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From left, clockwise: in 1492, Italian navigator Christopher Columbus arrives in America; the American Revolution; the French Revolution; the Atomic Bomb from World War II; an alternate source of light, the light bulb; for the first time, a human being sets foot on the moon in 1969 during the Apollo 11 moon mission; aeroplanes become the most-used way of transport though the skies; Napoleon Bonaparte, in the early 19th century, affects France and Europe with expansionism and modernization; Alexander Graham Bell's telephone; in 1348, the Black Death kills in just two years over 100 million people worldwide, and over half of Europe. (Background: An excerpt from the Gutenberg Bible, the first major book printed in the West using movable type, in the 1450s)

The second millennium was a period of time that began on January 1, 1001 of the Julian calendar and ended on December 31, 2000 of the Gregorian calendar.[1] It was the second period of one thousand years in the Anno Domini or Common Era. It is distinct from the millennium known as the 1000s which began on January 1, 1000 and ended on December 31, 1999.

It encompassed the High and Late Middle Ages, the Mongol Empire, the Renaissance, the Baroque era, the early Modern Age, the age of Enlightenment, the age of colonialism, industrialization, the rise of nation states, and the 19th and 20th century with the impact of science, widespread education, and universal health care and vaccinations in many nations. The centuries of expanding large-scale warfare with high-tech weaponry (of the World Wars and nuclear bombs) were offset by growing peace movements, the United Nations, plus doctors and health workers crossing borders to treat injuries and disease, and the return of the Olympics as contest without combat.

Scientists prevailed in explaining intellectual freedom; humans took their first steps on the Moon during the 20th century; and new technology was developed by governments, industry, and academia across the world, with education shared by many international conferences and journals. The development of movable type, radio, television, and the internet spread information worldwide, within minutes, in audio, video, and print-image format to inform, educate and entertain billions of people by the end of the 20th century.

The Renaissance saw the beginning of the second migration of humans from Europe, Africa, and Asia to the Americas, beginning the ever-accelerating process of globalization. The interwoven international trade led to the formation of multi-national corporations, with home offices in multiple countries. International business ventures reduced the impact of nationalism in popular thought.

The world population doubled over the first seven centuries of the millennium (from 310 million in 1000 to 600 million in 1700) and later increased tenfold over its last three centuries, exceeding six billion in 2000. Consequently, unchecked human activity had considerable social and environmental consequences, giving rise to extreme poverty, climate change and biotic crisis.[2]

Calendar[edit | edit source]

The 2nd millennium was a period of time that began on January 1, 1001, and ended on December 31, 2000. It was the second period of one thousand years in the Anno Domini or Common Era.[1]

The Julian calendar was used in Europe at the beginning of the millennium, and all countries that once used the Julian calendar had adopted the Gregorian calendar by the end of it. So the end date is always calculated according to the Gregorian calendar, but the beginning date is usually according to the Julian calendar (or occasionally the proleptic Gregorian calendar).

Stephen Jay Gould argued that it is not possible to decide if the millennium ended on December 31, 1999, or December 31, 2000.[3] The Associated Press reported that the third millennium began on January 1, 2001, but also reported that celebrations in the US were generally more subdued at the beginning of 2001, compared to the beginning of 2000.[4]

The second millennium is perhaps more popularly thought of as beginning and ending a year earlier, thus starting at the beginning of 1000 and finishing at the end of 1999. Many public celebrations for the end of the millennium were held on December 31, 1999 – January 1, 2000[5]—with few on the actual date a year later.

Civilizations[edit | edit source]

The civilizations in this section are organized according to the UN geoscheme.

Civilizations of the 2nd millennium AD
Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania

Events[edit | edit source]

The events in this section are organized according to the UN geoscheme.

