Gothic Revival architecture in Canada

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Gothic Revival architecture in Canada is an historically influential style, with many prominent examples. The Gothic Revival was imported to Canada from Britain and the United States in the early 19th century, and rose to become the most popular style for major projects throughout the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

The Gothic Revival period lasted longer and was more thoroughly embraced in Canada than in either Britain or the United States, only falling out of style in the 1930s. The late 19th and early 20th centuries was also the period when many major Canadian institutions were founded. Throughout Canada many of the most prominent religious, civic, and scholastic institutions are housed in Gothic Revival style buildings. In the 1960s and 1970s several scholars, most notably Alan Gowans, embraced Canadian Gothic Revival architecture as one of the nation's signature styles and as an integral part of Canadian nationalism. While largely abandoned in the modernist period, several postmodern architects have embraced Canada's neo-Gothic past.


Introduction to Canada[edit]

Notre-Dame de Montréal, one of Canada's first major Gothic Revival structure. Its symmetry and straight lines still evoke the previous Georgian and neo-classical styles.

Gothic Architecture is a name given in retrospect to many of the major projects of the High Middle Ages. As this period covered the 13th and 14th centuries, there are no authentic Gothic buildings in Canada. The style was quite out of favour in the 17th century, when Europeans first began erecting structures in Canada, and the style is absent from the early settlements in New France and the Maritimes.

In the 18th century, a growing spirit of Romanticism and interest in the Medieval past led to a revival of Gothic styles in Britain. The style made its way to Canada in the early 19th century. One of the first appearances is in an 1811 proposal by Jeffry Wyatt for a new legislature in Quebec City. One of the first major Gothic Revival structures in Canada was Notre-Dame Basilica in Montreal, which was designed in 1824 by the Irish-American James O'Donnell. The largest church in North America upon its completion, it was one of the first architectural works of international note to be built in Canada. It was also one of the first Catholic Gothic Revival structures, as the movement would not spread from Britain to France and continental Europe until several years later. As the most prominent church in the colony its form was much imitated by local church builders, who constructed miniature versions of the basilica across Quebec.

Protestants also embraced the style. As early as the late 18th century, certain Gothic elements had appeared in a church in Nova Scotia, though the Georgian and Neo-classical styles remained dominant for several decades. The first stone neo-Gothic structure in the Maritimes is St. John's Church in Saint John, New Brunswick. It dates to 1824, the same year work began on Notre-Dame. In the 1830s and 1840s four prominent neo-Gothic Churches were built in Quebec City, representing each of that city's major Protestant denominations.

By the 1840s the Gothic Revival style had become virtually universal among Anglicans and used for most other Christian denominations as well. As in much of the English speaking world the lancet windows and buttresses of the Gothic Revival style soon became permanently associated in most people's mind with ecclesiastical buildings. It was soon also embraced for secular purposes as well, such as government buildings and universities. Canadian universities modeled themselves on the great British universities, Oxford and Cambridge, and this extended to embracing the Collegiate Gothic architecture used in their construction. Two of the first Gothic Revival colleges were Trinity College in Toronto and Bishop's University in Quebec.

Victorian High Gothic[edit]

In the later half of the 19th century, Gothic Revival architecture became the dominant style for major Canadian buildings. As the style became accepted and popular, architects became more willing to experiment and modify its conventions. While previous Gothic Revival architects had attempted to closely recapture the style of the Middle Ages, the new architects retained the Medieval motifs, but recombined them in entirely new ways.

One of the most important examples of this style anywhere in the world were the Parliament Buildings designed by Thomas Fuller. While the style and design of the building is unquestionably Gothic, it resembles no building constructed during the Middle Ages. The forms were the same, but their arrangement was uniquely modern. The Parliament Buildings also departed from Medieval models by integrating a variety of eras and styles of Gothic architecture, including elements of Gothic architecture from Britain, France, the Low Countries, and Italy all in one building.

In his Hand Book to the Parliamentary and Departmental Buildings, Canada (1867), Joseph Bureau wrote, "The style of the Buildings is the Gothic of the 12th and 13th Centuries, with modification to suit the climate of Canada. The ornamental work and the dressing round the windows are of Ohio sandstone. The plain surface is faced with a cream-colored sandstone of the Potsdam formation, obtained from Nepean, a few miles from Ottawa. The spandrils of the arches, and the spaces between window-arches and the sills of the upper windows, are filled up with a quaint description of stonework, composed of stones of irregular size, shape and colour, very neatly set together."

