1917 (2019 film)
UK theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Sam Mendes|
|Music by||Thomas Newman|
|Edited by||Lee Smith|
|Box office||$384.9 million|
1917 is a 2019 British war film directed and produced by Sam Mendes, who co-wrote the film with Krysty Wilson-Cairns. Partially inspired by stories told to Mendes by his paternal grandfather Alfred about his service during World War I, the film takes place after the German retreat to the Hindenburg Line during Operation Alberich, and follows two British soldiers, Will Schofield (George MacKay) and Tom Blake (Dean-Charles Chapman), in their mission to deliver an important message to call off a doomed offensive attack. Mark Strong, Andrew Scott, Richard Madden, Claire Duburcq, Colin Firth, and Benedict Cumberbatch also star in supporting roles.
The project was announced in June 2018, with MacKay and Chapman signing on in October and the rest of the cast joining the following March. Filming took place from April to June 2019 in the UK, with cinematographer Roger Deakins and editor Lee Smith using long takes to have the entire film appear as two continuous shots.
1917 premiered in the UK on 4 December 2019 and was released theatrically in the United States on 25 December by Universal Pictures and in the United Kingdom on 10 January 2020 by Entertainment One. The film was a critical and box office success, grossing $384.9 million worldwide. Among its accolades, it received ten nominations at the 92nd Academy Awards including Best Picture and Best Director, and three wins, for Best Cinematography, Best Visual Effects, and Best Sound Mixing.
On 6 April 1917, aerial reconnaissance has observed that the German army, which has pulled back from a sector of the Western Front in northern France, is not in retreat but has made a strategic withdrawal to the new Hindenburg Line, where they are waiting to overwhelm the British with artillery. In the British trenches, with field telephone lines cut, two young British lance corporals, William Schofield, a veteran of the Somme, and Tom Blake, are ordered by General Erinmore to carry a message to Colonel Mackenzie of the Second Battalion of the Devonshire Regiment, calling off a scheduled attack the next morning that would jeopardise the lives of 1,600 men, including Blake's brother Joseph, a lieutenant.
Schofield and Blake cross no man's land to reach the abandoned German trenches, but Schofield injures his left hand along the way. In an underground barracks, they discover a tripwire set by the Germans, which is promptly triggered by a rat; the explosion almost kills Schofield, but Blake saves him, and the two escape. They arrive at an abandoned farmhouse, where a German plane is shot down in a dogfight with Allied aircraft. Schofield and Blake save the burned pilot, but the pilot stabs Blake and is shot dead by Schofield. Schofield comforts Blake as he dies, promising to complete the mission and to write to Blake's mother. Taking Blake's rings and dog tag, as well as Erinmore's letter, he is picked up by a passing British unit.
A destroyed canal bridge near Écoust-Saint-Mein prevents the British lorries from crossing, and Schofield chooses to part with them. He uses what is left of the bridge to cross alone, and comes under fire from a sniper. Exchanging shots, Schofield wounds the sniper and advances, whereupon he and the sniper shoot each other simultaneously; the sniper is killed, while Schofield is struck in the helmet and knocked out. He regains consciousness at night and finds the town in flames. He discovers a French woman hiding with an infant. She treats his wounds, and he gives her his canned food and milk from the farm. Despite her pleas, Schofield leaves, after hearing the chimes of a nearby clock and realising that time is running out. Encountering German soldiers, he strangles one to death and escapes pursuit by jumping into a river. He is swept over a waterfall before reaching the riverbank. In the forest, he finds D Company of the 2nd Devons, which is in the last wave of the attack. As the company starts to move toward the front, Schofield tries to reach Colonel Mackenzie.
Realising that the trenches are too crowded for him to make it to Mackenzie in time, Schofield goes "over the top" and sprints on the open battlefield parallel to the British trench line, just as the infantry begins its charge. He forces his way in to meet Mackenzie, who reads the message and reluctantly calls off the attack. Schofield then finds Joseph, who was among the first wave and is bloodied but is unharmed. Schofield tells Joseph of his mission and that his brother Tom has died, passing on Tom's rings and dog tag. Joseph is deeply upset about his brother but thanks Schofield for his efforts. Schofield asks to write to their mother about Tom's heroics, to which Joseph agrees. Exhausted, Schofield sits under a nearby tree, looking at photographs of his wife and children.