Events of the 2nd millennium AD
  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania
11th century

1043 Eze Nri Ìfikuánim becomes first king of Nri Kingdom
1054 Almoravid dynasty established[6]
1060 Kingdom of Kanem converts to Islam[6]


1000 Cahokia (present-day Illinois, USA) becomes regional chiefdom of Mississippian culture

1005 Treaty of Shanyuan signed
1008 The Tale of Genji completed[7]
1044 Gunpowder recipe published[7]

1054 The East–West Schism divides the Christian church
1088 The foundation of the first University[7]
1095 First Crusade[7]

12th century

1143 Almohad dynasty take control from the Almoravids[6]
1171 Salah-ad-Din deposes Fatimid ruler of Egypt and establishes the Ayyubid dynasty[6]
1173 Ayyubids capture Qasr Ibrim in Nubia[6]

1100 Toltecs establish capital at Tula[8]
1124 Arnaldur appointed first bishop of Greenland[8]
1175 Destruction of Toltec civilization[8]

1117 The magnetic compass is used at sea[7]
1120 Meng Yuanlao describes four-star dining in Kaifeng[7]
1150 Construction of Angkor Wat[7]
1192 Defeat of Prithviraj Chauhan in second Battle of Tarain

1143 Establishment of the Kingdom of Portugal[9]

1169 Averoes translates Aristotle[7]

  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania
13th century

1200 Kingdom of Mwenemutapa established in Zimbabwe[6]
1203 Sumaguru Kante of Sosso conquers kingdom of Ghana [6]
1250 Mamluk soldiers take Egypt from the Ayyubids [6]

1200 Chichén Itzá abandoned[8]
1200 Kingdom of Cuzco founded [8]
1200 Expansion of Chimú state of Chimor [8]

1206 Genghis Khan Builds an Empire[7]

1215 Magna Carta[7]
1260 Dedication of the Cathedral at Chartres[7]

1279 Establishment of the oldest bourders in Europe today, the Portuguese boundering[10]

1200 Tahitians colonize Hawaii [8]

14th century

1324 Musa's pilgrimage to Mecca[7]
1365 Crusade led by king of Cyprus sacks Alexandria[6]
1375 Kingdom of Songhai breaks away from Mali [6]

1315 Founding of Tenochtitlan[7]
1350 Norsemen abandon Greenland[8]
1350 War between Inca and Chimú[8]

1350 Coffee was first brewed[7]
1368 Zhu Yuanzhang ousts the Mongols from power[11]

1348 Black Plague[7]
1350 Emergence of fashion[7]
1382 Wycliffe's Bible

1300 Polynesian immigration to New Zealand[12]
1300 Hawaiians develop class structure[13]
1300 Huge stone statues erected on Easter Island[13]

  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania
15th century

1400 capital of Sayfawa Dynasty moved to Borno
1400 Funj settled Alodia
1496 Spain conquers Melilla, Morocco[6]

1428 Aztecs conquer Atzcapotzalco, ally with Texcoco and Tlacopan, become the dominant state in Mexico[8]
1470 Incas conquer Chimú empire [8]
1492 Voyages of Christopher Columbus[7]

1407 Work begins on Forbidden City, Beijing[11]
1431 Ayutthaya conquers Angkor [11]

1413 The invention of modern linear perspective[7]
1453 Ottoman conquest of Constantinople[7]
1455 Gutenberg Bible printed[7]
1494 Luca Pacioli publishes the first work on accounting[7]

1498 Vasco da Gama discovers sea route to India[14]
1500 Discovery of Brazil by Pedro Álvares Cabral[15]

1400 Tongans build ceremonial centre at Muʻa[13]

16th century

1509 African slaves arrive in the Americas[7]
1517 Ottomans capture Egypt[16]
1535 Holy Roman Emperor Charles V conquers Tunis[16]
1546 Songhai Empire takes Niani

1535 Europeans discover tobacco[7]
1537 Europeans discover potatoes[7]
1545 Potosí#History and silver extraction|The discovery of silver in the Andes mountains[7]

1555 Rise of the Mughal Empire in South Asia;

1517 The Ninety-Five Theses published[7]
1541 Publication of Quartic function on the Ars Magna (Gerolamo Cardano)
1543 Publication of On the Structure of the Human Body[7]
1596 Invention of the toilet[7]