This style was also embraced for religious architecture. In most towns in Ontario, and also in many parts of the newly settled west and the Maritimes, elaborate High Gothic churches were built. Unlike in the earlier era, the French Catholic church in Quebec did not embrace this style. During this period the church leadership favoured a neo-baroque style more closely linked to the architecture of New France.

The Victorian High Gothic period also saw a willingness to combine the neo-Gothic with other styles. Two important examples of a mix between Gothic and Romanesque styles are University College in Toronto and the British Columbia Parliament Buildings. Variations on the neo-Gothic style developed in Britain were also imported to Canada. The Scottish baronial style was employed by Chief Dominion Architect David Ewart to create a number of castle like structures in Ottawa. New materials were also incorporated. Cast iron allowed stronger structures with thinner supporting walls to be built, while some recreated gothic forms in brick, rather than the traditional stone or wood.

One style that rose to special prominence was the Château Style of Canada's grand railway hotels, also known as Railway Gothic. This style first appeared in the late 19th century, with grandiose railway hotels such as the Château Frontenac and Banff Springs Hotel. It mixed Gothic Revival with elements borrowed from the castles of the Loire in France.

Architectural dominance[edit]

Earnscliffe House in Ottawa is a manor built in the Gothic Revival style

Gothic Revival became the dominant style of Canadian civic architecture largely as a matter of timing. The mid and late 19th century was the period that the Canadian state was formed and when many of its secular and religious institutions were established. Canadian Confederation occurred in 1867, and subsequent years saw a large construction programme as the government and civil service established itself in Ottawa and across the country. Rapid growth of cities, especially in Ontario, saw most Christian denominations in most cities build major churches during this period. The downtowns of most Canadian cities are thus dotted with Gothic Revival churches. Canada's historic secular institutions, such as universities and museums, were also founded in this era of rapid growth.

There are other reasons the Gothic styles became so widespread in Canada. The steep roofs and thick stone walls were well suited to Canada's northern climate. In the United States architects liked to link their republic to those of Ancient Greece and Rome through the neo-classical style. Canada's Loyalists had no such leanings, and the English-Canadian elite was strongly Anglophilic and monarchist. Gothic architecture was seen as symbolic of this. In the late 19th century as Canada began to see an influx of Southern and Eastern European immigrants, the nativist backlash also embraced Gothic Revival architecture as emblematic of Canada's identity as a homeland for the "northern race." In French Canada the civic and religious authorities of the 19th and early 20th century also embraced a strident conservatism.

While during this period the Gothic Revival style was almost universal among Christian religious buildings, it was less so among secular structures. Other revival styles were also popular. Romanesque Revival buildings were popular, as were neo-classical structures. No provincial legislature copied the style of the Parliament buildings. Even in Ottawa several federal government buildings of this period embraced other styles.

Pure Gothic forms were mostly unsuited to the day to day requirements of residential and commercial properties; however, neo-Gothic ornamentation and principles were successfully adapted to these uses, and these structures became quite popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In rural areas the Gothic Cottage was immensely popular until well into the 20th century. Neighbourhoods that grew during this period, such as Cabbagetown and the Annex in Toronto, have many examples of houses that incorporate neo-Gothic elements. This includes a highly vertical emphasis on the structure; ornate decorations on the gables, often incorporating classic Gothic trefoil forms; and lancet windows and door frames. In rural Ontario the ubiquitous Ontario Cottage was often adorned with Gothic elements.

Modern Gothic[edit]

Commerce Court in Toronto. A Beaux-Arts building with Gothic Revival elements was the tallest building in Canada from 1930 until 1962

The Gothic Revival style started to wane in popularity in the late 19th century. New technologies such as steel building frames, elevators, and electric lighting were having a considerable impact on how buildings could be used and constructed. Newer styles such as the Beaux-Arts and Art Deco came to prominence. However, this was much less true in Canada. Gothic Revival architecture continued to be one of the most important building styles well into the 1940s, though often in highly modified and original forms. Just before the First World War Toronto saw work begin on three of its best known neo-Gothic structures, Casa Loma, the CHUM-City Building, and Hart House. While the three buildings were erected for completely different purposes, and a very distinct in style, they are all clearly Gothic in inspiration.

