Mike Curb

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Burning Bridges (Mike Curb song))
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Michael Curb
Mike Curb Congregation and Davy Jones on Pop 1972 (cropped).JPG
42nd Lieutenant Governor of California
In office
January 8, 1979 – January 3, 1983
GovernorJerry Brown
Preceded byMervyn M. Dymally
Succeeded byLeo T. McCarthy
Personal details
Born
Michael Curb

(1944-12-24) December 24, 1944 (age 76)
Savannah, Georgia, U.S.
Political partyRepublican
Alma materCalifornia State University, Northridge

Michael Curb (born December 24, 1944)[1] is an American musician, record company executive, motorsports car owner, and politician. He is also the founder of Curb Records where he presently serves as the chairman. Curb also serves as Chairman of Word Entertainment.[2] He is an inductee of the West Coast Stock Car Hall of Fame.[3] As the 42nd Lieutenant Governor of California from 1979 to 1983, Curb, a Republican, was the acting governor of California while Democratic Governor Edmund G. "Jerry" Brown Jr. spent time outside California on state business and pursuing presidential ambitions.

Early life and education[edit]

Curb was born in Savannah, Georgia to Charles McCloud Curb and Stella (Stout) Curb,[1] and raised in Southern California's San Fernando Valley. He has one sister. After attending Grant High School, he graduated from San Fernando Valley State College (now California State University, Northridge).[4] His maternal grandmother was of Mexican heritage.[5]

Career[edit]

Music[edit]

As a freshman at San Fernando Valley State College, while working in the practice rooms of the Department of Music, Curb wrote the song "You Meet the Nicest People on a Honda (Go Little Honda)" which the company selected for its ad campaign.[6] Dropping out of college in 1963 at the age of 18, Curb formed Sidewalk Records (a predecessor of Curb Records) and helped launch the careers of multiple West Coast rock and roll artists.[7][8]

Curb scored the music for the short film Skaterdater (1965),[9][10] as well as The Wild Angels (1966),[11] Thunder Alley[12] (1967), Devil's Angels[13] (1967), The Born Losers (1967) (the first of the Billy Jack films),[14] Maryjane[15] (1968), The Wild Racers[16] (1968), The Savage Seven[17] (1968), The Big Bounce[18] (1969), The Sidehackers[19] (1969) and Black Water Gold[20] (1970). In 1969, his company merged with MGM Records and he became president of both MGM Records and Verve Records.[21] Curb composed or supervised more than 50 film scores and wrote more than 400 songs.[22]

In 1969, he co-wrote a new theme for the TV series American Bandstand, which was used until 1974.[23][24][25]

Curb (center) with members of the Mike Curb Congregation and Davy Jones on a television special in 1972.

Curb organized his own musical group, The Mike Curb Congregation, in the 1960s;[26] they had a Top 40 pop hit in early 1971 with the title cut from their album Burning Bridges[27] (written and composed by Lalo Schifrin and Mike Curb) which was used as the theme of Brian G. Hutton's film Kelly's Heroes.[28] The song reached No. 1 in South Africa, Australia and New Zealand.[29]

The Mike Curb Congregation had an adult contemporary chart hit in 1970 with the song "Sweet Gingerbread Man" from the film The Magic Garden of Stanley Sweetheart and had a minor hit in 1973 with the Sherman Brothers composition "It's a Small World".[30] They performed the title song for Dirty Dingus Magee (1970). The group was featured on Sammy Davis Jr.'s No. 1 Billboard Hot 100 hit of 1972, "The Candy Man" (the Aubrey Woods version was featured in the film Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory). They sang backup on Jud Strunk's 1973 hit "Daisy a Day".[31]

In 1978, the Mike Curb Congregation was featured in The Magic of Lassie, starring James Stewart.[32][33] They recorded "Together, a New Beginning" in 1980, the theme song for Ronald Reagan's successful presidential bid that year.[34] The Mike Curb Congregation were weekly regulars on Glen Campbell's CBS television show.[35] In 1969, Curb signed Christian rock pioneer Larry Norman to Capitol Records.[36] Curb wrote and produced music for the Hanna-Barbera animated series "The Cattanooga Cats". The theme for the cartoon series "Hot Wheels" is credited to Mike Curb and the Curbstones.[37]