1550 Maoris of New Zealand build fortified enclosures[17]

  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania
17th century

1600 Kingdom of Rwanda founded
1600 Dahomey Kingdom founded
1644 Start of the Char Bouba[16]

1607 Virginia colony founded[18]
1624 Manhattan island purchased from Native Americans[18]
1697 Last Mayan resistance defeated [18]

1610 Tea spreads to the world[7]
1637 Japanese prohibition against European contact[19]

1603 First performance of Hamlet[7]
1610 Galileo publishes his observations of Jupiter[7]
1666 Discovery of gravitation[7]

1600 Tu'i Konokupolu dynasty take power in Tonga[17]
1642 Abel Tasman sights New Zealand[20]

18th century

1700 Maravi Empire tears apart
1754 Usman dan Fodio is born
1799 Discovery of the Rosetta Stone[7]

1742 Native American revolt against Spanish in Peru[7]
1776 United States Declaration of Independence published[7]

1751 Chinese occupy Tibet[19]
1760 Rise of the British Rule in India

1722 Bach composed the Well-Tempered Clavier[7]
1769 Invention of the steam engine[7]
1796 The first vaccination[7]


1795 Formation of the Kingdom of Hawaii

  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania
19th century

1869 The Suez Canal opens[7]
1879 Battle of Isandlwana
1896 Battle of Adwa

1821 Bolívar liberates Venezuela[7]
1876 Menlo Park opens[7]
1876 First telephone transmission[7]

1868 End of Japanese seclusion[7]

1830 First steam railway[7]
1859 Origin of Species[7]
1882 Germ theory proven[7]

1840 Treaty of Waitangi signed[21]
1845 New Zealand land wars[22]
1845 Formation of the Kingdom of Tonga by Taufaʻahau

20th century

1956 Suez Crisis[23]
1967 Six-Day War[23]
1994 End of apartheid[23]

1903 First controlled, powered airplane flight[7]
1908 Ford builds the Model T[7]
1928 First television broadcast[7]
1942 Creation of the world's first nuclear reactor[7]

1969 First Moon Landing

1917 The Russian Revolution[7]
1934 Mao's long march[7]
1945 Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki[7]
1947 Partition of India
1971 Formation of Bangladesh
1992 Destruction of the Babri Mosque by Hindus

1901 First transatlantic radio transmission[7]
1906 Alberto Santos-Dumont realizes the first officially recorded powered flight in Europe
1914 Beginning of World War I
1918 End of World War I
1922 Establishment of Italian Fascism
1928 Discovery of penicillin[7]
1933 Adolf Hitler appointed Chancellor of Germany[7]
1939 Beginning of World War II
1945 End of World War II

1915 Australians and New Zealanders serve in the Gallipoli Campaign
1985 Nuclear Free Zone established in New Zealand[24]
2000 Autonomous Bougainville Government established

Significant people[edit | edit source]

The people in this section are organized according to the UN geoscheme.

  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania
11th century Humai ibn Salamna
Eze Nri Ìfikuánim
Yahya ibn Ibrahim
Eight Deer Jaguar Claw
Leif Eriksson
Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī
Abu Ḥasan al-Haytham
Omar Khayyám
Khwaja Abdullah Ansari
Rajendra Chola I
Shen Kuo
Pope Gregory VII
William the Conqueror
Basil II
El Cid
12th century Abd al-Mu'min
Dunama I
Manco Cápac Genghis Khan
Khublai Khan
Abdul Qadir Gilani
Muhammad al-Idrisi
Frederick Barbarossa
Dante Alighieri
Richard I of England
Henry II of England
Hildegard of Bingen
  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania
13th century Sundiata Keita
Dunama Dabbalemi
Mansa Uli
  Muhammad Rumi
Moinuddin Chishti
Shah Jalal
Thomas Aquinas
Leonardo Fibonacci
Francis of Assisi
Pope John XXII
William Wallace
Roy Mata[13]
14th century Musa I of Mali