In the years after the First World War, when the Gothic Revival was being supplanted in most of the world, Canada was also experiencing greatly strengthened Canadian nationalism. For the first time the Canadian political and cultural elite began to seek a path distinct from that being followed in the United Kingdom and United States. As so many notable Canadian structures were Gothic Revival in style it became closely linked to Canadian identity, and was embraced by the new Canadian nationalism.

Perhaps the most important Gothic Revival structure was the new Centre Block of the Canadian Parliament. The Gothic Revival monument of Thomas Fuller was destroyed by a fire in 1917. Despite the half a century that had elapsed since the first parliament was built, the Gothic Revival style was still the obvious choice to the Canadian Government. The new building had several important differences from the old one, most notably the new Peace Tower. The federal government continued building in the Gothic Revival style, of which long serving Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King was a strong supporter, for several decades. As the federal government expanded, two major civil service office buildings were built in the Gothic style just to the west of Parliament Hill in the 1930s.

After the First World War some of the most prominent Gothic Revival structures were constructed by Canada's universities, in a style that is often known as Collegiate Gothic. The newer universities of western Canada, such as the University of British Columbia and University of Saskatchewan, turned to traditional styles as they underwent large expansions. The older universities of Ontario also built several new Gothic Revival Structures.

Gothic Revival finally almost completely disappeared after the Second World War, as Canada embraced Modern Architecture and the International Style. This was motivated by the prevailing fashion of the period, but also by economics and technology. The stark new structures of steel and glass were vastly cheaper than the often ornate stone constructions of the neo-Gothic style. The style thus almost completely disappeared.

The rise of postmodern architecture, with its interest in history and place, has seen the occasional reintegration of Gothic Revival styles. One example is Massey College at the University of Toronto. Its materials and the elements of its design are fully modern; however, the form and arrangement of those materials directly quotes from the Gothic Revival structures on campus. Another is the Windsor Arms Hotel, also in Toronto. It is a modern Gothic styled skyscraper built on the base of an older Gothic Revival structure from the start of the 20th century.

List of Gothic Revival buildings in Canada[edit]

Prominent Gothic Revival buildings across Canada listed by city.

Newfoundland and Labrador[edit]

Building Function Year Image
Cathedral of St. John the Baptist, St. John's Church 1847 Anglicancath.jpg
St. Patrick's Church, St. John's Church 1855 StPatricksChurch.jpg


Building Function Year Image
St. Matthew's United Church Church 1857 St Matthews, Halifax.JPG
St. Patrick's Church Church 1885 Saint Patrick's Church Halifax June 2015.jpg
The Khyber Social Centre 1888 Khyber Club Halifax.jpg
St. Mary's Basilica Church 1899 St Marys, Halifax.JPG
All Saint's Cathedral Cathedral 1910 AllSaints HalifaxNS.jpg

Rest of Nova Scotia[edit]

Building Function Year Image
St. John's Anglican Church, Lunenburg Church 1754 St. John's Anglican Church, Lunenburg.jpg
St. George's Church, Sydney Church 1791 St George Church Sydney.jpg
Trinity United Church, Mahone Bay Church 1835 Trinity United Church, Mahone Bay NS.jpg
Old Courthouse, Guysborough Museum 1843 Old Courthouse Museum Info Centre Guysborough Nova Scotia.jpg
Hensley Memorial Chapel, University of King's College, Windsor Hall 1863 HensleyChapel KingsEdgehill.jpg
St. John's Lutheran Church, Mahone Bay Church 1869 St. John's Lutheran Church Mahone Bay Nova Scotia 01.jpg
Holy Trinity Anglican Church, Yarmouth Church 1870 Holy Trinity Anglican Church Yarmouth Nova Scotia.jpg
St. Ann's Catholic Church, Guysborough Church 1873 St Ann's Catholic Church, Guysborough.jpg
St. Luke's Anglican Church, Annapolis Royal Church 1874 St. Luke's Anglican Church, Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia (3615282221).jpg
Seaview Cottage, Antigonish House 1876 Church Street Antigonish.jpg
Trinity Anglican Church, Digby Church 1878 Trinity Anglican Church (Digby, Nova Scotia) 01.jpg
St. John's Anglican Church, Peggy's Cove Church 1880 Kanada – Novo Scotia – Peggy's Cove - St. John's Anglican Church – built 1880 - panoramio (1).jpg
Central United Church, Lunenburg Church 1885 Central United Church, Lunenburg, Nova Scotia 01.jpg
Trinity Anglican Church, Jordan Falls Church 1887 HolyTrinityAnglicanChurch JordanFalls NS.jpg
St. James' Anglican Church, Mahone Bay Church 1887 St. James' Anglican Church Mahone Bay Nova Scotia 01.JPG
Zion Evangelical Lutheran Church, Lunenburg Church 1890 Lunenburg - NS - Zion's Lutheran Church.jpg
First Baptist Church, Amherst Church 1895 Church in Amherst, NS.jpg
St. Mary's Catholic Church, Mabou Church 1897 Church of Mabou, Nova Scotia, Canada.JPG
St. Paul's Anglican Church, Antigonish Church 1898 Anglican Church Antigonish.jpg
St. John the Evangelist Church, Windsor Church 1909 StJohnsWindsor.jpg
St. Bernard Church, St. Bernard Church 1952 NS StBernard tango7174.jpg

