once in the NT (2 Cor. 5:20, Gk. presbeuō, to be a “senior”). AMBER. See article Glowing Metal. AMBUSH (Heb. ˒ārab, to “lie in wait”). A lying in wait and concealment to attack by surprise. Joshua, at the capture of Ai, shows himself to have been skilled in this method of warfare (Josh. 8). The attempt on the part of Abimelech to surprise Shechem (Judg. 9:30–35) appears to have been unskillful. AMEN (Heb. ˒āmēn; Gk. amēn, “true, faithful”). A word used to affirm and confirm a statement. Strictly an adjective, meaning firm, metaphorically faithful, it came to be used as an adverb by which something is asserted or confirmed. Used at the beginning of a sentence, it emphasizes what is about to be said. It is frequently so employed by our Lord and is translated “truly.” It is often used to confirm the words of another and adds the wish for success to another’s vows and predictions. “The repetition of the word employed by John alone in his gospel (twenty-five times) has the force of a superlative, most assuredly” (Grimm, Gk. Lex., s.v.). Among the Jews the liturgical use of the word is illustrated by the response of the woman in the trial by the water of jealousy (Num. 5:22), by that of the people at Mt. Ebal (Deut. 27:15–26; cf. Neh 5:13; see also 1 Chron. 16:36). It was a custom, which passed over from the synagogues into the Christian assemblies, that when he who had read or discoursed had offered up a solemn prayer to God the others in attendance responded Amen, and thus made the substance of what was uttered their own (1 Cor. 14:16). Several of the church Fathers refer to this custom, and Jerome says that at the conclusion of public prayer the united voice of the people sounded like the fall of water or the noise of thunder. AMETHYST. See Mineral Kingdom. A´MI (aʹmī). One of the servants of Solomon whose descendants went up from Babylon (Ezra 2:57). In Neh. 7:59 he is called Amon. AMIABLE (Heb. yādı ̂d, “loved”). The word occurs only in Ps. 84:1, KJV, “How amiable are thy tabernacles.” In 127:2 it is rendered “beloved.” Its plural form, signifying “delights,” is found in the title to Ps. 45, “A song of love.” AMIN´ADAB. A Gk. form (Matt 1:4; Luke 3:33, KJV) of Amminadab (which see). AMIT´TAI (a-mitʹī; “true”). A native of Gathhepher, of the tribe of Zebulun, and father of the prophet Jonah (2 Kings 14:25; Jonah 1:1), c. 800 B.C. AM´MAH (amʹmā; Heb. ˒ammâ, a “cubit”). The place reached by Joab and Abishai at sundown in their pursuit of Abner (2 Sam. 2:24). AM´MI (amʹī; i.e., as explained in the marg. of the KJV, “my people”). A figurative name applied to the kingdom of Israel in token of God’s reconciliation with them, in contrast with the equally significant name Lo-ammi given by the prophet Hosea to his second son by Gomer, the daughter of Diblaim (Hos. 1–9). In the same manner Ruhamah contrasts with Lo-ruhamah. AM´MIEL (amʹi-el; “people of God”). 1. The son of Gemalli, of the tribe of Dan, one of the twelve spies sent by Moses to explore the land of Canaan (Num. 13:12), c. 1439 B.C. He was, of course, one of the ten who perished by the plague for their “very bad report” (Num. 14:37). 2. The father of Machir of Lo-debar, who entertained Mephibosheth until he was befriended by David (2 Sam. 9:4–5; 17:27), before 1000 B.C. 3. The father of Bathsheba, wife of Uriah and afterward of David (1 Chron. 3:5), before 1030 B.C. In 2 Sam. 11:3 he is called Eliam (which see), by the transposition of the first and last syllables. 4. The sixth son of Obed-edom, and one of the gatekeepers of the Temple (1 Chron. 26:5), about 955 B.C. AMMI´HUD (am-miʹhud; “people of glory”). 1. An Ephraimite, whose son Elishama was appointed head of the tribe at the time of the Exodus (Num. 1:10; 2:18; 7:48, 53; 10:22; 1 Chron. 7:26), before 1210 B.C. 2. The father of Samuel who was the Simeonite leader appointed for the division of the Promised Land (Num. 34:20), before 1452 B.C. 3. A man of the tribe of Naphtali, whose son Pedahel was head of the tribe and was appointed for the division of the land (Num. 34:28), before 1452 B.C. 4. The father of Talmai, king of Geshur, to whom Absalom fled after his murder of Amnon (2 Sam. 13:37), before 1030 B.C. 5. The son of Omri and descendant of Pharez, and father of Uthai, who was one of the first to live at Jerusalem on the return from Babylon (1 Chron. 9:4), before 536 B.C. AMMIN´ADAB (am-minʹā-dab; “people of liberality”). 1. Son of Ram (Aram, KJV of Matt. 1:4) and father of Nahshon (Naason, KJV of Luke 3:32) who was head of the tribe of Judah at the first numbering of Israel in the second year of the Exodus (Num. 1:7; 2:3), about 1440 B.C. He was the fourth in descent from Judah, the sixth in ascent from David (Ruth 4:19–20; 1 Chron. 2:10), and one of the ancestors of Jesus Christ (Matt. 1:4; Luke 3:33; KJV renders Aminadab). He is probably the same Amminadab whose daughter Elisheba was married to Aaron (Ex. 6:23). 2. A son of Kohath, the second son of Levi (1 Chron. 6:22). In vv. 2 and 18 he seems to be called Izhar (which see). 3. A Levite of the sons of Uzziel, who, with 112 of his relatives was appointed by David to assist in bringing up the Ark to Jerusalem (1 Chron. 15:10–11), 1000 B.C. AMMIN´ADIB (am-minʹā-dib; another form of Amminadab, mentioned in the margin of song of Sol. 6:12). A person whose chariots were proverbial for their swiftness from which he appears to have been, like Jehu, one of the most celebrated charioteers of his day. AMMISHAD´DAI (am-mi-shadʹdā-ī; “people of the Almighty”). The father of Ahiezer, head of the tribe of Dan at the time of the Exodus (Num. 1:12; 2:25; 7:66, 71; 10:25), before 1440 B.C. AMMIZ´ABAD (am-mizʹā-bad; “people of endowment”). The son and subaltern of Benaiah, who was David’s captain of the host commanding in the third month (1 Chron. 27:6), 1000 B.C. AM´MON (amʹmon; “inbred,” another form of Ben-ammi, which see). The son of Lot by his youngest daughter (Gen. 19:38), about 2000 B.C. His descendants were called Ammonites (Deut. 2:20), sons of Ammon (Gen. 19:38), and sometimes simply Ammon (Neh. 13:23). AM´MONITES (amʹmon-īts). A nomadic race descended from Lot’s youngest daughter, as the more civilized Moabites were from the elder one (Gen. 19:36–38). The two tribes were so connected that their names seem sometimes to have been used interchangeably (cf. Deut. 23:3 with Num. 22:2–7; Num. 21:29 with Judg. 11:24; and Judg. 11:13 with Num. 21:26). Ammon, having dispossessed the Zamzummim (Deut. 2:19–21), dwelt E and N of Moab, from the Arnon to the Jabbok; “Sihon, king of the Amorites” having just before the Exodus taken the land between these streams from “the former king of Moab” (Num. 21:26), “from the wilderness as far as Jordan” (Judg. 11:22), and thus crowded Ammon eastward into the desert. Although the Israelites were forbidden to molest the Ammonites, Ammon was often in league with other nations against Israel, such as with Moab (Deut. 23:3–4); with Moab and Amalek (Judg. 3:12–13), with the Syrians (2 Sam. 10:1–19), with Gebal and Amalek (Ps. 83:7), and was almost always hostile, both before and after the captivity (Neh. 4:3, etc.; see also Judith, chaps. 5–7; 1 Macc. 6:30–43), till all were swallowed up by Rome. In the time of Justin Martyr (about A.D. 150) the Ammonites were quite numerous, but in the time of Origen (about A.D. 186–254) they were merged with the Arabs. The Ammonites were governed by a king (1 Sam. 12:12). The national deity was Molech (1 Kings 11:7), often called Milcom (1 Kings 11:5, 33). The capital was Rabbah, or Rabbath Ammon, for a while called Philadelphia from Ptolemy Philadelphus, but now called Amman. The Ammonites seem to have furnished a small contingent to the Syrian confederacy against Shalmaneser II (854 B.C.), and Budnilu of Ammon was among the twelve kings of the Hatti and of the seacoast who sent ambassadors to Esarhaddon at Nineveh (671 B.C.). The Ammonite names in the Bible show that the language was akin to that of the Hebrews. Solomon set an example in marrying Ammonite women, Rehoboam’s mother being Naamah, an Ammonitess (1 Kings 14:31), which example Israel was too ready to imitate (Neh. 13:23). The doom of desolation prophesied against Ammon (Ezek. 25:5, 10; Zeph. 2:9) has been literally fulfilled. “Nothing but ruins are found here by the amazed explorer. Not an inhabited village remains, and not an Ammonite exists on the face of the earth” (Thomson, Land and Book, 3:622). BIBLIOGRAPHY: Y. Aharoni, Israel Exploration Journal 1 (1950): 219–22; N. Avigad, IEJ 2 (1952): 163–64; G. L. Harding, The Antiquities of Jordan (1959); J. B. Hennessey, Palestine Exploration Quarterly 98 (1966): 155–62; S. H. Horn, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 193 (1969): 2–19; N. Glueck, The Other Side of Jordan (1970). AM´NON (amʹnon; “faithful”). 1. The eldest son of David by Ahinoam, the Jezreelitess, born in Hebron (2 Sam. 3:2; 1 Chron. 3:1), before 1000 B.C. By the advice and assistance of Jonadab he violated his half sister Tamar, which her brother Absalom avenged two years after by causing him to be assassinated (2 Sam. 13). 2. The first named of the four sons of Shimon, or Shammai, of the children of Ezra, the descendant of Judah (1 Chron. 4:20). AMOK (A-mokʹ). One of the priests who returned from exile in Babylonia with Zerubbabel (Neh. 12:7, 20). E.H.M. A´MOMUM (aʹmō-mum). The Gk. word ammōmon occurs only in Rev. 18:13, where it is rendered “spice” (see marg.). It is, however, the name of a plant. See Vegetable Kingdom. A´MON (āʹmon; “faithful”). 1. The governor of “the city” (probably Samaria) in the time of Ahab, who was charged to keep Micaiah till the king should return from the siege of Ramoth-gilead (1 Kings 22:26; 2 Chron. 18:25), 850 B.C. 2. The fifteenth king of Judah, who succeeded his father, Manasseh, at the age of twenty-two (642 B.C.) and reigned two years. He followed Manasseh’s idolatries without sharing his repentance. When he fell victim to a court conspiracy, the people avenged his death by slaying the conspirators and placing upon the throne his son Josiah, age eight. Amon was buried with his father in the garden of Uzza (2 Kings 21:19–26; 2 Chron. 33:20–25). 3. The head, or ancestor, of one of the families of the Temple servants who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel after the captivity (Neh. 7:59), before 536 B.C. 4. An Egyptian deity (Amon, “the hidden one”). See Gods, False: Amon. AM´ORITES (amʹo-rīts; Heb. always singular, used collectively, hā˒ĕmōrı ̂, “the Amorite”). A tribe descended from Canaan (Gen. 10:16) and one of the seven whose lands were given to Israel (Deut. 7:1; cf. Gen. 15:16). “The Amorite” means literally “the Westerner,” whence the name Amorites is generally supposed to mean “western highlanders” (cf. Num. 13:29; Deut. 1:7–20; Josh. 10:6), or “tall ones” (cf. Amos 2:9; see also Num. 13:33; Deut. 2:10). The Amorites were so prominent that their name seems sometimes to be used for Canaanites in general (e.g., Josh. 24:8), and in the Amarna Letters Amurri is the name for Palestine-Phoenicia. In Abraham’s day the Amorites lived W of the Dead Sea, in Hazazon-tamar (Gen. 14:7), “that is Engedi” (2 Chron. 20:2), now Ain Jidi, and about Hebron (Gen. 14:13, cf. 13:18). The Israelites found E of the Jordan two Amorite kingdoms: that of Sihon, which lay along the Jordan from the Arnon (Wadi Mojib) to the Jabbok (Wadi Zerka), and from the Jordan to the desert (Judg. 11:21–22); and that of Og, king of Bashan, from the valley of Arnon to Mt. Hermon (Jebel esh Sheik) (Deut. 3:4, 8–9). As Sihon and Og attempted to act on the offensive, Israel immediately possessed their territories (Deut. 3:8–10). The Israelites’ next collision with the Amorites was with the anti-Gibeonite confederacy of the five Amorite kings of Jerusalem, Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish, and Eglon (Josh. 10:1–43). Amorites also appear in the northern confederacy that was vanquished near the waters of Merom (11:1–14). This was the last hostile stand of the Amorites. In the days of Samuel they were at peace with Israel E.H.M. Eugene H. Merrill (1 Sam. 7:14). Solomon levied on the remnant of the Amorites and of the other Canaanite nations a tribute of bond service (1 Kings 9:20–21). The other notices of the Amorites after Solomon’s day are mere historical reminiscences. The Akkadians called the Amorites Amurru, and in the third millennium B.C. Syria-Palestine was called “the land of the Amorites.” The First Dynasty of Babylon (c. 1830–1550 B.C.) was Amorite, and its most important king, Hammurabi the Great (1728–1686 B.C.), conquered the Amorite capital Mari (which see; the site is known today as Tell Hariri) on the Middle Euphrates near present-day Abou Kemal. The dynasty of Babylon fell when the Hittites sacked Babylon c. 1550. Thousands of clay tablets from the archives of an Amorite king at Mari are now in the Louvre Museum in Paris as the result of the excavations of that ancient Amorite center since 1933 by André Parrot. From the palace archives of Zimri-Lim, the last king of Mari, more than 20,000 tablets were recovered, a large number representing diplomatic correspondence of this king with his own ambassadors and with the great Hammurabi himself. The Mari Letters shed remarkable light on the customs recounted in the patriarchal narratives of Genesis. See also Mari. BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Clay, The Empire of the Amorites (1919); E. Dhorme, Revue Biblique 37 (1928): 161–80; W. F. Albright, From Stone Age to Christianity (1957); K. M. Kenyon, Amorites and Canaanites (1966); J. van Seters, Vetus Testamentum 22 (1972): 64–81. A´MOS (āʹmos; “burden”). 1. One of the twelve minor prophets and a native of Tekoa, a town about six miles S of Bethlehem. He belonged to the shepherds there and was not trained in any school of the prophets. Yet, without dedicating himself to the calling of a prophet, he was called by the Lord to prophesy concerning Israel in the reigns of Uzziah, king of Judah, and Jeroboam, king of Israel, c. 786–746 B.C., two years before the earthquake (Amos 1:1), about 763 B.C. The exact date of his appearing, or the length of his ministry, cannot be given. The two kingdoms were at the summit of their prosperity. Idleness, luxury, and oppression were general, and idolatry prevalent. It was at such a time as this that the plain shepherd of Tekoa was sent into Israel and prophesied at Bethel. This is almost a solitary instance of a prophet’s being sent from Judah into Israel and, doubtless, attracted considerable attention. His prophetic utterances were directed against Judah as well as Israel, and closed with promises of divine mercy and returning favor to the chosen race. He was charged with a conspiracy against Jeroboam, the king, and threatened by Amaziah, the high priest of Bethel. After fulfilling his mission he probably returned to Judah. The time and manner of his death are unknown. 2. The ninth in the line of ascent from Christ, being the son of Nahum and father of Mattathias (Luke 3:25), about 400 B.C. AMOS, BOOK OF. The second quarter of the eighth century B.C. in which Amos prophesied was one of great wealth and corruption. As a result of Jeroboam II’s successes against the Moabites and the Aramaeans, the borders of the Northern Kingdom reached their widest extent since the Solomonic era (2 Kings 14:25; Amos 6:14). Fiery denunciation of the luxurious living, idolatry, and moral depravity of Israel were the subject of the rustic prophet from the mountaintop Judean village of Tekoa. But beyond the warning of judgment and final captivity upon the backslidden people, the prophet catches a magnificent glimpse of the yet-future millennial kingdom (9:11–15). Contents. The book itself falls into three divisions: Part I. Judgments upon surrounding nations—Damascus, Philistia, Phoenicia, Edom, Ammon, Moab (1:1– 2:3)—and upon Judah (2:4–5) and Israel herself (2:6–16). Part II. Divine indictment of the whole family of Jacob (3:1–9:10), including three denunciatory sermons (3:1– 6:14) and five symbolic visions (7:1–9:10). Part III. Future kingdom blessing of restored Israel (9:11–15), embracing the Messiah’s return and the establishment of the earthly messianic reign (9:11–12), millennial prosperity (9:13), and a restored Jewish nation (9:14–15). Authenticity. The divine authority of the prophecy is corroborated by the NT. Stephen, in his speech before the Sanhedrin (Acts 7:42–43), quotes Amos 5:25–27. James, addressing the Jerusalem Council (Acts 15:16), cites Amos 9:11. Criticism. Nearly all critics except the ultra-radical concede the substantial integrity of the prophecy, except for 1:9–10; 1:11–12; 2:4–5; three doxologies 4:13; 5:8; 9:5–6; and the messianic-millennial passage 9:11–15. The assumptions under which these passages are commonly regarded as later additions (glosses), however, are the result of erroneous theories of the development of Israel’s religion. Oesterley and Robinson, for example, regard 9:11–12 as exilic, because it envisions the Tabernacle of David as having fallen (Introduction to the Books of the O.T. [1934], p. 366). But A. Bentzen (Introduction to the O.T. [1949], 2:142) is correct in showing that Amos saw David’s house as fallen “because it had lost the position which it had occupied in David’s own time, not as a consequence of the events of 587, which he had not seen.” BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. D. W. Watts, Vision and Prophecy in Amos (1955); A. S. Kapelrud, Central Ideas in Amos (1961); E. B. Pusey, The Minor Prophets (1961), 1:232–341; J. K. Howard, Amos Among the Prophets (1968); R. K. Harrison, Introduction to the Old Testament (1970), pp. 883–97; R. S. Cripps, Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Amos (1981); F. A. Tatford, The Minor Prophets (1982), 1:1:1–39; J. M. Boice, The Minor Prophets (1983), 1:133–86; F. E. Gaebelein, ed., Expositor’s Bible Commentary (1985), 7:269–331. A´MOZ (āʹmoz; “strong”). The father of the prophet Isaiah (2 Kings 19:2; Isa. 1:1), before 738 B.C. According to rabbinical tradition, he was also the brother of King Amaziah, and a prophet; but of this there is no proof. AMPHIP´OLIS (am-fipʹo-lis; “a city surrounded,” so called because the Strymon flowed round it). A city of Macedonia through which Paul and Silas passed on their way from Philippi to Thessalonica (Acts 17:1). It was about thirty-three miles from Philippi. The Greek Archaeological Service excavated S of the acropolis of Amphipolis in 1920, uncovering the foundations of an early Christian basilica, and subsequently worked on the site of the necropolis, about a mile NW of the ancient town. The “Lion of Amphipolis,” erected in the early part of the fourth century B.C. to commemorate some unknown victory, was also turned up by the excavators and has been properly mounted once more along the main highway near the town. H.F.V. AM´PLIAS. See Ampliatus. AMPLIATUS (amʹpli-a-tus). A Christian at Rome, mentioned by Paul as one whom he particularly loved (Rom. 16:8; KJV renders Amplias), A.D. 60. AM´RAM (amʹram; “high people”). 1. The first named of the sons of Kohath, a Levite. He married his father’s sister Jochebed, and by her became the father of Miriam, Aaron, and Moses (Ex. 6:18, 20; Num. 26:59). He died at 137, probably before the Exodus. 2. One of the sons of Bani, who, after the return from Babylon, separated from his Gentile wife (Ezra 10:34), 456 B.C. 3. A son of Dishon, properly known as Hemdan (which see). He is incorrectly given as Amram in the KJV of 1 Chron. 1:41 (“Hamran,” NASB). AM´RAMITES (amʹram-īts). Descendants (Num. 3:27; 1 Chron. 26:23) of Amram, no. 1. AM´RAPHEL (amʹra-fel). A king of Shinar, the alluvial lowland of southern Babylonia, and an ally of Chedorlaomer in the invasion of the W in the time of Abraham, c. 2080 B.C., and formerly generally identified with Hammurabi the Great of the First Dynasty of Babylon (c. 1728–1689). This Amraphel-Hammurabi equation always was difficult linguistically but is now also disproved chronologically. M.F.U. AMULET (Heb. l hāshı ̂m, “charms”; Isa. 3:20, KJV, “earrings”). A supposed preservative against sickness, accident, witchcraft, and evil spirits or demons. Amulets consisted of precious stones, gems, gold, and sometimes of parchment written over with some inscription. They have been widely used from antiquity and are still worn in many parts of the world. They were often worn as earrings (which see), as the centerpiece of a necklace, and among the Egyptians frequently consisted of the emblems of various deities. Among the Arabs the figure of an open hand is used, as well as that of a serpent. See also Dress. Amulets formed part of the trappings that Jacob commanded his household to put away (Gen. 35:4). The most fanciful and superstitious notions have prevailed respecting the marvelous powers of gems. The gem appropriate for a particular month was worn as an amulet during the month and was supposed to exert mysterious control in reference to beauty, health, riches, and so forth. One’s person and house were thought to be protected from malignant influences by holy inscriptions placed upon the door. The existence of such a custom is implied in the attempt of Moses to turn them to a proper use by directing that certain passages of the law should be employed (Ex. 13:9, 16; Deut. 6:9; 11:18), “to look at and remember all the commandments of the Lord, so as to do them” (Num. 15:39). Such written scrolls afterward degenerated into instruments of superstition among the Jews, so that “there was hardly any people … that more used or were more fond of amulets, charms, mutterings, exorcisms, and all kinds of enchantments” (Lightfoot, Horae Heb., Matt. 24:24). These amulets consisted of little roots, parts of animals, or, more commonly, bits of paper or parchment upon which were written words or characters, and were supposed to have magical power to protect from evil spirits. One of the most frequent of the latter was the cabalistic hexagonal figure known as “the shield of David,” and “the seal of Solomon.” Many of the Christians of the first century wore amulets marked with a fish as a symbol of the Redeemer, or the pentangle, consisting of three triangles intersected and made of five lines, which could be so set forth with the body of man as to touch and point out the places where our Savior was wounded. Among the Gnostics Abraxas gems were used. At a later period ribbons with sentences of Scripture written on them were hung about the neck. The Council of Trullo ordered the makers of all amulets to be excommunicated and deemed the wearers of them guilty of heathen superstition. See Teraphim. AM´ZI (amʹzĭ; “strong”). 1. Son of Bani, of the family of Merari, and in the ancestry of Ethan, who was appointed one of the leaders of the Temple music (1 Chron. 6:46). 2. Son of Zechariah and ancestor of Adaiah, who was actively engaged in the building of the second Temple (Neh. 11:12), before 445 B.C. A´NAB (āʹnab; “grapes”). A place upon the mountains of Judah from which Joshua expelled the Anakim (Num. 13:33; Josh. 11:21; 15:50); now bearing the same name Khirbet ‘Anab; about thirteen miles SW of Hebron. ANAGOGICAL. The spiritual method of biblical interpretation relating to the eternal glory of the believer to which its teachings are supposed to lead; thus the rest of the Sabbath, in an anagogical sense, signifies the repose of the saints in heaven. A´NAH (aʹnāh; “answer”). The son of Zibeon and grandson of Seir. His daughter Oholibamah is the second named of Esau’s wives (Gen. 36:2, 14, 25). An Anah is mentioned in 36:20 as one of the sons of Seir and head of an Edomite tribe. Both passages probably refer to the same person, the word sons being used in v. 20 in the larger sense of descendants. While feeding his father’s donkeys in the desert, he discovered warm springs, from which circumstance he probably obtained the name Beeri, “the man of the wells” (cf. Gen. 26:34; 36:24). ANA´HARATH (a-nāʹha-rath; “gorge”). A town within Issachar (Josh. 19:19). Now identified with ‘En-na‘ûrah. ANAI´AH (a-nīʹa; “Jah has answered”). One of the persons (probably priests) who stood at the right hand of Ezra while he read the law to the people (Neh. 8:4), and perhaps the same as one of the leaders of the people who joined Nehemiah in a sacred covenant (10:22), 445 B.C. A´NAK (āʹnak; “long-necked,” i.e., “a giant”). The son of Arba, the founder of Kiriath-arba. He was the progenitor of a race of giants called Anakim. These Anakim were a terror to the children of Israel (Num. 13:22, 28) but were driven out by Caleb, who came into possession of Hebron (Josh. 15:13–14). ANAKIM. See Giant. ANALOGY (Gk. analogia, “proportion”). Works of God. As applied to these, analogy generally leads to the conclusion that (1) a part of a system of which he is the author must, in respect of its leading principles, be similar to the whole of that system; (2) the work of an intelligent and moral being must bear in all its lineaments traces of the character of its author; (3) the revelation of God in Scriptures is in all respects agreeable to what we know of God from the works of nature and the order of the world. Analogy of Faith. This phrase is derived from the words of the apostle Paul (Rom. 12:6), “If prophecy, according to the proportion of his faith,” and signifies the harmony of the different parts of Scripture. The parts of Scripture must be explained according to the tenor of the whole, not bringing any one part so conspicuously into view as to obscure or contradict others. Thus, for example, the exaggerated teaching respecting the dignity of the virgin Mary’s relation to our Lord has tended to obscure the doctrines relating to our Lord as the only Mediator. The better to follow the analogy of the faith, one should study the Scriptures with a love of truth for its own sake and not with the purpose of finding proof for opinions already formed. AN´AMIM (anʹa-mim). Descendants of Mizraim (Gen. 10:13; 1 Chron. 1:11) and an Egyptian tribe of which nothing is known. ANAMITES (NIV). The same as Anamim. ANAM´MELECH. See Gods, False. A´NAN (āʹnan; a “cloud”). One of the chief Israelites who sealed the covenant on the return from Babylon (Neh. 10:26), 445 B.C. ANA´NI (a-nāʹni; “cloudy”). The last named of the seven sons of Elioenai, a descendant of David, after the captivity (1 Chron. 3:24), about 400 B.C. ANANI´AH (an-a-nīʹa; “protected by Jehovah”). 1. The father of Maaseiah and grandfather of Azariah. The latter repaired a portion of the wall of Jerusalem after the return from exile (Neh. 3:23), about 445 B.C. 2. The name of a town in Benjamin, mentioned as inhabited after the captivity (Neh. 11:32), perhaps Bethany, E of Jerusalem. ANANI´AS (an-a-nīʹas; of Heb. Ananiah, “protected by Jehovah”). 1. A member of the early Christian church at Jerusalem, who, conspiring with his wife, Sapphira, to deceive and defraud the brethren, was overtaken by sudden death and immediately buried (Acts 5:1–5). The members of the Jerusalem church had a common fund, which was divided by the apostles among the poor. Those who carried into full effect the principle that “not one of them claimed that anything belonging to him was his own” sold their lands and houses and laid the price at the apostles’ feet (4:32, 34–35). One Joseph, surnamed Barnabas, had done this and, it would seem, had received hearty commendation for it. Probably incited by this and desirous of applause, Ananias and his wife, Sapphira, sold a possession and brought the pretended price to the apostle. Either their covetousness or fear of want influenced them to keep back part of the price—an acted lie. Peter was moved by the Spirit to uncover the deceit; instead of extenuating it because the lie had not been uttered, he passed on all such prevarication the awful sentence, “You have not lied to men, but to God” (5:4). Upon hearing these words Ananias “fell down and breathed his last” and was carried out and buried by the young men present (5:5–6). See Sapphira. The apparent undue severity of the punishment meted out upon Ananias and Sapphira is to be explained as “a sin leading to [physical] death” (1 John 5:16). It was an offense that involved being given over to Satan “for the destruction of his flesh, that his spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus” (1 Cor. 5:5). The ushering in of a new era at Pentecost necessitated that offenders against divine dealing in grace might be made a public example, such as Nadab and Abihu (Lev. 10:1–10) were made a similar warning when they disregarded God’s commands at the beginning of the legal age. The expression “All things were common property to them” (Acts 4:32) should not imply that the first Christians adopted a form of modern Communism, divesting themselves of individual property, and throwing all they had and earned into a common stock. They had a common fund, but that it was not binding upon all to contribute everything to it is evident from what Peter said to Ananias—that he might have kept the land if he had chosen or even have used its price after it was sold. The principle universally accepted was that none should want while any of their brethren had the means of helping them. By becoming Christians the Jewish converts suffered the loss of all things unless they had property independent of the will, favor, or patronage of others, and the proportion of these was few. So deep an offense against Jewish prejudices cast them loose from Jewish charities and involved loss of employment to such as were traders and dismissal from their employments to such as were workmen and servants, producing a state of destitution that rendered extraordinary exertions necessary on the part of the more prosperous brethren. This is illustrated and proved by what we actually see in operation at this day in Jerusalem. 2. A devout and honored Christian of Damascus, to whom the Lord appeared in a vision and bade him go to a street called Straight and inquire at the house of Judas for Saul of Tarsus (Acts 9:10–11). Ananias at first hesitated because of his knowledge of Saul’s former character and conduct. But assured of Saul’s conversion and God’s purpose concerning him, he consented. He “departed and entered the house, and after laying his hands on him said, ‘Brother Saul, the Lord Jesus, who appeared to you on the road by which you were coming, has sent me so that you may regain your sight, and be filled with the Holy Spirit.’ And immediately there fell from his eyes something like scales”; and, recovering his sight which he had lost when the Lord appeared to him on the way to Damascus, Paul, the new convert, arose, was baptized, and preached Jesus in the synagogues (Acts 9:17–20; 22:12–16), A.D. 35 or 36. Tradition makes Ananias to have been afterward bishop of Damascus and to have suffered martyrdom. 3. The high priest before whom Paul was brought previous to being taken to Felix (Acts 23). He was made high priest by Herod, king of Chalcis, who for this purpose removed Joseph, the son of Camydus (Josephus Ant. 20.5.2). Being implicated in the quarrels of the Jews and the Samaritans, he with others was sent to Rome to answer for his conduct before Claudius Caesar (20.6.2). The emperor decided in favor of the accused party, and Ananias returned with credit and remained in office until Agrippa gave it to Ismael (20.8.8). When Paul appeared before Ananias he made the declaration “I have lived my life with a perfectly good conscience before God up to this day” (Acts 23:1). Thereupon the high priest ordered the apostle to be struck in the face. Paul, indignant at so unprovoked an assault, replied, “God is going to strike you, you whitewashed wall.” Being asked, “Do you revile God’s high priest?” Paul said, “I was not aware, brethren, that he was high priest,” perhaps having overlooked in his warmth the honor due him in his official station (Acts 23:2–5). A plot having been formed against Paul, he was sent by Claudius Lysias to Felix, whither he was followed by Ananias (accompanied by the orator Tertullus), who appeared against him (23:23–24:1). Ananias was deposed shortly before Felix quitted his government, and was finally assassinated (Josephus Wars 2.17.9), 67 B.C. BIBLIOGRAPHY: D. E. Hiebert, Personalities Around Paul (1973), pp. 125–30. ‘ANAT. See Gods, False. A´NATH (aʹnath; an “answer,” i.e., to prayer). 1. The father of Shamgar, the third of the judges of Israel after the death of Joshua (Judg. 3:31; 5:6). Perhaps 1250 B.C. 2. ‘Anat (Anath, ā˒năt), a N Semitic goddess, now well known from the religious epic literature discovered as Ras Shamra (ancient Ugarit) from 1929 to 1937. See also Gods, False: ‘Anat; Asherah; Ashtoreth. ANATHEMA (Gk. anathema, a “thing laid by”). A votive offering consecrated to a god and hung up in the temple. When used in this general sense, as it often is by classical writers, it is written with a long ē, anathēma (Luke 21:5, “gifts”). The form anathema and its special meaning seem to be peculiar to the Hellenistic dialect, probably from the use made of the word by the Greek Jews. In the LXX anathema is generally the translation of the Heb. word ḥerem, to “consecrate.” The following are its uses: Old Testament. A type of vow (which see) by which persons and things were irrevocably and irredeemably devoted to the Lord (Lev. 27; Num. 21:2) and in such a way that the persons devoted had to be put to death, while the things fell to the sanctuary or to the priests. But inasmuch as the deliberate killing of anyone, even a slave, was treated as a punishable offense (Ex. 21:20), it is evident that the pronouncing of the anathema could not be left to the pleasure of any individual, since it might be used for impious purposes. The anathema, being a manifestation of the judicial holiness of God, realizing itself in executing righteous judgment upon men, assumed the character of a theocratic penalty. It could, therefore, be inflicted only by God or by the divinely appointed authorities, acting with a view to the glory of God and the upholding and edifying of His kingdom. It was sometimes a command and not a vow. The only instance in which the anathema is expressly enjoined in the law is the command against those who served other gods (Ex. 22:20), even against whole cities. In such cases the men and cattle were ordered to be put to death by the sword and the houses with their contents to be burned (Deut. 13:12–17). This was carried out, especially in the case of the Canaanites (20:17–18), but in all its severity against Jericho alone (Josh. 6:17–18). In the case of the other cities, only the inhabitants were put to death, the cities themselves being spared (Josh. 10:28–42). Often the cattle were spared and with the rest of the spoil divided among the soldiers (Deut. 2:34–35; 3:6–7; Josh. 8:21–22, 27; 11:11–12, 14). In case anyone retained a part of that which had been anathematized for his own use, he brought upon himself the anathema of death (6:18; 7:11–12; cf. Deut. 13:17). Among the Later Jews. In later years the ban of the synagogue was the excommunication or exclusion of a Jew (usually for heresy or blasphemy) from the synagogue and the congregation or from familiar communication with other Jews. This modification of the anathema owes its origin to Ezra 10:8, where the ḥerem consisted in the anathematizing of the man’s entire possessions and the exclusion of the anathematized individual from the congregation. The later rabbinical writers mention three degrees of anathema: (1) Niddu˒i, “separation,” a temporary suspension from ecclesiastical privileges, which might be pronounced for twenty-four reasons. It lasted thirty days and was pronounced without a curse. The person thus anathematized could enter the Temple only on the left hand, the usual way of departure; if he died while under anathema there was no mourning for him, and a stone on his coffin denoted that he was separated from his people and deserved stoning. (2) Ḥerem, “curse.” This was pronounced upon the individual who did not repent at the expiration of thirty days by an assemblage of at least ten persons and was accompanied with curses. The person so excommunicated was cut off from all social and religious privileges; it was unlawful to eat or drink with him (1 Cor. 5:11). The anathema could be removed by three common persons or by one person of dignity. (3) Upon the still impenitent person was inflicted the severer punishment of shammata˒, “imprecation,” a solemn act of expulsion from the congregation, accompanied with fearful curses, including the giving up of the individual to the judgment of God and to final perdition. In the New Testament. From the above we are prepared to find that the anathema of the NT always implies execration but do not think that the word was employed in the sense of technical excommunication either from the Jewish or Christian church. It occurs only five or six times. In Acts 23:12 it is recorded that certain Jews “bound themselves under an oath” (lit., anathematized themselves) “that they would neither eat nor drink until they had killed Paul.” The probability seems to be that these persons looked upon Paul as unworthy of life and considered it their religious duty to bring about his death. They therefore anathematized, i.e., devoted themselves to destruction, if they drew back from their purpose. When Peter was charged the third time with being a follower of Jesus he began “to curse and swear” (Matt. 26:74, i.e., “anathematize”). This is thought by some to be a vulgar oath; by others, an imprecation he called down upon himself in case he should be found telling an untruth. In Rom. 9:3 Paul writes, “I could wish that I myself were accursed [anathema], separated from Christ.” We have no means of knowing exactly what the apostle intended to be understood by the above expression. From the words “accursed … from Christ” we are hardly warranted in believing that he referred to either (1) the OT anathema or (2) the ban of the synagogue. Nor does it seem to refer to sudden death or a judicial act of the Christian church. Meyer (Com., ad loc.) observes, “Paul sees those who belong to the fellowship of his people advancing to ruin through their unbelief; therefore he would fain wish that he himself were a curse offering, if by means of this sacrifice of his own self he could only save the beloved brethren.” Much of the difficulty of understanding this passage would be obviated if we remember that the apostle does not give expression to a decision formally reached, but rather to a sentiment stirred within him by an unutterable sorrow. He “could wish himself accursed, if the purport of the wish could be realized to the advantage of the Israelites” (Meyer, Com.). “Let him be accursed” (Gal. 1:8–9) has the probable meaning of, “Let him be execrable and anathema.” “No one speaking by the Spirit of God says, ‘Jesus is accursed’” (anathema, 1 Cor. 12:3) means, doubtless, the act of any private individual who execrated Christ and accounted Him accursed. The thought appears to be that those who speak by the Spirit do not execrate Jesus, but confess Him as Lord. In 1 Cor. 16:22 we find the expression “Let him be accursed. Maranatha.” In this the apostle announces his accord with the will of God, that those who are destitute of love to Jesus should be doomed to final perdition. Maranatha is the Aram. phrase for “the Lord comes” and seems to be used in this connection to indicate that the fulfillment of such punishment will be associated with His coming. Roman Catholic View. “The Church has used the phrase ‘anathema sit’ from the earliest times with reference to those whom she excludes from her communion, either because of moral offenses or because they persist in heresy. In pronouncing anathema against willful heretics the Church does but declare that they are excluded from her communion, and that they must, if they continue obstinate, perish eternally” (Cath Dict.). BIBLIOGRAPHY: N. H. Snaith, The Distinctive Ideas of the Old Testament (1944). ANATHEMATA (from anatithēmi, “to lay up”). In general the term was applied to all kinds of ornaments in churches, these things having been set apart to the service of God. In Luke 21:5 the word is thus used for the gifts and ornaments of the Temple. In a stricter sense the word is used to denote memorials of great favors that men had received from God. Very early a custom, still existing, sprang up of anyone receiving a signal cure presenting to the church what was called his ectypoma, or figure of the member cured, in gold or silver. Anathemata is also a term used to designate the coverings of the altar. AN´ATHOTH (anʹa-thōth; “answers,” i.e., to prayer). 1. One of the sons of Becher, the son of Benjamin (1 Chron. 7:8), B.C. 2. One of the chief Israelites who sealed the covenant after the return from Babylon (Neh. 10:19), about 445 B.C. 3. A town in the tribe of Benjamin belonging to the priests, also a city of refuge (Josh. 21:18; Jer. 1:1). It is chiefly noted as the birthplace of the prophet Jeremiah, and also his residence (Jer. 1:1; 11:21–23; 29:27). It was a walled town of some strength, seated on a broad ridge of hills and overlooking the valley of the Jordan and the northern part of the Dead Sea. It was three miles NE of Jerusalem. Modern research identifies the present Anata with Anathoth, an hour and a quarter distant from Jerusalem, containing about one hundred inhabitants. See 2 Sam. 23:27; 1 Chron. 12:3; Ezra 2:23; Neh. 7:27. ANCHOR (Gk. ankura). Very naturally the anchor has been in use from the earliest times. In the heroic times of the Greeks large stones called eunai were used for anchors. The anchors used by the Romans were usually of iron and in shape resembled the modern anchor. The scriptural mention of the use of anchors is in Acts 27:29–30, 40. From this passage it would seem that anchors were used at both the stern and bow of vessels. Figurative. In Heb. 6:19 the anchor is used metaphorically for a spiritual support in times of trial, in which sense it is still frequently employed. In the early church it was also used with reference to the persecutions which threatened the ship of the church. In some cases, above the transverse bar of the anchor stands the letter E, probably an abbreviation of Elpis, “hope.” Sometimes the anchor was associated with the fish, the symbol of the Savior, the union of the two symbols expressing “hope in Jesus Christ.” ANCIENT OF DAYS (Aram. “advanced in days”). An expression applied to Jehovah in a vision of Daniel (7:9, 13, 22). “When Daniel represents the true God as an aged man, he does so not in contrast with the recent gods of the heathen which Antiochus Epiphanes wished to introduce, or specially with reference to new gods; for God is not called the old God, but appears only as an old man, because age inspires veneration and conveys the impression of majesty. This impression is heightened by the robe with which He is covered, and by the appearance of the hair of His head, and also by the flames of fire which are seen to go forth from His throne” (Keil, Com., ad loc.). ANCIENTS (Heb. zāqēn, “old”). The aged either decrepit or vigorous (Gen. 18:12– 13; 19:31; 24:1, etc.); elders, i.e., chief men, magistrates (Isa. 3:14; 24:23; Jer. 19:1; Ezek. 7:26; 8:11–12). See Elders. AN´DREW. (Gk. Andreas, “manly”). A native of the city of Bethsaida in Galilee (John 1:44), the son of John (21:15) and brother of Simon Peter (Matt. 4:18; 10:2; John 1:40). Receives Christ. At first a disciple of John the Baptist, Andrew was led to receive Jesus when John pointed Him out as “the Lamb of God” (John 1:36–40). He then brought his brother Simon to the Master, telling him that he had “found the Messiah” (v. 41). They both returned to their occupation as fishermen on the Sea of Galilee and remained there until, after John the Baptist’s imprisonment, they were called by Jesus to follow Him (Matt. 4:18–20; Mark 1:14–18). As Apostle. Further mention of him in the gospels includes his being ordained as one of the twelve (Matt. 10:2; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:14); his calling the attention of our Lord to the lad with the loaves and fishes at the feeding of the five thousand (John 6:8–9); his introducing to Jesus certain Greeks who desired to see Him (12:20–22); and his asking, along with his brother Simon and the two sons of Zebedee, for a further explanation of what the Master had said in reference to the destruction of the Temple (Mark 13:3–4). He was one of those who, after the ascension, continued at Jerusalem in the “upper room” (Acts 1:13). Scripture relates nothing of him beyond these scattered notices. Traditions. The traditions about him are various. Eusebius makes him preach in Scythia; Jerome and Theodoret in Achaia (Greece); Nicephorus in Asia Minor and Thrace. It is supposed that he founded a church in Constantinople and ordained Stachys (which see), named by Paul (Rom. 16:9), as its first bishop. At length, tradition states, he came to Patrae, a city of Achaia, where Aegeas, the proconsul, enraged that he persisted in preaching, commanded him to join in sacrificing to the heathen gods, and upon the apostle’s refusal ordered him to be severely scourged and then crucified. To make his death more lingering, he was fastened to the cross, not with nails, but with cords. Having hung two days, praising God, and exhorting the spectators to embrace, or adhere to, the faith, he is said to have expired on November 30, but in what year is uncertain. The cross is stated to have been of the form called Crux decussata, and commonly known as “St. Andrew’s cross, .” Some ancient writers speak of an apocryphal Acts of Andrew. BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. R. Harris, The Twelve Apostles (1927), pp. 1–139; E. A. T. W. Budge, The Contendings of the Apostles (1935), pp. 137–85; G. H. Dalman, Sacred Sites and Ways (1935), pp. 161–63; P. M. Peterson, Andrew, Brother of Simon Peter (1958); W. Barclay, The Master’s Men (1959), pp. 40–46; J. D. Jones, The Apostles of Christ (1982), pp. 87–108. ANDRONI´CUS (an-dro-nīʹkus; “man-conquer- ing”). A Jewish Christian, kinsman and fellow prisoner of Paul. He was converted before Paul and was of note among the apostles (Rom. 16:7), A.D. 60. According to Hippolytus, he became bishop of Pannonia; according to Dorotheus, of Spain. A´NEM (aʹnem; “two fountains”). A Levitical city in Issachar, assigned to the Gershomites (1 Chron. 6:73). It is called En-gannim (Josh. 19:21; 21:29). A´NER (aʹnẽr). 1. A Canaanite chief near Hebron who, with Eschol and Mamre, was confederate with Abraham. He joined in pursuit of Chedorlaomer and shared in the spoil, not following the example of Abraham (Gen. 14:13, 24), about 2060 B.C. 2. A Levitical city assigned to the Kohathites and situated in Manasseh, W of the Jordan (1 Chron. 6:70). It is called Taanach (Josh. 21:25). AN´ETHOTITE (anʹe-tho-tīt). Also Anetothite, less correct forms of anglicizing the word Anathothite. See Anathoth. ANGEL (Heb. mal˓āk; Gk. angelos, both meaning “messenger”). In some cases the word is applied to human beings (Mal. 2:7; Rev. 1:20) or even figuratively to impersonal agents (Ex. 14:19; 2 Sam. 24:16–17; Ps. 104:4). The connection must determine its force. In its most common use in Scripture the word nevertheless designates certain spiritual and superhuman beings who are introduced to us as messengers of God. There are but few books of the Bible—such as Ruth, Nehemiah, Esther, the epistles of John, and James—that make no mention of angels. With respect to their existence and nature, we find the Scriptures presenting the same progress and development as with many other subjects of revelation. Thus it is that the doctrine of angels becomes more distinct in the later periods of Jewish history and is more full and significant in the NT writings. Angels appear most frequently and conspicuously in connection with the coming and ministry of our Lord. His words concerning the angels are of unmistakable meaning and value. According to His teaching they are personal, sinless, immortal beings, existing in great number, and in close relation not only with individual men but also with the history of God’s kingdom (Matt. 13:39; 18:10; 22:30; 25:31; 26:53; Luke 15:10; 16:22). There is harmony between the teachings of our Lord upon this subject and those of the apostles and other Scripture writers. Many questions that may be raised can receive no answer whatever from the Scriptures. Of the history of the angels we can know but little. It is clear that Satan and the fallen angels (demons) were created sinless and later fell (Isa. 14:12–15; Rev. 12:3–4). Some of their number “did not keep their own domain” but fell under divine displeasure and are reserved “for the judgment of the great day” (Jude 6). Aside from the teachings of Scripture there is nothing irrational, but quite the opposite, in believing in the existence of creatures superior to man in intelligence, as there are many inferior. But we depend wholly upon the Scriptures for our knowledge. The denial of the existence of angels, as that of a personal devil and demons, springs from the materialistic, unbelieving spirit, which in its most terrible form denies the existence of God. The revelations of Scripture concerning angels are few, but nevertheless have great value: 1. They furnish a necessary safeguard against narrowness of thought as to the extent and variety of the creations of God. 2. They help us in acquiring the proper conception of Christ, who is above the angels, and the object of angelic worship. 3. They give a wonderful attractiveness to our conception of that unseen world to which we are hastening. 4. They set before us an example of joyous and perfect fulfillment of God’s will. “Thy will be done in earth as it is in heaven,” i.e., by the angels. 5. They put to shame the horrible indifference of multitudes of mankind with respect to the great work of conversion. “There is joy in the presence of the angels of God over one sinner who repents” (Luke 15:10). 6. They broaden our view of the manifold mercies of God, whose angels are “sent out to render service for the sake of those who will inherit salvation” (Heb. 1:14; cf. 12:22). 7. They remind us of our high rank as human beings, and our exalted destiny as Christians. We, who are made but “a little lower than the angels” (KJV, Ps. 8:5; NASB, “lower than God”) may become “like angels in heaven” (Matt. 22:30). BIBLIOGRAPHY: L. S. Chafer, Systematic Theology (1948), 4:5, 411–16; 7:13–15; H. Lockyer, The Mystery and Ministry of Angels (1958); A. C. Gaebelein, The Angels of God (1969). ANGELS, FALLEN. Besides the good, elect, and unfallen angels two classes of fallen angels exist: 1. The angels who are unimprisoned and follow Satan as their leader. These apparently are identical with the demons (which see). During the Great Tribulation war will ensue between “Michael and his angels” and “the dragon and his angels” (Rev. 12:7). The dragon will be cast out of the heavenlies upon the earth and his angels with him (12:8–9). These are remanded to the abyss at the second coming of Christ (20:1–3) and consigned to the lake of fire after their final postmillennial revolt (Matt. 25:41; Rev. 20:10). 2. The angels who are imprisoned are the more wicked spirits that did not maintain their original estate “but abandoned their proper abode,” being “kept in eternal bonds under darkness” awaiting judgment (Jude 6; 2 Pet. 2:4; 1 Cor. 6:3). Many Bible teachers hold that they include the fallen angels that cohabited with mortal women (Gen. 6:1–2) and were imprisoned in the nether world as a special punishment for their crime of breaking through God-ordained orders of being. M.F.U. ANGER. The emotion of instant displeasure and indignation arising from the feeling of injury done or intended, or from the discovery of offense against law. The anger attributed to God in the NT is that part of God that stands opposed to man’s disobedience, obstinacy (especially in resisting the gospel), and sin, and manifests itself in punishing the same. Anger is not evil per se, being, as love, an original susceptibility of our nature. If anger were in itself sinful, how could God Himself be angry? Paul commands the Ephesians (Eph. 4:26) that when angry they are not to sin. “Paul does not forbid the being angry in itself, and could not forbid it, because there is a holy anger, which is the ‘spur to virtue,’ as there is also a divine anger; … but the being angry is to be without sin” (Meyer, Com., ad loc.). Anger is sinful when it rises too soon, without reflection; when the injury that awakens it is only apparent; when it is disproportionate to the offense; when it is transferred from the guilty to the innocent; when it is too long protracted and becomes revengeful (Matt. 5:22; Eph. 4:26; Col. 3:8). ANGLE. See Fishhook. ANIAM (a-nīʹam). The fourth named of the four sons of Shemidah, of the tribe of Manasseh (1 Chron. 7:19). E.H.M. A´NIM (aʹnim; “fountains”). A city in the mountains of Judah (Josh. 15:50), ten miles SW of Hebron, and probably the same as the present Khirbet Ghuwein et Tahta. ANIMAL. An organized living body, endowed with sensation. In the Heb. there are several terms rendered “creature,” “living thing,” “cattle,”and so forth. The animals in Lev. 11 are divided into four classes: (1) larger terrestrial animals (v. 2); (2) aquatic animals (vv. 9–10); (3) birds (vv. 13–19); (4) smaller animals (vv. 20, 29, 41); and these classes were again distinguished into clean, i.e., eatable, and into unclean, whose flesh was not to be eaten (cf. Lev. 11 and Deut. 14:1–20). The larger terrestrial animals were, moreover, in the OT separated into cattle, i.e., tame domestic animals, and into beasts of the field or wild beasts. Clean and Unclean. The distinction between clean and unclean animals goes back to the time of primeval man (Gen. 7:2; 8:20), but it did not originate in a dualistic view of creation. According to Bible teaching all the creatures of the earth were created good and pure, as creations of the holy God (1:31). Impurity entered into creation through man’s Fall; and the irrational creature, although not affected by sin, suffered under its consequences. From the lists (Lev. 11:1–31, 46–47; Deut. 14:1–20), the clean animals (i.e., such as could be eaten) were ruminant quadrupeds, which parted the hoof, were cloven-footed, and chewed the cud; aquatic animals with fins and scales; all birds except the nineteen species named; flying insects, having two long legs for leaping, such as the grasshopper. For Sacrifice. Sacrifices were of (1) the beef kind—a cow, bull, or calf; the ox, having been mutilated, could not have been offered (Lev. 22:24); (2) the goat kind—a he-goat, a she-goat, or a kid; (3) the sheep kind—an ewe, ram, or lamb. See Sacrifice. These regulations would seem to have been abrogated by our Lord, when He taught that inward purity was the great essential (Matt. 15:11, 17–20). In his vision Peter was taught the essential cleanliness of all God’s creatures (Acts 10:11–16). Paul speaks decidedly upon this point (Rom. 14; Col. 2:16; Titus 1:15), and yet the apostolic council at Jerusalem placed things “strangled” and “blood” along with things “contaminated by idols and from fornication,” on the list of things prohibited (Acts 15:20). BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. S. Bodenheimer, Animal and Man in Bible Lands (1960); F. E. Zeuner, A History of Domesticated Animals (1963); V. Møller-Christensen and K. E. Jordt Jørgensten, Encyclopedia of Bible Creatures (1965); G. Cansdale, Animals of the Bible Lands (1970); W. W. Ferguson, Living Animals of the Bible (1972). ANIMAL KINGDOM. The proportion of animals mentioned in the Bible compared with the total number found in Bible lands is far larger than that which occurs in the case of plants. There are 38 mammals, out of perhaps 130, 34 birds out of about 350, 11 reptiles out of nearly 100, and one amphibian out of a considerable number indigenous to these lands. It is a notable fact that not a single species of fish is mentioned by name. Of insects there are 16, out of a number not as yet satisfactorily settled. Scorpions and spiders are mentioned generically. The number of species is considerable. Four only of the large number of mollusks and only one of the worms are specifically named. Coral and sponge are the generic representations of their respective orders. Few even of the mammals, except the domestic animals, are specific. Most of them are generic or family names, to which is often appended “after his kind.” Adder. See Serpent. Ant. There are large numbers of species of ants in the East, and innumerable hosts of them make their nests beside the threshing floors and wherever their favorite food is found. In every country in the world the ant is proverbial for industry, so there has never been any controversy with regard to the passage in Prov. 6:6, “Go to the ant, O sluggard.” The habits of the ants of cool climates and of those of the tropical and semitropical countries differ so much that considerable controversy has arisen as to the wisdom and foresight of this insect. Some cite 30:25: “The ants are not a strong folk, but they prepare their food in the summer.” There are, however, certain facts in regard to the ants of the Holy Land that settle this controversy in favor of the rigid accuracy of the author of the Proverbs: (1) The ants of these countries lay up vast stores of grain in their nests. (2) To facilitate this act of providence they place their nests as near as possible to the places where grain is threshed or stored. (3) They certainly eat this grain during the winter season. (4) They encourage certain insects that secrete sweet juices to consort with them and collect and store their eggs with their own, that they may have them at hand for future use when they shall have hatched. Antelope. An animal referred to in Heb. as t ˒ô in the NASB and NIV of Deut. 14:5 and Isa. 51:20. In the Gk. versions and the Vulg. the word is translated generally oryx (Antilope leucoryx). This animal is characterized by long, slender, cone-shaped horns and is white with a conspicuous tuft of black hair under its throat. Its habitat is Upper Egypt, Arabia, and Syria. The Targums, however, rendered the Heb. word “wild ox” (so also the RV) but probably had in mind the bubale (Antilope bubalis) of Arabia and Egypt, classified by Arabs with wild oxen. M.F.U. RV Revised Version See also Ibex. Ape (Heb. qôp, “monkey”). We have no hint as to the kinds of apes that were brought by the merchant navies of Solomon and Hiram, but it is probable that they were numerous. They are distributed in considerable numbers throughout all the countries bordering on the Mediterranean, though they are not indigenous to any except the United Arab Emirates and Gibraltar. The Heb. word qôp (Akkad. uqūpu, and Sanskrit kapi) is rendered “ape” and probably includes apes that are tailless and monkeys that possess tails. If they came from India, they were a species of tailed monkey, common to the area and worshiped there. Arrowsnake. See Serpent. Asp. See Serpent. Ass. See Donkey. Baboons. See Peacocks. Badger (Heb. taḥash). See Porpoise. The badger of the KJV is not the same as the rock badger of the NASB, which replaces the KJV coney. Bald Locust. See Locust. Bat (Heb. ˓ăṭallēp). The Hebrew idea of a bat was “a fowl that creeps, going upon all fours.” It was unclean (Lev. 11:19). It is in reality a mammal and not a bird at all; its wings are membranous and destitute of feathers. It lives in caverns, tombs, or ruins (Isa. 2:19–21). The bat is a voracious destroyer of fruit, making it necessary for those who try to raise it in the neighborhood of cities to cover the clusters, or even the whole tree, with a net. There are about fifteen species of bats in the Holy Land. Bear. The bear is now a somewhat rare animal in Syria, being confined to the higher regions of Lebanon, Anti-Lebanon, and Amanus, and found sparingly in the wilder portions of Bashan, Gilead, and Moab. It is rarely or never seen now in western Palestine. It is known in science as Ursus Syriacus, Ehr. and differs from the brown bear of Europe by its grayish fur. It was once abundant in Palestine (1 Sam. 17:36; 2 Kings 2:24). The Scripture alludes to the cunning of the bear (Lam. 3:10), to the ferocity of the she bear robbed of her cubs (2 Sam. 17:8; Prov. 17:12; Hos. 13:8), to the danger of the bear to man (1 Sam. 17:34, 36; Amos 5:19). The bear feeds principally on roots, fruits, and other vegetable products but does not fail to avail itself of the chance to devour any animal that may come in its way. Hence the significance of the picture of the peaceful reign of Christ (Isa. 11:7). Beast. In the Bible, used in three distinctive ways: 1. Of a mammal, not man, as distinguished from creeping things and birds of the heavens (Gen. 1:29–30). Wild beasts in Scripture are differentiated from domesticated animals (Lev. 26:22; Isa. 13:21–22; Jer. 50:39; Mark 1:13). 2. Of the inferior animals, including birds and reptiles, as differentiated from human beings (Ps. 147:9–10; Eccles. 3:19; Acts 28:5). 3. Figuratively, of a fierce, destructive political power, as for example, the four successive world powers—Babylon, Media-Persia, Greece, and Rome of Dan. 7:1–7. In Rev. 13:1–10 the composite beast represents the final Antichrist, whereas a beast with lamb’s horns portrays the false prophet of the end times (13:11–18). Unregenerate man’s (i.e., Gentile) civilization and government in its outward KJV King James Version NASB New American Standard Bible manifestation is brilliant and dazzling (cf. the shining metallic colossus of Dan. 2:31– 45), but internally it is evil and cruel, like so many wild beasts (7:1–7). M.F.U. See also Behemoth; Wild Beasts. Bees. In the Holy Land, although bees occasionally make their hives in trees, as in other countries (1 Sam. 14:25–26), they generally resort to clefts in the rocks, almost always inaccessible to man. There are several allusions to the rocky homes of the bees (Deut. 32:13; Ps. 81:16). They are especially abundant in the wilderness of Judea (Matt. 3:4), and they resent with great fury any interference by man with their retreats (Deut. 1:44; Ps. 118:12). The number of wild bees at present in Palestine would not justify the expression “a land flowing with milk and honey.” It is, however, probable that they were far more numerous at the time when the Israelites entered Canaan. Honey is used not only in its separate state, but fruit is preserved in it, and it is used as a sauce for a variety of confections and pastries. It was a standard article of commerce (Ezek. 27:17). Stores of it were collected at Mizpah (Jer. 41:6–8). It was not allowed to be used in burnt offerings (Lev. 2:11). The honey in the carcass of the lion (Judg. 14:8) is best explained by the rapidity with which a carcass is denuded by wild beasts and ants in this hot climate and then dried in the blazing sun. According to the author of Proverbs (24:13), it is good to eat honey but (25:16, 27) not to indulge to surfeit. Other references to honey convey various moral lessons (Ezek. 3:3; Ps. 19:10; Prov. 16:24). Beetle. See Cricket; Locust. Beeves. See Cattle; Ox. Behemoth (be-hē˒mōth; “colossal beast”). The plural of the Heb. word for beast, used in Job 40:15–24 of the hippopotamus, only excelled by “leviathan.” The description of the behemoth is the climax of the passage begun in chap. 38 and carried upward until it culminates in the exclamation at the end of chap. 41: “He looks on everything that is high; he is king over all the sons of pride” (41:34). The hippopotamus is a pachyderm, the largest except for the elephant and the rhinoceros, amphibious in habits, living on vegetable food, and corresponding well with the description in Job 40. It is found in the upper Nile and was common in the lower in ancient times. It may have been found in the Jordan (40:23), although poetic license would make it quite possible that the mention of that river should have reference only to its aquatic habits and its courage, not to its geographical range. Indeed, “a river” of the first member of the parallelism can only mean the Nile, and the mention of the Jordan in the second would seem to be simply to strengthen the hyperbole. Bird. A number of Heb. words are rendered bird, as barbūr, ˓ôp, ṣippôr. However, the barbūr is the lark-heeled cuckoo, a delicacy served on Solomon’s table (1 Kings 4:23). See Cock. The ˓ōp is a generic word for bird. The ṣippôr is the lowly sparrow. In the NT “birds” (KJV, “fowls”) is the rendering most frequently of Gk. ta peteina. 1. Birds were divided into clean and unclean, the latter including the carrion birds, fish hunters, and some others, as the hoopoe. Domestic fowl are mentioned, but it is nowhere said that they were eaten. It is, nevertheless, extremely probable that they were so used. M.F.U. Merrill F. Unger 2. The allusions to birds’ nests in the Bible are frequent and forcible. They were made in the sanctuary (Ps. 84:3), rocks (Job 39:27; cf. Num. 24:21; Jer. 49:16), trees (Ps. 104:17; Jer. 22:23; Ezek. 31:6). Nests were concealed in ruins (Isa. 34:15) and holes (Jer. 48:28). The NT nests (Matt. 8:20; Luke 9:58) were mere roosts. 3. Eggs are frequently alluded to (Deut. 22:6; Job 39:14; Isa. 10:14). They were well-known articles of food (Luke 11:12). 4. Migration of birds (song of Sol. 2:11–12; Jer. 8:7), their singing (Eccles. 12:4; Ps. 104:12), flight (Ex. 19:4), care of young (Deut. 32:11–12), voracity (Matt. 13:4), and many other characteristics are alluded to. Bittern. A KJV term replaced in the NASB by Hedgehog (which see). Black Kite. See Kite. Boar. See Swine. Bull, Bullock. See Ox. Buzzard (Heb. ˓ozniyyâ; the “fish eagle,” Pandion halioetus, L; KJV, “osprey”; NIV “black vulture”). An unclean bird (Lev. 11:13; Deut. 14:12) that fishes along the coasts of the Holy Land and in Hûleh. Calf. See Ox. Camel (Heb. gāmāl; Gk. kamēlos). One of the most useful of the domestic animals of the East. With the exception of the elephant it is the largest animal used by man. It is often eight feet or more in height and possesses great strength and endurance. It has a broad foot, which enables it to walk over sandy wastes without sinking deeply beneath the surface. It has a provision in its stomach that enables it to store enough water to travel for days without drinking. It is capable of subsisting on the coarsest and bitterest of herbage and can take into its horny mouth the most obdurate thorns, which it grinds up with its powerful teeth and digests with its ostrich- like stomach. To offset its great height it is formed to kneel, so that it can be loaded as easily as a donkey and then rise with its burden of five hundred pounds and plod on through the hottest day and the most inhospitable waste of the deserts, in which it finds its congenial home. The hump on its back is not only a help to retaining its pack saddle but also a storehouse of fat, in reserve against its long fasts. The flesh, although forbidden to the Israelites, is eaten by the Arabs and sold in the markets of all oriental cities. Its skin is used in making sandals and its hair in the weaving of the coarse cloth of which their tents and outer garments are made. Its milk and the products made from it are a prime element in the diet of the Bedouin. The allusions to the camel in the Scripture are so numerous that it is unnecessary to point them out. Archaeological discoveries show the effective domestication of the camel at least as early as 1200–1000 B.C., so that swarms of camel-riding Midianites in Gideon’s time (c. 1155–1148 B.C.), as recounted in Judg. 6–7, and later the wealthy camel caravan of Solomon’s royal visitor the queen of Sheba (1 Kings 10:1–2), about 950 B.C., offer no difficulties historically. Apparently the earliest known art depiction of a Near-Eastern camel (one-humped) is a late Hurrian work from Tell Halaf, now in the Walters Art Gallery of Baltimore, dating about 1,000 B.C. However, references to domesticated camels in Abraham’s time (c. 2000 B.C.) have been set aside by such writers as T. E. Peet, Egypt and the Old Testament (1924) p. 60, R. Pfeiffer, Introduction to the O.T. (1941), p. 154, and others. This idea seems to be presumptuous in the light of such evidence as camel statuettes, bones, and other NIV New International Version references that appear in archaeological materials beginning about 3,000 B.C. (cf. J. P. Free, “Abraham’s Camels,” Journal of Near Eastern Studies [July 1944]: 187–93). Free’s research concerned the use of camels in Egypt. In recent years numerous indications of the domestication and use of camels in Mesopotamia and Syria during the patriarchal period have come to light. K. A. Kitchen has collected some of this information (see Ancient Orient and Old Testament [1966], pp. 79–80; “Camel,” Illustrated Bible Dictionary [1980], 1:228–30). H.F.V. Since wild camels were known from earliest times, there is no credible reason why such an indispensable animal in desert and semi-arid lands should not have been sporadically domesticated in patriarchal times and even earlier. Large scale domestication after the twelfth century B.C., however, greatly expanded desert trade as a result of the advantages of camel nomadism over donkey nomadism, enabling camel traders to travel much greater distances on this animal specially adapted to desert conditions. Figurative. In two passages (Matt. 19:24; 23:24) the size of the camel is made the basis of comparison. There is not a particle of evidence in favor of the statement that the needle’s eye, in the former passage, refers to the smaller gate cut through the panel of the city gates of the East or that such a gate is, or ever was, called a needle’s eye. The whole force of the comparison in both passages is found in the hyperbole. Moreover, no camel could ever be forced through one of these small gates. See also the bibliography that follows the last entry under Animal Kingdom. Cankerworm. See Locust. Carrion Vulture. See Vulture. Cat. The cat is not alluded to in the Bible except in the Apocrypha (Epistle of Jer. 21). It is not mentioned in classical authors except when treating Egyptian history. This seems the stranger as there are two species of wild cats in Palestine, and the domestic cat is exceedingly common now all through the East. Caterpillar. See Locust. Cattle (the rendering of several Heb. and Gk. words). Cattle were of prime importance to the Hebrews, whose first employment was the care of flocks and herds. On their arrival in Egypt they were assigned to the land of Goshen, on account of its pastoral facilities. They then became herdsmen and shepherds to Pharaoh. One of the words, miqneh, translated “cattle,” signifies “possessions.” It includes horned cattle, horses, donkeys, sheep, and goats. The specific word for animals of the bovine species, and for sheep and goats, is also occasionally rendered cattle. Also b hēmâ, which means, primarily, “beast” in general. Chameleon (Heb. kōaḥ, KJV; but Heb. tinshemet, NASB, NIV). There is no possibility of determining with certainty the animal intended by this Heb. word in the list of creeping things (Lev. 11:30). It was probably a lizard and more likely to have been the Nile monitor than the chameleon. The NASB renders it land crocodile; the NIV, monitor lizard. The Nile monitor attains a length of five to six feet, and the chameleon four to five. On the authority of the LXX and the Vulg. the KJV has rendered it “chameleon.” On the other hand the NASB and NIV have rendered tinshemet, at the end of the verse, “chameleon,” instead of “mole” of the KJV. This is based on the fact that tinshemet is derived from a root signifying “to breathe” and that the ancients believed H.F.V. Howard F. Vos LXX Septuagint that the chameleon lived on air. This somewhat fanciful idea is hardly probable enough to do away with the authority of the LXX and the Vulg., which render the word “mole.” The reference, however, is not to the true mole but to the mole rat, Spalax typhlus, which is abundant in Bible lands. If the above views are correct, chameleon should be dropped from the biblical fauna. Chamois. See Mountain Sheep. Chicken. See Cock. Chicks. See Cock. Cock. The only mention of domestic fowl in the OT is in connection with the daily provision for Solomon’s table (1 Kings 4:23). The Heb. word barbūr has been rendered “swans,” “geese,” “guinea fowls,” “capons,” and “fatted fish,” as well as the “fatted fowl” of the KJV and the RV. However, the delicacy referred to is the lark- heeled cuckoo (Centropus aegyptius Shelley), a dainty morsel even to the present day in Italy and Greece. In the NT the cock crowing is mentioned as a measure of time in connection with Peter’s denial of Christ (Matt. 26:34, 74; Mark 14:30; Luke 22:34; John 18:27). Cocks are not regular in their times of crowing, sometimes crowing twice, and at other times irregularly through the night or before the dawn (Mark 13:35). The hen is alluded to but once in the Scripture (Luke 13:34). Cockatrice. A KJV term appearing in Isa. 11:8; 14:29; 59:5; Jer. 8:17. See Serpent. Cockow, Cuckoo. See Sea Gull. Colt. See Donkey; Horse. Coney. See Rock Badger. Coral (Heb. rā˒mâ, “high” in value). It is uncertain what substance is intended by the word rā˒môt, rendered “coral” by the KJV, NASB, and NIV. As coral, however, is a precious commodity, and highly suitable for the requirements of the only two passages in which the word occurs, we may rest contented with this translation (Job 28:18; Ezek. 27:16). This substance is the skeleton of microscopic zoophytes. It is of a great variety of colors, shapes, and consistency, the most valuable being red. Many of the branches of coral are extremely beautiful. The Red Sea was probably named on account of the red coral growing in its waters. The best coral is brought from Persia and the Red Sea, but a good quality is also found in the Mediterranean. Fine specimens of the best colors may bring $50 an ounce. Coral was highly valued among the ancients and the Arabs for making beads and other ornaments. Cormorant. In the list of unclean birds (Lev. 11:17; Deut. 14:17) the word cormorant is probably the correct rendering of the Heb. shālāk. It is abundant in the Holy Land, and it is a large black bird that subsists by fishing. Its scientific name is Phalacrocorax carbo. In the KJV the term cormorant appears also in Isa. 34:11; Zeph. 2:14, but in those verses it should be pelican, that being the true rendering of the Heb. original, qā˒at, “vomiting.” See Pelican. Cow. See Ox. Crane. The word occurs twice in the KJV (Isa. 38:14; Jer. 8:7) and once in the NASB (Isa. 38:14) and should be rendered “twittering,” or “twitterer,” as applied to the swallow or some similar bird. Notwithstanding the opinion of the KJV, the RV, RV Revised Version and the NASB, we think that the crane ought to be dropped from the list of biblical birds. Creeping Locust. See Locust. Cricket. The rendering of the NASB, NIV, and RV, of the Heb. word ḥargōl in Lev. 11:22. This is the corrected translation of “beetle” of the KJV. The word cricket also appears in NASB Deut. 28:42, but as the rendering of a different Heb. word, which the KJV renders “locust” (which see). The creature referred to belongs with the locust and the grasshopper, since it is winged and leaps rather than creeps. The chief leaping insects belong to three families of Orthoptera (the grasshoppers, the locusts, and the crickets). The ḥargōl undoubtedly belongs to one of the three, though to which now cannot be determined. The KJV rendering of ḥargōl by “beetle” does not take into account that the most typical species of the Coleoptera (beetle order) do not leap. Crocodile (marg. Job 41:1). A well-known saurian, found in ancient times in Lower as well as Upper Egypt but now confined to the upper waters of the Nile. It was probably abundant in the Kishon in Bible days. It is said to be still found there. It is the creature intended by “monster” (Ezek. 29:3; 32:2). See also Chameleon; Dragon; Jackal; Leviathan. Cuckoo, Cuckow. See Sea Gull. Deer. An animal, Cervus dama, L., once found in Palestine but now probably extinct S of Amanus. The KJV translates Heb. ˒ăyyāl as “hart,” whereas the NASB and NIV translate it as “deer” (Deut. 12:15, 22; 14:5; 15:22; 1 Kings 4:23; Ps. 42:1; Isa. 35:6), “young stag” (song of Sol. 2:9, 17; 8:14), and “bucks,” or “deer” (Lam. 1:6) in the NASB and NIV respectively. The “fallow deer” in the KJV of Deut. 14:5; 1 Kings 4:23 is a mistranslation of Heb. yaḥmûr. It is correctly rendered “roebuck” in the NASB and NIV. The female deer, or hind (Heb. ˒ayalâh), appears always as “hind” in the KJV. In the NASB it is rendered by “hind” (2 Sam. 22:34; Ps. 18:33; Prov. 5:19; song of Sol. 2:7; 3:5), “doe” (Gen. 49:21; Jer. 14:5), and “deer” (Job. 39:1; Ps. 29:9). In the NIV it is rendered “deer” (2 Sam. 22:34; Ps. 18:33; Prov. 5:19), “doe” (Gen. 49:21; Job 39:1; Prov. 5:19; Jer. 14:5), and “gazelle” (song of Sol. 2:7; 3:5). See also Doe for a reference to the female mountain goat. Desert Owl. See Owl; Peacocks. Doe. In one place (Prov. 5:19; Heb. ya˓ălâ; KJV, “roe”) doe should be wild she- goat. Elsewhere it refers to the female deer (which see). KJV “roe” is normally rendered “gazelle” (which see) in the NASB. See Goat, Wild. Dog (Heb. keleb; Gk. kuōn, “dog”). The dog referred to in the Scriptures is invariably the unclean animal so familiar in the streets of all oriental cities. He is a cowardly, lazy, despised creature. He eats garbage, dead animals (Ex. 22:31), human flesh (1 Kings 14:11), and blood (22:38). His is the lowest type of vileness (2 Sam. 3:8; Isa. 66:3). Dogs wander through the streets (Ps. 59:6, 14). With all their cowardice they are treacherous and violent (22:16, 20). The only good thing said of them is that they watch the flocks (Job 30:1; Isa. 56:10–11). Christ compares the Gentiles to them (Matt. 15:26), and those who are shut out of heaven are called dogs (Rev. 22:15). The price of a dog (Deut. 23:18) probably refers to sodomy. The return marg. margin, marginal reading of a fool to his folly is compared to one of the most disgusting of the many filthy habits of the dog (Prov. 26:11; 2 Pet. 2:22). Doleful Creatures. A KJV term that appears in Isa. 13:21; the NASB and NIV render “owl,” with a marginal reading in NASB of “howling creatures.” The point of the allusion is the fact that such creatures resort to ruins and deserted dwellings, and it indicates the desolation that has overtaken them. Donkey (Heb. ḥămôr, the “male donkey”; ˓ātôn, “female donkey”; Gk. onos, “donkey”; hupozugion, “under the yoke”). The donkey is one of the earliest and most frequently mentioned animals alluded to in the Bible. They are spoken of in connection with the history of Pharaoh (Gen. 12:16), Abraham (22:3), Jacob (32:5), Moses (Ex. 4:20), Balaam (Num. 22:21–33), and in fact most of the notable persons mentioned in the OT. There was nothing in any sense degrading in the idea of riding on a donkey, as might perhaps be inferred from Zech. 9:9 (cf. Matt. 21:7). It was the sign of the peaceful mission of Christ. Kings, high priests, judges, and the richest people of ancient and modern times have ridden on donkeys. Many of the donkeys of Damascus, Baghdad, Aleppo, Cairo, Cyprus, and other parts of the East are beautiful animals, easy in gait, and perfectly surefooted. They often cost high prices and are adorned with magnificent trappings. They have also been used from earliest times as beasts of burden. Special breeds of them are raised for this purpose. Some of them are small and cheap, whereas others are but little smaller than a mule and carry burdens of greater weight in proportion to their size than any other animal. The pack saddle differs according to the use to which it is put. The familiar crosstree is employed for firewood. Abraham doubtless loaded the wood for the sacrifice in this way (Gen. 22:3). When sheaves of grain are to be loaded a kind of cradle is suspended to this or to the flat saddle. This latter, called in Arabic a jebâl, is composed of an under layer of thick felt and an upper of strong haircloth, with a padding between, about six inches in thickness, of straw or sedges. This saddle is flat on top and bent down over each side of the animal, so as to protect his ribs from the pressure of the load. Over such a saddle as this, sacks of grain or cut straw are thrown and tied fast by a rope passing under the breast. The sons of Jacob probably used this sort (42:26–27). If sand is to be carried, small panniers are slung over the saddle, and hang down on either side without touching the body. If bread or other provisions, not liable to be injured by pressure, are taken, larger panniers are used. In something similar to this Jesse and Abigail may have sent their presents (1 Sam. 16:20; 25:18). If fruit is to be carried, two boxes are slung in a similar manner. Children are often carried in this way in larger boxes. Probably Moses’ wife sat on a jebâl, with her children in boxes on either side of her, when going down to Egypt (Ex. 4:20). Sacks of grain or straw are often slung across the bare back of a donkey. Donkeys were also used for plowing (Isa. 30:24; 32:20). The Israelites were not allowed to yoke an ox and a donkey together (Deut. 22:10). They were not allowed to eat its flesh, yet in the stress of hunger during the siege of Samaria they violated this law (2 Kings 6:25). The female donkey is the one intended in a number of places not indicated in our translations (Num. 22:21–33; 1 Sam. 9:3; 2 Kings 4:22, 24). David had an officer to take care of his female donkeys (1 Chron. 27:30). Donkey colts (Gen. 49:11) are also called foals (Job 11:12), young donkeys (Isa. 30:6), and colt (Zech. 9:9). They are all translated from the same Heb. word, ˓ayir. Wild donkeys are frequently mentioned, two Heb. words (pere˒, “running” wild; ˓ārôd, “lonesome”) being so translated. Both are found together in one parallelism (Job 39:5) but rendered by the single expression “wild donkey.” We have no means of knowing whether they refer to the same or different species. The wild donkey is found in the deserts nearest to Palestine. Dove. (Heb. yōnâ; Gk. peristera). Four species of wild pigeons are found in Bible lands, the ring dove, or wood pigeon, the stock dove, the rock dove, and the ash- rumped rock dove. They are all known by the Arab. name of hamâm. They make their nests in the clefts and holes of the rocks (song of Sol. 2:14; Jer. 48:28; Ezek. 7:16). They also nest in trees. They are unresisting (Matt. 10:16) and therefore suitable for sacrifice (Gen. 15:9; Lev. 12:6–8; Mark 11:15; Luke 2:24; John 2:14–16). They are timid (Hos. 11:11); they fly great distances in their migrations (Ps. 55:6–8); they are gentle (song of Sol. 1:15; 4:1; etc.). Therefore a dove was the form in which the Holy Spirit descended on Jesus Christ (Matt. 3:16). See Turtle, Turtledove. Wild doves are numerous in some parts of the Holy Land. There are also vast numbers of tame pigeons in all the cities and villages. They have been kept from the earliest times. Being acceptable for sacrifices, they were also clean and used as food. Dove’s Dung. Several theories have been formulated to explain the difficulty in regard to this material as an article of food (2 Kings 6:25): (1) That it was a kind of plant, such as one known by that name to the Arabs. But it is unlikely that any plant would have been found in any quantity in a place in the last extremity of famine. (2) That it was in reality dung but used as a fertilizer, to promote the quick growth of vegetables for food. This is fanciful and not supported by the context. (3) That the people, in the depth of their despair and starvation, actually ate this disgusting material. This seems the most probable view and is supported by the fact that a similar occurrence took place in the English army in 1316. Dragon (Heb. tannı ̂m). The word dragon (Heb. tannı ̂m; Gk. drakōn) appears much more frequently in the KJV than in the NASB and NIV, where it is sometimes replaced by the word jackal from Heb. tan (see also Whale, for another translation of tan and tannı ̂m). In the NASB the word appears three times in the OT: in connection with Leviathan (which see; Isa. 27:1); as an example of the strength of the Lord, who “pierced the dragon” (51:9); and as the name of a spring (Nah. 2:3). It does not appear at all in the NIV in the OT. In the NT (Rev. 12:3–4, 7, 9, 13, 16, 17; 13:2, 4, 11; 16:13; 20:2) it refers to a mythical monster, which is variously described and figured in the legends of all nations. This monster is used as a lively figure of Satan (which see). In the KJV OT “dragon” is used with several meanings: 1. In connection with desert animals and in those cases best translated by “wolf,” although the NASB and NIV use “jackal” repeatedly (Job 30:29; Ps. 44:19; Isa. 13:22; 34:13; 35:7; 43:20; Jer. 9:11; 10:22; 14:6; 49:33; 51:34, 37). The feminine form, Heb. tannâ, is found in Mal. 1:3. 2. As a reference to a sea monster (Pss. 74:13; 148:7, which give “sea monster,” or “sea creature,” in the NASB and NIV; Isa. 27:1, which renders “dragon” in both the NASB and KJV but “monster of the sea” in NIV). 3. As a reference to serpents, even of the smaller sorts (cf. KJV, NASB, and NIV of Deut. 32:33; Ps. 91:13; see also Ex. 7:9–10, 12). 4. As a reference to a crocodile or monster (cf. KJV, NASB, and NIV of Jer. 51:34; Ezek. 29:3; 32:2). Dromedary. The references to the dromedary in the KJV of Isa. 60:6; Jer. 2:23 should be rendered “young camel” (Heb. bikrâ; cf. NASB and NIV readings). In the NASB of 1 Kings 4:28; Esther 8:10, the Heb. terms are given as “swift steeds” and “steeds.” The NIV renders “horses” and “fast horses.” See also Camel. The dromedary is the Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius) and is native to India, the Near East, and the northern part of Africa. It has one large hump on the back, unlike the Bactrian camel (C. bactrianus), which has two. Eagle. The word eagle in the KJV includes both the eagles proper and the vultures. There are no less than four of the former and eight of the latter in the Holy Land. The most common of the vultures are the griffon and the Egyptian vulture, commonly known as Pharaoh’s chicken. Of the eagles the most common is the short- toed eagle, Circoetus Gallicus, Gmel. All of these birds are swift (Deut. 28:49), soar high (Prov. 23:5), nest in inaccessible rocks (Job 39:27–30), and sight their prey from afar (Job 39:29). Besides the above references the habits of eagles and vultures are alluded to in numerous passages (Num. 24:21; Job 9:26; Prov. 30:17–19; Jer. 49:16; Ezek. 17:3; Obad. 4; Hab. 1:8; Matt. 24:28; Luke 17:37). The tenderness of the eagle to its young is also graphically set forth (Ex. 19:4; Deut. 32:11), and its great age is noted (Ps. 103:5, Isa. 40:31). See also the bibliography that follows the last entry under Animal Kingdom. Eagle Owl. See Owl. Eggs. See Bird. Elephant. An animal whose tusks furnished ivory (1 Kings 10:22, KJV marg. 2 Chron. 