Muhammad Ture
Ibn Khaldun
Kato Kintu

Acamapichtli Ibn Taymiyyah
Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani
Yongle Emperor
Osman I
Filippo Brunelleschi
Marco Polo
Leonardo Bruni
Jan Hus
Geoffrey Chaucer
Guillaume de Machaut
  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania
15th century Ilunga Tshibinda
Sonni Ali
Zara Yaqob
Christopher Columbus
Moctezuma I
Muḥammad Khaldun
Mehmed II
The Great Muhammad Babur
Hongxi Emperor
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
Leonardo da Vinci
Johannes Gutenberg
Nicolaus Copernicus
Niccolò Machiavelli
Filippo Brunelleschi
Joan of Arc
Lorenzo de' Medici
Giovanni Domenico Cassini
Henry VII of England
Isabella of Castile
16th century Idris Aloma
Ahmad al-Mansur
Amerigo Vespucci
Hernán Cortés
Francisco Pizzaro
Akbar The Great
Mohammad Salim Jahangir
Shah Jahan
Xu Guangqi
Galileo Galilei
William Shakespeare
Martin Luther
Elizabeth I of England
Suleiman the Magnificent
Manuel I of Portugal
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Miguel de Cervantes
  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania
17th century Wegbaja
Osei Tutu
Okomfo Anokye
Roger Williams
John Winthrop
Anne Hutchinson
Samuel de Champlain
Juana Inés de la Cruz
Peter Claver
Kangxi Emperor
Muhammad Alamgir
Bahadur Shah I
Jahandar Shah
Shah Jahan II
Matsuo Basho
Isaac Newton
Johannes Kepler
René Descartes
Francesco Redi
Marcello Malpighi
Peter the Great
Antonio Vivaldi
Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz
Charles I of England and Scotland
Pedro Calderón de la Barca
18th century Usman Dan Fodio
Opoku Ware I
Dossou Agadja
George Washington
Benjamin Franklin
Thomas Jefferson
James Madison
Alexander Hamilton
Túpac Amaru II
José Celestino Mutis
Toussaint Louverture
Tipu Sultan
Muhammad Shah
Ahmad Shah Bahadur
Qianlong Emperor
Raja Ram Mohan Roy
Siraj ud-Daulah
Alessandro Volta
Adam Smith
Cesare Beccaria
Immanuel Kant
Catherine the Great
Gian Lorenzo Bernini
Louis XVI of France
Lazzaro Spallanzani
Sake Dean Mahomed
Marie Antoinette
Kamehameha I
  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania
19th century Moshoeshoe I
Menelik II
Thomas Edison
Abraham Lincoln
Simón Bolívar
Francisco de Paula Santander
George Washington Carver
Susan B. Anthony
Landell de Moura
Ali bey Huseynzade
Empress Dowager Cixi
Mangal Pandey
Swami Vivekananda
Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
Charles Darwin
Carl Friedrich Gauss
Marie Curie
Alfred Nobel
Guglielmo Marconi
Otto von Bismarck
Karl Marx
Giacomo Leopardi
Florence Nightingale
Bernhard Riemann
Te Kooti
20th century Nelson Mandela
Hassan al-Banna
Sayyid Qutb
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Mo Ibrahim
Desmond Tutu
Haile Selassie
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Elvis Presley
Bob Dylan
Neil Armstrong
John F. Kennedy
Cesar Chavez
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Jonas Salk
Ronald Reagan
Mahatma Gandhi
Mao Zedong
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Muhammad Iqbal
Chiang Kai-shek
Abul A'la Maududi
Rabindranath Tagore
Abul Kasem Fazlul Huq
Jagadish Chandra Bose
Albert Einstein
Werner Karl Heisenberg
Adolf Hitler
Benito Mussolini
Joseph Stalin
Winston Churchill
Enrico Fermi
Max Planck
Niels Bohr
Vladimir Lenin
Mikhail Gorbachev
Pablo Picasso
Yuri Gagarin
The Beatles
Alan Turing
Donald Bradman
Howard Florey
Banjo Paterson
Margaret Battye
Douglas Mawson