In the 1970s, Curb wrote and produced for Roy Orbison, Marie Osmond and the Osmond Family, Lou Rawls, Sammy Davis Jr. and Solomon Burke; he also signed artists such as the Sylvers, Eric Burdon, War, Richie Havens, the Five Man Electrical Band, Gloria Gaynor, Johnny Bristol, Exile, The Four Seasons and the Dutch singer Heintje Simons and The Mob (Chicago band).[38] Curb ran a short-lived country music subsidiary label for Motown called Hitsville Records.[citation needed] He co-wrote the lyrics for "It Was a Good Time". He received BMI awards for composing "Burning Bridges" for Clint Eastwood's Kelly's Heroes, and for composing "All for the Love of Sunshine".[citation needed]

Curb served as chairman of the Inaugural Youth Concert for President Richard Nixon's second term on January 20, 1973.[39] He enlisted many artists from MGM records as well as others to perform for the historic event. Solomon Burke, The Mob, Jimmy Osmond, Tommy Roe, Ray Stevens, The Sylvers, The Don Costa Orchestra, and Laurie Lea Schaefer were on the stage for the young audience. He served as emcee for the program.[40]

In 2021, Fisk Jubilee Singers won Grammy awards for Celebrating Fisk! (The 150th Anniversary Album) under Best Roots Gospel Album category. The album was produced under the label of Curb Records, under the auspices of Curb and Paul Kwami.[41][42][43]

MGM anti-drug controversy[edit]

In 1970, Billboard reported that "MGM Records president Mike Curb has dropped 18 acts who, in his opinion, promote and exploit hard drugs through music."[44] Billboard reported that Curb was alarmed by the drug-related deaths of Janis Joplin, Jimi Hendrix, and Alan Wilson of Canned Heat.[44] Among the musicians thought to be included in the purge were The Velvet Underground and Frank Zappa's group The Mothers of Invention. However Zappa spoke out against drug use throughout his career and by early 1969 had fulfilled his MGM/Verve contract and moved to his own Bizarre Records label, distributed by Warner Bros. Also, when Eric Burdon, who was an advocate of psychedelics, dared Curb to release him from his contract although he was his biggest selling artist, Curb acquiesced.[45][46] Burdon also launched a campaign—by distributing bumper stickers—called Curb the Clap.[47]

Curb claimed industry support, but the only record company official he cited, Bill Gallagher, the president of Paramount Records, contradicted him.[48] Columbia Records president Clive Davis said Curb was "grandstanding", and that his anti-drug stance had made him "a minor hero of the Nixon administration."[49] In 1997, Curb stated the affair had happened at a time when "you were considered a freak if you spoke out against drugs."[46]

Political career[edit]

Signatures from a resolution signed by Curb in his ceremonial role of President of the California State Senate

Encouraged to enter politics in part by Ronald Reagan, Curb was elected Lieutenant Governor of California in 1978, defeating the incumbent Democrat, Mervyn M. Dymally. Democratic candidate Jerry Brown was re-elected governor in the same year. During much of Brown's 1979–1980 bid to become the Democratic presidential candidate, Curb was acting governor, vetoing legislation, issuing executive orders and making appointments; actions the California's Supreme Court upheld as Curb's constitutional prerogative.[50] Curb worked with Harvey Milk on the campaign against the Briggs Initiative and persuaded Reagan to oppose it, leading to its defeat. Curb has been a leading conservative supporter of gay rights ever since.[51]