New Brunswick[edit]

Building Function Year Image
Trinity Church, Kingston Parish Church 1789 Église Trinity Kingston Creek.jpg
St. John's Anglican Church, Saint John Church 1826 St John Stone Church, Saint John NB.JPG
Christ Church Cathedral, Fredericton Church 1853 Christ Church Cathedral, Fredericton, New Brunswick (2005).jpg
Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, Saint John Church 1853 Saint John, New Brunswick.jpeg
Saint-Thomas de Memramcook Church, Memramcook Church 1855 StJosephMemramcook.jpg
Trinity Anglican Church, Saint John Church 1880 Saint John, NB, Trinity Church, Germain St..jpg
Sainte-Thérèse d'Avila Church, Robertville Church 1884 Église de Robertville, Nouveau-Brunswick.jpg
Sacred Heart Cathedral, Bathurst Church 1886 Cathédrale Sacré-Coeur.JPG
St Bernard's Catholic Church, Moncton Church 1891 St Bernard's Catholic Church, Moncton, NB - panoramio.jpg
Alcorn Manor, Moncton Residential 1908 MarysHomeAcornManor Moncton 2017.jpg
Notre-Dame-de-Lourdes Church, Notre-Dame-de-Lourdes Parish Church 1910 Église ND-de-Lourdes, NB.jpg
St. Michael's Basilica, Miramichi Church 1921 St. Michael's Basilica, Miramichi.png

Prince Edward Island[edit]

Building Function Year Image
GSt. John's Presbyterian Church, Belfast Church 1824 St. John's Presbyterian Church - Belfast, Prince Edward Island.jpg
Gordon Memorial United Church, Alberton Church 1857 Gordon Memorial United Church 2.jpg
St. Simon & St. Jude Church, Tignish Church 1860 Tignish Church.jpg
St. Peter's Cathedral, Charlottetown Church 1869 St Peter's Anglican Cathedral, Charlottetown, PEI b (19434706408).jpg
St. Brigid's Church, Foxley River Church 1873 St. Brigids, Foxley River - exterior.jpg
St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Church, Prince County Church 1890 StPatricksChurch GrandRiver PE 2013.jpg
Immaculate Conception Church, Prince County Church 1892 ICC-PR.jpg
St. John the Baptist Church, Miscouche Church 1892 MiscoucheChurch.jpg
St. Mary's Roman Catholic Church, Indian River Church 1902 St. Mary's Church, Indian River, PEI (41541509404).jpg
St. Dunstan's Basilica, Charlottetown Church 1916 St. Dunstan's Basilica (Charlottetown PEI).jpg

Quebec City[edit]

Building Function Year Image
Chalmers-Wesley United Church Church 1853 Paroisse Chalmers-Wesley.jpg
Saint-Michel-de-Sillery Church Church 1854 Église St-Michel de Sillery.jpg
Bibliothèque Claire-Martin Library 1870 Eglise Saint Matthew - Quebec 08.jpg
Sainte-Hélène-de-Breakeyville Church Church 1909 Breakeyville.jpg
Notre-Dame du Sacré-Coeur Sanctuary Church 1910 Sanctuaire Notre-Dame du Sacre-Coeur 06.jpg
La Nativité-de-Notre-Dame de Beauport Church Church 1916 La Nativité-de-Notre-Dame, Beauport 1986.jpg
Saint-Dominique Church Church 1930 Eglise Saint-Dominique, Quebec 02.jpg