9:21, marg.). The animal is mentioned in 1 Macc. 1:17; 3:34 in connection with its later use in war, each beast being manipulated by an Indian driver and supporting on its broad back a tower from which as many as four soldiers fought (1 Macc. 6:37, where 32 is obviously erroneous). Before combat, elephants were often inflamed by the smell or taste of wine (1 Macc. 6:34; 3 Macc. 5:2). Two extant species of this huge animal are the Elephas indicus (Indian elephant) and the Elephas africanus (African variety), with several other types now extinct. Ewe. See Sheep. Falcon. A “bird of prey” known for its keen eyesight (Job 28:7). See also Kite; Vulture. Fallow Deer. See Roebuck. Ferret. See Gecko. Fish. The Gk. language has more than four hundred names of fish. The Heb., as we have it in the Bible, has not even one. Nevertheless, fish are mentioned frequently in the Scriptures. They are classified as clean, having fins and scales, and unclean, those not so furnished. Whales, seals, dugongs, and other creatures, now known to be lung breathers, were regarded by the Hebrews as fish. There are forty-five species in the inland waters and large numbers in the Mediterranean Sea. Dagon, the god of the Philistines, had a man’s body and a fish’s tail. There are many allusions to fishing in the Bible. Flea (Heb. par˓ōsh). A most annoying and unfortunately common insect in the East. David compares himself to a flea in order to discredit Saul (1 Sam. 24:14). The similar reference (1 Sam. 26:20) is considered by some as an error in the text. Fly (Heb. z bûb). The immense number of flies in the East is one of its most striking characteristics. The number of species is also large. The Heb. zƒbûb, which is part of the name of the god of Ekron, Baal-zebub, is generic, but as the housefly is the most familiar representative it would be most frequently thought of in connection with this name. It is uncertain whether the plague of flies, ˓ārōb, refers to the swarming of a single species (NASB, Ps. 78:45, “swarms of flies”) or a multiplication of such noxious insects (KJV, “divers sorts of flies”). “Devoured them” can hardly mean ate them up bodily, nor bit them, but destroyed their food and overwhelmed them with their nastiness. Foal. See Donkey; Horse. Fowl. See Bird. Fox. In several places it is uncertain whether Heb. shû˓āl; Gk. alōpēs, signifies “fox” or “jackal” (Lam. 5:18; Ezek. 13:4; song of Sol. 2:15). In others it doubtless means “jackals” (Judg. 15:4; Ps. 63:10). The difficulty in regard to the number of jackals that Samson turned loose into the fields of the Philistines disappears if we consider that he probably collected them, doubtless with the aid of his companions, over a wide district of the Philistine plain, and set them loose in pairs, at perhaps as many as 150 centers, so as to burn up as much as possible of the “shocks and the standing grain, along with the vineyards and groves” (Judg. 15:5). In only one place is it more probable that fox is intended (Neh. 4:3); Gk. alōpēs in the NT can mean nothing but “fox.” The Syrian fox is identical with the common European fox, Vulpes vulgaris, L. Frog (Heb. ṣ pardēa˓). The frog of the Egyptian plague (Ex. 8:2–14) is Rana esculenta, L., an amphibian, common everywhere in Egypt and the Holy Land (see Wisd. of Sol. 19:10). Gazelle. The correct rendering of ṣ bı ̂ (“beauty”), translated “roe” and “roebuck” in the KJV (Deut. 12:15, 22; 14:5; 15:22; 2 Sam. 2:18; 1 Kings 4:23; 1 Chron. 12:8; Prov. 6:5; song of Sol. 2:7, 9, 17; 3:5; 4:5; 7:3; 8:14; Isa. 13:14). Note that “fallow deer,” Heb. yaḥmûr, in the KJV of Deut. 14:5; 1 Kings 4:23, is properly “roebuck” and is so translated in the NASB (“roedeer” in NIV of Deut. 14:5). The gazelle is the smallest of the antelopes in the Holy Land. It is abundant in the wildest portions of the country, and its beauty and speed are often alluded to in sacred and profane poetry. Its scientific name is Gazella Dorcas, L. See also Deer. Gecko (Heb. ˒ănāqâ, “wail,” NASB and NIV, Lev. 11:30, for KJV, “ferret”). This lizard is named from the plaintive wail that it emits. Its scientific name is Ptyodactylus Hasselquistii, Schneid. It is frequently found in houses. It runs with great rapidity and clings to walls and ceilings by the suckers with which its feet are furnished. It is in no way probable that the Heb. original of this word signifies the “ferret,” which is a weasel-like animal in modern times kept for hunting rabbits and rats. Gier Eagle. A KJV term of indefinite meaning, referring to the soaring of birds of prey. For KJV “gier eagle” (Heb. rāḥām), Deut. 14:17, the NASB renders “carrion vulture,” and the NIV, “osprey.” See Vulture for a discussion of Heb. peres, rendered “gier eagle” in the RV but “vulture” in the NASB. Glede. An old name for kite (which see). The NASB and NIV of Deut. 14:3 render “red kite” in place of KJV “glede.” Gnat (Gk. kōnōps). The wine gnat or midge used in fermenting and evaporating wine. Gnats or mosquitoes are irritating pests in all parts of the East and are common in the low-lying marshy lands of Palestine and Egypt. The term may refer to any small bloodsucking insect and the more minute creatures, whether bloodsuckers or not, which torment man and beast. Figurative. Among the Jews, the custom of filtering wine was founded on the prohibition of “winged insects” being used for food, excepting saltatorii (see Lev. 11:22–23). The saying of our Lord “You blind guides, who strain out a gnat and swallow a camel” (Matt. 23:24) was doubtless taken from this custom. The contrast between the smallest insect and the largest animal is used to illustrate the inconsistency of those who are superstitiously anxious in avoiding small faults, yet do not scruple to commit the greatest sins. Gnawing Locust. See Locust. Goat (Heb. ˒aqqô, “slender”; yā˓ēl, “climbing”; ˓ēz, “strong”; ˓attûd, “prepared,” and so “leader”; śā˓ı ̂r, “shaggy”; Gk. eriphion, tragos). An animal often associated with sheep and mentioned with them in many places in Scripture, once in sharp contrast (Matt. 25:32–33). Owing to the unlovely disposition of the goat it was used less often for ordinary sacrifices. Nevertheless it was an allowable animal (Lev. 3:12; 4:24; 9:15; 10:16; chap. 16, passim; Num. 15:27; 28:22). Goats were only second in importance to sheep as a source and investment of wealth. Figurative. In Matt. 25:32–33, sheep and goats are used to represent the righteous and the wicked respectively. “The wicked are here conceived of under the figure of goats, not on account of the wantonness and stench of the latter (Grotius), or in consequence of their stubbornness (Lange), but generally because these animals were considered to be comparatively worthless (Luke 15:29); and hence, in v. 33, we have the diminutive ta ’eriphia for the purpose of expressing contempt” (Meyer, Com. on Matt. 25:32–33). See also Gods, False: Shaggy Goat; Wild Goat. Goat, Wild. See Wild Goat. Grasshopper. See Locust. Great Lizard (NASB, RV, Lev. 11:29; KJV, “tortoise”). The Heb. ṣāb is the cognate of the Arab. dabb, which is the term applied to the land monitor, Psammosaurus scincus, an animal often six feet long, and to another lizard, Uromastyx spinipes, which attains a length of two feet, and has a short rounded head, and a tail surrounded by rings of spines. Although there are land and sea tortoises in the Holy Land and its adjacent sea, ṣāb does not refer to any of them; hence the NASB and NIV translation, “great lizard.” See also Lizard. Great Owl. See Owl. Greyhound, a translation of Heb. zarzı ̂r matnayim, “girt in the loins” (Prov. 30:31, marg.). The greyhound, portrayed on Assyrian monuments, may be intended. The word, on the other hand, may denote the “war-horse” (RV marg.), decorated with Com. Commentary trappings around the loins, or the starling, as the cognate word in Arab., Syr., and postbiblical Heb. suggests. The NASB renders “the strutting cock.” M.F.U. Hare. See Rabbit. Hart. See Deer. Hawk (Heb. nēṣ, Lev. 11:16; Deut. 14:15; Job 39:26; taḥmās, Lev. 11:16; Deut. 14:15). There are eighteen species of the hawk “in its kind,” ranging in size from the little sparrow hawk to the buzzard. These are exclusive of the kites and gledes. See also Night Hawk. Hawk, Night. See Night Hawk. He Ass. See Donkey. Hedgehog. A hedgehog may be “any of a genus Erinaceus of Old World nocturnal insectivorous mammals having both hair and spines that they present outwardly by rolling themselves up,” or it may be “any of several spiny mammals (as a porcupine)” (Webster’s). NASB hedgehog (Isa. 34:11) replaces KJV bittern, but the modern bittern refers to a type of heron (which see). The NIV reads “owl,” or “screech owl.” Heifer. See Ox. Hen. See Cock. Heron. There are six species of herons in the Holy Land. As the Heb. ˒ănāphâ (Lev. 11:19; Deut. 14:18) is associated with the stork and accompanied by the qualifying phrase “in their kinds,” it is reasonable to accept “heron” rather than eagle, parrot, swallow, or ibis, all of which have been suggested in its place. Hind. Another word used for female deer (which see). Hippopotamus. See Behemoth. Honey. See Bee. Hoopoe. Probably the correct translation of Heb. dûkıp̂ at, Lev. 11:19; Deut. 14:18; KJV, “lapwing.” It is a migratory bird, Upupa epops, L., which spends the summer in the Holy Land and the winter in more southerly districts. Its head is often figured on the Egyptian monuments. If it is the bird intended by dûkıp̂ at, it was unclean. Hornet (Heb. ṣir˓â, “stinging”). An insect with a formidable sting. It is found in considerable abundance in the Holy Land. Commentators are at variance as to whether the intention of the passages in which it is mentioned (Ex. 23:28; Deut. 7:20; Josh. 24:12) is literal or figurative. There are several species of hornets in the Holy Land. Horse. Indo-European nomads E of the Black Sea domesticated the horse early. War horses and horse-drawn chariots were introduced in Asia Minor and Syria between 1900 and 1800 B.C., and the patriarchal narratives make mention of horses at the time of Jacob (Gen. 49:17). The horse was found in Egypt, where it was introduced by the Hyksos, who began to infiltrate as early as about 1900 B.C. When the Exodus took place (c. 1440 B.C.) Pharaoh’s pursuing army was furnished with horses and chariots (Ex. 14:9; 15:19). Horses were also found in the host of Sisera at the time of Deborah (c. 1195–1155 B.C.; Judg. 4–5). M.F.U. The Hebrews were at first forbidden to retain the horses they captured (Deut. 17:16) and accordingly disabled most of those which they took (Josh. 11:4–9). But they soon ceased to regard this restriction and accumulated large studs of cavalry and Syr. Syriac chariot horses, mostly from Egypt and Assyria. Solomon had twelve thousand cavalry and four thousand chariot horses. Riding a horse was usually a sign of military rank. Many high functionaries, however, rode donkeys, mules, and camels. For a more detailed discussion of the horse, see articles Horse; Horses, Horsemen. For the use of the term horses in Esther 8:10 (NIV), see Dromedary. Horseleech. See Leech. Howler. See Owl, no. 3. Hyena (Heb. ṣabûa˓, “speckled”). The hyena is common throughout the Holy Land and would be one of the beasts of the field to devour the carrion (cf. NASB and NIV, Isa. 13:22). The place name Zeboim (1 Sam. 13:18; Neh. 11:34) means “hyena.” It may be referred to in the “beasts” of KJV Isa. 3:18. See Jackal. R.K.H. Ibex (Heb. dı ̂shôn, “leaper”; KJV, “pygarg”). Probably the addax, Antilope addax, Licht., an animal found in the Syrian and Arabian deserts (but note that in the NASB and NIV of Deut. 14:5 “antelope” is distinct from the ibex and replaces KJV “wild ox”). The ibex is mentioned in only one of the two lists of clean animals (Deut. 14:5). There seems to be no authority for KJV marg., “bison.” See also Antelope. Jackal (NASB, Heb. tan, “monster”; KJV, Heb. tannı ̂m, “monster”). In the NASB and NIV “jackal” from Heb. tan sometimes appears in place of KJV “dragon” or “sea monster,” from Heb. tannı ̂m (Job 30:29; Ps. 44:19; Isa. 13:22; 34:13; 35:7; 43:20; Jer. 9:11; 10:22; 14:6; 49:33; 51:37; Mic. 1:8). See Dragon. It would be better rendered wolf (which see). In the RV the marg. reading for Jer. 14:6 is “crocodile,” whereas “jackal” is the reading in the NKJV and NIV of the verse. We believe this also should be rendered “wolf.” On the other hand “wild beasts of the islands” (KJV, Jer. 50:39) should be “jackals,” and is so rendered in the NASB. The NIV renders “hyenas” here. “Jackal” should in some cases be substituted for “fox,” as the translation of shû˓āl. See Fox. The jackal, a familiar nocturnal animal with a peculiar howl, feeds on live prey and carrion. See also Owl, no. 8. Kid. See Goat. Kine. See Ox. Kite. A bird of prey belonging to the falcon family with long pointed wings and forked tail. Kites are of various sorts (Deut. 14:13). The black kite appears in Palestine in March and feeds on offal. The word kite in the RV renders Heb. dā˒â and dayyâ (Lev. 11:14; Deut. 14:13; in KJV “vulture”) and twice this name is employed in the KJV to render ˒ayyâ (Lev. 11:14; Deut. 14:13; in NASB, “falcon”; in NIV, “black kite”). See also Gier Eagle; Glede; Vulture. M.F.U. Lamb. See Sheep. Land Crocodile. See Chameleon. Lapwing. See Hoopoe. Leech (Heb. ˓ălûqâ, “sucking,” Prov. 30:15). Either one of the leeches, Hirudo medicinalis, Sav., or Hoemopis sanguisorba, Sav., found in stagnant waters throughout the land. R.K.H. R. K. Harrison NKJV New King James Version Leopard (Heb. nāmēr, “spotted”; Gk. pardalis, Felis leopardus, L.) a wily, active, ferocious beast (Isa. 11:6; Jer. 5:6; Dan. 7:6; Hab. 1:8; Rev. 13:2). Next to the bear it is the largest of the existing carnivora in the Holy Land. It has a beautiful spotted skin (Jer. 13:23), which is highly admired and is used for rugs and saddle covers; one is sometimes hung over the back by religious mendicants. The cheetah or hunting leopard, Felis jubata, Schreb., is probably included under the Heb. generic name nāmēr. Leviathan (Heb. liw yātān). A word signifying an animal writhing or gathering itself into folds; used for the “crocodile” (Job 3:8, “Leviathan,” NASB, NIV, but “their mourning,” KJV; 41:1, “leviathan,” or “Leviathan,” NASB, NIV, KVJ, with marg. “crocodile,” NASB, NIV; also Ps. 74:14); for a “serpent” (Isa. 27:1); for some “sea monster” (Ps. 104:26), possibly the whale. However, leviathan may be purely a mythical concept adapted to biblical usage (as dragon used to prefigure Satan). Since the discovery of the Ras Shamra religious texts in Syria on the site of ancient Ugarit, it has become evident that there is a parallel between the seven-headed Canaanite monster Lotan of prevailing mythology, 1700–1400 B.C., and the biblical leviathan. Isaiah seems to employ this ancient mythological idea of the destroyed leviathan poetically (Isa. 27:1) to symbolize the Judgment Day when God will triumph over the threatening evil of this world system. Lice. Notwithstanding the authority of the RV (marg., Ex. 8:16; Ps. 105:31) “sandflies” or “fleas” for Heb. kēn and its derivatives, and the NASB and NIV rendering “gnats,” the weight of evidence is in favor of the KJV translation “lice.” These filthy insects are an endemic pest of the first magnitude in the East. What it must have been when they became universal is beyond the power of our imagination to conceive. The Muslims shave their heads and use means to cause hair to fall out by the roots in other parts of their bodies to escape this pest. This is the inheritance of an ancient custom of the Egyptian priests and other inhabitants. Lion. The well-known king of beasts, formerly abundant in Palestine (Judg. 14:5; 1 Sam. 17:34; 2 Kings 17:25; Jer. 49:19, etc.) and not extinct there until the end of the twelfth century. Seven words, ˒aryēh, k pı ̂r, gûr, lābı,̂ layish, shaḥal, and shāḥāḥ, are used to denote the lion in general or at different ages and in different states. Four words shā˒ag, nā˒ar, nāham, and hagâ, express his voice in varying moods, as the “roar,” “yell,” or “growl.” Six words denote his attitudes and movements in quest of prey, rābaṣ, shāḥaḥ, yāshab, ˒ārab, rāmaś, zinnēq, as “prowling,” “crouching,” and “ambushing.” Figurative. The Scriptures abound in allusions to the strength, courage, cruelty, and rapacity of this beast. His royal attributes made him an emblem of Christ (Rev. 5:5). Little Owl. See Owl. Lizard (Heb. l ṭa˒â), a family term, occurring in a list (Lev. 11:30) of six, all of which are rendered by names denoting lizards. A considerable number of the lizard family are found in the Holy Land, and several of them are common about houses, especially the wall lizard, Zootica muralis, Laur.; the sand lizard, Lacerta agilis, L.; and the green lizard, L. viridis, L. See also Chameleon; Gecko; Great Lizard; Mole. Lizard, Great. See Great Lizard. Locust (Heb. ˒arbeh, generic term). The devastations that the locust is capable of producing made it a fitting instrument of one of the ten memorable plagues of Egypt. Two species, Aedipoda migratoria and Acridium peregrinum, are the most common. They are always to be found in the southeastern deserts but, from time to time, multiply in vast numbers and spread over the whole country, carrying ruin and despair everywhere. The poetical and prophetical books abound in vivid descriptions of their destructiveness and the powerlessness of man to resist them. Eight Heb. words seem to refer to locusts, some of them probably to various stages in their development. It is, however, impossible to determine the exact meaning of each. Locusts were undoubtedly eaten (Matt. 3:4). Jahn (Biblical Archaeology, sec. 23, s.v.) gives a vivid description of locusts: “Vast bodies of migrating locusts, called by the orientals the armies of God, lay waste the country. They observe as regular order, when they march, as an army. At evening they descend from their flight, and form, as it were, their camps. In the morning, when the sun has risen considerably, they ascend again, if they do not find food, and fly in the direction of the wind (Prov. 30:27; Nah. 3:16–17). They go in immense numbers (Jer. 46:23), and occupy a space of ten or twelve miles in length, and four or five in breadth, and are so deep that the sun cannot penetrate through them; so that they convert the day into night, and bring a temporary darkness on the land (Ex. 10:14–15; Joel 2:2, 10). The sound of their wings is terrible (Joel 2:5). When they descend upon the earth, they cover a vast track a foot and a half high; if the air is cold and moist, or if they be wet with the dew, they remain … till they are dried and warmed by the sun (Nah. 3:17). Nothing stops them. They fill the ditches which are dug to stop them with their bodies, and extinguish by their numbers the fires which are kindled. They pass over walls and enter the doors and windows of houses (Joel 2:7–9). They devour everything which is green, strip off the bark of trees, and even break them to pieces by their weight (Ex. 10:12–19; Joel 1:4, 7, 10, 12, 16, 18, 20; 2:3).” The palmerworm (Heb. gāzām, “devouring”) does not appear in the NASB or NIV but is instead rendered as “gnawing locust,” or “locust swarm” (Joel 1:4; 2:25) or “caterpillar” (Amos 4:9). Nor does cankerworm appear, being replaced by “creeping locust,” or “young locust” (Joel 1:4; 2:25). The bald locust of KJV Lev. 11:22 is replaced in the NASB by “devastating locust,” and by the NIV as “katydid.” The cricket appears in the NASB for Deut. 28:42 and Lev. 11:22 but as the translation of two separate Heb. terms (rendered as “locust” in Deut. 28:42 and “beetle” in Lev. 11:22). The NIV translates “cricket” in Lev. 11:22 but “swarms of locusts” in Deut. 28:42. See also Cricket. Locusts, grasshoppers, and caterpillars appear in the KJV, NASB, and NIV, but the relationship of these terms to one another and to the underlying Heb. is complex, as a study of concordances for the KJV, NASB, and NIV readily indicates. See also the bibliography that appears at the end of the article on the Animal Kingdom. Mice. See Mouse. Migration of Birds. See Birds. Mole. No true mole exists in the Holy Land. The mole rat, Spalax typhlus, Pall., may be the animal intended by Heb. tinshemet (Lev. 11:30, NASB and NIV, “chameleon,” which see). Another Heb. term, ḥ pōr pērôt, is translated “moles” in Isa. 2:20. It would perhaps better be translated “burrowing rats,” or “mice,” being understood as generic for all the numerous burrowers found in waste places. The mole rat is a rodent (which is the NIV translation), whereas the mole is one of the insectivora, which comprise the shrews, hedgehogs, and moles. A third Heb. word, ḥōled, is translated “mole” in the NASB of Lev. 11:29, and “weasel” in the KJV and NIV of that verse. The cognative Arab. of the term, huld, refers to the mole rat, Spalax typhus, and the term must be understood in a family sense for all the Mustelidoe, as the marten, ichneumon, genet, and polecat. Monitor Lizard. See Chameleon. Moth. Several species of the family Tineidae that infest woolen goods and furs. It is almost impossible to guard against them in the Eastern climate. The people wrap up their carpets and clothes with pepper grains, tobacco, pride of India leaves, and other substances. The scriptural and apocryphal allusions to moths are a significant reference to their subtle and noxious abilities (Job 4:19; Hos. 5:12; Matt. 6:19–20; Luke 12:33; Sir. 19:3; 42:13). Mountain Sheep (Heb. zemer; KJV, “chamois”). The mountain sheep was almost certainly known to the Israelites by its Heb. name zemer. It was within the reach of them, as it was spoken of as an animal they might eat. The mountain sheep of Egypt and Arabia is known as the aoudad and the kebsh. It is probable that it was abundant in the Sinai, where it is to be found even now. It is distinguished from the other animals of its group by the long hair on its throat and breast, extending like a ruffle to its foreknee. Its horns resemble those of the beden, or mountain goat. Mouse. The number of species of mouselike animals in the Holy Land is about forty. Probably all of them are included in the generic prohibition (Lev. 11:29). One species was eaten by the rebellious Israelites, along with swine’s flesh (Isa. 66:17). We cannot be sure what species it was. It may have been the hamster, which is said to be eaten by the Arabs. Mule. Mules were not allowed according to the Mosaic law (Lev. 19:19). Yet they were used early in the period of the kings (2 Sam. 13:29; 18:9; 1 Kings 1:33, etc.). They were imported from Beth-togarmah (Ezek. 27:14). The Heb. term pered undoubtedly refers to the mule. Nest. See Bird. Night Creature. See Owl, no. 3. Night Hawk. The Heb. taḥmās is uncertain in meaning. Some have rendered it “ostrich,” others “owl.” As the owl is mentioned in the list (Lev. 11:16; Deut. 14:15), and at least one other word exists for the ostrich, the RV has done well in transliterating in the marg. “tahmas,” with the gloss “of uncertain meaning.” See also Hawk; Owl. Night Monster. See Owl. Onycha (on˒ı ̄-ka), a substance mentioned as an ingredient of the holy perfume (Ex. 30:34). It is the operculum of shells of Strombi and is prepared for use by roasting, which evolves the oil on which its aromatic properties depend. Osprey. See Buzzard; Gier Eagle; Vulture, no. 4. Ossifrage. See Vulture. Ostrich (Heb. r nānim, “birds of piercing cries,” Job 39:13, NASB and NIV; elsewhere ya˓ănâ). The KJV translates ya˓ănâ or bat ya˓ănâ as “owl,” sometimes with a marginal reading “ostrich.” The RV, NASB, and NIV correctly and uniformly render it “ostrich.” The ostrich is a well-known bird, found in the deserts of Africa and Arabia. Its renown for voracity is due to the large size of the pebbles, bits of glass, or other objects that it swallows, as fowls swallow gravel, to assist in the subdivision of their food in the gizzard. The female ostrich makes a shallow nest and lays so many eggs that some of them are left uncovered and therefore not incubated. She does, however, cover most of them with sand and, while leaving them to the influence of the sun’s rays by day, incubates them by night. The ostrich, when pursued, runs against the wind and in large circles, a fact that enables the hunter to lie in wait for it and thus partially neutralize the advantage of its great speed. It is not true that it hides its head in the sand on the approach of danger. When compared with some other birds, as the partridge, noted for their cunning in concealing their eggs and young and escaping from their enemies, the ostrich, which runs away from eggs and chicks in the frantic desire to escape by its great speed, seems open to the charge of stupidity (Job 39:14–17). Ostrich plumes graced ancient royal courts as fans. An ivory-handled fan of King Tutankhamen still retains its lovely ostrich plumes in the National Museum at Cairo after more than three thousand years. See also Owl. Owl. The rendering of several Heb. words of which perhaps only two actually refer to this broad-headed, large-eyed bird. 1. Heb. bat ya˓ănâ (Lev. 11:16; Deut. 14:15; Isa. 13:21; 34:13; 43:20; Jer. 50:39; Mic. 1:8) is certainly the ostrich (which see), and is so rendered in the NASB. The NIV translates “owl” in all these passages. 2. Heb. lı ̂lı ̂t (Isa. 34:14) is a nocturnal specter or more precisely a night demon, not a “screech owl” (KJV). NASB reads “night monster,” and the NIV, “night creature.” 3. Heb. qippôz (Isa. 34:15) is perhaps the dart snake (RV), not the “great owl” (KJV). The NASB reads “tree snake,” and NIV, “owl.” 4. Heb. tinshemet (Lev. 11:18) is rendered “swan” (KJV and Vulg.), “water hen” (RSV), or “white owl” (NASB and NIV). See also Swan. Note that in Lev. 11:30 tinshemet is translated “mole” in the KJV and “chameleon” in the NASB and NIV. 5. Heb. yanshôp (Lev. 11:17; Deut. 14:16; Isa. 34:11) is rendered “ibis” (LXX and Vulg.), “owl” (Targums and Peshitta), and “great owl” (KJV, NASB, and NIV). The species may, however, be the Egyptian eagle owl (Bubo ascalaphus), living in caves and ruins about Beersheba and Petra. 6. Heb. kôs, “a cup” (Lev. 11:17; Deut. 14:16; Ps. 102:6). The Heb. term is rendered “little owl” (NASB, NIV, and KJV), “owl of the waste places” (NASB), and “owl of the desert” (KJV). The reference is probably to the little owl, Athene glaux, commonly seen in Palestine at twilight. The Athenians considered this bird wise and associated it with their patron deity, stamping its image on their silver money. 7. Heb. taḥmās is rendered “owl” in the NASB and “night hawk” in the KJV. 8. Heb. ˒ōaḥ, a “howler” (Isa. 13:21, marg., “Ochim”) is rendered “doleful creatures” in the KJV but “owl” in the NASB, and “jackals” in the NIV. Ox. RSV Revised Standard Version 1. The translation of Heb. shôr. The cognate Arab. thaur (Gk. tauros; Lat. taurus) refer to the male. Shôr, however, is generic for both sexes and all ages. Though generally translated “ox,” it is sometimes rendered “bull.” 2. Cow. The rendering of Heb. bāqār, which is also generic for bovines; b qarâ, with the feminine ending, signifies the “cow.” 3. Bull. The equivalent of Heb. par, or pār. The feminine pārâ is once used (Num. 19:2) for “heifer.” Sometimes the term ˒abbı ̂r, “strong one,” is used metaphorically for “bull” (Ps. 22:12; Isa. 34:7), but it is also used in the same sense for the “horse” (Jer. 8:16; 47:3). 4. Calf, Heifer. The rendering of Heb. ˓ēgel and ˓eglâ. Once “heifer” is used as the equivalent of pārâ (Num. 19:2). 5. Wild Ox. The translation of Heb. t ô (Deut. 14:5, KJV). Wild Bull is the rendering of Heb. tô˒ (Isa. 51:20, KJV). The NASB, NIV, and RV correctly render “antelope” (which see). “Unicorn” of the KJV is rendered “wild ox” in NASB, NIV, and RV (Num. 23:22; 24:8; Job 39:9–10; Ps. 29:6; 92:10). See also Wild Ox. M.F.U. Ox, Wild. See Wild Ox, below. Palmerworm. See Locust. Partridge (Heb. gōrē, a “caller,” from its “cry”). There are two species of partridges in the Holy Land, Caccabis chukar, C. R. Gray, the red-legged partridge, and Ammoperdix Heyi, Temm., the sand partridge. The former is generally found in the middle and upper mountain regions and the Syrian desert. The latter is peculiar to the Dead Sea and Jordan Valley. This may be the one alluded to by David (1 Sam. 26:20). The passage Jer. 17:11, in which RV has adopted the KJV marginal rendering, “gathereth young which she hath not brought forth,” is obscure. It may refer to pirating a nest, after the manner of the cuckoo, or decoying away the chicks of another bird. Although no modern authority has witnessed such theft, some of the ancients believed that the partridge was guilty of it. Peacocks. In one place where KJV has given “peacock” (Job 39:13) the original is Heb. r nānâ, which is undoubtedly a name for the ostrich, as in NASB, NKJV, and NIV. In the other two passages where “peacocks” occurs in NASB, KJV, and RV (1 Kings 10:22; 2 Chron. 9:21), the reference is unquestionably to this lordly bird. The Heb. tŭkkı ̂ survives in a similar word tokei, which is the Tamil name of the bird. Since it is now known that the words for the ivory and apes that Solomon imported are of Indian origin, the equation tūkkı ̂ = “peacock” may be defended as it finds a satisfactory origin in Malabar togai, toghai (Old Tamil tokei, togu), a peacock. The peacock (Pavo cristatus) is native to India where it is unmolested and common. However, another rendering of tūkkı ̂ is possible as a result of evidence from Egypt, where it may be equated with t.ky (monkey), the letter t (feminine particle) indicating two varieties of monkeys. This interpretation would suggest an African origin of the animal as well as an African location for the enigmatic Ophir. Thus the NIV renders it “baboon” in 1 Kings 10:22 and 2 Chron. 9:21. Pelican. Probably the correct translation of Heb. qā˒at, “the vomiter.” The NIV renders it “desert owl” throughout. It was an unclean bird (Lev. 11:18; Deut. 14:17). It was found in desolate places (Ps. 102:6) and ruins (Isa. 34:11; Zeph. 2:14, KJV, “cormorant,” marg., “pelican”). Two species are found in the Holy Land, Pelecanus onocrotalus, L. and P. crispus, Brush. The pelican lives on fish that it catches with its long beak and stores in the capacious pouch beneath it. When gorged with food it flies away to some lonely place and, pressing its pouch against its breast, stands in this attitude for hours or days, until it is hungry again, when it resumes its fishing. If qā˒at does in fact refer to the pelican, this attitude would well suit the melancholy inactivity to which David alludes when comparing himself with the “pelican of the wilderness.” Pigeon. See Dove. Porpoise. (Heb. taḥash). This member of the dolphin family occurs in the coastal waters of Africa and Asia. Although its skin has been suggested as suitable for an outer covering of the Tabernacle (Ex. 25:5; 26:14; NIV, “sea cows”), this is actually incorrect. Dolphins have fins, but they do not have scales, and therefore they would be abhorrent and unclean to the Israelites (Lev. 11:10). It is thus inconceivable that the skin from such unclean carcasses should adorn Israel’s most holy shrine. The identity of the taḥash is unknown, and to argue from the cognate Arab. tuhas to an identification with the dugong or any other marine mammal that would have been ceremonially unclean for the Hebrews is therefore fruitless. R.K.H. Pygarg. See Ibex. Quail (Heb. ś lāw). A heavy-bodied, terrestrial bird, Coturnix vulgaris, L., more or less resident in Egypt and the Holy Land, but also passing through them on its migrations northward in March and southward in September. The quails pass over narrow portions of the sea but arrive greatly exhausted. Many of them perish in transit. Those which the Israelites captured (Ex. 16:13; Num. 11:31–32) were on their way N. Tristram has pointed out their course up the Red Sea, across the mouth of the Gulf of Akabah and Suez, to the Sinaitic peninsula, and so blown by a sea wind over the camp of the Israelites. Rabbit (Heb. arnebet, Lev. 11:6; Deut. 14:7). A rodent of which there are four species in the Holy Land, of which Lepus Syriacus, Hempr. et Ehr., is generally diffused. The others, L. Sinaiticus, Hempr. et Ehr., L. Aegyptius, Geoffr., and L. Isabellinus, Rüpp., are desert species. Ram. See Sheep. Raven. The raven, Corvus corax, L., is the first bird named (Gen. 8:7). It feeds in part on seeds and fruit. To this fact our Savior alludes (Luke 12:24; Gk. korax). It also captures small creatures alive, but it loves carrion (Prov. 30:17) and so was unclean. Orientals, as well as occidentals, look upon it as a bird of evil omen (Isa. 34:11). The Heb. word ˓ōrēb, of which raven is the translation, doubtless includes the crows, jays, and choughs, as is implied in the expression “in its kind” (Lev. 11:15; Deut. 14:14). Rock Badger (Heb. shāpān). A small pachydermatous animal, with teeth and feet resembling those of the hippopotamus. It is as large as a rabbit, but is not to be confused with the rabbit of England. Common in Sinai, around the Dead Sea area and in N Palestine, it is called a “coney” in KJV. It has a plump body and short ears and tail. Its scientific name is Hyrax Syriacus. It does not really chew the cud but has a motion of the jaws that resembles that function. If it had a divided hoof, it would undoubtedly have been admitted into the list of animals allowed to the Hebrews for food (Lev. 11:5; Deut. 14:7). The rock badger lives in holes and clefts of the rocks (Ps. 104:18). It is found throughout the whole length of Sinai, Palestine, and Lebanon. In the NASB “rock badger” replaces KJV “coney” and is to be distinguished from KJV “badger,” rendered “porpoise” in the NASB. Roe. See Doe; Gazelle; Roebuck. The NIV retains “coney” in all three texts. Roebuck. A term appearing in the KJV, NIV, and NASB, though of different Heb. words. Except in the case of Prov. 5:19, where “roe” of the KJV refers to Heb. ya˓ălâ and is more properly translated “doe” (so NASB and NIV), KJV “roe” and “roebuck” are mistranslations of Heb. ṣ bı ̂, which signifies the gazelle (which see). In the NASB and NIV “roebuck,” Cervus capreolus, L., is the proper translation of Heb. yaḥmûr (Deut. 14:5; 1 Kings 4:23; KJV wrongly, “fallow deer”). The roebuck must have been abundant in the days of Solomon. It is now found on rare occasion in northern Galilee and Carmel and in the woods of Gilead. It is still known E of the Jordan. Roedeer. See Gazelle. Sand Flies. See Lice. Sand Lizard. See Snail; Lizard. Satyr. The equivalent of śā˓ı ̂r, which means a “he-goat,” and is usually so translated; in NASB it is translated “shaggy goats” (marg., “goat demons”; Isa. 13:21), or in 34:14, “hairy goat.” The NIV translates “wild goats” in both passages. The same word is rendered in KJV (Lev. 17:7; 2 Chron. 11:15) “devils,” RV, “he- goats,” marg., “satyrs.” Grotesque creatures, half man and half goat, figure in the Greek and Roman mythologies under the name of satyrs and fauns, but the OT representations are rather demonic conceptions. See also Gods, False: Shaggy Goat. Scorpion. A generic term for about a dozen species of the Arachnidoe, which inhabit the Holy Land. The poison is in the sting at the end of the tail. The scorpion is an emblem of torture and wrath. Some of the species of southern Palestine are six inches long. Screech Owl. See Owl. Sea Gull (Heb. shāḥap; KJV, “cuckoo”; Lev. 11:16; Deut. 14:15). The Heb. term can refer to gulls, terns, and petrels, all of which are common on the seashore and lakes of Palestine. It was listed among the unclean birds (Lev. 11:16; Deut. 14:15). Sea Cows. See Porpoise. Sea Monster. See Dragon; Whale. Serpent. It is impossible to unravel the tangle in which the translators, ancient and modern, have involved the eight words used in the Heb. for serpents. Only one of them (Heb. sh pıp̂ ôn) can be identified with any degree of certainty. This is in all probability Cerastes Hasselquistii, Strauch, the “horned cerastes” of the desert. It is reasonably probable that peten refers to the “cobra.” Ṣepa˓ and ṣip˓onı ̂ and ˒ep˓eh are uncertain. Heb. tannı ̂m is usually translated “dragon,” and if it refers to a snake in the story of the controversy between Moses and Pharaoh we have no means of guessing the species. Heb. nāḥāsh is a general term, corresponding exactly to the English “serpent” or “snake.” Heb. sārap means “fiery” and is therefore only a term to characterize the venomousness of the unknown species intended. The serpents of Egypt, Sinai, and the Holy Land are numerous. Of the venomous ones the principal are Daboia zanthina, Gray, Cerastes Hasselquistii, Strauch, Naja haje, L., Echis arenicola, Boie, Vipera Euphratica, Martin, and V. ammodytes, L. The English names of snakes mentioned are “adder,” “arrowsnake,” “asp,” “basilisk” (fictitious), “cockatrice” (fictitious), “fiery flying serpent,” “viper,” and the generic term “serpent.” Besides these the following terms are used: “crooked,” “crossing like a bar,” “fleeing,” “gliding,” “piercing,” “swift,” “winding,” as adjectives to the serpent, but seeming to refer to the “crocodile” under the name “leviathan” (Isa. 27:1). Almost all the allusions to the serpent in the Scriptures are to its malignity and venom. Probably the Hebrews regarded most or all snakes as poisonous. Only once (Matt. 10:16) is there a doubtful commendation of the serpent on account of its wisdom. Its habits, even to being oviparous (Isa. 59:5), were minutely noted. The devil is the “old serpent.” See also Dragon. She Ass. See Donkey. Sheep. The rendering of several Heb. and Gk. words. This animal is mentioned about five hundred times in the Bible. The broadtailed variety is the one which is, and probably has been from ancient times, the one raised in the East. Allusion is made to its fat tail (“rump,” KJV; Ex. 29:22; Lev. 3:9; NASB, NKJV, NIV, “fat tail”). The number of sheep raised in ancient times was prodigious. We read of the tribute of 200,000 fleeces from the king of Moab (2 Kings 3:4). Reuben took 250,000 sheep from the children of Ishmael (1 Chron. 5:21). Lambs were offered in immense numbers in sacrifice, usually males, in one case a female (Lev. 14:10). Solomon offered 120,000 on occasion of the consecration of the Temple (1 Kings 8:63). Sheeps’ milk and wool were and are of immense importance for food and clothing and as articles of commerce. Rams’ skins were used in the structure of the Tabernacle. Shepherds in Bible lands have the same personal knowledge and exhaustive care of their flocks as in ancient times. Their offices were chosen as emblems of those of Christ and His ministers in the care of the believers committed to their charge. The interest of the sheep to Christians culminates in the fact that Christ is the atoning, illuminating, life-giving, reigning Lamb of God. She Goat. See Goat. Skink. See Snail. Slug. See Snail. Snail. The Heb. word ḥōmeṭ, rendered (KJV, Lev. 11:30) “snail,” is generic for “lizard” (NASB, “sand reptile;” RV, “sand lizard,” which rendering is, however, only conjectural); NIV, “skink.” Another word, shablûl (Ps. 58:8), is probably generic for “snail,” although neither the LXX nor Vulg. supports the rendering. The NIV identifies it as “slug.” The surface of rocks, walls, and tree trunks in this land is often covered with a thin film, looking like a coating of collodion or gelatin. This is caused by the passing and repassing of snails, which always leave a slimy track behind them. This is the “melting” of the snail, alluded to in the above passage. If a snail remains attached to a place in the hot sun it will dry up and be stuck fast to its resting place by this thick mucilaginous fluid. The number of species of snails in Bible lands is large. Sow. See Swine. Sparrow. One rendering of Heb. ṣippôr, which, like ˒ûsfur in Arab., is generic for small birds. Ṣippôr is more frequently rendered “bird” and “fowl.” The NT strouthion probably refers to the house sparrow (Matt. 10:29; Luke 12:6–7). Speckled Bird. See Hyena. Spider. Two Heb. words are translated by KJV “spider.” 1. Heb. ś māmıt̂ (Prov. 30:28), from a root signifying “to be poisonous.” The NASB and NIV give “lizard.” Both the spider and several varieties of lizards frequent houses. 2. Heb. ˓akkābı ̂sh (Job 8:14; Isa. 59:5) is generic for “spiders,” of which there are a large number in the Holy Land. Sponge (Gk. spongos). A porous body, produced in the sea, composed of tubules and cells and lined with an amoeboid substance. The vital action of these protozoa keeps up a steady circulation of water through the channels. Commercial sponges consist only of the skeleton, out of which the lining and investing amoeboid substance has been cleaned. The only mention of the sponge is in connection with the crucifixion of our Savior (Matt. 27:48; etc.). Stork (Heb. ḥăsı ̂dâ). Two species, Ciconia alba L., the white stork, and C. nigra, L., the black stork, are found in the Holy Land. It was an unclean bird. Although its usual nesting place is in ruins, it also, especially the black species, resorts to trees (Ps. 104:17). It is a migratory bird, going to northern Europe in the summer, flying high in the heaven (Jer. 8:7), and making a rushing noise (“the wind in their wings,” Zech. 5:9). Their affection for their young is proverbial. Swallow. The only Heb. words properly translated “swallow” are dƒrôr (Ps. 84:3; Prov. 26:2) and sûs (Isa. 38:14). The NIV translates sûs “swift” in Isa. 38:14. In the latter ˓agûr signifies “twitterer” instead of “swallow,” as in KJV, or “crane,” as in RV. The swallows, swifts, and martins are numerous in Bible lands. Their shrill cries, as they skim the ground and sweep through the air with incredible rapidity, are among the most characteristic features of oriental towns. Swan. A KJV term. It appears there as the rendering of Heb. tinshemet (Lev. 11:18; Deut. 14:16; RV, “horned owl,” marg., “swan”; NASB and NIV, “white owl”). The Heb. would refer to the purple gallinule, Porphyrio coeruleus, Vandelli, or one of the ibises, Ibis religiosa, L., or I. falcinella, L., and not to the swan, which is hardly found in the Holy Land and would not have been regarded as unclean. See Chameleon; Owl for other renderings of Heb. tinshemet. Swarming Locust. See Locust. Swift. See Swallow. Swine (Heb. ḥăzı ̂r; Gk. choiros). The hog is regarded by Muslims with no less loathing than by Jews. Many oriental Christians share this feeling, while others raise swine and eat freely of its flesh. The Jews in Christ’s time had come to ignore their own law on this subject (Matt. 8:30–34), as had some of their ancestors who ate pork (Isa. 66:17). Tortoise. See Lizard, Great. Tree Snake. See Owl; Snake. Turtle, Turtledove (Heb. tôr), one of the best-known birds of the Holy Land. It was used by the poor for sacrifices (Lev. 5:11; etc.). Its peculiar note and gentle disposition (Ps. 74:19) made it a type of Christ. There are three species in the Holy Land, Turtur auritus, L., the common turtledove; T. risorius, L., the collared turtledove; and T. Senegalensis, L., the palm or Egyptian turtle. Unicorn. See Wild Ox. Viper. See Serpent. Vulture. Several vultures are referred to in Scripture, the Heb. or Gk. being rendered by various English terms. 1. Heb. ˒ayyâ is given as “kite” (Lev. 11:14; Deut. 14:13) or “red kite” (Deut. 14:13) in the NASB and NIV. The KJV rendering is “vulture” (for “kite”) and “glede” (for “red kite”). 2. Heb. dayyâ appears in Isa. 34:15 as “hawks” in the NASB, “falcons” in the NIV, and “vultures” in the KJV. It is present also in the KJV of Deut. 14:15 (“vultures”) but not in the NASB, which uses Heb. dā˒â (“kite”) instead. 3. Heb. ˒ayyâ appears in Lev. 11:14; Deut. 14:13; and Job 28:7. In Lev. 11:14 and Deut. 14:13 the Heb. term is rendered “falcon” in the NASB and NIV and “kite” in the KJV. In the passage in Job “falcon” appears in the NASB and NIV and “vulture” in the KJV. 4. Heb. rāḥām is rendered “carrion vulture” in the NASB and “osprey” in the NIV of Lev. 11:18 and Deut. 14:17, but “gier eagle” in the KJV of those verses. The Heb. term refers to Pharaoh’s chicken, Neophron Percnopterus, Sav. 5. Heb. peres, the lamergeier, Gypoetus barbatus, L., is the “ossifrage” of KJV Lev. 11:13 and Deut. 14:12, but “vulture” in the NASB and NIV. This bird is the largest of the vultures in the Holy Land. As it is a familiar bird in Europe, its habits are well known. It kills its prey but also does not disdain carrion. Hence it is unclean (Lev. 11:13; Deut. 14:12). The RV renders “gier eagle.” 6. Gk. aetos is given as “vultures” in the NASB of Matt. 24:28 and Luke 17:37, but as “eagles” in the KJV. See also Buzzard; Eagle. Wasp. The reference in an apocryphal passage, the only place in which this insect is mentioned (Wisd. of Sol. 12:8), is doubtless to the common yellow jacket, Vespa vulgaris, L. It is very common throughout the Holy Land, especially so in the vineyards during vintage, about the grape presses, and about the fruit shops in towns. Weasel. See Mole. Whale (Heb. tan, or tannı ̂m; a “monster”). The “great whales” (KJV, Gen. 1:21; NASB, “sea monsters”; Job 7:12; Ezek. 32:2) are to be understood as all aquatic creatures not considered fish. Jonah’s whale (kētos, Matt. 12:40, from the LXX, Jonah 1:17) was a “great fish.” It might have been a spermaceti whale, had one wandered into the Mediterranean, or a large shark, of which that sea contains many large enough to have swallowed Jonah. White Owl. See Owl. Wild Ass. See Donkey. Wild Beasts. The significance of beasts in many places, and of wild beasts in all, has to do with beasts of prey. The context will always settle the meaning. There are no longer any lions in Syria and Palestine. They were, however, numerous in Bible times. Bears are still found in considerable numbers in Anti-Lebanon, and a few still linger in Lebanon. They become more abundant in Amanus and the Taurus. Wolves are common throughout. Leopards are occasionally seen in Lebanon, more freqently in Anti-Lebanon and E of the Jordan, and in the neighborhood of the Dead Sea. Jackals are common everywhere. Foxes are also numerous. Hyenas haunt ruins and waste places. Badgers, martens, polecats, mongooses, and genets are also found. Among the wild beasts that are not carnivorous are the deer, the gazelle, the antelope, wild donkey, the beden (wild goat), and swine. Hunting, except for deer and gazelles, is not common. A few bears are shot every year. Wolves are killed by the shepherds. Foxes are occasionally trapped or shot. Hyenas are caught in steel traps or shot, and rarely a leopard is killed in the more lonely parts of the mountains. Rabbits are shot in the winter and brought to the markets of the large cities. The allusions to wild beasts in the Bible are numerous (2 Kings 14:9; Job 39:15; Ps. 80:13; Hos. 13:8; etc.). Wild Donkey. See Donkey. Wild Goat. A graceful animal, Capra beden, L., with semicircular horns two and a half to three feet long. It is found in the more inaccessible mountains and deserts. Of the two Heb. words ya˓ălâ and ˒aqqô (Deut. 14:5), the first certainly, and the second probably, refer to this species. See also Satyr. Wild Ox (Heb. r ˒êm, KJV, “unicorn”). Probably Bos primigenius, L., the true “auerochs.” This animal is now extinct but certainly existed in Germany in the time of Caesar and probably did not become extinct in Europe until the Middle Ages. Caesar describes it as immense in size, of great strength (cf. Num. 23:22; 24:8), speed (Ps. 29:6), and ferocity, untamable (Job 39:9–10), associated with bulls (Isa. 34:7; KJV marg., “rhinoceroses”) (Coes., Bell. Gall., iv, 29). It cannot be the Arab. ri˒m, which is doubtless Antilope leucoryx (see Antelope), nor Bison bonasus, which is called by the modern Germans “auerochs,” but which is an animal with short horns, quite unsuitable for “horns of the unicorns” (KJV, Ps. 22:21). Still less can it be the intention to speak of a fictitious creature like the traditional unicorn, with the single horn springing from the center of the forehead. The r ˒êm had more than one horn (Deut. 33:17). The Heb. word most certainly denotes the “wild ox,” for the cognate word in Akkad. rimu has this meaning. Representations of it by ancient Assyrian artists picture it as the aurochs. Tiglath-pileser 1 (c. 1115–1102 B.C.) hunted it as game in Hittite country in the Lebanon Mountains. It became extinct early in Syria- Palestine, and its name transferred to its descendant, the common ox. But the extinct species was notorious for its flatter forehead, colossal strength and ferocity, and its powerful horns of double curvature. Tristram offered independent corroboration of its previous occurrence in the Lebanon Mountains by recovering its teeth in the bone caves of the region. M.F.U. Wolf (Heb. z ˒ēb; Gk. lukos). We believe it also to be the proper rendering of tannı ̂m, translated, KJV, “dragons”; NASB, NIV, “jackals” (Job 30:29; Ps. 44:19; Isa. 13:22; 34:13; 43:20; Jer. 9:11; 10:22; 14:6); RV marg., “the crocodile” (49:33; 51:37; Mic. 1:8). The wolf is the terror of sheep but usually flees from the shepherd. Wolves are numerous in all the sheep walks of this land. The emblematic references to the ferocity and bloodthirstiness of the wolf are numerous and forcible (Isa. 65:25; Matt. 7:15; 10:16). Worm. The only worms alluded to in Scripture are the larvae of insects, such as the grub of the moth (Isa. 51:8); rimmâ, maggots bred in decaying vegetable and animal substances (Ex. 16:24; Job 7:5, etc.), and tôlā˓ım ̂ , also maggots similar to the last. Tôla˓ and tôla˓at, from the same root, refer to the cochineal insect. Earthworms are not mentioned in the Bible. The worms that devoured Herod (Acts 12:23) were maggots, bred in a wound or sore or, more probably, intestinal worms. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Camel: W. F. Albright, Archaeology of Palestine (1954), pp. 206ff.; S. F. Bodenheimer, Animals and Man in Bible Lands (1960); J. P. Free, Archaeology and Bible History (1964), pp. 54–55, 169–71. Eagle: A. Parmelee, All the Birds of the Bible (1959); F. S. Bodenheimer, Animal and Man in Bible Lands (1960); G. S. Crandall, Animals of the Bible (1970). Horse: V. Møller-Christensen and K. Jørgensen, Encyclopedia of Bible Creatures (1965); G. S. Crandall, Animals of Bible Lands (1970). Locust: H. B. Tristram, The Natural History of the Bible (1898), pp. 306–18; J. D. Whiting, National Geographic Magazine 28 (December 1915): 512–50; T. Chapelle and D. Chapelle, National Geographic Magazine 103 (April 1953); 545–62; R. A. M. Conley, National Geographic Magazine 136 (August 1969): 202–27. ANIMAL, WORSHIP OF. This is of great antiquity, its origin involved in much obscurity. Zoolatria (animal worship) is said to have been introduced into Egypt under the Second Dynasty (c. 2750 B.C.). The gods of the Egyptian, Indian, Greek, and Teutonic mythologies were the “powers” of nature; the principal sacred animals and reptiles were worshiped as their incarnations or servants. Many of them were carefully tended while living and when dead were buried with great pomp. To cause the death of any of these creatures by design was punishable with death; if anyone caused the death of a cat, hawk, or ibis, with or without intent, he had to die. The Israelites often degraded themselves by an imitation of this kind of worship (Ex. 32), for which they were severely punished. ANISE. See Vegetable Kingdom: Dill. ANKLET (Heb. ˓ekes, KJV, “tinkling ornaments”). The ornament mentioned in the description given of female attire (Isa. 3:18). It was a ring of gold, silver, or ivory worn around the ankles. The anklet was widely used by the ancients, nor has its use ceased in the East. The Egyptian monuments show them to have been worn by both sexes. The practice was forbidden in the Koran (24:31), though the prohibition may refer rather to the small bells worn around the ankles, especially by dancing girls. See also ankle chains in the article Dress. AN´NA (anʹa). The Gk. form of Hannah, the prophetess, and daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher. Married in early life, after seven years she lost her husband. From that time she devoted herself to attendance upon the Temple services and probably by reason of her great piety was allowed to reside in one of the chambers of the women’s court. Anna was eighty-four years old when the infant Jesus was presented to the Lord. Entering as Simeon was thanking God, Anna also broke forth in praise for the fulfillment of the divine promises (Luke 2:36). ANNALS (anʹnals). See Chronicles. AN´NAS (anʹas; a contracted form of Ananias). A high priest of the Jews. Josephus calls him Ananus, the son of Seth. He was first appointed high priest by Quirinius, proconsul of Syria, about A.D. 7 but was removed after seven years (Kitto says fifteen years) by Valerius Gratus, procurator of Judea (Josephus Ant. 18.2.1–2). Annas is mentioned in Luke 3:2 as being high priest along with Caiaphas. Our Lord’s first hearing was before Annas (John 18:13), who sent Him bound to Caiaphas (v. 24). In Acts 4:6 he is plainly called high priest. He had four sons who filled that office, besides his son-in-law, Caiaphas. There have been several theories advanced to reconcile the application of high priest to Annas and Caiaphas at the same time. Kitto thinks that Annas was regarded as being high priest jure divino and having authority in spiritual matters, whereas Caiaphas was the pontiff recognized by the government. The probability is that his great age, abilities, and influence, and his being the father- in-law of Caiaphas made him practically the high priest, although his son-in-law held the office. BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. Josephus Ant. 18.2.1–2; 20.9.1; A. Edersheim, Sketches of Jewish Social Life in the Days of Christ (1961), pp. 239–48; E. Schürer, A History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ (1973–79), 2:184–236, 404–14. ANOINTING. Anointing the body with oil was an ancient and widespread custom common among Egyptians, Hebrews, and inhabitants of the Far East, as well as among Greeks and Romans. The purpose was, doubtless, to keep the skin supple and to moderate the evaporation that is so great in hot climates. In Scripture the usual Heb. word for anointing is māshaḥ; the Gk. term is chriō, to “rub.” See the second article Anointing (below). Cleansing. The allusions to anointing as part of ordinary washing are numerous, both in the OT and NT (Ruth 3:3); as expressive of joy (Ps. 23:5; Heb. 1:9); its disuse indicative of grief (2 Sam. 14:2; Ps. 92:10; Dan. 10:3). It was reckoned among the civilities extended to guests (Luke 7:46), although the ointments used on such occasions seem to have been perfumes rather than oils. It was also used medicinally (Isa. 1:6; Mark 6:13; James 5:14). See Oil. The practice of anointing the bodies of the dead is referred to in Mark 14:8 and Luke 23:56. This ceremony was performed after the washing of the body and was doubtless intended to check decay. See Embalming. Consecration. The first instance of the religious use of oil is the anointing of the stone by Jacob (Gen. 28:18; 35:14), evidently designed to be a formal consecration of the stone, or spot, to a sacred purpose. Under the Mosaic law persons and things set apart for sacred purposes were anointed with the “holy anointing oil” (Ex. 30:23–25, 30–33). See Priesthood, Hebrew. Coronation. It was a custom among the Jews to anoint with oil those set apart as kings, which custom was adopted by the Christian church. Figurative. The anointing with oil was a symbol of endowment with the Spirit of God (1 Sam. 10:1, 6; 16:13; Isa. 61:1) for the duties of the office to which a person was consecrated (Lev. 8). See King; Priest. ANOINTING (Gk. chrisma, “ointment,” “anointing”). The gift of the Holy Spirit as an efficient aid in getting a knowledge of the truth (1 John 2:20). Not that the work of Jesus was imperfect, but the Spirit helps us to understand the truth He taught and thus to glorify Him (John 16:14) in whom the full revelation of God had been given (v. 15). ANSWER (Heb. ˓ānâ, to “testify,” Gk. apokrinomai, to “respond”). In Scripture this term has other meanings than the usual one of “reply.” 1. Miriam is said to have “answered,” i.e., taken up the strain of victory sung by Moses and the men (Ex. 15:21; see 1 Sam. 18:7; 29:5; cf. Num. 21:17). 2. To respond to requests or entreaties (1 Sam. 4:17; Ps. 3:4; 18:41; 27:7); to announce future events (1 Sam. 14:37; 28:6). 3. In a forensic sense: of a judge investigating (Acts 24:25) or giving sentence (Ex. 23:2); of a witness answering inquiries of a judge, hence to testify, bear witness (Deut. 19:16; Job 16:8); to accuse or defend in court (Deut. 31:21; Gen. 30:33). 4. To “answer” is also used for the commencement of a discourse when no reply to any question or objection is expected (Job 3:2; song of Sol. 2:10; Matt. 11:25; 12:38; etc.). ANT. See Animal Kingdom. ANTEDILUVIANS. The people who lived before the Flood. Of this period we have little authentic information (Gen. 4:16–6:8), although additional knowledge may be gathered from the history of Noah and the first men after the Deluge. In Scripture we find few indications of savagery among these people, and it need not be held that they gradually civilized themselves. It is the opinion of some that the antediluvians were acquainted with astronomy, from the fact that the ages of Seth and his descendants were recorded (Gen. 5:6–32); and they appear to have been familiar with botany, from the mention of the vine, olive, etc. (6:14; 8:11); mineralogy (2:12); music (4:21); architecture, from the fact that Cain built a city (4:17); metallurgy, so far as forging and tempering are concerned (4:22). Agriculture was evidently the first employment of Adam (2:15; 3:17–18); afterward of Cain (4:2) and of Noah, who planted a vineyard (9:20). The slight intimations to be found respecting government favor the notion that the particular governments were patriarchal and subject to general theocratic control. Respecting religion, sacrifices are mentioned (4:4); some think that the Sabbath was observed; mention is made that “men began to call upon the name of the Lord” (4:26). We have here an account of the commencement of that worship of God that consists in prayer, praise, and thanksgiving, or in the acknowledgment and celebration of the mercy and help of Jehovah. Noah seemed to have been familiar with the distinction between clean and unclean beasts (Gen. 7:2). ANTELOPE. See Animal Kingdom. ANTHOTHIJAH (an-thō-thījah). ̀ The ninth son of Shashak, a Benjamite (1 Chron. 8:24). E.H.M. ANTHROPOPATHISM (from Gk. anthropatheia, “with human feelings”), the attributing of human emotions, such as anger, grief, joy, etc., to God. Traces of this are found in Scripture (Gen. 6:6; 8:21; 11:5, and many other passages). If we understand such expressions to be the imperfect approximating expression of eternal truth, then they become the means of a better knowledge of God. ANTICHRIST (Gk. antichristos, “against Christ”; some, “instead of Christ”). A word used only by the apostle John (epistles 1 and 2). Meaning. The Gk. preposition anti in composition sometimes denotes substitution, taking the place of another; hence, “false Christ.” The connection in which the word is used appears to import opposition, covert rather than avowed, with a professed friendliness. Antichrists. John seems to make a distinction between “antichrist” and “antichrists” (1 John 2:18), for he declares that “even now many antichrists have arisen,” but “that antichrist is coming.” An antichrist is one who opposes Christ, whether he opposes the doctrine of His deity or His humanity; or whether he sets himself against Him in respect to His priestly office, by substituting other methods of atoning for sin and finding acceptance with God; His kingly office, by claiming authority to exact laws in His church contrary to His laws or to dispense with His commandments; or His prophetical office, by claiming authority to add to, alter, or E.H.M. Eugene H. Merrill take away from the revelation that He has given in His holy Word. This is agreeable to the description of an antichrist (2:22; 4:3; 2 John 7). In a general sense an antichrist is a person who is opposed to the authority of Christ as head of the church and creation. The Antichrist. From early times the opinion has prevailed that the antichrists referred to were the forerunners of an evil rather than the evil itself. Some individual would arise who, by way of eminence, would be fitly called the Antichrist; and who, before being destroyed by Christ, would utter horrid blasphemies against the Most High and practice great enormities upon the saints. This view is scriptural and came from connecting the passages in John’s epistles with the descriptions in Daniel and the Apocalypse of the great God-opposing power that would persecute the saints of the Most High; and of the apostle Paul’s “man of lawlessness” (2 Thess. 2:3–10). See also our Lord’s own prediction respecting the last age of the world (Matt. 24:24) and the description of such an Antichrist (Rev. 13:1–8). Identification. Early Christians looked for Antichrist as a person and not a polity or system. The general opinion of those who closely followed the Scriptures was that he would be a man in whom Satan would dwell utterly and bodily, and who would be armed with satanic and demonic powers. In the OT he is prefigured under the “king of Babylon” (Isa. 14:4); the little “horn” (Dan. 7:8; 8:9); the king “insolent and skilled in intrigue” (8:23); “the prince who is to come” (9:26); the willful king (11:36). In the NT he is called “the man of lawlessness,” “the son of destruction” (2 Thess. 2:3–8); “antichrist” (1 John 2:18); and “the beast” (Rev. 13:1–10). This sinister, demon- inspired leader will rise to dominate the world in the end-time, persecute the saints, seek to destroy the Jew and banish the name of God and His Christ from the earth, and thus take over. This would mean the thwarting of God’s plan for the messianic millennial kingdom, which involves the restoration of Israel (Acts 1:6) and universal peace. He is destroyed by the second advent of Christ (Rev. 19:11–16), who sets up the earthly kingdom (Rev. 20:1–3). This is the premillennial view. Amillennialism rejects an earthly kingdom in favor of Christ’s ushering in the eternal state, rather than His establishing another era in time. Views that identify the Antichrist with Muhammad (Innocent III in 1213) or with the papal church (Protestantism) can scarcely be called scriptural. BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Eadie, Commentary on the Epistles to the Thessalonians (1877), pp. 330–70; J. D. Pentecost, Things to Come (1961), pp. 337–39; J. F. Walvoord, The Revelation of Jesus Christ (1966), pp. 197–212; W. K. Price, The Coming Antichrist (1974); A. W. Pink, The Antichrist (1979). ANTICHRISTIANISM. A convenient term used to designate in a collective manner the various forms of hostility to Christianity. It is equivalent to the “spirit of the antichrist” (1 John 4:3). It was this that Enoch and Noah denounced in their preaching (Jude 14; 2 Pet. 2:5–7) and that “tormented” the righteous soul of Lot. It is the mind “hostile toward God” and opposed to Him (Rom. 8:7); the “mystery of lawlessness” foreseen by Paul (2 Thess. 2:7). Since the days of persecution it has been chiefly confined to intellectual modes of opposition, known as Infidelity, Deism, Rationalism, etc. AN´TIOCH (anʹti-ok, from Antiochus, a Syrian king). 1. In Syria, on the left bank of the Orontes, 16½ miles from the Mediterranean and three hundred miles N of Jerusalem, between the Lebanon and Taurus mountain ranges. It was founded about 300 B.C. by Seleucus Nicator and called Epidaphne (near Daphne), or “on the Orontes,” to distinguish it from fifteen other Antiochs. The city was destroyed several times by earthquakes, one of which, A.D. 526, killed 250,000 persons. It was luxurious. Its main street, four miles in length, was lined with magnificent mansions. It was highly cultured, but its social life was debased, sensual, and shocking. Jews formed a large portion of the population, having been brought there by Seleucus Nicator. It became the third city in the Roman Empire, having a population of 500,000. Pompey made it the seat of the legate of Syria, 64 B.C., and a free city. Antioch was associated early with Christian effort. It was there that the persecuted disciples fled after the demise of Stephen (Acts 11:19–20). The name Christian was first applied to followers of Jesus there, and all three of Paul’s missionary journeys began in Antioch. The most flourishing period in the history of the Christian church in Antioch was in the time of Chrysostom, who was born there in 347. In 635 it was taken by Muslim Arabs, by the Turks in 1084, and by Crusaders in 1098. It gradually declined under early Arab and Ottoman rule, but modern Turkish Antakya is a growing city in excess of 75,000 inhabitants. Princeton University and the National Museum of France excavated at Antioch for six seasons during the years 1932–39. A street plan of a large part of the ancient city has been established; and numerous significant mosaic pavements were uncovered in churches, villas, and other public buildings of the city. A few of them may be seen in the Louvre in Paris, and there is a significant collection in the Antakya museum. The Chalice of Antioch is a controversial art object found at Antioch in 1910 and now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. The chalice is of two parts: a plain inner cup of silver, about seven and a half inches high and six inches in diameter, and an outer gilded silver holder with twelve figures displayed on the outside. Much has been written about the chalice, and it has even been identified as the Holy Grail used by Christ at the Last Supper. Perhaps the best that can be said about this chalice is that it is an early piece of Christian art of some century later than the first and that Christ or some of the disciples may be intended by the artistic representations. 2. Antioch in Pisidia, also founded by Seleucus I Nicator (312–280 B.C.), was a commercial center commanding the great trade route between Ephesus and the Cilician Gates. Paul’s success here is recounted in Acts 13:14–52, and he revisited this important city on his first missionary tour (14:21). A University of Michigan team under the direction of David Robinson excavated at Antioch in 1924. They were able to show that life at Antioch in Paul’s day centered on two paved squares, the Square of Tiberius (built during the emperor’s reign, A.D. 14–37) and the Square of Augustus (constructed just before the birth of Christ). From the lower square, twelve steps some seventy feet long led into the Square of Augustus through a magnificent triple-arched gateway. The squares were at least partly faced with shops and houses. Unfortunately, nearly all the stone uncovered by excavators has been carried off by local inhabitants; so the ancient magnificence of the place can only be imagined today. H.F.V. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Pisidian Antioch: W. M. Ramsay, The Cities of St. Paul (1907), pp. 245–314; id., The Bearing of Recent Discovery on the Trustworthiness of the New Testament (1915), pp. 353–69; id., Historical Geography of Asia Minor (1972), pp. 47, 57, 85, 453. Syrian Antioch: G. Downey, A History of Antioch in Syria from Seleucus to the Arab Conquest (1961). AN´TIPAS (anʹti-pas). 1. Herod Antipas was the son of Herod the Great by Malthace, a Samaritan. Of his father’s dominions he inherited Galilee and Perea. He was the Herod who executed John the Baptist. See Herod. 2. A “faithful” martyr mentioned in Rev. 2:13, A.D. before 100. He is said to have been one of our Savior’s first disciples and a bishop of Pergamum, and to have been put to death in a tumult there by the priests of Aesculapius, who had a celebrated health center and temple in that city. AN´TIPA´TER. The father of Herod the Great. See Herod. ANTIP´ATRIS (an-tipʹa-tris; “instead of his father”). A city built by Herod the Great in honor of his father, Antipater. It is the modern Ras-el-Ain. It lay on the road built by the Romans, leading from Caesarea to Jerusalem, thirty-eight miles from the former place. Paul was taken to it by night as a prisoner (Acts 23:31). In OT times it was called Aphek (which see). Definitive excavations at the site began in 1972 under the auspices of Tel Aviv University and the municipality of Peta Tikva, with the cooperation of New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary and with Moshe Kochavi and George Kelm as directors. In the several seasons of excavation that have been conducted since, discoveries have been made that date to periods extending from about 3000 B.C. to the sixteenth century A.D. Typical Philistine pottery was uncovered in the eleventh- century B.C. level, when Philistines used the site as a base of operations for the battle in which they succeeded in taking the Ark (1 Sam. 4:1, 11). Of special interest are findings in the level dating to the reign of Herod the Great. The main street was twenty-six feet wide; its center was paved with diagonally laid flagstones. Shops, workshops, and elevated sidewalks flanked both sides of the street. Dominating the site today is a Turkish fort built in 1571. H.F.V. ANTITYPE (Gk. antitupon, a “counterpart”; Heb. 9:24). That which is represented or prefigured by a type. The type may be considered a rough draft, while the antitype is the perfect image. The type is a figure, and antitype is the reality that the type prefigured, as Christ is the antitype of the Paschal Lamb. ANTO´NIA (an-tōʹni-a). A strong fortress built and named by Herod in honor of Antonius, or Mark Antony, situated to the NW of the Temple area in Jerusalem, partly surrounded by a deep ditch 165 feet wide. It was garrisoned with Roman soldiers, whose watchfulness preserved order in the Temple courts. Spoken of as the barracks (Acts 21:37), here Paul made an address (22:1–21). Herod constructed a secret passage from the fortress to the Temple. APE. See Animal Kingdom. APEL´LES (a-pelʹēz). A Christian in Rome, whom Paul salutes in his epistle to the church there (Rom. 16:10) and calls “approved in Christ,” A.D. 60. According to the old church traditions, Apelles was one of the seventy disciples and bishop either of Smyrna or Heracleia. The Greeks observe this festival on October 31. A´PHEK (aʹfek; “strength, fortress”). 1. A city mentioned in Josh. 13:4, apparently N of Sidon and accordingly commonly identified with Afga, ancient Aphaca, some twenty-three miles N of Beirut. 2. Aphek (Aphik) was also an Asherite city not conquered by the Israelites (Josh. 19:30; Judg. 1:31). A. Alt located it at Tell Kurdaneh about six miles SE of Acco (Ptolemais). 3. A town in the plain of Sharon about eleven miles NE of Joppa (modern Ras el- Ain). It was evidently here the Philistines camped on their way to Shiloh to attack Israel at Ebenezer (1 Sam. 4:1). See also Antipatris. 4. A town beyond the Jordan about four miles E of the Sea of Galilee on the highway between Damascus and the plain of Esdraelon, fortress city of Bethshan, modern Afik (Fik). Cf. 1 Kings 20:26, 30; 2 Kings 13:17. However, another village between Shunem and Jezreel seems required by the narratives of the Philistine wars in 1 Sam. 28:4; 29:1, 11; 31:1. M.F.U. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Y. Aharoni, The Archaeology of the Land of Israel (1978), pp. 57, 71, 95–99, 119; id., The Land of the Bible (1979), pp. 109ff. APHE´KAH (a-fēʹka; “fortress”). A city in the hill country of Judah (Josh. 15:53). Its site has not been discovered. APHI´AH (a-fīʹa). The father of Becorath, a Benjamite and ancestor of Saul (1 Sam. 9:1). A´PHIK. See Aphek, no. 2. APOCRYPHA. The name given by Jerome to a number of books that in the LXX are placed among the canonical books of the Bible but which, for evident reasons, do not belong to the sacred canon. The term itself, a Gk. adjective in the neuter plural (from apokruphos, “hidden, concealed”) denotes strictly “things concealed.” But almost certainly the noun biblia is understood, so that the real implication of the expression is “apocryphal books” or “writings.” Old Testament Apocrypha. In its final quasi-technical meaning of “noncanonical,” in common use since the Reformation, the term specifically refers to the fourteen books written after the OT canon was closed and which, being the least remote from the canonical books, laid strongest claim to canonicity. The OT apocryphal books have an unquestioned historical and literary value but have been rejected as inspired for the following reasons: 1. They abound in historical and geographical inaccuracies and anachronisms. 2. They teach doctrines that are false and foster practices that are at variance with inspired Scripture. 3. They resort to literary types and display an artificiality of subject matter and styling out of keeping with inspired Scripture. 4. They lack the distinctive elements that give genuine Scripture its divine character, such as prophetic power and poetic and religious feeling. The OT apocryphal books are fourteen in number, classified as follows: Didactic or Wisdom Literature (2 books). The Wisdom of Solomon. This is an ethical treatise in commendation of wisdom and righteousness and a denunciation of iniquity and idolatry, written under the name of Solomon. The writer wrote in Gk. and was apparently an Alexandrian Jew who seems to have lived between 150 B.C. and 50 B.C. Swete calls this work “the solitary survival from the wreck of the earlier works of the philosophical school at Alexandria which culminated in Philo, the contemporary of our Lord.” Ecclesiasticus. Called also The Wisdom of Jesus, Son of Sirach. This long and valuable ethical treatise contains an extensive range of instruction in general morality and practical godliness. It follows the model of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Job. It was written originally in Heb. about 180 B.C. and translated into Gk. about 132 B.C. by a grandson of the original author. About two-thirds of the Heb. is now extant. Historical Literature (3 books). First Esdras. Esdras is the Gk. for Ezra. The book narrates in Gk. the declension and fall of Judah from Josiah’s reign, the destruction of Jerusalem, the Babylonian Exile, the return of the exiles, and the share taken by Ezra in the restored community. The book consists of an independent and somewhat free version of portions of 2 Chronicles and Ezra-Nehemiah broken by an extended context that has no parallel in the Heb. Bible (1 Esdras 3:1–5:6). Swete calls this “perhaps the most interesting of the contributions made by the Greek Bible to the legendary history of the captivity and the return” (Introduction to the O.T. in Gk. [1902], p. 266). First Maccabees. This valuable historical treatise covers a period of about forty years from the accession of Antiochus Epiphanes (175 B.C.) to the death of Simon Maccabees (135 B.C. or a little later). The book is of first-rate importance as a source for the interbiblical period and gives a full and worthy account of the important Maccabean wars and the noble struggle for Jewish independence. Second Maccabees. This much less historically accurate book covers a part of the same period as the first (175–160 B.C.) but offers a striking contrast to it. Swete (op. cit., p. 378) calls it “a partially independent but rhetorical and inaccurate and, to some extent, a mythical panegyric of patriotic revolt.” Religious Romance (2 books). Tobit. This is a tale of a pious Naphtalite named Tobit, who has a son named Tobias. The father loses his eyesight. The son is dispatched to obtain payment of a debt to a certain Rages in Media. On the way an angel guides him to Ecbatana, where he makes a romantic marriage with a widow who still remained a virgin despite the fact that she had been married to seven husbands, all of whom had been killed by a demon named Asmodeus on their marriage day. Encouraged by the angel to become the eighth husband, Tobias escapes death by burning the inner parts of a fish, the smoke of which exorcises the evil spirit. Thereupon he cures his father’s blindness by anointing the sightless eyes with the gall of the fish that had already proved so efficacious. The book was probably written as moral fiction toward the close of the third century B.C. Judith. Judith, a rich, beautiful, and devout Jewish widow, is the heroine of the romance with a pseudo-historical background. At the time of the Babylonian invasion of Judah she disguises herself as a traitoress and succeeds in beguiling and slaying the Babylonian general Holofernes, thus saving her city. The narrative is apparently intended as religious fiction. It is immoral, since it teaches that the end justifies the means. The book dates from Maccabean times and was almost certainly written in Heb. according to R. H. Ottley (Handbook to the Septuagint [1929], p. 138). Prophetic Literature (2 books). Baruch (with The Epistle of Jeremiah). This consists of prayers and confessions of Jews in exile with promises of restoration reportedly written by Baruch, the scribe, in imitation of Jeremiah’s language and style. The first five chapters are made nominally to emanate from Baruch, while the sixth was entitled The Epistle of Jeremy, i.e., Jeremiah. Although Baruch and the epistle appear in lists that otherwise rigorously excluded noncanonical books, this work never was included in the Heb. Scriptures and is unquestionably uncanonical. Second Esdras. This is a religious treatise, apocalyptic in character. Chapters 3–14 purport to record seven revelations granted to Ezra in Babylon, several of which took the form of visions. The book, according to Ottley, is supposed to have been written about A.D. 100. The RV contains seventy additional verses in chap. 7 that were discovered in 1875. Legendary Additions (5 books). Prayer of Manasses. This is supposed to be a deeply penitential prayer of Manasseh, the wicked king of Judah, when he was carried away as a prisoner to Babylon by the Assyrians. It was thought to follow 2 Chron. 33:18–19, which outlines Manasseh’s wicked reign and his repentance. Its date is uncertain. The Rest of Esther. Composed in Gk., this writing consists of passages that were interpolated throughout the canonical Esther of the LXX in the form of visions, letters, and prayers intended to explain supposed difficulties and show the hand of God in the narrative. Song of the Three Hebrew Children. This, the first of three unauthenticated additions to the canonical book of Daniel, was inserted after 3:23, and consists of a petition of Azariah in the furnace and an account of the miraculous deliverance, together with an ode of praise of the three. The History of Susanna. This amplification of the book of Daniel is in the form of a religious romance, narrating how the godly wife of a wealthy Jew in Babylon is exonerated of the false charges of two immoral men through the agency of Daniel’s wisdom. In the LXX the narrative is placed before the book of Daniel; in the Vulg. it is placed as Dan. 13. Bel and the Dragon. This final spurious addition to Daniel tells in melodramatic fashion how Daniel destroys two objects of Babylonian worship, Bel and the Dragon, and escapes from the lion’s den. New Testament Apocrypha. The apocryphal books of the NT, unlike those of the OT, have never claimed the faith of the Christian church, except in a few isolated instances. There are more than one hundred of them, and it is doubtful whether one of them appeared before the second century of our era. Most of them portray a much later date. They are valuable as an indication of the growth of thought and the rise of heresy in the age just subsequent to that of the apostles. None of them ever received the sanction of any ecclesiastical council. BIBLIOGRAPHY: R. H. Charles, Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament, 2 vols. (1913); id., Religious Development Between the Testaments (1914); M. R. James, The Apocryphal New Testament (1950); B. M. Metzger, Introduction to the Apocrypha (1957); E. Hennecke, New Testament Apocrypha, ed. W. Schnelmelcher, 2 vols. (1963); R. K. Harrison, Introduction to the Old Testament (1969), pp. 1173–78; J. H. Charlesworth, ed., The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, in process (1983- ). APOLLO´NIA (ap-o-lōʹni-a; Gk. “belonging to Apollo”). The name of several towns in the Mediterranean world, so called in honor of the Greek sun-god, Apollo. Paul visited the famous biblical city by this name on his second missionary journey (Acts 17:1). It was located on the well-known Roman road called the Egnatian Way, twenty-eight miles W of Amphipolis in Macedonia. M.F.U. APOL´LOS (a-polʹlos). A learned, “eloquent” Jew of Alexandria, well acquainted with the Scriptures and the Jewish religion (Acts 18:24). About A.D. 56 he came to Ephesus, where he began to teach in the synagogue “the things concerning Jesus, being acquainted only with the baptism of John” (v. 25). Here he met Aquila and Priscilla, who “explained to him the way of God more accurately,” and Apollos preached Christ with great zeal and power (v. 26). After this he preached in Achaia and especially at Corinth (18:27–28; 19:1), having been recommended by the brethren in Ephesus (18:27). On his arrival at Corinth he was useful in watering the seed that Paul had sown (1 Cor. 3:6). Many of the Corinthians became so attached to him that a schism was produced in the church, some saying, “I am of Paul”; others, “I am of Apollos” (3:4–7). That this party feeling was not encouraged by Apollos is evident from the manner in which Paul speaks of him and his unwillingness to return to Corinth (1 Cor. 16:12). Apollos was, doubtless, at this time with Paul in Ephesus. Paul again mentions Apollos kindly in Titus 3:13 and recommends him and Zenas the lawyer to the attention of Titus, knowing that they planned to visit Crete, where Titus was. Jerome thinks that Apollos remained there until he heard that the divisions in the church at Corinth had been healed by Paul’s letter and then returned and became bishop of that city. Other authorities make him bishop of Duras, of Colophon, of Iconium (in Phrygia), and of Caesarea. BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. M. Seekings, Men of the Pauline Circle (1914), pp. 107–14; A. C. McGiffert, History of Christianity in the Apostolic Age (1951), pp. 290–94; D. E. Hiebert, Personalities Around Paul (1973), pp. 21–32. APOL´LYON (a-polʹyun; “destroyer”). The Gk. equivalent (Rev. 9:11) of Abaddon (which see). APOSTASY. A “falling away.” The common classical use of the word has to do with a political defection (Gen. 14:4, LXX; 2 Chron. 