Curb lost the 1982 Republican gubernatorial nomination to California Attorney General George Deukmejian. In 1986, Curb ran again for lieutenant governor as the Republican nominee against the incumbent Democrat, Leo T. McCarthy, in a bitterly contested race, largely run on the issue of punishment for drug trafficking and violent crimes. A vocal opponent of drug use, Curb advocated extension of the death penalty to include drug pushers whose narcotics trafficking resulted in a death.[52] As of 2021, he is the last Republican elected lieutenant governor; Abel Maldonado was appointed to the position by then Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger but lost the subsequent election to then San Francisco mayor and future Governor Gavin Newsom. In 1980, Curb was co-chairman of Ronald Reagan's successful presidential campaign. Curb was also chairman of the convention program in Detroit and was later appointed by Reagan to be chairman of the national finance committee.[53]

Involvement in car racing[edit]

A motorsport enthusiast, Curb is a co-owner of the Curb Agajanian Performance Group, a team that has won 10 national championships. His sponsorship and ownership have included three of NASCAR's most celebrated drivers: he previously owned Richard Petty's famed No. 43 car in 1984 and 1985, during which Petty achieved his 199th and 200th career wins. Curb was also a sponsor for Dale Earnhardt during his 1980 Winston Cup championship winning season, and sponsored Darrell Waltrip's No. 12 Toyota Tundra in the Craftsman Truck Series, driven by Joey Miller in 2006. Curb-Agajanian also ran cars for many years in the Indianapolis 500, including for Dan Wheldon and Alexander Rossi, with whom he won the 2011 and 2016 Indianapolis 500s respectively.[53]

Curb was the only car owner to win in all 10 NASCAR auto racing series in the United States – the Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series (formerly Nextel/Sprint Cup and Winston Cup), the Xfinity Series (formerly the Nationwide series and Busch Series), the Gander Outdoors Truck Series (formerly the Camping World Truck Series and Craftsman Truck Series), the Grand-Am Rolex Daytona Prototype National Sports Car Series (now the United Sports Car Series merged with American Le Mans), the IMSA GT Series (formerly IMSA Camel GT), Continental Series (formerly IMSA GTS), the Late Model All American Series, the Modifieds and the K&N East and West Series.[54]

Rico Abreu's 2014 USAC Midget car

Curb was the co-owner with Richard Childress of the No. 98 Chevrolet driven by Austin Dillon.[54] Curb is also a long-time sponsor of ThorSport Racing in the Truck Series, being part-owner of the team's No. 98 Ford driven by Grant Enfinger. He also maintained a similar partnership with Phil Parsons Racing in the Cup Series, which also ran the No. 98. The Curb Racing team has cars in United States Automobile Club (USAC) competition. Their drivers Christopher Bell and Rico Abreu won the 2013 and 2014 USAC National Midget tours.[55][56]

Elvis House[edit]

In 2006, Curb purchased a house at 1034 Audubon Drive, Memphis, which was once owned by Elvis Presley.[57] Curb renovated the house and turned it over to the Mike Curb Institute at Rhodes College.[57]

Awards and honors[edit]

In Nashville, Curb has become a civic leader and benefactor of Belmont University, where his donation toward the construction of a new arena resulted in it being named the Curb Event Center. The university runs the Mike Curb College of Entertainment and Music Business. Curb endowed the Curb Center and the Curb Creative Campus program at Vanderbilt University and the Mike Curb Institute of Music at Rhodes College in Memphis.

In 2001, Curb was inducted into the Junior Achievement U.S. Business Hall of Fame. Curb was inducted into the Georgia Music Hall of Fame in 2003 and the North Carolina Music Hall of Fame in 2009.[58]

In August 2006,[59] Curb pledged $10 million to California State University, Northridge (CSUN) (in Los Angeles) to endow his alma mater's arts college and provide a lead gift for the university's regional performing arts center. Of the $10 million gift, $5 million supported CSUN's College of Arts, Media, and Communication, one of the university's largest colleges that offers degree and certificate programs for more than 4,400 students. Of the gift, $4 million went into a general endowment for the college, and $1 million endowed a faculty chair specializing in music industry studies. As a result, the college was named in his honor. Studies with in the Mike Curb's College include Media, Arts, Music, Business, Journalism, and Communication Studies.[citation needed]

On June 29, 2007, Curb was honored with the 2,341st star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.[60]