See also

Inventions, discoveries, introductions[edit | edit source]

Inventions, discoveries and introductions
Communication and Technology Mathematics and Science Manufacturing Transportation and
Space exploration
  1. Printing press[25]
  2. Thermometer
  3. Electrical battery
  4. Telegraph
  5. Photography
  6. Telephone
  7. Animation
  8. Television
  9. Computer
  10. Transistor
  11. Satellite
  12. Internet[25]
  13. Electrostatic generator
  1. Accounting
  2. Probability
  3. Calculus
  4. Vaccination[25][26]
  5. Atomic theory[26]
  6. Anesthesia[25][26]
  7. Natural selection[26]
  8. Genetics[25][26]
  9. Special relativity[26]
  10. Penicillin[25][26]
  11. DNA[26]
  12. Quantum mechanics[26]
  13. Electricity
  1. Canned food
  2. Plastic[26]
  3. Assembly line
  4. Sliced bread
  5. Frozen food
  6. Nuclear reactor
  7. Food processor
  8. Finite geometry
  1. Barometer
  2. Bicycle
  3. Steam engine
  4. Steam turbine
  5. Internal combustion engine
  6. Steam locomotive
  7. Human flight
  8. Moon landing
  9. Space shuttle
  10. Space station
  11. GPS navigation
  1. Longbow
  2. Rockets
  3. Aircraft carrier
  4. Nuclear weapon
  5. Submarine
  6. Tanks
  7. Firearms

Centuries and decades[edit | edit source]

11th century 1000s[note 1] 1010 1020 1030 1040 1050 1060 1070 1080 1090
12th century 1100s 1110 1120 1130 1140 1150 1160 1170 1180 1190
13th century 1200s 1210 1220 1230 1240 1250 1260 1270 1280 1290
14th century 1300s 1310 1320 1330 1340 1350 1360 1370 1380 1390
15th century 1400s 1410 1420 1430 1440 1450 1460 1470 1480 1490
16th century 1500s 1510 1520 1530 1540 1550 1560 1570 1580 1590
17th century 1600s 1610 1620 1630 1640 1650 1660 1670 1680 1690
18th century 1700s 1710 1720 1730 1740 1750 1760 1770 1780 1790
19th century 1800s 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
20th century 1900s 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990

Notes[edit | edit source]