13:6, LXX; Acts 5:37). In the NT its more usual meaning is that of a religious defection (21:21; 1 Tim. 4:1; Heb. 3:12). This is called “apostasy from the faith” (apostasia a fide): a secession from the church, and a disowning of the name of Christ. Some of its peculiar characteristics are mentioned, such as seducing spirits, doctrines of demons, hypocritical lying, a seared conscience, forbidding of marriage and of meats, a form of godliness without the power (1 Tim. 4:1; 2 Tim. 3:5). The grave nature of apostasy is shown by such passages as Heb. 10:26–29, 2 Pet. 2:15–21, and John 15:22. Apostasy as the act of a professed Christian, who knowingly and deliberately rejects revealed truth regarding the deity of Christ (1 John 4:1–3) and redemption through His atoning sacrifice (Phil. 3:18; 2 Pet. 2:1) is different from error, which may be the result of ignorance (Acts 19:1–6), or heresy, which may be the result of falling into the snare of Satan (2 Tim. 2:25–26). Both error and heresy may accordingly be consistent with true faith. On the other hand, apostasy departs from the faith but not from the outward profession of it (2 Tim. 3:5). Apostasy, whether among the angels (Isa. 14:12–14; Ezek. 28:15; Jude 6), in Israel (Isa. 1:1–6; 5:5–7), or in the church (Rev. 3:14–16) is irremediable and awaits judgment. Mankind’s apostasy in Adam (Gen. 3:6–7) is curable only through the sacrifice of Christ. Apostates apparently can only be professors and not actual possessors of true salvation, otherwise their defection would incur severe chastening or, if this failed to restore them, untimely (physical) death (1 Cor. 5:5; 11:32; 1 John 5:16). M.F.U. APOSTLE (Gk. apostolos, a “delegate”). One sent with a special message or commission. In this sense the word is used in the LXX (1 Kings 14:6; Isa. 18:2), and in the NT: John 13:16, “Neither is one who is sent [apostle] greater than the one who sent him”; 2 Cor. 8:23; Phil. 2:25, where persons sent out by churches on special errands are called their apostles, or messengers. In Heb. 3:1 Jesus is called “the Apostle and High Priest of our confession.” Hebrew. The Jews, it is said, called the collector of the half shekel, which every Israelite paid annually to the Temple, an apostle; also those who carried about encyclical letters from their rulers. Paul may have used the word in this sense when he declared himself “an apostle, not sent from men, nor through the agency of man” (Gal. 1:1), plainly indicating that his commission was directly from Christ. (See also Rom. 1:1; 1 Cor. 15:1.) LXX Septuagint M.F.U. Merrill F. Unger Christian. The official name of those twelve of the disciples chosen by our Lord to be with Him during His ministry and to whom He entrusted the organization of His church. These He chose early in His ministry and ordained “that they might be with Him.” The number twelve was, doubtless, with reference to the twelve tribes of Israel and was fixed, so that the apostles were often called simply “the twelve” (Matt. 26:14; John 6:67; 20:24; 1 Cor. 15:5). Their names were (1) Simon Peter (Cephas, Barjona); (2) Andrew; (3) John; (4) Philip; (5) James; (6) Bartholomew (perhaps same as Nathanael); (7) Thomas (Didymus); (8) Matthew (Levi); (9) Simon the Zealot; (10) Jude (Thaddaeus); (11) James the Less; (12) Judas Iscariot. The original qualification of an apostle, as stated by Peter (Acts 1:21–22), was that he should have been personally acquainted with our Lord’s ministry, from His baptism by John to His ascension. By this close personal relation with Him they were peculiarly fitted to give testimony to the facts of redemption. Shortly after their ordination “He gave to them authority over unclean spirits, to cast them out, and to heal every kind of disease and every kind of sickness”; “and sent them out in pairs” to preach (Matt. 10:1–6; Mark 3:14; 6:17; Luke 6:1, 13; 9:1). They accompanied our Lord on His journeys, saw His wonderful works, heard His discourses to the people (Matt. 5:1; Luke 6:13–49) and those addressed to the learned Jews (Matt. 19:3–12; Luke 10:25–37). They sometimes worked miracles (Mark 6:13; Luke 9:6) and sometimes attempted to do so without success (Matt. 17:16). They recognized Jesus as “the Christ of God” (16:16; Luke 9:20) and ascribed supernatural power to Him (9:54), but did not have a high understanding of His spiritual mission (Matt. 15:16; 16:22; 17:20; Luke 9:54; 24:25; John 16:12) and acknowledged the weakness of their faith (Luke 17:5). Jesus taught them to understand the spiritual meaning of His parables (Mark 4:10–34; Luke 8:9– 18), and yet when He was removed from the earth their knowledge of His kingdom was limited (Luke 24:21; John 16:12). Apparently loyal at heart, when He was arrested they all forsook Him and fled (Matt. 26:56). Before His death our Lord promised to the apostles the Holy Spirit, to fit them to be founders and rulers of the Christian church (John 14:16–17, 26; 15:26–27; 16:7–15), and after His resurrection He confirmed their call and commissioned them to “preach the gospel to all creation” (John 20:21–23; Matt. 28:18–20; Mark 16:15). Shortly after Christ’s ascension they, under divine guidance, chose Matthias to be the successor of Judas Iscariot (Acts 1:26). On the Day of Pentecost the Holy Spirit descended upon the church (Acts 2), and the apostles became altogether different men, testifying with power of the life and death and resurrection of Jesus (Luke 24:48; Acts 1:22; 2:32; 3:15; 5:32; 13:31). Their first work was the building up of the church in Jerusalem (Acts 3–7), and then they carried the gospel into Samaria (Acts 8:5–25). With this ends the first period of the apostles’ ministry, with its center at Jerusalem and Peter as its prominent figure. In this age Peter represents Jewish Christianity, Paul Gentile Christianity, and John the union of the two. The center of the second period of the apostolic agency is Antioch, where a church was soon built up, consisting of Jews and Gentiles. Of this and the subsequent period Paul was the central figure and labored with the other apostles (Acts 11:19–30; 13:1–5). In the third period the twelve almost entirely disappear from the sacred narrative, and we have only bits of personal history, which will be found under their respective names. The Apostolic Office. As regards the apostolic office, it seems to have been preeminently that of founding the churches and upholding them by supernatural power specially bestowed for that purpose. It ceased, as a matter of course, with its first holders, all continuation of it, from the very conditions of its existence (cf. 1 Cor. 9:1), being impossible. The bishops of the ancient churches coexisted with, and did not in any sense succeed, the apostles, and when it is claimed for bishops or any church officers that they are their successors it can be understood only chronologically and not officially. In a lower sense the term apostle was applied to all the more eminent Christian teachers, e.g., to Andronicus and Junias (Rom. 16:7). BIBLIOGRAPHY: E. D. Burton, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Epistle to the Galatians, International Critical Commentary (1920), Appendix 1; A. von Schlatter, The Church in the New Testament Period (1955); L. L. Morris, Ministers of God (1964), pp. 39–61; W. Schmitherals, The Office of Apostle in the Early Church (1969); C. K. Barrett, Signs of an Apostle (1970). APOSTOLIC, APOSTOLICAL. Belonging or relating to or traceable to the apostles, such as apostolical age, apostolical doctrine, etc. The title, as one of honor, and likely also implying authority, has been falsely assumed in various ways. The pretended succession of bishops in some churches is called apostolical succession. So the Roman church calls itself the apostolical church, and the see of Rome the apostolical see, the bishop of Rome styling himself apostolical bishop. In the early church all bishops’ sees were called apostolical, but at length some of the popes declared that the title “apostolical” was their right as successors of the apostle Peter, and the Council of Rheims (1049) declared the pope to be the sole apostolical primate of the universal church. APOSTOLIC AGE. That period of church history covering the time between the Day of Pentecost and the death of John, the last apostle. The apostolic age lasted as long as the churches were under the immediate guidance of an apostle. The arrangements made by the apostles can be ascribed to our Lord so far as relates to the principle but not to the details of execution. The form of worship seems to have been simple, much being left to the choice of individuals and churches. Its principal features, however, with regard to the Sabbath, church festivals, and the sacraments were fixed. There were many pious customs among these Christians, partly new and partly derived from Judaism. The apostolic age is commonly divided into three periods: (1) From Pentecost until the second appearance of Paul (about A.D. 41). (2) Until the death of Paul (about 67). (3) The Johannine period (about 100). BIBLIOGRAPHY: P. Schaff, The History of the Apostolic Church (1853); A. C. McGiffert, History of Christianity in the Apostolic Age (1897); W. M. Ramsay, St. Paul the Traveller and Roman Citizen (1949); F. F. Bruce, The Spreading Flame (1953); E. M. Blaiklock, Century of the New Testament (1962); B. I. Reike, New Testament Era (1968). APOSTOLIC COUNCIL. The assembly of the apostles and elders, held in Jerusalem (A.D. 50), an account of which is given in Acts 15. At Antioch, under the labors of Paul and Barnabas, many uncircumcised persons had been gathered into the church. Some Jewish Christians on a visit from Jerusalem contended that circumcision was necessary to salvation. Paul and Barnabas, with others, were deputed to lay the matter before a general meeting of the church in Jerusalem. A preliminary meeting appears to have been held, at which some converts from among the Pharisees showed such opposition (Acts 15:5–6; Gal. 2) that it was thought best to submit the matter to the whole body. After much dispute Peter told of his experience with Cornelius and was followed by Barnabas and Paul, who told of their great success among the Gentiles. Then James, as president of the council, summed up the debate and pronounced in favor of releasing Gentile converts from the necessity of circumcision and other observances of the Mosaic ceremonial law. The conclusion being agreed upon, a letter was drawn up and sent to Antioch by two delegates chosen to accompany Paul and Barnabas (see Acts 15:22–30ff.). When read at Antioch, the letter gave great cheer to the Gentile converts. APOTHECARY. See Handicrafts: Perfumer; Oil and Ointment; Perfume. AP´PAIM (apʹpa-yim; “nostrils”). The second named of the sons of Nadab and the father of Ishi, of the posterity of Jerahmeel, of the tribe of Judah (1 Chron. 2:30). APPAREL (Heb. beged, “dress,” or some form of Aram. l bish, “clothing”). See Dress. APPEAL (Gk. epikaleomai, to “invoke” for aid, Acts 25:11–12, 21, 25). Jewish. In patriarchal times the head of the tribe administered justice, and, having no superior, there was no appeal from his decisions. In the condemnation of Tamar (Gen. 38:24) Judah exercised this power over the women of his family. Had the case been between man and man it would, doubtless, have been referred to Jacob. After the Exodus, Moses at first adjudged all cases himself, but at the suggestion of Jethro he arranged for a number of inferior judges, with evident right of appeal to himself (Ex. 18:13, 26). Later on the judges of the different towns were to bring all difficult cases that they were unable to decide before the Levitical priests and judges at the place of the sanctuary for a final decision (Deut. 17:8–11). According to the above regulation the appeal lay in the time of the Judges to the judge (Judg. 4:5) and under the monarchy to the king, who appears to have designated certain persons to inquire into the facts of the case and record his decision (2 Sam. 15:3). Jehoshaphat delegated his judicial authority to a court permanently established for the purpose (2 Chron. 19:8). These courts were reestablished by Ezra (Ezra 7:25). After the institution of the Sanhedrin the final appeal lay to them. Roman. A Roman citizen under the Republic had the right to appeal in criminal cases from the decision of a magistrate to the people, and as the emperor succeeded to the power of the people there was an appeal to him in the last resort. The apostle Paul, as a Roman citizen, exercised a right of appeal from the jurisdiction of the local court at Jerusalem to the emperor (Acts 25:11). But as no decision had been given there could be no appeal, properly speaking, in his case; the language used (25:9) implies the right on the part of the accused of electing either to be tried by the provincial magistrate or by the emperor. Since the procedure in the Jewish courts at that period was of a mixed and undefined character, the Roman and Jewish authorities coexisting and carrying on the course of justice between them, Paul availed himself of his undoubted privilege to be tried by the pure Roman law. Ecclesiastical. In the early church all ecclesiastical matters were determined by the bishop with his court, an appeal being allowed to the provincial synod. Appeal to the pope was first formally recognized by the Council of Sardica (A.D. 343), where it was agreed that a condemned bishop had the right of appeal to the pope, who should either confirm the verdict of the synod or appoint new judges. The decision of the council was not at first generally accepted, yet within the next half century the opinion prevailed that in all important cases an appeal could be made not only by a bishop but by anyone aggrieved. Thus it came to pass that during the medieval period the pope became, ex officio, the ecclesiastical judge of highest resort for all the nations whose churches acknowledged obedience to him. The first instance in England of an appeal occurred in the reign of Stephen, but the concession was withdrawn under Henry II when one of the Constitutions of Clarendon decided that no appeals should be made to the pope without the king’s consent. In Germany the first reaction against papal usurpation appeared in the “Golden Bull,” which forbade appeals to Rome from a civil court. The Concordatum Constant (1418) and the decree of the thirty-first sitting of the Council of Basel, determined that appeals to the pope should not be decided in Rome by the curia but by judices in partubis, chosen first by provincial or diocesan synods, and afterward by the bishops and chapters. The following is from the Catholic Dictionary (s. v.): “The object of appeals is the redress of injustice, whether knowingly or ignorantly committed. Appeal can be made from any judge recognizing a superior; thus no appeal is possible in secular matters from the decision of the sovereign power, or the highest secular tribunal, in any country; for these, in such matters, recognize no superior. There can be no appeal from the pope, for he, as the vicar of Christ, recognizes no superior on earth…. Nor can an appeal be made from a general council legitimately convened and approved, because it, being in union with the Roman pontiff who approved it, represents the whole Church, from the sentence of which there can be no appeal.” In the Methodist, the Presbyterian, and most of the Protestant churches the right of appeal is recognized and modes of procedure provided for in their various books of discipline. APPEARANCE. A term usually applied to the interviews granted to the disciples by Jesus after His resurrection. From the several accounts we see that our Lord’s body had undergone a change, having extraordinary powers of locomotion, of becoming invisible and visible at pleasure, while it still retained characteristics of matter and was capable of taking food in the ordinary way. The following appearances are recorded: to Mary Magdalene (Mark 16:9–10; John 20:11–18); to other women (Matt. 28:9–10); to Simon Peter (Luke 24:34; 1 Cor. 15:5); to the two going to Emmaus (Luke 24:13–31); to the apostles (Mark 16:14; John 20:19); to apostles, including Thomas (20:26–29); to seven disciples at the Sea of Galilee (21:1–14); to five hundred (1 Cor. 15:6); to James, then to all apostles, giving them a commission (Luke 24:44–49; Acts 1:3–8); at the ascension (Mark 16:19–20; Luke 24:50–53; Acts 1:9– 12). APPEARING of our Lord (1 Tim. 6:14; 2 Tim. 1:10; 4:1, 8; etc.). See Millennium. APPHIA (afʹi-a). The name of a woman affectionately saluted by Paul (A.D. 64) as a Christian at Colossae (Philem. 2), supposed by Chrysostom and Theodoret to have been the wife of Philemon, with whom, according to tradition, she suffered martyrdom. See Philemon. BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. B. Lightfoot, St. Paul’s Epistles to the Colossians and Philemon (1968), pp. 304–6. AP´PII FO´RUM (ap-ī-ī fōʹrum). The marketplace of Appius. A town or station located forty miles from Rome, upon the Appian Way, over which Paul passed on his way to the capital (Acts 28:15). Three Inns was a village about ten miles nearer Rome. Scholars now locate the town about three miles from modern Cisterna. “Taverns” almost certainly denotes inns for travelers in this instance. APPIUS (apʹpi-us). See Appii Forum. APPLE. See Vegetable Kingdom. APRON. See Dress. A´QABA (aʹka-ba), Gulf of. The northern arm of the Red Sea, at the head of which lay Solomon’s seaport of Ezion-geber (which see; 1 Kings 9:26). AQUEDUCT (akʹwē-duct). See Conduit. AQ´UILA (akʹwi-la; “eagle”). A Jew and a native of Pontus, and by occupation a tentmaker. Fleeing from Rome in consequence of an order of Claudius commanding all Jews to leave that city, he went to Corinth, where he was living when Paul found him, and, being of the same handicraft, lived with him. Some time after, being opposed by the Jews and perhaps to remove any obstacle to his acceptance by the Gentiles, Paul left the house of Aquila and dwelt with one Titius Justus. It is not certain when Aquila and his wife, Priscilla, were converted to Christianity, but it was before Paul left Corinth, for they accompanied him to Ephesus. While there they instructed Apollos in “the way of God more accurately” (Acts 18) and appear to have been zealous promoters of the Christian cause in that city (1 Cor. 16:19). At the time of Paul’s writing to Corinth, Aquila and his wife were still at Ephesus (16:19), but in Rom. 16:3–5 we find them again at Rome and their house a place of assemblage for Christians. Some years after they appear to have returned to Ephesus, for Paul sends salutations to them during his second imprisonment at Rome (2 Tim. 4:19), as being with Timothy. Nothing further concerning them is known. BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. C. Lees, St. Paul’s Friends (1918), pp. 47–67; D. E. Hiebert, Personalities Around Paul (1973), pp. 33–45; C. J. and A. A. Barber, You Can Have a Happy Marriage (1974), pp. 159–71. AR (ar; “city”). The same as Ar Moab (Num. 21:15, 28; Deut. 2:9, 18, 29), on the border of the Arnon (Num. 22:36). A´RA (aʹra). The last named of the three sons of Jether, of the tribe of Asher (1 Chron. 7:38). A´RAB (aʹrab; “ambush”). A city in the mountains of Judah, and given to that tribe (Josh. 15:52). It is located at modern er-Rabiyeh, a ruin E of Dumah. AR´ABAH (arʹa-bā; “desert,” Josh. 18:18). The Arabah (KJV, “the plain”) is applied (Deut. 1:1; 2:8; 3:17; 4:49; Josh. 3:16; 12:1, 3; 2 Kings 14:25; Amos 6:14) to the valley between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba. The valley is about one hundred miles in length and is somewhat wider in the N than in the S. The southern third of the Arabah is only about six miles wide and is formed by Nubian sandstone on the W and granite on the E. The valley floor rises to its highest point, 650 feet above sea level, in about the middle of the Arabah and then descends to the Gulf of Aqaba. Everywhere the Arabah is desert, though there are several wadi bottoms in the northern Arabah. Some oases stand there today, and in Nabatean times these were marked by forts and cultivated fields. About a quarter of the way down the Arabah from the Dead Sea were the copper mines of Punon (modern Feinan), a source of Edomite and Nabatean wealth. Here water was available, which made it possible to work the mines. H.F.V. BIBLIOGRAPHY: D. Baly, Geography of the Bible (1957), pp. 198–216; N. Glueck, Rivers in the Desert (1959), pp. 153–63. ARA´BIA (a-rāʹbi-a; “desert”). In the Bible Arabia does not denote the whole peninsula between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, but only the northern part contiguous to Palestine (Isa. 21:13; Jer. 25:24; Ezek. 27:21); and in the same manner “the Arab” (Isa. 13:20; Jer. 3:2) does not denote the Arab in general, but only the inhabitant of the northern region. Only in the later books of the OT, as, for instance, 2 Chron. 21:16, where the Arabians are spoken of together with the Ethiopians, or in Neh. 2:19; 6:1, and in the NT (Acts 2:11; Gal. 1:17; 4:25) does the name seem to have obtained a more general signification. Arabia is an area of about one million square miles, with just over twenty-four million inhabitants. It is the world’s largest peninsula, consisting of a desert area close to one-third the size of the United States. Its ancient divisions were Arabia Petraẹa KJV King James Version H.F.V. Howard F. Vos (the NW section, including the Sinai, which became a Roman province), Arabia Felix (the main part of the peninsula), and Arabia Deserta (the northern part between Syria and Mesopotamia). The political divisions of this area today are Saudi Arabia, North Yemen, South Yemen, Oman, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, and Bahrain. The part of Arabia that holds special interest for the Bible student is the SW region, from which the queen of Sheba came to see Solomon. This area derived much of its wealth and significance from its position on the trade routes between Ethiopia and lands to the N. In fact, it has been suggested that the queen of Sheba made the long journey to see Solomon not primarily because of his wisdom or even his wealth but because the activities of his merchant marine were cutting into her sphere of mercantile influence. Sometime during the second millennium B.C. Semitic tribes from the N came into the area of Yemen and established settlements that later were to become the kingdoms of Saba’ (Sheba), Ma’in (Minaeans) and Qataban. Excavations in the area have been few. The first excavations in the region of Saba’ were conducted by C. Rathjens and H. von Wissman in 1928. Among other things, they found a temple dedicated to the sun-goddess about fourteen miles NNW of San’a and in use for several centuries B.C. An American expedition in 1951–52 found an eighth-century B.C. temple SE of Marib. They recovered more than three hundred Sabean texts at the site. The Americans also worked at Timna’, capital of the Qatabanian kingdom, and its necropolis. They investigated the remains in the nearby Wadi Beihan of an irrigation system dated to about 1500 B.C. Although some approach to a pottery chronology of the region has now been developed, nothing has been found that throws much light on the civilization of the region in the days of Solomon in the tenth century B.C. H.F.V. BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. A. Montgomery, Arabia and the Bible (1934); S. Moscati, Ancient Semitic Civilizations (1957), pp. 181–207; P. K. Hitti, History of the Arabs (1970); W. S. LaSor, International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1979) 1: 220–26. A´RAD (aʹrad; “fugitive”). 1. In the KJV of Num. 21:1, “king Arad” should read “king of Arad.” 2. One of the “sons” of Beriah, of the tribe of Benjamin (1 Chron. 8:15). 3. A Canaanite city on the southernmost borders of Palestine, whose inhabitants drove back the Israelites while trying to enter Canaan from Kadesh (Num. 21:1; 33:40) but were finally subdued by Joshua (Josh. 12:14; Judg. 1:16). It lay about seventeen miles S of Hebron and is now called Tell Arad. Yohanan Aharoni and Ruth Amiran excavated at Arad from 1962 to 1967 and since 1971 on behalf of the Hebrew University, the Israel Department of Antiquities, and the Israel Exploration Society. They found that a Canaanite village existed there from about 3200 to 2900 B.C. and was followed by a city of some twenty-two acres surrounded by a stone wall dating from 2900 to 2700. Thereafter the site was unoccupied until the eleventh century. A strong citadel was built there in the tenth century, probably in Solomon’s reign. Of special interest is the Israelite temple built inside the tenth-century citadel and measuring sixty-five by forty-five feet. Apparently this was destroyed during King Josiah’s reform in the seventh century B.C. Since Tell Arad was uninhabited during the days of Moses and Joshua, that Arad must be located elsewhere. That there were two Arads is supported by the fact that Pharaoh Shishak of Egypt in 926 claimed to have captured two Arads in the Negev: Arad the Great and Arad of the House of Yeroham. H.F.V. A´RAH (aʹrā; “wayfaring”). 1. The first named of the three sons of Ulla, of the tribe of Asher (1 Chron. 7:39). 2. An Israelite, whose posterity (variously stated as 775 and 652 in number) returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:5; Neh. 7:10), 536 B.C. He is probably the same as the Arah whose son, Shecaniah, was father-in-law of Tobiah (6:18). A´RAM (aʹram). A son of Shem, progenitor of the Aramaean peoples (Gen. 10:22– 23), who spread widely in Syria and Mesopotamia from the Lebanon Mountains. to beyond the Euphrates and from the Taurus Range on the N to Damascus and northern Palestine on the S. Contacts of the Aramaeans in the Balikh-Habur region (“Paddan- aram,” Gen. 28:5) with the Hebrews go back to the patriarchal age (31:47, marg.). The maternal ancestry of Jacob’s children was Aramaic (Deut. 26:5). During the long period of Israel’s sojourn in Egypt, their wanderings in the Sinaitic Wilderness, and the extended period of the Judges in Canaan, the Aramaeans were multiplying and extending in every direction, particularly southward. At the time of Saul (c. 1020 B.C.), Aramaic expansion was beginning to clash with Israelite strength, and by this time several Aramaean districts appear prominently in the OT narratives. Aram-Naharaim, “Aram of the (Two) Rivers,” was the country between the Tigris and Euphrates (Gk., Mesopotamia), or more probably the territory between the Euphrates and the Habur. This was the region of Haran where the Aramaeans had settled in patriarchal times, where Abraham sojourned, and from which Aramaean power spread. Aram-Damascus emerged from a petty S Syrian state when a man named Rezon seized the city at the time David conquered Zobah (1 Kings 11:23–24) and founded a strong Aramaean kingdom there. This power was the inveterate foe of the Northern Kingdom for more than a century and a half under such powerful Aramaean rulers as Hezion, Tabrimmon, the Ben-hadads, Hazael, and Rezon. The Aramaic kingdom of Damascus did not come to an end until destroyed by Assyria in 732 B.C. Aram-Zobah was a powerful Aramaean kingdom that flourished N of Hamath and reached its zenith under Saul and the early years of David’s reign. David conquered it and incorporated it into his realm (2 Sam. 8; cf. vv. 10, 12–13, marg.). Aram-Maachah was an Aramaean principality that lay E of the Jordan near Mt. Hermon (Josh. 12:5; 13:11) and extended at least as far W as the Jordan. See also Maacah, no. 3. Geshur was a small Aramaic principality E of the Jordan and the Sea of Galilee and S of Maachah within Manasseh’s territory (Deut. 3:14; 2 Sam. 13:37; 15:8). Aram-Beth-rehob is in the general vicinity of Geshur. If identical with the place mentioned in Num. 13:21 and Judg. 13:28, it was near Maacah and Dan. Tob was an Aramaic principality E of the Jordan and is probably identifiable with et-Taiyibeh, ten miles S of Gadara. It was there that Hanun, king of Ammon, drew soldiers to war against David (2 Sam. 10:6). David was bound to clash with these Aramaean kingdoms at his back door. He conquered them and incorporated them into his kingdom, making possible the empire of Solomon. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Merrill F. Unger, Israel and the Aramaeans of Damascus (1957). ARAMA´IC (ar-a-māʹik). A NW Semitic dialect. It was formerly inaccurately called Chaldee (Chaldaic) because it was spoken by the Chaldeans of the book of Daniel (2:4–7:28). But since the Chaldeans are known to have generally spoken Akkad., the term Chaldee has been abandoned. Numerous references to the Aramaeans (Arimi, marg. margin, marginal reading Ahlâme) occur in Assyrian records from the fourteenth century B.C. onward. Monumental inscriptions in Aram. also are found, such as the votive stela of Ben- hadad II set up about 850 B.C. and discovered in 1941 just N of Aleppo in Syria. These monuments inscribed in Aram. extend into the Persian Period, when Aram. became the lingua franca of all SW Asia as the result of the traffic of Aramaean merchants; business documents, weights, measures, etc., are found in Aram. dating in the eighth to the fifth century B.C. The main source of Aram., however, is the deposit of Aram. papyri from Elephantine in Upper Egypt dating from 500 to 400 B.C. (see article Amarna, el-). Our Lord spoke Galilean Aram., and Aram. portions of the OT include Dan. 2:4– 7:28; Ezra 4:8–6:18; 7:12–26; Jer. 10:11 (gloss?). The Greeks called Aram Syria; consequently the language is called “Syriac” (Dan. 2:4, KJV). This designation is now confined to the Aram. dialect spoken at Edessa, which became the language of the Christian churches of Syria and Mesopotamia. ARAN (aʹran). The second son of Dishan, a descendant of Seir the Horite (Gen. 36:28; 1 Chron. 1:42). E.H.M. AR´ARAT (arʹa-rat; Gen. 8:4; Jer. 51:27). This name, applied to the country between the Tigris and the Caucasus Mountains, known as Armenia and called in the Assyrian inscription Urartu, came to apply to the mountain range there. The highest of these mountains, Aġri Daġ, on the Russian border in eastern Turkey, is usually seized on as the place where Noah’s ark landed because it is the highest mountain (16,946 feet) in the chain and in the entire Near East. But ancient traditions point to at least six other landing places, and it is not possible to be dogmatic about the site. Numerous expeditions have explored the traditional Mt. Ararat, without any definitive results. The Mesopotamian flood account says that its flood hero landed on Mt. Nisir, usually identified with Pir Omar Gudrum, a nine-thousand-foot peak considerably S of the Ararat chain and about four hundred miles N of the Persian Gulf and E of the Tigris River. H.F.V. ARAU´NAH (a-rāʹna). A Jebusite who had a threshing floor on Mt. Moriah, which he sold to David as a site for an altar to Jehovah. The angel of pestilence, sent to punish King David for taking a census of the people, was stayed in the work of death near this plot of ground. When David desired to purchase it, Aruanah liberally offered the ground to him as a free gift. David insisted upon paying for it, giving him, according to 2 Sam. 24:24, fifty shekels of silver and, according to 1 Chron. 21:25, six hundred shekels of gold. (Many efforts have been made to reconcile this difference, some saying that the fifty shekels were given for the oxen and the six hundred shekels for the land; others, that the fifty shekels were for the threshing floor and oxen and the six hundred shekels for additional ground.) This land was the site of the Temple (2 Chron. 3:1). Araunah’s name is sometimes written Ornan. See Chronicles. AR´BA (arʹba; “four”). A giant, father of Anak. From him Hebron derived its early name of Kiriath-arba, i.e., “city of Arba” (Gen. 35:37; Josh. 14:15; 15:13; 21:11). AR´BITE (arʹbīt). Paarai the Arbite was one of David’s guards (2 Sam. 23:35). The word signifies a native of Arab in the hill country of Judah. In 1 Chron. 11:37 the name is given as Naarai. E.H.M. Eugene H. Merrill ARCHAEOLOGY (Gk. archaiologia, “science of ancient things”). General archaeology is a study based on the excavation, decipherment, and critical evaluation of records of the ancient past. Biblical Archaeology. Biblical archaeology is a more restricted field than general archaeology and deals with the excavation, decipherment, and critical evaluation of ancient records of the past that touch either directly or indirectly upon the Bible and its message. Interest and Importance. Biblical archaeology, shedding light upon the historical background and the contemporary life out of which the Holy Scriptures came and illuminating and illustrating its pages with its truly remarkable discoveries, borrows much of the great interest that is attached to it from its connection with the Bible. It is accordingly attracting larger and larger numbers of enthusiastic investigators, students, and Bible readers in general. In fact, no field of research offers greater challenge and promise than biblical (particularly OT) archaeology. This appears from the simple fact that up to about 1800 exceedingly little was known of OT times except what appeared on the pages of the Scriptures themselves or what happened to be preserved in the writings of classical antiquity. This was considerable for the NT era but was practically nil insofar as the OT was concerned, since Greek and Latin historians cataloged little information prior to 400 B.C. As a consequence, knowledge of the OT period was confined to the Bible itself, and this, from the point of view of contemporary history, was sparse indeed. The result was that before the advent of modern archaeology at about 1800, there was practically nothing available to illustrate OT history and literature. Discoveries. Modern archaeology may be said to have had its beginning in 1798 when the rich antiquities of the Nile Valley were opened up to scientific study by Napoleon’s expedition. Toward the middle of the next century the treasures of Assyria and Babylonia were uncovered as a result of the work of Paul Botta, A. H. Layard, H. C. Rawlinson, and others. With the decipherment of the Rosetta Stone, which unlocked Egyptian hieroglyphics, and the reading of the Behistun Inscription, which furnished the key to Assyrian and Babylonian cuneiform, a vast mass of material bearing on the OT was released. The finding of the Moabite Stone in 1868 created a veritable sensation because of its close connection with OT history, and it aroused widespread enthusiasm in Palestinian excavations. However, many of the most notable discoveries affecting the Bible (particularly the OT) were not made until within aproximately the last eighty years, such as the Code of Hammurabi (1901), the Elephantine Papyri (1903), the Hittite Monuments at Boghazkeui (1906), the tomb of Tutankhamen (1922), the sarcophagus of Ahiram of Byblus (1923), the Ras Shamra religious epic literature (1929–37), the Mari Letters and the Lachish Ostraca (1935–38), the Dead Sea Scrolls (1947–67), and the remarkable finds at Ebla (since 1964). The discoveries at Ebla (Tell Mardikh) in Syria have demonstrated a well-developed written language c. 2500 B.C., but the interpretation of these tablets is controversial. Contributions. Although archaeological findings in the hands of the purely technical scholar, who has little proper understanding or appreciation of the unique message and meaning of the Bible, are continually in peril of being misinterpreted and misapplied and made the basis of unsound theories, archaeology in the hands of the scientist who is at the same time a devout believer yields vast and far-reaching results for good. Legitimately handled, the contributions of archaeology to biblical studies are tremendous. Archaeology Authenticates the Bible. Although there is genuine benefit of archaeological research in Bible lands, especially in dealing with extreme liberalism and the many vagaries of higher criticism, yet its subordinate nature appears from several considerations. In the first place, the Bible does not need to be “proved” either by archaeology, geology, or any other science. As God’s revelation to man, its own message and meaning, its own claims of inspiration and internal evidence, its own fruits and results in the life of humanity are its best proof of authenticity. It demonstrates itself to be what it claims to be to those who believe its message. Since God has made the realization of the spiritual life dependent on faith and not sight (2 Cor. 5:7; Heb. 11:6), whatever contributions archaeology or any other science might make in attesting to the reliability of the Bible can never supplant faith. Scientific authentication may act as a help to faith, but God has established simple trust that honors Him as the medium of receiving His salvation and understanding His revealed ways with man. Despite the truth of these facts, archaeology has an important role in authenticating the Bible both generally and specifically. Generally, scientific archaeology has exploded many extreme theories and false assumptions that used to be paraded in scholarly circles as settled facts. No longer can higher criticism dismiss the Hebrew patriarchs as mere legendary figures, or deny that Moses could write, or assert that the Mosaic legislation is completely anachronistic for such an early age. These and other extreme opinions have been shown to be completely untenable by archaeological research. Other examples of general confirmation of the Bible are the results of excavations at Jerusalem, Gibeah of Saul, Megiddo, Samaria, and numerous other Palestinian cities. Cases of specific confirmation, although of course less numerous, are striking. The historicity of Belshazzar (Dan. 5), the authentication of the name Sargon (Isa. 20:1), and the corroboration of Jehoiachin’s captivity in Babylon (2 Kings 25:27–30) by the actual finding of the name of the king on cuneiform tablets there, are but a few examples of specific attestations. Archaeology Illustrates and Explains the Bible. This is by far the most important contribution of archaeological research in Bible lands, and its ramifications are practically endless. It is no exaggeration to say that insofar as its background is concerned, the Bible is a whole new book as a result of the marvelous contributions of archaeology toward illuminating and illustrating it. Examples are numberless. Whether it is the longevity of the antediluvian patriarchs, Abraham’s hometown of Ur, the conquest of Jericho, Jeroboam’s golden calves at Bethel, Jonah’s preaching in Nineveh, the Temple of Herod, the ministry of Paul in Ephesus, everywhere archaeology sheds light on the sacred page and makes its message and meaning more understandable to our present day. Archaeology Supplements the Bible. The human authors of the Bible, writing under divine inspiration, were not interested in profane history, geography, ethnology, and other fields of human knowledge, except incidentally as they chanced to touch upon the history of redemption. It is, therefore, natural from the modern scholar’s view that there should be great gaps in the Bible in these branches of learning; whereas from the divine side and insofar as the spiritual comprehension of the divine message is concerned, there was no need for further knowledge of these and kindred subjects. Yet from a human standpoint light from these spheres of research is of incalculable value in extending biblical horizons, increasing knowledge of biblical backgrounds, and giving a fuller comprehension of the message of the Bible. Examples of supplementation are numerous, such as the destruction of Shiloh, which is nowhere recounted in Scripture but is assumed by Jeremiah (Jer. 7:12–15; 26:6–7). Excavations at the site of Israel’s ancient sanctuary by the Danish Expedition uncovered pottery and other evidence showing that this destruction took place 1050 B.C., presumably at the hands of the Philistines (see H. Kjaer, Journal of Palestine Oriental Society [1930]: 87–114). Other examples occur in excavations at Bethshan, the Esdraelon fortress, destroyed not long after Shiloh, and evidently at the hands of David as a punishment for the ignominious treatment of the deceased king Saul (1 Sam. 31:10, 12; 2 Sam. 21:12). Striking supplementation is common in the Assyrian period. The Israelite kings Omri, Ahab, Jehu, Menahem, and Hoshea and the Judean kings Ahaz, Hezekiah, Manasseh, Josiah, and Jehoiachin are all much better known by the supplementary material gleaned from the cuneiform records of the great Assyrian emperors Shalmaneser III, Tiglath-pileser III, Sargon II, Sennacherib, Esarhaddon, and Ashurbanipal. Archaeology has thus yielded momentous results up to the present and gives fair promise of even greater contributions in the future as research in Bible lands progresses. M.F.U. BIBLIOGRAPHY: M. Avi-Yonah and E. Stern, eds., Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land, 4 vols. (1975–78); H. F. Vos, Archaeology in Bible Lands (1977); E. M. Blaiklock and R. K. Harrison, eds., New International Dictionary of Biblical Archaeology (1983). For additional information see The Minister’s Library (1985), pp. 109–16. ARCHANGEL. See Michael. ARCHELA´US (ar-ki-lāʹus; “ruler of the people”). Son of Herod the Great by a Samaritan woman, Malthace (Josephus Wars 1.28.4), and brought up, with his brother Antipas, at Rome (Josephus Wars 1.31.1). Upon his father’s death, Caesar divided his kingdom, giving to Archelaus (4 B.C.) Edom, Judea, and Samaria, with the important cities Caesarea, Sebaste, Joppa, and Jerusalem. His share of the kingdom brought him a yearly income of six hundred talents. He was made ethnarch, with promise of becoming king if he ruled virtuously (Josephus Ant. 17.11.4). After Herod’s death, and previous to going to Rome to receive the government, Archelaus ordered his soldiers to attack the Jews, who were becoming tumultuous, at the Temple. The attack resulted in the death of about three thousand Jews. On his going to Rome the Jews sent a deputation of the principal citizens protesting against his cruelty and asking to be permitted to live according to their own laws, under a Roman governor. Some have thought that our Lord alludes to this circumstance in Luke 19:21–27. Archelaus returned to Judea, and, under pretense that he had countenanced the seditions against him, he deprived Joazar of the high priesthood and gave that dignity to his brother Eleazar. He governed Judea with so much violence that in the tenth (ninth according to Dio Cassius) year of his reign he was dethroned, deprived of his property, and banished to Vienna, in Gaul (Josephus Ant. 17.13.2). His cruelty was manifested toward Samaritans as well as Jews. The parents of our Lord turned aside, from fear of him, on their way back from Egypt and went to Nazareth in Galilee, in the domain of his more gentle brother Antipas (Matt. 2:22). See also article Herod. ARCHERS (Heb. qashshāt, “bowman,” Gen. 21:20; ba˓al hēṣ, “arrow man,” Gen. 49:23; ˒ĕnôsh baqqeshet, “bowman,” 1 Sam. 31:3; also “shooter with the bow,” 1 Chron. 10:3; “one bending the bow,” Jer. 51:3). The bow and arrow are weapons of ancient origin (Gen. 48:22; 49:24; cf. Gen. 9:14–15). Archers were numerous among the Hebrews, especially in the tribes of Benjamin and Ephraim (Ps. 76:3; 1 Chron. 8:40; 2 Chron. 14:8; 17:17). Archers are frequently found on Egyptian monuments and Assyrian sculptures. Reference is made to the Philistine archers in 1 Sam. 31:3, and the Persians were famous for their archers (Isa. 13:18; Jer. 49:35; 50:29). See Armor. ARCHIP´PUS (ar-kipʹus; “master of the horse”). A Christian minister at Colossae, to whom Paul sends a salutation, calling him “our fellow soldier” (Philem. 2), and whom he exhorts to increased activity (Col. 4:17), A.D. 61. In the epistle to Philemon he is addressed jointly with Philemon and Apphia, from which it has been inferred that he was a member of Philemon’s family. Tradition states that he was one of Jesus’ seventy disciples and suffered martyrdom at Chonae, near Laodicea. ARCHITECTURE. Today hundreds of architectural works built in Bible times and known to Bible characters have been dug up and may now be seen. However, the architectural beauty that the Hebrews knew was largely the result of Egyptian, Babylonian, Assyrian, Phoenician, Greek, or Roman influence. Egyptian. Egyptian art and architecture were splendid almost from the time of Menes of the First Dynasty, c. 2900–2700 B.C. Abraham, Jacob, and their descendants gazed upon the gigantic pyramids that were already centuries old by Abraham’s time (c. 2000 B.C.) and belong to the Old Kingdom (Dynasties III-VI), c. 2700–2200 B.C. Djoser, first king of the Third Dynasty, had an architect who constructed for him the famous Step Pyramid at Saqqara. Khufu, founder of the Fourth Dynasty, built the greatest of the pyramids at Gizeh, whose base covers thirteen acres, required 2,300,000 2½-ton blocks of yellow limestone to erect, and towered originally 481 feet in height. Khafre, the successor of Khufu, built the even more spectacular Second Pyramid at Gizeh, 447½ feet high. Khafre himself is represented in the head of the Sphinx, which stands to the E of the Second Pyramid and which was carved out of a spur of natural rock and built up with blocks of stone at the same time the pyramid of Khafre was constructed. Kings of the Fifth and Sixth Dynasties carved the famous pyramid texts on the walls of the inner chambers of their pyramids. Remarkable temples, tombs, etc., were part of Egypt’s long and brilliant history. But in the New Kingdom (Dynasties XVIII-XX), c. 1570–1150 B.C., when Egypt ruled the East, many architectural wonders appeared such as the exquisite Mortuary temple of Queen Hatshepsut (c. 1520 B.C.) at Deir-el-Bahri, near Thebes, a beautiful structure of white limestone built in colonnaded terraces. Another outstanding builder was Rameses II (c. 1301–1234 B.C.). His mortuary temple, the Ramesseum at Thebes, is exquisite. Moreover, he added to the temple at Luxor and constructed the enormous hypostyle hall of the Karnak temple, consisting of 134 tremendous columns the highest of which rose seventy feet in the air; this hall was part of the largest temple ever built by man. At Abu Simbel above the First Cataract of the Nile, Rameses II hewed out a complete temple in the sandstone cliff overlooking the Nile and carved four great statues of himself from the rock in front of it. Mesopotamian. The OT refers a number of times to palaces and other types of Mesopotamian architecture (Isa. 39:7; 2 Kings 20:18). At Erech (Uruk, Warka, Gen. 10:10), some fifty miles NW of Ur, the Deutsche Orientgesellschaft under Adolph Koldewey discovered (besides the first cylinder seals and earliest known writing) monumental architecture including temples, remains of the huge mud-brick Tower of Eanna (c. 2500 B.C.) and first evidences of the Babylonian stage tower, or ziggurat (cf. Gen. 11:1–6). At ancient Ur (Abraham’s birthplace) in numerous campaigns Sir Leonard Woolley recovered abundant evidences of Sumerian art, complexes of temples, palaces, city streets, and the remains of one of the best-preserved ancient ziggurats (cf. 11:28, 31; 15:7; Neh. 9:7). At Asshur on the Tigris River S of Nineveh, the German expedition under Walter Andrae before World War I uncovered an archaic temple of Ishtar, a fine temple of Asshur (native god of Assyria), stout city walls, gates, and landmarks revealing the architectural splendor of the ancient city going back to c. 3000 B.C. At Babylon on the Euphrates N of Kish a German expedition under Robert Koldewey laid bare the magnificent ancient city of Nebuchadnezzar and an utterly bewildering group of palaces, public buildings, famous streets, including the Processional, temples, and a tower identified by many as the tower of Babel (Gen. 10:10; 11:9; 2 Kings 17:24, 30; etc.). At Calah (Nimrud, Gen. 10:10), some twenty miles SE of Nineveh, Austin Layard, and later M. E. L. Mallowan, found palaces of Assyrian kings of the eighth century B.C. with man- headed lions and colossal reliefs. At ancient Kish, some eight miles E of Babylon, the Oxford University and the Field Museum of Natural History expedition located an ancient palace of the kings of Kish and a temple of Ishtar. At Nineveh, on the Upper Tigris N of Asshur, A. H. Layard, M. E. Mallowan, H. Rassam, and others recovered remains of ornate Assyrian palaces, including the magnificent palace of Sennacherib (c. 704–681 B.C.) containing no less than seventy-one rooms with almost ten thousand feet of walls lined with sculptured slabs. Besides this, Nineveh yielded the superb library of Ashurbanipal (669–633 B.C.; cf. Gen. 10:11–12; 2 Kings 19:36; Isa. 37:37; Jonah 1:2; Nah. 1:1–3:19; Matt. 12:41). At Khorsabad (Dur Sharrukin) Paul Emile Botta dug up the famous palace of Sargon II (721–705 B.C.) containing splendid reliefs and enameled tile paintings. At Mari (Tell el Hariri), on the Middle Euphrates near Abou Kemal, the Musée du Louvre under André Parrot uncovered a huge palace of Amorite rulers, a temple of Ishtar, and a ziggurat. The palace at Mari is most notable, being a tremendous structure covering more than fifteen acres, with royal apartments, offices, school for scribes, etc., besides containing archives yielding twenty thousand clay tablets. Persian. The most impressive evidence of the height to which Persian art and architecture attained is furnished by the ruins of Persepolis, twenty-five miles SW of Pasargadae. The magnificent complex at Persepolis was especially the creation of Darius I the Great (522–486 B.C.). Archaeological excavations at Persepolis by the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, under the direction of Ernst Herzfeld and Erich Schmidt, have uncovered ruins that are mute but eloquent testimony to the splendor that was ancient Persia’s. Among the famous buildings are the palace of Darius (known as the Tachara), the Tripylon (reception hall), the Apadana (the huge audience hall of Darius and Xerxes), the Hall of One Hundred Columns, the Gate of Xerxes, with colossal bulls guarding it as in Assyrian palaces, the Harem of Darius and Xerxes, the residence of Xerxes (486–465 B.C.), and the royal treasury, which contains fine reliefs of Darius and Xerxes like those in the Tripylon. Susa (Shushan, KJV, Neh. 1:1; Esther 1:2) in ancient Elam, excavated by a French expedition under Jacques de Morgan, revealed the palace of Darius I, enlarged and beautified by later kings, as its greatest monument of the Persian period. Panels of beautifully colored glazed brick decorated the interior of the palace, many of the designs being executed in relief, including winged bulls, winged griffins, and the famous spearmen of the guard. Greek. The architectural glory of Greece is best illustrated by Athens (which see). In the fifth century B.C. the ancient hill became a religious center with superb temples, the most important of which were dedicated to Athena, the city’s patron goddess. Outstripping all were the world-famous architectural wonders of the Erechtheum, the Parthenon, and the temple of the Wingless Victory. Famous structures located elsewhere in Athens were the Odeion (Music Hall), the Stoa of Eumenes II, the Theseion, the temple of Zeus, and the marketplace (see agora). Besides extensively excavating at Athens, the American School of Classical Studies has conducted thirty seasons of work at Corinth, uncovering a vast agora, a theater, temple of Apollo, the Sanctuary of Aesculapius, a basilica, and other buildings. The following Greek orders of architecture appear: Doric. The Doric column consists of: (1) The shaft, which increases in diameter almost invisibly up to about one-quarter of its height and diminishes slightly after that point. It has no base, but rests immediately on the stylobate. It is surrounded by semicircular flutings meeting each other at a sharp angle. (2) The capital, consisting of three parts: the hypotrachelion, or neck of the column, a continuation of the shaft but separated by an indentation from the other drums; the echinus, a circular molding, or cushion, which widens greatly toward the top; the abax, or abacus, a square slab supporting the architrave, or epistylion. The architrave is the quadrangular stone reaching from pillar to pillar. Above this is the frieze (zophoros), surmounted by the cornice. The style known as the Tuscan is a degenerate form of the Doric. The column has a smooth shaft, tapering up to three-quarters of its lower dimensions. Its base consists of two parts, a circular plinth and a cushion of equal height. Ionic. This column is loftier than the Doric; the enlargement of the lower part is less than the Doric, the distance between the columns is greater, and the flutings deeper and separated by flat surfaces. The Ionic column has a base consisting of a square slab and several cushionlike supports separated by grooves. The capital again is more artistically developed, resembling a ram’s horn or scroll, while the architrave is divided into three bands, projecting one above the other, and upon it rises, in an uninterrupted surface, the frieze, adorned with reliefs along its whole length, and, finally, the cornice is composed of different parts. Corinthian. The base and shaft are identical with the Ionic, but the capital takes the form of an open calix formed of acanthus leaves, from between which grow stalks with small leaves, rounded into the form of volutes. On this rests a small abacus widening toward the top, and on this rests the entablature, its style borrowed from the Ionic order. Etruscan and Roman. The Etruscans united wonderful activity and inventiveness with a passion for covering their buildings with rich ornamental carvings. Almost none of their temples remain, for they built the upper parts of wood; but we have evidences of their activity in walls and tombs. Some old gateways, such as those at Volterra and Perugia, exhibit the true arch of wedge-shaped stones. The most imposing monument of ancient Italian arch-building is to be seen in the sewers of Rome, laid in the sixth century B.C. The Roman architects kept alive the Etruscan method of building the arch, which they developed and completed by the invention of the cross arch and the dome. With the arch they combined, as a decorative element, the columns of the Greek order. They also introduced building with brick. A vigorous advance was made from the opening of the third century B.C., when the Romans began making great military roads and aqueducts. In the last decades of the Republic, simplicity gradually disappeared, and a princely pomp was displayed in public and private buildings; witness the first stone theater erected by Pompey as early as 55 B.C. All that had gone before was eclipsed by the works undertaken by Caesar—the theater, the amphitheater, circus, Basilica Iulia, and the Forum Caesaris. These were finished by Augustus, under whom Roman architecture seems to have reached its culminating point. The greatest monument of that age, and one of the loftiest creations of Roman art in general, is the Pantheon, built by Agrippa. Of the luxurious grandeur of private buildings we have ocular proof in the dwelling houses of Pompeii, a paltry country town in comparison with Rome. The progress made under the Flavian emperors is evidenced by Vespasian’s amphitheater (the Coliseum), the baths of Titus, and his triumphal arch. All previous forums were surpassed in size and splendor when Trajan’s architect, Apollodorus of Damascus, raised the Forum Traianum, with its huge Basilica Ulpia and the still surviving Column of Trajan. Hebrew. The Israelites of the patriarchal period were shepherds and, by habit, dwellers in tents. They accordingly had originally no architecture. It was likely in connection with Egypt that the Hebrews first became builders of cities, being compelled to labor in the vast building enterprises of the pharaohs. From the time of their entrance into Canaan they became dwellers in towns and houses of stone (Lev. 14:34; 1 Kings 7:1–8), which, however, in most cases were not built by themselves (Deut. 6:10; Num. 13:19). Early Hebrew Architecture. Hebrew architecture, in the proper sense of the word, did not exist until the time of the kings. Evidently few if any Israelites before the time of Saul had either time or money to indulge in architectural fancies. However, Israel’s first king (c. 1020–1000 B.C.) made attempts in this direction as revealed by his fortress city at Gibeah (Tell el Ful), excavated by W. F. Albright (1922 and 1933). But the principal buildings from Saul’s era, with massive stone construction and deep walls, were like a dungeon rather than a royal residence in comparison to the Canaanite masonry with which Solomon later graced Jerusalem. “Saul was only a rustic chieftain, as far as architecture and the amenities of life were concerned” (W. F. Albright, From the Stone Age to Christianity [1940], p. 224). Moreover, what was true of Saul was in a general way culturally true of all the Israelite tribes up to the efflorescence of industry and the arts and sciences in the prosperous Davidic- Solomonic era. Israelite poverty and rusticity of life in the premonarchic period have been fully demonstrated by Palestinian excavation. Architecture Under David and Solomon. David, as a result of rapid conquest, soon had wealth and some leisure to think about building. His first “palace” at Hebron, where he reigned seven years, was perhaps just a flat-roofed stone house, but when he captured the Jebusite stronghold, he built himself “a house of cedar” (2 Sam. 7:2) in the SE corner of what became Jerusalem. He also began to fortify and build the city itself. But the peaceful reign and vast wealth of his son Solomon gave great impulse to architecture and development. For his palace and the magnificent Temple that he constructed, Solomon drew heavily upon Phoenician skill. It is now known that the plan of the latter edifice was characteristically Phoenician, which was to be expected, since it was built by a Tyrian architect (1 Kings 7:13–15). Similar ground plans of sanctuaries of the general period 1200–900 B.C. have been excavated in northern Syria at Tell Tainat in 1936 by the University of Chicago, and the findings have demonstrated that the specifications of the Solomonic structure are pre-Greek and authentic for the tenth century B.C. The pillars, Jachin and Boaz (gigantic cressets or fire altars), the proto-Aeolic pilaster, the motifs of lilies, palmettes, and cherubim, and the furnishings are all authentically early and show Phoenician or early Semitic genuineness. Archaeological excavations at Megiddo, Hazor, and Gezer give evidence of Solomon’s building operations there of “chariot cities” (1 Kings 4:26; 10:26). Later Hebrew Architecture. Other kings of Israel and Judah recorded as builders were Asa (1 Kings 15:23), Baasha (15:17), Omri (16:23–24), and Ahab (16:33) (confirmed by the excavations at Samaria), Hezekiah (2 Chron. 32:29; confirmed by the Siloam Inscription; which see) and Jehoahaz (Jer. 22:14). After the captivity, the poverty of the Jewish community made only modest repairs of walls and construction of a Temple possible (Ezra 3:8; 5:8; Neh. 2:8). Later the reigns of Herod and his successor were especially remarkable for their architectural works—the Temple (Matt. 24:1–2), Samaria (Sebaste), Caesarea, etc., all of which show heavy Greco- Roman influence. Christian. The early Christians held their services in synagogues, private houses, the fields, the catacombs—indeed, wherever opportunity afforded. As early as in the third century buildings erected by them existed, but they were neither substantial nor costly. Christian architecture did not become an art until the time of Constantine, when it appeared in two entirely different forms, the Basilican and the Byzantine. Basilican. When Christianity became the religion of the state and ancient basilicas, or halls of justice, were turned into churches, this style became prevalent throughout the Western countries and lasted until the eleventh century. The lower floor was used by the men, and the galleries reserved for the women. Specimens of this style of architecture still existing and in good repair are S. Paolo fuori le mura, S. Clemente in Rome, S. Apollinaire in Classe in Ravenna, etc. Byzantine. The principal feature of this style is the dome, which was frequently used in Roman tombs. In Persia the problem was first solved by placing the cupola on a square substructure, forming an octagon in the interior of the square by means of a huge pillar in each angle. The Latin cross was abandoned for the Greek cross, whose branches are of equal length. The objection to images obliged the architects to seek some means other than sculpture for enriching the churches, hence the profusion of mosaic work. The masterpieces of this style are St. Mark’s at Venice, St. Vitale at Ravenna, and St. Sophia at Constantinople. Still later the Greek cross was combined with the square, and the number of cupolas was increased to nine—one at the end of each arm, one over the crossing, and one in each corner of the square. Romanesque. This resulted from a union of the two previous styles, the basilica and the dome. The ground plan and the interior and exterior of the old basilica were materially changed. An important feature was the transept, with fixed proportions, the cross being invariably produced by repeating the square, chosen as a unit, three times to the W, and one time respectively to the N, E, and S. Other features were apses for the side altars; the raised choir, to allow for the crypt; a belfry, first one and, as an independent building, then two, and connected with the western termination of the building; small arched galleries running a round parts or the whole of the church within and without. The exterior was covered with numerous well-disposed arches, pilasters, and other ornaments, and the richly decorated doorways and windows drew the eye to the central part of the facade. The result was that the whole external had a dignity not to be found in any other style of church architecture. Among the finest examples of this style are the cathedrals of Pisa, Vercelli, Parma, Modena, and Lucca (in Italy), of Worms, Bonn, Mayence, and St. Gereon and St. Apostoli in Cologne. To this style belong the peculiar churches and round towers of Ireland, and the round tower of Newport, R.I. Gothic. This style retains the ground plan and general arrangement of the Romanesque but substitutes the pointed for the round arch. The pointed arch was probably brought to Europe by the Crusaders from Asia, where it was used by the Muslims. The use of the pointed arch requires, for harmony, a corresponding upward tendency in all parts of the structure and, by obliterating the idea of a mechanical contrivance, produces the impression of organic growth. This style arose in the twelfth century, reaching its culmination in the thirteenth, which is known as the “golden period of Gothic architecture.” The earliest fully developed example of this style is the cathedral of St. Denis, consecrated in 1144. In northern France it is seen in highest perfection in the cathedrals of Notre Dame, Paris (1163–1312), Chartres (1195–1260), Rheims (begun 1212), and Amiens (1220–1288). In England examples are seen at Canterbury (1174), Westminster Abbey, London (1245–69), Salisbury (1220–58), and Exeter (1327–69). Renaissance. The Gothic style had never taken such deep root in Italy as in the other countries of Europe. The revival of classical studies resulted in a return to classical forms of architecture. It began with eclecticism, the adoption of the round arch, the cupola, the column in its classical proportions and signification. It ended, however, in servile copying of ancient temples. The chief monument of this style is St. Peter’s at Rome. Respecting modern architecture it can be said that it is marked by no style such as is followed by all builders of the period. Sometimes there is a mixing together of several styles, sometimes a renunciation of style altogether. M.F.U. BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Badawy, A History of Egyptian Architecture (1954); H. Frankfort, The Art and Architecture of the Ancient World (1954); W. F. Albright, Archaeology of Palestine (1956); id., From Stone Age to Christianity (1957); K. M. Kenyon, Archaeology in the Holy Land (1960); R. deVaux, Ancient Israel: Its Life and Institutions (1961); A. Badawy, Ancient Egyptian Architectural Design (1965). ARC´TURUS. See Bear. ARD (ard). See Ardite. ARD´ITE (ardʹīt). A descendant of Ard, or Addar, the grandson of Benjamin (Num. 26:40). AR´DON (arʹdon). The last named of the three sons of Caleb, but whether by Azubah or Jerioth is uncertain (1 Chron. 2:18). ARE´LI (a-rēʹli). The last named of the seven sons of Gad, and founder of the family of Arelites (Gen. 46:16; Num. 26:17). ARE´LITES (a-rēʹlīts; Heb. same as Areli, Num. 26:17). The descendants of Areli (which see), the last of the seven sons of Gad (Gen. 46:16). AREOP´AGITE (ar-e-opʹa-gīt; Acts 17:34). A member of the court of Areopagus (which see). AREOP´AGUS (ar-e-opʹa-gus). The Hill of Ares, the Greek god of war, equivalent to Roman Mars. Mars’ Hill is thus the Lat. form of Areopagus. It is the name of a bare rocky place, some 377 feet high, immediately NW of the acropolis of Athens and separated from it by a narrow declivity. Steps cut in the rock lead to the summit, where benches, rough and rock hewn, can still be seen. In ancient times the Areopagus court assembled at this spot. The word Areopagus in Acts 17:19, 22 may refer either to the hill or to the court that met there. In either case, Paul’s speech was in all likelihood on this hill as the customary meeting place of the court. This court was composed of city fathers and in early times exercised supreme authority in political as well as religious matters. Although largely a criminal court in the age of Pericles, in Roman times it had reverted once more to interest in educational and religious matters. It is quite understandable, therefore, that this court took hold of Paul and brought him to its judges in session, saying, “May we know what this new teaching is which you are proclaiming?” (Acts 17:19). The Areopagus court, it is true, met at intervals in the Stoa Basileios, or Royal Stoa. If this happened to be the case when Paul was in Athens, then the famous apostle gave his address (Acts 17:22–31) in the stoa. This stoa was excavated at the N end of the agora in the 1960s. AR´ETAS (arʹî-tas). A name common to many of the kings of Arabia Petrea; the fourth king of that name was the father-in-law of Herod Antipas (which see). Herod afterward married the wife of his brother Philip, and in consequence of this the daughter of Aretas returned to her father. Enraged at the conduct of Herod, Aretas instituted hostilities against him and destroyed his army. When complaint was made to the emperor Tiberius, he sent Vitellius to punish Aretas; but while on the march he received news of the death of Tiberius, and the Roman army was withdrawn. It is probable that Caligula gave Damascus to Aretas as a free gift (A.D. 38), and he is mentioned as the king of that city who tried to arrest the apostle Paul (2 Cor. 11:32). AR´GOB (arʹgob). 1. Either an accomplice of Pekah in the murder of Pekahiah, or, with Arieh, a prince of Pekahiah, whose influence Pekah feared and whom he therefore slew with the king (2 Kings 15:25), 759 B.C. 2. An elevated district or tableland in Bashan, an island in form, some twenty by thirty miles in extent; elsewhere (Luke 3:1) called Trachonitis. It was allotted to the half tribe of Manasseh. The statement (Deut. 3:4) of there being sixty cities in this region is confirmed by recent discoveries. “The sixty walled cities are still traceable in a space of three hundred and eight square miles. The architecture is ponderous and massive: solid walls, four feet thick, and stones on one another without cement; the roofs, enormous slabs of basaltic rock like iron; the doors and gates are of stone eighteen inches thick, secured by ponderous bars. The land bears still the appearance of having been called ‘the land of giants under the giant Og’” (Porter, Giant Cities of Bashan). ARID´AI (a-ridʹa-ī). The ninth of the ten sons of Haman, slain by the Jews in Babylonia (Esther 9:9). ARID´ATHA (a-ridʹa-tha). The sixth son of Haman, slain by the Jews (Esther 9:8). ARI´EH (ar-yaʹ; “the lion”). Either one of the accomplices of Pekah in his conspiracy against Pekahiah, king of Israel, or one of the princes of Pekahiah, who was put to death with him (2 Kings 15:25), 737 B.C. AR´IEL (arʹi-el; “lion of God”). One of the “leading men” sent by Ezra to Iddo at Casiphia to bring ministers for the house of God to go with the people to Jerusalem (Ezra 8:16–17), about 457 B.C. In commenting upon Isa. 29:1–11, Delitzsch understands Ariel to mean the “hearth of God,” as a figurative name given to Jerusalem. He argues this from the fact of Ezekiel’s giving (43:15–16, marg.) this name to the altar of burnt offering in the new Temple, and that Isaiah could not say anything more characteristic of Jerusalem than that Jehovah had a fire and a hearth there (31:9, “furnace”). “By the fact that David fixed his headquarters in Jerusalem, and then brought the sacred ark thither, Jerusalem became a hearth of God.” ARIMATHEA (a-ri-ma-thî-a). The birthplace and sepulcher of Joseph in Judea. Here the body of Jesus was buried (Matt. 27:57; Mark 15:43; Luke 23:51; John 19:38). G. Dalman, Sacred Sites and Ways (1935) identifies it with the present Rentis (Jerome, Remphtis), once most probably Ramathaim, which was the home of Samuel, situated NW of Jerusalem in the hill country of Ephraim. AR´IOCH (arʹi-ok). Perhaps Sumerian êri-aku, “servant of the moon god.” 1. The king of Ellasar (Larsa, Senkereh, a city-state in S Babylonia), who was in alliance with Chedorlaomer in his invasion of the Jordan Valley (Gen. 14:1, 9). Some connect this name with Warad-Sin (c. 1836–1824 B.C.) or Rim-Sin (c. 1824–1763 B.C.), sons of Kudur-Mabug of Larsa. The chronology of this era, however, has not been definitely established. The events of Gen. 14 date c. 2080 B.C. in the biblical chronological notices of Abraham’s life. 2. Captain of the royal guard at Babylon under Nebuchadnezzar II (c. 605–562 B.C.). The name is perhaps the title of the official who, with others in authority, had power to execute sentences of death (Dan. 2:14–15, 24). ARIS´AI (a-risʹī). The eighth of the ten sons of Haman, slain by the Jews in Babylonia (Esther 9:9), about 480 B.C. ARISTAR´CHUS (a-ris-tarʹkus; “the best ruler”). A native of Thessalonica and a faithful adherent of the apostle Paul in his labors. He became the companion of Paul on his third missionary tour, accompanying him to Ephesus, where he was seized and nearly killed in the tumult raised by the silversmiths under Demetrius (Acts 19:29), A.D. 59. He left that city accompanying Paul to Greece, then to Asia (20:4), and subsequently to Rome (27:2), to which he was sent as a prisoner, or he became one while there (Philem. 24), for Paul calls him his “fellow prisoner” (Col. 4:10). Tradition makes him to have suffered martyrdom in the time of Nero. ARISTOBU´LUS (a-ris-to-būʹlus; “best counselor”). A person to whose household at Rome Paul sends salutation (Rom. 16:10), A.D. 60. Tradition represents him as a brother of Barnabas, ordained a bishop by Barnabas or Paul, and as laboring and dying in Britain. Ramsay (St. Paul the Traveller, p. 353) identifies Aristobulus as a son of Herod the Great. ARK. The name given to three vessels mentioned in the Bible. Noah’s Ark (Heb. tēbâ, a “chest”). The vessel in which Noah and his family were saved during the Deluge. It was made of gopher (i.e., cypress) wood, which on account of its lightness and durability was employed by the Phoenicians for shipbuilding. A covering of pitch (bitumen) was laid on the inside and outside to make it watertight and, perhaps, as a protection against marine animals. The ark consisted of a number of “nests,” or small compartments, arranged in three tiers, one above another—“with lower, second, and third decks” (Gen. 6:14–16). The ark was three hundred cubits long, fifty broad, and thirty high; and appears to have been built in the form of a chest, with flat bottom and flat (or slightly sloping) roof, being intended not for sailing but merely to float upon the water. Light and air were furnished through a window, the construction of which we do not have sufficient data to form an intelligent idea. The phrase “finish it a cubit from the top” seems to imply either that it was a cubit wide and ran the whole length of the ark, or that it was placed within a cubit of the roof. The most probable conclusion is that the window was on the side. Some place the window on the roof, covering it with transparent (or translucent) material. The ark had a door in the side. In addition to Noah and his family, eight persons in all (Gen. 7:7; 2 Pet. 2:5), one pair of all “unclean” animals, seven pairs of all that were “clean,” and seven pairs of birds, with a contingent of “everything that creeps on the ground,” were to be sheltered in the ark. As to the possibility of housing the animals, we must consider the extent of the Flood, etc. See Flood. The Ark of Bulrushes (Heb. same as above). In Ex. 2:3 (KJV) it is recorded that when the mother of Moses could no longer hide him, she placed him among the reeds of the Nile in an ark (boat or “basket,” NASB) of bulrushes, daubed with slime and pitch. This ark was made from the papyrus reed, which grows in the marshy places of Egypt. Pliny says that “from the plant itself they weave boats; and boats of this material were noted for their swiftness.” They are alluded to in Isa. 18:2. Sargon of Akkad, founder of a Semitic Empire in Babylonia c. 2400–2200 B.C., was similarly set afloat and rescued from death. Ark of the Covenant (Heb. ˒arôn, the common name for a “chest” or “coffer”). Names. It was called the “ark of the covenant” (Num. 10:33; Deut. 31:26; Heb. 9:4; etc.), because in it were deposited the two tablets of stone upon which were written the Ten Commandments, the terms of God’s covenant with Israel; “the ark of the testimony” (Ex. 25:16, 22), the commandments being God’s testimony respecting His own holiness, and the people’s sin; “the ark of God” (1 Sam. 3:3; 4:11), as the throne of the divine presence. For full description, see Tabernacle. History. The history of the Ark is in accordance with its intensely moral character. As the symbol of the Lord’s presence, it was borne by the priests in advance of the host (Num. 10:33; Deut. 1:33; see also Ps. 132:8). At its presence the waters of the Jordan separated; only when it was carried to the farther shore did the waters resume their usual course (Josh. 3:11–17; 4:7, 11, 18). The Ark was carried about Jericho at the time of its downfall (6:4–12). Very naturally, the neighboring nations, ignorant of spiritual worship, looked upon the Ark as the god of Israel (1 Sam. 4:6–7), a delusion that may have been strengthened by the figures of the cherubim upon it. The Ark remained at Shiloh until the time of Eli, when it was carried along with the army, in the hope that it would secure victory for the Israelites against the Philistines. The latter were not only victorious but also captured the Ark (1 Sam. 4:3– 11); but they were glad to return it after seven months (5:7). It was taken to Kiriath- jearim (7:2), where it remained until the time of David. Its removal to Jerusalem was delayed three months by the death of Uzzah while carelessly handling it. Meanwhile it rested in the house of Obed-edom, from which it was taken, with greatest rejoicing, to Mt. Zion (2 Sam. 6:1–19). When the Temple was completed, the Ark was deposited in the sanctuary (1 Kings 8:6–9). In 2 Chron. 35:3 the Levites were directed to restore it to the Holy Place. It may have been moved to make room for the “carved image” that Manasseh placed “in the house of God” (33:7), or possibly on account of the purification and repairs of the Temple by Josiah. When the Temple was destroyed by the Babylonians the Ark was probably removed or destroyed (2 Esd. 10:21–22). Sacred chests were in use among other peoples of antiquity, and served as receptacles for the idol, or the symbol of the idol, and for sacred relics. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Noah’s Ark: A Heidel, Gilgamesh Epic and Other Old Testament Parallels (1946); J. C. Whitcomb, Jr., and H. M. Morris, The Genesis Flood (1962); J. W. Montgomery, The Quest for Noah’s Ark (1972); J. Dillow, The Waters Above (1981). Ark of Bulrushes: M. Jastrow, Jr., Jewish Encyclopedia (1946), 2: 578–79. Ark of the Covenant: J. Morgenstern, Hebrew Union College Annual 17 (1942– 43): 153–266; id., The Ark, the Ephod, and the Tent of Meeting (1945); F. M. Cross, Biblical Archaeologist 10 (1947): 45–68; R. E. Hough, The Ministry of the Glory Cloud (1955); E. Nielsen, Supplements to Vetus Testamentum 7 (1960): 61–74; J. B. Payne, Theology of the Older Testament (1962); M. H. Woudstra, The Ark of the Covenant from Conquest to Kingship (1965). NASB New American Standard Bible ARK´ITE (arkʹīt). Of Gen. 10:17; 1 Chron. 1:15, represents the inhabitants of present-day Tell Arka, some eighty miles N of Sidon at the foot of Lebanon. Arkantu, mentioned by the great Egyptian conqueror Thutmose III (fifteenth century B.C.) is evidently the same place. It was called Irkata in the Amarna Letters and was taken by Tiglath-pileser III of Assyria in 738 B.C. ARM. The common instrument of strength and agency, the arm is often used in Scripture as the emblem of power. The “arm” of God is only another expression for His might (Ps. 89:13; Isa. 53:1). Hence “an outstretched arm,” and “the Lord has bared His holy arm,” signifies His power and promptness to protect or punish (Ex. 6:6; Deut. 4:34; Isa. 52:10), a figure taken from the attitude of ancient warriors. ARMAGED´DON (ar-ma-gedʹon; Gk. Armageddon, from Heb. har M giddô, “hill or city of Megiddo,” Rev. 16:16, see marg.). Megiddo occupied a marked position on the southern rim of the plain of Esdraelon (which see), the great battlefield of Palestine. It was famous for two great victories: of Barak over the Canaanites (Judg. 4:15) and of Gideon over the Midianites (chap. 7); and for two great disasters: the deaths of Saul (1 Sam. 31:8) and Josiah (2 Kings 23:29–30; 2 Chron. 35:22). Armageddon became a poetical expression for terrible and final conflict. To John the Revelator the ancient plain of Megiddo, the battleground of the centuries, furnished a type of the great battle in which the Lord, at His advent of glory, will deliver the Jewish remnant besieged by the Gentile world powers under the Beast (Rev. 13:1–10) and the false prophet (13:11–18). Apparently the besieging hosts, whose advance upon Jerusalem is typically set forth in Isa. 10:28–32 and who are demon-energized (Rev. 16:13–16; Zech. 12:1–9), have retreated to Megiddo after the events of Zech. 14:2. There their decimation commences and is completed in Moab and Edom (Isa. 63:1–3). This last grand battle of “the times of the Gentiles” and of this present age finds fulfillment in the striking-stone prophecy of Dan. 2:35 and ushers in “the day of the Lord,” when God actively and visibly manifests His glorious power to the discomfiture and utter destruction of His enemies. BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. D. Pentecost, Things to Come (1964), pp. 340–63; J. F. Walvoord and J. E. Walvoord, Armageddon: Oil and the Middle East (1974). ARME´NIA (ar-mēʹni-a). Heb. ˒ărārāt, for Akkad. Urartu, which occurs frequently in the Assyrian monuments. Sennacherib’s sons escaped there after murdering their father (2 Kings 19:37). On one of the mountains of this region the ark of Noah rested (Gen. 8:4). The country extends from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea and from the Caucasus Mountains to the Taurus Mountains. It was N of the Assyrian Empire. ARMLET. This word is not used in the KJV or NASB, being rendered in 2 Sam. 1:10 by the expression, “the bracelet which was on his arm.” It does appear in the NIV in Num. 31:50. See Bracelet. ARMO´NI (ar-mōʹni). The first named of the two sons of Saul by Rizpah, who were given up by David to be hanged by the Gibeonites. He was slain with six of his brothers in the beginning of the barley harvest (2 Sam. 21:8–14). ARMOR, ARMS. The weapons of the nations mentioned in the Bible were essentially the same, with modifications according to age and country. Offensive weapons (arms) included the battle-axe, sword, spear, bow and arrow, sling, and battering ram. Defensive weapons (armor) included the shield, helmet, breastplate, greaves, and girdle. NIV New International Version Offensive Weapons. Battle-axe and Mace. The most primitive of weapons were the club and the throwing bat. The club at first consisted of a heavy piece of wood, of various shapes, used in hand-to-hand fighting. The “mace” (Heb. barzel) was of wood bound with bronze, about two and one-half feet long, with an angular piece of metal projecting from the handle, perhaps intended as a guard. At the striking end it was sometimes furnished with a ball. Maces were borne by the heavy infantry, and each charioteer was furnished with one. The Egyptian battle-axe was about two or two and one-half feet long, with a single blade secured by bronze pins and the handle bound in that part to prevent splitting. The blade was shaped like the segment of a circle and made of bronze or iron. The poleaxe was about three feet in length, with a large metal ball, to which the blade was fixed. Allusions to these weapons are supposed to occur in Ps. 2:9; 35:3; Prov. 25:18. The throwstick is the same weapon seen figured on Egyptian and Assyrian monuments. “Axes” (Ezek. 26:9), literally irons, is used figuratively for weapons or instruments of war. Sword (Heb. ḥereb). The Egyptian sword was short and straight, from two and one-half to three feet in length, usually double-edged and tapering to a point, and was used to cut and thrust. The king’s sword was worn in his girdle and was frequently surmounted by one or two heads of a hawk, the symbol of the sun. The sword thus worn was really a dagger, a common Egyptian weapon. It was from seven to ten inches in length, tapering gradually to a point, the blade, made of bronze, being thicker in the middle than at the edges. Assyrian swords were often richly decorated, the hilt embossed with lions’ heads so arranged as to form both handle and crossbar. The sword of the Greeks and Romans generally had a straight two-edged blade, rather broad, and of nearly equal width from hilt to point. It was worn on the left side. The sword of the Hebrew resembled that of other oriental nations and appears to have been short. That of Ehud was only a cubit (from eighteen to twenty-two inches) long. It was carried in a sheath held by the girdle (1 Sam. 17:39; 2 Sam. 20:8); hence the expression “to gird one’s self” with a sword means to commence war; and “to loose the sword,” to finish it (1 Kings 20:11). Figurative. The sword itself is the symbol of war and slaughter (Lev. 26:25; Isa. 34:5, etc.), of divine judgment (Deut. 32:41; Ps. 17:13; Jer. 12:12; Rev. 1:16), and of power and authority (Rom. 13:4). The Word of God is called “the sword of the Spirit” (Eph. 6:17). The sword is used in Scripture as illustrative of the Word of God (Eph. 6:17; Heb. 4:12); Christ (Isa. 49:2; Rev. 1:16); the justice of God (Deut. 32:41; Zech. 13:7); the protection of God (Deut. 33:29); severe calamities (Ezek. 5:2, 17; 14:17; 21:9); deep mental affliction (Luke 2:35); the wicked (Ps. 17:13); their tongue (57:4; 64:3; Prov. 12:18); their persecuting spirit (Ps. 37:14); their end (Prov. 5:4); false witnesses (25:18); judicial authority (Rom. 13:4). Drawing of sword is figurative of war and destruction (Lev. 26:33; Ezek. 21:3–5); sheathing it, of peace and friendship (Jer. 47:6); living by it, of plunder (Gen. 27:40); not departing, of perpetual calamity (2 Sam. 12:10). The Spear, Javelin, Dart. The spear is a weapon common to all nations of antiquity. That of the Egyptians was of wood, from five to six feet long, with the head of bronze or iron, usually with a double edge like that of the Greeks. The javelin was similar to the spear, but lighter and shorter, the upper extremity of the shaft terminating with a bronze knob surmounted by a ball. It was sometimes used as a spear for thrusting, and sometimes it was darted, the knob of the extremity keeping it from escaping the warrior’s hand. The spear of the Assyrian infantry was short, scarcely exceeding the height of a man; that of the cavalry was longer. Several kinds of spears are mentioned in Scripture, but how the several terms used are to be understood is somewhat uncertain. (1) The ḥănı ̂t, a “spear” of the largest kind, was the weapon of Goliath (1 Sam. 17:7, 45; 2 Sam. 21:19; 1 Chron. 20:5) and also of other giants (2 Sam. 23:21; 1 Chron. 11:23) and mighty warriors (2 Sam. 2:23; 23:18; 1 Chron. 11:11, 20). It was the habitual companion of King Saul, and it was this heavy weapon, not the lighter “javelin,” that he cast at David (1 Sam. 18:10–11; 19:9– 10) and at Jonathan (20:33). (2) Apparently lighter than the preceding was the kı ̂dôn (“javelin”). When not in action, the javelin was carried on the back of the warrior (1 Sam. 17:6, KJV, “target”). (3) Another kind of spear was rōmaḥ. In the historical books it occurs in Num. 25:7 and 1 Kings 18:28 and frequently in the later books, as in 1 Chron. 12:8 (“buckler,” KJV); 2 Chron. 11:12. (4) The shelaḥ was probably a lighter missile, or “dart” (see KJV, 2 Chron. 23:10; 32:5, “darts”; Neh. 4:17, 23, see marg.; Job 33:18; 36:12; Joel 2:8). (5) shēbeṭ, a “rod,” or “staff,” is used only once to denote a weapon (2 Sam. 18:14). Figurative. The spear is used figuratively of the bitterness of the wicked (Ps. 57:4); the instruments and effects of God’s wrath (Hab. 3:11). Bow and Arrow. The bow was the principal weapon of offense among the Egyptians, Assyrians, and Hebrews. That of the Egyptians was a round piece of wood, from five to five and one-half feet long, either straight or bending in the middle when unstrung. The string was made of hide, catgut, or string. The Assyrian archer was equipped in all respects as the Egyptian, the bow being either long and slightly curved or short and almost angular. Among the Hebrews the bow (Heb. qeshet) and arrow (hēṣ) are met with early in their history, both for the chase (Gen. 21:20; 27:3) and war (48:22). In later times archers accompanied the armies of the Philistines (1 Sam. 31:3; 1 Chron. 10:3) and of the Syrians (1 Kings 22:34). Among the Hebrews captains high in rank (2 Kings 9:24), and even kings’ sons (1 Sam. 18:4), carried the bow and were expert in its use (2 Sam. 1:22). The tribe of Benjamin seems to have been especially addicted to archery (1 Chron. 8:40; 12:2; 2 Chron. 14:8; 17:17); but there were also bowmen among Reuben, Gad, Manasseh (1 Chron. 5:18), and Ephraim (Ps. 78:9). Of the form of the bow we can gather almost nothing. It seems to have been bent by the aid of the foot (1 Chron. 5:18; 8:40; 2 Chron. 14:8; Ps. 7:12; Isa. 5:28; etc.). Bows of bronze are mentioned as if specially strong (2 Sam. 22:35; Job 20:24). It is possible that in 1 Chron. 12:2 a kind of bow for shooting bullets or stones is alluded to (Wisd. of Sol. 5:22, “stone-bow”). The arrows were carried in quivers (Heb. t lı)̂ hung on the shoulder or at the left side. They were probably of reed and mostly tipped with flint points; others were of wood tipped with metal, about thirty inches long and winged with three rows of feathers. They were sometimes poisoned (Job 6:4) or tipped with combustible materials (“flaming missiles,” those set on fire, Eph. 6:16). Figurative. This word is frequently used as the symbol of calamity or disease sent by God (Job 6:4; 34:6, marg.; Ps. 38:2), the metaphor deriving propriety and force from the popular belief that all diseases were immediate and special inflictions from heaven. Lightning is described as the arrows of God (18:14; 144:6; Hab. 3:11). “The arrow that flies by day” (Ps. 91:5) denotes some sudden danger. The arrow is also figurative of anything injurious, as a deceitful tongue (Jer. 9:8), a bitter word (Ps. 64:3), a false witness (Prov. 25:18). A good use of “arrow” is in Ps. 127:4–5, where children are compared to “arrows in the hand of a warrior”; i.e., instruments of power and action. The word is also used to denote the efficiency of God’s Word (45:5). The “bow of battle” is figurative for weapons of war and military power (Zech. 9:10; 10:4). The Sling (Heb. qela˓). This may be justly reckoned as among the most ancient instruments of warfare (Job 41:28). This weapon was common among the Egyptians, Assyrians, and Hebrews. Later the Greek and Roman armies contained large numbers of slingers. The weapon was simple, being made of a couple of strings of sinew, leather, or rope, with a leather receptacle in the middle to receive the stone. After being swung once or twice around the head it was discharged by letting go of one of the strings. Besides stones, plummets of lead shaped like an acorn were used and could be thrown to the distance of six hundred feet. The stones were selected for their smoothness (1 Sam. 17:40) and were considered as munitions of war. In action they were either carried in a bag (17:40) or lay in a heap at the feet of the slinger. Among the Hebrews the Benjamites were especially expert slingers (Judg. 20:16; cf. 1 Chron. 12:2). Figurative. The rejection of one by Jehovah is represented by the expression “the lives of your enemies He will sling out as from the hollow of a sling” (1 Sam. 25:29); in Zechariah (9:15) sling stones represent the enemies of God. Engine, Battering Ram. Two machines are in view. (1) Heb. ḥishshābôn, “contrivance.” The engines that went by this name (2 Chron. 