Building Function Year Image
Notre-Dame de Montréal Basilica Church 1829 Basilique Notre-Dame de Montreal 07.JPG
Saint-Laurent Church Church 1837 EgliseDeSaintLaurent1MontrealQC5008.JPG
St. Patrick's Basilica Church 1847 Basilique Saint-Patrick Montreal 14.jpg
Cégep de Saint-Laurent College 1847 Cegep de Saint-Laurent.jpg
Trafalgar Lodge House 1848 Trafalgar Lodge 03.JPG
Saint-François-de-Sales Church Church 1851 Eglise Saint-Francois-de-Sales - Laval - 06.JPG
Church of Saint-Pierre-Apôtre Church 1853 Église Saint-Pierre-Apôtre, Montreal in 2017.jpg
Christ Church Cathedral Church 1859 Catedral iglesia de Cristo, Montreal, Canadá, 2017-08-11, DD 42.jpg
Saint-Jacques Cathedral University 1860 Pavillon Judith-Jasmin UQAM 10.JPG
Saint-Joseph Church Church 1861 Eglis St-Joseph.JPG
Duggan House (Braehead) University 1861 Duggan House 09.jpg
St Jax Montréal Church 1864 St James the Apostle.PNG
Saint-Sauveur Church Hospital 1865 CHUM 42.JPG
Musée des métiers d'art du Québec Museum 1867 CEGEP Saint-Laurent 01.jpg
Collège Notre-Dame du Sacré-Cœur College 1869 College Notre-Dame Montreal 03.jpg
Wilson Chambers Building Commercial 1869 Immeuble Wilson Chambers 01.jpg
St. George's Anglican Church Church 1870 Iglesia de San Jorge, Montreal, Canadá, 2017-08-11, DD 29.jpg
McGill University Institute of Islamic Studies University 1871 Sala Morrice, Universidad McGill, Montreal, Canadá, 2017-08-12, DD 68.jpg
Frederick-Thomas Judah House (Villa Rosa) Office 1875 Frederick-Thomas Judah House, Montreal 02.jpg
Church of St. John the Evangelist Church 1878 Eglise St. Urbain (5184226069).jpg
Saint-Joachim de Pointe-Claire Church Church 1885 Église Pointe-Claire.jpg
St. James United Church Church 1889 Église St James Mtl.jpg
Montreal Diocesan Theological College University 1896 Montreal Diocesan Theological College 03.JPG
St-John's United Church Church 1896 Eglise unie Saint-Jean 03.JPG
Mount Royal Cemetery Gate Gate unknown Cimetière Mont-Royal - Portail d'entrée 06.jpg
Bibliothèque Mordecai-Richler Library 1905 Bibliotheque du Mile End 07.jpg
Black Watch Armoury Drill Hall 1906 Black Watch Regiment.jpg
Union United Church Church 1907 Union United Church 03.jpg
Saint-Édouard Church Church 1909 Église Saint-Édouard, Montréal 2005-09-04.jpg
Saint-Viateur d'Outremont Church Church 1911 Montreal StViateur1 tango7174.jpg
Co-Cathedral of Saint-Antoine-de-Padoue Church 1911 Longueuil StAntoine1 tango7174.jpg
McGill University Faculty of Religious Studies University 1912 McGill University Building4.jpg
St. Matthias Church Church 1912 Saint Matthias Church Westmount03.JPG
Mountainside United Church Church 1914 Mountainside United Church.jpg
Loyola College University 1916 Loyola concordia.jpg
Westmount City Hall City Hall 1922 Westmount City Hall 3.jpg
Victoria Hall Community Centre 1925 Victoria Hall Westmount 07.jpg
Martlet House Commercial 1928 Maison Seagram 06.JPG
Ascension of Our Lord Church Church 1928 Ascension of Our Lord Catholic Parish, Westmount, Montreal.jpg
Westmount Park Church Church 1929 Westmount Park United Church 02.jpg
Saint-Alphonse-d'Youville Church Church 1931 Eglise Saint-Alphonse D Youville.jpg
Church of St. Andrew and St. Paul Church 1932 Church of St Andrew and St Paul, Montreal 2.jpg
Le Régiment de Maisonneuve Drill Hall 1933 Manege Cathcart.jpg

Rest of Quebec[edit]