CSU Channel Islands dedicated the Mike Curb Studio in Napa Hall at the Camarillo, California campus on October 21, 2010. The studio is a post-production and film and video production facility.[61][62]

In 2014, Curb was inducted into the Musicians Hall of Fame and Museum in Nashville, Tennessee[63] and in 2016, he was inducted into the Tennessee Sports Hall of Fame.[64] He was awarded Ray Fox Memorial Award of Living Legends of Auto Racing in Daytona in 2017.[65] Curb received British Country Music Awards as the Record Executive of the Year in 2018.[66] Also in 2018, Racers Reunion featured him in Men Who Changed Racing with Harry Miller and Sam Nunis.[67] Curb was inducted to North Carolina Music Hall of Fame in the same year for his "contributions and support of the Hall of Fame".[68][69] In 2019, Curb received Junior Achievement National Centennial Leadership Award from Junior Achievement.[70]

Discography[edit]

Albums[edit]

Year Album US
1970 Come Together 105
Sweet Gingerbread Man 185
1971 Burning Bridges and Other Motion Picture Themes 117
Put Your Hand in the Hand 205
1972 Softly Whispering I Love You 206
Song for a Young Love --
1973 It's a Small World Unreleased (test pressings exist, MGM SE-4900[71])

Collaboration albums[edit]

Year Album US Country
1971 All for the Love of Sunshine (with Hank Williams, Jr.) 10
1972 Great Balls of Fire

Singles[edit]

Year Single Peak chart positions
US AC US
[72][73]
CA AU
[74]
NZ
[75]
SA
[76]
1970 "Burning Bridges" 16 34 40 12 1 1
1971 "Sweet Gingerbread Man" 16 115 95
1972 "See You in September" 15 108
"Softly Whispering I Love You" 1
1973 "It's a Small Small World" 9 108

Guest singles[edit]

Year Single Peak chart positions Album
US Country US
[77]
US AC CAN Country CAN CAN AC
1970 "All for the Love of Sunshine" (with Hank Williams, Jr.) 1 1 All for the Love of Sunshine
"Rainin' in My Heart" (with Hank Williams, Jr.) 3 108 2
1971 "Ain't That a Shame" (with Hank Williams, Jr.) 7 16 Hank Williams, Jr.'s Greatest Hits Vol. II
1972 "Living Together, Growing Together" (with Tony Bennett) 111 single only
1976 "Sing My Love Song" (with Al Martino) 24 single only