26:15) were the balista, used for throwing stones, and the catapulta, for arrows, an enormous stationary bow. Both of these engines were of various throwing power, stones being thrown weighing from fifty to three hundred pounds. Darts varied from small beams to large arrows, and their range exceeded one-quarter mile. All these engines were constructed on the principle of the string, the bow, or spring. (2) Heb. m ḥı ̂, “stroke,” Ezek. 26:9, the battering ram, so rendered, 4:2; 21:22; Heb. kar, “butting.” This instrument was well known both to the Egyptians and the Assyrians. The ram was a simple machine consisting of a metal head affixed to a beam, which might be long enough to need one or two hundred men to lift and impel it. When it was still heavier it was hung in a movable tower and became a wonderful engine of war. Its object was to make a breach in the wall of a beleaguered town. See also Chariot. Defensive Weapons. The Shield. The ancient soldier’s chief defense, his shield, was various in form and material. The shield of the Egyptian was about one-half his height and generally about twice as high as broad. It was probably formed of a wooden frame covered with rawhide, having the hair outward, with one or more rims of metal and metal studs. Its form resembled a funeral tablet, circular at the top and square at the base. A rare form of Egyptian shield was of extraordinary size and pointed at the top. The shields of the Assyrians in the more ancient bas-reliefs are both circular and oblong, sometimes of gold and silver, but more frequently of wickerwork covered with hides. The shield in a siege covered the soldier’s whole person and at the top had a curved point or a square projection like a roof at right angles with the body of the shield. This was to defend the combatants against missiles thrown from the walls. Shield is the rendering of the following words, of which the first two are the most frequent and important: (1) Heb. ṣinnâ, “protection.” This shield was large enough to cover the whole body (Pss. 5:12; 91:4). When not engaged in conflict it was carried by the shield bearer (1 Sam. 17:7, 41). The word is used with “spear” as a formula for weapons generally (1 Chron. 12:24; 2 Chron. 11:12). (2) Heb. māgēn. This was smaller, a buckler or target, probably for hand-to-hand fighting. The difference in size between this and the above-mentioned shield is evident from 1 Kings 10:16–17; 2 Chron. 9:15–16, where twice as much gold is named as being used for the latter as for the former. This shield is usually coupled with light weapons, as the bow (14:8) and darts (32:5, KJV). (3) Heb. sheleṭ. The form of this shield is not well known. Although by some it is translated “quiver,” and by others “weapons” generally, it is evident that shield is proper by comparing 2 Kings 11:10 with 2 Chron. 23:9; 2 Sam. 8:7; 1 Chron. 18:7–8. The sōḥērâ, “buckler,” is found only in Ps. 91:4, KJV, and is used poetically. (4) Finally, we have the Gk. thureos (Eph. 6:16), a large oblong or square shield. The ordinary shield among the Hebrews consisted of a wooden frame covered with leather and could be easily burned (Ezek. 39:9). Some shields were covered with brass or copper and when shone upon by the sun caused the redness mentioned in Nah. 2:3. Shields were rubbed with oil to render the leather smooth and slippery and to prevent its being injured by the wet (2 Sam. 1:21–22; Isa. 21:5), as well as to keep the metal from rusting. Except in actual conflict, the shield was kept covered (22:6). The golden shields mentioned in connection with the equipment of armies (1 Macc. 6:39) were most probably only gilt; on the contrary, those of the generals of Hadadezer (2 Sam. 8:7) and those Solomon made (1 Kings 10:16–17; 14:26) are to be regarded as ornamental pieces of massive gold, such as were later sent to Rome as gifts (1 Macc. 14:24; 15:18). Bronze shields also occur only in connection with leaders and royal guards (1 Sam. 17:6; 1 Kings 14:27). Figurative. The shield is illustrative of God’s protection (Gen. 15:1; Deut. 33:29; 2 Sam. 22:3; Pss. 3:3; 5:12; 28:7; 33:20; 59:11; 84:9, 11; 115:9–11; 119:114; 144:2); truth of God (91:4); salvation of God (2 Sam. 22:36; Ps. 18:35); of faith (Eph. 6:16). The Helmet. The helmet of the Egyptians was usually of quilted linen cloth that served as an effectual protection to the head, without the inconvenience of metal in a hot climate. The Assyrian helmet assumed different shapes in different ages, but its earliest form was a cap of iron terminating in a point and sometimes furnished with flaps, covered with metal scales, protecting the ears and neck and falling over the shoulders. We find several references to the “helmet” (Heb. kôba˓) as being in use among the Hebrews. They seem to have been commonly of bronze (1 Sam. 17:38). Figurative. In Isa. 59:17 Jehovah is represented as arming Himself for the defense of man, and among other articles He puts on is “a helmet of salvation,” seeming to teach that salvation is the crowning act of God. The helmet as a part of the Christian’s armor represents salvation (Eph. 6:17), “the hope” of salvation (1 Thess. 5:8). The Breastplate, or Cuirass. The earliest material used to protect the body was probably the skins of beasts, which were soon abandoned for coats of mail. The cuirass of the Egyptians consisted of about eleven horizontal rows of metal plates, well secured by brass pins, with narrower rows forming a protection for the throat and neck. Each plate, or scale, was about an inch in width. In length the cuirass may have been a little less than two and one-half feet, covering the thigh nearly to the knee; in order to prevent its pressing too heavily on the shoulder it was bound with a girdle about the waist. Usually, however, that part of the body below the girdle was protected by a kind of kilt, detached from the girdle. Such was the covering of the heavy-armed troops. With the light-armed infantry, and, indeed, among the Asiatic nations in general, the quilted linen cuirass was in much demand. The Assyrians used coats of scale armor and embroidered tunics, both of felt and leather. Among the Hebrews we have two types of protective garment for the torso. (1) The breastplate (Heb. shiryôn, “glittering”) is enumerated in the description of the arms of Goliath, “scale armor,” literally, a “breastplate of scales” (1 Sam. 17:5), and further (v. 38), where shiryôn alone is rendered “armor.” It may be noticed that this passage contains the most complete inventory of the dress of a warrior to be found in the whole of the sacred history. Shiryôn also occurs in 1 Kings 22:34 and 2 Chron. 18:33. The last passage is obscure; the meaning is probably “between the joints of the breastplate.” (2) The taḥrā˒ is mentioned but twice—in reference to the gown of the high priest (Ex. 28:32; 39:23). Like the English “habergeon,” it was probably a quilted shirt or doublet put on over the head. Figurative. Being an efficient means of protection for the body, it is used metaphorically for defense: “the breastplate of righteousness” (Eph. 6:14) and “the breastplate of faith and love” (1 Thess. 5:8). Greaves (Heb. miṣḥâ, lit., “a facing”). Coverings for the leg, made of brass and widely known among the ancients, are mentioned only in the case of Goliath (1 Sam. 17:6), and the warrior’s “boot” (Heb. s ˒ôn), a sort of half boot made of leather, studded with strong nails, only in Isa. 9:5 (lit., “every shoe”). We infer, therefore, that they did not belong to the common armor of the Hebrews. Girdle (Heb. ˒ēzôr). The sword was suspended from the girdle, and the girdle is frequently mentioned among the articles of military dress (Job 12:18; Eph. 6:14). It was of leather, studded with metal plates. When the armor was light the girdle was broad and girt about the hips; otherwise it supported the sword scarfwise from the shoulder. See Girdle. ARMOR BEARER (Heb. nāśa˒ k lı ̂, “one carrying weapons”). A person selected by prominent officers to bear their armor, to stand by them in danger, and to carry out their orders, somewhat as adjutants in modern service (Judg. 9:54; 1 Sam. 14:6; 16:21; 31:4). ARMORER. See Handicrafts. ARMORY. The place in which armor was deposited. In Neh. 3:19 mention is made of “the armory at the Angle” in Jerusalem; probably the arsenal, which Hezekiah showed with so much pride to the Babylonian ambassadors (Isa. 39:2, Heb. nesheq). A poetical allusion is made to armory in song of Sol. 4:4, see marg. (Heb. talpı ̂yyâ). In Jer. 50:25 God is said to have “opened His armory” (Heb. ˒ôṣār). BIBLIOGRAPHY: R. deVaux, Ancient Israel: Its Life and Institutions (1961), pp. 213–46; Y. Yadin, The Art of Warfare in Bible Lands, 2 vols. (1963). ARMY. The English term is represented in Scriptures by several Heb. and Gk. names. Jewish. Although Israel was not to be a conquering people, yet it had to defend itself against hostile attacks, at first in the wilderness and afterward in the Promised Land. Hence Israel marched out of Egypt (Ex. 12:41; 13:18), as the host of Jehovah, armed. As such, the people were arranged according to their tribes and divisions of tribes (Num. 1–4), and every man above twenty years of age was enrolled for military service (1:2–19; 26:2) with the exception of the Levites (2:33). Up to what age military duty lasted is not given. Josephus states (Ant. 3.12.4) that it was to the fiftieth year. In time of war the number of fighting men needed was collected from the different tribes under the direction of inspectors (Heb. shōṭ rı ̂m, Deut. 20:5; 2 Kings 25:19), by whom also the commanders were appointed (Deut. 20:9). The principle on which these levies were made is not known to us. The law provided that anyone having built a new house not yet consecrated, having planted a vineyard and not having as yet enjoyed its fruit, or having betrothed but not yet married a wife should not go to battle (20:5–7). The fainthearted were also dismissed, in order that they not discourage their brethren (20:8). The army thus constituted was divided into companies of thousands, hundreds, and fifties under their respective officers (Num. 31:14), and still further into families (2:34; 2 Chron. 25:5; 26:12); each father’s house probably formed a detachment, led by the most valiant among them. The provisioning of the army was laid on each tribe (Judg. 20:10; 1 Sam. 17:17–18). From the time of Moses to that of David the army of Israel consisted of foot soldiers (15:4), and from the time Israel entered into Canaan until the establishment of the kingdom little progress was made in military affairs. Soon after the establishment of the kingdom a standing army was set up, the nucleus of which was the band of three thousand men selected by Saul (1 Sam. 13:2; 24:2) and to which he constantly added men (14:52). Before David became king he had a band of six hundred men, gathered in his wars with Saul (23:13, 25:13), from whom his most noted captains were chosen (2 Sam. 23:8–11, 18–39). To these he added the Cherethites and Pelethites (8:18; 15:18; 20:7). Moreover, he organized a national militia in twelve divisions, each consisting of 24,000, and responsible for a month’s service every year (1 Chron. 27:1). At the head of the army when in active service was a commander in chief (“captain of his army,” 1 Sam. 14:50). The army hitherto had consisted entirely of infantry (1 Sam. 4:10; 15:4), the use of horses having been prohibited (Deut. 17:16). David had reserved a hundred chariots from the spoil of the Syrians (2 Sam. 8:4), which probably served as the foundation of the force that Solomon enlarged through his alliance with Egypt (1 Kings 10:26, 28– 29). The army, with the exception of a regularly maintained bodyguard (1 Kings 14:28; 2 Kings 11:4, 11), was, strictly speaking, only a national militia, not in constant service but in time of peace at home engaged in agriculture, and without pay. Even in war their pay probably consisted only of supplies and a fixed portion of the spoil. These arrangements were kept up by his successors, and by some of them the military power was greatly strengthened by foot and horse (2 Chron. 14:8; 17:14; 25:5; etc.). Sometimes foreign troops were hired as auxiliaries (25:6). With regard to the arrangement and maneuvering of the army in the field, little is known. A division into three bodies is frequently mentioned (Judg. 7:16; 9:43; 1 Sam. 11:11). Jehoshaphat divided his army into five bodies but retained the threefold principle of division, the heavy-armed troops of Judah being considered the proper army and the two divisions of light-armed men of the tribe of Benjamin an appendage (2 Chron. 17:14–18). It is difficult to ascertain the numerical strength of the Jewish army, the numbers given in the text being manifestly corrupted. The discipline and arrangement of the army was gradually assimilated to that of the Romans, and the titles of officers borrowed from it. Roman. The Roman army was divided into legions, the number of soldiers in a legion varying at different times; but its full strength was to be 6,000. These legions were commanded by six tribuni (“commander,” Acts 21:31), who commanded by turns. The tenth part of a legion, containing six hundred men, was called a cohors, (“cohort,” Acts 10:1); the cohort was divided into three maniples, and the maniple into two centuries, originally containing one hundred men but later varying according to the strength of the legion. These centuries were under the command of centurions (10:1, 22; Matt. 8:5; 27:54). There were in addition to the legionary cohorts independent cohorts of volunteers. One of these was called the Italian (Acts 10:1), consisting of volunteers from Italy. There is a cohort named Augustus (Acts 27:1), which Meyer (Com., ad loc.) thinks to mean “the imperial cohort, one of the five cohorts stationed at Caesarea, and regarded as bodyguard of the emperor, employed here on special service affecting the emperor.” See War. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Y. Yadin, The Art of Warfare in Bible Lands (1963); G. R. Watson, The Roman Soldier (1969); G. Webster, Roman Imperial Army (1969). AR´NAN (arʹnan; Heb. from Arab., “quick, lively”). Probably the great-grandson of Zerubbabel, in the line of David’s descendants (1 Chron. 3:21); perhaps the same as Joanan (Luke 3:27), an ancestor of Jesus. AR´NON (arʹnon; “rushing torrent”). A river rising in the mountains of Gilead, E of the Jordan, and reaching the Dead Sea through a stony and precipitous chasm of red and yellow sandstone. “The name is also applied to the valley, or valleys, now known as ‘Wady Mojib,’ an enormous trench across the plateau of Moab. It is about seventeen hundred feet deep, and two miles broad from edge to edge of the cliffs which bound it, but the floor of the valley over which the stream winds is only forty yards wide. About thirteen miles from the Dead Sea the trench divides into two branches, one running NE, the other SSE, and each of them again dividing into two…. Properly all the country from Jabbok to Arnon belonged northward to Ammon, southward to Moab. But shortly before Israel’s arrival, Sihon (which see), an Amorite king from western Palestine, had crossed the Jordan and, driving Moab southward over Arnon and Ammon eastward to the sources of the Jabbok, had founded a kingdom for himself between the two rivers” (Smith, Hist. Geog., p. 558). Afterward it was taken possession of by Israel on its way to Palestine, and Arnon became the boundary between Israel and Moab (Num. 21:13, 26; Josh. 12:1; Judg. 11:22; Isa. 16:2; Jer. 48:20). A´ROD (aʹrod; “humpbacked”). The sixth son of Gad (Num. 26:17), whose descendants were called Arodites, about 1700 B.C. He is called Arodi (Gen. 46:16). AR´ODI, A´RODITE. See Arod. AR´OER (arʹō-er; “nudity”). 1. A town on the northern bank of the Arnon (Deut. 2:36; 3:12; 4:48; Josh. 12:2; 13:9, 16; Judg. 11:26, 33; 1 Chron. 5:8). As the southernmost town of Israel E of the Jordan, it has been called “the Beersheba of the East.” It was fortified by Mesha as mentioned on the Moabite Stone (which see). Now called Arair, thirteen miles E of the Dead Sea. 2. A town built by the Gadites (Num. 32:34; Josh. 13:25; 2 Sam. 24:5), connected with the history of Jephthah. 3. A city twelve miles SE of Beersheba, associated with David and his warriors (1 Sam. 30:26–28; 1 Chron. 11:44), now called Ararah. Com. Commentary AR´OERITE (arʹō-er-īt). An inhabitant of Aroer (which see above; no. 3), probably in the tribe of Judah (1 Chron. 11:44). AROMA. A term used in several ways in Scripture. 1. Sweet smell (Heb. nı ̂ḥôaḥ; “restful,” Lev. 26:31; “fragrant incense,” Dan 2:46). 2. In the general sense of fragrance (which see), as from spices (which see), see 2 Chron. 16:14; Esther 2:12; Jer. 34:5; John 12:3. In Phil. 4:18 the expression is “a fragrant aroma.” The word “savor(s)” (Heb. rêaḥ, “odor”) is used in some versions to describe the pleasing effect that sacrifices offered according to ritual requirements had upon Jehovah (Ex. 29:18; Lev. 1:9, 13, 17; etc., but contrast Jer. 48:11). Figurative. The rendering of the Gk. mōrainō, “is more flat or tasteless.” In 2 Cor. 2:14, 16 (Gk. osmē), “the knowledge of God” is symbolized as “an odor that God everywhere makes manifest through the apostolic working, inasmuch as He by that means brings to pass that the knowledge of Christ everywhere exhibits and communicates its nature and efficacy” (Meyer, Com., ad loc.). Christ’s sacrifice is described as a “fragrant aroma” to God, and one that we are to imitate (Eph. 5:2). R.K.H. ARPACH´SHAD (ar-paxʹshad). The first postdiluvian patriarch, son of Shem, and father of Shelah, born two years after the Deluge and died aged four hundred thirty- eight years (Gen. 11:10–13; 1 Chron. 1:17–18). Arpachshad has been frequently identified with the mountainous country on the Upper Zab River N and NE of Nineveh, the Arrapachitis of the Greek geographers. AR´PAD (arʹpad). Rendered Ar´phad (ar´fad) twice in the KJV, Arpad is identified as Tell Erfad, twenty-five miles N of Aleppo. Arpad was a place of considerable importance in Assyrian times, being overrun by Adadnirari in 806 B.C., Ashurninari in 754 B.C., besieged and captured by Tiglath-pileser (742–740 B.C.), and included in an uprising that was suppressed by Sargon in 720 B.C. It is commonly associated with the city-state of Hamath in OT references, being not far distant (2 Kings 18:34; 19:13; Isa. 10:9; 36:19; 37:13). Arpad was excavated by the Czechoslovakian archaeologist Hrozny in 1924, and a British team has been working there since 1960. ARPHAX´AD. See Arpachshad. ARROGANT, ARROGANCE. 1. Gk. huperogkos, a “swelling,” “immoderate, extravagant,” as in “arrogant words” (2 Pet. 2:18; Jude 16). 2. Gk. phusiōsis, a “puffing up of soul,” “loftiness, pride” (2 Cor. 12:20). ARROW. See Armor: Bow and Arrow. ARROWSNAKE. See Animal Kingdom: Serpent. ARSENAL (arʹse-nal). See Armory. ARTAXERXES (ar-ta-zerkʹsez). Artaxerxes I Longimanus, who reigned over Persia forty years, 464–424 B.C. In the seventh year of his reign he commissioned Ezra to return to Jerusalem, granting large privileges to him and those accompanying him (Ezra 7:11–26), 457 B.C. About thirteen years later (445 B.C.) he granted permission to Nehemiah to assume control of the civil affairs at Jerusalem (Neh. 2:1–8). R.K.H. R. K. Harrison AR´TEMAS (arʹti-mas, contraction of Gk. Artemidoros, “gift of Artemis,” i.e., Diana). 1. The name of a disciple mentioned in connection with Tychicus, one of whom Paul wished to send into Crete to supply the place of Titus when he invited the latter to visit him at Nicopolis (Titus 3:12), A.D. 65. Traditionally, he was bishop of Lystra. 2. See Gods, False: Artemis. ARTEMIS. One of the Greek goddesses, a huntress. The Roman name and KJV rendering is Diana. See Gods, False. ARTILLERY (Heb. k lı ̂, “prepared”). Used in the KJV of 1 Sam. 20:40 to refer to Jonathan’s weapons (cf. NASB). ARTISAN (Heb. ḥōrēsh, or ḥārāsh). A fabricator of any material, such as a carpenter, smith, or engraver (Isa. 3:3). See also Handicrafts. ARTS. See Handicrafts. AR´UBBOTH (arʹu-both); a city or district. Mentioned (1 Kings 4:10) as the district belonging to the son of Hesed. Probably to be identified with Arrabeh near Dothan. ARU´MAH (a-ruʹma; “height”). A place in the neighborhood of Shechem where Abimelech, the son of Gideon, dwelt (Judg. 9:41). AR´VAD (arʹvad). A rocky island off the coast of Syria, two miles from the shore, and peopled by marines and soldiers (Ezek. 27:8, 11). It is modern Rouad, a little more than two miles from the shore to the S of Tartus. On that small island are Phoenician remains; there “the family” of the Arvadites settled. AR´VADITE (arʹva-dīt; Gen. 10:18; 1 Chron. 1:16). An inhabitant of the island of Aradus, or Arvad (which see). The Arvadites were descended from the sons of Canaan (Gen. 10:18). They appear to have been in some dependence upon Tyre, as we find them furnishing a contingent of mariners to that city (Ezek. 27:8, 11). They took their full share in Phoenician maritime affairs, particularly after Tyre and Sidon fell under the dominion of the Greco-Syrian kings. AR´ZA (arʹza; “earthiness”). A steward over the house of Elah, king of Israel, in whose house, at Tirzah, Zimri, the captain of half of his chariots, conspired against Elah (which see), and killed him during a drunken debauch (1 Kings 16:8–10). A´SA (āʹsa; “healing”). Cf. Arab. ˒asa, “to heal”; Aram. ˒ăssâ, a “physician.” 1. The son and successor of Abijah, king of Judah, who reigned forty-one years, c. 910–869 B.C. On assuming the reins of government, Asa was conspicuous for his support of the worship of God and opposition to idolatry. Even his grandmother Maacah was deposed from the rank of “queen mother” because she had set up an idol, which Asa overthrew and burned by the brook Kidron (1 Kings 15:13). Still, the old hill sanctuaries were retained as places of worship. He placed in the Temple gifts dedicated by his father and rich offerings of his own, and renewed the altar, which had apparently been desecrated (2 Chron. 15:8). The first ten years of his reign his kingdom enjoyed peace, which Asa utilized in fortifying his frontier cities and raising an army, which numbered at the beginning of hostilities 580,000 men (2 Chron. 14:8), though this number has been thought an exaggeration of the copyist. In the eleventh year of his reign Zerah, the Ethiopian, invaded Judah with an army of a million men. Asa besought God for help and, marching against Zerah, met and defeated him at Mareshah. He returned to Jerusalem with the spoil of the cities around Gerar and with innumerable sheep and cattle (14:9– 5). The prophet Azariah met Asa on his return and encouraged him and the people to continue their trust in God. Asa carried on his reforms; a gathering of the people was held at Jerusalem, sacrifices were offered, and a covenant was made with Jehovah. To these ceremonies there came many from the kingdom of Israel, believing that God was with Asa (2 Chron. 15). In the thirty-sixth year (according to some the twenty-sixth) of his reign hostilities were begun by Baasha, king of Israel, who fortified Ramah to prevent his subjects from going over to Asa. The good king then committed the great error of his life. He resorted to an alliance with Ben-hadad I, of Damascus, purchasing his assistance with treasures from the Temple and the king’s house. Ben-hadad made a diversion in Asa’s favor by invading northern Israel, whereupon Baasha left Ramah. Asa took the material found there and built Geba and Mizpah. His lack of faith was reproved by the seer Hanani, who told him that he had lost the honor of conquering the Syrians because of this alliance, and also prophesied war for the rest of his days. Asa, angered at Hanani, put him in prison and oppressed some of the people at the same time (2 Chron. 16:1–10). Sickness and Death. In the thirty-ninth year of his reign he was afflicted with a disease in his feet and “did not seek the Lord,” but depended upon the physicians. The disease proved fatal in the forty-first year of his reign. He died greatly beloved and was honored with a magnificent burial (2 Chron. 16:12–14). 2. A Levite, son of Elkanah and father of Berechiah, who resided in one of the villages of the Netophathites after the return from Babylon (1 Chron. 9:16), after 536 B.C. AS´AHEL (asʹa-hel; “God’s creature”). 1. The son of David’s sister, Zeruiah, and brother of Joab and Abishai (2 Sam. 2:18; 1 Chron. 2:16). He was an early adherent of David, being one of the famous thirty (2 Sam. 23:24) and, with his son Zebadiah, was commander of the fourth division of the royal army (1 Chron. 27:7). He was renowned for his swiftness of foot, and after the battle of Gibeon he pursued and overtook Abner, who reluctantly, and in order to save his own life, slew Asahel with a back thrust of his spear (2 Sam. 2:18– 23), about 1000 B.C. Joab, to revenge Asahel’s death, slew Abner some years after at Hebron (3:26–27). 2. One of the Levites sent by Jehoshaphat into Judah to teach the law of the Lord (2 Chron. 17:8), after 875 B.C. 3. One of the Levites appointed by Hezekiah as overseer of the contributions to the house of the Lord (2 Chron. 31:13), about 700 B.C. 4. The father of Jonathan, who was one of the elders that assisted Ezra in putting away the foreign wives of the Jews on the return from Babylon (Ezra 10:15), 457 B.C. ASAI´AH (a-sa-īʹa; “whom Jehovah made). 1. An officer of Josiah who was sent with others to consult Huldah the prophetess concerning the book of the law found in the Temple (2 Kings 22:12–14; 2 Chron. 34:20), 624 B.C. His name is given as Asahiah in the KJV of 2 Kings 22:12–4. 2. A leader of one of the families of the tribe of Simeon who, in the time of Hezekiah, drove out the Hamite shepherds from the rich pastures near Gedor (1 Chron. 4:36), about 700 B.C. 3. The son of Haggiah (1 Chron. 6:30) and head of the 220 Levites of the family of Merari, appointed by David to remove the Ark from the house of Obed-edom (1 Chron. 15:6, 11), after 1000 B.C. 4. The “first-born” of the Shilonites who returned to Jerusalem after the captivity (1 Chron. 9:5), about 536 B.C. ASAHI´AH. See Asaiah. A´SAPH (a-saf; “collector”). 1. The father (or ancestor) of Joah, who was “recorder” in the time of Hezekiah (2 Kings 18:18, 37; Isa. 36:3, 22), about 710 B.C. 2. A Levite, son of Berechiah, of the family of Gershom (1 Chron. 6:39; 15:17), eminent as a musician and appointed by David to preside over the sacred choral services (16:5), after 1000 B.C. The “sons of Asaph” are afterward mentioned as musicians of the Temple (1 Chron. 25:1–2; 2 Chron. 20:14, and elsewhere), and this office appears to have been made hereditary in the family (1 Chron. 25:1–2). Asaph was celebrated in later times as a prophet and “seer” (2 Chron. 29:30; Neh. 12:46), and the titles of twelve of the psalms (50, 73–83) bear his name, though in some of these (74, 75, 79) the “sons of Asaph” rather than Asaph himself should be understood, as matters of late occurrence are referred to (Kitto, s. v.). 3. A “keeper of the king’s forest,” probably in Lebanon. Nehemiah requested Artaxerxes to give him an order on Asaph for timber to be used in the rebuilding of the Temple (Neh. 2:8), about 445 B.C. ASAR´EL (a-sarʹel). The last named of the four sons of Jehallelel, of the tribe of Judah (1 Chron. 4:16). ASARE´LAH. See Ashare´lah. ASCENSION OF CHRIST. His glorious withdrawal, as to His bodily presence, from the earth; and entrance, as the God-man and mediatorial King, into heaven. The Fact. The ascension was from the Mount of Olives forty days after the resurrection. (1) Predicted in Pss. 68:18; 110:1; then interpreted (Eph. 4:8–10; Heb. 1:13); also by Christ Himself (John 6:62; 20:17). (2) Recorded (Mark 16:19; Luke 24:50–51; Acts 1:9–11). (3) Recognized by the apostle John (passages above cited) and by other NT writers who based doctrines upon it (2 Cor. 13:4; Eph. 2:6; 4:8–10; 1 Pet. 3:22; 1 Tim. 3:16; Heb. 1:13; 6:20). (4) Certified by the disciples who were eyewitnesses, by the words of the two angels, by Stephen and Paul and John, who saw Christ in His ascended state (Acts 1:9–11; 7:55–56; 9:3–5; Rev. 1:9–18). (5) Demonstrated by the descent of the Holy Spirit on the Day of Pentecost (Matt. 3:11; Luke 24:49; Acts 2:1–4, 33) and by the manifold gifts bestowed by the ascended Lord upon His church (Eph. 4:11–12). Doctrinal and Ethical Significance. The visible ascension of Christ was the necessary sequel and seal of His resurrection (Rom. 6:9). It was the appropriate connecting link between His humiliation and glorification (Phil. 2:5–11). As consequences of the ascension the NT writers particularly note: (1) The removal of His bodily, but not His spiritual, presence from the earth; Christ “has passed through the heavens,” but invisibly He is always near at hand (Heb. 4:14; Matt. 28:20; Acts 23:11; 2 Tim. 4:17). (2) The investiture of Christ with power and dominion in heaven and earth. He is “at the right hand of the throne of God” (Matt. 28:18; Phil. 2:10; Heb. 12:2). (3) The perpetual intercession of Christ, as our great High Priest (Rom. 8:34; Heb. 5:10; 7:25). (4) The sending forth of the Holy Spirit, and the bestowal of other gifts upon the church (Acts 2:33; Eph. 4:11–12). Of practical import, accordingly, the ascension of Christ is closely related to the peace and sanctification and hope of believers. (1) He is their heavenly Advocate (1 John 2:1). (2) He is still interceding for their perfection (John 17:20–24). (3) They are then encouraged to fidelity and to confident prayer (Heb. 4:14–16). (4) He powerfully attracts them to things above (Col. 3:1–4). (5) He has gone to prepare a place for them (John 14:2). (6) He awaits His perfect triumph over all His foes (Heb. 10:13). (7) He shall come again to judge the world (Acts 1:11; Matt. 25:31–32). BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. B. Swete, The Ascended Christ (1911); C. F. D. Moule, Expository Times 68 (1957): 205–9; W. J. Sparrow-Simpson, Our Lord’s Resurrection (1964); id., The Resurrection and the Christian (1968); W. Milligan, The Ascension of Christ (1980); P. Toon, The Ascension of Our Lord (1984). ASCENTS, SONG OF (“song of steps”). A title given to each of the fifteen psalms from 120 to 134. Four of them are attributed to David, one is ascribed to the pen of Solomon, and the other ten give no indication of their author. The opinion held by Rosenmüller, Herder, and others is that some of the psalms were written before the Babylonian captivity, some by exiles returning to Palestine, and a few at a later date; but that all were incorporated into one collection because they had one and the same character. With respect to the term rendered in the NASB and NIV “ascents” (KJV, “degrees”), a great diversity of opinion prevails among biblical critics. According to some it refers to the melody to which the psalm was to be chanted. Others, including Gesenius, derive the word from the poetical composition of the song and from the circumstance that the concluding words of the preceding sentence are often repeated at the commencement of the next verse (cf. 121:4–5, and 124:1–2 and 3–4). A good instance of the “step” style is found in the KJV rendering of Ps. 121: “I will lift up mine eyes unto the hills, from whence cometh my help. My help cometh from the Lord, which made heaven and earth.” Iben-Ezra quotes an ancient authority that maintains that the ascents or degrees allude to the fifteen steps which, in the Temple of Jerusalem, led from the court of the women to that of the men, and on each of which steps one of the fifteen songs of ascents was chanted. The generally accredited opinion, however, is that they were pilgrim songs sung by the people as they went up to Jerusalem. BIBLIOGRAPHY: S. Cox, The Pilgrim Psalms (1983). AS´ENATH (asʹe-nath; “who belongs to Neith,” i.e., the Egyptian Minerva). The daughter of Potipherah, priest of On, whom the king of Egypt gave in marriage to Joseph (Gen. 41:45), 1715 B.C. She became the mother of Ephraim and Manasseh (46:20). Beyond this nothing is known concerning her. ASH. See Vegetable Kingdom: Fir. A´SHAN (aʹshan; “smoke”). A Levitical city (1 Chron. 6:59) in the low country of Judah, assigned first to Judah (Josh. 15:42) and again to Simeon (19:7; 1 Chron. 4:32; this last passage giving it as a priests’ village). Ain instead of Ashan is used in Josh. 21:16. Ashan is identified with Khirbet Ashan about five miles NW of Beersheba. ASHARE´LAH (ash-a-reʹla). One of the sons of the Levite Asaph, who was appointed by David to be in charge of the Temple music (1 Chron. 25:2). He is probably the same as Jesharelah (1 Chron. 25:14) and, if so, was in the seventh of the (twenty-four) divisions, after 1000 B.C. ASH´BEA (ashʹbe-a). In the KJV, the head of a family mentioned as working in fine linen (1 Chron. 4:21). The NASB and NIV interpret the Heb. to be part of the name of a village, Beth-ashbea (which see). ASH´BEL (ashʹbel). The second son of Benjamin (Gen. 46:21; 1 Chron. 8:1). His descendants were called Ashbelites (Num. 26:38). ASH´BELITE. See Ashbel. ASHCHE´NAZ (ash-keʹ-nas). See Ashkenaz. ASH´DOD (ashʹdod). One of the five principal cities of the Philistines. Together with Gaza, Gath, Ekron, and Ashkelon it formed what is known as the Philistine Pentapolis. These cities were at the zenith of their power at the time of Saul (c. 1020 B.C.) and continued to be important after the ascendancy of the Hebrew monarchy under the Davidic dynasty (c. 1000–587 B.C.). Ashdod was situated between Ashkelon, a seaport, and Ekron, inland on the caravan route E to Lydda and W to Joppa. Sargon besieged and took the city (Isa. 20:1) despite its commanding position on a hill, which made it the envy of Israel. The Ark of God was carried by the Philistines to Ashdod after their victory at Ebenezer (c. 1050 B.C.) and carried into the temple of Dagon, an ancient Canaanite deity associated with agriculture, who was worshiped there (1 Sam. 5). It was later carried to Gath and Ekron with similar disastrous results as at Ashdod. Mentioned some twenty-one times in the OT, its palaces and temples (Amos 3:9) preserve its memory as a city of importance. Nehemiah in his day protested against Israelite men marrying wives from Ashdod and rearing children who could not speak “the language of Judah” (Neh. 13:23–25). A joint expedition of the Pittsburgh Carnegie Museum, the Pittsburgh Theological Seminary, and the Israel Department of Antiquities excavated Ashdod in 1962, 1963, 1965, and from 1968 to 1972. M. Dothan served as director of excavations. The site encompasses an acropolis of about seventeen acres and a lower city of perhaps ninety acres. Excavations revealed twenty-two strata of settlement extending from the seventeenth century B.C. to the Byzantine period. A fragment of a basalt stela of Sargon II came to light, mentioning some of his conquests and confirming the fact that Sargon took the town (Isa. 20:1). The excavators also uncovered evidence of Hezekiah’s conquest and learned that the Philistines took the city early in the twelfth century B.C. H.F.V. BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. B. Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts (1969), pp. 284, 286–88; M. Dothan, New Directions in Biblical Archaeology, ed. D. N. Freedman and J. C. Greenfield (1971), pp. 17–27; id., Israel Exploration Journal 23 (1973): 2–17; Y. Aharoni, The Archaeology of the Land of Israel (1982), pp. 184–88, 196ff., 270–71. ASH´DODITES (ashʹdo-dīts; Josh. 13:3; Neh. 4:7). Inhabitants of Ashdod (which see). ASH´DOTHITES. See Ashdodites. ASH´ER (ashʹer; “happiness”). The eighth son of Jacob and second of Zilpah, the maid of Leah (Gen. 30:13). Personal History. Of this we have no record. The Tribe of Asher. Asher had four sons and one daughter. Upon quitting Egypt the tribe numbered 41,500, ranking ninth; and at the second census the number had increased to 53,400 men of war, ranking fifth in population. Position. During the march through the desert Asher’s place was between Dan and Naphtali, on the N side of the Tabernacle (Num. 2:27). Territory. The general position of the tribe was on the seashore from Carmel northward, with Manasseh on the S, Zebulun and Issachar on the SE, and Naphtali on the NE. The boundaries and towns are given in Josh. 19:24–31; 17:10–11; Judg. 1:31– 32. Subsequent History. The richness of the soil and the tribe’s proximity to the Phoenicians may have contributed to its degeneracy (Judg. 1:31; 5:17). In the reign of David the tribe had become so insignificant that its name is altogether omitted from the list of the chief rulers (1 Chron. 27:16–22). With the exception of Simeon, Asher is the only tribe W of the Jordan that furnished no judge or hero to the nation. Anna, daughter of Phanuel, who was of the tribe of Asher, as a prophetess and a godly woman, recognized the infant Jesus as the Messiah (Luke 2:36–38). ASHE´RAH (a-sheʹra). A Canaanite goddess appearing as “Lady of the Sea” in the Ras Shamra literature of the fourteenth century B.C. See Gods, False. ASH´ERITES (ashʹer-its). Descendants of Asher (which see) and members of his tribe (Judg. 1:32). ASHES. 1. The ashes on the altar of burnt offering were removed each morning by a priest clad in linen (his official dress) and were then carried by him, attired in unofficial dress, to a clean place outside the camp (Lev. 6:10–11). According to the Mishna, the priest who was to remove the ashes was chosen by lot. The ashes of the red heifer (see Purification) had the ceremonial efficacy of purifying the unclean (Heb. 9:13) but of polluting the clean. Figurative. It has been the custom in all ages to burn captured cities; and so, to reduce a place to ashes is a well-understood expression for effecting a complete destruction (Ezek. 28:18; 2 Pet. 2:6). A frequent figurative employment of the word is derived from the practice of sitting among ashes, or scattering them upon one’s person, as a symbol of grief and mourning (Job 2:8; 42:6; Isa. 58:5; Jer. 6:26; Matt. 11:21; etc.). In Ezek. 27:30 it is declared of the mourning Tyrians that “they will wallow in the ashes,” expressive of great and bitter lamentation. Eating ashes is expressive of the deepest misery and degradation (Ps. 102:9; Isa. 44:20). Ashes are also used to represent things easily scattered, perishable, and, therefore, worthless. Thus Abraham speaks of himself as “dust and ashes” (Gen. 18:27), and to the righteous the wicked are said to be “ashes under the soles of your feet” (Mal. 4:3). 2. The early Christians naturally adopted a ceremony that had acquired so much significance. Tertullian speaks of the “substitution of sackcloth and ashes for a man’s usual habit” as a regular ceremony of public confession and penance in the second century. Penitents under excommunication used to sprinkle ashes upon their heads and, standing at the doors of the churches, ask the prayers of those entering, that they might be readmitted to Communion. ASH´HUR (ashʹhur). A posthumous son of Hezron (grandson of Judah, Gen. 46:12), by his wife Abijah (1 Chron. 2:24). He had two wives, Helah and Naarah, each of whom bore him several sons (1 Chron. 4:5), and through these he is called the “father” (founder) of Tekoa, which appears to have been the place of their eventual settlement. ASH´IMA (ashʹi-ma). The god of the people of Hamath (2 Kings 17:30). See Gods, False. ASH´KELON (ashʹke-lon; Askalon, Askelon, Ascalon in NT times). One of the five principal cities of Philistia, located on the fertile Maritime Plain some dozen miles N of Gaza. It probably derived its name from the escallot (scallion) that grew there. It has been excavated and shows stratigraphic layers of occupation from late Arab at the summit, through the Crusader and NT periods down to an early Canaanite town that came to an end around 2000 B.C. In Samson’s time Philistines occupied it (Judg. 14:19). Both Zephaniah (2:4) and Zechariah (9:5) foretold its destruction. Ashkelon was Herod the Great’s birthplace and the residence of his sister Salome. Conseqently, he took an interest in the place, beautifying it with impressive colonnaded courts. The site was prominent in the period of the Crusades, but its chief interest is in the biblical period. David mentions the city in his lament over Saul and Jonathan (2 Sam. 1:20). Excavations at the 160-acre site were carried on in 1920 and 1921 by W. J. Phythian- Adams and John Garstang on behalf of the Palestine Exploration Fund. Among other things, the excavators found Hyksos fortifications and a council house (110 meters long) dating to the Roman period. In 1967 V. Tsaferis uncovered a Christian basilica with a mosaic pavement. H.F.V. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Y. Aharoni, The Archaeology of the Land of Israel (1982), pp. 183–86. ASH´KELONITE (ashʹke-lon-īt). The designation (Josh. 13:3) of an inhabitant of Ashkelon (which see). ASHKENAZ´ (ash-ke-nasʹ). The first named of the sons of Gomer son of Japheth (Gen. 10:3) and equivalent to Assyr. Ashkuz, “the Scythians” (W. F. Albright, O.T. Commentary [1948], p. 138). In the time of Jeremiah they dwelt in the neighborhood of Ararat and Minni (the Mannai of the Assyrian inscriptions) SE of Lake Van. They were rude and retarded in civilization and periodically overran extensive territory, so that their name came to be tantamount to barbarians. M.F.U. ASH´NAH (ashʹna). The name of two cities, both in the tribe of Judah (Josh. 15:33, 43). Neither of them has been positively identified. ASH´PENAZ (ashʹpe-naz). The chief of the officials (or eunuchs, Dan. 1:3, see marg.), a chamberlain of Nebuchadnezzar, after 604 B.C., who was commanded to select certain Jewish captives to be instructed in the “literature and language of the Chaldeans” (1:4). Among those he selected were Daniel and his three companions, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah, whose Heb. names he changed to Babylonian (1:7). The request of Daniel, that he might not be compelled to eat the provisions sent from the king’s table, filled Ashpenaz with apprehension. But God had brought Daniel into favor with Ashpenaz, and he did not use constraint toward him, and this kindness the prophet gratefully records (1:16). ASH´RIEL. See Asriel. ASH´TAROTH (ashʹta-rōth). 1. An ancient city of Bashan, E of the Jordan (Deut. 1:4; Josh. 9:10; 12:4; 3:12, 31) in the half tribe of Manasseh. The inhabitants, including King Og, were giants. The town was the seat of the lewd worship of Astarte and was the capital of Og. By the time of Israel’s entrance into the land, the iniquity of the inhabitants was full (Gen. 15:16), and God commanded the conquering Israelites to utterly exterminate them (Deut. 3:2–6). The site of the ancient city is identified with Tell Ashtarab, twenty-one miles E of the Sea of Galilee, the hill being surrounded by a well-watered plain. 2. The plural form of the god Ashtoreth (Astarte). See Gods, False. M.F.U. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Y. Aharoni, The Land of the Bible (1979), pp. 114–16, 120, 140–46, 156ff. ASH´TEROTH KAR´NAIM (ashʹte-rōth kar-naʹim; “Ashteroth of the two horns,” Gen. 14:5). This was probably distinct from Ashtaroth. The Rephaim dwelt in Ashteroth Karnaim, a place probably at or near Tell ’Ashtarah. There was a temple there, dedicated to the principal female divinity of the Phoenicians; both the city, in H.F.V. Howard F. Vos M.F.U. Merrill F. Unger marg. margin, marginal reading later Hebrew times called Carnaim, and the temple are mentioned in Maccabees, and the reference seems to be the same place. ASH´UR. See Ash´hur. ASH´TORETH. One of the names of a Sidonian goddess. See Gods, False. ASHURBAN´IPAL (a-shūr-banʹi-pal; Assyr. “Ashur creates a son”). Called also Osnappar (which see; the name is sometimes given as Asnappar), Ashurbanipal was the grandson of Sennacherib (705–681 B.C.), and the last great Assyrian monarch (669–626 B.C.). His father was the famous Esarhaddon. He is renowned as a scholar and a protector of literature and art. His great library, excavated at Nineveh, has yielded a large quantity of cuneiform literature, numbering about 22,000 religious, literary, and scientific texts. This vast corpus of material furnishes one of the main sources of information extant for the reconstruction of the history and civilization of ancient Assyria. Texts giving the ancient Babylonian versions of the creation and the Flood found in the Nineveh beautified by this king have shed light on the account of these events recorded in Genesis. Ashurbanipal was on the throne of Assyria during a large part of Manasseh’s long and wicked reign in Judah (c. 696–642 B.C.). The narrative of 2 Chron. 33 relates how Manasseh was deported to Babylon by the Assyrians (Esarhaddon or Ashurbanipal?). The authenticity of this event is supported by the fact that Assyrian kings of this period did spend part of their time in Babylon. M.F.U. BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. B. Pritchard, ed., Ancient Near Eastern Texts (1969), pp. 101ff. ASHURI (a-shūʹri). The name of a people in the Transjordan over whom Ish-bosheth was made king following Saul’s death (2 Sam. 2:9). E.H.M. ASHURNA´SIRPAL II (a-shūr-naʹzir-pal; 883–859 B.C.). A ruthless conqueror who brought the Assyrian Empire to a place of dread power in all SW Asia. He built up a fighting machine that overran vast sections of the Near Eastern world. He is notorious for his barbarous cruelty. The final edition of his annals was inscribed on the pavement slabs on the entrance of the temple of Ninurta in Calah, an ancient and ruined city (cf. Gen. 10:11; now the Mound of Nimrud) where A. H. Layard began his Assyrian excavations in 1845. At the very beginning the palace of Ashurnasirpal was uncovered. In a nearby small temple a half-life-size statue of the king was found. Inscribed on it was the claim that he had conquered the whole region from the Tigris to the Great Sea (Mediterranean). M. E. L. Mallowan excavated at the site again in 1949 and 1950, concentrating once more at Ashurnasirpal’s palace, a new southeastern wing of which was found and excavated. H.F.V. ASHVATH (ashʹvath). The third son of Japhlet of the tribe of Asher (1 Chron. 7:33). A´SIA (āʹsha). A name of doubtful origin that, as a designation along with Europe and Africa, came into use in the fifth century B.C. The Scriptures do not mention Asia as a whole, the several references being to separate nations or parts of the continent. In the NT the word is used in this narrower sense, sometimes for Asia Minor and sometimes for proconsular Asia, the latter of which included Phrygia, Mysia, Caria, and Lydia. Proconsular Asia was governed by a propraetor until the emperor Augustus made it a proconsular province. J. Strong (Cyclopedia) thinks “Asia” denotes all of Asia Minor in Acts 19:26–27; 21:27; 24:18; 27:2; and that proconsular Asia is referred to in 2:9; 6:9; 16:6; 19:10, 22; 20:4, 16, 18; Rom. 16:5; 1 Cor. 16:19; 2 Cor. 1:8; 2 Tim. 1:15; 1 Pet. 1:1; and contained the seven churches of the E.H.M. Eugene H. Merrill Apocalypse (Rev. 1:4, 11). Luke appears to have used the term Asia in a still more restricted sense, counting Phrygia and Mysia as provinces distinct from Asia (Acts 2:9–10; 16:6–7). BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. H. M. Jones, The Cities of the Eastern Roman Province (1937), pp. 28–95; O. R. Gurney, The Hittites (1952); S. Lloyd, Early Anatolia (1956); E. M. Blaiklock, Cities of the New Testament (1965); B. Levick, Roman Colonies in Southern Asia Minor (1967); W. M. Ramsay, The Historical Geography of Asia Minor (1972). A´SIA, CHURCHES OF. See under their respective names. ASIARCHS (āʹsi-arks; “rulers of Asia,” Acts 19:31). The ten superintendents of the public games and religious rites of proconsular Asia, who celebrated at their own expense the games in honor of the gods and emperor. Each city annually, about the time of the autumnal equinox, delegated one of its citizens with a view to this office; out of the entire number ten were elected by the assembly of deputies, and one of the ten, perhaps chosen by the proconsul, presided. It has been disputed whether only the president or the whole of the ten bore the title asiarch. From 19:31 it would appear that all bore the title and also that through courtesy it was extended to those who had held the office previously. A´SIEL (aʹsi-el; “created by God”). The father of Seraiah, and progenitor of one of the Simeonite leaders that expelled the Hamites from the valley of Gedor in the time of Hezekiah (1 Chron. 4:35), before 715 B.C. AS´KELON. See Ashkelon. AS´NAH (asʹna). The head of one of the families of the Temple servants (KJV, Nethinim) that returned from the Babylonian captivity with Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:50), about 536 B.C. ASNAPPER. See Ashurbanipal; Osnapper. ASP. See Animal Kingdom: Serpent. ASPALATHUS. See Vegetable Kingdom. ASPATHA (Aspathaʹ). The third son of Homan, a ruler of Persia under Ahasuerus (Xerxes, NIV; Esther 9:7). E.H.M. ASPHALT. Asphalt was extensively procured from the Dead Sea in ancient times, which was one of the major sources of this building material. The Nabataeans controlled the Dead Sea bitumen industry in the Greco-Roman period (Diodorus Siculus Historia 2. 48; 19. 98–100); F. R. Clapp, “Geology and Bitumen of the Dead Sea Area, Palestine and Transjordan,” American Association of Petroleum Geologists 20, no. 7 (1936): 901; The Biblical Archaeologist 22, no. 2 (1959): 40–48. See Mineral Kingdom: Tar. AS´RIEL (as-ri-elʹ). The head of a family that belonged to the half tribe of Manasseh (Num. 26:31; Josh. 17:2; 1 Chron. 7:14). ASS. See Animal Kingdom: Donkey. ASSEMBLY. The term used for several Heb. words, elsewhere translated “Congregation” (which see). It is also the representative of the following: (1) ˓ăṣārâ, a “coming together,” especially for a festal occasion (Lev. 23:36; Num. 29:35; Deut. 16:8). (2) miqrā˒, something “called,” a public meeting (Isa. 1:13; 4:5). (3) “general KJV King James Version NIV New International Version assembly” (Gk. panēguris, “a festal gathering of all the people” (Heb. 12:23), commonly believed to be the same as the church. (4) ekklēsia, a term in use among the Greeks from the time of Thucydides for “an assemblage of the people for the purpose of deliberating” (Acts 19:39). ASSEMBLY, MOUNT OF (Heb. har mô˓ēd). A mountain in the farthest N referred to in Isa. 14:13 in connection with the fall of Satan (Lucifer). The reference is illustrated by the common concept among the Babylonians that the gods assembled on a mountain of the N. Some suppose that Mt. Moriah as the site of the Temple is intended, but Zion was neither a northern point of the earth nor was it situated on the N of Jerusalem. “The prophet makes the king of Babylon speak after the general notion of his people, who placed the seat of the Deity on the summit of the northern mountains, which were lost in the clouds” (Delitzsch, Com.). AS´SHUR (ash-ur; a “step”). The second named of the sons of Shem (Gen. 10:22; 1 Chron. 1:17). His descendants peopled the land of Assyria. The name also appears in the KJV of Gen. 10:11, but the verse should be rendered, “From that land he went forth into Assyria” (so NASB and NIV). AS´SIR (asʹsir; “prisoner”). 1. A Levite, son of Korah (Ex. 6:24; 1 Chron. 6:22). His descendants constituted one of the Korhite families. 2. Son of Ebiasaph, great-grandson of the preceding, and father of Tahath (1 Chron. 6:23, 37). There is some suspicion, however, that the name here has crept in by repetition from the preceding. 3. In the KJV of 1 Chron. 3:17, the son of Jeconiah, a descendant of David. The NASB and NIV render “Jeconiah, the prisoner,” referring to the captivity of that prince in Babylon. ASSOCIATE. The rendering of Heb. ˓āmıt̂ , “neighbor,” in that remarkable passage “Awake, O sword, against My Shepherd, and against the man, My Associate” (Zech. 13:7). The expression “man, who is my nearest one” implies much more than unity or community of vocation, or that he had to feed the flock as Jehovah. The idea of nearest one (or associate) involves not only similarity in vocation, but community of physical or spiritual descent, according to which He whom God calls His neighbor cannot be a mere man but can only be one who participates in the divine nature or is essentially divine. This passage is quoted and applied to Himself by our Lord (Matt. 26:31). AS´SOS (asʹos). A seaport town in Mysia, on the northern shore of the Gulf of Adramyttium and about thirty miles from Troas by sea, opposite Lesbos. Paul came to it on foot from Troas to embark for Mitylene (Acts 20:13–14). Assos was excavated by an American expedition directed by J. T. Clarke and F. H. Bacon (1881–83). At the site may be seen remains of a city wall (fourth century B.C.), a temple of Athena (sixth century B.C.), an agora (third-second century B.C.), a gymnasium (second century B.C.), and a theater (third century B.C.). ASSURANCE. A term brought into theology from the Scriptures, sometimes used broadly by theologians as referring to certitude respecting the validity of Christian revelation; most commonly employed to denote the firm persuasion of one’s own salvation. The latter must of course include the former. In experience the two are Com. Commentary NASB New American Standard Bible closely connected. In both senses assurance is a product of the Holy Spirit (Col. 2:2; Heb. 6:11; 10:22). See also other passages expressing “confidence,” “boldness.” As to the assurance of personal salvation it must be emphasized that this must not be confused with the eternal security of a genuine believer. The latter is a fact due to God’s faithfulness whether it is realized by the believer or not, whereas the former is that which one believes is true respecting himself at any given moment. 1. Assurance has been held, chiefly by Calvinists, to relate not only to present but also to final salvation. This is the logical outcome of the doctrine of unconditional election. It must stand or fall with that doctrine. Others, who regard mankind as in a state of probation, limit the assurance to present acceptance with God. 2. Is assurance the common privilege of believers? This the doctrine of the Roman Catholic church answers in the negative “since no one can certainly and infallibly know that he has obtained the grace of God” (Council of Trent, sess. 6, chap. 9, “De Justificatione”). Luther and Melanchthon and many other Reformers held strongly to the affirmative and even made assurance the criterion of saving faith. Calvinistic doctrine has regarded assurance (implying not only present but also final salvation) as a special gift of grace possessed by relatively few believers, though, theoretically at least, within the privilege and duty of all. Methodist theology has given strong emphasis to assurance as the common privilege of all who truly believe in Christ, presenting not the doubting and desponding type but the confident and joyous type of religious experience as the one that is normal and scriptural. 3. As to whether assurance is of the essence of, or a necessary element in, saving faith the first Protestant Confession (Augsburg) held that it is involved therein in accordance with Luther’s declaration that “he who hath not assurance spews faith out.” Other and later utterances of the Reformed doctrine discriminated between the act of justifying and saving faith and the assurance that comes as its result. The Westminster Assembly was the first Protestant synod, however, that formally declared assurance not to be of the essence of saving faith. Wesley, although seeming at times to teach the opposite view, nevertheless clearly held and taught that assurance is not involved in justifying faith or necessarily connected with it. “The assertion, ‘Justifying faith is a sense of pardon,’” he says, “is contrary to reason; it is flatly absurd. For, how can a sense of pardon be the condition of our receiving it?” For a most discriminating presentation of his views as to the relation of assurance to faith, see his Works, 11:109–10. 4. As to the grounds of assurance, opinions have also varied, especially as to their order and relative importance. Calvinists are rather disposed to lay stress upon the external grounds of confidence instead of those that are internal; i.e., the truths and promises of Scripture are dwelt upon more largely and strongly than the fruits of the Spirit and the “witness of the Spirit.” Wesley and other Methodist theologians emphasize chiefly the “witness of the Spirit,” though they by no means undervalue the confidence that comes from the recognition of the validity of the truth and promises of God and that which comes from finding in one’s self the graces that surely proclaim the fact of personal salvation. The “witness of the Spirit” brings faith to its full development, so that, uplifted to a joyous experience of the new life, we become possessed more abundantly of the fruits of the Spirit, and the faith in God’s Word that was intellectual, rational, and dim or wavering becomes spiritual, living, and certain. Thus is realized “the full assurance of faith” and “of hope” and “understanding.” See Westminster Con., art. 18, “Of the Assurance of Grace and Salvation”; Hodge’s Systematic Theology; Pope’s Compendium of Christian Theology; Dorner’s System of Christian Doctrines, introductory chapter, “The Doctrine of Faith”; Watson’s Theological Institutes; Wesley’s “Works,” especially sermon on “The Witness of the Spirit”; Chamberlayne’s Saving Faith; L. S. Chafer, Systematic Theology, 7:21–24. BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. M. Boice, Foundations of the Christian Faith (1986), pp. 410, 431– 40, 453–54; J. Calvin, Theological Treatises, Library of Christian Classics (1954), 22:22, 104, 423f.; J. Miley, Systematic Theology (1894), 2:340–52; C. C. Ryrie, Basic Theology (1986), pp. 328–29, 381; W. H. G. Thomas, Principles of Theology (1930), pp. 381–87; R. Watson, Theological Institutes (n.d.), 2:270. ASSYR´IA (a-sirʹĭ-ya). The name of a country and the mighty empire that dominated the ancient biblical world from the ninth to the seventh century B.C. The Land. Assyria lay along the middle Tigris between the Kurdish Taurus Mountains and Jebel Hamrin and formed an area about the size of the state of Connecticut. On the W bank of the Tigris lay a single plain, while on the E bank the country was divided into three sections: the area between the mountains and the Great Zab, the sector between the Great and Lesser Zab rivers, and the region between the Lesser Zab and the mountain Jebel Hamrin. The land is fertile and undulating and has enough rainfall to support dry farming. Assyria had abundant supplies of limestone and alabaster and some marble. The major cities were Ashur on the W bank of the Tigris and Arrapkha, Erbil, Nineveh, and Calah to the E of the Tigris. Most of the population lived in country towns. In time the Assyrians were able to build a sizable empire that stretched from Egypt on the W to Persia on the E and from the Persian Gulf on the S to Anatolia on the N. The People. The people who inhabited Assyria belonged to the great Semitic race. They had come originally, so it appears, from Babylonia to settle as colonists. They were not a pure race, for there had already been an intermixture of blood with the Sumerian people, who were the original inhabitants of the land. After this immigration the Babylonians continued the process of intermixture with successive invading peoples from Elam, Arabia, and elsewhere, but the Assyrians intermarried little with neighboring peoples and held it a subject for much boasting that they were of purer blood than the Babylonians. However, during the height of the Assyrian Empire (c. 725–635), the Assyrians deported large numbers of people from conquered lands and settled them in their homeland, with the result that by the fall of Nineveh in 612 the population of Assyria was greatly diluted. In stature the Assyrians were of average modern European height and were well built. Their complexion was dark, the nose prominent, the hair, eyebrows, and beard thick and bushy. They were apparently of cheerful disposition, given to mirth and feasting, but of implacable cruelty. The pages of history are nowhere more bloody than in the records of their wars. It may be argued, however, that the Assyrians were not much more cruel than other peoples of the ancient Near East but merely kept better records. As cases in point, Egyptian monuments occasionally show mounds of body parts, demonstrating that the Egyptians mutilated their enemies; and even the Hebrews were known to have hacked away at those whom they had vanquished (e.g., 1 Sam. 18:25, 27). Language and Literature. The language of Assyria was closely akin to that of Babylonia and may properly be regarded as practically the same language. It belongs to the Semitic family of languages and is, therefore, akin to Arab., Aramaean, and Heb. Unlike these three kindred languages, the Assyrian never developed an alphabet, though it did develop a few alphabetic characters. During its entire history the Assyrian language was prevailingly ideographic and syllabic. It expressed words by means of signs that represented the idea; thus there was a single sign for sun, another for city, another for wood, another for hand. These are called ideograms and originated in considerable measure out of pictures, or pictographs, of the objects themselves. But besides these ideograms the language also possessed numerous syllabic signs such as ab, ib, ub, ba, bi, bu. By means of these, words could be spelled out. Clumsy though this appears to be, the Assyrians were able to develop it far enough to make it a wonderfully accurate and sufficiently flexible tool. The materials on which they wrote were clay and stone, the use of which had come from Babylonia. In writing upon stone the characters were chiseled deeply into the surface, in regular lines, sometimes over raised figures of gods or kings. Writings thus executed were of monumental character and could not be used for business or literary purposes. The great bulk of Assyrian literature has come down to us upon clay and not upon stone. The clay tablets, as they are called, vary greatly in size. Some are shaped like pillows, two inches in length by an inch and a quarter in width. Others are flat and sometimes reach sixteen inches in length by nine or ten inches in width. The clay is also sometimes shaped like barrels, varying in height from five to nine inches, or like cylinders or prisms, which are found sometimes sixteen inches in height. When the soft clay had been formed into one of these shapes, the characters were formed by pressing into the surface a small metallic tool with a triangularly pointed end. Each pressure formed a wedge-shaped, or cuneiform, depression, and by repeated indentations the characters were made. On these clay tablets the Assyrians wrote a varied literature. We now have in our possession vast stores of this literature, representing widely differing phases. There are historical inscriptions, narrating in annalistic form the deeds of Assyrian monarchs; public documents, royal and private letters and dispatches; lists of taxes; innumerable business documents, such as receipts and bills of sale; religious documents, such as hymns, prayers, incantations, and lists of omens; linguistic documents, such as lists of signs and of words with explanations; astronomical lists of eclipses and the like; tables of square and cube roots; and medical treatises and lists of recipes for the healing of disease. Only a small part of this vast literature has been published in facsimile or made accessible in translations in European languages. When they are made thus accessible they will give an insight into the whole life of these people such as we are able to obtain of very few peoples of antiquity. Religion. The people of Assyria derived their religious ideas from Babylonia and during all their history had constant contact with the mother country in this matter, as in others. The faith was polytheistic and never shows in any text yet found any approach to monotheism. The god who stood at the head of the Assyrian pantheon was the great god Ashur, always honored as the divine founder of the nation. After him and below him were the gods Anu, Bel, and Ea, the middle of whom, under slightly varying names and with changes of titles, was worshiped in Babylonia and even far westward among other Semitic peoples. Besides this great triad, there was another consisting of the moon god Sin, the sun-god Shamash, whose name appears in royal names so frequently, and Ishtar, the goddess of the crescent moon and the queen of the stars, though her place in this triad is often taken by Ramman, the “thunderer,” god of rain, of tempests, and of storms. These gods are invoked in phrases that seem to raise each in turn to a position of supremacy over the others. Early students of religious texts sometimes mistakenly supposed that these ascriptions of praise and honor were in reality tokens of monotheism. This is now well known to be a false inference. Monotheism was unknown, henotheism seems at times to have been reached, but polytheism was the prevailing, as it was always the popular, belief. Besides these great triads of gods there were large numbers of minor deities, as well as countless spirits of heaven, earth, and sea. See Nergal. The religious ceremonies of the Assyrians, with their sacrifices morning and evening and their offerings of wine, milk, honey, and cakes, was similar to that of Babylonia but is not yet satisfactorily known, save in outline. Archaeology. It is clear that the origin of the Assyrian commonwealth is to be found among Babylonian colonists (Gen. 10:11). Archaeology also points to this fact, and the Assyrians themselves looked back to Babylonia as the motherland. A full account of Assyrian archaeology would fill volumes. There is room here for only a few brief references. Paul Emil Botta began the archaeological history of Assyria in 1842 with significant success at Khorsabad, capital of Sargon II; Victor Place succeeded him there (1851–55). Austen Henry Layard launched English excavations in Assyria, making significant finds at biblical Calah (1846–47) and at Calah and Nineveh (1849–51). At the latter he uncovered much of the great palace of Sennacherib. Layard’s associate, Hormuzd Rassam, continued work at Nineveh (1852–54) and had the good fortune to locate Ashurbanipal’s palace and the major part of his library. M. E. L. Mallowan led a British School of Archaeology dig at Calah from 1949 to 1961, completing the excavation of Ashurnasirpal’s palace and excavating the great fort of Shalmaneser III. R. Campbell Thompson’s work at Nineveh (1927–32) was especially responsible for bringing order out of the chronology of the site and establishing the history from its destruction in 612 B.C. back almost to 5000 B.C. Edward Chiera and Henri Frankfort led a University of Chicago excavation at Khorsabad (1929–36) and reexamined the entire palace area and the city. André Parrot of the Louvre excavated at Mari in the middle Euphrates (1933 to 1939 and 1951–56), finding the great royal palace and the archive of more than twenty thousand cuneiform tablets, providing contextual information for biblical studies. And an American Schools of Oriental Research excavation at Nuzi in northeastern Iraq (1925–31) likewise recovered some twenty thousand cuneiform tablets that throw light on patriarchal customs. History. Under Shamshi-Adad I (c. 1748–1716 B.C.) Assyria began to spread as a great city-state, with strong fortifications and a splendid temple to house its national god, Ashur. As the political powers of Babylonia declined, Assyria entered its Old Kingdom period, c. 1700 to 1100 B.C. By the fourteenth century B.C. Assyria had risen to a position of power comparable to Egypt on the Nile and the Hittite Empire in Asia Minor. Among the Amarna Tablets is a letter written by Ashur-uballit (“Ashur has given life,” c. 1362–1327) to Amenhotep IV of Egypt, in which the Assyrian monarch speaks as a royal equal. With Tiglath-pileser I (c. 1114–1076) Assyria entered the period of empire, extending from c. 1100 to 633 B.C. This great conqueror was able to push Assyrian power westward to the Mediterranean Sea and northward to the region of Lake Van and the mountains of Armenia. The next two centuries, however, marked a period of retrogression for Assyria until the rise of Ashurnasirpal II (883–859) who made his land a formidable fighting machine and who swept everything before his ruthless cruelty, as his annals tell. His son Shalmaneser III (858–824) inherited his father’s gigantic fighting machine and conducted numerous campaigns against Syria- Palestine, in one of which he fought against Ahab of Israel at Qarqar on the Orontes River in 853 B.C. and in another received tribute from “Jehu, son of Omri.” Shalmaneser III called himself “the mighty king, king of the universe, the king without a rival, the autocrat, the powerful one of the four regions of the world, who shatters the might of the princes of the whole world, who has smashed all of his foes as pots” (D. D. Luckenbill, Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylonia, vol. 1, sec. 674). Despite his boasts Shalmaneser III died amid revolts that his son Shamsi-Adad V (823–811) also had to face. Adad-nirari III (810–783) kept Assyrian power aggressive, but under Shalmaneser IV (782–773), Ashur-dan III (772–755), and Ashur-nirari V (754–745) declension set in. Then the throne was seized by a great warrior and statesman, Tiglath-pileser III, who assumed the name of the illustrious conqueror Tiglath-pileser I of the eleventh century B.C. and brought back the empire to its glory, even conquering Babylon, where he was known as Pulu (cf. 2 Kings 15:19). This great warrior overran Israel, took tribute from Menahem, and transported his conquered peoples to distant sections of his empire. Soon after the death of Tiglath-pileser, Hoshea of Israel attempted to revolt against Assyria. The new emperor, Shalmaneser V (726–722), thereupon laid siege to the Israelite capital of Samaria. Before the fall of the city had been fully consummated a new leader had seized the reins of power. He was Sharrukin II or Sargon II (721–705), whose new regime was inaugurated by the fall of the city. Sargon is mentioned but once in Scripture (Isa. 20:1), but as the result of the excavation of his splendid palace at Dur Sharrukin, or Khorsabad, he is now one of the best known of Assyrian emperors. In 704 B.C. he was succeeded by his son Sennacherib, who ruled Assyria until 681 B.C. and was succeeded in turn by his son Esarhaddon (680–669), one of the greatest Assyrian conquerors. He added Egypt to the empire. Esarhaddon’s son, Ashurbanipal (668–633), also campaigned in Egypt and seems to have been a great warrior; but he is especially known for his cultural interests. The great royal library, in existence at least since 700 B.C., was especially his creation. He sent scribes all over Mesopotamia to copy texts on a variety of subjects. After Esarhaddon, the Assyrian stranglehold on the ancient world began to give way. In the intervening years till 612 B.C., when Nineveh fell and Assyrian civilization was suddenly snuffed out, there were several undistinguished rulers. The neo-Babylonian Empire arose on the ruins of Assyria, and a new historical epoch dawned. H.F.V. BIBLIOGRAPHY: S. A. Pallis, The Antiquity of Iraq (1956); D. J. Wiseman, The Vassal Treaties of Esarhaddon (1959); H. W. F. Saggs, The Greatness That Was Babylon (1962); A. L. Oppenheim, Ancient Mesopotamia (1964); D. J. Wiseman, ed., Peoples of Old Testament Times (1973), pp. 156–78; H. W. F. Saggs, The Might That Was Assyria (1984). ASTARTE. The Gk. name for Ashtoreth. See Gods, False: Asherah; Ashtoreth. AS´TAROTH. See Gods, False: Asherah; Ashtoreth. ASTROLOGER. See articles Astrology; Magic: Various Forms. ASTROLOGY. The ancient art of divination by consulting the planets and stars, which until Kepler’s time was inextricably bound up with astronomy. The practice consists in consulting the heavenly bodies, particularly the signs of the zodiac in relation to observed human events, and making deductions and predictions on this basis. This largely unscientific practice is nevertheless an important divinatory practice still in vogue in modern Western civilization—as is evidenced by horoscopes printed regularly in metropolitan newspapers, the existence of popular astrology magazines having large circulation, and astrological services available for those who refuse to make important decisions without first consulting the stars (see Astrologers, Divination, Diviners under Magic: Various Forms). M.F.U. BIBLIOGRAPHY: R. C. Thompson, Reports of the Magicians and Astrologers of Nineveh and Babylon (1897); F. Cumont, Astrology and Religion Among the Greeks and Romans (1912); L. MacNeice, Astrology (1964); R. Gleadow, The Origin of the Zodiac (1969). ASTRONOMY (Gk. astronomia, “laws of the stars”). This science probably owes its origin to the Chaldeans, there being evidence that they had conducted astronomical observations from remote antiquity. Callisthenes sent to his uncle, Aristotle, a number of these observations, of which the oldest must have dated back to the middle of 2300 B.C. “The Chaldean priests had been accustomed from an early date to record on their clay tablets the aspect of the heavens and the changes which took place in them night after night, the appearance of the constellations, their comparative brilliance, the precise moments of their rising and setting and culmination, together with the more or less rapid movements of the planets, and their motions toward or from one another.” They discovered the revolution and eclipses of the moon and frequently predicted with success eclipses of the sun (Maspero, Dawn of Civilization, p. 775). The astronomy of China and India dates back to an early period, for we read of two Chinese astronomers, Ho and Hi, being put to death for failing to announce a solar eclipse that took place in 2169 B.C. The Hebrews do not appear to have devoted much attention to astronomy, perhaps because astrology, highly esteemed among the neighboring nations (Isa. 47:9, 12–13; Jer. 27:9; Dan. 2), was interdicted by the law (Deut. 18:10–11). And yet we find as early as the book of Job that the constellations were distinguished and designated by peculiar and appropriate names (Job 9:9; 38:31; also Isa. 13:10; Amos 5:8). BIBLIOGRAPHY: R. deVaux, Ancient Israel: Its Life and Institutions (1961), pp. 178–94; A. Duveen and L. Motz, Essentials of Astronomy (1966). ASYLUM (Heb. miqlāṭ). A place of safety where even a criminal might be free from violence from the avenger. Ancient. From Ex. 21:14; 1 Kings 1:50, we see that the Hebrews, in common with many other nations, held that the altar, as God’s abode, afforded protection to those whose lives were in danger. By the law, however, the place of expiation for sins of weakness (Lev. 4:2; 5:15–18; Num. 15:27–31) was prevented from being abused by being made a place of refuge for criminals deserving of death. The Mosaic law also provided cities of refuge (which see). Among the Greeks and Romans, the right of asylum pertained to altars, temples, and all holy shrines. These sanctuaries were exceptionally numerous in Asia. During the time of the Roman Empire the statues of the emperors were used as refuges against momentary acts of violence. Armies in the field used the eagles of the legions for the same purpose. Christian. In the Christian church the right of asylum was retained and extended from the altar to all ecclesiastical buildings. By act of Theodosius II (A.D. 431), not only the church was to be considered sacred but also the atrium, the garden, bath, and cells. Many abuses crept in, until the custom has either become extinct or greatly reformed. ASYN´CRITUS (a-singʹkri-tus; “incomparable”). The name of a Christian at Rome to whom Paul sends salutation (Rom. 16:14), A.D. 60. A´TAD (Heb. ˒āṭād, “a thorn”). It is uncertain whether Atad is the name of a person or a descriptive appellation given to a “thorny” locality. At the threshing floor of Atad, the sons of Jacob and the Egyptians who accompanied them “lamented there with a very great and sorrowful lamentation” for Jacob seven days (Gen. 50:10–11), c. 1871 B.C. AT´ARAH (Heb. ˓ăṭārâ, a “crown”). The second wife of Jerahmeel of the tribe of Judah, and mother of Onam (1 Chron. 2:26). ATAR´GATIS (a-tarʹga-tis). A Syrian divinity. See Gods, False. M.F.U. AT´AROTH (Heb. ˓ăṭārôt, “crowns”). 1. A city near Gilead, E of Jordan, in a fertile grazing district (Num. 32:3). Rebuilt by the Gadites (v. 34). 2. A city on the border of Ephraim and Benjamin, called Ataroth-addar (Josh. 18:13). 3. “Ataroth of the house of Joab,” in the tribe of Judah, a city founded by the descendants of Salma (1 Chron. 2:54, KJV; NASB and NIV render “Atroth-beth- joab”). ATER (aʹter). 1. The name of a man ninety of whose descendants returned from exile in Babylon (Ezra 2:16; Neh. 7:21; 10:17). 2. The name of a man whose sons were Levitical gatekeepers in the Temple of Zerubbabel following the Exile (Ezra 2:42; Neh. 7:45). E.H.M. A´THACH (aʹthak). A city in Judah to which David sent a present of the spoils recovered from the Amalekites who had sacked Ziklag (1 Sam. 30:30). Its site is Khirbet Attir near Enrimmon. ATHA´IAH (ath-aʹya; perhaps the same as Asaiah). A son of Uzziah, of the tribe of Judah, who dwelt in Jerusalem after the return from Babylon (Neh. 11:4), 445 B.C. ATHALI´AH (a-tha-līʹah). 1. The daughter of Ahab, king of Israel, doubtless by his wife Jezebel. She is called (2 Chron. 22:2) the granddaughter of Omri, who was father of Ahab. She was married to Jehoram, king of Judah, who “walked in the way of the kings of Israel, just as the house of Ahab did,” no doubt owing to her influence (2 Chron. 21:6). After the death of Jehoram, Ahaziah came to the throne, and he also walked in the way of Ahab’s house, following the wicked counsel of his mother (22:2–3). Ahaziah reigned one year and was slain by Jehu, whereupon Athaliah resolved to seat herself upon the throne of David. She caused all the male members of the royal family to be put to death, only Joash, the son of Ahaziah, escaping (2 Kings 11:1–2), 841 B.C. Athaliah usurped the throne for six years, 841–835 B.C. Joash, in the meantime, had been concealed in the Temple by his aunt, Jehosheba the wife of Jehoiada the high priest. In the seventh year, Jehoiada resolved to produce the young prince, and, arrangements having been made for defense in case of necessity, Joash was declared king. Athaliah, who was probably worshiping in the house of Baal, was aroused by the shouts of the people and went to the Temple, where her cry of “treason” only secured her own arrest. She was taken beyond the sacred precincts of the Temple and put to death. The only other recorded victim of this revolution was Mattan, the priest of Baal (11:16–18; 2 Chron. 23:14–17). 2. One of the sons of Jeroham, and head of the tribe of Benjamin, who dwelt at Jerusalem (1 Chron. 8:26). 