  1. 9 of the 10 years of the decade are in this millennium

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 United States Naval Observatory, "The 21st Century and the 3rd Millennium:When Did They Begin?" (Washington, DC, June 14, 2011).
  2. "The Sixth Extinction – The Most Recent Extinctions". Archived from the original on 2015-12-18. https://web.archive.org/web/20151218012125/http://www.petermaas.nl/extinct/lists/mostrecent.htm. 
  3. Stephen Jay Gould, Questioning the Millennium: A Rationalist's Guide to a Precisely Arbitrary Countdown (New York: Harmony Books, 1999), ch 2.
  4. Associated Press, "Y2K It Wasn't, but It Was a Party", Los Angeles Times, January 1, 2001.
  5. "Millennium FAQs – Frequently Asked Questions". When does the Millennium start?. Greenwich2000.ltd.uk. 2008-08-12. Archived from the original on 12 January 2009. https://web.archive.org/web/20090112125450/http://wwp.millennium-dome.com/info/millennium-faq.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  6. 6.00 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 "Africa AD 600–1500". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. http://www.worldtimelines.org.uk/world/africa/AD600-1500. Retrieved 2008-11-17. 
  7. 7.00 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 7.14 7.15 7.16 7.17 7.18 7.19 7.20 7.21 7.22 7.23 7.24 7.25 7.26 7.27 7.28 7.29 7.30 7.31 7.32 7.33 7.34 7.35 7.36 7.37 7.38 7.39 7.40 7.41 7.42 7.43 7.44 7.45 7.46 7.47 7.48 7.49 7.50 7.51 7.52 7.53 7.54 7.55 Toast, Scott (2002-02-19). "Top 100 Events of the Millennium". adapted from LIFE Magazine. Scott Toast. http://www.tostepharmd.net/hissoc/top100events.html. Retrieved 2008-11-14. 
  8. 8.00 8.01 8.02 8.03 8.04 8.05 8.06 8.07 8.08 8.09 8.10 "Americas AD 1000–1492". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. http://www.worldtimelines.org.uk/world/americas/AD1000-1492. Retrieved 2008-11-16. 
  9. nationsonline.org, klaus kästle -. "Portugal – Portuguese Republic – Country Profile – República Portuguesa – Travel and Tourism Portugal". http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/portugal.htm. Retrieved 2015-09-15. 
  10. "| www.visitportugal.com". https://www.visitportugal.com/en/sobre-portugal/biportugal. Retrieved 2015-09-15. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 "Asia AD 1200–1500". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. http://www.worldtimelines.org.uk/world/asia/AD1200-1500. Retrieved 2008-11-23. 
  12. Whitmore, Robbie. "Timeline of events in New Zealand history". New Zealand in History. http://www.history-nz.org/timeline.html. Retrieved 2008-11-16. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 "Oceania AD 1000–1520". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 21 November 2008. https://web.archive.org/web/20081121021322/http://www.worldtimelines.org.uk/world/oceania/AD1100-1520. Retrieved 2008-11-16. 
  14. Society, National Geographic. "Da Gama Discovers a Sea Route to India". http://education.nationalgeographic.com/thisday/may20/da-gama-discovers-sea-route-india/. Retrieved 2015-09-15. 
  15. "Cabral Discovers Brazil | History Today". http://www.historytoday.com/richard-cavendish/cabral-discovers-brazil. Retrieved 2015-09-15. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 "Africa AD 1500–1850". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. http://www.worldtimelines.org.uk/world/africa/AD1500-1850. Retrieved 2008-11-23. 
  17. 17.0 17.1 "Oceania AD 1520–1770". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 21 November 2008. https://web.archive.org/web/20081121023853/http://www.worldtimelines.org.uk/world/oceania/AD1520-1770. Retrieved 2008-11-16. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 "Americas 1492–1800". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. http://www.worldtimelines.org.uk/world/americas/AD1492-1800. Retrieved 2008-11-16. 
  19. 19.0 19.1 "Asia AD 1500–1800". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. http://www.worldtimelines.org.uk/world/asia/AD1500-1800. Retrieved 2008-11-23. 
  20. "European discovery of New Zealand". Encyclopedia of New Zealand
  21. Michael King (2003). The Penguin History of New Zealand. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-301867-1. 
  22. Belich, James (1986). The New Zealand Wars and the Victorian Interpretation of Racial Conflict. Oxford University Press. ISBN 1-86940-002-X. 
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 "Africa AD 1950–2000". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. http://www.worldtimelines.org.uk/world/africa/AD1950-2000. Retrieved 2008-11-23. 
  24. "New Zealand Nuclear Free Zone, Disarmament, and Arms Control Act". http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/1987/0086/latest/DLM115116.html. Retrieved 25 November 2008. 
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 25.5 Keeley, Larry (2007-02-16). "The Greatest Innovations of All Time". BusinessWeek. The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.. Archived from the original on 7 December 2008. https://web.archive.org/web/20081207082148/http://www.businessweek.com/innovate/content/feb2007/id20070216_377845.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 26.3 26.4 26.5 26.6 26.7 26.8 26.9 "The Big 100: the Science Channels 100 Greatest Discoveries". Discovery Communications, LLC. 2008. Archived from the original on 31 October 2008. https://web.archive.org/web/20081031221120/http://science.discovery.com/convergence/100discoveries/big100/big100.html. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 

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