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Colin Larkin, ed. (1992). The Guinness Encyclopedia of Popular Music (First ed.). Guinness Publishing. pp. 606/7. ISBN 0-85112-939-0.
  2. ^ "Mike Curb Endowed Chair". Csun.edu.
  3. ^ "West Coast Stock Car Hall of Fame". West Coast Stock Car Hall of Fame. Retrieved March 16, 2012.
  4. ^ "Mike Curb Profile". Csun.edu. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
  5. ^ https://www.legacy.com/us/obituaries/latimes/name/stella-curb-obituary?pid=182497594
  6. ^ "Mike Curb Endowed Chair". Csun.edu.
  7. ^ Trigger (January 14, 2013). "The Official Mike Curb Rap Sheet of Transgressions". Saving Country Music. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  8. ^ "Mike Curb". Hollywood Walk of Fame. October 25, 2019. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  9. ^ "SKATER DATER". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  10. ^ "Cast of acclaimed 1965 skateboarding film 'Skaterdater' reunite". Daily Breeze. June 28, 2015. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  11. ^ "Mike Curb Featuring Davie Allan & The Arrows – The Wild Angels, Volume II (Original Soundtrack)". VINYL PUSSYCAT RECORDS. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  12. ^ "Thunder Alley (1967)". Filmaffinity.com. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  13. ^ "Film Music Site - Devil's Angels Soundtrack". Filmmusicsite.com. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  14. ^ "The Born Losers". Mubi.com. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  15. ^ "Film Music Site - MaryJane Soundtrack". Filmmusicsite.com. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  16. ^ "THE WILD RACERS". Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  17. ^ "The Savage Seven (1968)". BFI. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  18. ^ "THE BIG BOUNCE (1968)". Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  19. ^ "The New Life sings "The Sidehackers": original soundtrack recording". Worldcat.org. Hollywood, CA: Amaret. 1969. OCLC 34199078. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  20. ^ "Black Water Gold (1970)". Letterboxd.com. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  21. ^ "The MGM Records Story". Bsnpubs.com. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  22. ^ "Mike Curb Profile". Csun.edu. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  23. ^ "Mike Curb". Vanderbilt University. December 5, 2016. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  24. ^ Gilchrist, Todd (April 19, 2012). "Dick Clark's Death: The Music Industry Reacts to Loss of Legendary Broadcaster". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  25. ^ "Benny Mardones Obituary (2020) Quad-City Times". Legacy.com. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  26. ^ Browne, David (February 14, 2021). "Chasteness, Soda Pop, and Show Tunes: The Lost Story of the Young Americans and the Choircore Movement". Rolling Stone. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  27. ^ Power, Ed (June 23, 2020). "A heist for the history books: how true was Kelly's Heroes?". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  28. ^ Hoberman, J. (March 27, 2015). "Hey, Man, Dig the Crazy Hippie Flicks 'The Wild Angels' and 'Psych-Out'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  29. ^ "South African Rock Lists Website - SA Charts 1965 - 1989 Songs (A-B)". Rock.co.za. Retrieved August 29, 2019.
  30. ^ Label of MGM single "It's A Small Small World", image at 45cat.com; retrieved January 21, 2015.
  31. ^ Inc, Nielsen Business Media (May 5, 1973). Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc.
  32. ^ "The original soundtrack of The magic of Lassie". Worldcat.org. London: Pickwick. 1979. OCLC 17758628. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  33. ^ "Roger Sylvester Jenkins Jr. -- Orangeburg". The Times and Democrat. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  34. ^ Noble, Barnes &. "Best of the Mike Curb Congregation". Barnes & Noble. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  35. ^ "mike curb congregation members". montageafrica.com. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  36. ^ "Larry (David) Norman", Encyclopedia of Evangelicalism, ed. Randall Herbert Balmer (Westminster John Knox Press, 2002):411.
  37. ^ "CATTANOOGA CATS SHOW, THE {IT'S THE WOLF, MOTORMOUSE AND AUTOCAT, AROUND THE WORLD IN 79 DAYS (TV)". Paleycenter.org. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  38. ^ "The MOB". Mikebaker45s.wordpress.com. August 16, 2012. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  39. ^ Hunter, Marjorie (December 22, 1972). "Inaugural Events to Put Accent on Youth". Nytimes.com. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  40. ^ "Richard Nixon: Remarks at the Annual Dinner of the White House Correspondents Association". Presidency.ucsb.edu.