3. The father of Jeshaiah, who was one of the “sons” of Elam that returned with seventy dependents from Babylon under Ezra (Ezra 8:7), about 457 B.C. BIBLIOGRAPHY: T. Kirk and G. Rawlinson, Studies in the Books of Kings, 2 vols. in 1 (1983), 2:101ff. ATHARIM (aʹtha-rim). A place whose precise location is unknown, but somewhere between Mt. Hor and Arad (Num. 21:1). E.H.M. ATHEISM (Gk. atheos, “without God”). The denial of the existence of God. The term has always been applied according to the popular conception of God. Thus the Greeks considered a man atheos, “atheist,” when he denied the existence of the gods recognized by the state. The pagans called Christians atheists because they would not acknowledge the heathen gods and worship them. In the theological controversies of the early church the opposite parties not infrequently called each other atheists. The question may be fairly asked, Is true atheism or antitheism possible to the human mind? And the answer must be finally given that it is not. If we appeal to Scripture, and such an appeal should be allowed, we find that through the whole book there is no single allusion to men from whose mind the thought of God is erased. The Bible demonstrates everything about the Deity but His existence. It never descends to argue with an atheist. If it recognizes a man who is a disbeliever in God, it counts him a “fool” (Ps. 53:1). “In Eph. 2:12 the expression, atheoi en tō kosmō, ‘without God in the world,’ the word atheoi, ‘godless,’ may be taken either with the active, neuter, or passive reference, i.e., either denying, ignorant of, or forsaken by God. The last meaning seems best to suit the passive tenor of the passage and to enhance the dreariness and gloom of the picture” (Ellicott, Com., ad loc.). Atheism proper has mostly sprung from moral causes, and denotes a system of thought that the healthiest instinct of mankind has always abhorred. Even among the heathen the denial of the existence of the gods was proscribed and punished. ATH´ENS (athʹenz). A city named after the patron goddess Athena, and the capital of the important Greek state of Attica, which became the cultural center of the ancient pre-Christian world. It grew up around the 512-foot-high Acropolis and was connected with its seaport Piraeus by long walls in the days of its glory. Tradition carries the fortunes of the city back beyond the time of the Trojan War in the thirteenth century B.C. After a great victory over the Persians at Marathon in 490 B.C. and at Salamis in 480 B.C., the Athenians were able to establish a small empire, with Athens as its capital and a substantial fleet as its protector. In the age of Pericles, an enlightened leader, art, literature, drama, and architecture flourished. But before the death of this great leader the Peloponnesian War broke out (431 B.C.), eventuating in the surrender of Athens to Sparta in 404 B.C. Thereafter the city passed through many vicissitudes politically, but the culture and intellectual preeminence of its inhabitants gave them prestige despite varying political fortunes. Four great systems of philosophy flourished there—Platonic, Peripatetic, Epicurean, and Stoic—attracting students from all over the ancient world. The city was captured by the Romans in 146 B.C. and was under Roman rule when Paul came as a visitor (Acts 17:15). The remark of the sacred historian concerning the inquisitive nature of the Athenians (17:21) is attested by the voice of antiquity. For instance, Demosthenes rebuked his countrymen for their love of constantly going about in the marketplace, asking one another, “What news?” The apostle Paul’s remark upon the “religious” character of the Athenians (17:22) is likewise confirmed by the ancient writers. Thus Pausanias and Philostratus, second-century A.D. writers, record altars dedicated to “the unknown god” as existing along the four-mile road from the port Piraeus to the city and elsewhere in the city itself (cf. v. 23). Pausanias, moreover, says the Athenians surpassed all other states in the attention that they paid to the worship of gods. Hence the city was crowded in every direction with temples, altars, and other sacred buildings. Among pagan temples still standing in the city are the Hephaistion, overlooking the marketplace (agora; which see), the temple of Zeus, and overtopping all, the architectural splendors of the Acropolis (which see)—the temple of the Wingless Victory, the Erechtheum, and the superb Parthenon. The American School of Classical Studies has excavated the agora and outlined the streets and buildings with which Pericles, Phidias, Plato, and Paul were familiar. Mars’ Hill or the Areopagus was at the W approach to the Acropolis. Here Paul preached the gospel of redemption through Christ to the devotees of three current philosophies—Platonism, Stoicism, and Epicureanism. The apostle argued against polytheism and offered salvation in the name of the one God manifested in Christ. Dionysius, an Areopagite, and a few others were converted (17:34), but Paul did not succeed in establishing a church at Athens, as at Corinth, Thessalonica, Philippi, Colossae, and Ephesus. It was in Athens that Paul manifested evidence of his Hellenistic culture by familiarly quoting a verse taken from an invocation to Zeus, written by a minor Cilician poet, Aratus (312–245 B.C.). Doubtless while in the city the great missionary saw the music hall or Odeion of Pericles (cf. 1 Cor. 13:1) and the great Tower and Waterclock of Andronicus (cf. 5:16). Likewise he may have visited the keramikos, or pottery-making section of the city, which was famous (cf. Rom. 9:21). Archaeological work in Athens has been extensive. The American School of Classical Studies excavated the agora from 1931 to 1940, from 1946 to 1960, and in the late 1960s. A few hundred feet E of the Greek agora lay the Roman market, built by Julius and Augustus Caesar. Here the Greek Archaeological Society worked intermittently from 1890 until 1931. Greek archaeologists also dug the whole Acropolis area down to bedrock in 1884–91, and the American School of Classical Studies excavated the N slope of the Acropolis in 1931–39. The Greek Archaeological Society worked at the Temple of Zeus in 1886–1901, and the German School conducted a new excavation there in 1922–23. H.F.V. BIBLIOGRAPHY: I. T. Hill, Ancient City of Athens (1953); O. Broneer, Biblical Archaeologist 21, no. 1 (1958): 1–28; R. E. Wycherley, The Stones of Athens (1978). ATHLAI (athʹlī). A son of Bebai who put away his Gentile wife after the return from Babylon (Ezra 10:28). E.H.M. ATONEMENT (Heb. kaphar, to “cover, cancel”; Gk. katallagē, “exchange, reconciliation”). Definition. In accordance with the force of these terms of Scripture the atonement is the covering over of sin, the reconcilation between God and man, accomplished by the Lord Jesus Christ. It is that special result of Christ’s sacrificial sufferings and death by virtue of which all who exercise proper penitence and faith receive forgiveness of their sins and obtain peace. Scripture Doctrine—Terms and Methods. In addition to the terms named above there are other words used in the Scriptures that express the idea of atonement or throw special light upon its meaning. Of these may be here cited (1) hilaskomai, translated (Heb. 2:17; Rom. 3:25; 1 John 2:2; 4:10) to “make propitiation”; (2) lutron, translated “ransom,” “redemption” (Matt. 20:28; Mark 10:45; Luke 2:38; Heb. 9:12). By such words and in such passages as these the doctrine is taught that Christ died to effect reconciliation between God and man, to propitiate the divine favor on behalf of sinful men, and to redeem or ransom men from the penalties and the dominion of their sins. There are also forms of expression in which the idea of substitution, that Christ stands as our substitute in the economy of divine grace, appear with marked emphasis (Rom. 5:6–8; 1 Cor. 15:3; 2 Cor. 5:21; Gal. 3:13; Titus 2:14; 1 Pet. 2:24; 3:18). The divinely appointed sacrifices of the OT dispensation are also full of significance, embracing as they did special offerings or sacrifices for sin. The uniform teaching of the NT is that these were typical of the sacrifice that Christ made of Himself for the sins of the world. Summary. Although the Scriptures do not give a philosophical theory or explanation of the atonement, nor perhaps furnish us with data altogether sufficient for such a theory, they still give much information. (1) The Scriptures reveal the atonement to us as an accomplished and completed fact (Heb. 9:13–26). (2) They represent this fact as necessary to human salvation (Luke 24:41–47; Acts 4:12). (3) Although the whole earthly life of Christ contained an atoning and even sacrificial element, the virtue of the atonement is to be found chiefly in His sacrificial death, thus His death was indispensable (John 3:14–15). (4) In the atoning death of Christ was exhibited not only the holy wrath of God against sin but quite as much the love of God toward sinful men (Rom. 3:25–26; 5:6–8; John 3:16). (5) The gracious divine purpose realized in the atonement was wrought into the creation of man. Redemption was in the thought and plan of the Creator so that man, falling, fell into the arms of divine mercy. The Lamb of God was in the fore-knowledge of God slain from the foundation of the world (Rev. 13:8; 1 Pet. 1:19–20). (6) The atonement is not limited but universal in the extent of its gracious provisions (Heb. 2:9; 1 Tim. 2:5–6; 4:10; Rom. 5:18; 2 Cor. 5:14–15). (7) The universality of the atonement does not lead to universal salvation. The greater offer of salvation may be, and often is, rejected, and when the rejection is final the atonement avails nothing for the sinner (Mark 16:16; John 3:36; Heb. 10:26–29). (8) The atonement is the actual objective ground of forgiveness of sins and acceptance with God for all penitent believers (John 3:16; Acts 2:38; Eph. 1:7; Col. 1:14). Theological Treatment. This branch of the subject calls for two classes of statements: (1) as to the history of the doctrine; (2) as to the theological views most generally held at the present time. History. During the early centuries of the history of the church, and particularly prior to the Nicene Council (A.D. 325), Christian theology simply reflected, in the main, the teaching of the NT upon this subject. The attention of theologians was concentrated upon the Person of Christ. There was but little speculation as to the method of the atonement or the exact ground of its necessity. That the sacrifice of Christ was vicarious, that He suffered in the stead of men, was, however, an idea constantly held; that these sufferings were necessary to meet the requirement of divine righteousness was sometimes declared with emphasis. A fanciful notion, it is true, began to appear at that early period, a notion that afterward obtained some measure of prominence. Christ was regarded as a ransom paid to the devil to redeem men who by their sin had come under the dominion of the devil. This was taught by Origen (A.D. 230) and more emphatically by Gregory of Nyssa (A.D. 370). This view has also, but incorrectly, been attributed to Irenaeus (A.D. 180). Captious critics and infidels have often cited this incident in the history of theology in order to bring all theology into ridicule and contempt. But it is to be remembered that this phase of doctrine was always met with the strongest denial and opposition, as by Athanasius (A.D. 370) and Gregory of Nazianzum (A.D. 390). It was never the accepted doctrine of the Christian church. Anselm. Prominent in the history of the doctrine of the atonement must stand the name of Anselm, A.D. 1100. In his book Cur Deus Homo he brings out most clearly and emphatically the idea of the atonement as satisfaction to divine majesty. He viewed the necessity of atonement as entirely in the justice of God. He made this term “satisfaction,” it has been said, “a watchword for all future time.” It is certain that what is known as the satisfaction theory of the atonement will ever stand associated with his name, although his satisfaction theory is not quite the same as that of the Reformers. Abelard. Chief among the opponents of Anselm was Abelard, A.D. 1141. He referred the atonement wholly to the love of God and taught that there could be nothing in the divine essence that required satisfaction for sin. The death of Christ upon the cross was solely an exhibition of divine love. The effect is moral only. It is intended to subdue the hearts of sinful men, to lead them to repentance and devotion to Christ. Thus Abelard stands as the father of what is known as the moral influence theory. Grotius. An epoch in the history of the doctrine was reached when Grotius, A.D. 1617, wrote his Defensio fidei Cathol. de Satisfactione. He wrote in refutation of the teaching of Socinus, who denied the vicarious character of Christ’s death and the need of any reconciliation of God with man. Grotius held fast to the vicariousness of Christ’s sufferings and used the term satisfaction. But in his view it was a satisfaction to the requirements of moral government and not to the justice that inheres in God Himself. The necessity of the atonement, accordingly, he found not in the nature of God but in the nature of the divine government. The purpose of the atonement is to make it possible to exercise mercy toward fallen and sinful men, and at the same time maintain the dignity of the law, the honor of the Lawgiver, and protect the moral interests of the universe. Grotius thus founded what is known as the rectoral or governmental theory. The doctrines of Anselm, Abelard, and Grotius represent the principal tendencies of thought and discussion throughout the whole history of the doctrine. Under the treatment of various theologians these doctrines received modification more or less important, but in their leading principles these three forms of teaching have been the most prominent in the theology of the Christian church. Modern Views. Aside from the opinion of rationalists and semirationalists, who wholly or in part reject the authority of Scripture and accordingly attach but slight if any importance to Scripture teaching concerning the atonement, the three theories prominent in the past are still the prominent theories of the present. With various shadings and modifications and attempts at interblending, they embody in the main the thinking of modern times upon this subject. It should be said, however, that the moral influence theory has never obtained formal or general acceptance in any evangelical communion. It has justly been regarded as falling far short of adequately representing the teaching of Scripture. It contains some measure of truth but leaves out the truth most essential: that of real, objective atonement. It reduces the atonement to an object lesson. The thought of the Christian church of today is divided in its adherence between the satisfaction and governmental theories, these theories appearing in various forms. But no one of these views is free from grave logical objections if held too rigidly and exclusively. Thus the satisfaction theory, if held in the sense that Christ actually bore the punishment for the sins of men, or that He literally, according to the figure of Anselm, paid the debt of human transgressors after the manner of a commercial transaction, must lead logically to one or the other of two extremes—either that of a limited atonement or that of universalism. It tends also to antinomianism, to say nothing of other objections often raised. The governmental theory, held alone and too boldly, loses sight of the fact that the divine government must be a reflection of the divine nature and that what is required by that government must be required also by some quality inherent in God. Further, this theory, if not guarded strongly, and by bringing in, in some form, the idea of satisfaction to divine justice, reduces the death of Christ to a great moral spectacle. It becomes, in fact, another moral influence theory. A strong tendency, accordingly, of the present day is to seek some way of mediating between or of uniting the elements of truth found in these various theories. It is certain that the Scriptures do represent the death of Christ as a most affecting manifestation of the love of God. It is certain also that His death is represented as sacrificial and required by the justice of God. And it is equally true that it is often viewed in its relations to divine law and the moral economy that God has established. And if the earnest attempts of devout thinkers do not succeed wholly in penetrating the mystery of the cross and in bringing the exact meaning of Christ’s death within the compass of their definitions, still it is held as beyond all question that the atonement wrought by Christ is a fundamental fact in human salvation, a real “covering” for sin, the divinely appointed measure for “reconciliation” between God and man. Extent of Atonement. The extent of atonement is much less discussed than formerly. Many Calvinists have departed from the view they once strenuously held, that the atonement was for the elect only. BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. Aulen, Christus Victor (1935); L. S. Chafer, Systematic Theology (1950), 3:135–64; 7:25–27; L. L. Morris, The Apostolic Preaching of the Cross (1955); K. Barth, Church Dogmatics (1961), 4:1–3; H. P. Liddon, Divinity of Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ (1978), pp. 480ff.; J. Denney, The Death of Christ (1982). ATONEMENT, DAY OF. See Festivals. AT´ROTH (Num. 32:35). See Atroph-shophan. ATROTH BETH JOAB. See Ataroth. A´TROPH-SHO´PHAN (aʹtrōth-shōʹfan). A town in Gad, listed between Aroer and Jazer (Num. 32:35). AT´TAI (aʹtā-ī). 1. The son of a daughter of Sheshan, of the tribe of Judah, by his Egyptian servant, Jarha. He was the father of Nathan (1 Chron. 2:35–36). 2. One of David’s mighty men, of the tribe of Gad, who joined David at Ziklag, where he had fled from Saul (1 Chron. 12:11). 3. The second of the four sons of King Rehoboam, by his second wife, Maacah, the daughter of Absalom (2 Chron. 11:20). ATTALI´A (at-a-lîʹa). A seaport on the coast of Pamphylia, at the mouth of the river Cattarrhactes. The town was named after its founder, Attalus Philadelphus, king of Pergamos, 159–138 B.C. Paul and Barnabas stopped there on the way to Antioch (Acts 14:25). Its name in the twelfth century appears to have been Satalia; it still exists, under the name of Adalia. ATTIRE. See Dress. ATTITUDE. See Prayer; Salutation. AUGUSTUS (aw-gusʹtus). The imperial title assumed by Octavius, successor of Julius Caesar. He was born 63 B.C. and was principally educated by his great-uncle, Julius Caesar, who made him his heir. After the death of Caesar, he acquired such influence that Antony and Lepidus took him into their triumvirate. Afterward he shared the empire with Antony and attained supreme power after the battle of Actium, 31 B.C., being saluted imperator by the Senate, who conferred on him the title Augustus in 27 B.C. He forgave Herod, who had espoused the cause of Antony, and even increased his power. After the death of Herod, 4 B.C., his dominions were divided among his sons by Augustus, almost in exact accordance with his will. Augustus was emperor at the birth and during half the lifetime of our Lord, and his name occurs (Luke 2:1) in the NT as the emperor who ordered the enrollment in consequence of which Joseph and Mary went to Bethlehem, the place where the Messiah was to be born. Augustus brought order and prosperity to the Roman Empire after the long period of civil war, and for his successes he was worshiped in many places. With him began the emperor cult, and Herod the Great built temples to the divine Augustus at Caesarea and Samaria; both of these have been excavated. Augustus was worshiped in Ephesus too, and a great lintel with an inscription to the divine Augustus has been excavated there and reerected over the gate to the Greek agora. Paul would have seen it and passed under it often as he ministered in the city for most of three years on his third missionary journey. See also Acts 25:21, 25; 27:1. H.F.V. BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Buchan, Augustus (1937); M. Grant, The Twelve Caesars (1975). AUNT (Heb. dôdâ, “loving”). A father’s sister (Ex. 6:20); also an uncle’s wife (Lev. 18:14; 20:20). AUTHORITY. The power or right to perform certain acts without impediment. It is based upon some form of law, whether divine, civil, or moral. Supreme authority is God’s alone (Rom. 13:1), hence all human authority is derived. There is no specific Heb. word for authority, but r bôt (Prov. 29:2) and tōqep (Esther 9:29) are rendered in this way by some versions. The Gk. word exousia furnishes the NT basis of authority, along with such words as dunamis (“power”), epitage (“command”), dunastes (Acts 8:27), and authenteo (1 Tim. 2:12). God’s authority is unconditional and absolute (Ps. 29:10; Isa. 40), making Him supreme over nature and human history alike. From this intrinsic authority comes that of governments (Rom. 13:1–7), employers (Eph. 6:5–9), parents (Eph. 6:1–4), church elders (Heb. 13:7, 17), and others in positions of power. Similarly the angels function under divine authority (Luke 1:19–20), and evil spirits are also subject to God’s power (Eph. 6:11–12). Because Jesus was God, His authority was not merely derived from the Father but was also intrinsic. His power knew no limitations (Matt. 28:18) and was the ground of His commissions to His disciples (Mark 6:7; John 20:22). A preeminent source of derived authority is the Scriptures, inspired by God Himself (2 Tim. 3:16; 2 Pet. 1:20– 21) and therefore by His supreme authority. For this reason believers are required to obey them. The general purpose of authority is to promote order in human society, and its highest use is an altruistic one, as Christ stated (Luke 22:26–27). Christians are given the authority to become children of God (John 1:12) and have the right to pursue certain forms of behavior (1 Cor. 6:12). Ultimately all derived authority will revert to God, who bestowed it (1 Cor. 15:24–28). R.K.H. A´VA. See Avva; Ivvah. AVE MARIA (aʹvā ma-rēʹa; “Hail Mary”). 1. The words of the angel Gabriel to the virgin Mary, when announcing the incarnation (Luke 1:28), as rendered by the Vulg. R.K.H. R. K. Harrison 2. The familiar prayer, or form of devotion, in the Roman Catholic church, called also the “Angelical Salutation.” It consists of three parts: (1) the salutation of Gabriel, Ave (Maria) gratia plena Dominus tecum; benedicta tu in mulieribus; (2) the words of Elizabeth to Mary, et benedictus fructus ventris tui; (3) an addition made by the church, Sancta Maria, Mater Dei, ora pro nobis peccatoribus nunc et in hora mortis nostrae. The whole Ave Maria, as it now stands, is ordered in the breviary of Pius V (1568) to be used daily before each canonical hour and after compline; i.e., the last of the seven canonical hours (Cath. Dict., s. v.). A´VEN (aʹven; “nothingness, vanity,” an “idol”). 1. The popular name of Heliopolis, in Lower Egypt, probably selected intentionally in the sense of an idol city (Ezek. 30:17, marg.) because On-Heliopolis was from time immemorial one of the principal seats of the Egyptian worship of the sun and possessed a celebrated temple of the sun and a numerous and learned priesthood. 2. The “high places of Aven” are the buildings connected with the image worship at Bethel, which were to be utterly ruined (Hos. 10:8). 3. Mentioned as “the valley of Aven” (Amos 1:5) and thought by some to be the same as the plain of Baalbek (which see), an early center of Baal worship. Others, however, connect the place with Awaniyek near Jerud on the road to Palmyra. AVENGE, AVENGER. These words are often used in the sense of to avenge a wrong, or the one who brings punishment (see Blood, Avenger of). This is the meaning in Num. 35:19–27; 2 Sam. 14:11; Ps. 79:10; Jer. 15:15. The civil magistrate is called by Paul “a minister of God, an avenger who brings wrath upon the one who practices evil” (Rom. 13:4); while in 2 Cor. 7:11 the apostle recognizes as a prominent virtue of the church in Corinth its zeal in avenging wrong, i.e., disciplinary zeal against the incestuous person. He writes the church (2 Cor. 10:6) that he is “ready to punish all disobedience, when your obedience is complete.” How he intends to execute this vengeance he does not tell; he might do it by excommunication, by giving the intruders over to the power of Satan (1 Cor. 5:5), or by the exercise of his miraculous apostolic power. Revenge, or vengeance, is attributed to God in two remarkable passages (Deut. 32:41–43; Nah. 1:2), in which Jehovah is represented as bringing certain punishment upon the wicked. The ordinary understanding of revenge is quite different from the above, and implies a vindictive feeling against the offender. It differs from resentment, which rises up in the mind immediately upon being injured; for revenge may wait years after the offense is committed. In this vindictive sense we have scriptural instances (Jer. 20:10; Ezek. 25:15). This sort of revenge is forbidden by the command to love our enemies and to return good for evil. AVENGER OF BLOOD. See Blood, Avenger of. A´VIM. See Avvim. A´VITH (aʹvith). A city of the Edomites, capital of King Hadad before there were kings in Israel (Gen. 36:35; 1 Chron. 1:46). AV´VA (avʹva, 2 Kings 17:24; “Ava,” KJV), or Ivʹvah (Ivʹvah, 2 Kings 18:34; 19:13; “Ivah,” KJV). Identified with Tell Kafr ‘Ayah on the Orontes SW of Homs. AV´VIM (avʹvim), or Av´vites. 1. A people among the early inhabitants of Palestine, whom we meet in the SW corner of the seacoast where they may have made their way northward from the desert. The only notice of them that has come down to us is contained in a remarkable fragment of primeval history preserved in Deut. 2:23. Here we see them dwelling in the villages in the S part of the Shefelah, or great western lowland, “as far as Gaza.” In these rich possessions they were attacked by the invading Philistines, “the Caphtorim which came forth from Caphtor,” and who “destroyed them and lived in their place” and then appear to have pushed them farther N. Possibly a trace of their existence is to be found in the town “Avvim” that occurs among the cities of Benjamin (Josh. 18:23). It is a curious fact that both the LXX and Jerome identified the Avvim with the Hivites, and also that the town of ha-Avvim was in the actual district of the Hivites (9:7, 17; cf. 18:22–27). 2. The people of Avva, among the colonists who were sent by the king of Assyria to reinhabit the depopulated cities of Israel (2 Kings 17:31). They were idolaters, worshiping gods called Nibhaz and Tartak. See Avva. AVVITES. See Avvim. AWL (Heb. marṣēa˓, from a verb signifying “to bore”). A boring instrument, probably of the simplest kind, and similar to those in familiar use at the present time. It occurs twice in the Scriptures (Ex. 21:6; Deut. 15:17). AXE, AX. The rendering of several original words: 1. Heb. garzen (“cut”). This appears to have consisted of a head of iron (Isa. 10:34), fastened with thongs or otherwise, upon a handle of wood, and so liable to slip off (Deut. 19:5; 2 Kings 6:5). It was used for felling trees (Deut. 20:19) and for shaping timber, perhaps like the modern adze. 2. Heb. ḥereb, usually rendered “sword,” is used of other cutting instruments; once rendered “axes” (Ezek. 26:9); probably a pickaxe as it says “with his axes he will break down your towers.” 3. Heb. kashshı ̂l occurs only in Ps. 74:6 and appears to have been a later word denoting a “large axe” (rendered “hammer,” NASB, see marg.). 4. Heb. magzērâ, “iron cutting tools” (K. & D., Com., on 2 Sam. 12:31). 5. Heb. ma˓ăṣād, “hewing” instrument, rendered “cutting tool” (Isa. 44:12; Jer. 10:3). Some axes were shaped like chisels fastened to a handle. This may have been the instrument named in Jeremiah; but as Isaiah (44:12) refers to the work of a blacksmith, this instrument was probably a chisel for cutting iron on the anvil. 6. Heb. qardōm is the most common name for axe or hatchet. This is the tool referred to in Judg. 9:48; 1 Sam. 13:20–21; Ps. 74:5; Jer. 46:22, and was used extensively for felling trees. 7. The Gk. word for axe is axine (Matt. 3:10; Luke 3:9). Figurative. The axe is used in Scripture as a symbol of divine judgment. John the Baptist, referring probably to the excision of the Jewish people, says, “And the axe is already laid at the root of the trees” (Matt. 3:10). This denotes that it had already been stuck into the tree prior to felling it. The axe was also used as a symbol of human instrument, e.g., “Is the axe to boast itself over the one who chops with it?” (Isa. 10:15), i.e., Shall the king of Assyria boast himself against God? AXE HEAD (Heb. barzel). In 2 Kings 6:5 the term is literally “iron,” but as an axe is certainly intended, the passage shows that the axe heads among the Hebrews were of LXX Septuagint K. & Johann Karl Friedrich Keil and Franz Julius Delitzcsh, Old Testament Commentaries (1875) iron. Those found in Egypt are of bronze, such as was anciently used, but they have made them also of iron, the latter having been consumed through corrosion. The Iron Age began in 1200 B.C. AXLE. The term occurs only in 1 Kings 7:32–33, as the translation of yād, “hand,” the whole phrase being the “hands of the wheels.” A´YIN (aʹyin; in the KJV Aʹin, Heb. ˓ayin, an “eye”, a “spring”). 1. The sixteenth letter of the Heb. alphabet (‫)ע‬. It heads the sixteenth section of Ps. 119, in which passage (vv. 121–28) each verse begins with this letter in the original. 2. A place near Riblah in northern Palestine (Num. 34:11). 3. A place near Rimmon (Josh. 15:32). AYYAH (ayʹyah). A city with its suburbs that lay within the territory of the tribe of Ephraim (1 Chron. 7:28). E.H.M. A´ZAL. See A´zel. AZALI´AH (az-a-līʹa; “reserved by Jehovah”). The son of Meshullam and father of Shaphan the scribe. The latter was sent with others by Josiah to repair the Temple (2 Kings 22:3; 2 Chron. 34:8), about 624 B.C. AZANI´AH (az-a-nīʹa; “whom Jehovah hears”). The father of Jeshua, who was one of the Levites that subscribed the sacred covenant after the Exile (Neh. 10:9), 445 B.C. AZA´REL (a-zaʹrel; “God has helped”; KJV Azareel). 1. One of the Korhites who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chron. 12:6), before 1000 B.C. 2. The head of the eleventh division of the musicians of the Temple (1 Chron. 25:18), about 1000 B.C. Called Uzziel in v. 4. 3. The son of Jeroham, and prince of the tribe of Dan when David numbered the people (1 Chron. 27:22). 4. An Israelite, descendant of Bani, who renounced his Gentile wife after the return from Babylon (Ezra 10:41). 5. The son of Ahzai and father of Amashsai, who was one of the chiefs of 128 mighty men who served at the Temple under the supervision of Zabdiel on the restoration from Babylon (Neh. 11:13–14). He is probably the same as one of the first company of priests who were appointed with Ezra to make the circuit of the newly completed walls with trumpets in their hands (Neh. 12:36). AZARI´AH (az-a-rīʹa; “helped by Jehovah”). A common name in Heb., and especially in the families of the priests of the line of Eleazar, whose name has precisely the same meaning as Azariah. It is nearly identical and is often confused with Ezra, as well as with Zeraiah and Seraiah. 1. A son or descendant of Zadok, the high priest in the time of David, and one of Solomon’s princes (1 Kings 4:2), 960 B.C. He is probably the same as no. 6 below. 2. A son of Nathan, and captain of King Solomon’s guards or “deputies” (1 Kings 4:5). 3. Son and successor of Amaziah, king of Judah (2 Kings 14:21; 15:1–7; 1 Chron. 3:12), more frequently called Uzziah (which see). 4. Son of Ethan and great-grandson of Judah (1 Chron. 2:8). 5. The son of Jehu and father of Helez, of the tribe of Judah (1 Chron. 2:38–39). 6. A high priest, son of Ahimaaz and grandson of Zadok (1 Chron. 6:9), whom he seems to have immediately succeeded (1 Kings 4:2). He is probably the same as no. 1 above. 7. The son of Johanan and father of Amariah, a high priest (1 Chron. 6:10–11). He was probably high priest in the reigns of Abijah and Asa, as his son Amariah was in the days of Jehoshaphat. 8. The son of Hilkiah and father of Seraiah. The last high priest before the captivity (1 Chron. 6:13–14; 9:11; Ezra 7:1). 9. A Levite, son of Zephaniah and father of Joel (1 Chron. 6:36). In v. 24 he is called Uzziah. It appears from 2 Chron. 29:12 that his son Joel lived under Hezekiah and was engaged in the cleansing of the Temple. 10. The prophet who met King Asa on his return from a victory over Zerah the Ethiopian (2 Chron. 15:1, where he is called the son of Obed). He exhorted Asa to put away idolatry and restore the altar of God before the porch of the Temple. A national reformation followed, participated in by representatives out of all Israel. 11. Two sons of King Jehoshaphat (2 Chron. 21:2), 875 B.C. M’Clintock and Strong (s. v.) conjecture that there is a repetition of name and that there was but one son of that name. The NIV reads the second of these as Azariahu. 12. A clerical error (2 Chron. 22:6, see marg.), for Ahaziah (which see), king of Judah. 13. A son of Jeroham, one of the “captains” who assisted Jehoiada in restoring the worship of the Temple, opposing Athaliah and placing Joash on the throne (2 Chron. 23:1). 14. The son of Obed, another of the “captains” who assisted in the same enterprise (2 Chron. 23:1). 15. High priest in the reign of Uzziah. When the king, elated by his success, “entered the temple of the Lord to burn incense,” Azariah went in after him, accompanied by eighty of his brethren, and withstood him (2 Chron. 26:16–20). 16. Son of Johanan, and one of the heads of the tribe of Ephraim. One of those who protested against enslaving their captive brethren taken in the invasion of Judah by Pekah (2 Chron. 28:12–13). 17. A Merarite, son of Jehallelel, who was one of those who cleansed the Temple in the time of Hezekiah (2 Chron. 29:12). 18. A high priest in the time of Hezekiah (2 Chron. 31:10, 13), 719 B.C. He appears to have cooperated zealously with the king in that thorough purification of the Temple and restoration of the Temple services that were such conspicuous features of his reign. 19. The father of Amariah, and an ancestor of Ezra (Ezra 7:3). 20. Son of Maaseiah, who repaired part of the wall of Jerusalem (Neh. 3:23–24). He was one of the Levites who assisted Ezra in explaining the law (8:7), sealed the covenant with Nehemiah (10:2), and assisted at the dedication of the city wall (12:33). 21. One of the nobles who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel (Neh. 7:7). Called Seraiah in Ezra 2:2. 22. One of the “arrogant men” who rebuked Jeremiah for advising the people that remained in Palestine after their brethren had been taken to Babylon not to go down into Egypt, and who took the prophet himself and Baruch with them to that country (Jer. 43:2–7). 23. The Heb. name of Abed-nego (which see), one of Daniel’s three friends who were cast into the fiery furnace (Dan. 1:7). A´ZAZ (aʹzaz; “strong”). A Reubenite, the son of Shema and father of Bela (1 Chron. 5:8). AZA´ZEL (azāʹzel; Heb. ˓ăzā˒zēl, likely for ˓ăzāl-zēl, i.e., “an entire removal”; Arab. ˓azala, “remove”). The Heb. term is translated (Lev. 16:8, 10, 26) “scapegoat.” It is a word of doubtful interpretation and has been variously understood. 1. By some it is thought to be the name of the goat sent into the desert. The objection to this is that in vv. 10, 26 the Azazel clearly seems to be that for or to which the goat is let loose. 2. Others have taken Azazel for the name of the place to which the goat was sent. Some of the Jewish writers consider that it denotes the height from which the goat was thrown; whereas others regard the word as meaning “desert places.” 3. Many believe Azazel to be a personal being, either a spirit, a demon, or Satan himself. The Cabalists teach that in order to satisfy this evil being and to save Israel from his snares, God sends him the goat burdened with all the “iniquities and transgressions” of His people once a year. But we think it entirely improbable that Moses under divine guidance would cause Israel to recognize a demon whose claims on the people were to be met by the bribe of a sin-laden goat. 4. The most probable rendering of Azazel is “complete sending away,” i.e., solitude. The rendering then of the passage would be “the one for Jehovah, and the other for an utter removal.” See Atonement, Day of; Scapegoat. AZAZI´AH (a-za-zīʹa; “strengthened by Jehovah”). 1. One of the Levites who were appointed to play the lyre in the service of the Tabernacle at the time when the Ark was brought up from Obed-edom (1 Chron. 15:21), about 991 B.C. 2. The father of Hoshea, who was prince of the tribe of Ephraim when David numbered the people (1 Chron. 27:20), after 1000 B.C. 3. One of those who had charge of the Temple offerings in the time of Hezekiah (2 Chron. 31:13), 726 B.C. AZ´BUK (azʹbūk). The father of Nehemiah, who was ruler of half of the district of Beth-zur, and who repaired part of the wall after the return from Babylon (Neh. 3:16), before 445 B.C. AZE´KAH (a-zēʹka; “tilled”). A town in the plain of Judah (Josh. 15:35; 1 Sam. 17:1), with suburban villages (Neh. 11:30), and a place of considerable strength (Jer. 34:7). The confederated Amorite kings were defeated here by Joshua, and their army destroyed by an extraordinary shower of hailstones (Josh. 10:10–11). Joshua’s pursuit of the Canaanites after the battle of Beth-horon extended to Azekah; between it and Socoh the Philistines encamped before the battle between David and Goliath (1 Sam. 17:1). It was fortified by Rehoboam (2 Chron. 11:9), was still standing at the time of the invasion of the kings of Babylon (Jer. 34:7), and was one of the places reoccupied by the Jews on their return from captivity (Neh. 11:30). A´ZEL (aʹzel). 1. The son of Eleasah, of the descendants of King Saul (1 Chron. 8:37–38; 9:43). 2. A place, evidently in the neighborhood of Jerusalem and probably E of the Mount of Olives (Zech. 14:5). Its site has not been identified, but the LXX rendering “Iasol” suggests Wadi Yasūl, a tributary of the Kidron. A´ZEM. See Ezem. AZ´GAD (azʹgad; “strong in fortune”). An Israelite whose descendants, to the number of 1,222 (2,322 according to Neh. 7:17), returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:12). A second detachment of 110, with Johanan at their head, accompanied Ezra (Ezra 8:12). Probably the Azgad of Neh. 10:15 is the same person, some of whose descendants joined in the covenant with Nehemiah. A´ZIEL (aʹzī-el). A shortened form (1 Chron. 15:20) for Jaaziel (which see), in v. 18. AZI´ZA (a-ziʹza; “strong”). An Israelite, descendant of Zattu, who, after his return from Babylon, divorced the Gentile wife he had married (Ezra 10:27), 456 B.C. AZMA´VETH (ăz-mȧʹvĕth; “strong as death”). 1. A Barhumite (or Baharumite), one of David’s thirty warriors (2 Sam. 23:31; 1 Chron. 11:33), and father of two of his famous slingers (12:3), about 1000 B.C. 2. The second of the three sons of Jehoaddah (1 Chron. 8:36), or Jarah (9:42), a descendant of Jonathan, after 1030 B.C. 3. Son of Adiel, and in charge of the storehouses of David (1 Chron. 27:25), about 1000 B.C. 4. A village of Judah or Benjamin (Neh. 12:29), called (7:28) Beth-azmaveth. It was occupied by Jews who returned with Ezra from Babylon. The notices of it seem to point to some locality in the northern environs of Jerusalem. AZ´MON (azʹmon; “bonelike”). A place on the southern border of Palestine, between Hazaraddar and the “brook of Egypt” (Num. 34:4–5; Josh. 15:4). AZ´NOTH-TABOR (azʹnoth-tāʹbor; “tops of Tabor”). A town in the W of Naphtali, between the Jordan and Hukkok (Josh. 19:34). Perhaps Amm Jebeil near Mt. Tabor. A´ZOR (aʹzor). The son of Eliakim and father of Zadok, in the paternal ancestry of Christ (Matt. 1:13). AZO´TUS (a-zōʹtus). The Grecized form (Acts 8:40) of Ashdod (which see). AZ´RIEL (azʹri-el; “help of God”). 1. A mighty man of valor, and one of the heads of the half tribe of Manasseh beyond the Jordan who were taken into captivity by the king of Assyria as a punishment for their national idolatry (1 Chron. 5:24), about 740 B.C. 2. The father of Jeremoth, who was ruler of the tribe of Naphtali under David (1 Chron. 27:19), about 1000 B.C. 3. The father of Seraiah, who with others was appointed by King Jehoiakim to apprehend Baruch the scribe and Jeremiah for sending him a threatening prophecy (Jer. 36:26), 606 B.C. AZ´RIKAM (azʹri-kam; “help” against “the enemy,” or “my help arises”). 1. The last named of the three sons of Neariah, a descendant of Zerubbabel (1 Chron. 3:23), about 404 B.C. He is perhaps the same as Azor (which see). 2. The first of the six sons of Azel, of the tribe of Benjamin (1 Chron. 8:38; 9:44). 3. A Levite, son of Hashabiah and father of Hasshub (1 Chron. 9:14; Neh. 11:15), before 536 B.C. 4. The governor of the king’s house in the time of Ahaz, slain by Zichri, a mighty man of Ephraim (2 Chron. 28:7), 741 B.C. AZU´BAH (a-zūʹba; “forsaken”). 1. The daughter of Shilhi and mother of King Jehoshaphat (1 Kings 22:42; 2 Chron. 20:31), before 875 B.C. 2. The wife of Caleb, the son of Hezron (1 Chron. 2:18–19), about 1471 B.C. See Jerioth. A´ZUR. See Azzur. AZ´ZAH (azʹzah; the “strong”). The more correct English form (Deut. 2:23; 1 Kings 4:24; Jer. 25:20) of Gaza (which see). The latter is the form given in the NASB and NIV. AZ´ZAN (azʹzan). The father of Paltiel, leader of the tribe of Issachar, and commissioner from that tribe in the dividing of Canaan (Num. 34:26), c. 1370 B.C. AZ´ZUR (azʹzur; “helper”; sometimes Azur, KJV). 1. One of the chief Israelites who signed the covenant with Nehemiah on the return from Babylon (Neh. 10:17), 445 B.C. 2. The father of Hananiah of Gibeon, the latter of whom was the prophet who falsely encouraged King Zedekiah against the Babylonians (Jer. 28:1), about 596 B.C. 3. The father of Jaazaniah, who was one of the men whom the prophet Ezekiel saw in a vision devising false schemes of safety for Jerusalem (Ezek. 11:1), 594 B.C. B BA´AL (bāʹal; Heb. ba˓al, “lord, possessor”). 1. A common name for god among the Phoenicians; also the name of their chief male god. See Gods, False. 2. The word is used of the master of a house (Ex. 22:7; Judg. 19:22), of a landowner (Job 31:39), of an owner of cattle (Ex. 21:28; Isa. 1:3), and so on. The word is often used as a prefix to names of towns and men, e.g., Baal-gad, Baal-hanan. 3. A Reubenite, son of Reaiah. His son Beerah was among the captives carried away by Tiglath-pileser (which see; 1 Chron. 5:5–6), before 740 B.C. 4. The fourth named of the sons of Jeiel, the founder of Gibeon, by his wife Maacah (1 Chron. 8:29–30; 9:35–36). 5. The name of a place (1 Chron. 4:33), elsewhere called Baalath-beer (which see). BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. S. Kapelrud, Baal and the Ras Shamra Texts (1952); J. Gray, The Canaanites (1956); W. F. Albright, Yahweh and the Gods of Canaan (1968); G. R. Driver and J. C. L. Gibson, Canaanite Myths and Legends (1978). BA´ALAH (bāʹa-lā; “mistress”). 1. A city on the northern border of the tribe of Judah (Josh. 15:10), one of the religious sanctuaries of the ancient Gibeonites, as it appears (15:9) that Baalah and Kiriath-jearim were applicable to the same place. See 1 Chron. 13:6. 2. A city on the S of Judah (Josh. 15:29). Called Balah (19:3); also Bilhah (1 Chron. 4:29). 3. A mountain on the NW boundary of Judah, between Shikkeron and Jabneel (Josh. 15:11), usually regarded as the same as Mt. Jearim. BA´ALATH (bāʹa-lath; “mistress”). A town of the tribe of Dan (Josh. 19:44); supposed to be the place fortified by Solomon (1 Kings 9:18; 2 Chron. 8:6). BA´ALATH-BE´ER (bāʹa-lath beʹer; “mistress of the well”). A city of Simeon (Josh. 19:8). Probably the same as Baal (1 Chron. 4:33). Doubtless identical with Ramah of the Negev (Josh. 19:8). It is also the same as the Bealoth (which see) of Judah (15:24). BA´ALBEK (bāʹal-bek; Gk. Heliopolis, “city of the sun,” but distinct from three other sites whose names also have reference to the sun: Beth-shemesh, no. 4; the City of Destruction [Ir-hahares, KJV]; and On [all which see]).A popular ancient center of the worship of Baal in the region between Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon or “Hollow- Syria.” Later called Heliopolis when the Greeks associated Helios with Baal. It is fifty-three miles E of Beirut and is to be distinguished from a city in Egypt, On (which see), that is also sometimes called Heliopolis. The site may be identical with Baal-gad “in the valley of Lebanon at the foot of Mount Hermon” (Josh. 11:17). Greek architectural skill and Rome’s resources were lavished on Baalbek and its immense and beautiful temples. The temple complex was probably begun as early as KJV King James Version the reign of Augustus (27 B.C.-A.D. 14), and construction continued there for a couple of centuries. A worshiper entered the acropolis area through a tower-flanked propylaea 165 feet wide, passed through a hexagonal court and a great altar court, and finally ascended a magnificent stairway to the temple of Jupiter. Six of its Corinthian columns still stand to a height of 65 feet, tallest in the Greco-Roman world. Adjacent to the temple of Jupiter on the south and at a lower level is the temple of Bacchus with a peristyle of 46 columns 57 feet high. Beautifully preserved, it is the best surviving example of a Roman temple interior. East of the acropolis was a round temple, probably erected to Venus, constructed about A.D. 250. A German archaeological team began serious work at the site in 1900, and French and Lebanese efforts continued there intermittently until hostilities forced termination in 1975. The Baalbek complex is the most magnificent example of pagan worship and architecture in the Middle East. M.F.U.; H.F.V. BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. Ragette, Baalbek (1980). BA´AL-BE´RITH (bāʹal-be-rithʹ). A god worshiped in Shechem. See Gods, False. BA´ALE-JU´DAH (bāʹa-le jūʹda; “lords of Judah”). A city of Judah from which David brought the Ark into Jerusalem (2 Sam. 6:2). Probably the same as Baalah, no. 1 (which see); so also NIV. BA´AL-GAD (bāʹal gad; “lord of fortune”). A Canaanite city (Josh. 11:17; 12:7) at the foot of Mt. Hermon, hence called Baal-hermon (Judg. 3:3; 1 Chron. 5:23). Location uncertain. BA´AL-HA´MON (bāʹal haʹmon; “lord of the multitude”). The place where Solomon had a vineyard (Song of Sol. 8:11), which he let out to “caretakers.” Location is unknown. BA´AL-HA´NAN (bāʹal haʹnon; “lord of grace”). 1. An early king of Edom, son of Achbor, successor of Shaul, and succeeded by Hadar (Gen. 36:38–39; 1 Chron. 1:49–50). 2. A Gederite, David’s overseer of “the olive and sycamore trees in the Shephelah” (1 Chron. 27:28), after 1000 B.C. BA´AL-HA´ZOR (bāʹal-haʹzor; “having a village”). A place near Ephraim where Absalom had a sheep farm and where he murdered Amnon (2 Sam. 13:23). Probably the same as Hazor (Neh. 11:33), now Tell ’Asar. BA´AL-HER´MON (bāʹal herʹmon; “lord of Hermon”). 1. A city of Ephraim near Mt. Hermon (1 Chron. 5:23). Probably identical with Baal-gad (Josh. 11:17). 2. A mountain E of Lebanon (Judg. 3:3), from which the Israelites were unable to expel the Hivites. “Baal-hermon is only another name for Baal-gad, the present Banjas, under the Hermon (see Josh. 13:5)” (K. & D., Com.). M.F.U. Merrill F. Unger H.F.V. Howard F. Vos NIV New International Version K. & Johann Karl Friedrich Keil and Franz Julius Delitzcsh, Old Testament Commentaries (1875) Com. Commentary BA´ALI (bāʹa-lî; “my master”). “You will call Me Ishi / And will no longer call Me Baali” (Hos. 2:16). The meaning is that Israel will enter into right relation with God, in which she will look toward Him as her husband (Ishi) and not merely as Baal, “owner, master.” Calling or naming is a designation of the nature or the true relation of a person or thing. Israel calls God her husband when she stands in the right relation to Him, when she acknowledges, reveres, and loves Him, as He has revealed Himself, i.e., as the only true God. On the other hand, she calls Him Baal when she places the true God on the level of the Baals, either by worshiping other gods along with Jehovah or by obliterating the essential distinction between Jehovah and the Baals. BA´ALIM (bāʹal-im). The plural of Baal. See Gods, False. BA´ALIS (bāʹa-lis; “in exultation”). King of the Ammonites about the time of the Babylonian captivity, whom Johanan reported to Gedaliah, the viceroy, as having sent Ishmael to slay him (Jer. 40:13–14), 588 B.C. BA´AL-ME´ON (bāʹal-me-onʹ; “lord of the dwelling”). One of the towns rebuilt by the Reubenites and their names changed (Num. 32:38). Baal-meon (“Beon,” v. 3; “Beth-meon,” Jer. 48:23; and “Beth-baal-meon,” Josh. 13:17) is to be located at Ma‘in nine miles E of the Dead Sea. BA´AL-PE´OR (bāʹal-peʹor). A god of the Moabites. See Gods, False. BA´AL-PERA´ZIM (bāʹal-per-aʹzim; “possessor of breaches”). Called Mt. Perazim (Isa. 28:21), in central Palestine. Location unknown. Here David fought the Philistines (2 Sam. 5:20; 1 Chron. 14:11). The place and the circumstances appear to be again alluded to in Isa. 28:21, where it is called Mt. Perazim. BA´AL-SHAL´ISHA (bāʹal-shalʹi-sha; “lord of Shalisha”). A place of Ephraim, not far W of Gilgal (2 Kings 4:38, 42). From this place a man brought provisions for Elisha. BA´AL-TA´MAR (bāʹal-tāʹmar; “lord of the palm trees”). One of the groves of Baal. Probably the palm tree of Deborah (Judg. 4:5), in the tribe of Benjamin near Gibeah of Saul (20:33). The notices seem to correspond to the present ruined site Erhah, about three miles NE of Jerusalem. BA´AL-ZEBUB´ (bāʹal-ze-bubʹ). The god of the Philistines at Ekron. See Gods, False. BA´AL-ZE´PHON (bāʹal-zeʹfon; “Baal of winter, or north”). A place belonging to Egypt on the border of the Red Sea (Ex. 14:2; Num. 33:7), mentioned in connection with Pi-hahiroth, on the journey of the Israelites. It must have been a well-known place, inasmuch as it is always mentioned to indicate the location of Pi-hahiroth, but its present location is unknown. BA´ANA (bāʹa-na). 1. The son of Ahilud, one of Solomon’s twelve deputies, whose district comprised Taanach, Megiddo, and all Beth-shean, with the adjacent region (1 Kings 4:12), 960 B.C. 2. The son of Hushai and also a deputy of King Solomon. His district was in Asher and Bealoth (1 Kings 4:16), 960 B.C. 3. The father of Zadok, which latter person assisted in rebuilding the walls of Jerusalem under Nehemiah (Neh. 3:4), 445 B.C. BA´ANAH (bāʹa-na). Another form of Baana (which see). 1. A son of Rimmon, the Beerothite. He, with his brother Rechab, slew Ish- bosheth while he lay in his bed and took the head to David in Hebron. For this David caused them to be put to death, their hands and feet to be cut off, and their bodies, thus mutilated, hung up over the pool at Hebron (2 Sam. 4:2–12), about 992 B.C. 2. A Netophathite, father of Heleb, or Heled, who was one of David’s mighty men (2 Sam. 23:29; 1 Chron. 11:30), about 1000 B.C. BA´ARA (bāʹa-ra). One of the wives of Shaharaim, of the tribe of Benjamin (1 Chron. 8:8). In v. 9, she is called Hodesh. BAASE´IAH (bāʹa-seʹya). A Gershonite Levite, son of Malchijah and father of Michael, in the lineage of Asaph the singer (1 Chron. 6:40), before 1000 B.C. BA´ASHA (bāʹa-sha). The third sovereign of the separate kingdom of Israel and the founder of its Second Dynasty. He reigned c. 908–866 B.C. Baasha was the son of Ahijah, of the tribe of Issachar, and conspired against King Nadab, the son of Jeroboam (when he was besieging the Philistine town of Gibbethon), and killed him and his whole family (1 Kings 15:27–28). He was probably of humble origin, as the prophet Jehu says, “I exalted you from the dust” (16:2). In matters of religion his reign was no improvement on that of Jeroboam, and he was chiefly remarkable for his hostility to Judah. He built Ramah “in order to prevent anyone from going out or coming in to Asa king of Judah” (15:17). He was compelled to desist by the unexpected alliance of Asa with Ben-hadad I of Damascus. Baasha died in the twenty- fourth year of his reign and was honorably buried in Tirzah, which he had made his capital (15:33; 16:6). For his idolatries the prophet Jehu declared to him the determination of God to exterminate his family, which was accomplished by Zimri in the days of his son Elah (1 Kings 16:10–13). BABBLER. The KJV rendering (Eccles. 10:11) of the Heb. ba˓al lāshôn, “master of the tongue.” The word is understood by some as “charmer” (NASB); by others as “slanderer.” Paul was called a “babbler” (Acts 17:18, Gk. spermologos, “seed picker,” as the crow), probably with a twofold meaning: from the manner in which that bird feeds, a “parasite,” and from its chattering voice. BA´BEL, TOWER OF. The building that the Babel builders intended to construct and that became the symbol of their God-defying disobedience and pride (Gen. 11:1– 9). This structure is adequately illustrated by a characteristic Mesopotamian building called the ziggurat. The Assyro-Babylonian word zigguratu denotes a sacred temple tower and means a “pinnacle” or “mountaintop.” The Babylonian ziggurat was a gigantic artificial mound of sun-dried bricks. The oldest extant ziggurat is that at ancient Uruk, biblical Erech (Gen. 10:10), modern Warka. This ancient temple tower dates from the latter part of the fourth millennium B.C. Nothing in the biblical narrative indicates that the so-called Tower of Babel was a temple tower or ziggurat. It is simply called a tower (migdāl). It seems clear that the Tower of Babel was the first structure of this sort ever attempted, and if later towers have any connection with the Tower of Babel, they are to be thought of as descendants of it. Ziggurats were consecrated to the guardian deity of the city. At Ur, the birthplace of Abraham, the god was Nanna, and his holy shrine was set on the topmost stage. At Borsippa (Birs- Nimrûd), some ten miles SW of Babylon, Nebo, the god of knowledge and literature, was the divinity. These ancient ziggurats were built in steplike stages. The highest one NASB New American Standard Bible was seven stories, although the common height was three stories. The ziggurat at Uruk was a vast mass of clay stamped down hard and buttressed on the outside with layers of brick and bitumen. Similar structures at Ur, Babylon, Borsippa, and other Mesopotamian cities illustrate the words of 11:3–4: “Come, let us make bricks and burn them thoroughly. And they used brick for stone, and they used tar for mortar. And they said, ‘Come, let us build for ourselves a city, and a tower whose top will reach into heaven, and let us make for ourselves a name; lest we be scattered abroad over the face of the whole earth.’” Also illustrated is a salient difference between the building materials of the stoneless alluvial plain of Babylonia and those of Palestine and Egypt. In the building of the tower sun-dried bricks were used for stone, and tar (bitumen, or “slime,” KJV), which was abundant in the general regions of Babylon, was used for mortar (cf. 11:3). Ruins of more than two dozen ziggurats may be seen in Mesopotamia. The original Tower of Babel was probably constructed prior to 4000 B.C. when the arts and sciences had developed to such a degree as to contemplate building a city, and especially a tower “whose top will reach into heaven” (11:4). This phrase is not mere hyperbole but an expression of pride and rebellion manifested by the Babel builders. Both Assyrian and Babylonian kings greatly prided themselves upon the height of their temples and boasted of having their tops as high as heaven. BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Parrot, Tower of Babel (1955). BABOONS. See Animal Kingdom: Peacocks. BAB´YLON (babʹi-lon). An ancient city-state in the plain of Shinar, derived from Hurrian papil. Name. The name is derived by the Hebrews from the root bālal (“to confound”) and has reference to the confusion of tongues at the Tower (Gen. 11:9). Thus the biblical writer refutes any God-honoring connotation of the name. The biblical account ascribes the founding of the ancient prehistoric city of Babylon to the descendants of Cush and the followers of Nimrod (10:8–10). This statement distinguishes the people who founded the city (evidently the Sumerians) from the Semitic-Babylonians who afterward possessed it. Beginnings. The beginnings of the city of Babylon are unknown to us except for the biblical passage mentioned earlier (Gen. 10:10). About 1830 B.C. the city began its rise to prominence. In the ensuing struggle with surrounding city-states, Babylon conquered Larsa and the First Dynasty of Babylon was established. Such kings as Sumu-abu, Sumla-el, Sabum, Apel-Sin, and Sin-mu-ballit ruled. Then the great Hammurabi (which see), ascended the throne about 1728–1686, and conquered not only all of S Babylonia but extended his conquests as far N as Mari. At this famous city on the middle Euphrates, André Parrot, excavating for the Musée du Louvre (1933ff.), unearthed thousands of cuneiform tablets, a vast royal palace, a temple of Ishtar, and a ziggurat. The city of Babylon did not reach the height of its glory, however, until the reign of Nebuchadnezzar II (605–562 B.C.). Nebuchadnezzar made the city splendid, and the king’s own inscriptions are concerned largely with his vast building operations. Babylon was excavated thoroughly by the Deutsche Orientgesellschaft under the direction of Robert Koldewey, 1899 to 1917 (cf. Das wieder erstehende Babylon, 4th ed. [1925]). Nebuchadnezzar’s brilliant city included vast fortifications, famous streets such as the Processional, canals, temples, and palaces. The Ishtar Gate led through the double wall of fortifications and was adorned with rows of bulls and dragons in colored enameled brick. Nebuchadnezzar’s throne room was likewise adorned with enameled bricks. The tall ziggurat was rebuilt. This, Herodotus said, rose to a height of eight stages. Near at hand was Esagila (“whose housetop is lofty”), the temple of Marduk or Bel, which the king restored. Not far distant were the “hanging gardens,” which to the Greeks were one of the seven wonders of the world. How well the words of Dan. 4:30 fit this ambitious builder: “Is this not Babylon the great, which I myself have built as a royal residence by the might of my power and for the glory of my majesty?” The splendid Babylonian Empire of Nebuchadnezzar was destined soon to fall. He was succeeded on the throne by Amel-Marduk (561–560), the Evil-merodach of 2 Kings 25:27. This man was murdered by his brother-in-law, Nergal-shar-usur (559– 556), whose son ruled only a few months and was succeeded by one of the conspirators, who did away with him. A noble named Nabunaid, or Nabonidus, then ruled, together with his son Belshazzar (555–539; see Dan. 5); Nabonidus was the last king of the neo-Babylonian Empire. On October 12, 539 B.C., Babylon fell to Cyrus of Persia, and from that time on the decay of the city began. Xerxes plundered it. Alexander the Great thought to restore its great temple, in ruins in his day, but was deterred by the prohibitive cost. During the period of Alexander’s successors the area decayed rapidly and soon became a desert. From the days of Seleucus Nicator (312– 280 B.C.), who built the rival city of Seleucia on the Tigris, queenly Babylon never revived. Size and Appearance. Herodotus says the city was in the form of a square, 120 stades (13 miles, 1,385 yards) on each side. It had two walls, inner and outer. The vast space within the walls was laid out in streets at right angles to each other, lined with houses three to four stories in height. He lists the following chief public buildings: the temple of Bel, consisting of a tower in the shape of a pyramid, more than eight stories, topped with a sanctuary; the palace of the king; the bridge across the Euphrates connecting the eastern and western sections of the city. Herodotus described the city as overwhelming in its size (1.178–86). The next Greek writers whose records are important are Ctesias and Diodorus Siculus (2.7–8). According to them the city was much smaller than Herodotus had represented, its circuit being 360 stades (41 miles, 6 yards). To the bridge of Herodotus, Diodorus has added a tunnel under the river and describes the hanging gardens of Nebuchadnezzar as rising in terraces, which supported full grown trees. Hebrew accounts represent the city as great in size, beauty, and strength; in this they were amply sustained by the inscriptions and excavations. As a matter of fact, excavations show that Babylon was smaller than ancient Greek writers said. The wall was about eleven miles long and eighty-five feet thick and was protected by a moat filled with water from the Euphrates. Actually the wall was double: the outer wall was twenty-five feet thick and the inner one twenty- three feet thick with an intervening space filled with rubble. Watchtowers stood sixty- five feet apart on the walls. Eight or nine gates pierced the wall. The population of greater Babylon (the walled city and its suburbs) in Nebuchadnezzar’s day has been estimated at about a half million. The Figurative Meaning. In the prophetical writings, when the actual city is not meant, the illustration is to the “confusion” into which the whole social order of the world has fallen under Gentile world domination (Luke 21:24; Rev. 6:16). The divine order is given in Isa. 11, that is, Israel in her own land the center of divine government of the world and the medium of the divine blessing, with Gentile nations blessed when associated with Israel. Anything else is politically mere “babel.” In the NT Babylon prefigures apostate Christendom, that is, ecclesiastical Babylon, the great harlot (Rev. 17:5–18). It also prefigures political Babylon (17:15–18), which destroys ecclesiastical Babylon. The power of political Babylon is destroyed by the glorious second advent of Christ (Rev. 16:19; 18:2–21). M.F.U.; H.F.V. BIBLIOGRAPHY: D. J. Wiseman, Chronicles of the Chaldean Kings (1956); A. Parrot, Babylon and the Old Testament (1958); H. W. F. Saggs, The Greatness That Was Babylon (1962); J. G. Macqueen, Babylon (1964); W. G. Lambert, Peoples of Old Testament Times, ed. D. J. Wiseman (1973); J. Oates, Babylon (1979). BABYLO´NIA (bab-i-lōʹni-a). The eastern end of the Fertile Crescent, which had Babylon for its capital, called Shinar (Gen. 10:10; 11:2; Isa. 11:11), and land of the Chaldeans (Jer. 24:5; Ezek. 12:13). Principal Cities. The region anciently comprised Sumer and Akkad. Akkad was the northern region of the lower alluvial plain of the Tigris-Euphrates, in which were Babylon, Borsippa, Kish, Kuthah, Sippar, and Agade (Accad). Principal towns of Sumer were Nippur, Lagash, Umma, Larsa, Uruk (Erech, Gen. 10:10), Ur (Abraham’s city), and Eridu. Geography. The two great rivers Tigris and Euphrates, which have their source in the mountains of Armenia, have built up the alluvial plain of lower Babylonia. The old standard view subscribed to in most textbooks is that the rivers gradually pushed the coastline of the Persian Gulf ever southward. In fact, the entire area below Babylon is supposed to have been formed in that way. Presumably, the Tigris and Euphrates did not join in earlier days but flowed as separate streams into the gulf. On the basis of newer studies in geology, however, this view is being seriously questioned. It is argued that, although the rivers bring down much silt, some 90 percent apparently is deposited before reaching the gulf. But the rise of the land level has not been marked in this area. So the theory has been advanced that the Tigris and Euphrates drop their sediment in a slowly subsiding basin. The gradual sinking of the land level supposedly has prevented the land elevation or the coastline from changing significantly since Old Testament times, and the two Mesopotamian rivers are now believed always to have flowed into the gulf as a single stream. Although many geologists have followed the new theories, archaeologists have not been so quick to do so, and further study is necessary in order to solve this knotty problem. In any case, Babylonia is a flat and stoneless alluvial plain without mineral or timber resources. This fertile plain, irrigated by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, became the cradle of civilization. In this lower part of Mesopotamia, some fifty-five miles S of present Baghdad, there once stood on the banks of the Euphrates a city bearing the proud name of Bab-ilu, “gate of god,” or Babylon. Although the history of the lower valley does not begin with this city, Babylon became prominent early, and its name is attached primarily to this region that is now known familiarly as Babylonia. Early Inhabitants. People called Sumerians preceded the Semites in lower Babylonia as far as the biblical reports are concerned. They seem to have been “Hamitic” (Gen. 10:8–10), but scholars profess ignorance of their race and origin. They probably entered the plain of Shinar around 4000 B.C. and developed a high civilization. Their accomplishments included development of the wedge-shaped cuneiform script. They were polytheistic. Originally each city-state had its own gods or goddesses, but eventually a triad pantheon developed: Anu (sky), Enlil (atmosphere and earth), and Ea (waters). Earliest History. As the marshes dried up and areas of solid land appeared in lower Babylonia, civilization began. The earliest known culture is dubbed Obeid, the name being derived from Tell el-Obeid, a small mound 4½ miles NW of the more famous site of Ur. The culture, characterized by a definite style of pottery, is also known from the remains of other sites, including Ur. At Warka, the site of ancient Erech or Uruk, some 35 miles up the Euphrates valley from Tell el-Obeid, appears the second culture of ancient Babylonia. It probably dates from the middle of the fourth millennium B.C. At Warka another distinctive form of pottery was found, as well as the oldest ziggurat (see Babel, Tower of), the first cylinder seals, and the beginnings of writing. A further period in the early history of Mesopotamia is known from the findings at Jemdet Nasr, a site in the Mesopotamian valley near Babylon. This culture with its characteristic pottery dates around 3200–2800 B.C. Its bronze tools indicate the beginning of the Bronze Age in Mesopotamia. During this period the important cities of Shuruppak (Fara), Eshnunna (Tell Asmar), and Kish were founded. Early Dynastic Period, about 2800–2360 B.C. During this period dynasties of kings appear at Kish, Uruk, Ur, Awan, Hamazi, Adab, and Mari. Among the rulers in the First Dynasty of Kish was Etana, “a shepherd, the one who to heaven ascended.” The next dynasty is described as centering at the temple precinct of E-Anna, where the city of Uruk was subsequently built. Twelve kings were said to have reigned here for 2,310 years including Gilgamesh, the epic hero. Excavations at Tell Asmar (ancient Eshnunna) reveal the art and religion of the middle phase of the Early Dynastic Period. The First Dynasty of Ur indicates the last and culminating phase of the Dynastic Period. The Sumerian King List (Thorkild Jacobsen, The Sumerian King List, Assyriological Studies [1939]) states that “Uruk was smitten with weapons; its kingship to Ur was carried. In Ur Mes-Anne-Pada became king and reigned 80 years.” Four kings are mentioned as reigning 177 years. Then “Ur was smitten with weapons.” The high degree of culture that obtained under the First Dynasty of Ur is revealed in the famous royal cemetery uncovered there by C. Leonard Woolley. These tombs, dating around 2500 B.C., revealed a highly developed culture. Another dynasty flourishing during the last phase of the Early Dynastic Period was that established by Ur-Nanshe at Lagash (Al Hiba) about fifty miles N of Ur. Reference is made in the inscriptions of Ur Nanshe to extensive building operations, including construction of temples and digging of canals. A later ruler named Eannatum claimed victories over Umma, Uruk, Ur, Kish, and Mari. His battle against Umma is portrayed on the Stela of the Vultures. Subsequently Lagash fell again to Umma. The new conqueror was Lugalzagesi, who was governor of Umma. This conqueror ultimately became king of Uruk and Ur and was one of the most powerful figures in Sumerian history. His quarter-century reign constituted the Third Dynasty of Uruk. His armies marched to the Mediterranean Sea. The Old Akkadian Period, about 2360–2180 B.C. Meanwhile the Semites were increasing in power in Babylonia under the leadership of the mighty Sargon, who was of humble origin and had been placed in an ark of bulrushes like Moses. He built up a far-flung empire and was succeeded by Rimush, Manishtusu, Sargon’s grandson, whose victory stela was discovered at Susa. But Naram-Sin’s sprawling empire, extending from central Persia to the Mediterranean and NE Arabia to the Taurus Mountains, lasted only through the reign of his son Sharkalisharri. Then Caucasian people, the Gutians, overran Babylonia. The Neo-Sumerian Period, about 2070–1960 B.C. When Gutian power declined, a Sumerian governor of Lagash, named Gudea, came to power. He is represented by numerous statues. Gudea built a famous temple, bringing cedar wood for it all the way from the Amanus Mountains of northern Syria, part of the same general range as the Lebanon, from which Solomon more than a millennium later was to cut cedar trees for the Temple at Jerusalem (1 Kings 5:6). With the downfall of the Gutians the powerful Third Dynasty of Ur also arose in splendor under the leadership of Ur- Nammu, who took the new title of “king of Sumer and Akkad” and who erected a mighty ziggurat at Ur. He was succeeded by Shulgi, Amar-Sin, Shu-Sin, and Ibbi-Sin. The Isin-Larsa Period , about 1960–1830 B.C. Elamites sacked Ur and carried off Ibbi-Sin. Amorites from Mari and elsewhere settled at Isin and Larsa. An Elamite ruler came into power at Eshnunna. Isin and Larsa were the two powerful competitive city-states during this period. Old Babylonia Period, about 1830–1550 B.C. This was the period of the ascendancy of Babylon (which see), particularly under the great Hammurabi (which see). Excavations at the brilliant city of Mari on the middle Euphrates have shed great light on this era. The Code of Hammurabi, discovered at Susa in 1901, was subsequently carried from Babylon and belongs to the period around 1700 B.C. It was during this time also that the famous epic of creation called Enuma elish assumed the form in which it was current for the next millennium. The discoveries at Nuzi, an ancient Hurrian center about twelve miles NW of modern Kirkuk, illuminated this period and especially the earlier patriarchal period. Kassite Invasion, about 1550–1158 B.C. The Kassites, who had been invading the land from the highlands to the E and NE for a number of centuries, made themselves masters of the country. Finally Tukulti-Ninurta, king of Assyria (1244–1208 B.C.), invaded Babylonia and ruled for seven years before being expelled. Dynasty II of Isin. With the fall of the Kassites a new dynasty arose in Babylonia, Dynasty II of Isin. The kings were all native Babylonians, among them Nebuchadnezzar I (1126–1105). He defeated the Elamites and the Hittites but was routed by the Assyrians. This dynasty came to an end in 1027 B.C. Later History. About 1100–900 B.C. Aramaic tribes began invading Babylonia, and Assyria began to interfere in Babylonian affairs. Tiglath-pileser III (which see; 729 B.C.; his name is given as “Pul” in 2 Kings 15:19) became king of Babylon. In 689 the city revolted against Sennacherib, who sacked and burned it to the ground. It was rebuilt by Esarhaddon and remained a part of Assyria until 625 B.C. Neo-Chaldean Empire, 605–539 B.C. The new nation, the Chaldeans, under Merodach-baladan, who proclaimed himself king of Babylon (721), sent an embassy to Hezekiah, king of Judah, but was defeated by Sennacherib in 703. In 625 B.C. Nabopolassar became king of the Chaldeans and founded the neo-Babylonian or Chaldean Empire; with Cyaxares, king of the Medes, he destroyed Nineveh in 612. His son Nebuchadnezzar defeated Neco of Egypt at Carchemish in 605. Now in control of all SW Asia, Nebuchadnezzar (605–562) entered his long and brilliant reign, destroying Jerusalem and making Babylon one of the most splendid of ancient cities. He was succeeded by his son Amel-Marduk (561–560). The latter was assassinated, and Neriglissar (559–556) succeeded to the throne. Neriglissar’s son reigned for nine months after Neriglissar’s death and was also assassinated in 556. Then a Babylonian noble, Nabonidus, came to the throne; he appointed his son Belshazzar as coregent (which see). In 539 B.C. Gobryas, one of Cyrus’s generals, took Babylon, which remained under Persian rule, 539–332 B.C. Alexander the Great controlled Babylon until 323. The Seleucids established their dynasty in Babylon in 311 B.C. and in 275 removed the inhabitants of Babylon to Seleucia on the Tigris; with that event the history of Babylon ended. M.F.U.; H.F.V. BABYLONISH GARMENT. See Beautiful Mantle from Shinar. BA´CA (baʹka; “balsam tree” or “weeping”). An unidentified valley in Palestine (Ps. 84:6). It was possibly an imaginary poetical name, not intended to describe an actual location but to stand for any experience of drought (cf. Arab. baka˒a, “to be sparsely watered”) in contrast to a well-watered experience (“who passing through the valley of Baca, make it a well,” KJV, italics added); or it may refer to an experience of “weeping” with a play upon the Heb. word bākâ (“to weep”). If it actually refers to a place, it was likely so named from the balsam trees in it, which exude a tearlike gum (cf. the valley of Rephaim, 2 Sam. 5:22–23, where such trees were found). M.F.U. BACKBITE. See Slander. BACKSLIDING. In the Heb. the idea is of “going back” (sûg, “backsliding,” Prov. 14:14), “being stubborn or refractory like a heifer” (sōrēr; Hos. 4:16, KJV; NASB, “stubborn”) and “turning back” (m shūbâ; Jer. 3:6, 8, 11–12, 14, 22; 8:5; 31:22; all KJV; NASB reads, “faithless” or “turned away”) to the old life of sin and idolatry. In the NT backsliding is set forth as involving a change of the believer’s state before God but not of his standing. The former is variable and depends upon daily contact with Christ, “if we walk in the light” (1 John 1:7) and many other factors of the spiritual life. Standing, by contrast, refers to the believer’s position “in Christ,” which is grounded in the unchangeable and perfect work of Christ for the believer, whereas state describes the changing and imperfect condition of his soul from moment to moment as affected by backsliding on the one hand or spiritual progress on the other. Faith in Christ secures standing (John 1:12; Rom. 5:1–2; 8:17; Eph. 1:3, 6; Col. 2:10; Heb. 10:19; etc.), but observance of all the laws of the spiritual life alone assures protection against backsliding. Compare 1 Cor. 1:2–9 (standing) with 1 Cor. 1:11; 3:1–4; 4:18; 5:2 (state). Backsliding not only results in a changed state or experience but involves corrective chastening (Heb. 12:6; 1 Cor. 11:31), loss of rewards and fellowship (2 Cor. 5:10; 1 John 3:10), curtailment of usefulness, and in extreme cases physical death (1 Cor. 5:5; 1 John 5:16) that the “spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus.” Those who hold that one may fall from grace teach that backsliding may become complete, rather than partial, and that the individual must then be converted a second time. M.F.U. BADGER. See Animal Kingdom: Porpoise. BAGPIPE. See Music. BAGS. Bags made of leather or woven materials were in common use in Bible lands to hold money—lumps of gold or silver in most ancient times (Prov. 7:20; Isa. 46:6) and, after the Persian period, minted coins. Water or wine bags were manufactured from skins of animals. The shepherd’s bag contained a heterogeneous assortment ranging from sling stones to food (1 Sam. 17:40). In Luke 12:33 Jesus referred to the common wallet for traveling (cf. 10:4; 22:35–36). M.F.U. BAHA´RUMITE (ba-haʹrû-mīt). A native of Bahurim (which see). An epithet applied to Azmaveth, one of David’s warriors (1 Chron. 11:33); called Barhumite in 2 Sam. 23:31. BAHU´RIM (ba-hurʹim; “young men”). A town of Judah on the road from Jerusalem to the Jordan, E of Olivet (2 Sam. 3:16). David had trouble here with Shimei, and his spies hid here (16:5; 17:18). Azmaveth is the only other native of this place, except Shimei, mentioned in Scripture (23:31; 1 Chron. 11:33). It is identified with Râs et-Tmîm, just E of Mt. Scopus, near Jerusalem. BAIL. See Surety. BA´JITH (baʹjith; “house”). In the KJV, supposed to be a city in Moab where there may have been a celebrated idol temple; by others the Heb. is rendered “temple house” (Isa. 15:2) or, as in NASB and NIV, just “temple.” BAKBAK´KAR (bak-bakʹar; “searcher”). One of the Levites inhabiting the villages of the Netophathites, after the return from Babylon (1 Chron. 9:15), about 536 B.C. BAK´BUK (bakʹbuk; a “bottle”). The head of one of the families of the Temple servants that returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:51; Neh. 7:53), about 536 B.C. BAKBUKI´AH (bak-bu-kīʹa). A Levite, “second among his brethren,” who dwelt at Jerusalem on the return from Babylon (Neh. 11:17). He was also employed on the watches and was a gatekeeper (12:9, 25), about 536 B.C. BAKE, BAKING. See Bread. BAKER. See Handicrafts. BA´LAAM (bā-lam). A heathen diviner who lived at Pethor, which is said, in Deut. 23:4, to have been a city of Mesopotamia. Although doubtless belonging to the Midianites (Num. 31:8), he possessed some knowledge of the true God and acknowledged that his superior powers as poet and prophet were derived from God and were His gift. His fame was great, and he became conceited and covetous. The Israelites having encamped in the plain of Moab (1401 B.C.), Balak, the king of Moab, entered into a league with the Midianites against them and sent messengers to Balaam “with the fees for divination in their hand” (22:5–7). Balaam seems to have had some misgivings as to the lawfulness of their request, for he invited them to remain overnight, that he might know how God would regard it. These misgivings were confirmed by the express prohibition of God upon his journey. Balaam informed the messengers of God’s answer, and they returned to Balak. A still more honorable embassy was sent to Balaam, with promises of reward and great honor. He replied that he could not be tempted by reward but would speak what God should reveal. He requested them to remain for the night, that he might know what more the Lord would say to him. His importunity secured for him permission to accompany Balak’s messengers with the divine injunction to speak as God should dictate. In the morning Balaam proceeded with the princes of Moab. But “God was angry because he was going, and the angel of the Lord took his stand in the way as an adversary against him” (22:22). Though Balaam did not see the angel, the donkey that he rode was aware of his presence. At first it turned into the field; again, in its terror, it pressed against the wall, squeezing Balaam’s foot; upon the third appearance of the angel, there being no way of escape, it fell down. This greatly enraged Balaam, who struck it with a stick, whereupon the donkey questioned Balaam as to the cause of the beating. He soon became aware of the presence of the angel, who accused him of perverseness. Balaam offered to return; the angel, however, told him to go on but to speak only as God should tell him. Meeting Balak, he announced to him his purpose of saying only what the Lord should reveal. According to his direction seven altars were prepared, upon each of which Balak and Balaam offered a bull and a ram. Three times Balaam tried to speak against Israel, but his utterances were overruled by God, so that instead of cursings there were blessings and magnificent prophecies, reaching forward until they told of “a star” coming “forth from Jacob” (24:17). Balaam is accused by Moses of seducing the Israelites to commit fornication (31:16). The effect of this is recorded in chap. 25. A battle was fought afterward with the Midianites, in which Balaam sided with them and was slain (Num. 31:8). Typical. The “error of Balaam” (Jude 11) was the diviner-prophet’s mistake in concluding on the basis of natural morality that God must righteously curse the nation Israel, seeing the evil in it. He was ignorant of the higher morality of the cross, through which God enforces the awful sanctions of His law, at the same time manifesting His grace, so that He can be just and the justifier of a believing sinner. The “way of Balaam” (2 Pet. 2:15) is the covetous conduct of the typical hireling prophet, solicitous only to commercialize His gift. The “teaching of Balaam” (Rev. 2:14) was the teaching of the mercenary seer to abandon godly separation and a pilgrim character in favor of worldly conformity. Balaam taught Balak to corrupt the people who could not be cursed (Num. 31:15–16; 22:5–6; 23:8) by seducing them to marry Moabite women and commit spiritual adultery (James 4:4). Balaam as a prophet offers the strange spectacle of a prophet-diviner—a mixture of paganistic ritual with a true, though blurred, knowledge of the true God. M.F.U. BIBLIOGRAPHY: E. W. Hengstenberg, Dissertation on the Genuineness of Daniel and the Integrity of Zechariah; and a Dissertation on the History and Prophecies of Balaam (1848), pp. 337–569; S. Cox, Balaam, an Exposition and a Study (1884); E. J. Young, My Servants the Prophets (1955), pp. 20–29. BAL´ADAN (balʹa-dan; Akkad. “[He] Marduk has given a son”). A shortened form of Merodach-Baladan (Babylonian: Marduk-apla-iddina) or Berodach-Baladan, king of Babylon twice (721–710 and 703) in the time of Hezekiah, king of Judah (2 Kings 20:12; Isa. 39:1). He was a powerful Chaldean leader who was able to keep the Assyrians at bay for a few years but was ultimately destroyed by them. H.F.V. BA´LAH (bāʹla; to “decay”). A city in Simeon (Josh. 19:3), or Baalah (15:29). BA´LAK (bāʹlak; “destroyer, emptier”). The son of Zippor, the king of the Moabites (Num. 22:2, 4). He was so terrified at the approach of the victorious army of the Israelites, who, in their passage through the desert had encamped near the confines of his territory, that he appealed to Balaam to curse them, about 1400 B.C. His designs being frustrated in this direction, he acted upon Balaam’s suggestion and seduced the Israelites to commit fornication (25:1; Rev. 2:14). BALANCES (Heb. mō˒znayim, i.e., “two scales”). That these were known to the early Hebrews and in common use is evident from the frequent reference to them in the OT (Lev. 19:36; Job 6:2; 31:6, “scales”; Hos. 12:7; etc.). The probability is that the Hebrews used the common balances of Egypt. They were not essentially different from the balances now in use. Sometimes they were suspended by a ring, and in other cases the crossbeams turned upon a pin at the summit of an upright pole, each end of the arm terminating in a hook, to which the precious metal to be weighed was attached in small bags. Figurative. In a figurative sense the balance is employed in Scripture as an emblem of justice and fair dealing (Job 31:6; Ps. 62:9; Prov. 11:1). A balance or scale used in connection with the sale of bread or fruit by weight is the symbol of scarcity (Rev. 6:5; see also Lev. 26:26; Ezek. 4:16–17). BALD LOCUST. See Animal Kingdom: Locust. BALDNESS. In Scripture baldness is mentioned as a defect, interfering with personal beauty; and the more naturally so, as the hair was frequently allowed to grow with peculiar luxuriance as an ornament. Natural baldness appears to have been uncommon and is alluded to as a mark of squalor and misery (Isa. 3:24; 15:2; Jer. 47:5). The address to Elisha, “Go up, you baldhead” (2 Kings 2:23), may mean that his scoffers referred to his age only. Baldness was expressly distinguished from leprosy but had certain points of contact with it (Lev. 13:40–44). Artificial baldness was a mark of mourning (Jer. 16:6; Ezek. 7:18; Amos 8:10) and was forbidden to the Israelites on the ground of their being a holy people (Deut. 14:1–2); it was a punishment inflicted upon captives (21:12). The priests were forbidden to make their heads bald or to shave off the corners of their beards (Lev. 21:5; Ezek. 44:20). The Jewish interpretation of this injunction excluded a bald priest from ministering at the altar, although baldness is not mentioned as a disqualification (Lev. 21:17–20). Baldness by shaving marked the conclusion of a Nazirite’s vow (Num. 6:9, 18). BALM. See Vegetable Kingdom. BALSAM TREE. See Vegetable Kingdom. BA´MAH (baʹma; “height”). A high place where idols were worshiped. The word appears in its Heb. form only in Ezek. 20:29, where in the first part of the verse it is translated “high place.” By some the name is supposed to refer to some particular spot. Keil (Com., ad loc.) says that the word “is to be taken collectively and that the use of the singular is to be explained from the antithesis to the one divinely appointed Holy Place in the temple, and not from any allusion to one particular bamah of peculiar distinction.” BA´MOTH (baʹmōth; “heights”). The forty-seventh station of the Israelites (Num. 21:19–20) in the country of the Moabites, and probably the same as Bamoth-baal (which see). BA´MOTH-BA´AL (baʹmoth-bāʹal; “heights of Baal”). A place E of the Jordan, beside the river Arnon (Josh. 13:17). In the RV at Num. 21:28, called “the high places of Arnon.” Bamoth-baal is called Beth-bamoth on the Moabite Stone (line 27, which see), and is located somewhere near Mt. Nebo. BAN. See Devote, Devoted. BAND. The representative of several Heb. and Gk. words, especially of speira, a “cohort.” See Army. BANGLES. See Anklets. BA´NI (ba-ni; “built”). 1. A Gadite, one of David’s mighty men (2 Sam. 23:36), about 1000 B.C. 2. A Levite, son of Shemer and father of Amzi, a descendant of Merari (1 Chron. 6:46). 3. A descendant of Perez and father of Imri, one of whose descendants returned from Babylon (1 Chron. 9:4) long before 536 B.C. 4. One whose “sons” (descendants or retainers), to the number of 642, returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:10). He is elsewhere (Neh. 7:15) called Binnui. He is probably the one mentioned (10:14) as having sealed the covenant. 5. The name of Bani is given (Ezra 10:29, 34, 38) three times as one who, either himself or his descendants, had taken strange wives after the captivity. 6. A Levite whose son, Rehum, repaired a portion of the wall of Jerusalem (Neh. 3:17). Apparently the same Bani was among those who were conspicuous in all the reforms on the return from Babylon (8:7; 9:4; 10:13). He had another son named Uzzi, who was appointed overseer of the Levites at Jerusalem; his own father’s name was Hashabiah (Neh. 11:22). BANISH (Heb. nādaḥ, to “cast out,” 2 Sam. 14:13–14); Banishment (Heb. maddûaḥ, “causes of banishment,” Lam. 2:14, KJV, but NASB, “oracles,” marg., RV Revised Version marg. margin, marginal reading “burdens”; Aram. sh rōshı ̂, “rooting out,” Ezra 7:26, NASB, marg.). Banishment was not a punishment prescribed by the Mosaic law but was adopted, together with the forfeiture of property, by the Jews after the captivity. It also existed among the Romans, together with another form of exile called disportatio, which was a punishment of great severity. The person banished forfeited his estate and was transported to some island named by the emperor, there to be kept in perpetual confinement (see Smith, Dict. of Classical Antiquity, s.v. “Banishment”). Thus the apostle John was banished to the island of Patmos (Rev. 1:9). BANK. In Scripture the term bank does not designate a financial institution for the custody of money but rather a “table” or “counter” (Gk. trapeza) at which a money changer stood or sat, exchanging coins (Matt. 21:12; Mark 11:15; John 2:15). In Luke 19:23, however, the word apparently approximates “bank” in the modern sense of the word. In the simple pastoral-agricultural economy of the OT era, loaning money among the Hebrews was not viewed favorably (Ex. 22:25; Lev. 25:37). In the NT period, however, not only was money lent between friends, but money lending was a lucrative business. The banker presided at his table (Luke 19:23) and loaned funds to others in pledge of mortgage (cf. Neh. 5:3–4). Exchanging money from one denomination to another, as shekels for the half shekel for the Temple tax, or current coins for foreign money, such as the Hebrew shekel for the Roman denarius or Greek drachma, was a profitable branch of the ancient banking business. M.F.U. BANNER (Heb. ˒ôt). A more literal rendering of this word is “sign” (Num. 2:2, see marg.), denoting the standard of each tribe and one that is different from the degel, the banner of these tribes together. BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Pedersen, Israel, Its Life and Culture (1959), 3-4:1–13; R. deVaux, Ancient Israel: Its Life and Institutions (1961), pp. 227–29. BANQUET (generally Heb. mishteh, “drinking”). Feasts are common in the Scripture narratives, and hospitality has always characterized life in Bible lands. Occasions. Besides being a part of the religious observance of the great festivals, banquets or feasts were given on great family occasions, such as a birthday (Gen. 40:20; Matt. 14:6), the weaning of a son and heir (Gen. 21:8), a marriage (29:22; Judg. 14:10; Esther 2:18; Matt. 22:2–4), the separation and reunion of friends (Gen. 31:27, 54), a burial (2 Sam. 3:35; Jer. 16:7; Hos. 9:4), a sheep-shearing (1 Sam. 25:2, 8, 36; 2 Sam. 13:23–29). Time. The usual time for holding the banquet was toward evening, corresponding to the dinners of modern times. To begin early was a mark of excess (Isa. 5:11; Eccles. 10:16). These festivals were often continued for seven days, especially wedding banquets (Judg. 14:12); but if the bride was a widow, three days formed the limit. Invitations. Invitations were sent out through servants (Prov. 9:2–3; Matt. 22:3–4, 8–9) some time previous to the banquet; and a later announcement informed the expected guests that the arrangements were complete and their presence was looked for (22:4; Luke 14:7). This after-summons was sent only to those who had accepted the previous invitation, and to violate that acceptance for trivial reasons could only be viewed as a gross insult. Etiquette. At a small entrance door a servant received the tablets or cards of the guests, who were then conducted into the receiving room. After the whole company had arrived, the master of the house shut the door with his own hands, a signal that no others were to be admitted (Luke 13:25; Matt. 25:10). The guests were kissed upon their arrival (Tobit 7:6; Luke 7:45); their feet washed (7:44), a custom common in ancient Greece and still found in Palestine; the hair and beard anointed (Ps. 23:5; Amos 6:6); and their places assigned them according to rank (1 Sam. 9:22; Luke 14:8; Mark 12:39). In some cases each guest was furnished with a magnificent garment of a light and showy color and richly embroidered, to be worn during the banquet (Eccles. 