Building Function Year Image

Christ Church, Sorel-Tracy Church 1784 Église Christ Church Sorel-2.jpg
Christ Church, Saint-André-d'Argenteuil Church 1821 Église Christ Church de Saint-André-d'Argenteuil - 1.jpg
Saint-Hilaire Church, Mont-Saint-Hilaire Church 1837 Eglise-St-Hilaire3.jpg
Saint-Charles-Borromée Church, Deschambault-Grondines Church 1842 Église Saint-Charles-Borromée 01.jpg
Messiah Anglican Church, Sainte-Anne-de-Sabrevois Church 1848 Sainte-Anne-de-Sabrevois.jpg
Saint-Roch Church, Saint-Roch-des-Aulnaies Church 1853 Eglise de Saint-Roch 01.jpg
Saint-Patrice Church, Rivière-du-Loup Church 1855 QC - Riviere du Loup - Église Saint-Patrice.jpg
La-Décollation-de-Saint-Jean-Baptiste Church, L'Isle-Verte Church 1855 Eglise de La Decollation-de-Saint-Jean-Baptiste.jpg
Assumption Cathedral, Trois-Rivières Church 1858 Cathedrale 3 Rivieres.JPG
Saint-Nom-de-Marie Church, Sainte-Marie Church 1859 Sainte-Marie1.jpg
Saint-Germain Cathedral, Rimouski Church 1859 Cathédrale Saint-Germain de Rimouski 2.JPG
Sainte-Émilie Church, Leclercville Church 1863 Église de Leclercville.JPG
Saint-Maurice Church, Saint-Maurice Church 1864 Église de Saint-Maurice.jpg
Saint-François-Xavier Church, Batiscan Church 1866 Église Saint-François-Xavier, Batiscan.jpg
St. Paul United Church, Ormstown Church 1869 Ormstown église St Paul United church.jpg
Sainte-Anne-de-la-Pérade Church, Sainte-Anne-de-la-Pérade Church 1869 Sainte-Anne-de-la-Pérade church.jpg
St. Luke Church, Waterloo Church 1870 Église Saint-Luke (Waterloo) iso2.jpg
Saint-Narcisse Church, Saint-Narcisse Church 1873 Église Saint-Narcisse 01.jpg
Saint-Jean-Baptiste Church, Roxton Falls Church 1877 Roxton Falls-St-Jean-Baptiste.jpg
Saint-Henri Church, Saint-Henri Church 1879 Église Saint-Henri 01.jpg
Saint-Pierre-de-La Vernière Church, Magdalen Islands Church 1881 Eglise Saint-Pierre (Laverniere).jpg
Bishop Stewart of the Holy Trinity Church, Frelighsburg Church 1884 Frelighsburg-Eglise Bishop Steward.jpg
Saint-François d'Assise Church, Frelighsburg Church 1885 Frelighsburg-Eglise St-François Assise.jpg
Saint-Denis-de-la-Bouteillerie Church, Saint-Denis-De La Bouteillerie Church 1887 Eglise de Saint-Denis-de-la-Bouteillerie 01.jpg
St. Barnabas Anglican Church, Lac-Mégantic Church 1891 ÉGLISE ST-BARNABAS.jpg
L'Enfant-Jésus Church, Vallée-Jonction Church 1898 Église L'Enfant-Jésus (Vallée-Jonction) 2.jpg
Séminaire de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke School 1898 Séminaire de Sherbrooke.jpg
McGreer Hall, Bishop's University, Sherbrooke School 1898 Bishop's University McGreer Hall.jpg
Saint-Laurent Church, Matapédia Church 1903 Église Saint-Laurent, août 2017 04.jpg
Saint-François-de-Sales Church, Gatineau Church 1903 Église Saint-François-de-Sales Gatineau BAnQ P174S4P305.jpg
Holy Trinity Anglican Church, Irlande Church 1904 Irlande-eglise.jpg
Sacré-Coeur Church, Saguenay Church 1905 Chicoutimi - Sacre-coeur church.jpg
St. George Anglican Church, Granby Church 1908 Granby-St-George's anglican church.jpg
Saint-Prime Church, Saint-Prime Church 1909 Église de Saint-Prime.JPG
Saint-Jacques-le-Majeur Church, Causapscal Church 1912 Eglise de Saint-Jacques-le-Majeur 03.jpg
Sainte-Agnès Church, Lac-Mégantic Church 1913 EgliseSte-Agnès15.jpg
Saint-Pierre-du-Lac-de-Val-Brillant Church, Val-Brillant Church 1916 EgliseVal-Brillant.jpg
Saint-Jérôme Church, Métabetchouan–Lac-à-la-Croix Church 1926 Eglise Saint-Jerome, Metabetchouan - 03.jpg
Saint-Édouard Church, Saguenay Church 1928 Église St-Édouard La Baie 02.JPG
Sainte-Famille Church, Granby Church 1931 Granby-Ste-Famille.jpg
Basilica Cathedral of St. Cecilia, Salaberry-de-Valleyfield Church 1935 Cathedrale-Ste-Cecile.jpg
Saint-Michel Basilica-Cathedral, Sherbrooke Church 1959 Cathédrale Saint-Michel Sherbrooke.jpg