  41. ^ Josh Ewers. "Fisk Jubilee Singers relish first Grammy win in storied career". Main Street Nashville. Retrieved May 9, 2021.
  42. ^ "The Fisk Jubilee Singers'® Album, Celebrating Fisk! (The 150th Anniversary Album), Wins GRAMMY® Award in Best Roots Gospel Album Category". Fisk University. March 15, 2021. Retrieved May 9, 2021.
  43. ^ Word, Curb. "The Fisk Jubilee Singers'® Album, Celebrating Fisk! (The 150th Anniversary Album), Wins GRAMMY® Award in Best Roots Gospel Album Category". Curb | Word Entertainment. Retrieved May 9, 2021.
  44. ^ a b Elliot Tiegel (November 7, 1970). "MGM Busts 18 Rock Groups". Billboard.
  45. ^ "FZ Discography". Globalia.net. Retrieved July 25, 2010.
  46. ^ a b Beverly Keel (October 2, 1997). "Can Mike Curb Be as Clean as He Looks?". Nashville Scene. Retrieved September 22, 2021.
  47. ^ "1970 – Former Animal Eric Burdon launches his new initiative Curb th | Rock History". Thisdayinrock.com. Retrieved August 21, 2021.
  48. ^ Elliot Tiegel (November 21, 1970). "Curb Backs Curbing Stand; Will Not Name Acts Cut". Billboard. Los Angeles.
  49. ^ Davis, Clive; James Willworth (1975). Clive: Inside The Record Business. New York: William Morrow & Company. pp. 114, 273. ISBN 0-688-02872-1.
  50. ^ In re the Petition of the Commission on the Governorship of California (Brown v. Curb), 26 Cal. 3d 110.
  51. ^ Wadwhani, Anita (April 13, 2010). "Music mogul Mike Curb wields clout on social issues". The Tennessean. Retrieved April 20, 2010.
  52. ^ Shuitt, Douglas, California Elections: Curb, McCarthy – Vying to Become the Toughest Cop?, Los Angeles Times, October 10, 1986
  53. ^ a b Mike Curb 50 Years, p. 32; ISBN 978-0-9838218-1-6, Grandin Hood, (January 1, 2011)
  54. ^ a b "Mike Curb: Nashville, TN - Songwriter, Producer and Record Company Owner". Mikecurbracing.com. Archived from the original on May 17, 2014. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  55. ^ "The Name Game: Curb-Agajanian Synonymous with Racing". IMSA. June 18, 2021. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  56. ^ "Baker Curb Racing names Biffle in No. 27". us.motorsport.com. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  57. ^ a b Moore, Scotty. "1034 Audubon Drive". Scotty Moore official site. Retrieved October 27, 2016.
  58. ^ "2009 Inductees". North Carolina Music Hall of Fame. Retrieved September 10, 2012.
  59. ^ Communications, California State University, Northridge, Office of University Web. "California State University, Northridge". Csun.edu. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  60. ^ "Music Mogul Mike Curb Honored with 2,341st Star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame". Archived from the original on February 16, 2008. Retrieved March 22, 2008.
  61. ^ "Facilities - Art - CSU Channel Islands". Art.csuci.edu. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  62. ^ "The Fillmore Gazette". Fillmoregazette.com. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  63. ^ "Mike Curb: Nashville, TN - Songwriter, Producer and Record Company Owner". Mikecurb.com. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  64. ^ "Curb, Mike « Tennessee Sports Hall of Fame". Retrieved May 9, 2021.
  65. ^ Racing, Living Legends Of Auto. "Explore racing history". Living Legends Of Auto Racing. Retrieved May 9, 2021.
  66. ^ "British Country Music Awards 2018". The British Country Music Association. November 25, 2018. Retrieved May 9, 2021.
  67. ^ "About – Radius Nation". Retrieved May 9, 2021.
  68. ^ "Mike Curb". North Carolina Music Hall Of Fame. Retrieved May 9, 2021.
  69. ^ "StackPath". Ccmmagazine.com. Retrieved May 9, 2021.
  70. ^ York, Junior Achievement of Northeastern New. "Six Honorees to Receive the Junior Achievement National Centennial Leadership Award". Junior Achievement of Northeastern New York. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  71. ^ "MGM Album Discography, Part 11". Bsnpubs.com. May 26, 2003. Retrieved June 27, 2014.
  72. ^ Joel Whitburn's Top Pop Singles 1955-1990 - ISBN 0-89820-089-X
  73. ^ Joel Whitburn's Bubbling Under the Billboard Hot 100, 1959-2004
  74. ^ Kent, David (1993). Australian Chart Book 1970–1992 (illustrated ed.). St Ives, N.S.W.: Australian Chart Book. p. 79. ISBN 0-646-11917-6.
  75. ^ "flavour of new zealand - search listener". Flavourofnz.co.nz. Retrieved August 21, 2021.
  76. ^ "South African Rock Lists Website - SA Charts 1969 - 1989 Acts (C)". Rock.co.za. Retrieved August 21, 2021.
  77. ^ Joel Whitburn's Bubbling Under the Billboard Hot 100 1959-2004

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Lieutenant Governors of California
1979–1983
Succeeded by