9:8; Rev. 3:4–5). The refusal of such a mark of respect implied a contempt for the host and his entertainment that could not fail to provoke resentment (Matt. 22:11). Fare. In general the feasts of the Israelites were simple; but, no doubt, under the kings, with growing prosperity and luxury, riotous banquets were not unknown. Particularly choice dishes were set before the guest intended to be specially honored (1 Sam. 9:24), sometimes a double (1:5) and even fivefold portion (Gen. 43:34). In addition to a great variety of foods, wine was used, often drugged with spices (Prov. 9:2; song of Sol. 8:2); the banquets frequently degenerated into drinking bouts (Isa. 5:12; Amos 6:6). The Jews of the OT appear to have used a common table for all the guests, although persons of high official position were honored with a separate table. In some cases a ceremonial separation prevailed, as at Joseph’s entertainment of his brothers (Gen. 43:32). In early times sitting was the usual posture (1 Sam. 16:11; 20:5, 18); but later they adopted the luxurious practice of reclining upon couches (Luke 7:37–38; John 12:2–3). In the houses of the common people the women and children also took part in the feast (1 Sam. 1:4; John 12:3), the separation of the women not being a Jewish custom. Diversion. At private banquets the master of the house presided and did the honors of the occasion, but in large and mixed companies it was the ancient custom to choose a “headwaiter” (John 2:8). This functionary performed the office of chairman in preserving order and also took upon himself the general management of the festivities. The guests were entertained with exhibitions of music, singers, dancers, riddles, jesting, and merriment (Wisd. of Sol. 2:7; 2 Sam. 19:35; Isa. 5:12; 25:6; Judg. 14:12; Neh. 8:10; Amos 6:5–6; Luke 15:25). See Festivals; Food. BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. C. Bouquet, Everyday Life in New Testament Times (1954), pp. 66– 79. BAPTISM. The application of water as a rite of purification or initiation; a Christian sacrament. See Sacraments. The word baptism is the English form of the Gk. baptismos. The verb from which this noun is derived—baptizo—is held by some scholars to mean “to dip, immerse.” But this meaning is held by others to be not the most exact or common but rather a meaning that is secondary or derived. By the latter it is claimed that all the term necessarily implies is that the element employed in baptism is in close contact with the person or object baptized. The Gk. prepositions en and eis have played a prominent part in discussions respecting the mode of baptism. The scope of this article is limited mainly to Christian baptism, but as preliminary to this brief mention is made of Jewish baptism, John’s baptism, the baptism of Jesus, and the baptism of Christ’s disciples: Jewish Baptism. Baptisms, or ceremonial purifications, were common among the Jews. Not only priests and other persons but also clothing, utensils, and articles of furniture were thus ceremonially cleansed (Lev. 8:6; Ex. 19:10–14; Mark 7:3–4; Heb. 9:10). John’s Baptism. The baptism of John was not Christian, but Jewish. It was, however, especially a baptism “for repentance.” The only faith that it expressed concerning Christ was that His coming was close at hand. Those who confessed and repented of their sins and were baptized by John were thus obedient to his call to “make ready the way of the Lord” (Matt. 3:3). Because the disciples Paul met at Ephesus (Acts 19:1–7) were “acquainted only with the baptism of John” (18:25), i.e., were ignorant of the Christian message and the baptism of the Holy Spirit, save as a prophesied event (19:4), they did not “receive the Holy Spirit, when [they] believed” (19:2). They had heard only John’s message and received only John’s baptism, which were introductory and merely preparatory. Faith in them could not bring the free gift of the Holy Spirit. The moment they heard and believed the new message of a crucified, risen, and ascended Savior, they received the blessing of that message—the gift of the Holy Spirit, which included His baptizing ministry. Baptism of Jesus. The baptism that Jesus received from John was unique in its significance and purpose. It could not be like that which John administered to others, for Jesus did not make confession; He had no occasion to repent. Neither was it Christian baptism, the significance of which we shall consider later. Jesus Himself declared the main purpose and meaning of this event in His words “It is fitting for us to fulfill all righteousness” (Matt. 3:15). It was an act of ceremonial righteousness appropriate to His public entrance upon His mission as the Christ, which included His threefold office of Prophet, Priest, and King, especially the second, for the essence of His redemptive work lies in His consecration as a Priest, the Great High Priest. In this office He offered not “the blood of goats and bulls,” but Himself to put away sin (Heb. 9:13–26). It is this consecration to His redemptive priesthood that comes into clearest view in His baptism in the Jordan. By “fulfilling all righteousness” our Lord meant the righteousness of obedience to the Mosaic law. The Levitical law required all priests to be consecrated when they began to be about thirty years of age (Num. 4:3; Luke 3:23). The consecration was twofold—first the washing (baptism), then the anointing (Ex. 29:4–7; Lev. 8:6–36). When John on the Jordan’s bank “washed” (baptized) Jesus, the heavens were opened, and the Holy Spirit came upon Him. This was the priestly anointing of Him who was not only a Priest by divine appointment but an eternal Priest (Ps. 110:4) who was thus divinely consecrated for the work of redemption (Matt. 3:16; Acts 4:27; 10:38). Baptism of Christ’s Disciples. That Christ Himself baptized His disciples is a matter, to say the least, involved in doubt. Although it is probable that at the beginning of His ministry our Lord baptized those who believed in Him, He not long afterward delegated this work to His disciples (John 4:1–2). The office of Christ was and is to baptize with the Holy Spirit. His disciples administered the symbolical baptism, He that which is real (Matt. 3:11). Christian Baptism. This may be considered under two heads: Baptist and non- Baptist views. Baptist Views. Christian baptism is the immersion of a believer in water as a sign of his previous entrance into the communion of Christ’s death, burial, and resurrection. In other words, baptism is a token of the regenerated soul’s union with Christ. Obligation. Baptism is an ordinance instituted by Christ (Matt. 28:19; Mark 16:16), practiced by the apostles (Acts 2:38), submitted to by members of NT churches (Rom. 6:3–5; Col. 2:11–12), and subsequently practiced as a rite in Christian churches. No church hierarchy has the right to modify or dispense with this command of Christ because only the local church (no other visible church of Christ) is known in the NT, and it is purely an executive, not a legislative body. Significance. Symbolizing regeneration through union with Christ, baptism portrays not only Christ’s death and resurrection and their purpose in atoning for sin in delivering sinners from sin’s penalty and power, but also betokens the accomplishment of that purpose in the person baptized (Rom. 6:3–5; Gal. 3:27; Col. 3:3). By that external rite the believer professes his death to sin and resurrection to spiritual life. He also gives witness to the method by which God’s purpose has been wrought for him, namely, by union with Christ. The rite sets forth the fact that the believer has received Christ and in faith given himself to Him (Rom. 6:5; Col. 2:12). Proper Subjects of Baptism. Only those who give credible evidence of regeneration, and who thus by faith have entered into the communion of Christ’s death and resurrection, are considered proper candidates for the rite. Biblical authority for this view is given in the command of Christ that those are to be baptized who have previously been made disciples (Matt. 28:19; Acts 2:41), or previously repented and believed (2:37–38; 8:12; 18:8). It is also proved from the nature of the church as a company of regenerated believers (John 3:5; Rom. 6:13) and the symbolism of the ordinance itself (Acts 10:47; Rom. 6:2–5; Gal. 3:26–27). Since it is intended only for the regenerate, baptism can never be the means of regeneration. It is the appointed sign, but never the condition, of forgiveness of sins. Mode. This is immersion only as confirmed from the meaning of the original Gk. word baptizo in Greek writers and church Fathers, and in the NT. Immersion was a doctrine and practice of the Greek church. Administration. Many Baptists, and others practicing believer’s baptism, require the rite to be performed properly as a prerequisite to membership in the local church and participation in the Lord’s Supper. Non-Baptist Views. The views of other Christian groups on the subject of baptism vary from those like most Quakers, who deny the present-day validity of the rite at all, to Roman Catholics and others who attach to it regenerating efficacy. Obligation. Most Christians believe that the rite, in one form or another, for one purpose or another, is permanently obligatory and rests upon Christ’s command (Matt. 28:19) and the practice of the early church. Significance. The Roman Catholic and the Greek Orthodox churches, most Lutheran bodies, and many in the Church of England and the Protestant Episcopal church hold that baptism is the direct instrument of regeneration. Roman Catholics subscribe so strongly to this view that, accordingly, they also hold that all adults or infants who die unbaptized are excluded from heaven. Many evangelical churches believe that baptism is not only the rite of initiation into the church of Christ but a sign and seal of divine grace symbolizing spiritual cleansing or purification (Acts 22:16; Rom. 6:4–11; Titus 3:5). For example, the Westminster Confession, art. 28, says: “Baptism is a sacrament of the New Testament, ordained by Jesus Christ, not only for the solemn admission of the party baptized into the visible Church, but also to be unto him a sign and seal of the covenant of grace of his ingrafting into Christ, of regeneration, of remission of sins, and of his giving up unto God through Jesus Christ, to walk in newness of life; which sacrament is, by Christ’s own appointment, to be continued in His Church until the end of the world.” As circumcision was the sign and seal of the Abrahamic covenant and practiced under the Mosaic covenant, so baptism is construed as the sign and seal of the New Covenant of the gospel. Baptism, under the new economy, takes the place of circumcision under the old (Col. 2:10–12). Proper Subjects of Baptism. In contrast to those holding Baptist views that exclude all except adult believers from the rite, many believe it should be administered to children who have believing parents or sponsors to care for their Christian nurture. This is contended to be scriptural since Paul expressly teaches that believers in Christ are under the gracious provisions of the covenant that God made with Abraham (Gal. 3:15–29). Under the Abrahamic covenant circumcision was administered to children as a sign of their participation in the relation in which their parents stood to God. It is contended that children of Christian parentage have a similar right to the ordinance, which is construed as having replaced circumcision. Mode. Non-Baptists deny that immersion is the only valid mode of baptism and admit sprinkling, pouring, and immersion as legitimate. All that is held essential is the application of water “in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.” Administration. The administration of baptism is commonly regarded as exclusively a prerogative of the ministerial office. The wise and proper observance of church order has deemed this necessary, although in extreme cases it is held that a layman (or even a laywoman) can perform the rite. The same view is held among Lutherans and others who hold strongly to the doctrine of baptismal regeneration. BIBLIOGRAPHY: K. Barth, The Teaching of the Church Regarding Baptism (1948); O. Cullmann, Baptism in the New Testament (1959); J. Warns, Baptism (1958); J. Jeremias, Infant Baptism in the First Four Centuries (1960); R. E. O. White, The Biblical Doctrine of Initiation (1960); G. R. Beasley-Murray, Baptism in the New Testament (1962); K. Aland, Did the Early Church Baptize Infants? (1963); T. J. Conant, The Meaning and Use of BAPTIZEIN (1977). BAPTISM FOR THE DEAD (1 Cor. 15:29). Of this difficult passage there are many expositions, a few of which we present: 1. The Cerinthians, the Marcionites, and other heretics had a custom supposed to be referred to by the apostle. Persons who had been baptized had themselves baptized again for the benefit of people who had died unbaptized but already believing, in the persuasion that this would be counted to them as their own baptism. From this the apostle drew an argument to prove their belief in the resurrection. Meyer (Com., ad loc.) believes that this is the practice to which the apostle refers. “‘For the benefit of the dead’ remains the right interpretation.” 2. Chrysostom believed the apostle referred to the profession of faith in baptism, part of which was, “I believe in the resurrection of the dead.” The meaning, then, would be, “If there is no resurrection of the dead, why, then, art thou baptized for the dead, i.e., the body?” Whedon (Com., ad loc.) holds to this interpretation and says: “The apostolic Christians were baptized into the faith of the resurrection of the dead, and thereby they were sponsors in behalf of the dead, that the dead should rise.” 3. Another interpretation, that of Spanheim, considers “the dead” to be martyrs and other believers who, by firmness and cheerful hope of resurrection, have given in death a worthy example, by which others were also inspired to receive baptism. This interpretation, however, may perhaps also be improved if Christ is considered as prominently referred to among those deceased, by virtue of whose resurrection all His followers expect to be likewise raised. 4. Olshausen takes the meaning of the passage to be that “all who are converted to the Church are baptized for the good of the dead, as it requires a certain number (Rom. 11:12–25), a ‘fullness’ of believers, before the resurrection can take place.” 5. “Over the graves of the martyrs.” Vossius adopted this interpretation, but it is unlikely that this custom should have prevailed in the days of Paul. BAPTISM OF FIRE. It is clear from the immediate context of this reference (Matt. 3:9–12; Luke 3:16–17) and from the general testimony of Scripture, that this baptism of fire is connected with judgment at the second advent of Christ as the baptism with the Holy Spirit (Acts 1:5 with 11:16) is connected with grace flowing from the death, resurrection, and ascension of Christ at His first advent. As John F. Walvoord correctly observes, “While the Church Age is introduced with a baptism of the Spirit, the Kingdom Age is to be introduced with a baptism of fire” (Doct. of the Holy Spirit [1943], p. 165). At first glance it might seem singular that John the Baptist should speak of the first and second advents in such intimate connection, but he is merely expressing himself as many of the OT prophets do, who often envision the Lord’s first and second comings in a blended view and speak of both in the same clause (cf. Isa. 61:1–2 with Luke 4:16–21). Though some expositors, as Plumptre, have attempted to find a fulfillment of the baptism with fire in the “tongues as of fire” (Acts 2:3), and others have construed it as a description of the baptizing work of the Holy Spirit as an experience to be sought in this age, a kind of “second Pentecost,” these interpretations are manifestly erroneous. It is not scriptural to pray for a baptism with fire; there is no such baptism now, for the believer has been graciously delivered from wrath by the blood of Christ. M.F.U. BAPTISM OF JE´SUS. See Baptism: Baptism of Jesus. BAPTISM OF THE SPIRIT. This momentous spiritual operation is set forth in the NT as the basis of all the believer’s positions and possessions “in Christ” (Eph. 1:3; Col. 2:10; 3:1–4; etc.). The operation is prophetic in the gospels (Matt. 3:11; Mark 1:8; Luke 3:16–17; John 1:33–34, where Christ is the baptizer), historic in the Acts (cf. 1:5 with 11:16), and doctrinal in the epistles (1 Cor. 12:13, where the Spirit is named specifically as the agent; Rom. 6:3–4; Gal. 3:26–27; Col. 2:9–12; Eph. 4:5). The Spirit’s baptizing work, placing the believer “in Christ,” occurred initially at Pentecost at the advent of the Spirit, who baptized believing Jews “into Christ.” In Acts 8, Samaritans were baptized in this way for the first time; in chap. 10, Gentiles likewise were so baptized, at which point the normal agency of the Spirit as baptizer was attained. According to the clear teaching of the epistles, every believer is baptized by the Spirit into Christ the moment he is regenerated. He is also simultaneously indwelt by the Spirit and sealed eternally, with the privilege of being filled with the Spirit, as the conditions for filling are met. No subject in all the range of biblical theology is so neglected, on one hand, or misunderstood and abused, on the other, as this. The baptism of the Spirit is widely confused with regeneration and with the indwelling, sealing, and filling ministries of the Spirit, as well as with water baptism and a so-called “second blessing.” M.F.U.; R.K.H. BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. D. G. Dunn, Baptism in the Holy Spirit (1970); M. F. Unger, Baptizing Work of the Holy Spirit (1974); R. E. O. White, Evangelical Dictionary of Theology. BAR. A word with various meanings. (1) A bar, crossbar passing along the sides and rear of the Tabernacle (which see), through rings attached to each board, and thus holding the boards together (Ex. 26:26–29). (2) A bar or bolt for fastening a gate or door (Judg. 16:3; Neh. 3:3, 6, 13–15). The word is used figuratively of a rock in the sea (Jonah 2:6), the bank or shore of the sea (Job 38:10, NASB, “bolt”), of strong fortifications and impediments (Isa. 45:2; Amos 1:5). BAR- (Aram., “son”). A patronymic sign, used like Ben, which had the same meaning. Ben, however, prevails in the pure Heb. names of the OT, and Bar in those of the NT, because bar was much more used in the Aram. and Syr. languages. R.K.H. R. K. Harrison Syr. Syriac BARAB´BAS (bar-abʹas; Gk. barabbas, for Aram. bar˒abbā˒, “son of the father,” or “Abba”). A robber who had committed murder in an insurrection (Mark 15:7; Luke 23:19) in Jerusalem and was lying in prison at the time of the trial of Jesus before Pilate, A.D. 29. The latter, in his anxiety to save Jesus, proposed to release Him to the people, in accordance with their demand that he should release one prisoner to them at the Passover. Barabbas was guilty of the crimes of murder and sedition, making him liable to both Roman and Jewish law. But the Jews were so bent on the death of Jesus that of the two they preferred pardoning this double criminal (Matt. 27:20; Mark 15:11; Luke 23:18; John 18:40). “And wishing to satisfy the multitude, Pilate released Barabbas for them, and after having Jesus scourged, he delivered Him over to be crucified” (Mark 15:15). BAR´ACHEL (barʹa-kel; “God has blessed”). The father of Elihu the Buzite, one of four persons who visited Job in his affliction (Job 32:2, 6). BARACHI´AH. See Berechiah. BARACHI´AS. See Berechiah; Zechariah. BA´RAH. See Beth-barah. BAR´AK (bārʹak; “lightning”). The son of Abinoam of Kedesh, a city of refuge in the tribe of Naphtali (Judg. 4:6). He was summoned by the prophetess Deborah to take the field against the army of the Canaanitish king, Jabin, commanded by Sisera, with a force of ten thousand men from the tribes of Naphtali and Zebulun. He was further instructed to proceed to Mt. Tabor, for Jehovah would draw Sisera and his host to meet him at the river Kishon and deliver him into his hand. Barak consented only on the condition that Deborah would go with him, which she readily promised. Sisera, being informed of Barak’s movements, proceeded against him with his whole army, including nine hundred chariots. At a signal given by the prophetess, the little army, seizing the opportunity of a providential storm, boldly rushed down the hill and utterly routed the host of the Canaanites. The victory was decisive: Harosheth- hagoyim was taken, Sisera murdered, and Jabin ruined (chap. 4), between 1195 and 1155 B.C. The victory was celebrated by a beautiful hymn of praise composed by Barak in conjunction with Deborah (chap. 5). Barak appears in the list of the faithful of the OT (Heb. 11:32). BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Kitto, Daily Bible Illustrations (1981), 1:457–63. BARAKEL. See Barachel. BARBARIAN (Gk. barbaros, “rude”). Originally the term was the Gk. epithet for a people speaking any language other than Gk. After the Persian wars it began to carry with it associations of hatred and to imply vulgarity and lack of culture. The Romans were originally included by the Greeks under the name barbaroi, but after the conquest of Greece and the transference of Greek art and culture to Rome, the Romans took the same position as the Greeks before them and designated as barbarians all who in language and manners differed from the Greco-Roman world. The word barbarian is applied in the NT, but not reproachfully, to the inhabitants of Malta (Acts 28:4, see marg.), who were of Phoenician or Punic origin, and to those nations that had indeed some refinement of manners but not the opportunity of becoming Christians, such as the Scythians (Col. 3:11). The phrase “Greeks and … barbarians” (Rom. 1:14) means “all peoples.” BARBER (Heb. gallāb). Occurs but once in the Scriptures (Ezek. 5:1); but, inasmuch as great attention was paid to the hair and beard among the ancients, the barber must have been a well-known tradesman. See Hair. BAREFOOT (Heb. yāḥēf, “unshod,” Jer. 2:25). In the East great importance was attached to the clothing, and feelings respecting it were peculiarly sensitive, so that a person was looked upon as stripped and naked if he only removed an outer garment. To go “barefoot” was an indication of great distress (Isa. 20:2–4; 2 Sam. 15:30). Persons were also accustomed to removing their shoes when coming to places accounted holy (Ex. 3:5). BARHU´MITE (bar-hūʹmīt). A transposed form (2 Sam. 23:31) of the Gentile name Baharumite (which see). BARIAH (ba-rīʹah). The third son of Shemaiah, a royal descendant of David (1 Chron. 3:22). BAR-JE´SUS (bar-jîʹsus; “son of Joshua”). Otherwise called Elymas (which see), a demonized sorcerer-magician who withstood Barnabas and Paul (Acts 13:6–12). BARJO´NA (bar-jōʹna; “son of Jonah”). The patronymic of the apostle Peter (Matt. 16:17; cf. John 1:42). BAR´KOS (barʹkos). The head of one of the families of Temple servants that returned from the captivity with Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:53; Neh. 7:55), 536 B.C. BARLEY. See Vegetable Kingdom. BAR´NABAS (barʹna-bas; Gk. from Aram. barn -bû˒â, “son of prophecy,” especially as it is manifested in exhortation and comfort). The name given by the apostles to Joseph (Acts 4:36), probably on account of his eminence as a Christian teacher. Charity. Barnabas was a native of Cyprus and a Levite by extraction. Possessing land, he generously disposed of it for the benefit of the Christian community and laid the money at the apostles’ feet (Acts 4:36–37). As this transaction occurred soon after the Day of Pentecost, he must have been an early convert to Christianity. Associated with Paul. When Paul made his first appearance in Jerusalem, Barnabas brought him to the apostles and attested to his sincerity (Acts 9:27). Word being brought to Jerusalem of the revival at Antioch, Barnabas (who is described as “a good man, and full of the Holy Spirit and of faith,” 11:24) was sent to make inquiry. Finding the work to be genuine, he labored among them for a time; fresh converts were added to the church through his personal efforts. He then went to Tarsus to obtain the assistance of Saul, who returned with him to Antioch, where they labored for a whole year (11:19–26). In anticipation of the famine predicted by Agabus, the Christians at Antioch made a contribution for their poor brethren at Jerusalem and sent it by the hands of Barnabas and Saul (11:27–30), A.D. 44. They, however, speedily returned, bringing with them John Mark, a nephew of the former (12:25). First Missionary Journey. By divine direction (Acts 13:2) they were separated to the office of missionaries and as such visited Cyprus and some of the principal cities in Asia Minor (13:14). At Lystra, because of a miracle performed by Paul, they were taken for gods, the people calling Barnabas Zeus (14:8–12). Returning to Antioch, they found the peace of the church disturbed by a certain sect from Judea, who insisted upon the Gentile converts being circumcised. Paul and Barnabas, with others, were sent to Jerusalem to consult with the apostles and elders. They returned to communicate the result of the conference, accompanied by Judas and Silas (15:1–32). Second Missionary Journey. As they prepared for a second missionary journey, a dispute arose between Paul and Barnabas on account of John Mark. Barnabas determined to take Mark with them; Paul was not sure that they should. The contention became so sharp that they separated, Barnabas with Mark going to Cyprus, while Paul and Silas went through Syria and Cilicia (Acts 15:36–41). At this point Barnabas disappears from the record of the Acts. Several times he is mentioned in the writings of Paul, but nothing special is noted save that Barnabas was at one time led away by Judaizing zealots. All else is a matter of inference. BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. S. Howson, The Companions of St. Paul (n.d.), pp. 7–27; H. S. Seekings, Men of the Pauline Circle (1914), pp. 33–39; W. S. LaSor, Great Personalities of the New Testament (1961), pp. 118–27; D. E. Hiebert, Personalities Around Paul (1973), pp. 46–62. BARREL. The English term barrel, from Heb. kad, appears only in the KJV. In the NASB it is replaced by bowl (marg., lit. “pitcher,” 1 Kings 17:12, 14, 16) and pitcher (1 Kings 18:33). The NIV renders it “jar” (1 Kings 17:12, 14, 16; 18:33) consistently. See Bowl; Pitcher. BARREN (Heb. ˓āqār, when spoken of persons). Barrenness, in the East, was looked upon as a ground of great reproach as well as a punishment from God (1 Sam. 1:6; Isa. 47:9; 49:21; Luke 1:7, 25; etc.). Instances of childless wives are found in Gen. 11:30; 25:21; 29:31; Judg. 13:2–3; and Luke 1:7, 36. Certain marriages were forbidden by Moses and were visited with barrenness (Lev. 20:20–21). The reproach attached to barrenness, especially among the Hebrews, was doubtless due to the constant expectation of the Messiah and the hope cherished by every woman that she might be the mother of the promised Seed. In order to avoid the disgrace of barrenness, women gave their handmaidens to their husbands, regarding the children born under such circumstances as their own (Gen. 16:2; 30:3). BARSAB´BAS (bar-sabʹas; “son of Sabas”). A surname. 1. Of Joseph, a disciple who was nominated along with Matthias to succeed Judas Iscariot in the apostleship (Acts 1:23). 2. Of Judas, who, with Silas, was sent to Antioch in the company of Paul and Barnabas (Acts 15:22). BARTHOL´OMEW (bar-tholʹo-mū; “son of Tolmai”). One of the twelve apostles of Jesus, and generally supposed to have been the same person who in John’s gospel is called Nathanael. Name and Family. In the first three gospels (Matt. 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:14) Philip and Bartholomew are constantly named together, whereas Nathanael is not mentioned. In the fourth gospel Philip and Nathanael are similarly combined, but nothing is said of Bartholomew. Nathanael must therefore be considered his real name, whereas Bartholomew merely expresses his filial relation (Kitto). Personal History. If this may be taken as true, he was born in Cana of Galilee (John 21:2). Philip, having accepted Jesus, told Bartholomew that he had “found Him of whom Moses in the Law and also the Prophets wrote, Jesus of Nazareth.” To his question, “Can any good thing come out of Nazareth?” Philip replied, “Come and see.” His fastidious reluctance was soon dispelled. Jesus, as He saw him coming to Him, uttered the eulogy “Behold an Israelite, indeed, in whom is no guile!” (John 1:45–47). He was appointed with the other apostles (Matt. 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:14), was one of the disciples to whom the Lord appeared after the resurrection (John 21:2), was a witness of the ascension, and returned with the other apostles to Jerusalem (Acts 1:4, 12–13). Tradition only speaks of his subsequent history. He is said to have preached the gospel in India (probably Arabia Felix); others say in Armenia, and report him to have been flayed alive there, then crucified with his head downward. Character. Nathanael “seems to have been one of those calm, retiring souls whose whole sphere of existence lies not here, but ‘where, beyond these voices, there is peace.’ It was a life of which the world sees nothing, because it was ‘hid with Christ in God’” (Farrar). BIBLIOGRAPHY: D. Browne, Expository Times 38 (1927): 286; R. B. Y. Scott, Expository Times 38 (1927): 93–94; W. Barclay, The Master’s Men (1959), pp. 102–13; J. D. Jones, The Apostles of Christ (1982), pp. 130–49. BARTIMAE´US (bar-ti-māʹus; “son of Timaeus”). A blind beggar of Jericho who sat by the wayside begging as our Lord went out of the city on His last journey to Jerusalem (Mark 10:46). Hearing that Jesus was passing, he cried for mercy, and in answer to his faith he was miraculously cured and “began following Him on the road” (v. 52). BA´RUCH (baʹruk; “blessed”). 1. The son of Zabbai. He repaired (445 B.C.) that part of the wall of Jerusalem between the Angle of Zion and the house of Eliashib the high priest (Neh. 3:20) and joined in Nehemiah’s covenant (10:6). 2. Son of Col-hozeh, a descendant of Perez, a son of Judah. His son Maaseiah dwelt in Jerusalem after the captivity (Neh. 11:5). 3. Son of Neriah and brother of Seraiah, who held an honorable office in Zedekiah’s court (Jer. 32:12; 36:4; 51:59). Baruch was the faithful friend and scribe of Jeremiah. In the fourth year of King Jehoiakim (about 604 B.C.), Baruch was directed to write all the prophecies delivered by Jeremiah and read them to the people. This he did in the “Lord’s house” both that and the succeeding year. He afterward read them privately to the king’s counselors, telling them that he had received them through the prophet’s dictation. The king, when the roll was brought to him, cut it and threw it into the fire. He ordered the arrest of Jeremiah and Baruch, but they could not be found. Baruch wrote another roll, including all that was in the former and an additional prediction of the ruin of Jehoiakim and his house (chap. 36). Terrified by the threats in the prophetic roll, he received the assurance that he should be spared from the calamities that would befall Judah (chap. 45). During the siege of Jerusalem Jeremiah purchased the territory of Hanamel and deposited the deed with Baruch (32:12), 590 B.C. Baruch was accused of influencing Jeremiah in favor of the Chaldeans (Jer. 43:3; cf. 37:13), and he was thrown into prison with the prophet, where he remained until the capture of Jerusalem (Josephus Ant. 10.9.1). By the permission of Nebuchadnezzar he lived with Jeremiah at Mizpah but was afterward forced to go to Egypt (Jer. 43:6–7). Nothing certain is known of the close of his life. According to one tradition, he went to Babylon upon the death of Jeremiah, where he died, the twelfth year after the destruction of Jerusalem. There are two apocryphal books that purport to be the productions of Baruch. BIBLIOGRAPHY: S. Cox, The Expositor (1896), 2:192–216. BARZIL´LAI (bar-zilʹî; “of iron”). 1. A wealthy and aged Gileadite of Rogelim, who showed great hospitality to David when he fled beyond the Jordan from his son Absalom, c. 967 B.C. He sent in a liberal supply of provisions, beds, and other conveniences for the use of the king’s followers (2 Sam. 17:27–29). On the king’s triumphant return Barzillai accompanied him over the Jordan but declined on account of his age (being eighty years old), and perhaps from a feeling of independence, to proceed to Jerusalem and end his days at court. He, however, recommended his son Chimham to the royal favor (19:31–39). On his deathbed David recalled this kindness and commended Barzillai’s children to the care of Solomon (1 Kings 2:7). 2. A Meholathite, father of Adriel, who was the husband of Mereb, Saul’s daughter (2 Sam. 21:8), before 1021 B.C. 3. A priest who married a descendant of Barzillai (no. 1) and assumed the same name. His genealogy became so confused that his descendants, on the return from captivity, were set aside as unfit for the priesthood (Ezra 2:61; Neh. 7:63–64), before 536 B.C. BASE´MATH (basʹe-math; “fragrance”). 1. A daughter of Ishmael, the last married of the three wives of Esau (Gen. 36:3– 4, 13), from whose son Reuel four tribes of the Edomites were descended. When first mentioned she is called Mahalath (28:9), while, on the other hand, the name Basemath is given in the narrative (26:34) to another of Esau’s wives, the daughter of Elon the Hittite. It may have been the original name of one and the name given to the other upon her marriage, for “as a rule, the women received new names when they were married.” 2. A daughter of Solomon who became the wife of Ahimaaz, one of the king’s deputies (1 Kings 4:15), about 965 B.C. BA´SHAN (bāʹshan). This territory extended from Gilead in the S to Hermon on the N, and from the Jordan to Salecah, the present Salkhat, on the E, and included Edrei (Deut. 3:10; Josh. 9:10), Ashtaroth (Deut. 1:4; Josh. 9:10; etc.), the present Tell- Ashtur, and Golan (Deut. 4:43; Josh. 20:8; 21:27). Golan, one of its cities, was a city of refuge. Its productiveness was noted in the OT (Ps. 22:12; Jer. 50:19). The western part is exceedingly fertile today. On the E rise the Hauran Mountains to a height of six thousand feet. It was noted for its fine breed of cattle (Deut. 32:14; Ezek. 39:18). The cities are described by Moses as “cities fortified with high walls, gates and bars” (Deut. 3:5). The inhabitants were giantlike men who were called Rephaim in the era of Abraham (Gen. 14:5). Some of the deserted towns are as perfect as when inhabited. When Israel entered Canaan, Argob, a province of Basham, contained sixty fenced cities (Deut. 3:4–5; 1 Kings 4:13). After the Exile Bashan was divided into four districts: Gaulonitis, or Jaulan, the western; Auranitis, or Hauran (Ezek. 47:16); Argob, or Trachonitis; and Batanaea, now Ard-el-Bathanyeh. BA´SHAN, MOUNTAIN OF. In Ps. 68:15 the poet says, “A mountain of God is the mountain of Bashan;/A mountain of many peaks is the mountain of Bashan.” “This epithet, not applicable to the long, level edge of the tableland, might refer either to the lofty triple summits of Hermon, or to the many broken cones that are scattered across Bashan, and so greatly differ in their volcanic form from the softer, less imposing heights of western Palestine” (Smith, Hist. Geog., p. 550). BA´SHAN-HA´VVOTH-JA´IR (bā-shan-haʹvoth-jāʹre; “The Bashan of the villages of Jair”). The name given by Jair to the places he had conquered in Bashan (Deut. 3:14, KJV). It contained sixty cities with walls and bronze gates (Josh. 13:30; 1 Kings 4:13). In Num. 32:41 it is called Havvoth-jair, which is the correct name (NASB; NIV; also KJV, but with only one “v”). The NASB correctly translates Deut. 3:14: “… Jair called it, that is, Bashan, after his own name, Havvoth-jair, as it is to this day.” BASH´EMATH. See Basemath. BASIN. This word is used for dishes, containers, and bowls of various descriptions. (1) A large bowl, Heb. mizrāq, was a part of the furnishing of the Tabernacle and the Temple, particularly in service at the altar of burnt offering (Num. 4:14) to hold the grain offering (7:13) and to receive sacrificial blood (Zech. 9:15; 14:20). It was commonly made of gold or silver, sometimes of bronze (Ex. 27:3; Num. 7:84). In inordinate reveling, wine is said to be drunk from such bowls (Amos 6:6). (2) A smaller vessel, Heb. ˒aggān, was a vessel for washing, a laver (Ex. 24:6). It was also a wine cup (Isa. 22:24; song of Sol. 7:2, translated “goblet”). See Laver. (3) A shallow vessel, Heb. sap. Such basins were of several types: utensils for holding the animal’s blood (Ex. 12:22; Jer. 52:19), containers for the oil for the sacred candlestick (1 Kings 7:50), basins for domestic purposes (2 Sam. 17:28), and cups for drinking (Zech. 12:2). The basin from which our Lord washed the disciples’ feet (John 13:5) was called a niptēr signifying, evidently, a utensil for washing. See Bowl; Cup. M.F.U. BASKET. No fewer than five common Heb. words are used to denote baskets or containers of different sizes, shapes, and construction. Ancient art reliefs and sculptures and the etymological meaning of the words used show that the baskets were frequently woven or made of fiber from leaves of the palm tree or rushes, leaves, and twigs. Some were used especially for holding bread (Gen. 40:16–18; Ex. 29:3, 23; Lev. 8:2, 26, 31; Num. 6:15, 17, 19). Egyptian bread baskets appear on ancient tombs. Baskets were also used in gathering grapes (Jer. 6:9, KJV) and carrying fruit (Amos 8:1–2). In Egypt heavy burdens such as grain were carried in large baskets swung from a pole hung on the shoulders. In the NT baskets are described as sometimes large enough to hold a man. Paul was lowered from the wall of Damascus in such a hamper (2 Cor. 11:33). M.F.U. BAS´MATH. See Basemath. BASTARD. The word occurs in the KJV in Deut. 23:2 and Zech. 9:6 (NASB, see Zech. 9:6, marg.). Its etymology is obscure, but it appears to denote anyone to whose birth a serious stain is attached. The rabbis applied the term not to any illegitimate offspring but to the issue of any connection within the degrees prohibited by the law (see Marriage). A very probable conjecture is that which applies the term to the offspring of heathen prostitutes in the neighborhood of Palestine who were priestesses of a sort to the Syrian goddess Astarte. In Zech. 9:6, the word is, doubtless, used in the sense of foreigner (so NIV; the NASB reads “mongrel”), expressing the deep degradation of Philistia in being conquered by other people. 1. Persons of illegitimate birth among the Jews had no claim to a share in the paternal inheritance or to the proper filial treatment of children of the family. This is what is referred to in Heb. 12:8, where a contrast is drawn between the treatment that God’s true children might expect, as compared with that given to such as are not so related to Him but are “illegitimate.” 2. Persons of illegitimate birth are forbidden by the canon law from receiving any of the minor orders without a dispensation from the bishop; nor can they in the Latin church be admitted to holy orders or to benefices with cure of souls, except by a dispensation from the pope. In the Church of England a bastard cannot be admitted to orders without a dispensation from the sovereign or archbiship. BAT. See Animal Kingdom. BATH. See Metrology: Liquid Measures of Capacity. BATHE, BATHING (Heb. rāḥaṣ). The hot climate of the East, with its abundant dust, made bathing a constant necessity for the preservation and invigoration of health. This natural necessity was greatly furthered among the Israelites by the religious purifications enjoined by the law. For although these precepts had the higher object of teaching personal purity, they could not fail to intensify the instinct of cleanliness and to make frequent washing and bathing an indispensable arrangement of life. The Israelites, from early times, were accustomed not only to wash the hands and feet before eating but also to bathe the body when about to visit a superior (Ruth 3:3), after mourning, which always implied defilement (2 Sam. 12:20), but especially before any religious service (Gen. 35:2; Ex. 19:10; Josh. 3:5; 1 Sam. 16:5), that they might appear clean before God. The high priest at his inauguration (Lev. 8:6) and on the day of atonement before each act of propitiation (16:4, 24) was also to bathe. Snow water was used to cleanse the body or lye was put into the water (Job 9:30), also bran, according to the Mishna. Bathing in running water (Lev. 15:13) or in rivers (2 Kings 5:10; Ex. 2:5) was especially favored. Baths were placed in the courts of private houses (2 Sam. 11:2; Susanna 15). In the later Temple there were bathrooms over the chambers for the use of the priests. The “pools,” such as those of Siloam and Hezekiah (2 Kings 20:20; Neh. 3:15–16; Isa. 22:11; John 9:7), were public baths by NT times, no doubt introduced in imitation of a Roman and Greek custom. BATHSHEBA (bath-sheʹba; “daughter of the oath”). Daughter of Eliam (2 Sam. 11:3), or Ammiel (1 Chron. 3:5), the granddaughter of Ahithophel (2 Sam. 23:34) and wife of Uriah. She had illicit intercourse with David while her husband was absent at the siege of Rabbah, about 980 B.C. Uriah was slain by a contrivance of David, and after a period of mourning for her husband Bathsheba was legally married to the king (11:3–27). The child that was the fruit of her adulterous intercourse with David died, but she became the mother of four sons—Solomon, Shimea (Shammua), Shobab, and Nathan (2 Sam. 5:14; 1 Chron. 3:5). When Adonijah attempted to set aside in his own favor the succession promised to Solomon, Bathsheba was employed by Nathan the prophet to inform the king of the conspiracy and received from him an answer favorable to Solomon (1 Kings 1:11–31). After the accession of Solomon she, as queen-mother, requested permission of her son for Adonijah to take in marriage Abishag the Shunammite (2:21). The request was refused and became the occasion of the execution of Adonijah (2:24–25). BIBLIOGRAPHY: W. G. Blaikie, David, King of Israel (1981), pp. 219–39; C. J. and A. A. Barber, You Can Have a Happy Marriage (1984), pp. 95–106. BATH´-SHUA (bath-shuʹa). A variation of the name Bathsheba (which see), the mother of Solomon (1 Chron. 3:5). See also Shua. BATTERING-RAM. See Armor. BATTLE. See War. BATTLE-AXE. See Armor. BATTLE-BOW. See Armor. BATTLEMENT. A wall or lattice surrounding the flat roofs of an Eastern house, regarded as a protection against accidents (Deut. 22:8; “parapet,” NASB, NIV). The term may also refer to the parapet of a city wall (Jer. 5:10; but see NASB and NIV, which read “branches”). Battlement appears in the KJV, NASB, and NIV, but not in the same verses. BAV´VAI (bavʹī). A son of Henadad, and ruler of the half part of Keilah. He repaired a portion of the wall of Jerusalem on the return from Babylon (Neh. 3:18), 445 B.C. BAY (Heb. lāshôn, “tongue”). The cove of the Dead Sea, at the mouth of the Jordan (Josh. 15:5; 18:19) and also of the southern extremity of the same sea (15:2). The same term is used (in the original) with reference to the forked mouths of the Nile (“the tongue of the Sea of Egypt,” Isa. 11:15). BAY. The color, according to the RV, of one of the spans of horses in the vision of Zechariah (6:3, 7). It is the rendering of strong (NASB). Keil and Delitzsch translate “speckled, powerful horses” (Com., ad loc.). BAY TREE. See Vegetable Kingdom. BAZ´LITH (bazʹlith). The head of one of the families of the Temple servants that returned to Jerusalem from the Exile (Neh. 7:54). He is called Bazluth in Ezra 2:52. The NIV renders Bazluth in both passages. BAZ´LUTH (bazʹluth). Another form of Bazlith (which see). BDELLIUM. See Mineral Kingdom. BEACH (Gk. algialos). A shore, on which the waves dash (Matt. 13:2, 48; John 21:4; Acts 21:5; 27:39–40). See also Seashore, Seacoast. BEALI´AH (bē-a-liʹa; “whose Lord is Jehovah”). One of the Benjamite heroes who went over to David at Ziklag (1 Chron. 12:5), before 1000 B.C. BE´ALOTH (bēʹa-lōth). 1. A town in the southern part of Judah, i.e., in Simeon (Josh. 15:24), probably the same as Baalath-beer (19:8). 2. A district in Asher of which Baanah was deputy (1 Kings 4:16); NIV Aloth (which see). BEAM. See Log. BEAN. See Vegetable Kingdom. BEAR (KJV,“Arcturus”). A part of the constellation Bootes and one of the three most brilliant stars of the Southern Hemisphere in line with the tail of Ursa Major, “the Great Bear.” See Job 9:9; 38:32. For the animal, see Animal Kingdom. BEARD. See Hair. BEAST. See Animal Kingdom. Figurative. In a figurative or symbolical sense, the term frequently occurs in Scripture and generally refers to the sensual and groveling or ferocious and brutal natures properly belonging to the brute creation. The psalmist speaks of himself as being “like a beast” before God, while giving way to merely sensuous considerations (Ps. 73:22). The word is sometimes used figuratively of brutal men. Hence the phrase “I fought with wild beasts at Ephesus” (1 Cor. 15:32, cf. Acts 19:29) is a figurative description of a fight with strong and exasperated enemies. For a similar use of the word see Eccles. 3:18; 2 Pet. 2:12; Jude 10. A wild beast is the symbol of selfish, tyrannical monarchies. The four beasts in Dan. 7:3, 17, 23, represent four kingdoms (Ezek. 34:28; Jer. 12:9). In the Apocalypse the Beast obviously means a worldly power whose rising out of the sea indicates that it owes its origin to the commotions of the people (Rev. 13:1; 15:2; 17:8). The “four beasts” (Gk. zōa, “living creatures,” not thêrion, “beast” in the strict sense) of the KJV of Rev. 4:6 should be rendered “four living ones” or “four living creatures” (so NASB and NIV). See Cherub, Cherubim. BEATING. A punishment in universal use throughout the East. It appears to be designated by the Heb. phrase “rod of discipline,” shebeṭ mûsār (Prov. 22:15). Beating with rods (“scourging,” Matt. 27:26; “chastising,” Deut. 22:18) was established by law and was quite common among the Jews (Prov. 10:13; 26:3). The person to be punished was extended upon the ground and blows, not exceeding forty, were applied to his back in the presence of a judge (Deut. 25:2–3). Among the Egyptians, ancient and modern, minor offenses were generally punished with the stick, and persons who refused to pay taxes were frequently brought to terms by a vigorous use of the stick. Superintendents were wont to stimulate laborers by the persuasive powers of the rod. The punishment was inflicted on both sexes. See Punishments. BEAUTIFUL MANTLE FROM SHINAR (Heb., “cloak of Shinar [or Babylon]”). An ample robe with figures of men and animals either embroidered or interwoven in the fashion for which the Babylonians were noted. It came to mean a valuable piece of clothing in general (Josh. 7:21). BEAUTIFUL TREES (Heb. ˓ēṣ hādār, “trees of ornament”). The Israelites were directed to take “the foliage of beautiful trees, palm branches and boughs of leafy trees and willows of the brook; and … rejoice before the Lord your God for seven days,” i.e., to carry them about in festive procession (Lev. 23:40). This was to be done on the first day of the feast of Booths (see Festivals) in memory of their having dwelt in booths. The expression “beautiful trees” probably included not only the orange and citron, which were placed in gardens for ornament rather than for use, but also myrtles, olive trees, and others that had beauty or pleasant odor. BEB´AI (beʹbaī). 1. The head of one of the families that returned with Zerubbabel from Babylon (about 536 B.C.) to the number of 623 (Ezra 2:11) or 628 (Neh. 7:16). At a later period 28 more, under Zechariah, returned with Ezra (Ezra 8:11), about 457 B.C. Several of his sons were among those who had taken foreign wives (10:28). 2. The name of one who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah (Neh. 10:15), 445 B.C. BE´CHER (beʹker; “firstborn,” or “a young camel,” cf. Arab. bakr, “young camel”). 1. The second son of Benjamin, according to the list of both in Gen. 46:21 and 1 Chron. 7:6 but omitted in 8:1. Some suppose that the word “first-born” in the latter passage is a corruption of Becher; others, that Becher in the two passages above is a corruption of the word signifying “first-born.” Yet 7:8 gives Becher as a person and names his sons. He was one of the sons of Benjamin that came down to Egypt with Jacob, being one of the fourteen descendants of Rachel who settled there. At the numbering of the Israelites in the plain of Moab (Num. 26) there is no family named after him. But there is a Becher and a family of Becherites among the sons of Ephraim. This has given rise to the supposition that the slaughter of the sons of Ephraim by the men of Gath had sadly thinned the house of Ephraim of its males, and that Becher, or his heir, married an Ephraimitish heiress, a daughter of Shuthelah (1 Chron. 7:20–21), and so his house was reckoned in the house of Ephraim. 2. Son of Ephraim; called Bered (1 Chron. 7:20); his posterity were called Becherites (Num. 26:35). He is probably the same as the preceding. BECO´RATH (be-koʹrath; “firstborn”). The son of Aphiah, of the tribe of Benjamin, one of the ancestors of King Saul (1 Sam. 9:1), long before 1030 B.C. BED. A common article of domestic furniture. In the ancient Near East, however, the poor and travelers often slept on the ground, using their outer garment as a covering (Gen. 28:11; Ex. 22:26–27). Sometimes a bed might be no more than a mat of rough material easily carried about (Matt. 9:6), but regular beds raised above the ground to protect from dampness and drafts were in existence early (Deut. 3:11). The wealthy of Amos’s day in the eighth century B.C. had beds of ivory (Amos 6:4) and expensive coverings and cushions (3:12). Beds of the wealthy often had a canopy. The Jewish bed may be described in five principal parts: (1) Mattress. A mere matter of one or more garments. (2) Covering. A finer garment than used for the mattress. In summer, a thin blanket or an outer garment worn by day (1 Sam. 19:13) was sufficient. Hence the Mosaic law provided that this garment should not be kept in pledge after sunset, that the poor might not be without his covering (Deut. 24:13). (3) Pillow, mentioned in 1 Sam. 19:13 (NASB, “quilt”; NIV, “garment”), apparently a material woven of goat’s hair with which persons in the East covered the head and face while sleeping. (4) The Bedstead. This was not always necessary. The divan or platform along the side or end of an oriental room serving as a support for the bed with a frame seems implied in such references as 2 Sam. 3:31; 2 Kings 4:10; Esther 1:6. (5) Ornamental Portions. These consisted of pillows, a canopy, ivory carvings, and probably mosaic work, purple, and fine linen (Esther 1:6; song of Sol. 3:9–10; Amos 6:4). M.F.U. BE´DAD (beʹdad; “separation”). The father of Hadad, a king in Edom (Gen. 36:35; 1 Chron. 1:46). BE´DAN (beʹdan). 1. The name of a judge of Israel, not found in Judges but only in 1 Sam. 12:11. It is difficult to identify him with any of the judges mentioned elsewhere, but it is probable that Bedan is a contracted form for the name of the Judge Abdon (which see). The NIV identifies Bedan with Barak (which see). 2. The son of Ulam, the great-grandson of Manasseh (1 Chron. 7:17). BEDCHAMBER. See Bedroom. BEDE´IAH (be-deʹya). One of the family of Bani who divorced his Gentile wife on the return from Babylon (Ezra 10:35), 456 B.C. BEDROOM (Heb. ḥădar hammiṭṭôt, “room of beds,” 2 Kings 11:2; 2 Chron. 22:11; hădar mishkāb, “sleeping room,” Ex. 8:3; 2 Sam. 4:7; 2 Kings 6:12). The “bedroom” in the Temple where Joash was hidden was probably a room used for storing beds (2 Kings 11:2; 2 Chron. 22:11). The position of the bedroom in the most remote and secret parts of the palace seems marked in the passages Ex. 8:3; 2 Kings 6:12. BEDSTEAD. See Bed. BEE. See Animal Kingdom. BEELI´ADA (be-el-iʹa-da; “Baal has known”). One of David’s sons, born in Jerusalem (1 Chron. 14:7), after 1000 B.C. He is called Eliada (2 Sam. 5:16; 1 Chron. 3:8). BEEL´ZEBUB. See Beelzebul. BEEL´ZEBUL (be-elʹze-bul), a heathen deity. Believed to be the prince of evil spirits (Matt. 10:25; 12:24, 27; Mark 3:22; Luke 11:15–28). By some Beelzebul is thought to mean ba˓al zebel, the “dung god,” an expression intended to designate with loathing the prince of all moral impurity. It is supposed, at the same time, that the name Beelzebub, the Philistine god of flies, was changed to Beelzebul (“god of dung”) and employed in an approbrious way as a name of the devil. Others prefer to derive the word from ba˓al zebul, the “lord of the dwelling” in which evil spirits dwell. The fact that Jesus designates Himself as “master of the house” would seem to indicate that Beelzebul had a similar meaning. See Gods, False. BE´ER (beʹer; Heb. b ˒ēr, an artificial “well.” Distinguished from En, a “natural” spring). It is usually combined with other words as a prefix, but two places are known simply by this name: 1. A place in the desert on the confines of Moab, where the Hebrews dug a well with their staves and received a miraculous supply of water (Num. 21:16–18). It is probably the same as Beer-elim (Isa. 15:8). 2. A town in Judah to which Jotham fled for fear of Abimelech (Judg. 9:21), probably about eight Roman miles N of Eleutheropolis, the present el Bireth, near the mouth of the Wadi es Surâr. BEE´RA (be-erʹa; a “well”). The last given of the sons of Zophah, a descendant of Asher (1 Chron. 7:37). BEE´RAH (be-erʹa; a “well”). The son of Baal, a prince of the tribe of Reuben, carried into captivity by the Assyrian Tiglath-pileser (1 Chron. 5:6). BE´ER-E´LIM (beʹer-eʹlim; “well of heroes”). A spot named in Isa. 15:8 as around the “territory of Moab,” probably the S, Eglaim being on the N end of the Dead Sea. It seems to be the same as Beer (Num. 21:16). BEE´RI (be-er-i; “of a fountain,” or “well”). 1. A Hittite, and father of Judith, a wife of Esau (Gen. 26:34), about 1950 B.C. 2. The father of the prophet Hosea (Hos. 1:1), before 748 B.C. BE´ER-LAHAI´-ROI (beʹer-la-hīʹroi; “the well of him that liveth and seeth me,” or “the well of the vision of life”). The fountain between Kadesh and Bered, near which the Lord found Hagar (Gen. 16:7, 14). In 24:62; 25:11 the KJV has “the well Lahai- roi.” BEE´ROTH (be-eʹroth; “wells”). 1. One of the four cities of the Hivites who made a covenant with Joshua (Josh. 9:17). Beeroth was allotted to Benjamin (18:25), in whose possession it continued at the time of David, the murderers of Ish-bosheth belonging to it (2 Sam. 4:2). Beeroth, with Chephirah and Kiriath-jearim, is in the list of those who returned from Babylon (Ezra 2:25; Neh. 7:29). 2. Beeroth of the children of Jaakan is named (Num. 33:31–32; Deut. 10:6) as a place through which the Israelites passed twice in the desert, their twenty-seventh and thirty-third station on their way from Egypt to Canaan, probably in the valley of the Arabah. BEE´ROTHITE (be-eʹro-thīt). An inhabitant of Beeroth (which see) of Benjamin (2 Sam. 4:2; 23:37). BE´ERSHEBA (beʹer-sheʹba; “well of the oath,” or “of seven”). A city in the southern part of Palestine, about midway between the Mediterranean Sea and the southern end of the Dead Sea. It received its name because of the digging of the well and making of a covenant between Abraham and Abimelech (Gen. 21:31). It was a favorite residence of Abraham and Isaac (26:33). The latter was living there when Esau sold his birthright to Jacob, and from the encampment around the wells Jacob started on his journey to Mesopotamia. He halted there to offer sacrifice to “the God of his father” on his way to Egypt (46:1). Beersheba was allotted to Simeon (1 Chron. 4:28), and Samuel’s sons were appointed deputy judges for the southernmost districts in Beersheba (1 Sam. 8:2). Elijah fled to Beersheba, which was still a refuge in the eighth century, and frequented even by northern Israel (Amos 5:5; 8:14). The expression “from Dan to Beersheba” was a formula for the whole land. During the separation of the kingdoms the formula became “from Geba to Beersheba,” or “from Beersheba to Mount Ephraim.” After the Exile, Beersheba was again peopled by Jews, and the formula ran “from Beersheba as far as the valley of Hinnom” (Neh. 11:30). The biblical town of Beersheba has been located at Tel es-Saba (Tell Beersheba), about two miles NE of the modern city. Yohanan Aharoni directed a Tel Aviv University excavation there from 1969 to 1976. He discovered that the town had a Hebrew foundation, built in the twelfth and eleventh centuries B.C. Apparently unwalled, it probably was the place where the sons of Samuel judged the people (1 Sam. 8:2). Beersheba was fortified with a twelve-foot-thick wall in the tenth century. At that time the enclosed area was a little less than three acres in size. Aharoni found nothing at Tell Beersheba dating to the patriarchal period, and he concluded that patriarchal Beersheba was located near the valley and the wells, probably at Bir es- Saba, within the area of modern Beersheba. H.F.V. BIBLIOGRAPHY: M. Avi-Yonah, Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land (1975), 1:160–68. BE-ESHTE´RAH (beʹesh-teʹra). One of the two Levitical cities allotted to the Gershonites, out of the tribe of Manasseh beyond the Jordan (Josh. 21:27). In the parallel list (1 Chron. 6:71) Ashtaroth is given; and Be-eshterah is only a contracted form of Beth-Ashtaroth, the “temple of Ashtoreth.” BEETLE. See Animal Kingdom: Cricket. BEEVES. See Animal Kingdom: Cattle; Ox. BEGGAR (Heb. ˒ebyôn, “destitute,” 1 Sam. 2:8, NASB, “needy”; Gk. ptōchos, Luke 16:20, 22; Gal. 4:9; elsewhere “poor”). A beggar, whose regular business it was to solicit alms publicly or to go promiscuously from door to door as understood by us, was unknown to the Pentateuchal legislation. The poor were allowed privileges by the Mosaic law, and indeed the Hebrew could not be an absolute pauper. His land was inalienable, except for a certain period; then it reverted to him or his posterity, and if this resource was insufficient he could pledge the services of himself and family for a valuable sum. In the song of Hannah (1 Sam. 2:8–9), however, beggars are spoken of, and beggary is predicted of the posterity of the wicked, while it was promised not to be the portion of the seed of the righteous (Pss. 37:25; 109:10). In the NT we read of beggars that were blind, diseased, and maimed seeking alms at the doors of the rich, by the waysides, and before the gate of the Temple (Mark 10:46; Luke 16:20–21; Acts 3:2). BEGINNING (Heb. rē˒shı ̂t, “first”). “In the beginning” (Gen. 1:1) is used in an absolute sense. However, the “beginning” of John 1:1 used of Christ, the Logos, antedates that of Gen. 1:1 and refers to the eternal preexistence of the Son. Genesis 1:1 merely gives the commencement of the physical universe and time. The “beginning” of 1 John 1:1 evidently refers to the commencement of Christ’s public ministry. Our Lord is called “the Beginning” (Gk. archē) by both Paul and John (Col. 1:18; Rev. 1:8; 3:14), and it is interesting to note that the Greek philosophers expressed the First Cause of all things by the same name. BEHEAD. See Punishment. BEHEMOTH (be-heʹmōth). See Animal Kingdom. BEINGS, LIVING. A term appearing frequently in the NASB (Ezek. 1:5–25; 3:13; 10:15, 17, 20; Rev. 4:6). The KJV renders “living creatures.” See Cherub, Cherubim. BEKA, BE´KAH (bēʹkȧ). An early Jewish weight and coin, being half a shekel. See Metrology: Measures of Weight; Measures of Value, or Money. BEKER, BEKERITE. See Becher. BEL. The national god of Babylonia. See Gods, False. BE´LA, BE´LAH (beʹla; “swallowed”). 1. A king of Edom, the son of Beor, and a native of the city of Dinhabah (Gen. 36:32–33; 1 Chron. 1:43). From the name of his father, Beor, we may infer that he was a Chaldean by birth and reigned in Edom by conquest. He may have been contemporary with Moses and Balaam. 2. The eldest son of Benjamin (Gen. 46:21; 1 Chron. 7:6–7; 8:3), about 1640 B.C. From him came the family of the Belaites (Num. 26:38). 3. A son of Azaz, a Reubenite (1 Chron. 5:8), “who lived in Aroer, even to Nebo and Baal-meon.” 4. Another name (Gen. 14:2, 8) for the city of Zoar (which see). BE´LAITE (beʹla-īt). The patronymic (Num. 26:38) of the descendants of Bela, no. 2 (which see). BE´LIAL (beʹli-al; “worthlessness, wickedness”). Belial is often used in the KJV as if it were a proper name, but beyond question it should not be regarded in the OT as such, its meaning being “worthlessness,” and hence “recklessness, lawlessness.” The expression “son” or “man of Belial” must be understood as meaning simply a worthless, lawless fellow (Deut. 13:13, KJV; Judg. 19:22; 20:13, see marg.; etc.). In the NT the term appears (in the best manuscripts) in the form Belias, and not Belial, as given in the KJV. The term, as used in 2 Cor. 6:15, is generally understood as applied to Satan, as the personification of all that is bad. Belial occurs only once in the NASB and NIV (2 Cor. 6:15). Elsewhere in those translations the Heb. terms rendered “sons [or children] of Belial” in the KJV are given as “worthless men,” “worthless fellows,” or “wicked men,” often with a marginal reading, “lit., sons of Belial.” BELIEVE. “To remain steadfast” (Heb. ˒āman, Gen. 15:6; Ex. 4:1; Num. 14:11; etc.). “To be persuaded” of God’s revealed truth (Gk. peithomai, Acts 17:4; 27:11; 28:24). “To adhere to, rely on” God’s promises (Gk. pisteuō, Matt. 8:13; Mark 5:36; John 3:16; etc.). Although belief as mere credence or confidence is exceedingly common and often the result of ignorance or deception and not grounded in facts of knowledge or truth, yet in a scriptural sense faith in its larger usage represents four principal ideas. The first is personal confidence in God; second, a creedal or doctrinal concept of the essential body of revealed truth (Luke 18:8; 1 Cor. 16:13; 2 Cor. 13:5, Col. 1:23; 2:7; Titus 1:13; Jude 3); third, faithfulness as an evidence or fruit of the believer’s trust in God (Gal. 5:22–23); fourth, a designation for Christ as the object of faith (3:23–25). As personal confidence in God, it is of immense importance to clearly distinguish three features of faith: Saving faith is inward confidence in God’s promises and provisions in Christ for the salvation of sinners. It leads one to trust solely in the Person and work of the Savior Jesus Christ (John 3:16; 5:24; Eph. 2:8–10). Such faith gives the believer an unchangeable and unforfeitable position described in innumerable passages as being “in Christ” (Rom. 8:1; Eph. 1:3; etc.). Sanctifying faith comprehends knowledge of and trust in our position “in Christ” (Rom. 6:1–10), so that one has experiential possession of Christ (Rom. 6:11). Compare Eph. 1–3, setting forth the believer’s position, with Eph. 4–6, his experience of that position. Sanctifying or sustaining faith appropriates the power of God for conforming one’s position in Christ to one’s enjoyment of the blessings of that position, but in no sense is it to be confused with saving faith, which results in that position. All believers have a position of sanctification (cf. 1 Cor. 1:2 with 3:1–3; 5:5), are “saints,” and by faith are to realize that position in practice in living a saintly life (Eph. 4:1; Col. 3:1–4). All believers who have exercised “saving faith” in Christ are what they are “in Him,” whether or not they ever realize it. The difference is that when they realize it and in faith act upon it, they begin to enjoy the benefits of it in daily living. Serving faith, acts upon the truth of divinely bestowed spiritual gifts and maintains confidence in all the details of divine enablement and appointments for service. “The faith which you have, have as your own conviction before God” (Rom. 14:22). This faith is accordingly a personal, individual matter. See also Faith. M.F.U. BIBLIOGRAPHY: N. Turner, Christian Words (1980), pp. 153–58. BELIEVERS (Gk. pistoi). A term applied to Christian converts (Acts 5:14; 1 Tim. 4:12). It signifies those who have exercised saving faith in the Person and work of Jesus Christ and who, as a result, have obtained a position that is denoted by the oft- recurring phrase in the NT “in Christ” (Rom. 8:1; 1 Cor. 1:2; Eph. 1:3; etc.). This “in Christ” position wrought by the baptizing work of the Holy Spirit (6:3–4; 1 Cor. 12:13; Gal. 3:27; Col. 2:9–12) is the basis of all the believer’s spiritual possessions. The NT presents Christian obligation as living in accordance with this position (Eph. 4:1; Rom. 6:11). The NT, therefore, presents the believer’s position as unchangeable and unforfeitable as a result of the efficacy of Christ’s atoning work and God’s faithfulness. M.F.U. BELL (Heb. pa˓ămôn, something “struck,” Ex. 28:33–34; 39:25–26; m ṣillâ, “tinkling,” Zech. 14:20). The bell is closely allied to the cymbal. The indentation of cymbals would be found to add to their vibrating power and sonority, and as this indentation became exaggerated nothing would be more probable than that they should eventually be formed into half-globes. This form is found in Roman and Greek sculpture. The most ancient bells yet discovered consist of a plate of metal, bent round and rudely riveted where the edges meet. Such were in use among the Assyrians and ancient Chinese. 1. Small golden bells were attached to the lower part of the blue robe (robe of the ephod) that formed part of the official dress of the high priest. These may have been partly for ornament but partly also for use, to ring as often as the high priest moved, so as to announce his approach and departure (Ex. 28:33–35). 2. In Isa. 3:16–18 reference is made to little tinkling bells (NASB, “bangles”; NIV, “ornaments”) that are worn to this day by women upon their wrists and ankles to attract attention and gain admiration. 3. “Bells of the horses” (Zech. 14:20) were probably concave pieces or plates of brass, that were sometimes attached to horses for the sake of ornament. These by their tinkling served to enliven the animals, and in the caravans served the purpose of our modern sheep bells. In the passage referred to the motto “Holy to the Lord,” which the high priest wore upon his turban and that was also inscribed upon the bells of horses, predicted the coming of a millennial age when all things, even to the lowest, should be sanctified to God. BELLOWS (“blower”). The term bellows appears in Jer. 6:29 only, though other passages that speak of blowing the fire (Isa. 54:16; Ezek. 22:21) may refer to them; but as wood was the common fuel in ancient times, and kindles readily, a fan would generally be sufficient. Bellows seem to have been of great antiquity in Egypt, and were used at the forge or furnace. They were worked by the foot of the operator pressing alternately upon two skins till they were empty and pulling up each empty skin with a string held in his hand. The earliest specimens seem to have been simply of reed tipped with a metal point where it came in contact with the fire. BELLY (Heb. usually beṭen, “hollow”; Gk. koilia; also Heb. mē˓ı ̂m; Gk. gaster, especially the “bowels”). Among the Hebrews and most ancient nations the belly was regarded as the seat of the carnal affections, as being, according to their view, that which first partakes of sensual pleasures (Titus 1:12; Phil. 3:19; Rom. 16:18). Figurative. It is used figuratively for the heart, the innermost recesses of the soul (Prov. 18:8; 20:27; 26:22). The “belly of hell” (KJV; NASB, “depth of Sheol”; NIV, “depths of the grave”), literally, “out of the womb of the nether world,” is a strong phrase to express Jonah’s dreadful condition in the deep (Jonah 2:2). BELOMANCY. Divination by arrows. See Magic. BELSHAZ´ZAR (Bel-shuzʹer; Akkad. Bel-shar-uṣur, “Bel has protected the king”). The eldest son and coregent of Nabonidus (539 B.C.), the last sovereign of the neo- Babylonian Empire. The following passage explicitly states that before Nabonidus started on his expedition to Tema in Arabia he entrusted actual kingship to Belshazzar: “He entrusted a campaign to his eldest, firstborn son; the troops of the land he sent with him. He freed his hand, he entrusted the kingship to him. Then he himself undertook a distant campaign. The power of the land of Akkad advanced with him; towards Tema in the midst of the Westland he set his face…. He himself established his dwelling in Tema…. That city he made glorious…. They made it like a palace of Babylon….” The Babylonian records indicate that Belshazzar became coregent in the third year of Nabonidus’s reign (553 B.C.) and continued in that capacity until the fall of Babylon (539 B.C.). The Nabunaid Chronicle states that in the seventh, ninth, tenth, and eleventh years “the king was in the city of Tema. The son of the king, the princes and the troops were in the land of Akkad (Babylonia).” During Nabonidus’s absence in Tema, the Nabunaid Chronicle explicitly indicates that the New Year’s Festival was not celebrated but that it was observed in the seventeenth year upon the king’s return home. Accordingly, it is evident that Belshazzar actually exercised the coregency in Babylon and that the Babylonian records in a remarkable manner supplement the biblical notices (Dan. 5; 7:1; 8:1). The book of Daniel is thus not in error in representing Belshazzar as the last king of Babylon, as negative criticism once believed, nor can it be said to be wrong in calling Belshazzar the son of Nebuchadnezzar (Dan. 5:2). Apparently Belshazzar was lineally related to Nebuchadnezzar because his mother, Nitrocris, seems to have been Nebuchadnezzar’s daughter. Moreover, “son of ” in Semitic usage is equivalent to “successor of ”; so one could properly be called a son of even if not in lineal descent (cf. R. P. Dougherty, Nabonidus and Belshazzar, [1929]). In the Assyrian records Jehu is called “the son of Omri”; actually Jehu was only a royal successor with no lineal relation at all. M.F.U.; H.F.V. BIBLIOGRAPHY: R. P. Dougherty, Nabonidus and Belshazzar (1929). BELT. See Dress. BELTESHAZ´ZAR (bel-te-shazʹer; Akkad. ìBalaṭ-su-uṣur (Bel), protect his life”). The Babylonian name given to the prophet Daniel (Dan. 1:7). See Daniel. BEN (“son”). A Levite “of the second rank,” one of the porters appointed by David to the service of the Ark (1 Chron. 15:18), 988 B.C. BEN (Heb. ben, “son of”). Often used as a prefix to proper names in Scripture, the following word being either a proper name, an appellative, or geographical location, or even a number expressing age. Thus, a “son of twenty years” would mean twenty years old. Hadadezer Ben-rehob (cf. 2 Sam. 8:3) would mean Hadadezer of Beth- rehob, born or brought up in that place. A “son of valor” (Heb. ben ḥayil, cf. Deut. 3:18) would mean a valorous one. “Son of ” may, of course, mean a lineal father-son relationship, as the term is used today (Gen. 4:25), or contrary to our usage may mean to bear a more remote descendant as a grandchild (46:24; 2 Kings 9:2, 20) or a great- grandchild (Gen. 46:18). The Israelites were known as “the sons of Jacob” (or Israel) for centuries after the death of the patriarch (Mal. 3:6). The seventy souls that “came from the loins of Jacob” (Ex. 1:5) included grandchildren. Usage extends to tribes or countries (Gen. 10:20–22) or even to a nonblood relation. Jehu, a usurper and founder of a new dynasty in Israel, and with no blood relationship whatever to the house of Omri, is nevertheless called “the son of Omri” in the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III of Assyria (D. D. Luckenbill, Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylonia, 1:590). M.F.U. BENA´IAH (be-naʹya; “built by Jehovah”). 1. The son of Jehoiada the chief priest (1 Chron. 27:5), and a native of Kabzeel (2 Sam. 23:20; 1 Chron. 11:22). He was placed by David (11:25) over his bodyguard of Cherethites and Pelethites (2 Sam. 8:18; 20:23; 1 Kings 1:38; 1 Chron. 18:17), and given a position above “the thirty” but not included among the first three of the “mighty men” (2 Sam. 23:22–23; 1 Chron. 11:24–25; 27:6). He was a valiant man, and his exploits against man and beast that gave him rank are recorded in 2 Sam. 23:21; 1 Chron. 11:22. He was captain of the host for the third month (27:5). Benaiah remained faithful to Solomon during Adonijah’s attempt on the crown (1 Kings 1:8– 10). Acting under Solomon’s orders he killed Joab and was appointed to fill his position as commander of the army (2:33–35; 4:4), c. 938 B.C. Jehoiada, the son of Benaiah, succeeded Ahithophel as counselor to the king according to 1 Chron. 27:34. This is possibly a copyist’s mistake for “Benaiah the son of Jehoiada.” 2. A man of Pirathon, of the tribe of Ephraim, one of David’s thirty mighty men (2 Sam. 23:30; 1 Chron. 11:31) and the captain of the host for the eleventh month (1 Chron. 27:14), 1000 B.C. 3. One of the leaders of the families of Simeon, who dispossessed the Amalekites from the pasture grounds of Gedor (1 Chron. 4:36), about 715 B.C. 4. A Levite in the time of David who played with “harps tuned to alamoth” at the removal of the Ark (1 Chron. 15:18, 20; 16:5), about 990 B.C. 5. A priest appointed to blow the trumpet before the Ark when David caused it to be moved to Jerusalem (1 Chron. 15:24; 16:6), about 990 B.C. 6. A Levite of the sons of Asaph, the son of Jeiel and grandfather of Jahaziel, who was sent by God to encourage the army of Jehoshaphat against the Moabites (2 Chron. 20:14), about 875 B.C. 7. A Levite in the time of Hezekiah who was one of the overseers of the offerings to the Temple (2 Chron. 31:13), 726 B.C. 8–11. Four Jews who had taken Gentile wives after the return from Babylon, 456 B.C. They were respectively of the “sons” of Parosh (Ezra 10:25), Pahath-moab (v. 30), Bani (v. 34), and Nebo (v. 43). 12. The father of Pelatiah, who was one of the “leaders of the people” in the time of Ezekiel (Ezek. 11:1), before 592 B.C. BEN-ABIN´ADAB (ben-a-binʹa-dab). One of Solomon’s district governors, who ruled over the district of Dor (1 Kings 4:11). BEN-AM´MI (ben-amʹi; “son of my kindred”). A son of Lot by his youngest daughter. He was the progenitor of the Ammonites (Gen. 19:38), twentieth century B.C. BENCH. See Deck of Boxwood. BEN-DE´KAR (ben-deʹkar; “stab”). The father of Solomon’s deputy in the second royal district, lying in the western part of the hill country of Judah and Benjamin, Shaalbim, and Beth-shemesh (1 Kings 4:9), before 960 B.C. BEN-DE´KER. See Ben-Dekar. BEN´E-BE´RAK (benʹe-beʹrak; “sons of lightning”). One of the cities of Dan (Josh. 19:45), the present Ibn Abrak, four miles E of Joppa. Sennacherib mentions it as one of the cities besieged and taken by him. BENEDICTION. An essential form of public worship was the priestly benediction, the form of which is prescribed in the law, “The Lord bless you, and keep you;/The Lord make his face shine on you,/And be gracious to you;/The Lord lift up His countenance on you,/And give you peace” (Num. 6:24–26), the promise being added that God would fulfill the words of the blessing. This blessing was pronounced by the priest after every morning and evening sacrifice with uplifted hands, as recorded of Aaron (Lev. 9:22). The people responded by uttering an amen. This blessing was also regularly pronounced at the close of the service in the synagogues. The Levites appear also to have had the power of giving the blessing (2 Chron. 30:27), and the same privilege was accorded the king, as the viceroy of the Most High (2 Sam. 6:18; 1 Kings 8:55). Our Lord is spoken of as blessing little children (Mark 10:16; Luke 24:50), besides the blessing on the occasion of the institution of the Eucharist (Matt. 26:26). BEN´E-JA´AKAN (benʹe-jaʹa-kan; “children of Jaakan”). A tribe that gave its name to certain wells in the desert that formed one of the halting places of the Israelites on their journey to Canaan (Num. 33:31–32). “Bene-Jaakan is simply an abbreviation of Beeroth-bene-Jaakan, wells of the children of Jaakan. Now if the children of Jaakan were the same as the Horite family of Jakan mentioned in Gen. 36:27, the wells of Jaakan would have to be sought for on the mountains that bound the Arabah” (K. & D., Com., ad loc.). BENE-KEDEM. See East, Sons of. BENEVOLENCE, DUE (Gk. hē opheilomenē eunoia, NASB, “fulfill his duty”). In the KJV, a euphemism for marital duty (1 Cor. 7:3). BEN-GEB´ER (ben-gebʹer). Solomon’s district officer over the Transjordanian district of Ramoth-Gilead (which see; 1 Kings 4:13). NASB New American Standard Bible KJV King James Version BEN-HA´DAD (ben-hāʹdad). The Heb. form of Aram. Bar-hadad, “son of the god Hadad.” 1. The Early Kings of Damascus. The succession of Syrian kings who reigned at Damascus and elevated the city-state to the height of its power. Under them it became the inveterate foe of Israel for a full century and a half after 925 B.C. Biblical reference to the Ben-hadads has been remarkably illuminated by archaeology as a result of the discovery of the inscribed stela of Ben-hadad I, recovered in N Syria in 1940. This important royal inscription in general confirms the order of early Syrian rulers as given in 1 Kings 15:18, where Ben-hadad is said to be the “son of Tabrimmon, the son of Hezion, king of Abram, who lived in Damascus.” According to W. F. Albright’s rendering of the Ben-hadad monument, with the somewhat precarious restoration of the partly undecipherable portion, the sequence is identical: “Bir-hadad, son of Tab-ramman, son of Hadyan, king of Aram” (cf. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 87 [Oct. 1942]: 23–29; 90 [Apr. 1943]: 32– 34). Bir-hadad is equivalent to Bar-hadad (Heb. Ben-hadad), and Tab-ramman and Hadyan are equatable with Heb. Tabrimmon and Hezion. The correct name of the first king of Damascus has been corroborated by archaeological evidence, but the identity of Rezon who seized Damascus during Solomon’s reign and apparently ruled there (11:23–25) is still unsolved. Is Hezion the same as Rezon? If so, then the form Rezon is secondary and may be regarded as a corruption of Hezion. If this is not the case, which apparently is unlikely, Rezon must be excluded from the dynastic list of 15:18, which is improbable since he was ostensibly the founder of the powerful Damascene state. 2. Ben-hadad I. By the time Ben-hadad entered into the succession of Syrian kings somewhere around 890 B.C., Syria had become the strongest state in this region of W Asia and was ready to seize any opportunity to increase its territories. Such an occasion offered itself when the hard-pressed Asa, king of Judah (c. 917–876 B.C.), sent an urgent appeal to Syria for help against Baasha, king of Israel (c. 908–886 B.C.). Baasha, pushing his frontier southward to within five miles of Jerusalem, proceeded to fortify Ramah as a border fortress commanding the capital of Judah (1 Kings 15:17). Asa desperately sent what was left of the Temple and royal treasury, despoiled so recently by the Egyptian pharaoh Shishak, to Ben-hadad as a bribe to entice Syria into an alliance with himself against Israel. This strategy was at least immediately successful, for Ben-hadad invaded northern Israel and forced Baasha to abandon Ramah (15:20–22). But Asa committed a grievous mistake, for in courting the favor of Damascus against Israel, he granted Ben-hadad an unparalleled opportunity for aggrandizement and gave a common enemy of both the Northern and the Southern kingdoms a great advantage. Formerly scholars almost universally distinguished between Ben-hadad I, son of Tabrimmon (who was the son of Hezion the contemporary of Asa and Baasha; 15:18), and Ben-hadad the contemporary of Elijah and Elisha. Only occasionally did a biblical scholar such as T. K. Cheyne recognize the possibility that the two might be identical (Encyclopaedia Biblia, 1:531–32). Still, the majority maintained that the so- called Ben-hadad I died during the early years of the reign of Omri or Ahab (c. 865 B.C.) and was succeeded by Ben-hadad II. However, evidence furnished by the stela of Ben-hadad argues strongly for the identity of Ben-hadad I and Ben-hadad II (cf. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research: 83:14–22). In addition, careful research on the vexing problems of the chronology of the kings of Israel and Judah of this period has resulted in the reduction of years reigned, notably of Israel’s kings, and obviated any serious objection to the equation on the grounds of an impossibly long reign for Ben-hadad I. A further argument commonly urged against the identification of Ben-hadad I with Ben-hadad II is the word of the vanquished Syrian monarch to King Ahab of Israel after the latter’s notable victory at Aphek (modern Fiq) three miles E of the Sea of Galilee, recorded in 20:34: “The cities which my father took from your father I will restore, and you shall make streets for yourself in Damascus as my father made in Samaria.” This allusion can hardly be to Ahab’s father Omri (c. 885–874 B.C.), who founded the metropolis of Samaria as the capital of the Northern Kingdom, for available sources do not lend the least support to the hypothesis that the latter incurred a defeat in a coalition with Syria. The term father, especially when used of royalty, must frequently be construed as “predecessor,” as is commonly illustrated by the monuments. Doubtless towns taken from Israel by early Syrian kings such as Hezion or Tabrimmon are meant. Ben-hadad’s use of the term Samaria was evidently formulaic. The city had been so strategically situated and enjoyed such a prosperous growth that soon after its establishment by Omri its name was used of the whole Northern Kingdom of which it was the capital. Ben-hadad I warred against Ahab of Israel (20:1). Ahab’s brilliant strategy won not only this battle but also the one during the following year at Aphek (1 Kings 20:26–43). The next year, however, the appearance on the horizon of a powerful Assyrian army marching toward Syria-Palestine compelled Ahab and his hereditary foe Ben- hadad to align themselves in a general coalition of neighboring kings to block the ambitious Assyrian invasion southward. The Monolith Inscription, now in the British Museum, records the military expeditions of Shalmaneser III (859–824 B.C.) and includes a description of his clash with the Syrian coalition headed by “Hadadezer [Ben-hadad], of Aram (Damascus)” in 853 B.C. The battle took place at Qarqar north of Hamath in the Orontes Valley, a strategic fortess city that guarded the approaches of lower Syria. Ahab “of Israel” is mentioned along with Ben-hadad of Damascus. Ben-hadad furnished twelve hundred chariots as compared to Ahab’s two thousand, but Hadadezer (Ben-hadad) furnished twice as many soldiers, twenty thousand against Ahab’s ten thousand. Shalmaneser’s venture was evidently not successful, despite his extravagant boasts. In 848 B.C. Shalmaneser III made another thrust into Syria. He was again met by a coalition of “twelve kings of the seaboard” headed by Adadidri (Hadadezer of Damascus, i.e., Ben-hadad I). Ben-hadad I’s long energetic reign came to an end about 843 B.C., and by 841 B.C. Hazael, an influential official, had succeeded to the throne. 3. Ben-Hadad II, another Aramaean king who ruled at Damascus. He was the son of Hazael. The latter sat on the throne at Damascus from c. 841 to 801 B.C. Ben-hadad II was a weak ruler who failed to protect the far-reaching conquests of his father, and Israel began to regain its fortunes. Although Aramaean power suffered in S Syria, Ben-hadad II displayed remarkable vitality in the N, as shown by the important stela of Zakir, king of Hamath, discovered in 1903 at modern Afis, SW of Aleppo in N Syria. This significant monument, published by its discoverer H. Pognon in 1907, makes reference in lines 4 and 5 to Ben-hadad II under the Aram. form of his name “Bar hadad, son of Hazael, king of Aram.” He is presented as heading a coalition of kings against “Zakir, king of Hamath and Luash.” The cause of the attack was the merger of two powerful independent states, Hamath and Luash. This political maneuver so upset the balance of power in Syria and was attended with such a serious threat to the autonomy of Damascus and other Syrian states that they were ready to go to war in order to break it up. Ben-hadad II especially had reason to be made sensitive to any added threat to Syrian power since his losses to Israel in the S had seriously curtailed his sway in that direction. Zakir’s victory over the coalition, in the celebration of which he set up his stela, furnished another indication of the essential weakness of Ben-hadad II’s might. In fact, his reign made possible Israel’s power under Jeroboam II (c. 786–746 B.C.). M.F.U. BIBLIOGRAPHY: R. deVaux, Revue Biblique 43 (1934): 512–18; W. F. Albright, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 89 (Feb. 1942): 23–29; M. F. Unger, Israel and the Aramaens of Damascus (1957); J. Pritchard, ed., Ancient Near Eastern Texts (1969), pp. 271–81. BEN-HA´IL (ben-haʹil; “son of strength,” that is, “warrior”). One of the “officials” of the people sent by Jehoshaphat to teach the inhabitants of Judah (2 Chron. 17:7), 875 B.C. BENHA´NAN (ben-haʹnan; “son of one gracious”). The third named of the four “sons” of Shimon, of the tribe of Judah (1 Chron. 4:20). BEN-HE´SED (ben-heʹsed; the son of Hesed). The name of one of Solomon’s deputies in the districts of Arubboth, Socoh, and Hepher (1 Kings 4:10), after 960 B.C. BEN-HINNOM, VALLEY OF. See Hinnom, Valley of. BEN-HUR´ (ben-hur). The name of Solomon’s governor of the district of Ephraim (1 Kings 4:8). BENI´NU (be-nîʹnū; “our son”). A Levite who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah (Neh. 10:13), 445 B.C. BENJAMIN (benʹja-min; “son of my right hand,” or perhaps, “son of the South,” Southerner). The name of the youngest son of Jacob (see below) and two other biblical personages. 1. A man of the tribe of Benjamin, second named of the seven sons of Bilhan, and the head of a family of “mighty men of valor” (1 Chron. 7:10). 2. An Israelite, one of the “sons of Harim,” who divorced his foreign wife after the Exile (Ezra 10:32), 456 B.C. He seems to be the same person who had assisted in rebuilding (Neh. 3:23) and purifying (Neh. 12:34) the walls of Jerusalem. BEN´JAMIN (benʹja-min; “son of my right hand,” or perhaps, “son of the South,” Southerner). A son of Bihan and a son of Harim (see article above) as well as the youngest of the sons of Jacob, and the second by Rachel (Gen. 35:18), born about 1900 B.C. Personal History. Benjamin was probably the only son of Jacob born in Palestine. His birth took place on the road between Bethel and Ephrath (Bethlehem), a short distance from the latter. His mother died immediately and with her last breath named him Ben-oni (“son of my pain”), which name the father changed. We hear nothing more of Benjamin until the time when his brothers went into Egypt to buy food. Jacob kept him at home, for he said, “I am afraid that harm may befall him” (Gen. 42:4). The story of his going to Joseph, the silver cup, etc., is familiar and discloses nothing beyond a strong affection manifested for him by his father and brothers. The Tribe of Benjamin. In Gen. 46:21 the immediate descendants of Benjamin number ten, whereas in Num. 26:38–40 only seven are enumerated, and some even under different names. This difference is probably owing to the circumstance that M.F.U. Merrill F. Unger some of the direct descendants of Benjamin died at an early period, or, at least, childless. Numbers. At the first census the tribe numbered 35,400, ranking eleventh, but increased to 45,600 at the second census, ranking seventh. Position. During the wilderness journey Benjamin’s position was on the W side of the Tabernacle with his brother tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh (Num. 2:18–24). We have the names of the leader of the tribe when it set out on its long road (2:22); of the spy (13:9); of the families of which the tribe consisted when it was marshaled at the great halt in the plains of Moab, near Jericho (26:38–41, 63), and of the leader who was chosen to assist at the dividing of the land (34:21). Territory. The proximity of Benjamin to Ephraim during the march to the Promised Land was maintained in the territories allotted to each. Benjamin lay immediately to the S of Ephraim, and between him and Judah. Subsequent History. We may mention, among the events of note, that they assisted Deborah (Judg. 5:14); they were invaded by the Ammonites (10:9); that they were almost exterminated by the other tribes because they refused to give up the miscreants of Gibeah (chaps. 19–20); that the remaining six hundred were furnished with wives at Jabesh-gilead and Shiloh (chap. 21). To Benjamin belongs the distinction of giving the first king to the Jews, Saul being a Benjamite (1 Sam. 9:1–2; 10:20–21). After the death of Saul they declared themselves for Ish-bosheth (2 Sam. 2:15; 1 Chron. 