Building Function Year Image
Houses of Parliament Government buildings 1865
(Centre Block
rebuilt 1920)
Centre Block
Notre-Dame Cathedral Basilica Church 1846 Notre-Dame Ottawa.jpg
Earnscliffe Residence 1855 Earnscliffe.JPG
St. Bartholomew's Anglican Church Church 1868 St Bartholomew's Anglican Church Ottawa.jpg
St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church Church 1872 St AndrewsC Ottawa.jpg
Christ Church Cathedral Church 1872 Christ Church Anglican Cathedral Ottawa.jpg
Lisgar Collegiate Institute School 1873 Lisgar Collegiate 2004.jpg
Ottawa Normal School College 1874 Ottawa Normal School2.JPG
St. Patrick's Basilica Church 1875 St Patrick's Basilica Ottawa.jpg
St. Alban's Anglican Church Church 1877 St Albans in Ottawa.jpg
First Baptist Church Church 1877 First Baptist Church, Ottawa.jpg
Canadian Museum of Nature Museum 1905 Canadian Museum of Nature.JPG
Glebe-St. James United Church Church 1905 Glebe St James church Ottawa.jpg
McLeod-Stewarton United Church Church 1906 McLeod-Stewarton United church Ottawa.jpg
MacKay United Church Church 1910 MacKay United church Ottawa.jpg
St. Peter's Lutheran Church Church 1910 St Peter's Lutheran church Ottawa.jpg
First United Church Church 1911 First United church Ottawa.jpg
Connaught Building Office 1916 Connaught Building.JPG
St. Matthew's Anglican Church Church 1930 St Matthews Ottawa.jpg
Confederation Building Office 1931 Confederation Building.jpg
Blessed Sacrament Catholic Church Church 1932 Blessed Sacrament Roman Catholic church Ottawa.jpg
Knox Presbyterian Church Church 1932 Knox Presbyterian church Ottawa.jpg
Justice Building Office 1938 Justice Building, Ottawa.JPG


Building Function Year Image
St. Mary's Cathedral Church 1848 St. Mary's Cathedral, Kingston Ontario.jpg
Sydenham Street United Church Church 1852 Sydenham St. United Church (48574876407).jpg
Douglas Library, Queen's University Library 1924 Queen'sDouglas3.JPG


Building Function Year Image
Cathedral Church of St. James Church 1844 St-james-toronto.jpg
St. Michael's Cathedral Church 1845 Cathedral Sunset (II).jpg
Church of the Holy Trinity Church 1847 Holy Trinity, Toronto 2.jpg
Church of St. Jude Church 1848 St Jude, Toronto.JPG
Trinity College, University of Toronto University 1852 University of Trinity College.jpg
Metropolitan United Church Church 1872 Metropolitan United.JPG
1 Spadina Crescent, University of Toronto University 1875 1 Spadina Crescent.JPG
St. Andrew's Evangelical Lutheran Churc Church 1878 St Andrew's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Toronto.JPG
Church of the Redeemer Church 1879 DSC09147 - Church of the Redeemer (36384621704).jpg
College Street United Church Church 1885 College Street United Church.JPG
Bathurst Street Theatre Church 1888 Bathurst St Theatre.JPG
Bloor Street United Church Church 1890 Bloor United.JPG
St. Peter's Church Church 1907 St Peter's Catholic Toronto.JPG
Knox Presbyterian Church Church 1909 Knox, Toronto.JPG
Birge-Carnegie Library, Victoria College, University of Toronto Library 1910 Birge-Carnegie Library.JPG
CHUM-City Building Commercial 1911 WikiCHUM building.jpg
Burwash Hall, Victoria College, University of Toronto University 1911 Burwash-hall toronto.jpg
Casa Loma Residential 1911 Casa Loma.JPG
Knox College, University of Toronto University 1914 Knox College, UofT.jpg
Deer Park United Church Church 1913 Deer Park United.jpg
Hart House, University of Toronto University 1919 Hart House.JPG
Soldiers' Tower, University of Toronto University 1924 WWTower-in-university-of-toronto.jpg
Glenview Presbyterian Church Church 1929 Glenview Presbyterian.JPG