12:29). They returned to David (2 Sam. 3:19–20; 19:16–17). David having at last expelled the Jebusites from Zion, making it his own residence, the close alliance between Benjamin and Judah (Judg. 1:8) was cemented by the circumstance that while Jerusalem actually belonged to the district of Benjamin, that of Judah was immediately contiguous to it. After the death of Solomon, Benjamin espoused the cause of Judah, and the two formed a kingdom by themselves. After the Exile, also, these two tribes constituted the flower of the new Jewish colony (cf. Ezra 4:1; 10:9). The prediction of Jacob regarding Benjamin’s future lot, or the development of his personal character in his tribe, is brief: “Benjamin is a ravenous wolf;/In the morning he devours the prey,/And in the evening he divides the spoil” (Gen. 49:27). The events of history cast light on that prediction, for the ravening of the wolf is seen in the exploits of Ehud the Benjamite (Judg. 3), in Saul’s career, and especially in the whole matter of Gibeah, so carefully recorded in Judg. 20. And again, the fierce wolf is seen in the fight in 2 Sam. 2:15–16, at Gibeon, and in the character of Shimei. Some find much of the wolf of Benjamin in Saul of Tarsus, “ravaging the church.” Archaeology. The famous letters from the eighteenth century B.C. recovered from the site of the Middle-Euphrates city of Mari since 1933 mention the Banu Yamina, “sons of the right,” i.e., “sons of the South” (Southerners), who were roving Bedouin in this vicinity at the time. Although some scholars (such as A. Parrot) are tempted to connect these wandering bands with the biblical Benjamites, or Benjaminites, and A. Alt allowed the possibility, yet the biblical tribe was born in Palestine and is never said to have been in Mesopotamia. The name Benjamin, meaning “son of the right,” “son of the South,” or “Southerner,” was a name likely to occur in various places, especially so at Mari, where the corresponding term “sons of the left,” i.e., “sons of the North” or “Northerners,” is found. Directions N and S in the ancient Near East were determined by facing E toward the sunrise—so left was N and right was S. M.F.U. BEN´JAMITE (benʹja-mīt; 1 Sam. 9:21; 22:7; 2 Sam. 16:11). The patronymic title of the descendants of the patriarch Benjamin (which see). BE´NO (beʹnō; “his son”). The only son, or the first of the four sons, of Jaaziah the Levite, of the family of Merari, in 1 Chron 24:26–27. BEN-O´NI (ben-ōʹni; “son of my pain”). The name given by the dying Rachel to her youngest son, but afterward changed (Gen. 35:18) by his father to Benjamin (which see). BEN-ZO´HETH (ben-zōʹheth; “son of Zoheth”). A person named (1 Chron. 4:20) as the second son of Ishi, a descendant of Judah, or it may be that he was grandson of Ishi, being the son of Zoheth himself. BE´ON (bē-onʹ). Perhaps an early scribal error for “Meon,” one of the places fit for pasturage; Num. 32:3–4, “a land for livestock.” It is more properly called Beth-baal- meon (Josh. 13:17), more briefly Baal-meon (Num. 32:38), and Beth-meon (Jer. 48:23). BE´OR (bēʹor). 1. The father of Bela, one of the kings of Edom (Gen. 36:32; 1 Chron. 1:43). 2. The father of Balaam, the prophet hired by Balak to curse the children of Israel (Num. 22:5), about 1400 B.C. He is also mentioned in 2 Pet. 2:15. BE´RA (bēʹra). King of Sodom at the time of the invasion of the five kings under Chedorlaomer, which was repelled by Abraham (Gen. 14:2, 17, 21), twenty-first century B.C. BER´ACAH (berʹa-ka; a “blessing”). 1. One of the thirty Benjamite warriors who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chron. 12:3). 2. A valley between Bethlehem and Hebron, not far from En-gedi; noted as the place where Jehoshaphat overcame the Moabites and Ammonites (2 Chron. 20:26). BERACHI´AH. See Berechiah. BERAI´AH (ber-aī-a; “created by Jehovah”). Next to the last named of the sons of Shimei and a chief Benjamite of Jerusalem (1 Chron. 8:21). BERAKI´AH. See Berechiah. BERE´A (be-rēʹa). A Macedonian city at the foot of Mt. Bermius, once a large and populous city and the residence of many Jews, whose concern for careful criticism in the study of the Scriptures was commended by Paul (Acts 17:10–13). Berea is now known as Verria, a place of more than thirty thousand people. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Strabo Geography of Strabo 7. BERECHI´AH (ber-a-kīʹa; “blessed by Jehovah”). 1. Either one of the sons (according to most authorities) or a brother of Zerubbabel, of the royal line of Judah (1 Chron. 3:20), 536 B.C. 2. The son of Shimea and father of Asaph, the celebrated singer (1 Chron. 6:39, KJV, “Berachiah”; 15:17), 1000 B.C. He was one of the “gatekeepers for the ark” when it was moved from the house of Obed-edom (15:23). 3. The son of Asa, and one of the Levites that dwelt in the villages of the Netophathites after the return from Babylon (1 Chron. 9:16), about 536 B.C. 4. The son of Meshillemoth, and one of the “heads” of Ephraim who enforced the prophet Oded’s prohibition of the enslavement of their Judaite captives by the warriors of the Northern Kingdom (2 Chron. 28:12), 741 B.C. 5. The son of Meshezabel and father of Meshullam, who repaired a part of the walls of Jerusalem (Neh. 3:4, 30). His granddaughter was married to Jehohanan, the son of Tobiah (6:18). 6. The son of Iddo and father of Zechariah the prophet (Zech. 1:1, 7), before 520 B.C. 7. The father of the Zechariah mentioned in Matt. 23:35 as having been murdered by the Jews; and perhaps the same as Jehoida the priest (cf. 2 Chron. 24:20–22). See Zechariah. BE´RED (beʹred). 1. A son of Shuthelah and grandson of Ephraim (1 Chron. 7:20), supposed by some to be identical with Becher (Num. 26:35). 2. A town in the S of Palestine (Gen. 16:14), near which lay the well Lahai-roi (Beer-lahai-roi), supposed by some to be at El-Khulasah, twelve miles from Beersheba. BEREKI´AH. See Berechiah. BE´RI (beʹrî; “well, fountain”). A son of Zophah, and a mighty warrior of the tribe of Asher (1 Chron. 7:36). BERI´AH (be-riʹa; perhaps “prominent,” cf. Arab. bara˓a, “to excel”). 1. The last named of the four sons of Asher, and father of Heber and Malchiel (Gen. 46:17; 1 Chron. 7:30). His descendants were called Beriites (Num. 26:44–45). 2. A son of Ephraim, so named on account of the state of his father’s house when he was born. Some of Ephraim’s sons had been killed by men of Gath “because they came down to take their livestock” (1 Chron. 7:21). 3. A Benjamite, and apparently son of Elpaal. He and his brother Shemed were ancestors of the inhabitants of Aijalon and expelled the people of Gath (1 Chron. 8:13). His nine sons are enumerated in vv. 14–16. 4. The last named of the four sons of Shimei, a Levite of the family of Gershon (1 Chron. 23:10–11). His posterity was not numerous and was reckoned with that of his brother Jeush. BERI´ITES (be-rîʹīts). Only mentioned in Num. 26:44, these are the descendants of Beriah (which see), son of Asher (Gen. 46:17; Num. 26:45). BE´RITES (beʹrīts). A people mentioned only in 2 Sam. 20:14, in the account of Joab’s pursuit of Sheba, son of Bichri. Being mentioned in connection with Abel Beth-maacah, they seem to have lived in northern Palestine. Thompson (The Land and the Book) places them at Biria, N of Safed. Biria he identifies with Beroth, a city of upper Galilee, not far from Cadesh, where, according to Josephus (Ant. 5.1.18), the northern Canaanite confederacy pitched camp against Joshua. The story is told in Josh. 11, where, however, the camp is located at the waters of Merom. BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. M. Thompson, The Land and the Book (1886), 2:74. BE´RITH. See Gods, False: Baal-berith. BERNI´CE (ber-nîʹse). The eldest daughter of Herod Agrippa I by his wife Cypros. See Herod: Princesses of the House of. BERO´DACH-BAL´ADAN (be-rōʹdak-balʹa-dan). The king of Babylon who sent friendly letters and a gift to Hezekiah upon hearing of his sickness (2 Kings 20:12). He is also called, in Isa. 39:1, Merodach-baladan (which see). BEROE´A. See Berea. BERO´THAH (be-rōʹtha; Ezek. 47:16), or Bero´thai (be-rōʹthī; “wells,” 2 Sam. 8:8). Ezekiel mentions Berothah, in connection with Hamath and Damascus, as forming the northern boundary of the Promised Land as restored in his vision. Now identified with Bereitan in the Beqa about thirty-five miles N of Damascus. BE´ROTHITE (beʹrō-thīt). An epithet of Naharai, Joab’s armor bearer (1 Chron. 11:39), probably as a native of Beeroth (which see). BERYL. See Mineral Kingdom. BE´SAI (beʹsī). One of the heads of the Temple servants, whose descendants returned from Babylon (Ezra 2:49; Neh. 7:52), 536 B.C. BESODE´IAH (bes-o-dēʹya; “in the counsel of Jehovah”). The father of Meshullam, who repaired “the Old Gate” of Jerusalem (Neh. 3:6), 445 B.C. BESOM (bēʹsom; a “broom”; Isa. 14:23, KJV, “besom of destruction”). To sweep away, as with a broom, is a metaphor still frequent in the East for utter ruin. Jehovah treats Babylon as rubbish and sweeps it away, destruction serving Him as a broom. BESOR (bēʹsor). A brook flowing into the Mediterranean, about five miles S of Gaza South, and the place where two hundred of David’s men remained while the other troops pursued the Amalekites (1 Sam. 30:9–10, 21). The present Wadi es Sheriah, according to some; others claim its location in the Wadi Ghazzeh. BE´TAH (bēʹta; “confidence”). Called Tibhath (1 Chron. 18:8), a city of Syria- Zobah, captured by David (2 Sam. 8:8) and yielding a large spoil of “bronze.” Probably a city on the eastern slope of the Anti-Lebanon Mountains; NIV, Tebah. BE´TEN (beʹten; “belly, hollow”). One of the cities on the border of the tribe of Asher (Josh. 19:25 only). Identified perhaps with Abṭuṇ E of Mt. Carmel. BETH (‫( )ב‬bāth; “house”). The name of the second letter of the Heb. alphabet (corresponding to Gk. beta [β], Lat. B), so named because originally the representation of a rude dwelling. As an appellative, Beth is the most general word for “house” (Gen. 24:32; 33:17; Judg. 18:31; 1 Sam. 1:7). From this general use the transition was natural to a house in the sense of a “family.” Beth is frequently employed in combination with other words to form the names of places. BETHAB´ARA (beth-abʹa-ra; “house of the ford”). In the KJV, the place on the E bank of the Jordan where John was baptizing (John 1:28); placed by Conder at the ford ’Abarah, just N of Beisan. The NASB and NIV read “in Bethany beyond the Jordan.” Many of the best Gk. manuscripts have “Bethany” instead of “Bethabara.” This is not the Bethany near Jerusalem. The sixth-century Madeba map shows Bethabara on the W bank of the Jordan near the traditional site of Jesus’ baptism. H.F.V. BETH-A´NATH (beth-aʹnath; “house of the goddess”). Anath, modern el-Ba‘neh, twelve miles E of Acre, a fortified city of Naphtali, named with Beth-shemesh (Josh. 19:38; Judg. 1:33), from neither of which the Canaanites were expelled, although they were made tributaries (1:33). BETH-A´NOTH (beth-aʹnōth; “house of [the goddess] Anath”). A town in the mountains of Judah (Josh. 15:59), possibly located just N of Hebron. NIV New International Version H.F.V. Howard F. Vos BETH´ANY (bethʹa-ni; “house, place of unripe figs”). 1. A place on the E of the Jordan, the name of which is substituted in the NASB and NIV for Beth-abara (which see; see also John 1:28). 2. A village situated on the eastern slope of Mt. Olivet, fifteen furlongs (about one and one-half miles) from Jerusalem. It is called also the house of misery on account of its lonely situation and the invalids who congregated there. It was the home of Lazarus and was associated with important events in Scripture history (Matt. 21:17; 26:6; Mark 11:11; 14:3; Luke 24:50; John 11:1; 12:1); called now Azariyeh, or Lazariyeh, “the place of Lazarus.” BIBLIOGRAPHY: W. M. Thompson, The Land and the Book (1886), 1:347, 367, 406, 408– 16; J. Finegan, Archaeology of the New Testament (1969), pp. 89–95, 238. BETH-AR´ABAH (beth-arʹa-ba; “house of the desert”). A town on the N end of the Dead Sea, and one of six cities belonging to Judah on the N border of the tribe (Josh. 15:6, 61); possibly to be located at modern ‘Ain el-Gharbah SW of Jericho. It was afterward included in the list of the towns of Benjamin (18:22; “Arabah,” 18:18). H.F.V. BETH-ARAM. See Beth-haram; Beth-haran. BETH-AR´BEL (beth-arʹbel; “house of Arbel”). In Hos. 10:14 we read of Ephraim, “All your fortresses will be destroyed,/As Shalman [which see] destroyed Beth-arbel in the day of battle.” “Beth-arbel is hardly the Arbela of Assyria—which became celebrated through the victory of Alexander—since the Israelites could scarcely have become so well acquainted with such a remote city, but in all probability the Arbela in Galiloea Superior, a place in the tribe of Naphtali between Sephoris and Tiberias” (K. & D., Com.). If so, it is to be identified with a site NW of Tiberias. Some would locate it E of the Jordan in Gilead. It is present-day Irbid, four miles NW of Tiberias. BETH-ASH´BEA (beth-̀ashʹbe-a). The place where “the families of the house of the linen workers” resided. The KJV renders just Ashbea and mentions him as the head of this branch of the descendants of Shelah, the son of Judah (1 Chron. 4:21). BETH-A´VEN (beth-āʹven; “house of nothingness,” i.e., “idolatry”). A place in the mountains of Benjamin (Josh. 7:2; 18:12; 1 Sam. 13:5), E of Bethel (Josh. 7:2), and between it and Michmash (1 Sam. 13:5). The place mentioned in Hos. 4:15 is not the same, but, as Amos 4:4 and 5:5 clearly show, a name that Hosea adopted from Amos 5:5 for Bethel (the present Beitin) to show that Bethel, the house of God, had become Beth-aven, the house of idols, through the setting up of the golden calf there (1 Kings 12:29). BETH-AZMA´VETH (beth-az-maʹveth). A village of Benjamin, the inhabitants of which, forty-two in number, returned with Zerubbabel from Babylon (Neh. 7:28; “Azmaveth,” 12:29; Ezra 2:24). Its present site is Hizmeh, between Geba and Anathoth. BETH-BA´AL-ME´ON (beth-baʹȧl-mēʹon; “house of Baal-meon”). One of the places assigned to Reuben in the plains E of the Jordan (Josh. 13:17), known formerly as Baal-meon (Num. 32:38) or Beon (32:3), to which the Beth was possibly a Heb. K. & Johann Karl Friedrich Keil and Franz Julius Delitzcsh, Old Testament Commentaries (1875) Com. Commentary prefix. It is identified with the present ruins of Ma‘in, in N Moab, four miles SW of Medeba. It is mentioned on the Moabite Stone, 9.30, as held by King Mesha. BETH-BA´RAH (beth-baʹra). A chief ford of the Jordan. Possibly the place of Jacob’s crossing (Gen. 32:22), S of the scene of Gideon’s victory (Judg. 7:24), and where Jephtha slew the Ephraimites (12:4). Location uncertain. BETH-BIR´I (beth-birʹî). A town of Simeon, inhabited by the descendants of Shimei (1 Chron. 4:31); the Beth-lebaoth of Josh. 19:6, or simply Lebaoth (15:32). Not identified with any present locality. BETH´CAR (beth-karʹ; “sheep house”). The place to which the Israelites pursued the Philistines from Mizpah (1 Sam. 7:6–12). From the unusual expression “below Bethcar,” it would seem that the place itself was on a height with a road at its foot. Its situation is not known. BETH-DA´GON (beth-dāʹgon; “house of Dagon,” the fish god). 1. A city in the low country of Judah, about five miles from Lydda, near Philistia (Josh. 15:41). Present Khirbet Dajūn. 2. A town near the SE border of Asher (Josh. 19:27). BETH-EDEN (beth-ēʹden; Heb. bêt ˓eden, “house of delight”). In the KJV a place named “House of Eden” occurs in the prophecy of Amos against Damascus (Amos 1:5). Some scholars have thought that the prophecy refers to the Aramaean city-states of Damascus and Bit-adini. The reading of the LXX is “from the men of Haran,” since Haran was apparently in Bit-adini. The reference to “the people of Eden” (KJV, “children of Eden”) in 2 Kings 9:12 and Isa. 37:12, along with the Eden mentioned in Ezek. 27:23, seem also to refer to Bit-adini. R.K.H. BETH-E´KED (beth-eʹked; of the shepherds (lit., “house of binding of the shepherds”). The translation in the NASB and NIV of 2 Kings 10:12, 14 of a place on the road between Jezreel and Samaria. When Jehu was on his way to Samaria, he encountered forty-two members of the royal ramily of Judah, whom he slaughtered at the well or pit attached to the place. The KJV renders “shearing house.” It is commonly identified with Beit Kad, sixteen miles NE of Samaria. BETH´EL (bethʹel; “house of God”). 1. A town about ten miles N of Jerusalem, originally Luz (Gen. 28:19). It was here that Abraham encamped (12:8; 13:3), and the district is still known as suitable for pasturage. It received the name of Bethel, “house of God,” because of its nearness to or being the very place where Jacob dreamed (28:10–22). Bethel was assigned to the Benjamites, but they appear to have been either unable to take it or careless about doing so, as we find it taken by the children of Joseph (Judg. 1:22–26). It seems to have been the place to which the Ark was brought (Judg. 20:26–28). It was one of the three places that Samuel selected in which to hold court (1 Sam. 7:16), and Jeroboam chose Bethel as one of the two places in which he set up golden calves (1 Kings 12:28–33). King Josiah removed all traces of idolatry and restored the true worship of Jehovah (2 Kings 23:15–20). Bethel was occupied by people returning from Babylon (cf. Ezra 2:28 with Neh. 11:31). LXX Septuagint R.K.H. R. K. Harrison Bethel is identified with modern Beitin. It stands upon the point of a low rocky ridge, between two shallow wadis, which unite, the water then falling into the Wadi Suweinit toward the SE. W. F. Albright and J. L. Kelso excavated Beitin in 1934, and Kelso resumed work in 1954 and continued in 1957 and 1960 on behalf of the American Schools of Oriental Research and Pittsburgh Theological Seminary. Although there was a village at Beitin as early as 3200 B.C., continuous occupation of the site apparently began just before 2000 B.C. During the sixteenth century the settlement was enlarged and surrounded with an eleven-foot-thick stone wall and possessed some of the best-laid masonry of that period yet discovered in Palestine. About 1235 the city was destroyed in a great fire that left debris five feet thick in places. Evidently this conflagration is to be attributed to the Israelite conquest of Judges 1:22–25. The subsequent Israelite level of occupation has construction strikingly inferior to Canaanite levels, but the period of David and Solomon shows noticeable recovery. No sanctuary dating to the days when Jeroboam I instituted calf worship there has yet been recovered. Although Bethel was only a small village during Nehemiah’s day (fifth century B.C.), it became an important place during the Hellenistic period and grew even larger in Roman and Byzantine days. Remains in the area show that the city continued to exist throughout the Byzantine era but apparently disappeared when the Muslims took over Palestine. M.F.U.; H.F.V. 2. Knobel suggests that this is a corrupt reading for Bethul or Bethuel (Josh. 19:4; 1 Chron. 4:30), in the tribe of Simeon. BIBLIOGRAPHY: M. Avi-Yonah, ed., Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land (1975), 1:190–93. BETH-EL, MOUNT. The KJV rendering for the southern range of mountains belonging to Bethel (Josh. 16:1–2). Bethel is here distinguished from Luz because the reference is not to the town of Bethel but to the mountains, from which the boundary ran out to Luz. The NASB and NIV render “hill country.” BETH´ELITE (bethʹe-līt). A name by which Hiel, who rebuilt Jericho (1 Kings 16:34), was called, being a native of Bethel (which see) in Benjamin. BETH-E´MEK (beth-eʹmek; “house of the valley”). A city of Asher, in the S of the valley of Iphtahel (Josh. 19:27), not yet discovered; possibly Tell Mimas, near ‘Amqa, 6½ miles NE of Acre. BE´THER (beʹther; “separation”). A range of mountains named in song of Sol. 2:17, perhaps the same as the “mountains of spices” (8:14). The NIV renders Bether as “rugged hills.” BETHES´DA (beth-ezʹda; Gk. from Aram. Beth hesdä, “house of grace”). A spring- fed pool with five porches where invalids waited their turn to step into the mysteriously troubled waters that were supposed to possess healing virtue (John 5:2– 4). The last part of v. 3 and all of v. 4, which mention a periodic disturbance of the water by an angel, are placed in brackets in the NASB because there is not sufficient attestation by early texts. Here Jesus healed the man who was lame for thirty-eight years (5:5–9). The place is now thought to be the pool found during the repairs in 1888 near St. Anne’s Church in the Bezetha quarter of Jerusalem not far from the Sheep’s Gate and Tower of Antonia. It is below the crypt of the ruined fourth-century church and has a five-arch portico with faded frescoes of the miracle of Christ’s healing. M.F.U. BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. M. Thompson, The Land and the Book (1886), 3:387; J. Finegan, Archaeology of the New Testament (1969), pp. 143–44, 147. BETH-E´ZEL (beth-eʹzel; “a place near”). A town mentioned in Mic. 1:11 in southern Judah, now identified with Deir el-’Asal about two miles E of Tell Beit Mirsim. BETH-GA´DER (beth-gaʹder; “walled house”). A place in the tribe of Judah, of which Hareph is named as “father” or founder (1 Chron. 2:51). Probably identical with Gedor (which see) of Josh. 15:58, or Geder. BETH-GA´MUL (beth-gaʹmul; “house of recompense”). A city of Moab (Jer. 48:23). It is identified with Khirbet Jemeil, six miles E of Dibon, between the Arnon and Ummer Raṣäs. BETH-GIL´GAL (beth-gilʹgal; “house of Gilgal,” Neh. 12:29). A place from which the sons of the singers gathered together for the celebration of the rebuilding of the walls of Jerusalem; doubtless the same as Gilgal (which see). BETH-HACCHE´REM (Neh. 3:14, NASB; beth-hak-eʹrem), Beth Hakkerem (Neh. 3:14; Jer. 6:1, NIV; pronunciation the same as above), Bethhaccerem (Neh. 3:14; Jer. 6:1, KJV; Jer. 6:1, NASB; beth-hakʹse-rim; marg., Jer. 6:1, NASB, “house of the vineyard”). A Judean town of such commanding height as to be a place for signaling upon occasions of invasion. It is now identified with Ramat-rahel in the southern suburbs of Jerusalem. Yohanan Aharoni excavated there five seasons (1954– 62) for the Hebrew University and the University of Rome. The history of the site extends from about the ninth century B.C. to the Arab period. In strata V-A (see 608– 586 B.C.) one of the last kings of Judah built an imposing palace; Aharoni originally supposed the builder was Jehoiakim (609–587 B.C.; see Jer. 22:13–19). A stamped jar handle with the inscription “Belonging to Eliakim, steward of Yaukin” (Jehoiachin, son of Jehoiakim), was found in the ruins. Evidently this citadel was destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar. BETH-HAG´GAN (beth-hagʹan; “house of the garden”). A place by way of which King Ahaziah fled from Jehu (2 Kings 9:27, NASB, “garden house”). The “garden house” cannot have been in the royal gardens but must have stood at some distance from the city of Jezreel, as Ahaziah went away by the road leading to it and was not wounded till he reached the height of Gur, near Ibleam. BETH-HA´RAM (beth-hâʹram). A town of Gad, opposite Jericho and six miles E of the Jordan (Josh. 13:27). Named Julias, or Livias, by Herod, after the wife of Augustus; the present Tell er Rameh at the mouth of the Wadi Hesban, a source of the celebrated hot springs where King Herod had a palace. Also called Beth-haran (which see). BETH-HA´RAN (beth-haʹran). A fenced city E of the Jordan, “built,” i.e., restored and fortified, by the Gadites (Num. 32:36). The same as Beth-haram (which see). BETH-HOG´LAH (beth-hogʹla; “house of a partridge,” Josh. 15:6; 18:19). A place on the border of Judah and of Benjamin, and belonging to the latter tribe (18:21). The name and location are to be found at ‘Ain Hajlah, four miles SE of Jericho. marg. margin, marginal reading BETH-HO´RON (beth-hōʹron; “house or place of the hollow”). The name of two towns, an “upper” and a “lower” (Josh. 16:3, 5; 1 Chron. 7:24; 2 Chron. 8:5), on the road from Gibeon to Azekah (Josh. 10:10–11) and the Philistine plain (1 Sam. 13:18). Beth-horon lay on the boundary line between Benjamin and Ephraim (Josh. 16:3, 5; 18:13–14), was assigned to Ephraim, and was given to the Kohathites (21:22; 1 Chron. 6:68). It is said (7:24) that Sheerah built Beth-horon, both upper and lower, along with Uzzen-sheerah. The building referred to was merely an enlarging and fortifying of these towns. Sheerah was probably an heiress who had received these places as her inheritance and caused them to be enlarged by her family. “These places still exist and are called by Arabic names meaning ‘upper’ and ‘lower.’ They are separated by about half an hour’s journey. The upper village is about four miles from Gibeon, the road always on the ascent. The descent begins from the upper to the lower village, and that road is one of the roughest and steepest in Palestine; it is still used as the road from the coast and is a key to the country; it was afterward fortified by Solomon. Old tanks and massive foundations exist” (Harper, Bible and Mod. Dis., p. 159). It was along this pass that Joshua drove the allies against whom he went out in defense of the Gibeonites (Josh. 10:10); and by the same route one of three companies of Philistine raiders came against Israel (1 Sam. 13:18). The importance of the road upon which the two Beth-horons were situated, the main approach to the interior of the country from the hostile districts on both sides of Palestine, at once explains and justifies the frequent fortification of these towns at different periods of their history (1 Kings 9:17; 2 Chron. 8:5; 1 Macc. 9:50; Judg. 4:4– 5). BETH-JESH´IMOTH (beth-jeshʹi-mōth; “house or place of deserts”). A town in Moab, not far E of the mouth of the Jordan and just N of the Dead Sea (Num. 33:49; Josh. 12:3; 13:20; Ezek. 25:9). Belonging to Sihon, king of the Amorites (Josh. 12:3). It is to be identified with Tell el ˓Azeima). BETH-JES´IMOTH. Another form of Beth-jeshimoth (which see). In NT times Besimoth (Tell el ˓Azeimeh). BETH-LE-APH´RAH (beth-le-af-ra; “house or place of dust”; so in NASB, Mic. 1:10; “house of Aphrah” in the KJV; Beth Ophrah in the NIV). Site unknown, but apparently in Philistine territory. BETH-LEBA´OTH (beth-le-baʹōth; “house of lionesses”). A town in the lot of Simeon (Josh. 19:6), in the extreme S of Judah (15:32), where it is given as Lebaoth. The location of the site is near Sharuhen, but unknown. BETH´LEHEM (bethʹle-hem; “house of bread”). 1. A town in Palestine, near which Jacob buried Rachel, then known as Ephrath (Gen. 35:19; 48:7). It is also called Bethlehem Ephrathah (Mic. 5:2), Bethlehem in Judah (1 Sam. 17:12), Bethlehem of Judea (Matt. 2:1), and the city of David (Luke 2:4; cf. John 7:42). The old name, Ephrath, or Ephrathah, lingered long after Israel occupied Palestine (Ruth 1:2; 4:11; 1 Sam. 17:12; Ps. 132:6; Mic. 5:2; etc.). The city overlooks the main highway to Hebron and Egypt. The site of the city on a commanding limestone ridge of the Judean highland has never been disputed. After the conquest Bethlehem fell to Judah (Judg. 17:7; 1 Sam. 17:12; Ruth 1:1– 2); Ibzan of Bethlehem judged Israel after Jephthah (Judg. 12:8); Elimelech, the husband of Naomi and father-in-law of Ruth, was a Bethlehemite (Ruth 1:1–2), as was Boaz (2:1, 4). David was born in Bethlehem, and here he was anointed as future king by Samuel (1 Sam. 16:1); here was the well from which David’s three heroes brought him water (2 Sam. 23:15–16), thought to be the same three wells still existing in the N side of the village; it was the birthplace of the Messiah (Matt. 2:1), and its male children were slain by order of Herod (2:16, cf. Jer. 31:15; Mic. 5:2). This Bethlehem is about five miles S of Jerusalem, and elevated 2,460 feet above sea level. In Bethlehem stands the Basilica of the Nativity, marking the traditional site of the birth of Christ. 2. A town in the portion of Zebulun, named only in connection with Idala (Josh. 19:15). It is to be located at Beit Lahm, seven miles NE of Nazareth. BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. M. Abel, Géographie de la Palestine (1938), 2:276–77; J. W. Crowfoot, Early Churches in Palestine (1941), pp. 22–30, 77–85; C. Kopp, Holy Places of the Gospels (1961); S. Perowne, Holy Places of Christendom (1976), pp. 15–23; J. Finegan, Archaeology of the New Testament (1969), pp. 18–26, 33, 35, 121– 22, 169; Y. Aharoni, The Land of the Bible (1979), pp. 242, 248, 266. BETH´LEHEM IN JU´DAH (bethʹle-hem in jūʹda). A more distinctive title (Judg. 17:7–9; 19:1; etc.; Ruth 1:1–2; 1 Sam. 17:12) of Bethlehem, no. 1 (which see). KJV reads “Beth-lehem-judah.” BETH´LEHEMITE (bethʹ-le-hem-īt). An inhabitant of Bethlehem (which see) in Judah (1 Sam. 16:1, 18; 17:58; 2 Sam. 21:19). BETH´LEHEM-JUDAH. See Bethlehem in Judah. BETH-MA´ACAH (beth-maʹa-ka; “house of Maakah”). A place to which Joab went in pursuit of Sheba the son of Bichri (2 Sam. 20:14). It was quite close to Abela, so that the names of the places are connected in v. 15 and afterward as Abel-beth- maacah (thus always in the NIV; see also 1 Kings 15:20; 2 Kings 15:29; all NASB); also called Abel-maim (2 Chron. 16:4). The modern site is Tell Abil, about 2½ miles WNW of Laish (Dan) and 6 miles WNW of Caesarea Philippi (Paneas) near the sources of the Jordan River. BETH-MAR´CABOTH (beth-marʹka-bōth; “place of chariots”). A town of Simeon, in the extreme S of Judah, in which some of the descendants of Shimei dwelt (Josh. 19:5; 1 Chron. 4:31). Site uncertain. BETH-ME´ON (beth-mēʹon; “house of habitation”). A place in the tribe of Reuben (Jer. 48:23); elsewhere (Josh. 13:17) in the full form Beth-baal-meon (which see). See also Baal-meon. BETH-MILLO. The name of the citadel of Shechem (Judg. 9:6, 20; “house of Millo,” KJV), the garrison of which joined in proclaiming Abimelech their king. See Millo. BETH-NIM´RAH (beth-nimʹra; “house of the leopard”). One of the towns “built,” i.e., fortified, by the tribe of Gad (Num. 32:36); called simply Nimrah (which see) in 32:3. BETH OPHRAH. See Beth-le-Aphrah. BETH-PALET. See Beth-pelet. BETH-PAZ´ZEZ (beth-pazʹez; “house of dispersion”). A city of Issachar (Josh. 19:21). Probably modern Kerm el-Hadetheh. BETH-PE´LET (beth-peʹlet; “house of escape”). A town in the S of Judah (Josh. 15:27), assigned to Simeon and inhabited after the captivity (Neh. 11:26). Location uncertain. BETH-PE´OR (beth-pēʹor; “house, or temple, of Peor”). A place in Moab E of the Jordan, abominable for its idolatry. It belonged to Reuben (Josh. 13:20; Deut. 3:29; 4:46). It was the last halting place of the children of Israel, and in the valley nearby Moses rehearsed the law to Israel and was buried (4:44–46; 34:6). BETH´PHAGE (bethʹfa-ji; Aram. “house of unripe figs”). On the Mount of Olives, and on the way from Jerusalem to Jericho, close to Bethany. A Sabbath day’s journey from Jerusalem (Matt. 21:1; Mark 11:1; Luke 19:29). No trace of it now remains. It is not mentioned once in the OT, though frequently in the Talmud. Now called Abu Dı ̄s. BETH-PHELET. See Beth-pelet. BETH-RA´PHA (beth-raʹfa; “house of Rapha, or giant”). A name occurring in the genealogy of Judah as a son of Eshton (1 Chron. 4:12). BETH-RE´HOB (beth-reʹhob; “roomy [?] house”). A place near which lay the valley of the town of Laish or Dan (Judg. 18:28). This valley is the upper part of the Huleh lowland, through which the central source of the Jordan flows, and by which Laish-Dan, the present Tell el Qadi, stood. The Ammonites secured foot soldiers from Beth-rehob to fight against David (2 Sam. 10:6; Rehob, v. 8). BETHSA´IDA (beth-sāʹi-da; Gk. from Aram. bēt ṣaydā, “house or place of fishing”). 1. A city in Galilee, on the NE coast of the Sea of Tiberias (John 1:44; 12:21). It was the home of Peter, Andrew, and Philip, and a frequent resort of Jesus. Our Lord upbraided its inhabitants for not receiving His teachings (Luke 10:13). It is probably to be located at Aradj about a mile E of where the Jordan River enters the Sea of Galilee. 2. Bethsaida of Gaulanitis, afterward called Julias. There is every evidence that the city in Gaulanitis, on the E side of the sea, is that “desolate place” where Christ fed the five thousand (Luke 9:10–17) and cured “those who had need of healing.” Here He also restored the blind man to sight (Mark 8:22–26), as it would be on the road to Caesarea Philippi, visited next by our Lord (v. 27). It was originally a small town, but Philip the tetrarch, having raised it to the rank of city, called it Julias, after Julia, the daughter of the Emperor Augustus (Josephus Ant. 18.2.1). Philip died and was buried there. It is probably to be identified with et- Tell, a little more than a mile N of the Sea of Galilee. Et-Tell stood on the E bank of the Jordan and seems to have had access to the Sea of Galilee. BETHSHAN (beth-shanʹ), or Beth-shean (beth-shēʹan; Heb. “house of security.” But more probably house of the Babylonian god Shahan, Phoenician Sha’an, the Sumerian serpent god). An ancient fortress city strategically commanding the Valley of Esdraelon (Tell el-Husn, “mound of the fortress”) also known as NT Scythopolis (modern Beisan). This great fortress site was founded before 3000 B.C. and has a long and interesting occupational history. After Thutmose III’s brilliant victory at Megiddo (c. 1482 B.C.), it passed into Egyptian hands and was garrisoned by Egyptian soldiers for almost three hundred years. Two stelae of Seti I and one of Rameses II were uncovered here. At the time of the conquest, around 1400 B.C., the inhabitants of the city and the plain had “chariots of iron” (Josh. 17:16), and the Israelites failed to drive out the Canaanites but developed strongly enough to make them pay tribute (17:12– 16). At the battle of Gilboa, around 1000 B.C., the town was either in Philistine hands or in alliance with them, for the Philistines fastened the bodies of Saul and his sons to the wall of the city (1 Sam. 31:10–13; 2 Sam. 21:12–14). The University of Pennsylvania Expedition at Bethshan, 1921–33, unearthed a temple that the excavators identified with the temple of Ashtareth in which Saul’s armor was placed (1 Sam. 31:10). First Chron. 10:10 refers to a second temple of Bethshan called the house of Dagon, where Saul’s head was hung. The excavations uncovered another temple to the S of the temple of Ashtaroth that Alan Rowe identified with the temple of Dagon. In the reign of Solomon the city gave its name to a district (1 Kings 4:12). No mound in Palestine is more impressive than Bethshan, which yielded a number of Egyptian temples dating to the reigns of Amenhotep III (c. 1413–1377 B.C.), Seti I (1319–1301 B.C.), and Rameses II (1301–1234 B.C.). It has also revealed extensive fortress construction. In the level of City 7, from the reign of Amenhotep III, remains of the commanding officer’s residence have been unearthed, showing a spacious kitchen, a lavatory, and an immense silo for storing grain. A Canaanite migdol, or fort tower, designed as a last place of refuge if the walls were breached, was also found. M.F.U. BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. M. Fitzgerald, Archaeology and Old Testament Study, ed. D. W. Thomas (1967), pp. 185–96. BETH-SHE´MESH (beth-sheʹmesh; “house of the sun”). 1. A priestly city (Josh. 21:16; 1 Sam. 6:15; 1 Chron. 6:59) in the tribe of Dan, on the N boundary of Judah (Josh. 15:10), toward Philistia (1 Sam. 6:9, 12). The expressions “went down” (Josh. 15:9–10) and “go up” (1 Sam. 6:20–21) seem to indicate that the town was lower than Kiriath-jearim; and there was a valley of wheat fields attached to the place (6:13). It was a city with “pasture lands” (Josh. 21:16; 1 Chron. 6:59) and contributed to Solomon’s expenses (1 Kings 4:9). In an engagement between Jehoash, king of Israel, and Amaziah, king of Judah, the latter was defeated and made prisoner (2 Kings 14:11, 13; 2 Chron. 25:21, 23). In the time of Ahaz the Philistines occupied it (28:18), and to this place the Ark was returned (1 Sam. 6:19). The number killed at Beth-shemesh for irreverently examining the Ark is recorded as 50,070. “In this statement of numbers we are not only struck by the fact that in the Hebrew the seventy stands before the fifty thousand, which is very unusual, but even more by the omission of the copula waw, which is altogether unparalleled…. We can come to no other conclusion than that the number fifty thousand is neither correct nor genuine, but a gloss which has crept into the text through some oversight” (K. & D., Com., ad loc.). The town of Beth-shemesh was small; the usual conclusion is that a copyist’s error has crept in here and that only seventy were struck down. The Jewish historian Josephus supports seventy as accurate (Ant. 6.1.4). Beth-shemesh was identical with Ir-shemesh (Josh. 19:41) and is preserved in the modern Ain-shems on the NW slopes of the mountains of Judah, a site known today as Tell er-Rumeileh. From 1911 to 1912 Duncan Mackenzie excavated at Beth-shemesh on behalf of the Palestine Exploration Fund, and Elihu Grant directed the Haverford College dig there from 1928 to 1933. The city was founded shortly after 2000 B.C. and fell under Hyksos control from about 1700 to 1550 B.C.; the Hyksos effectively fortified the seven-acre site. The Egyptians destroyed the city by fire about 1500 B.C., but then it prospered during the period 1500–1200 B.C. The Israelites controlled the site between 1200 and 1000, the period of the Judges, but there is evidence of strong Philistine influence at that time. Clearly the period from 1000 to 586 was Israelite, and excavations clearly attest the destruction by Nebuchadnezzar early in the sixth century B.C. The city was never rebuilt. H.F.V. 2. A city near the southern border of Issachar, between Tabor and the Jordan (Josh. 19:22). Unidentified. 3. One of the “fortified cities” of Naphtali (Josh. 19:35, 38; Judg. 1:33), from which, along with Beth-anath, the Canaanites were not driven out. 4. The name given in the KJV of Jer. 43:13 to On, the Egyptian city usually called Heliopolis (so NASB; the NIV reads “temple of the sun”). See discussion at On, no. 2; and Sun, Worship of. BIBLIOGRAPHY: E. Robinson, Biblical Researches (1856), 2:224; 3:17–19; M. Avi- Yonah, ed., Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land (1975), 1:248–53. BETH´-SHEMITE (beth-sheʹmīt). An inhabitant (1 Sam. 6:14, 18) of Beth-shemesh (which see) in Judea. BETH-SHIT´TAH (beth-shiʹta; “house of the acacia”). A town not far from the Jordan to which the Midianites fled from Gideon (Judg. 7:22). It is probably Shattah, N of Bethshan. BETH-TAP´PUAH (beth-tapʹū-a; “house of apples”). A town about five miles W of Hebron (Josh. 15:53), same as modern Taffuh. Another town in Judah (12:17) was known by the simple name of Tappuah (which see). BETH TOGARMAH (beth-tō-garʹmah). See Togarmah. BETHU´EL (beth-ūʹel; perhaps “abode of God”). 1. A southern city of Judah, sometimes called Bethul or Bethel (1 Chron. 4:30; Josh. 19:4; 12:16; 1 Sam. 30:27). Named with Eltolad, Hormah, and Ziklag. 2. The son of Nahor by Milcah; the nephew of Abraham and father of Rebekah (Gen. 22:22–23; 24:15, 24, 47). In 25:20 and 28:5 he is called “Bethuel the Aramean” (marg., Syrian). In the narrative of Rebekah’s marriage he is mentioned as saying, “The matter comes from the Lord” (24:50); her brother Laban takes the leading part in the transaction. BE´THUL (bethʹul; contraction for Bethuel, which see). A town in the S of Simeon, named with Eltolad and Hormah (Josh. 19:4). Location uncertain. BETH-ZUR´ (beth-zurʹ; “house of rock”). A strategic elevated fortress about four miles N of Hebron. The site was fortified by Rehoboam (2 Chron. 11:7) and referred to in Nehemiah’s time (Neh. 3:16) but was most prominent in Maccabean times. Here Judas Maccabeus defeated the Greeks under Lysias, 165 B.C. W. F. Albright and O. R. Sellers excavated there in 1931 and Sellers in 1957 for the American Schools of Oriental Research and McCormick Theological Seminary. These digs show that the site was first occupied near the end of the third millennium B.C. and fortified for the first time by the Hyksos in the sixteenth century B.C. The place was abandoned during the fourteenth and thirteenth centuries and then occupied by the Hebrews in the twelfth and eleventh centuries. Hellenistic builders erected strong fortifications there during the second century B.C. The Syrians, Ptolemies, and Maccabeans all apparently sought to use the site to good advantage during military activities in the third and second centuries B.C. H.F.V. BIBLIOGRAPHY: O. R. Sellers, The Citadel of Beth-Zur (1933); id., Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 150 (April 1958): 8ff. BET´ONIM (betʹo-nim; “hollows”). A town in the tribe of Gad (Josh. 13:26), located at Khirbet Batneh on Mt. Gilead. BETRAY (Gk. paradidōmi, “to give into the hands” of another). The term used of the act of Judas in delivering up our Lord to the Jews (Matt. 26:16; Mark 14:10; Luke 22:4, 6). BETROTHAL. See Marriage. BEU´LAH (būʹla; “married”). A prophetic figurative expression used in the KJV (Isa. 62:4; NASB, “married”) describing Palestine restored to God’s blessing, not only after the Babylonian Exile but particularly after Israel’s present worldwide dispersion and establishment in Palestine in the millennial kingdom. Israel in its relation to Jehovah is as a weak but beloved woman who has Him for her Lord and husband (54:5) and who will yet be cleansed and restored to her Lord. BEVERAGE. See Drink. BEWITCH. To deceive or delude by satanic and demonic power, as Simon Magus the sorcerer did to the people of Samaria (Acts 8:9, 11, KJV; NASB, “astonish”); to thus charm or fascinate (Gal. 3:1). BEYOND. The region or country beyond. The phrase “beyond the Jordan” frequently occurs in Scripture. To ascertain its meaning we must take into account the situation of the writer. With Moses, writing upon its eastern bank, it usually signified the country W of the river (Gen. 50:10–11; Deut. 3:8, 20), but with Joshua after he crossed the river it meant the reverse (Josh. 5:1; 12:7; 22:7). In Matt. 4:15 “beyond the Jordan” designates, after the two lands already mentioned, a new land after the coming of Jesus, namely, Perea. BE´ZAI (beʹzī). The head of one of the families who returned from Babylon to the number of 324, including himself (Ezra 2:17; Neh. 7:23), 536 B.C. Either he or his family is probably referred to (Neh. 10:18) as sealing the covenant, 445 B.C. BEZ´ALEL (bezʹa-lel; “in the shadow [protection] of God”). 1. The craftsman to whom was entrusted the design and construction of the Tabernacle and its furniture in the wilderness. For this work he was specially chosen and inspired by Jehovah. With him was associated Oholiab, though Bezalel appears to have been chief. He was the son of Uri, the son of Hur (Ex. 31:2–11; 35:30; 38:22), c. 1440 B.C. 2. One of the sons of Pahath-moab, who divorced his foreign wife after the captivity (Ezra 10:30), 456 B.C. BE´ZEK (beʹzek; “lightning”). 1. The residence of Adoni-bezek (which see), and inhabited by Canaanites and Perizzites (Judg. 1:4–5). The location is uncertain but may well be Khirbet Bezqa near Gezer. 2. The gathering place where Saul numbered the forces of Judah and Israel before going to the relief of Jabesh-gilead (1 Sam. 11:8). It is located at modern Khirbet Ibziq, about twelve miles NE of Shechem. BE´ZER (beʹzer). 1. The sixth named of the eleven sons of Zophah, of the descendants of Asher (1 Chron. 7:37). 2. A Reubenite city of refuge E of the Jordan (Deut. 4:43; Josh. 20:8; etc.). It is probably to be located at modern Umm el-Amad, eight miles NE of Madaba. Location uncertain. BIBLE. The name commonly used to designate the thirty-nine books of the OT and the twenty-seven books of the NT. These sixty-six books constitute a divine library that is nevertheless, in a vital sense, one Book. The Name Bible. The development of the expression the Bible to designate the “Book of books” is providential. It admirably expresses the unity of the Word of God. The English word Bible came originally from the name of the papyrus or byblos reed used extensively in antiquity for making scrolls and books. Byblos (OT Gebal) was so named because, in that Phoenician seaport, trade and manufacture in papyrus writing material was carried on. From about the eleventh century B.C., or even earlier, papyrus rolls grown in the Delta of Egypt were shipped to Gebal. The word Bible comes from the Old French through the Lat. biblia, from the Gk. Quite naturally the Greeks came to term a book biblos or a small book biblion. By the second century A.D. Greek Christians called their sacred Scriptures ta Biblia, “the Books.” When this title was subsequently transferred to the Lat., it was rendered in the singular and through Old French came into English as “Bible.” Other Designations. In the OT and the Apocrypha the sacred writings are called “the books” (LXX, bibloi, Dan. 9:2), “the holy books” (1 Macc. 12:9), “the books of the law” (1:56), “book of the covenant” (1:57), etc. In the prologue to Ecclesiasticus the Scriptures are referred to as “the law, the prophets, and the other books (biblia) of our fathers.” In the NT the common designations for the OT books are “the Scriptures” (writings; Matt. 21:42; Mark 14:49; Luke 24:32; John 5:39; Rom. 15:4), the “holy Scriptures” (Rom. 1:2), “the sacred writings” (2 Tim. 3:15). The Jewish technical division of “the Law,” “the Prophets,” and the “Psalms” or “writings” is recognized in Luke 24:44. Another term for the whole is “the Law and the Prophets” (Acts 13:15; cf. Matt. 5:17; 11:13). The term Law is occasionally extended to include the other divisions (John 10:34; 1 Cor. 14:21). Paul also employs the expression “the oracles of God” (Rom. 3:2). The Terms Old Testament and New Testament. These terms have come into use since the close of the second century to distinguish the Jewish and the Christian Scriptures. The word testament (lit., a will) denotes a covenant. In the RV, accordingly, “testament” is generally corrected to covenant. However, these terms are not altogether accurate for the simple reason that the Mosaic covenant and the legal dispensation were still in operation throughout the lifetime and up to the death of Christ, when “the veil of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom” (Matt. 27:51). This momentous event signified that a “new and living way” (Heb. 10:20) was open for all believers into the very presence of God with no other sacrifice or priesthood necessary save Christ (cf. 9:1–8; 10:19–22). It was only as a result of the death, burial, and resurrection of Christ, the giving of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost (Acts 2), and the preaching of the gospel of grace that actually saw the outworking of the New Covenant. Languages. The OT is written mostly in Heb.; the NT wholly in Gk. The parts of the OT not in Heb. are Ezra 4:8–6:18; 7:12–26; Jer. 10:11; and Dan. 2:4–7:28. These sections are written in Aram., a related Semitic dialect that, after the exilic period, gradually took the place of Heb. as the common language of the Jews. The ancient Heb. was a Canaanite dialect closely akin to Phoenician and Ugaritic, the latter being a language spoken at Ugarit (modern Ras Shamra) in northern Syria. At Ugarit an important and extensive religious epic literature shedding great light on Canaanite morality and religious practices has been uncovered by Claude Schaeffer and the French expedition (1929–37). NT Gk., so greatly illuminated by important papyri discoveries, particularly from Egypt, has been shown to be not a special sacred RV Revised Version dialect, as was formerly thought, but the common Hellenistic speech of the first century A.D. In no phase of its composition does the Bible show itself to be a book for the people more than in its use of the everyday language of the Greek-speaking world of the period. Division of the Old Testament Books. The thirty-nine books of the OT were anciently divided by the Hebrews into three distinct classes: (1) The Law (Torah), which consisted of the five books of Moses—Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. These are the oldest of the biblical books, Mosaic in origin but incorporating much earlier material. (2) The Prophets (Nevi´im), which embraced the four earlier prophets, Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings and the four later prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the Twelve—Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi. These were believed to have been written by those who had the prophetic office as well as the prophetic gift. (3) The Writings (Kethuvim), which consisted of (a) poetical books— Psalms, Proverbs, Job; (b) the Rolls—Song of Solomon, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, and Esther; and (c) prophetical-historical books—Daniel, Ezra- Nehemiah, and Chronicles. The Heb. books number twenty-four and are identical in content with the thirty-nine of the English order, the difference being made up by the division of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles into two books respectively instead of one, and by counting the twelve minor prophets individually instead of as one. Division of the New Testament Books. By the middle of the second century a Christian NT had come into existence. Early distinction had to be made between the generally acknowledged and the disputed books. As enumerated by Eusebius and substantiated by early lists such as the canon of Muratori (about A.D. 170), quotations, versions, and patristic use, the former included the four gospels, Acts, thirteen epistles of Paul, 1 Peter, and 1 John. With these may be placed Hebrews and Revelation. Disputed books included James, Jude, 2 and 3 John, and 2 Peter. However, the complete acceptance of all of the books in our present NT canon may be dated from the councils of Laodicea (about A.D. 363) and Carthage (A.D. 397), which confirmed the catalogs of Cyril of Jerusalem, Jerome, and Augustine. Origin and Growth. Accepting the internal evidence together with predictive prophecy and divine miracle, the following general conclusions have been arrived at by conservative scholars: (1) The Pentateuch as it stands is historical and dates from the time of Moses. Moses was its author, though it may have been revised and edited later, the additions being just as much inspired as the rest. (Cf. Robert Dick Wilson, A Scientific Investigation of the O. T. [1926], p. 11.) In other words, the Pentateuch is one continuous work, the product of a single writer, Moses. This Mosaic unity of the Pentateuch may, however, admit post-Mosaic additions or changes that do not abrogate the authenticity and integrity of the text. It is not inconsistent with Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch to grant modification of archaic expressions and place names, marginal glosses, or explanatory scribal insertions that evidently crept into the text, and textual errors resulting from inadvertent mistakes of copyists. The latter constitute the legitimate domain of scholarly criticism. An example of an addition is Deut. 34:5–12, which narrates Moses’ death and burial. An evident gloss is furnished by Gen. 15:2–3, which is obscure in the Heb. unless one sees that a copyist’s explanation eventually got into the text (cf. KJV and NASB readings); also 14:14 and Deut. 34:1, where Laish is called “Dan,” although apparently this place did not receive its later name until after the Mosaic age (Judg. 18:29). “Raamses” (Ex. 1:11) seems clearly a modification of the earlier city Zoan or Avaris. (2) The book of Joshua is a literary unit distinct from the Pentateuch. It dates from the period of Joshua and in all likelihood was written in substance by Joshua himself (cf. 24:26). In any event, it was written early, as numerous internal evidences show. (3) The Song of Deborah (Judg. 5) is unquestionably an authentic monument of the age of the Judges, and the older parts of Judges, at least, are contemporaneous with the events they recount. (4) The age of Samuel, Saul, David, and the monarchy was a period of literary activity and saw the gradual rise of such books as 1 and 2 Samuel, 1 and 2 Kings, and many of the psalms. (5) The Solomonic period saw the development of wisdom literature such as Proverbs, Song of Solomon, and Ecclesiastes. (6) To the period of the Divided Monarchy in the main belongs the extensive prophetic literature of the OT. Obadiah and Joel are probably dated as early as the late ninth century B.C. To the eighth century B.C. belong Amos, Hosea, and Jonah in the Northern Kingdom, and Micah and Isaiah in the Southern Kingdom. Nahum, Zephaniah, Habakkuk, and Jeremiah (including Lamentations) come in the late seventh century B.C. (7) Ezekiel and Daniel are exilic, and (8) Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi are postexilic, as well as such books as Esther, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles. Concerning unsound views, it is especially important to note the claim of higher critics that Isa. 40–66 is the work of a “second” or “third” Isaiah (which see) living about 540 B.C. or later, and that the book of Daniel is a product of the Maccabean period (c. 167 B.C.) But denials of the unity of Isaiah and the genuineness of Daniel (which see) are based upon false assumptions and unsound conclusions, and they are challenged by believing scholars who refuse to abandon the fortress of a high and worthy doctrine of inspiration as set forth in the Word (2 Tim. 3:15; 2 Pet. 1:20–21). Conservative critics also refuse to surrender the historicity of Jonah (which see) or the authenticity of Ezekiel’s (which see) prophecies in the face of critical attack. M.F.U. BIBLIOGRAPHY: B. F. Westcott, The Bible in the Church (1875); A. S. Peake, The Bible, Its Origin, Its Significance, and Its Abiding Worth (1913); R. D. Wilson, A Scientific Investigation of the Old Testament (1926); N. B. Stonehouse, ed., The Infallible Word (1946); N. Geldenhuis, Supreme Authority (1953); R. Preus, Inspiration of Scripture (1955); R. L. Harris, Inspiration and Canonicity of the Bible (1957); E. J. Young, Thy Word Is Truth (1957); F. G. Kenyon, Our Bible and the Ancient Manuscripts (1958); J. G. MacGregor, The Bible in the Making (1958); J. L. Jensen, Independent Bible Study (1963); B. B. Warfield, Inspiration and Authority of the Bible (1970); J. R. W. Stott, Understanding the Bible (1972); L. L. Morris, I Believe in Revelation (1976); R. M. Polzin, Biblical Structuralism (1977); R. L. Saucy, The Bible Breathed from God (1978); N. L. Geisler, Inerrancy (1979); J. I. Packer, God Has Spoken (1979); E. Radmacher, ed., Can We Trust the Bible? (1979); G. B. Caird, The Language and Imagery of the Bible (1980); C. J. Barber, Dynamic Personal Bible Study (1981); C. C. Ryrie, What You Should Know About Inerrancy (1981); R. H. Nash, The Word of God and the Mind of Man (1982); J. D. Woodbridge, Biblical Authority (1982); D. A. Carson and J. D. Woodbridge, eds., Scripture and Truth (1983); S. Kubo and W. F. Specht, So Many Versions? (1983); J. F. MacArthur, Jr., Why I Trust the Bible (1983); F. F. Bruce, The Books and the Parchments (1984); N. L. Geisler and W. E. Nix, A General Introduction to the Bible, 2d ed., rev. and enl. (1986). BIBLIA PAUPERUM (bibʹli-a pawʹper-um; “Bible of the Poor”). 1. The name given to a picture Bible, printed on wood blocks before the invention of movable type. It had forty leaves printed on one side, on which forty scenes from the life of our Lord were depicted, with some OT events, accompanied by an illustrative text or sentence in Lat. It was not intended so much for the poor people as for the indigent friars, who were, doubtless, aided in their preaching by the pictures. The pictures in this book were copied in sculpture, paintings, and altar pieces. The stained-glass windows in Lambeth Chapel were copied from some of them. 2. A work of Bonaventura, in which Bible events are alphabetically arranged and accompanied with notes to aid preachers. BIBLIOMANCY (Gk. biblion, “Bible,” and manteia, “divination”). A kind of fortune-telling by means of the Bible, consisting of drawing texts of Scripture at random, from which inference was made of duty, future events, etc. It was introduced from paganism, which made a similar use of Homer, Virgil, and other writers. In the twelfth century it was used for the detection of heretics and in the election of bishops. A sort of bibliomancy was in use among the Jews, which consisted in appealing to the very first words heard from anyone reading the Scriptures, and in regarding them as a voice from heaven. BICH´RI (bikʹri; “firstborn”), or Bic´ri (NIV). A Benjamite, whose son Sheba stirred up a rebellion against David after the death of Absalom (2 Sam. 20:1–22), about 967 B.C. BID´KAR (bidʹkar). Jehu’s captain and originally fellow officer who cast the body of Jehoram, the son of Ahab, into the field of Naboth after Jehu had killed him (2 Kings 9:25), 842 B.C. BIER (Heb. miṭṭâ, “bed”; but “bier” in 2 Sam. 3:31, KJV, NASB, NIV; Gk. saros, open “coffin,” funeral “couch,” Luke 7:14, rendered “coffin” in the NASB and NIV, but “bier” in the KJV). The original form of the term is “beere,” from the Anglo- Saxon beran, “to bear.” The bier is in fact a hand-barrow on which to carry a corpse to burial. In Europe it was usually covered by a “hearse,” or wagon-shaped framework, for the support of the “pall.” A combination of the two placed on wheels makes the modern hearse. BIGAMY. See Marriage. BIG´THA (bigʹtha; from Old Persian baga + da, “gift of God”). One of the seven eunuchs or chamberlains who had charge of the harem of Xerxes (Ahasuerus) and were commanded by him to bring in Queen Vashti to the banquet (Esther 1:10), 486– 465 B.C. BIG´THAN, or Bigtha´na (bigʹthan or big-thaʹna; Old Pers., cf. Bigtha). One of the officials of Xerxes (Ahasuerus) who “guarded the door.” He conspired with Teresh against the life of the king and, being exposed by Mordecai, was hanged with his fellow conspirator (Esther 2:21; 6:2), 486–465 B.C. BIG´VAI (bigʹva-ī; Old Persian, “happy, fortunate,” from baga, “good luck”). 1. The head of one of the families of Israelites who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:2; Neh. 7:7) with a large number of retainers—2,056, by Ezra’s count (Ezra 2:14); 2,067, by Nehemiah’s (Neh. 7:19), 536 B.C. At a later period seventy-two males of his family returned with Ezra (Ezra 8:14), about 457 B.C. 2. One of the leaders of the people who subscribed to the covenant with Nehemiah (Neh. 10:16), 445 B.C. Perhaps the same as no. 1. BIL´DAD (bilʹdad). The Shuhite (which see), and the second of the three friends of Job who disputed with him as to his affliction and character (Job 2:11). In his first speech (chap. 8) he attributes the death of Job’s children to their own transgression. In his second speech (chap. 18) he recapitulates his former assertions of the temporal Pers. Persian calamities of the wicked, insinuating Job’s wrongdoing. In his third speech (chap. 25), unable to answer Job’s arguments, he takes refuge in a declaration of God’s glory and man’s nothingness. Finally, with Eliphaz and Zophar, he availed himself of the intercession of Job, in obedience to the divine command (42:9). BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. S. Baxter, Explore the Book (1960), 2:9–78. BIL´EAM (bilʹi-am). A town in the western half of the tribe of Manasseh, given with its pasture-lands to the Kohathites (1 Chron. 6:70). Modern Bel˓āmeh, thirteen miles NNE of Samaria. Possibly the same as Ibleam (which see). BIL´GAH (bilʹga; “cheerfulness”). 1. Head of the fifteenth division for the Temple service, as arranged by David (1 Chron. 24:14), about 989 B.C. 2. A priest who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel and Jeshua (Neh. 12:5, 18), 536 B.C. Perhaps the same as Bilgai (10:8). BIL´GAI (bilʹga-ī; “brightness, cheerfulness”). One of the priests whose descendants signed the seal with Nehemiah (Neh. 10:8), 445 B.C. Probably the same as Bilgah (which see). BIL´HAH (bilʹha). The handmaid of Rachel, given to her by Laban (Gen. 29:29). Rachel gave Bilhah to her husband, Jacob, that through her she might have children, about 1938 B.C. Bilhah thus became the mother of Dan and Naphtali (30:3–8; 35:25; 46:25). Her stepson Reuben afterward lay with her (35:22) and thus incurred his father’s dying reproof (49:4). BIL´HAN (bilʹhan). 1. A Horite chief, son of Ezer, son of Seir, dwelling in Mt. Seir, in the land of Edom (Gen. 36:27; 1 Chron. 1:42). 2. A Benjamite, son of Jediael (which see) and father of seven sons (1 Chron. 7:10). BILL (Heb. sēper, “writing”). A word meaning anything that is written, e.g., a “bill of divorcement,” KJV; “certificate [or writ] of divorce,” NASB (cf. Deut. 24:1, 3; Isa. 50:1; Jer. 3:8; Matt. 19:7, Gk. biblion). The words in the KJV of Job 31:35, “that mine adversary had written a book,” would be better rendered, “that mine adversary had given me a bill of accusation” (i.e., of indictment, as in the NIV), a reading reflected in the NASB: “Here is … the indictment which my adversary has written.” In the KJV of Jer. 32:10–16, 44, “the evidence” (marg., “book”) means a bill of purchase or sale (NASB and NIV, “deed of purchase”). By “bill” (KJV, NIV, and NASB, from Gk. gamma, Luke 16:6–7) a legal instrument is meant, which showed the amount of indebtedness, probably of tenants who paid rent in kind. BIL´SHAN (bil-shan; possibly from Akkad. Bēl-shun, “their lord”). The name of one of the leaders of the Jews who returned to Jerusalem with Zerubbabel after the captivity (Ezra 2:2; Neh. 7:7), 536 B.C. BIM´HAL (bimʹhal). A son of Japhlet and the great-great-grandson of Asher (1 Chron. 7:33). BIND (qāshar). In the command, “You shall bind them as a sign on your hand,” etc. (Deut. 6:8), the “words are figurative, and denote an undeviating observance of the divine commands; their literal fulfillment could only be a praiseworthy custom or well-pleasing to God when resorted to as the means of keeping the commands of God constantly before the eye” (K. & D., Com., ad loc.). BINDING AND LOOSING. In Matt. 16:19 the power of binding and loosing is given to the apostle Peter in connection with “the keys of the kingdom of heaven.” A key in Scripture is a symbol of power and authority (Isa. 22:22; Rev. 1:18). Peter was thus given authority to open and close, not with reference to the church but in connection with “the kingdom of heaven.” The history of the early church as recorded in the book of Acts makes clear the extent of this trust. It was Peter who opened the door to Christian opportunity on the Day of Pentecost (Acts 2:14; 38–42), to the Samaritans (8:14–17), and to the Gentiles in Cornelius’s household at Caesarea (10:34–48). Each of these pivotal passages marked the opening of religious opportunity in a dispensational sense to the Jew, to the racially mixed Samaritans, and to the Gentile. With the gospel of grace reaching out to the Gentiles in chap. 10, the normal course of the age was established. The Holy Spirit, who came at Pentecost to baptize the Jew into the Body of Christ, was now given to Samaritan and Gentile. This marked the extent of Peter’s use of the keys of the kingdom of heaven and his power of binding and loosing. There was no other assumption of authority by the apostle (15:7–11). In the Jewish council James, not Peter, presided (15:13; Gal. 2:11– 15). The power of binding and loosing was shared by the other disciples (Matt. 18:18). That it merely indicated special apostolic authority and power, and in no sense involved the determination of eternal destiny, is apparent from Rev. 1:18. Christ alone holds the “keys of death and of Hades.” To Peter alone was granted the special prerogative of opening gospel opportunity at the beginning of the church age or present period, characterized preeminently by God’s grace and extending from the formation of the church at Pentecost by the baptism of the Spirit (cf. Acts 1:5; 11:16 with 1 Cor. 12:13) to the out-taking of this body at the coming of Christ (15:53; 1 Thess. 4:13–17; 2 Thess. 2:1–8). M.F.U. BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. J. Cadbury, Journal of Biblical Literature 58 (1939): 231–34; J. R. Mantey, JBL 58 (1939): 243–49; D. O. Via, Jr., Review and Expositor 55 (1958): 22– 39. BIN´EA (binʹi-a). A Benjamite, son of Moza and father of Raphah, of the descendants of King Saul (1 Chron. 8:37; 9:43), about 850 B.C. BIN´NUI (binʹnū-i; “built”). 1. A Levite whose son, Noadiah, was one of those who assisted in weighing the gold and silver designed for the divine service on the restoration from Babylon (Ezra 8:33), about 457 B.C. 2. One of the “sons” of Pahath-moab, who put away his foreign wife on the return from Babylon (Ezra 10:30), 456 B.C. 3. Another Israelite, of the “sons” of Bani, who did the same as above (Ezra 10:38), 456 B.C. 4. A Levite, son of Henadad, who returned with Zerubbabel from Babylon (Neh. 12:8), 536 B.C. He also (if the same) assisted in repairing the walls of Jerusalem (Neh. 3:24), 446 B.C., and joined in the covenant (10:9), 410 B.C. 5. The head of one of the families of Israelites whose followers, to the number of 648, returned from Babylon (Neh. 7:15). In Ezra 2:10 he is called Bani (which see), and his retainers are numbered at 642. BIRD. See Animal Kingdom; Food; Sacrifices. BIR´SHA (birʹsha). A king of Gomorrah whom Abraham assisted during the invasion of Chedorlaomer (Gen. 14:1–16), about 2050 B.C. BIRTH. See Child. BIRTHDAY (Heb. yôm hūlledet, Gen. 40:20; Gk. ta genesia, Matt. 14:6; Mark 6:21). The custom of observing birthdays is ancient and widely extended. In Persia they were celebrated with peculiar honor and banquets, and in Egypt the king’s birthday was observed with great pomp (Gen. 40:20). No reference is made in Scripture to the celebration of birthdays by the Jews themselves although the language of Jeremiah (20:14–15) would seem to indicate that such occasions were joyfully remembered. By most commentators the feasts mentioned in Job 1:13, 18 are thought to have been birthday festivals, but Delitzsch (Com., ad loc.) believes them to have been gatherings held each day in the home of one of the brothers. The feast commemorative of “Herod’s birthday” (Matt. 14:6) may have been in honor of his birth or of his accession to the throne (cf. Hos. 7:5). The later Jews regarded the celebration of birthdays as a part of idolatrous worship. In the early church the term birthdays was applied to the festivals of martyrs, the days on which they suffered death in this world and were born to the glory and life of heaven. BIRTHRIGHT (Heb. b kōrâ; Gk. prototokia, “primogeniture”). The right of the firstborn; that to which one is entitled by virtue of his birth. See Firstborn. BIRTHSTOOL (Heb. ˒obnayim, a “pair of stones,” as a “potter’s wheel,” and used of a low stool, so called from its resemblance to a potter’s wheel). A chair of peculiar form upon which a Hebrew woman sat during childbirth (Ex. 1:16). BIR´ZAITH (birʹza-ith). A name given in the genealogies of Asher (1 Chron. 7:31) as the son of Malchiel and great-grandson of Asher. BISH´LAM (bishʹlam; “in peace”). Apparently an officer of Artaxerxes in Palestine at the time of the return of Zerubbabel from captivity. He wrote to the king against the Jews who were rebuilding the Temple (Ezra 4:7), 529 B.C. BISHOP. See Elder; Office; Overseer. BISHOPRIC (Gk. episcopē, “oversight”). A KJV term (Acts 1:20) referring to the ministerial charge of the church; it is replaced in the NASB by the term office and in the NIV by the expression place of leadership. In liturgical churches the term is used to designate (1) the office and function of a bishop and (2) the district over which he has jurisdiction. See also Elder; Office; Overseer. BITHI´A (bi-thi-a; “daughter of Jehovah”) or Bithiah (NIV). Daughter of Pharaoh and wife of Mered, a descendant of Judah (1 Chron. 4:17). Her sons are mentioned in the clause beginning “and she conceived and bore.” As the pharaohs contracted marriages with royal families alone, Mered was probably a person of some distinction, or Bithia may have been an adopted daughter of Pharaoh. It may be supposed that she became the wife of Mered during captivity. BITHRON (bithʹron; “cut,” “gorge,” “ravine”). A term found in the KJV and NIV of 2 Sam. 2:29 but not in the NASB. It refers to a narrow passage in the Arabah (or Jordan Valley) through which Abner and his men went following the death of Asahel. BITHYN´IA (bi-thinʹi-a). The NW province of Asia Minor. It is mountainous, thickly wooded, and fertile. It was conquered by the Romans in 75 B.C. The letters of Pliny to the emperor Trajan show that the presence of so many Christians in the province embarrassed him (1 Pet. 1:1). Paul was not permitted to enter Bithynia (Acts 16:7), being detained by the “Spirit of Jesus.” BIBLIOGRAPHY: E. M. Blaiklock, The Christian in Pagan Society (1951); W. M. Ramsay, Historical Geography of Asia Minor (1972), pp. 179–96. BITTER (some form of Heb. mārar; Gk. pikros). Bitterness in Scripture is symbolic of affliction, misery, servitude (Ex. 1:14; Ruth 1:20; Prov. 5:4), and wickedness (Jer. 4:18). A time of mourning and lamentation is called a “bitter day” (Amos 8:10). The “gall of bitterness” describes a state of extreme wickedness (Acts 8:23), while a “root of bitterness” (Heb. 12:15) expresses a wicked, scandalous person or any dangerous sin leading to apostasy. The waters “made bitter” (Rev. 8:11) is figurative of severe political or providential events. In the KJV of Hab. 1:6 the Chaldeans are called “that bitter and swift nation,” i.e., having a fierce disposition (so NASB). BITTER HERBS. Because of the symbolical meaning of bitterness, bitter herbs were commanded to be used in the celebration of the Passover (which see) to recall the bondage of Egypt (Ex. 12:8; Num. 9:11). See Vegetable Kingdom. BITTERN. See Animal Kingdom: Hedgehog. BITU´MEN (KJV, “slime”; NASB and NIV, “pitch”). See Mineral Kingdom: Pitch. BIZ´I´OTH´IAH (bizʹiʹōthīʹa; “contempt of Jehovah”). One of the towns that fell to Judah (Josh. 15:28), probably the same as Baalath-beer (19:8). Site unknown, but apparently located near Beersheba. BIZJOTH´JAH. See Biziothiah. BIZ´THA (bizʹtha; perhaps from Avestan biz-da, “double gift”). One of the seven eunuchs of the harem of Xerxes (Ahasuerus) who were ordered to bring Vashti forth for exhibition (Esther 1:10), 486–465 B.C. BLACK. See Colors. BLACK KITE. See Animal Kingdom: Kite. BLAINS. See Diseases: Boils. BLASPHEMY (Gk. blasphēmia, signifies the speaking of evil of God; Heb. nāqab shēm ˒Adōnai, to “curse the name of the Lord,” Isa. 52:5; Rom. 2:24). Sometimes, perhaps, “blasphemy” has been retained by translators when the general meaning “evil-speaking” or “slander” might have been better (Ps. 74:18; Col. 3:8). There are two general forms of blasphemy: (1) Attributing some evil to God, or denying Him some good that we should attribute to Him (Lev. 24:11; Rom. 2:24). (2) Giving the attributes of God to a creature—which form of blasphemy the Jews charged Jesus with (Matt. 26:65; Luke 5:21; John 10:36). The Jews from ancient times have interpreted the command in Lev. 24:16 as prohibiting the utterance of the name Jehovah, reading for it “Adonai” or “Elohim.” Punishment. Blasphemy, when committed in ignorance, i.e., through thoughtlessness and weakness of the flesh, might be atoned for; but if committed “with a high hand,” i.e., in impious rebellion against Jehovah, was punished by stoning (Lev. 24:11–16). New Testament. Blasphemy against the Holy Spirit (Matt. 12:31; Mark 3:29; Luke 12:10), also called the unpardonable sin, has caused extended discussion. The sin mentioned in the gospels would appear to have consisted in attributing to the power of Satan those unquestionable miracles that Jesus performed by “the finger of God” and by the power of the Holy Spirit. It is questionable whether it may be extended beyond this one limited and special sin (see Sin, The Unpardonable). Among the early Christians three kinds of blasphemy were recognized: (1) of apostates and lapsi (lapsed), whom the heathen persecutors had compelled not only to deny, but to curse, Christ; (2) of heretics and other profane Christians; (3) blasphemy against the Holy Spirit. BLASTING. This term, which appears several times in the KJV and once in the NASB, refers to two diseases that attack the grain: one to the withering or burning of the ears, caused by the E wind (Gen. 41:6, 23, 27); the other to the effect produced by a warm wind in Arabia, by which the green ears are turned yellow, so that they bear no grains (K. & D., Com.). In the NASB and NIV “blasted” is replaced with“scorched,” and “blasting” is replaced with “blight” or “scorching,” except in Hag. 2:17, where both the KJV and NASB read “blasting.” The NIV, however, retains “blight” in this passage. See Mildew. BLAS´TUS (blasʹtus; “sprout, shoot”). The chamberlain of King Herod Agrippa who acted as mediator between the people of Tyre and Sidon and the king (Acts 12:20), A.D. 44. BLEMISH. A physical or mental defect. As the spiritual nature of a man is reflected in his bodily form, only a faultless condition of the body could correspond to the holiness of a priest. Consequently, all men were excluded from the priesthood, and all animals from being offered as sacrifices, who had any blemish or “defect.” These blemishes are described in Lev. 21:17–23; 22:18–25; Deut. 15:21. “A disfigured face” may mean any mutilation, or it could indicate a syphilitic condition. The rule concerning animals extended to imperfections, so that if an animal free from outward blemish was found, after being slain, internally defective it was not offered in sacrifice. See also the articles Defect; Diseases: Blemish. BLESS, BLESSING. Acts of blessing may be considered: (1) When God is said to bless men (Gen. 1:28; 22:17). God’s blessing is accompanied with that virtue that renders His blessing effectual and which is expressed by it. Because God is eternal and omnipresent, His omniscience and omnipotence cause His blessings to avail in the present life in respect to all things and also in the life to come. (2) When men bless God (Pss. 103:1–2; 145:1–3; etc.). This is when they ascribe to Him those characteristics that are His, acknowledge His sovereignty, express gratitude for His mercies, etc. (3) Men bless their fellowmen when, as in ancient times under the spirit of prophecy, they predict blessings to come upon them. Thus Jacob blessed his sons (Gen. 49:1–28; Heb. 11:21), and Moses the children of Israel (Deut. 33:1–29). It was the duty and privilege of the priests to bless the people in the name of the Lord (see Benediction). Further, men bless their fellowmen when they express good wishes and pray to God in their behalf. (4) At meals. The psalmist says, “I shall lift up the cup of salvation, and call upon the name of the Lord” (Ps. 116:13), an apparent reference to a custom among the Jews. A feast was made of a portion of their thank offerings when, among other rites, the master of the feast took a cup of wine, offering thanks to God for His mercies. The cup was then passed to all the guests, each drinking in his turn. At family feasts, and especially the Passover, both bread and wine were passed and thanks offered to God for His mercies. BIBLIOGRAPHY: T. H. Gaster, Journal of Biblical Literature 66 (1947): 53–62; F. M. Cross and D. N. Freeman, JBL 67 (1948): 191–210; L. J. Liebrich, JBL 74 (1955): 33–36; E. M. Good, JBL 82 (1963): 427–32. BLESSING, THE CUP OF. A name applied to the wine in the Lord’s Supper (1 Cor. 10:16), probably because the same name was given to the cup of wine in the supper of the Passover (which see). BLINDNESS. The Bible speaks of three kinds of blindness: physical, spiritual, and judicial. Physical Blindness. Instances of physical blindness appear in Scripture (John 9:25). Blindness was sometimes inflicted for political and other purposes in the East (Judg. 16:21; 1 Sam. 11:2). The eyes of captives taken in war were commonly put out. This practice was especially followed by the cruel Assyrians, as well as by the Babylonians and others. Jesus often healed physical blindness during His earthly ministry. In John 9 physical blindness and its cure portray judicial blindness. See Diseases. Spiritual Blindness. Spiritual blindness is that state affecting truth. “And even if our gospel is veiled, it is veiled to those who are perishing, in whose case the god of this world has blinded the minds of the unbelieving, that they might not see the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ, who is the image of God” (2 Cor. 4:3–4). Numerous Scriptures portray the unsaved as blinded and held under the power of Satan (John 8:44; Col. 1:13; Eph. 2:1–2). Salvation involves the taking away of this satanic veil. Spiritual blindness also extends to carnal Christians. Yielding to sin on the part of a believer, or failing to walk by the Spirit, involves diminution of spiritual perception: “And I, brethren, could not speak to you as to spiritual men, but as to men of flesh, as to babes in Christ” (1 Cor. 3:1). The correction of blindness in the carnal believer can only be brought about by a separation from carnality and a yielding to the Holy Spirit (1 Cor. 2:6–16). See also Isa. 6:10; 42:18–19; Matt. 15:14. Judicial Blindness. This phase of blindness or hardness of heart is characteristic of the nation Israel as a result of its rejection of the Messiah. It extends throughout the entire Christian age since the crucifixion of Christ. In Rom. 11:1–5 the apostle describes Israelites as under a double election—the national election and their individual election. He points out that nationally they have been temporarily set aside but that through individual election of grace, when the present age of the out-calling of the church is completed, Israel will be brought into judgment, refined, and restored to its national election. For this reason Israel’s blindness is described by the apostle to be “partial” (Rom. 11:25), thus indicating the remnant of Israel who will be saved in this present age and will become members of the church, the Body of Christ. Judicial blindness of Israel is implied in such great passages of Scripture as Isa. 6:9–10, Jer. 31:35–37, Mark 4:12, Luke 8:10, Acts 28:26–27, John 12:37–41. We are told in 2 Cor. 3:14–16 that a veil is upon the heart of the understanding of Jews “whenever Moses is read.” However, when the nation shall turn to the Lord “the veil is taken away.” The difficult problem is that although Scripture declares that for their own national sins the Jews are blinded, yet not all of them are blinded, and only partially so for the period of the out-calling of the church. The apostle says, “For I do not want you, brethren, to be uninformed of this mystery, lest you be wise in your own estimation, that a partial hardening has happened to Israel until the fulness of the Gentiles has come in; and thus all Israel will be saved; just as it is written,/‘The Deliverer will come from Zion,/He will remove ungodliness from Jacob.’/‘And this is My covenant with them,/When I take away their sins’” (Rom. 11:25–27). M.F.U. BLOOD (Heb. dām; Gk. haima, “the circulatory life fluid of the body”). A peculiar sacredness was attached to blood because of the idea that prevailed of its unity with the soul. We find this distinctively stated (Gen. 9:4): “Only you shall not eat flesh with its life, that is, its blood.” “This identification of the blood with the soul, which prevailed in antiquity, appears at first to have no further foundation than that a sudden diminution of the quantity of blood in the body causes death. But this phenomenon itself has the deeper reason that all activity of the body depends on the quantity of the blood. The blood is actually the basis of the physical life; and, so far, the soul, as the principle of bodily life, is preeminently in the blood. We are to understand this only of the sensuous soul, not of the intelligent and thinking soul” (Delitzsch). Arising from this principle the Scriptures record different directions respecting blood: As Food. When permission was given Noah to partake of animal food (Gen. 9:4), the use of blood was strictly forbidden. In the Mosaic law this prohibition was repeated with emphasis, though generally in connection with sacrifices (Lev. 3:8; 7:26). “The prohibition of the use of blood has a twofold ground: blood has the soul in itself, and in accordance with the gracious ordinance of God it is the means of expiation for human souls, because of the soul contained in it. The one ground is found in the nature of blood and the other in its destination to a holy purpose, which, even apart from that other reason, withdraws it from a common use” (Delitzsch, Bib. Psychology, p. 283). Because of the blood the eating of bloody portions of flesh (Gen. 9:4) or of flesh with blood (Lev. 19:26; 1 Sam. 14:32) is also forbidden. The penalty was that the offender should be “cut off ” from the people, which seems to be death, but whether by the sword or by stoning is not known (Lev. 17:14). This prohibition was also made by the apostles and elders in the council at Jerusalem and coupled with things offered to idols (Acts 15:29). Sacrificial. A well-known rabbinical maxim, recognized by the author of the epistle to the Hebrews (9:22), was “Without shedding of blood there is no forgiveness.” The life is in the blood, as is often declared by Moses; the life of the sacrifice was taken, and the blood offered to God, as a representative and substitute for the offerer (Lev. 17:11). See Sacrifice; Festivals. Figurative. “Blood” is often used for life: “Whoever sheds man’s blood” (Gen. 9:6); “His blood be on us” (Matt. 27:25). “Blood” sometimes is used as a symbol of slaughter (Isa. 34:3; Ezek. 14:19). To “wash his feet in the blood of the wicked” (Ps. 58:10) is to gain a victory with great slaughter. He who “builds a city with bloodshed” (Hab. 2:12) causes the death of the subjugated nations. Wine is called the “blood of grapes” (Gen. 49:11). BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. M. Stibbs, The Meaning of the Word “Blood” in Scripture (1947); L. L. Morris, Journal of Theological Studies 3 (1952): 216–27; id., JTS 6 (1955): 77–82; id., Apostolic Preaching of the Cross (1955). BLOOD, AVENGER, or Revenger of (Heb. gô˒ēl haddām, lit., “redeemer of blood”). At the root of the enactments of the Mosaic penal code lies the principle of strict but righteous retribution, the purpose being to eradicate evil and produce reverence for the righteous God. This principle, however, was not first introduced by the law of Moses. It is much older and is found especially in the form of blood revenge among many ancient peoples. It appears almost everywhere where the state has not yet been formed or is still in the first stages of development, and consequently satisfaction for personal injury falls to private revenge. This custom of “blood calling for blood” exists among Arabs of today. If a man is slain there can never be peace between the tribes again unless the man who killed him is slain by the avenger. By this custom the life, first of all, but after it also the property of the family, as its means of subsistence, was to be protected by the nearest of kin, called a redeemer. The following directions were given by Moses: (1) The willful murderer was to be put to death, without permission of compensation, by the nearest of kin. (2) The law of retaliation was not to extend beyond the immediate offender (Deut. 24:16; 2 Kings 14:6; 2 Chron. 25:4; etc.). (3) If a man took the life of another without hatred, or without hostile intent, he was permitted to flee to one of the cities of refuge (which see). It is not known how long blood revenge was observed, although it would appear (2 Sam. 14:7–8) that David had influence in restraining the operation of the law. Jehoshaphat established a court at Jerusalem to decide such cases (2 Chron. 19:10). BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Pedersen, Israel, Its Life and Culture (1926), 1–2: 420–37. BLOOD, FLOW, or Issue, of. See Diseases: Issue. BLOODY SWEAT. In recording the scene in Gethsemane Luke says that our Lord’s sweat “became like drops of blood falling down upon the ground” (22:44). These words are understood by many to express merely a comparison between the size and density of the drops of sweat and those of blood. But blood is properly understood here only when compared to the nature of the sweat, and we infer that the words imply a profusion of sweat mingled with blood. “Phenomena of frequent occurrence demonstrate how immediately the blood, the seat of life, is under the influence of moral impressions. A feeling of shame causes the blood to rise to the face. Cases are known in which the blood, violently agitated by grief, ends by penetrating through the vessels which inclose it, and, driven outward, escapes with the sweat through the transpiratory glands” (Godet, Com., ad loc.). The phenomenon of “bloody sweat” under extreme emotional stress is recognized by medicine and is called diapedesis, or the seeping of the blood through the vessels without rupture. BLOSSOM. Several Heb. terms are translated “blossom” or “blossoms” in the KJV, NIV, and NASB. For the use of the term in the description in the NASB and NIV of the golden lampstand in the Tabernacle, see Almond Blossom; for the use of the term in the description in the NASB and NIV of the laver in Solomon’s Temple, see Lily Blossom. For the almond tree and the lily plant, see Vegetable Kingdom. BLOSSOM, ALMOND. See Almond Blossom; Vegetable Kingdom: Almond. BLOSSOM, LILY. See Lily Blossom; Vegetable Kingdom: Lily. BLOT. This word is used in the sense of to obliterate; therefore to blot out is to destroy or abolish. To blot out sin is to forgive it fully and finally (Isa. 44:22, KJV). To blot men out of God’s book is to withdraw His providential favors and to cut them off (Ex. 32:32; cf. Deut. 29:20; Ps. 69:28). When Moses says, in the above passage, “Blot me out from Thy book,” we understand the written book as a metaphorical expression, alluding to the custom of making a list of all citizens so that privileges of citizenship might be accorded them. “To blot out of Jehovah’s book, therefore, is to cut off from living fellowship with the living God … and to deliver over to death. As a true mediator of his people, Moses was ready to stake his own life for the deliverance of the nation if Jehovah would forgive the people their sin. These words were the strongest expression of devoted, self-sacrificing love” (K. & D., Com., ad loc.). The refusal to blot the name of the saints out of the book of life, etc. (Rev. 3:5), indicates their security and final vindication. A sinful act (Job 31:7) or reproach (Prov. 9:7) is termed a blot (KJV). BLUE. See Colors. BOANER´GES (bo-a-nurʹjēz; Gk. from Aram. “sons of thunder,” “noise,” r gōshā, cf. Arab. rejasa, “to rumble”—thunder). An epithet used of James and John (Mark 3:17), denoting probably their fiery eloquence (so Jerome) or zeal. It may, however, refer to their quick temper and disposition to violence (Luke 9:52–56). Compare Aram. riggūshā (Syr. regshā, “tumult”; rugza, “anger”). M.F.U. BOAR. See Animal Kingdom: Swine. BOARDS. See Deck of Boxwood. Syr. Syriac BOATS. As a farming people inhabiting the central highland region of Palestine, the Israelites, unlike the Phoenicians, were not sea-minded. References to boats inside Palestine are not numerous. There were ferry boats across the Jordan River (2 Sam. 19:18) and small fishing boats that plied the Sea of Galilee (Mark 4:36; John 6:1, 23). David had to depend on the Phoenician navy of Hiram, who helped Solomon build the Hebrew navy. Ezion-geber on the Gulf of Aqaba was the port. Although the Hebrews were a land-loving people, there are a number of references to the boats of other nations (cf. Pss. 107:23; 104:26; Prov. 31:14). Paul used coastal freighters for travel during his missionary journeys. His account of the voyage to Rome in Acts 27 is one of the best-known and most vivid ancient adventures at sea. In OT times Egyptian ships not only traveled along the Nile but the Mediterranean coast. Traffic with Phoenician Byblos (OT Gebal) was especially well known. Those ships, called “Byblos Travelers,” transported papyrus for papermaking and brought back various kinds of wood and expensive wines. From early times flat-bottomed boats were capable of hauling heavy stones for Egyptian buildings hundreds of miles on the Nile. Similar flat-bottomed boats, caulked with bitumen, and timber rafts floated on inflated skins, were used on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Traffic extended even to India via the Persian Gulf. Perhaps the most famous ships of antiquity were those of the Phoenicians, which plied the Mediterranean and extended Phoenician art and culture as far W as Spain. Those ships were propelled by sails and oars. M.F.U. BO´AZ (bōʹaz; possibly “fleetness” from Arab. ba˓aza, “to be nimble”). 