Building Function Year Image
Hamilton Hall, McMaster University University 1926 Exterior view of Hamilton Hall, McMaster
University Hall, McMaster University University 1930 Exterior view of the University Hall, McMaster

Rest of Ontario[edit]

Building Function Year Image
Middlesex County Court House, London Court House 1829 Middlesex County Courthouse.jpg
Church of Our Lady Immaculate, Guelph Church 1846 Church of Our Lady Immaculate Guelph, in winter.jpg
St. Thomas' Anglican Church, Moose Factory Church 1860s Moose Factory.jpg
Belleville City Hall, Belleville City Hall 1873 Belleville City Hall.JPG
Erland Lee Museum, Stoney Creek private home, now museum 1873 LeeMuseum.JPG
St Marys Church, Kitchener Church 1903 Kitchener Ontario St Marys Church.JPG
University College, University of Western Ontario, London University 1922 University College, Western University.jpg


Building Function Year Image
Albert Community Centre Community Centre 1912 Albert School.jpg
King George Community School School 1912 King George School.jpg
Westmount School School 1913 Westmount School.jpg
Peter MacKinnon Building University 1913 CollegeBuilding-UofS.jpg
Buena Vista School School 1914 Buena Vista School 4.jpg
Thorvaldson Building University 1924 Thorvaldson.jpg


Building Function Year Image
Mary Queen of Martyrs Church Church 1903 Mary Queen of Martyrs Church Edmonton.jpg
New Destiny Church Church 1905 New Destiny Church Edmonton.jpg
First Presbyterian Church Church 1912 First Presbyterian Compressed.jpg
Robertson-Wesley United Church Church 1913 Robertson Wesley 009 Compressed.jpg


Building Function Year Image
Fort Garry Hotel hotel 1913 2009-0519-FortGarryHotel.jpg


Building Function Year Image
Holy Rosary Cathedral Church 1900 Holy Rosary Cathedral in Downtown Vancouver.jpg
Chemistry Building, UBC School 1923 Chem1.JPG
Point Grey Secondary School School 1929 Point Grey Secondary 2.JPG
St. George's School School 1930 Convent of the Sacred Heart 3.JPG


Building Function Year Image
St. Andrew's Cathedral Church 1892 St Andrews Cathedral in Victoria.jpg
Hatley Park National Historic Site University 1906 Hatley Castle BC.jpg
Christ Church Cathedral Church 1929 Christ Church Cathedral (Victoria) - pano - hdr.jpg

Lost Buildings[edit]

  • Wellesley Public School, Toronto - built at the corner of Bay and Wellesley Street in 1874 and demolished 1960s to make way for Sutton Place Hotel.[1]

See also[edit]


  • "Victorian Gothic in Canada", by R.H. Hubbard. The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians. Society of Architectural Historians, 1947.
  • "Canadian castles? The question of national styles in architecture revisited," by Thomas, Christopher. Journal of Canadian Studies, Spring 1997
  • "Gothic Revival in Canadian Architecture," by Mathilde Brosseau. Occasional Papers in Archaeology and History. Canadian Historic Sites, 1980.
  • Kalman, Harold D. A History of Canadian Architecture. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1994.
  • Canada by Design: Parliament Hill, Ottawa at Library and Archives Canada
  • 'Gothic Dreams: The Architecture of William Critchlow Harris 1954-1913', by Rev. Robert C. Tuck pub. 1995 by the Confederation Centre Art Gallery in Charlottetown.
  • 'Parisian Gothic': Interpretations of Gothic in Three Victorian Buildings in Paris, Ontario' by M. Thurlby in Journal of the Society for the Study of Architecture in Canada, xxxiv, No. 1, Spring 2009, 22-8, illus.
  • 'St. Mary's Halifax: An early Example of the Use of Gothic Revival Forms in Canada' by J. Philip McAleer in Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, xlv, June 1986, 134-6; E. Pacey, Historic Halifax, 1988 100-01, illus.