1. A wealthy Bethlehemite, kinsman to Elimelech, the husband of Naomi. When Naomi and Ruth returned from the country of Moab the latter received permission to glean in the fields of Boaz. He treated her generously, offering her much greater privileges than were usually accorded to gleaners. Finding that the kinsman of Ruth, who was more nearly related to her, would not marry her according to the “levirate law,” Boaz voluntarily assumed that law’s obligations. He married Ruth, and their union was blessed by the birth of Obed, the grandfather of David (Ruth 1–4), about 1070 B.C. 2. One of the pillars of Solomon’s Temple. See Jachin. BO´CHERU (boʹke-rū; “firstborn”). One of the six sons of Azel, a descendant of King Saul (1 Chron. 8:38). BO´CHIM (bōʹkim; “weepers”). A place near Gilgal that was so named as a reminder of the tears shed by the unfaithful people of Israel upon God’s reproving them (Judg. 2:1, 5). It was W of the Jordan, near the Dead Sea, and probably between Bethel and Shiloh. BODY. The lowest part of man as a triune being, in which his soul and spirit reside (1 Thess. 5:23). In the body of a redeemed man the Holy Spirit dwells (1 Cor. 6:19; 2 Pet. 1:13–14), and his body is said to be peculiarly God’s property (1 Cor. 6:20). Its members are to be yielded unto God as instruments of righteousness rather than unto iniquity (Rom. 6:13, 19). Figurative. The apostle Paul uses the exquisite figure of the human body to portray the spiritual unity of believers in this age, from Pentecost to the out-taking of the church. This mystical body is formed by the baptizing work of the Spirit (1 Cor. 12:13), an operation that not only unites Christians to one another but to Christ (Rom. 6:3–4; Gal. 3:27). “The body” (Gk. sōma) is differentiated from the “shadow” (skia; Col. 2:17). Thus the ceremonies of the law are figures and shadows realized in Christ. The “body of sin” (Rom. 6:6), called also “the body of this death” (7:24), represents the physical body under the control of the old nature. Unless the Christian walks in the new nature under the power of the Holy Spirit, he will come under the contamination of the old nature, which is not eradicated or destroyed when he becomes a believer. The apostle speaks of a natural body in opposition to a spiritual body (1 Cor. 15:44). The spiritual body will be the body after glorification, no longer subject to sin or death. The body that is buried is natural, subject to dissolution. The resurrection body will be spiritual, no longer subject to natural law or to sin. M.F.U. BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. A. T. Robinson, The Body: A Study in Pauline Theology, Studies in Biblical Theology, no. 5 (1952); A. L. Oppenheim, Ancient Mesopotamia (1964), pp. 198–204; H. W. Wolff, Anthropology of the Old Testament (1975); R. H. Gundry, “Soma” in Biblical Theology (1976); P. Brand and P. Yancey, Fearfully and Wonderfully Made (1980). BO´HAN (bōʹhan; a “thumb”). A Reubenite, in whose honor a stone was set up (or named), which afterward served as a boundary mark on the frontier of Judah and Benjamin (Josh. 15:6; 18:17). BOILS. See Diseases. BO´KERU. See Bocheru. BO´KIM. See Bochim. BOLSTER (Heb. m ra˒ăshâ, “at the head”). A KJV term replaced in the NASB by “at his (or its) head.” In Gen. 28:18 m ra˒ăshâ is rendered pillow (which see), but the NASB correctly gives “under his head.” BOLT. See Lock. BOLT (Heb. reshep, a live “coal,” an “arrow”). The Heb. term, referring to a bolt of lightning (Ps. 78:48), doubtless has reference to the manner in which lightning strikes the earth. BOND. The translation of several Heb. and Gk. words; an obligation of any kind (Num. 30:2, 4, 12). It is used to signify oppression, captivity, affliction (Ps. 116:16). We read of the “bond of peace” (Eph. 4:3); and love, because it completes the Christian character, is called the “perfect bond of unity” (Col. 3:14). Bands or chains worn by prisoners were known as bonds (Acts 20:23). BONDAGE. See Service. BONDMAID, BONDMAN, BONDSERVANT. See Service. BONE. This word is used figuratively, as “bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh” (Gen. 2:23), “of his flesh, and of his bones” (Eph. 5:30, KJV; “members of His body,” NASB and NIV), to mean the same nature and being united in the nearest relation. Iniquities are said to be in men’s bones when their bodies are polluted thereby (Job 20:11, KJV); and the state of the national death of Israel scattered among the Gentile nations is represented by the “valley of dry bones” (Ezek. 37:1–14). BONNET. A KJV term replaced in the NASB and NIV by caps, headdress, and linen turban. See Dress; Turban. BOOK (Heb. sēper; Gk. biblos). The Heb. word is much more comprehensive than our English book. It means anything written, as a bill of sale or deed of purchase (Jer. 32:12), a bill of accusation or an indictment (Job 31:35), a certificate of divorce (Deut. 24:1, 3), a letter (2 Sam. 11:14), or a volume (Ex. 17:14; Deut. 28:58; etc.). Respecting the material, form, and making of books, see Writing. There are some notable expressions one may paraphrase from Scripture regarding books: 1. “To eat a book” (Ezek. 2:8; 3:2; Rev. 10:9) is a figurative expression meaning to master the contents of the book; to receive into one’s innermost being the Word of God. 2. “A sealed book” is one closed up from view (Rev. 5:1–3) or one whose contents were not understood by those reading it (Isa. 29:11). By a book “written inside and on the back” (Rev. 5:1) we understand a roll written on both sides. 3. “Book of the generations” means the genealogical records of a family or nation (Gen. 5:1; cf. Matt. 1:1). 4. “The books” mentioned in Dan. 7:10 perhaps mean books of accounts with servants; or, as among the Persians, records of official services rendered to the king and the rewards given to those who performed them (Esther 6:1–3). The “books” (Rev. 20:12) are referred to in justification of the sentence passed upon the wicked. 5. “The Book of Life” is a figurative expression originating from the ancient custom of keeping genealogical records (Neh. 7:5, 64; 12:22–23) and of registering citizens for numerous purposes (Jer. 22:30; Ezek. 13:9). God is accordingly represented as having a record of all His creation, particularly those under His special care. To be expunged from “the book of life” is to be severed from the divine favor and to incur an untimely death. Moses thus pleads that he might die, rather than that Israel should be destroyed (Ex. 32:32; Ps. 69:28). In the NT “the book of life” refers to the roster of righteous who are to inherit eternal life (Phil. 4:3; Rev. 3:5; 13:8; 17:8; 21:27), from which the saved are not to be blotted out (3:5). In the Apocalypse “the book” (or “books”) is presented as the divine record of the works of the unsaved at the great white throne judgment (20:12, 15), according to which the lost will suffer degrees of eternal punishment. 6. “Book of the Wars of the Lord” represents a memento of a larger literary development in early OT times than is represented in the canonical books. This early literary work, probably poetical, existed in Mosaic times (Num. 21:14). It was likely a collection of odes celebrating God’s glorious acts toward Israel and recited over campfires, just as the Bedouin do today. Similarly, “The book of Jashar” (Josh. 10:13; 2 Sam. 1:18) seems to have been an early national chronicle of events in Israel that stretched over several centuries of the early history of the Hebrews. BOOTH (Heb. sūkkâ, “hut,” or “lair”; often translated “tabernacle” or “pavilion”). A shelter made of branches of trees and shrubs (Gen. 33:17) and serving as a protection against rain, frost, and heat. Such were also the temporary green shelters in which the Israelites celebrated the feast of Booths (Tabernacles, KJV; Lev. 23:42–43). See Cottage; Festivals. BOOTHS, FEAST OF. The NASB and NIV rendering of the Heb. expression given in the KJV as feast of Tabernacles. See Festivals. BOOTY. See Spoil. BO´OZ. See Boaz. BOR´-ASHAN (borʹa-shan; “smoking furnace”). A place named (1 Sam. 30:30) as the scene of David’s hunting exploits; also probably identical with Ashan of Simeon (Josh. 15:42; 19:7). BORDER (from Heb. gĕbūl). Generally a boundary line. Boundary stones were commonly set up to mark off property lines (Deut. 19:14; 27:17; Prov. 22:28; 23:10). KJV King James Version NASB New American Standard Bible NIV New International Version Many such markers have been excavated in Babylonia, where demarcation of fields in irrigation areas was especially important. One such “ancient landmark” survives from the reign of Nebuchadnezzar I (c. 1138 B.C.) and was unearthed at ancient Nippur. See also Boundary Mark. BORN AGAIN. The new birth is a creative life-giving operation of the Holy Spirit upon a lost human soul, whereby in response to faith in Christ crucified (John 3:14– 16; Gal. 3:24), the believing one, “dead in … trespasses and sins” (Eph. 2:1), is quickened into spiritual life and made a partaker of the divine nature and of the life of Christ Himself (Gal. 2:20; Eph. 2:10; Col. 1:27; 1 Pet. 1:23–25; 2 Pet. 1:4). The complete necessity of this spiritual transaction is the result of fallen man’s state of spiritual death, his alienation from God, and his consequent utter inability to “see” (John 3:3) or “to enter into” the kingdom of God (3:5). No matter how moral, refined, talented, or religious the natural or unregenerate man may be, he is blind to spiritual truth and unable to save himself (3:6; cf. Ps. 51:5; 1 Cor. 2:14; Rom. 8:7–8). It is clear, therefore, that the new birth is not the reformation of the old nature but the reception of a new nature. See Regeneration. M.F.U. BORROW, BORROWING. As a matter of law, etc., see Loan. We call attention to the much-debated act of the Israelites in “borrowing” from the Egyptians (Ex. 12:35). This was in response to a divine command (3:22; 11:2); and it suggests a difficulty, seeing that the Israelites did not intend to return to Egypt or to restore the borrowed articles. So considered, the Israelites were guilty of an immoral act. The following are some of the attempts at explanation, briefly stated: 1. The Israelites borrowed, expecting to return in three days; but when Pharaoh refused to allow this, Moses was instructed to demand the entire departure of Israel. After the smiting of the firstborn, Israel was thrust out and had no opportunity of returning what she had borrowed. 2. After the borrowing the Egyptians made war upon the Israelites, and this breach of peace justified the latter in retaining the property as “contraband of war.” 3. Ewald (Hist. of Israel, 2:66) maintains that “since Israel could not return to Egypt, … and therefore was not bound to return the borrowed goods, the people kept them, and despoiled the Egyptians. It appears a piece of highly retributive justice that those who had been oppressed in Egypt should now be forced to borrow from the Egyptians, and be obliged by Pharaoh’s subsequent treachery to retain them, and thus be indemnified for their long oppression.” 4. “The only meaning of shā˒al is to ask or beg; [and the expression] yash˒ilûm [Ex. 12:36], lit., ‘they allowed them to ask’; i.e., the Egyptians … received their petition with good will, and granted their request…. From the very first the Israelites asked without intending to restore, and the Egyptians granted their request without any hope of receiving back, because God had made their hearts favorably disposed to the Israelites” (K. & D., Com. on 3:21–22). This view appears to be taken by Josephus (Ant. 2.14.6): “They also honored the Hebrews with gifts; some in order to get them to depart quickly and others on account of [neighborly intimacy] with them.” It evidently refers to the custom, which is fresh now as always in the unchangeable East, of soliciting a gift on the eve of departure or on the closing of any term of service of any sort whatsoever. That this was the custom in that day, as it is now, is indicated in M.F.U. Merrill F. Unger K. & Johann Karl Friedrich Keil and Franz Julius Delitzcsh, Old Testament Commentaries (1875) Com. Commentary many Bible references to the giving of gifts (Gen. 12:16; 33:10–11; Judg. 3:15–18; etc.); but more explicitly in the divine command to the Israelites themselves not to “send him away empty-handed” when they released a servant at the beginning of the sabbatical year (Deut. 15:13–15). BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Edersheim, Sketches of Jewish Social Life in the Days of Christ (1961), pp. 211–12; A. Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East (1965), pp. 270, 331. BOS´CATH. See Bozkath. BO´SOR. See Beor. BOSOM. 1. The bunchy fold of the dress in front of the breast, into which idlers thrust the hand (Ps. 74:11); also used as a pocket or bag in which bread, grain, and other kinds of food were carried (Hag. 2:12; Luke 6:38, KJV; NASB, NIV, “lap”; Gk. kolpos). Shepherds thus carried lambs (Isa. 40:11). 2. The front of the body between the arms; hence to “lean on one’s bosom” is to so recline at the table that the head covers, as it were, the breast of the one next to him (John 13:23). The expression “carried away … to Abraham’s bosom” (Luke 16:22) means to obtain the seat next to Abraham, i.e., to be partaker of the same blessedness as Abraham. Christ “is in the bosom of the Father” (John 1:18), i.e., “He who is most intimately connected with the Father, and dearest to Him.” BOTCH. See Diseases: Boils. BOTTLES. Two kinds of containers of liquids were common in ancient times— bottles of skin and earthenware. The latter were easily broken, and recovered pottery and shards constitute one of the most helpful ways the archaeologist has of describing and dating old cultures in both Palestine and Mesopotamia. Beautiful Halafian ware from Tell Halaf in N Mesopotamia goes back to c. 4500 B.C. Obeidan ware from Tell Obeid, near Ur in Babylonia, dates around 3500 B.C.; Warkan ware from Uruk (Erech, Gen. 10:10) 3200 B.C.; Jemdet Nasr ware around 3100 B.C. Jeremiah mentions the potter’s earthen vessels (Jer. 19:1, 10; 13:12–14). Bottles, frequently decorated with glass, held tears of mourners (Ps. 56:8) and were placed in tombs. They were popular in Egypt and Palestine. Bottles of skin were manufactured from whole animal hides by slowly drying them. Such leather containers are referred to in Gen. 21:14 and Josh. 9:4. Jesus referred to the wineskin or bottle that bursts when new wine is put into the old skins (Matt. 9:17; Mark 2:22; Luke 5:37). Such skins were also used to churn butter. Skin bottles are found even today in Palestine. Several Heb. words are given as “bottle” in the KJV. Except for Judg. 4:19; Ps. 56:8, these terms are translated “skin,” “wineskin,” “jug,” or “jar” in the NASB. The NIV translates “skin” in Judg. 4:19 and “scroll” (marg., “wineskin”) in Ps. 56:8. When KJV “bottle” is the rendering of Heb. nēbel, the NASB and NIV translations are always jug or jar (both which see). M.F.U. BOTTOMLESS PIT (NASB rendering of the Gk. to phrear tēs ˒abussou, “the pit of the abyss,” Rev. 9:1–2; the NIV renders “abyss”). The prisonhouse of the demons. In the end of the age myriads of these imprisoned evil spirits will be set free to indwell, torment, and energize men (9:1–21) to engage in a gigantic attempt to oppose Christ and God’s kingdom plans for the Jew in the millennial age to come (16:13–16). At the second coming of Christ, Satan and demons will be remanded to the abyss (20:1–3), a condition that will make possible the Kingdom age on earth (20:3). See Abyss; Hell; Lake; Gehenna. M.F.U. marg. margin, marginal reading BOUNDARY MARK (Heb. gƒbûl). This was used to designate the limits of land; it could be a stone, a stake, or other such marker. The removal of such a landmark was prohibited by Mosaic law (Deut. 19:14; 27:17; Prov. 22:28; cf. Job 24:2, “landmarks”) on account of the close connection in which a man’s possession as the means of his support stood to the life of the man himself. Landmarks were held sacred by other nations; by the Romans, for example, who held them so sacred that removal was punished with death. In Arab fields in Palestine one may sometimes still see stones piled on top of one another for use as a landmark. See also Border. BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. M. Carmichael, The Laws of Deuteronomy (1974), pp. 113–14; R. Wardlaw, Lectures on the Book of Proverbs (1982), 3:65–68, 79–82; J. Ridderbos, Deuteronomy, Bible Student’s Commentary (1984), pp. 211–12, 251–53. BOW AND ARROW. As a weapon, see Armor, Arms. Figurative. The bow signifies judgments ready for offenders (Ps. 7:12); sometimes lying (Jer. 9:3). “A treacherous bow” (Ps. 78:57; cf. Hos. 7:16) represents unreliableness. “The song of the bow” (2 Sam. 1:18) refers to “a song to which the title Kesheth (Heb. word for ‘bow’) was given, not only because the bow is referred to (v. 22), but because it is a martial ode” (K. & D., Com., ad loc.). BOW IN THE CLOUDS. See Rainbow. BOWELS. A KJV term translating several Heb. words and the Gk. word splanchna, and often indicating the inner parts generally, the inner man, and also the heart. Thus the bowels are made the seat of tenderness and compassion (Gen. 4:30; Ps. 25:6, “tender mercies,” KJV, “loving kindnesses,” NASB, “great mercy,” NIV; Phil. 1:8; Col. 3:12). “My bowels shall sound like an harp” (Isa. 16:11, KJV; “my heart intones like a harp,” NASB) is thus explained by Keil and Delitzsch (Com.): “Just as the hand or plectrum touches the strings of the harp, so did the terrible things that he had heard Jehovah say concerning Moab touch the strings of his inward parts, and cause them to resound with notes of pain.” BOWING. An attitude of respect and reverence from the earliest times. Thus Abraham “bowed to the people of the land” (Gen. 23:7); Jacob, when he met Esau, “bowed down to the ground seven times” (33:3); and the brothers of Joseph “bowed down in homage” (43:28). The orientals in the presence of kings and princes often prostrate themselves upon the earth. Such customs prevailed among the Hebrews (Ex. 4:31; 1 Kings 1:53; 2:19; 1 Sam. 24:8). Bowing is frequently noticed in Scripture as an act of religious homage to idols (Josh. 23:7; Judg. 2:19; 2 Kings 5:18; Isa. 44:15), and also to God (Josh. 5:14; Pss. 22:29; 72:9; Mic. 6:6; etc.). BOWL. The translation of several Heb. words. We have no means of obtaining accurate information as to the material and precise form of these vessels. In the earliest times they were, doubtless, made of wood and shells of the larger kinds of nuts and were used at meals for liquids, broth, or stew (2 Kings 4:40). Modern Arabs are now content with a few wooden bowls, although those of the rulers are not infrequently made of copper and neatly tinned. Bowls with Heb. inscriptions have been found at Babylon. See Dish. BOWMAN. See Armor, Arms. BOWSHOT. The ordinary distance an archer could shoot an arrow (Gen. 21:16). BOX OF OIL. See Flask. BOX TREE. See Vegetable Kingdom: Box Tree; Cypress. BOY (Heb. yeled, a young “boy” or “child,” Joel 3:3; Zech. 8:5; na˓ar, Gen. 25:27). A term used of those who are from the age of infancy to adolescence. BO´ZEZ (bozʹes). Between the passes through which Jonathan endeavored to cross over to go up to the post of the Philistines there was a sharp rock on one side called Bozez, and one on the other called Seneh (1 Sam. 14:4–5). These rose up like pillars to a great height and were probably the “hills” that Robinson saw to the left of the pass. BOZ´KATH (bozʹkath). A town in the plain of Judah, near Lachish and Eglon (Josh. 15:39); and the birthplace of Adaiah, maternal grandfather of King Josiah (2 Kings 22:1). BOZ´RAH (bozʹra; “enclosure, fortress”). 1. A city of Edom, and residence of Jobab (Gen. 36:33; 1 Chron. 1:44). This is the Bozrah of Isa. 34:6; 63:1; Jer. 49:13, 22; Amos 1:12. It is probably to be identified with present Buseirah SE of the Dead Sea. Bozrah was the metropolis of N Edom (1200–700 B.C.) and was famous for its dyed garments (Isa. 63:1). 2. A place in Moab (Jer. 48:24). Perhaps the same as Bezer. BRACELET. An article of adornment popular in ancient times, worn on the wrists or arms of both men and women (Ezek. 16:11). Abraham’s servant put such a piece of jewelry on Rebekah’s wrist (Gen. 24:22). Israelites in the wilderness contributed gold or silver for the vessels of the Tabernacle from such a source (Num. 31:50). Saul wore a bracelet on his arm (2 Sam. 1:10), and archaeology furnishes many examples of royal bracelets, such as those worn by Ashurnasirpal, Tiglath-pileser, Esarhaddon, and other emperors of Assyria. Bracelets were often gorgeously inlaid with precious stones and pearls and were popular in Egypt and Phoenicia, as well as in Assyria and later in Rome. See Dress; Jewel, Jewelry. M.F.U. BRAMBLE. See Vegetable Kingdom: Thistles, Thorns. BRANCH. The rendering of a number of Heb. and Gk. words. In the Scriptures, as well as elsewhere, the family is spoken of as a tree, and its members as branches, twigs, or shoots. From this has arisen a number of figurative expressions: 1. A branch or shoot is used as a symbol of prosperity (Gen. 49:22; Job 8:16; Prov. 11:28; Ezek. 17:6) and also of adversity (Job 15:32; Ps. 80:11, 15). 2. “A rejected branch” (Isa. 14:19) may mean a branch that is withered, or a useless sucker starting from the root. The sentence might better be rendered, “But you have been cast out of your tomb like an offensive (i.e., useless) branch.” 3. “The top of the cedar” and “the topmost of its young twigs” (Ezek. 17:3–4) is used to describe Jehoiachin as king. “They are putting the twig to their nose” (8:17) is obscure as to its meaning. By some the act was thought to be expressive of contempt, similar to “they turn up the nose with scorn.” Others understand a reference to the hypocrisy of the Jews who carried branches in honor of Jehovah but held them to the nose in scorn—outward worship but secret contempt. It may be that the branch was of a tree dedicated to Baal and carried by them in his honor. The saying appears to be a proverbial one, but the origin and meaning have not yet been satisfactorily explained. 4. Christ the Branch. A branch is the symbol of kings descended from royal ancestors; and Christ, in respect of His human nature, is called “a shoot that will spring from the stem of Jesse, and a branch from his roots” (Isa. 11:1; cf. Jer. 23:5; Zech. 3:8; 6:12). Christians are called branches of Christ, the Vine, with reference to their union with Him (John 15:5–6). BRAND. In Zech. 3:2 (Heb. ˒ûd) the word means a wooden poker with which the fire is stirred, hence any burned wood. The NIV translates it here as “burning stick.” A firebrand (also Amos 4:11; Isa. 7:4). BRANDING. “Branding instead of beauty” (Isa. 3:24). In Arabia the application of the cey with a red-hot iron plays an important part in the medical treatment of both man and beast. You meet with many men who have been burned not only on their legs and arms but on their faces as well. Branding thus appears to have been used as a symbol for disfigurement, as the contrary of beauty. BRASS. Replaced in the NASB by “bronze.” See Metrology; Mineral Kingdom. BRAY. The loud, harsh cry of a donkey when hungry (Job 6:5). It is used figuratively of the cry of persons when hungry (30:7, marg.). In addition, the KJV of Prov. 27:22 uses bray with the sense of pound or crush as in a mortar. The NASB renders “pound,” and the NIV “grind.” BRAZEN SERPENT. See Bronze Serpent. BREAD. The word bread in the Bible is used in a wide sense, often occurring as our “food,” as in the petition “Give us this day our daily bread.” In strictness it denotes baked food, especially loaves. Its earliest reference is found in Gen. 18:5–6. Material. The best bread was made of wheat, called “flour” or “meal” (Judg. 6:19; 1 Sam. 1:24; 1 Kings 4:22; etc.) and, when sifted, “fine flour” (Gen. 18:6; Lev. 2:1). A coarser bread was made of barley (Judg. 7:13; John 6:9–13). Millet, spelt, beans, and lentils were also used (Ezek. 4:9–12). Preparation. To make “leavened bread” (Heb. ḥamēs, “sour”) the flour was mixed with water, kneaded on a small kneading trough, with leaven added. These kneading troughs may have been mere pieces of leather, such as are now used by the Arabs, although the expression “bound up in the clothes” (Ex. 12:34) favors the idea of a wooden bowl. The leavened dough was allowed time to rise (Matt. 13:33; Luke 13:21), sometimes a whole night (Hos. 7:6, “their baker sleepeth all the night,” KJV). When the time for making bread was short the leaven was omitted, and unleavened cakes were baked, as is customary among the Arabs (Gen. 18:6; 19:3; Ex. 12:39; 1 Sam. 28:24). Such cakes were called in Heb. maṣṣâ, “sweetness.” Thin, round cakes made of unleavened dough were baked on heated sand or flat stones (1 Kings 19:6), by hot ashes or coals put on them—“ash-cakes.” Such cakes are still the common bread of the Bedouin and poorer orientals. The outside is, of course, black as coal, but tastes good. Old bread is described in Josh. 9:5, 12, as “crumbled” (Heb. niqqûd, a “crumb”; KJV and NIV, “mouldy”), a term also applied to a sort of easily crumbled biscuit (KJV, “cracknels”). “From flour there were besides many kinds of confectionery made: (a) Oven- baked, sometimes perforated cakes kneaded with oil, sometimes thin, flat cakes only smeared with oil; (b) pancakes made of flour and oil, and sometimes baked in the pan, sometimes boiled in the skillet in oil, which were also presented as meat offerings; (c) honey cakes (Exod. 16:31), raisin or grape cakes (Hos. 3:1; Cant. 2:5; II Sam. 6:19; I Chron. 16:3), and heart cakes, kneaded from dough, sodden in the pan and turned out soft, a kind of pudding (II Sam. 13:6–9)…. The various kinds of baked delicacies and cakes had, no doubt, become known to the Israelites in Egypt, where baking was carried to great perfection” (Keil, Arch., 2:126). Baking. When the dough was ready for baking it was divided into round cakes (literally, “circles of bread,” Ex. 29:23; Judg. 8:5; 1 Sam. 10:3; etc.), not unlike flat stones in shape and appearance (Matt. 7:9; cf. 4:3), about a span in diameter and a finger’s breadth in thickness. The baking was generally done by the wife (Gen. 18:6), Keil, Johann Karl Friedrich Keil, Manual of Biblical Archaeology (1888) daughter (2 Sam. 13:8), or a female servant (1 Sam. 8:13). As a trade, baking was carried on by men (Hos. 7:4–6), often congregating, according to Eastern custom, in one quarter (Neh. 3:11; 12:38, “Tower of Furnaces”; Jer. 37:21, “bakers’ street”). Egyptian Bread-making. The following account of early bread-making is interesting: “She spread some handfuls of grain upon an oblong slab of stone, slightly hollowed on its upper surface, and proceeded to crush them with a smaller stone like a painter’s muller, which she moistened from time to time. For an hour and more she labored with her arms, shoulders, loins, in fact, all her body; but an indifferent result followed from such great exertion. The flour, made to undergo several grindings in this rustic mortar, was coarse, uneven, mixed with bran or whole grains, which had escaped the pestle, and contaminated with dust and abraded particles of the stone. She kneaded it with a little water, blended with it, as a sort of yeast, a piece of stale dough of the day before, and made from the mass round cakes, about half an inch thick and some four inches in diameter, which she placed upon a flat flint, covering them with hot ashes. The bread, imperfectly raised, often badly cooked, borrowed, from the organic fuel under which it was buried, a special odor, and a taste to which strangers did not sufficiently accustom themselves. The impurities which it contained were sufficient in the long run to ruin the strongest teeth. Eating it was an action of grinding rather than chewing, and old men were not infrequently met with whose teeth had gradually been worn away to the level of the gums, like those of an aged ass or ox” (Maspero, Dawn of Civ., p. 320). Figurative. The thin cakes already described were not cut but broken, hence the expression usual in Scripture of “breaking bread” to signify taking a meal (Lam. 4:4; Matt. 14:19; 15:36). From our Lord’s breaking bread at the institution of the Eucharist, the expression “breaking of ” or “to break bread,” in the NT is used for the Lord’s Supper (Matt. 26:26) and for the agape, or love, feast (Acts 2:46). “Bread of privation” (lit., “penury”) signifies to put one on the low rations of a siege or imprisonment (1 Kings 22:27; Isa. 30:20). “Bread of painful labors” (Ps. 127:2) means food obtained by toil. “Bread of tears” (Ps. 80:5) probably signifies a condition of great sorrow. “Bread of wickedness” (Prov. 4:17) and “bread obtained by falsehood” (Prov. 20:17) denote not only living or estate obtained by fraud but that to do evil is as much the portion of the wicked as to eat his bread. “Cast your bread on the surface of the waters” (Eccles. 11:1) is doubtless an allusion to the custom of sowing seed by casting it from boats into the overflowing waters of the Nile or in any marshy ground. From v. 1 it is evident that charity is implied, and that, while seemingly hopeless, it shall prove at last not to have been thrown away (Isa. 32:20). “Bread of Life” prefigures Christ as the supplier of true spiritual nourishment (John 6:48–51). He is the bread of heaven, and God’s Word, like bread, is the spiritual staff of life (Matt. 4:4). BIBLIOGRAPHY: W. Foerster, ἐπιούσισ̦, Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, ed. G. Kittel (1964), 2:590–99. BREAD, SHOW. The KJV term shewbread is replaced in the NASB and NIV by Bread of the Presence. See Tabernacle: Typology of the Tabernacle and Furniture. BREAD OF THE PRESENCE. See Tabernacle: Typology of the Tabernacle and Furniture. BREAKFAST. See Meals. BREASTPIECE, BREASTPLATE. See Armor, Arms; High Priest, Dress of. BREECHES. See Priesthood, Hebrew: Symbolical and Typical. BRETHREN. See Brother. BRIBE, BRIBERY (Heb. kōper, “redemption” money). 1. A payment made by a man to redeem himself from capital punishment. The expression “From whose hand have I taken a bribe to blind my eyes with it?” (1 Sam. 12:3) means, “Of whom have I taken anything to exempt from punishment one worthy of death?” 2. (Heb. shōḥad, “gift”). A present to avert punishment (2 Kings 16:8; Prov. 6:35), or a bribe taken to “pervert justice” (cf. 1 Sam. 8:3; Ezek. 22:12). BRICK (Heb. l bēnâ, from lāban, “to be white,” from the whiteness of the clay out of which bricks were made). The earliest mention made of bricks in Scripture is in the account of the building of Babel (Gen. 11:3). In Exodus (chap. 5) we have the vivid description of the grievous hardship imposed upon the Israelites in the making of bricks in Egypt. Babylonian. The following account taken from Maspero (Dawn of Civilization, pp. 622–23) especially applies to Mesopotamia and Egypt: “In the estimation of the Chaldean architects stone was a matter of secondary consideration. As it was necessary to bring it from a great distance and at considerable expense, they used it very sparingly, and then merely for lintels, thresholds, for hinges on which to hang their doors, for dressings in some of their state apartments, in cornices or sculptured friezes on the external walls of their buildings; and even then its employment suggested rather that of a band of embroidery carefully disposed on some garment to relieve the plainness of the material. Crude brick, burnt brick, enameled brick, but always and everywhere brick was the principal element in their construction. The soil of the marshes or of the plains, separated from the pebbles and foreign substances which it contained, mixed with grass or chopped straw, moistened with water, and assiduously trodden under foot, furnished the ancient builders with material of incredible tenacity. This was molded into thin, square brick, eight inches to a foot across and three or four inches thick, but rarely larger. They were stamped on the flat side, by means of an incised wooden block, with the name of the reigning sovereign, and were then dried in the sun. They were sometimes enameled with patterns of various colors.” The Babylonian bricks were more commonly burned in kilns than those used at Nineveh, which are chiefly sun-dried like the Egyptian. Egyptian. Egyptian bricks were not generally baked in kilns but dried in the sun, although a brickkiln is mentioned by Jeremiah (Jer. 43:9; NASB, “brick terrace”; the NIV renders “brick pavement”). Made of clay, they are, even without straw, as firm as when first put up in the reigns of the Thutmoids and others, whose names they bear. When made of the Nile mud they required straw to keep them from falling apart, and when laid up in walls were secured by layers of sticks and reeds. In size they varied from 20 or 17 inches to 14¼ inches long, 8¾ inches to 6½ inches wide, and 7 inches to 4½ inches thick. Brickmaking was regarded as an unhealthy and laborious occupation by the Egyptians and was, therefore, imposed upon slaves. Very naturally, the Hebrews, when enslaved by the pharaohs, were put to this work. The use of brick as building material was, doubtless, quite general, although their fragility often insured early decay. We have illustrations of walls, storehouses, and temples having been built of bricks. The tomb of Rekhmire, grand vizier of Thutmose III (c. 1460 B.C.) depicts Semitic slaves busy with brickmaking. Rameses II (c. 1290 B.C.) rebuilt the older city Zoan-Tanis (Raamses of Ex. 1:11, NASB), and the bricks are stamped with his name. Jewish. The Jews learned the art of brickmaking in Egypt, using almost the identical method. Even now in Palestine bricks are made from moistened clay mixed with straw and dried in the sun. Mention is made of the brickkiln in the time of David (2 Sam. 12:31; cf. Nah. 3:14), and Isaiah complains (65:3) that the people built their altars of brick, instead of stone, as the law directed (Ex. 20:25). See Handicrafts: Brickmaker. BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. Maspero, Dawn of Civilization (1922), pp. 622–23; H. Frankfort, Art and Architecture in the Ancient Orient (1955); A. Badawy, Architecture of Egypt and the Ancient Near East (1966). BRIDAL GIFT. See Marriage. BRIDE, BRIDEGROOM. See Marriage. Figurative. The church is alluded to (Rev. 21:9) as “the bride, the wife of the Lamb.” The meaning is that as the bridegroom rejoices over the bride, so the Lord shall forever rejoice in His people and His people in Him. Christ Himself is also called “the bridegroom” in the same sense (John 3:29). The figure of marriage is used also in the OT to denote the relationship between Jehovah and the Jewish nation, however with this important contrast. Israel is portrayed as the wife of Jehovah (Hos. 2:2, 16, 23), now because of unbelief and apostasy disowned and dishonored, but yet to be restored (2:14–23). The church, on the other hand, is a pure virgin, espoused to Christ (2 Cor. 11:1–2), which could never be true of an adulterous wife, although she is eventually to be restored in grace. In the mystery of the Divine-triunity it can be true that Israel is the adulterous wife of Jehovah (to be forgiven and reinstated), whereas the church is the virgin wife of the Lamb (John 3:29; Rev. 19:6–8). To break down this distinction between Israel, God’s elect nation with a unique future when restored (Rom. 11:1–27), and the church, the Body (1 Cor. 12:13–14) and bride of Christ (Eph. 5:25–27), formed by the baptizing work of the Holy Spirit during the period of Israel’s national unbelief and setting aside, is to plunge biblical prophecy into confusion. M.F.U. BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. Chavasse, The Bride of Christ (1939); P. Minear, Images of the Church in the New Testament (1960); R. M. Grant, After the New Testament (1967). BRIDECHAMBER. See Marriage. BRIDESMAID, BRIDESMAN. See Marriage. BRIDGE. Bridges were not in use in early biblical times. Rivers were crossed either by ferries or more commonly by fords (Judg. 3:28; 2 Sam. 19:18). Later, however, the Romans constructed masonry bridges, ruins of which survive to our day. A famous ruin of a bridge is the structure built across the Tyropoean Valley at Jerusalem by John Hycranus (134–104 B.C.), called “Robinson’s Arch” for its modern discoverer. It was destroyed in 63 B.C. during Pompey’s siege. Ruins of a famous Roman bridge are to be found near Beirut in Lebanon, north of the Dog River. M.F.U. BRIDLE (Heb. resen, “halter,” Job 30:11; 41:13, NASB, marg.; Isa. 30:28; meteg, strictly the “bit,” as rendered in Ps. 32:9, though NIV has “bridle”; maḥsôm, a “muzzle,” only in 39:1; Gk. chalinos, “bit,” James 3:2; Rev. 14:20). The word bridle is used for that portion of the harness by which the driver controls the horse, and consists of the headstall, bit, and reins (Ps. 32:9). The Assyrians ornamented their bridles to a high degree. It was customary to fix a muzzle of leather on refractory slaves (see Isa. 37:29). Prisoners of war were similarly treated. One of the Assyrian sculptures represents prisoners with a ring in the lower lip, to which is attached a thin cord held by the king (2 Kings 19:28). Figurative. The providence of God in leading men and nations away from the completion of their plans is symbolized by the “bridle” and “hook” (2 Kings 19:28; Isa. 30:28; 37:29; Ezek. 29:4). The restraints of law and humanity are called a bridle, and to “cast off the bridle” (Job 30:11) is to act without reference to these. BRIERS. See Vegetable Kingdom: Thistles, Thorns. BRIMSTONE (Heb. goprı ̂t, properly “resin”; Gk. theion, “flashing”). The Heb. word is connected with gopher (Heb. gōper) and probably meant the gum of that tree. It was thence transferred to all inflammable substances, especially sulfur. The cities of the plain were destroyed by a storm of fire and brimstone (Gen. 19:24, KJV; NIV, “sulfur”). See also Mineral Kingdom: Brimstone; Pitch and articles Sodom; Gomorrah. Figurative. Apparently with reference to Sodom, brimstone is often used in Scripture to denote punishment and destruction (Deut. 29:23; Job 18:15; Ps. 11:6; Isa. 30:33; Ezek. 38:22; Luke 17:29; Rev. 9:17; etc.). BROKEN HAND, BROKEN FOOT. See Diseases. BRONZE. A unit of money and an alloy. See Metrology; Mineral Kingdom. BRONZE SEA. See Laver; Sea, Bronze; Tabernacle of Israel. BRONZE SERPENT (Heb. nāḥāsh n ḥōshet, “serpent of copper”). As the Israelites “set out from Mount Hor by the way of the Red Sea” they rebelled against God and against Moses. Punished by Jehovah with fiery serpents (which see), many of them died. At the command of God Moses made the figure of a serpent and set it on a “standard” or pole; whoever of the bitten ones looked at it “lived,” i.e., recovered from the serpent’s bite (Num. 21:1–9). This bronze serpent afterward became an object of worship, under the name of Nehushtan, and was destroyed by King Hezekiah (2 Kings 18:4). Figurative. From the words of our Lord (John 3:14) most commentators have rightly inferred that the “bronze serpent” was intended as a type of Christ as the redeemer of the world, as becoming “sin on our behalf” (2 Cor. 5:21) and as bearing our judgment. Cf. the historical fulfillment in Matt. 27:46. BROOK (Heb. generally naḥal; Gk. cheimarros, a “torrent”). 1. A small stream issuing from a subterranean spring and running through a deep valley, such as the Arnon, Jabbok, Kidron, etc. 2. Winter streams arising from rains, but drying up in the summer (Job 6:15, marg.). 3. The torrent bed, even though it might be without water, so that it is sometimes doubtful whether the bed or stream is meant. The word is sometimes rendered “river,” as in the case of the “brook of Egypt,” a small torrent in the southern border of Palestine (Num. 34:5; Josh. 15:4, 47). Figurative. “My brothers have acted deceitfully like a wadi” (or brook, Job 6:15) is an expression of the failure of friends to comfort and help. BROOM TREE. See Vegetable Kingdom. BROTHER (generally Heb. ˒āḥ; Gk. adelphos). Brother is a word extensively and variously used in Scripture. (1) A brother in the natural sense, whether the child of the same father and mother (Gen. 42:4; 44:20; Luke 6:14), of the same father only (Gen. 42:15; 43:3; Judg. 9:21; Matt. 1:2; Luke 3:1, 19), or of the same mother only (Judg. 8:19). (2) A relative, kinsman, in any degree of blood, e.g., a nephew (Gen. 14:16; 29:12, 15, marg.), or a cousin (Matt. 12:46; John 7:3; Acts 1:14; etc.). (3) One of the same tribe (Num. 8:26; 2 Kings 10:13, marg.; Neh. 3:1). (4) A fellow countryman (Ex. 2:11; 4:18; Matt. 5:47; Acts 3:22; etc.), or one of a kindred nation, e.g., the Edomites and Hebrews (Gen. 9:25; 16:12; Num. 20:14). (5) An ally, confederate, spoken of allied nations such as the Hebrews and Tyrians (Amos 1:9) or those of the same religion (Isa. 66:20; Acts 9:30; 1 Cor. 5:11); probably the name by which the early converts were known until they were called “Christians” at Antioch (Acts 11:26). (6) A friend, associate, as of Job’s friends (6:15; see 19:13; Neh. 5:10), of Solomon, whom Hiram calls his brother (1 Kings 9:13). (7) One of equal rank and dignity (Matt. 23:8). (8) One of the same nature, a fellowman (Gen. 13:8; Matt. 5:22; Heb. 2:17). (9) It is applied in the Heb. to inanimate things, as of the cherubim it is said they are “facing one another” (Ex. 25:20; cf. 37:9; lit., a man his brother). (10) Disciples, followers (Matt. 25:40; Heb. 2:11–12). Figurative. As likeness of disposition, habits, Jobs says (30:29), “I have become a brother to jackals,” i.e., I cry and howl like them. Proverbs 18:9 says, “He also who is slack in his work is brother to him who destroys.” The Jewish schools distinguish between a “brother” (i.e., an Israelite by blood) and “neighbor” (a proselyte). The gospel extends both terms to all the world (1 Cor. 5:11; Luke 10:29–37). BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. F. von Soden, ὰδελφό̦, Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, ed. G. Kittel (1964), 1:144–46. BROTHERLY KINDNESS (Gk. philadelphia, 2 Pet. 1:7). The Gk. term is also rendered “brotherly love” (Rom. 12:10); “love of the brethren” (1 Thess. 4:9; Heb. 13:1; 1 Pet. 1:22). It is affection for our brothers, in the broad meaning of which word the Scriptures include as our neighbors all mankind, not excluding our enemies. We are not required to bestow equal love upon all or recognize all as possessing an equal claim to it. It does not make men blind to the qualities of their fellows. While it requires obedience to the golden rule, a special and warmer love for our brothers in Christ is urged. Brotherly love requires the best construction of a neighbor’s conduct, effort, and sacrifice for others, and forgiveness of injuries. See Charity. BROTHERLY LOVE. See Brotherly Kindness. BROTHERS OF OUR LORD. In Matt. 13:55 “James and Joseph and Simon and Judas” are named as the brothers of Jesus, whereas sisters are mentioned in v. 56. The sense in which the terms “brothers and sisters” are to be taken has been a matter of great discussion, some contending that they are to be regarded in their literal sense, others in the more general sense of relatives. Several theories in support of the latter view have been advanced: 1. That they were our Lord’s first cousins, the sons of Alphaeus (or Cleopas) and Mary the sister of the virgin. Against this view it is argued that there is no mention anywhere of cousins or kinsmen of Jesus according to the flesh, although the term cousin (Gk. anepsios) is well known in NT vocabulary (Col. 4:10); also the more exact term “son of Paul’s sister” (Acts 23:16); also “relative” occurs several times (Mark 6:4; Luke 1:36, 58; John 18:26; Acts 10:24), as well as “kinsman” (Rom. 9:3). Thus it seems strange that if the brothers of our Lord were merely cousins they were never called such. 2. That they were sons of Joseph by a former marriage with a certain Escha, or Salome, of the tribe of Judah. The only ground for its possibility is the apparent difference of age between Joseph and Mary. 3. That they were the offspring of a levirate marriage between Joseph and the wife of his deceased brother, Cleopas. This, however, is a mere hypothesis. The arguments for their being the full brothers of Jesus are numerous and, taken collectively, are very strong. (1) The words “first-born son” (Luke 2:7) appear to have been used with reference to later-born children. (2) The declaration that Joseph “kept her a virgin until she gave birth to a Son” (Matt. 1:25) does not necessarily establish the perpetual virginity of Mary. We must remember that “the evangelist employed the term ‘firstborn’ as an historian, from the time when his gospel was composed, and consequently could not have used it had Jesus been present to his historical consciousness as the only son of Mary. But Jesus, according to Matthew (12:46–48; 13:55–56), had also brothers and sisters, among whom he was the first-born” (Meyer, Com., on Matt. 1:25). (3) They are constantly spoken of with the virgin Mary and with no shadow of a hint that they were not her children. The mother is mentioned at the same time (Mark 3:31; Luke 8:19; John 2:12; Acts 1:14), just as in Matt. 13:55–56 the father and sisters are likewise mentioned along with Him. BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. Harris, Dictionary of Christ and the Gospels, ed. J. Hastings (1906), 1:232–37; J. B. Mayor, Dictionary of the Bible, ed. J. Hastings (1919), 1:320–26; H. E. Jacobs, International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, ed. J. Orr (1939), 1:518–20; J. B. Lightfoot, St. Paul’s Epistle to the Galatians (1970), pp. 88–128; J. B. Mayor, Epistle of James (1977), pp. 3–65. BROTHER’S WIFE (Heb. y bemet, Deut. 25:7; “sister-in-law,” Ruth 1:15). See Marriage, Levirate. BROWN (Heb. ḥûm, lit., “scorched”). The term applied in the KJV to the dark- colored sheep removed from Jacob’s flocks by Laban (Gen. 30:32–40). The NASB renders “black,” and the NIV “dark-colored.” See Colors. BUILDERS. See Handicrafts. BRUISED. The rendering of at least eleven Heb. and Gk. words is used in Scripture in a figurative sense. Thus Satan is said to bruise the heel of Christ (Gen. 3:15), i.e., to afflict the humanity of Christ and to bring suffering and persecution on His people. The serpent’s poison is in his head, and a wound in that part is fatal. So Christ is said to bruise the head of Satan when He crushes his designs, despoils him of his power, and enables His people to rise superior to temptation (Rom. 16:20). Our Lord was bruised when He had inflicted upon Him the punishment due to our sins (Isa. 53:5, 10). Weak Christians are bruised reeds, which Christ will not break (Isa. 42:3). BRUISES. See Diseases. BRUTISH (Heb. ba˓ar, “to be like an animal”). A KJV term applied to one whose mental and moral perceptions are dulled by ignorance (Prov. 12:1), idolatry (Jer. 10:8, 14, 21). “The word must be explained from Ps. 92:6, ‘brutish,’ foolish, always bearing in mind that the Hebrew associated the idea of godlessness with folly, and that cruelty naturally follows in its train” (Keil, Com., on Ezek. 21:31). The NASB and NIV render “stupid.” BUBAS´TIS (bu-basʹtis). See Pi-beseth. BUCK. See Animal Kingdom: Deer; Roebuck. BUCKET. A skin vessel with which to draw water (Isa. 40:15). In John 4:11 the Gk. word antlēma is used. Figurative. Bucket is used (Num. 24:7) for abundance, as water is the leading source of prosperity in the burning East. The nation is personified as a man carrying two buckets overflowing with water. BUCKLER. See Armor: Defensive Weapons. BUFFET (Gk. kolaphizo, to “strike with the fist”). Rude maltreatment in general, whether in derision (Matt. 26:67; Mark 14:65, KJV, “buffet”; NASB, “beat”), opposition (2 Cor. 12:7–9, where Paul states that Christ sent “a messenger of Satan to buffet me” that “the power of Christ may dwell in me” ), or punishment (1 Pet. 2:20, KJV, “buffet”; NASB, “harshly treated”; NIV, “receive a beating”). BUILDING. See Architecture; House. Figurative. “To build” is used with reference to children and a numerous progeny (Ruth 4:11; 2 Sam. 7:27); and to the founding of a family. The church is called a building (1 Cor. 3:9; etc.); and the resurrection body of the Christian is called a building in contrast to a tent, symbolic of this mortal body (2 Cor. 5:1). BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. Conteneau, Everyday Life in Babylon and Assyria (1954); National Geographic Society, Everyday Life in Ancient Times (1964); A. Badawy, Architecture in Ancient Egypt and the Near East (1966). BUK´KI (bukʹi). 1. The son of Jogli and leader of the tribe of Dan, appointed by Moses as one of the commission to divide the inheritance among the tribes (Num. 34:22), c. 1400 B.C. 2. The son of Abishua and father of Uzzi, being great-great-grandson of Aaron (1 Chron. 6:5, 51). BUKKI´AH (bu-kīʹa). A Kohathite Levite, of the sons of Heman, the leader of the sixth band in the Temple music service. The band consisted of himself and eleven of his kindred (1 Chron. 25:4, 13), 1000 B.C. BUL (būl). The eighth ecclesiastical month of the Jewish year (1 Kings 6:38). See Time. BULBS (Heb. kaptōr). Part of the ornamentation of the seven-branched lampstand in the Tabernacle (Ex. 25:31–36; 37:17–22; marg., “calyx”). The term is distinct from KJV “flower,” NASB “lily blossom,” NIV “buds.” In the KJV “bulbs” is rendered “knops.” BULL, BULLOCK. See Animal Kingdom: Ox. Figurative. In this sense bull represents powerful, fierce, and insolent enemies (Pss. 22:12; 68:30; Isa. 34:7). BULRUSH. See Vegetable Kingdom: Reeds, Rushes. BULWARK. Bulwarks in Scripture appear to have been rural towers, answering the purpose of the modern bastion. They were usually erected at certain distances along the walls, generally at the corners, and upon them were placed the military engines. See Fortifications. BU´NAH (būʹna; “discretion”). The second of the sons of Jerahmeel, the grandson of Perez, the son of Judah (1 Chron. 2:25). BUNCH. The rendering of several Heb. words, such as a bunch of hyssop (Ex. 12:22), a bunch of raisins (2 Sam. 16:1, KJV), the bunch of a camel (Isa. 30:6, KJV). BUNDLE. Anything bound together, such as a “bundle of myrrh” (song of Sol. 1:13, KJV; NASB, “pouch”; NIV, “sachet”), of “wheat” (Matt. 13:30), of “sticks” (Acts 28:3). It is also used of money in a purse (Gen. 42:35). Figurative. The speech of Abigail to David (1 Sam. 25:29) is rendered “The life of my lord shall be bound in the bundle of the living,” and the words seem to refer to the safer preservation of the righteous on the earth. The metaphor is taken from the custom of binding up valuable things in a bundle to prevent injury. BUN´NI (bunʹi; “built”). One of the Levites who made public prayer and confession (Neh. 9:4) and joined Nehemiah in the covenant after the return from Babylon (10:15), 445 B.C. BURDEN (Heb. maśśā˒, a “lifting up”). This word is often used in the familiar meaning of a load. It also frequently has the meaning of an oracle from God; sometimes as a denunciation of evil (Isa. 13:1; Nah. 1:1; Mal. 1:1), and also merely as a message, whether joyous or afflictive (Zech. 9:1; 12:1). BURIAL. Burial customs favored by ancient peoples differed from one culture to another. Hebrew. Interment in Bible times followed soon after death, as is evident in the narratives of the burial of Sarah (Gen. 23:1–20), Rachel (35:19, 20), and Rebekah’s nurse (35:8). The Hebrews did not normally cremate, except in most unusual cases of emergency, as in the case of Saul and his sons (1 Sam. 31:11–13). Neither did they generally use coffins or embalm. Joseph’s burial in a coffin (Gen. 50:26) and his being embalmed (as was his father, Jacob, 50:2–3) are to be explained as due to his eminent position in Egypt. Ordinarily a body, after being washed (Acts 9:37) and wrapped in a cloth or closely bound in bands (Matt. 27:59; John 11:44), was carried on a simple bier to the grave or vault (2 Sam. 3:31; Luke 7:14), which was commonly a natural cave artificially cut out of the rock (Gen. 25:9–10; Matt. 27:60). Unguents and perfumes were applied to the body if they could be afforded (John 12:3, 7; 19:39), or fragrant incense was burned (Jer. 34:5). Mourners lamented with loud demonstrations of grief (Mark 5:38) and were often hired (Jer. 9:17). Egyptian. Egyptians took great pains to prepare their dead for the future life. Under the early dynasties graves with stone superstructures (mastaba) built over them were used, and food and other essential commodities for the afterlife were placed near the body. The practice of placing one mastaba upon another resulted in a step pyramid, such as the famous one at Saqqara from Dynasty III. From these developed the square-based, perfect pyramids. These colossal structures, the most famous of which are located at Gizeh from Dynasty IV, are architectural wonders that still amaze the world. In the complex interior of these great masses of stone the mummified bodies of royalty were interred. The intricate process of mummification, including embalming, required seventy days during which the internal organs, except the heart, were removed and stored away in special animal-headed jars. The brains of the deceased were also removed and a resinous paste and linen used to stuff the body, while the body itself was carefully wrapped with linen bandages and cords. Jewels and scarabs were used to adorn the corpse, the latter enabling the mummy to be identified and dated. The mummy was set in a case, which was painted with the face of the deceased. The discovery of the lavish intact tomb of Tutankhamen (1922), a pharaoh of the fourteenth century B.C. (late Amarna Period) revealed incredible burial splendor. A whole series of fine metal coffins, including one of solid gold inlaid with lapis lazuli and carnelian, was uncovered, as well as exquisite death masks of the ruler. Babylonian. Like the Egyptians, the Babylonians took great pains to prepare for the future life. The famous royal tombs from the First Dynasty of Ur, discovered by Sir Leonard Woolley and dating from about 2500 B.C., reveal rooms and vaults of brick and stone. The occupant of one of the tombs, identified by a lapis lazuli cylinder as Queen Puabi, lay upon a wooden bier, a golden cup near her hand. She wore an elaborate headdress, ornate earrings, and a golden comb with golden flowers set with lapis lazuli. Mass burials were discovered in several tombs. Twenty-five persons were interred with the queen. Other graves contained the remains of as many as six men and sixty-eight women. Even chariots filled with treasures were driven into these tombs. Superb gold daggers, bowls, animals, helmets, and other exquisitely wrought objects were interred with the deceased. But the graves of the common people were found to be simple rectangular pits. The body was wrapped in matting or put in a coffin of wood, clay, or wickerwork. Personal belongings as well as food and drink for the afterlife were placed in the grave. Kind provisions for the dead appear in the carefully folded hands in which there was a cup, once doubtless filled with water, for the need of the sleeper. Later Babylonians burned their dead and deposited their ashes in ornate funerary urns, as did Greeks and Romans. Hebrews in later times also practiced cremation, as is indicated by the numerous ossuaries found in NT Palestine. Philistine. The Philistines around the twelfth century B.C. interred in clay coffins, numbers of which have been found in Palestine. See also Dead, The. BIBLIOGRAPHY: K. M. Kenyon, Digging Up Jericho (1957), pp. 233–55; G. E. Wright, Biblical Archaeologist 22, no. 3 (1959): 54–66; J. B. Payne, Theology of the Older Testament (1962), pp. 443–62; J. E. Callaway, BA 24 (1963): 74–91; R. de Vaux, Ancient Israel: Its Life and Institutions (1961), pp. 56–59. BURNING. See Branding. BURNING BUSH. See articles Bush; Vegetable Kingdom: Burning Bush. BURNING INSTEAD OF BEAUTY. See Branding. BURNT OFFERING, SACRIFICE. See Sacrifices. BURY, BURYING PLACE. See articles Dead, The; Tomb. BUSH (Heb. sƒneh, “bramble”; Gk. batos). The burning bush in which Jehovah manifested Himself to Moses at Horeb (Ex. 3:2; etc.; Deut. 33:16; Mark 12:26; Acts 7:30, 35). This was probably the bramble. See Vegetable Kingdom: Burning Bush. Figurative. The thornbush or “bramble,” in contrast with the more noble and lofty trees (Judg. 9:15), represented the Israelites in their humiliation as a people despised by the world. The burning bush represents Israel as enduring the fire of affliction, the iron furnace of Egypt (Deut. 4:20), chastened but not consumed. See Vegetable Kingdom. BUSHEL. See Metrology: Dry Measures of Capacity. BUSYBODY (Gk. periergos, “working around,” 1 Tim. 5:13; to “be overbusy,” 2 Thess. 3:11; allotriepiskopos, “one who supervises others’ affairs,” 1 Pet. 4:15, NASB; “troublesome meddler”). A meddlesome person, emphatically condemned in the above passages. BUTLER (Heb. mashqeh, “one who gives drink”). A cupbearer (which see), as the Heb. word is rendered in the KJV, NIV, and NASB of 2 Chron. 9:4, and an officer of honor in the royal household of Egypt (Gen. 40:1, 13). It was his duty to fill and bear the drinking vessel to the king. Nehemiah was cupbearer to King Artaxerxes (Neh. 1:11; 2:1). Where the KJV renders “butler,” the NASB and NIV render cupbearer (which see). BUTTER (Heb. ḥem˒â, “grown thick”). Although always rendered butter in the KJV, critics usually agree that the Heb. word means “curdled milk” or curds. Indeed, it is doubtful whether butter is meant in any passage except Prov. 30:33, “the churning of milk produces butter.” The other passages will better apply to curdled milk than to butter. The ancient method of making butter was probably similar to that followed by the modern Bedouin. The milk is put into a skin, the tanned hide of a whole goat; this skin is hung up on a light frame, or between two poles, and pushed steadily from side to side till the butter is ready. “When the butter has come, they take it out, boil or melt it, and then put it into bottles made of goats’ skins. In winter it resembles candied honey; in summer it is mere oil” (Thompson, The Land and the Book, 1:393). BIBLIOGRAPHY: W. M. Thompson, The Land and the Book (1886), 1:393. BUZ (būz; “contempt”). 1. The second son of Nahor and Milcah (Gen. 22:21). 2. The father of Jahdo, of the tribe of Gad (1 Chron. 5:14). 3. One of three tribes of northern Arabia. In Jer. 25:23 the following are mentioned: “Dedan, Tema, Buz, and all who cut the corners of their hair.” BU´ZI (būzʹi). A priest, father of Ezekiel the prophet (Ezek. 1:3), before 595 B.C. BUZ´ITE (būzʹīt). A term indicating the ancestry of Elihu, found only in Job 32:2, 6, “Elihu the son of Barachel the Buzite,” indicating ancestry from the Arabian tribe of Buz. BUZZARD. See Animal Kingdom. C CAB. The cab (KJV) or kab (NASB, NIV) was a dry measure of capacity. See Metrology. CAB´BON (kabʹon). A place in the plain of Judah (Josh. 15:40); possibly the same as Machbena (1 Chron. 2:49; Macbenah, NIV). CA´BUL (kaʹbul; perhaps “sterile, worthless”), i.e., fettered land (Heb. kebel, “a fetter”). 1. A city on the E border of Asher, at its N side (Josh. 19:27), probably identical with the village of Kabul, nine miles SE of Acre. 2. A district of Galilee, containing twenty “cities,” which Solomon gave to Hiram, king of Tyre, in return for services rendered in building the Temple. When Hiram saw them he was displeased, and he said, “‘What are these cities which you have given me, my brother?’ So they were called the land of Cabul to this day” (1 Kings 9:13). These cities were occupied chiefly by a heathen population and were probably in bad condition. Or it may have been that, as the Phoenicians were a seafaring people, Hiram would have preferred to have had coastal cities rather than those inland. CAESAR (sēʹzer). A name taken by—or given to—all the Roman emperors after Julius Caesar. It was a sort of title, like Pharaoh, and as such is usually applied to the emperors in the NT, as the sovereigns of Judea (John 19:15; Acts 17:7). It was to him that the Jews paid tribute (Matt. 22:17; Luke 23:2), and to him that such Jews as were cives Romani had the right of appeal (Acts 25:11); in which case, if their cause was a criminal one, they were sent to Rome (25:12, 21). The Caesars mentioned in the NT are Augustus (Luke 2:1), Tiberius (3:1; 20:22), Claudius (Acts 11:28), and Nero (25:8). See each name. CAESARE´A (sē-sa-rēʹa; “pertaining to Caesar”). Caesarea Maritima (i.e., “Caesarea by the sea”). This Caesarea, so called to distinguish it from Caesarea Philippi—or simply Caesarea—was situated on the coast of Palestine on the great road from Tyre to Egypt, and about halfway between Joppa and Dora (Josephus Wars 1.21.5), or about twenty-seven miles S of Haifa. The distance from Jerusalem is given by Josephus (Ant. 13.11.2; Wars 1.3.5) as six hundred stadia; the actual distance in a direct line is forty-seven miles. Philip stopped at Caesarea at the close of his preaching tour (Acts 8:40). Paul, to avoid Grecians who wished to kill him, was taken to Caesarea before embarking for Tarsus (9:30). Here dwelt Cornelius the centurion, to whom Peter came and preached (10:1; 11:11), and to this city Herod (which see) resorted after the miraculous deliverance of Peter from prison (12:19). Later Paul visited Caesarea several times (18:22; 21:8, 16) and was sent there by the Roman commander at Jerusalem to be heard by Felix (23:23, 33; 25:1–14); and from Caesarea he started on his journey to Rome (27:1). KJV King James Version NASB New American Standard Bible NIV New International Version Although small excavations were conducted at Caesarea in 1945, 1951, and 1956, large-scale archaeological work did not begin there until 1959. In that year A. Frova launched the Italian Archaeological Mission dig at the theater (1959–63), where he found an inscription mentioning Pontius Pilate and the emperor Tiberius. The theater has been restored and is used periodically for musical and dramatic performances. In 1960 the Edwin A. Link Underwater Archaeological Expedition explored the harbor area and plotted the breakwaters. Since 1980 an international consortium of four universities, headed by the Israel Center for Maritime Studies and directed by Avner Raban, has been working on the harbor of Caesarea. The effort is called the Caesarea Ancient Harbor Excavation Project. The project has been conducting a survey and excavation that has provided important new information on Roman harbor design and construction. Two immense breakwaters were constructed to frame outer and inner basins. Hydraulic concrete was used in a sophisticated way, and sluice gates and subsidiary breakwater provided protection against siltation. During the years 1960–62, A. Negev excavated on behalf of the National Parks Authority in the Crusader town. The Crusader fortifications of the thirteenth century A.D. and the great moat were uncovered, as were remains of the temple Herod built in honor of Augustus, and part of the Roman pier. A consortium of twenty-two American, Canadian, and Israeli universities, under the direction of Dr. Robert Bull of Drew University, contributed talent and money to uncover the ancient site in an ongoing project that began in 1970. Since that time teams have worked at the site every season, exploring the water system and excavating houses, the gate area, and the aqueducts. Two aqueducts and a Mithras shrine (the first in Palestine) have been uncovered and work has been done on the second-century A.D. hippodrome. Caesarea was a great city, and it is only beginning to emerge from the sand dunes. Population estimates run as high as 250,000, and it is judged to have occupied an area half the size of Manhattan Island. Caesarea Philippi (sē-sa-rē˒a fi-lip´i; “Caesarea of Philip”). A town in the northern part of Palestine, about 120 miles from Jerusalem, 50 from Damascus, and 30 from Tyre, near the foot of Mt. Hermon. It was first a Canaanite sanctuary for the worship of Baal; perhaps Baal-hermon (Judg. 3:3; 1 Chron. 5:23). It was called by the Greeks Paneas because of its cavern, which reminded them of similar places dedicated to the worship of the god Pan. In 20 B.C. Herod the Great received the whole district from Augustus and dedicated a temple to the emperor. Herod Philip enlarged it and called it Caesarea Philippi to distinguish it from his father’s on the seacoast. It was the northern limit of Christ’s travels in the Holy Land (Matt. 16:13; Mark 8:27). The site of Caesarea is Banias, a paltry village. H.F.V. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Caesarea. E. M. Blaiklock, Cities of the New Testament (1965), pp. 72– 76; M. Avi-Yonah, ed., Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land (1975), 1:270–85. Caesarea Philippi. J. H. Kitchen, Holy Fields (1955), pp. 45–47. CAGE (kƒlûb). A “basket” or “cage” for keeping birds (Jer. 5:27) and fruit (Amos 8:1). On the Taylor Prism in the British Museum, Sennacherib says of Hezekiah: “Himself like a caged bird, I shut up in Jerusalem….” A place of confinement for prisoners in transit (Ezek. 19:9). CA´IAPHAS (kaʹya-fas). A surname, the original name being Joseph (Josephus Ant. 18.2.2); but, the surname becoming his ordinary and official designation, it was used H.F.V. Howard F. Vos for the name itself. Caiaphas was the high priest of the Jews in the reign of Tiberius Caesar, at the beginning of the Lord’s public ministry (Luke 3:2) and also at the time of His condemnation and crucifixion (Matt. 26:3, 57; etc.). He was appointed to this dignity through the curator Valerius Gratus (probably A.U.C. 770–88 or 789, Meyer, Com., on Luke) and held it during the whole procuratorship of Pontius Pilate, but was deposed by the proconsul Vitellus, A.D. about 38. Caiaphas was the son-in-law of Annas, with whom he is coupled by Luke (see below). His wife was the daughter of Annas, or Ananus, who had formerly been high priest and who still possessed great influence and control in sacerdotal matters. After the miracle of raising Lazarus from the dead Caiaphas advocated putting Jesus to death. His language on this occasion was prophetic, though not so designed: “You know nothing at all, nor do you take into account that it is expedient for you that one man should die for the people, and that the whole nation should not perish” (John 11:49–50). After Christ was arrested He was taken before Annas, who sent Him to Caiaphas, probably living in the same house. An effort was made to produce false testimony sufficient for His condemnation. This expedient failed; for, though two persons appeared to testify, they did not agree, and at last Caiaphas put our Savior Himself upon oath that He should say whether He was indeed the Christ, the Son of God, or not. The answer was, of course, in the affirmative, and was accompanied with a declaration of His divine power and majesty. The high priest pretended to be greatly grieved at what he considered our Savior’s blasphemous pretensions, and appealed to His enraged enemies to say if this was not enough. They answered at once that He deserved to die, but, as Caiaphas had no power to inflict the punishment of death, Christ was taken to Pilate, the Roman governor, that His execution might be duly ordered (Matt. 26:3, 57; John 18:13, 28). The bigoted fury of Caiaphas exhibited itself also against the first efforts of the apostles (Acts 4:6–21). What became of Caiaphas after his deposition is not known. The expression in Luke 3:2, “In the high priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas,” has led some to maintain that Annas and Caiaphas then discharged the functions of the high priesthood by turns; but this is not reconcilable with the statement of Josephus. Others think that Caiaphas is called high priest because he then actually exercised the functions of the office, and that Annas is so called because he formerly filled the position. But it does not thus appear why, of those who held the priesthood before Caiaphas, Annas in particular should be named, and not others who had served the office more recently than Annas. Meyer (Com., ad loc.) says: “Annas retained withal very weighty influence (John 18:12, sq.), so that not only did he continue to be called by the name, but, moreover, he also partially discharged the functions of high priest.” Edersheim (Life and Times of Jesus, 1:264): “The conjunction of the two names of Annas and Caiaphas probably indicates that, although Annas was deprived of the pontificate, he still continued to preside over the Sanhedrin” (cf. Acts 4:6). BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. F. Bruce, Commentary on the Book of Acts, New International Commentary on the New Testament (1954), pp. 97–98; W. Hendricksen, Gospel of John, New Testament Commentary (1954), 2:162–65, 384–98; C. J. Barber, Searching for Identity (1975), pp. 108–19; C. K. Barrett, Gospel According to John (1978), pp. 404ff., 483–92, 515–51. CAIN (kān; a “smith, spear”). The firstborn of the human race, and likewise the first murderer and fratricide. His history is narrated in Gen. 4. A.U.C. ab urbe condita (from the founding of the city [Rome]) Com. Commentary Sacrifice. Cain was the eldest son of Adam and Eve, and by occupation a tiller of the ground. He and his brother offered a sacrifice to God, Cain of the fruit of the ground and Abel of the firstlings of his flock. Cain’s temper and offering (being bloodless) were not acceptable, while Abel’s received the divine approval. Murder. At this Cain was angered, and, though remonstrated with by the Almighty, he fostered his revenge until it resulted in the murder of his brother. When God inquired of him as to the whereabouts of Abel he declared, “I do not know,” and sullenly inquired, “Am I my brother’s keeper?” (v. 9). The Lord then told him that his crime was known, and pronounced a curse upon him and the ground that he should cultivate. Cain was to endure, also, the torments of conscience, in that the voice of his brother’s blood would cry unto God from the ground. Fearful lest others should slay him for his crime, he pleaded with God, who assured him that vengeance sevenfold would be taken on anyone who should kill him. He also gave him “a sign,” probably an assurance that his life should be spared. Cain became a fugitive, and journeyed into the land of Nod, where he built a city that he named after his son Enoch. His descendants are named to the sixth generation and appear to have reached an advanced stage of civilization, being noted for proficiency in music and the arts. The NT references to Cain are Heb. 11:4, where it is recorded, “By faith Abel offered to God a better sacrifice than Cain”; 1 John 3:12; Jude 11. BIBLIOGRAPHY: S. N. Kramer, History Begins at Sumer (1981), pp. 14–17. CAI´NAN (kāʹi-nan). The son of Arphaxad and father of Shelah, according to Luke 3:35–36. He is nowhere named in the Heb. text, nor in any of the versions made from it, such as the Samaritan, Aram., Syr., Vulg., etc. It is believed by many that the name was not originally in the text, even of Luke, but is an addition of careless transcribers from the LXX. See also Kenan for the NASB and NIV rendering of KJV “Cainan” in Gen. 5:9– 14; 1 Chron. 1:2. CAKE, CAKES. See Bread. CA´LAH (kaʹla). An ancient city of Assyria built by Nimrod (which see) or by people from his country (Gen. 10:11). Shalmaneser I (c. 1280–60 B.C.) made this place famous in his day. By the time of the great conqueror Ashurnasirpal II (883–59 B.C.) the site had fallen into decay. But this eminent warrior chose Calah as his capital. At this site, now represented by the mound of Nimrud, the young Assyriological pioneer Austen Henry Layard began his excavations in 1845. At the very outset of these diggings the splendid palace of Ashurnasirpal II was discovered with colossal winged man-headed lions guarding the palace entrance. In a small temple nearby a statue of Ashurnasirpal II was found in a perfect state of preservation. Numerous inscriptions of the king also came to light. Calah remained the favorite haunt of Assyrian kings for a century and a half. Here Layard recovered the famous Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III in 1846, which, among other captives, portrays Jehu of Israel (c. 842–15 B.C.) bringing tribute to his Assyrian overlord. M. E. L. Mallowan led a dig at Calah for the British School of Archaeology in Iraq from 1949 to 1961. He completed excavation of Ashurnasirpal’s magnificent palace, covering six acres. This is now the best preserved of Assyrian royal dwellings. He also discovered and largely excavated Shalmaneser’s great fort, eighteen acres in size, which lay just inside the five-mile circuit of the city wall at its SE edge. This is the most extensive Syr. Syriac LXX Septuagint military installation yet discovered in ancient Assyria. Calah was the staging ground from which the Assyrians launched their attack on Samaria, and to Calah Sargon II brought the booty and captives after the fall of Samaria (723/2 B.C.). Valuable antiquities from Calah are housed in the British Museum in London, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, the University Museum at Philadelphia, and the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston. M.F.U.; H.F.V. BIBLIOGRAPHY: M. E. L. Mallowan, Nimrud and Its Remains, 2 vols. (1966); D. Dates, Studies in the Ancient History of Northern Iraq (1968). CALAMUS. See Vegetable Kingdom: Reeds, Rushes. CAL´COL (kalʹkol). One of the four sons of Mahol, who were famous for their wisdom before the time of Solomon (1 Kings 4:31), before 960 B.C. In 1 Chron. 2:6 he and his brothers are given as the sons of Zerah, of the tribe of Judah. CALDRON. The rendering of several Heb. words, all meaning a vessel for boiling flesh, either for domestic or ceremonial purposes. The term appears only once in the NASB (1 Sam. 2:14) and twice in the NIV (1 Sam. 2:14; Job 41:31), but is frequent in the KJV (1 Sam. 2:14; 2 Chron. 35:13; Job 41:20; Jer. 52:18, 19; Ezek. 11:3, 7). Metallic vessels of this kind have been found in Egypt, Babylonia, and Mesopotamia. CA´LEB (kāʹleb; a “dog”). 1. The son of Jephunneh (which see), the Kenizzite, and head of one of the families of Judah. The first mention of Caleb was his appointment at the age of forty years (Josh. 14:6–7) as one of the twelve spies sent by Moses to explore Canaan (Num. 13:6, 17–25), c. 1440 B.C. On their return all the spies agreed respecting the preeminent goodness of the land but differed in their advice to the people. While the ten others announced the inability of Israel to overcome the Canaanites, Caleb and Joshua spoke encouragingly. They admitted the strength and stature of the people and the greatness of the walled cities but were far from despairing. Caleb, stilling the people before Moses, exhorted them earnestly and boldly, “We should by all means go up and take possession of it, for we shall surely overcome it” (Num. 13:30). For this act of faithfulness, repeated the following day, Caleb and Joshua barely escaped being stoned by the people (14:10). Moses announced to the congregation, however, that they alone, of all the people over twenty years of age, should enter into the Promised Land, and in a plague that shortly followed the other spies died (14:26–38). A special promise was given to Caleb that he should enter the land that he had trodden upon, and that his seed should possess it (14:24). We find no further mention of Caleb until about forty-five years after. The land was being divided, and he claimed the special inheritance promised by Moses as a reward of his fidelity. His claim was admitted, and Joshua added his blessing. Caleb, who at the age of eighty-five was still as strong for war as when he was forty, drove out the Anakim from Hebron (Josh. 14:6–15; 15:14). He then attacked Debir (Kiriath- sepher), to the SW of Hebron. This town must have been strong and hard to conquer, for Caleb offered a prize to the conqueror, promising to give his daughter Achsah for a wife to anyone who should take it. Othniel, his nephew, took the city and secured Achsah and a tract of land (15:13–19). We have no further information respecting Caleb’s life or death. Concerning the taking of Debir, Keil notes: “There is no discrepancy between the accounts of the taking of Debir (Josh. 11:21–22; 15:13–19), for the expulsion of its M.F.U. Merrill F. Unger inhabitants by Joshua did not preclude the possibility of their returning when the Israelitish armies had withdrawn to the north” (Com.). 2. The last named of the three sons of Hezron (1 Chron. 2:18), of the descendants of Judah, in 1 Chron. 2:9, where he is called Chelubai (which see; still Caleb in the NIV). His sons by his first wife, Azubah, or Jerioth (which see), were Jesher, Shobab, and Ardon (v. 18). After her death he married Ephrath, by whom he had Hur (v. 19) and perhaps others (v. 50). He had also several children by his concubines, Ephah and Maacah (vv. 46, 48). 3. In the KJV and NIV of 1 Chron. 2:50, a son of Hur. See the NASB for a better reading. CA´LEB-EPH´RATHAH (kāʹleb-efʹra-tha). Only in 1 Chron. 2:24: “And after the death of Hezron in Caleb-ephrathah,” etc. “The town or village in which Caleb dwelt with his wife Ephrath may have been called Caleb of Ephrathah, if Ephrath had brought this place as a dower to Caleb (comp. Josh. 15:18). Ephrathah or Ephrath was the ancient name of Bethlehem, and with it the name Ephrath is connected, probably so called after her birthplace. If this supposition is well founded, then Caleb of Ephrathah would be the little town of Bethlehem” (Keil, Com.). Many scholars, however, adopt the LXX reading, “After the death of Hezron Caleb came unto Ephrath, the wife of Hezron, his father.” CALENDAR (Lat. calendarium, from calere, “to call,” because the priests called the people to notice that it was new moon). An ecclesiastical almanac indicating the special days and seasons to be observed. Chaldean. Their years were vague years of 360 days. The twelve equal months of which they were composed bore names that were borrowed, on the one hand, from events in civil life, such as “Simanu,” from the making of brick, and “Addaru,” from the sowing of seed, and, on the other, from mythological occurrences whose origin is still obscure, such as “Nisanu,” and “Elul.” The adjustment of this year to astronomical demands was roughly carried out by the addition of a month every six years, which was called a second Adar, Elul, or Nisan, according to the place in which it was intercalated. The neglect of the hours and minutes in their calculations of the length of the year became with them, as with the Egyptians, a source of serious embarrassment, and we are still ignorant as to the means employed to meet the difficulty. Egyptian. Very early the Egyptians divided the year into twelve months of 30 days each, with a sacred period of 5 feast days intercalated at the end of the year. The year began when Sirius first appeared on the eastern horizon at sunrise (July 19 on our calendar). Since this calendar year was a quarter of a day shorter than the solar year, it gained a full day every 4 years, and a full year in 1,460 years. An astronomical event such as the heliacal rising of Sirius, when computed on the basis of the Egyptian calendar, may therefore be reckoned and dated within four years in terms of our reckoning, i.e., in years B.C. This is the calendar that Julius Caesar introduced into Rome and that was bequeathed to us by the Romans (see below), thus being in operation for over six millennia. Jewish. The Israelites divided their year according to natural phenomena exclusively, combining the solar and lunar year. The months began with the new moon, but the first month was fixed (after the Exodus and by the necessities of the Passover) by the ripening of the earliest grain, namely, barley. The lunar month averaging 29½ days, a year of twelve months of 30 and 29 days alternately resulted; but this involved a variation of 11 and 22 days alternately in eighteen out of nineteen years. To reconcile this lunar year with the year of the seasons, a thirteenth month was inserted about once in three years. That the Jews had calendars wherein were noted all the feasts, fasts, and days on which they celebrated any great event of their history is evident from Zech. 8:19. Probably the oldest calendar is the Megillath Taanith (“volume of affliction”), said to have been drawn up in the time of John Hyrcanus, before 106 B.C. In table 1, “The Jewish Calendar,” it is assumed, as usual, that the first month of the Hebrew ecclesiastical year, Abib or Nisan, answers nearly to half March and half April, the earliest possible commencement of the lunar year being on our fifth of March. See Chronology. Table 1 The Jewish Calendar Names of Months Festivals Season Weather Crops Hebrew English A´BIB (Heb. March- New moon Spring Wind S; Barley ̓ābı ̂b, “green April (Num. 10:10; equinox sometimes harvest ears”), or 28:11–15). Fast sirocco. Fall begins in the NI´SAN. for Nadab and of the “late” plain of Thirty days; Abihu (Lev. or spring Jericho and in first of sacred, 10:1–2). rains (Deut. the Jordan seventh of 0. Selection of 11:14). The Valley; wheat civil, year. paschal lamb melting coming into (Ex. 12:3). snows of ear; uplands Fast for Lebanon and brilliant with Miriam (Num. the rains fill shortlived 20:1) and in the Jordan vegetation memory of the channel in and flowers scarcity of places, and water (20:2) the river 4. Paschal lamb overflows its killed in lower plain in evening (Ex. places (Josh. 12:6). Passover 3:15; cf. begins (Num. Zech. 10:11). 28:16). Search for leaven. 5. First day of Unleavened Bread (Num. 28:17). After sunset sheaf of barley brought to Temple. 6. “First fruits,” sheaf offered (Lev. 23:10– 15). Beginning of harvest, fifty days to Pentecost (Lev. 23:6). 5 and 21. Holy convocations (Lev. 23:7). 6. Fast for the death of Joshua. IF (Heb. ziw, April-May New moon Summer Wind S; Principal “brightness”), (Num. 1:18). showers and harvest or I´JAR. Fast of three thunderstorms month in Twenty-nine days for are rare (1 lower days; second excesses during Sam. 12:17– districts. sacred, eighth Passover. 18). Sky Barley of civil, year. 0. Fast for death generally harvest of Eli and cloudless till general (Ruth capture of Ark end of 1:22); wheat (1 Sam. 4:11– summer. ripening on 17). the uplands; 5. “Second” or apricots “little” ripen. In Passover, for Jordan Valley those unable to hot winds celebrate in destroy Abib; in vegetation. memory of entering wilderness (Ex. 16:1). 3. Feast for taking of Gaza by S. Maccabeus; for taking and purification of the Temple by the Maccabees. 7. Feast for the expulsion fo the Galileans from Jerusalem. 8. Fast for the death of Samuel (1 Sam. 25:1) I´VAN (Heb. May-June New moon Wind NW, Wheat sı ̂wān). Thirty “Feast of also E; and harvest days; third of Pentecost,” or khamseen, or begins on sacred, ninth “Feast of parching uplands; of civil, year. Weeks,” wind from almonds because it came southern ripen; grapes seven weeks deserts. Air begin to after Passover still and ripen; honey (Lev. 23:15– brilliantly of the Jordan 21). clear. Valley 5, 16. Celebration collected of victory over May to July. Bethshan (1 Macc. 5:52; 12:40–41). 7. Feast for taking Caesarea by Hasmonaeans. 2. Fast in memory of Jeroboam’s forbidding subjects to carry firstfruits to Jerusalem (1 Kings 12:27). 5. Fast in memory of rabbis Simeon, Ishmael and Chanina; feast in honor of judgment of Alexander the Great, in favor of Jews against Ishmaelites, who claimed Canaan. 7. Fast, Chanina being burned with books of law. AM´MUZ (Heb. June-July New moon Hot Wind Wheat tammûz). 4. Feast for season usually NW, harvest on Twenty-nine abolition of a also E, and highest days; fourth of book of khamseen districts; sacred, tenth Sadducees and from S. Air various fruits of civil, year. Bethusians, still and clear; ripe. intended to heat intense; Springs subvert oral law heavy dews. and and traditions. vegetation 7. Fast in generally memory of dried up. tablets of law Bedouins bro