- George MacKay as Lance Corporal William "Will" Schofield
- Dean-Charles Chapman as Lance Corporal Thomas "Tom" Blake
- Mark Strong as Captain Smith
- Andrew Scott as Lieutenant Leslie
- Richard Madden as Lieutenant Joseph Blake
- Claire Duburcq as Lauri
- Colin Firth as General Erinmore
- Benedict Cumberbatch as Lieutenant-Colonel Mackenzie (referred to as a colonel)
- Daniel Mays as Sergeant Sanders
- Adrian Scarborough as Major Hepburn
- Jamie Parker as Lieutenant Richards
- Pip Carter as Lieutenant Gordon
- Michael Jibson as Lieutenant Hutton
- Richard McCabe as Colonel Collins
- Justin Edwards as Captain Ivins
- Nabhaan Rizwan as Sepoy Jondalar
- Anson Boon as Private Cook
- Tommy French as Private Butler
- Kenny Fullwood as Private Rossi
- Elliot Edusah as Private Grey
Amblin Partners and New Republic Pictures were announced to have acquired the project on 18 June 2018, with Sam Mendes directing and co-writing the screenplay alongside Krysty Wilson-Cairns. Tom Holland was reported to be in talks for the film in September 2018, though ultimately was not involved, and in October, Roger Deakins was set to reunite with Mendes as cinematographer. George MacKay and Dean-Charles Chapman entered negotiations to star that same month. Thomas Newman was hired to compose the score in March 2019. That same month, Benedict Cumberbatch, Colin Firth, Mark Strong, Richard Madden, Andrew Scott, Daniel Mays, Adrian Scarborough, Jamie Parker, Nabhaan Rizwan, and Claire Duburcq joined the cast in supporting roles.
In August 2019, Mendes stated that the film shows "the story of a messenger who has a message to carry." In December 2019, Mendes stated that the writing involved some risk-taking: "I took a calculated gamble, and I'm pleased I did because of the energy you get just from driving forward (in the narrative), in a war that was fundamentally about paralysis and stasis." The ideas for a script, which Mendes wrote with Krysty Wilson-Cairns, came from the story that Mendes's grandfather, Alfred Mendes, a native of Trinidad who was a messenger for the British on the Western Front, had told him.
Roger Deakins was the cinematographer for the film, reuniting with Mendes for their fourth collaboration, having first worked together on Jarhead in 2005. Filming was accomplished with long takes and elaborately choreographed moving camera shots to give the effect of two continuous takes. Although media accounts have referred to the story as being told in only one shot, the story cuts to black one hour and six minutes into the film, when Schofield is knocked unconscious, and fades in upon his regaining consciousness after night has fallen. Mendes explained, "It was to do with the fact that I wanted the movie to go from afternoon to dusk, and then from night into dawn. I wanted it to be in two movements...I wanted to take it somewhere more like a hallucination. Somewhere more surreal, almost dream-like. And horrifying too".
1917 was the first film to be shot with the Arri Alexa Mini LF digital cinema camera. Deakins wanted to use a camera with a large format image sensor, but thought that the original Alexa LF was too large and heavy to capture the intimate shots he wanted. Arri provided him with a prototype of the Mini LF two months before filming was set to begin, and two more cameras a week before. His lenses were Arri Signature Primes, of which he used three focal lengths: a 40 mm lens for most of the film, a wider 35 mm for scenes in the tunnels and bunkers, to emphasise feelings of claustrophobia, and a narrower 47 mm in the river, to lose some of the background.
Filming began on 1 April 2019 and continued through June 2019 in Wiltshire, Hankley Common in Surrey and Govan, as well as at Shepperton Studios. Concern was raised about filming on Salisbury Plain by conservationists who felt the production could disturb potentially undiscovered remains, requesting a survey before any set construction began. Some shots required the use of as many as 500 background extras.
Sections of the film were also shot near Low Force, on the River Tees, Teesdale in June 2019. The production staff had to install signs warning walkers in the area not to be alarmed at the artificial bodies and body parts strewn around the site. For the scenes on the river, the cast and crew were assisted by a local outdoor adventure provider for safety and stunts.
|Soundtrack album by |
|Released||20 December 2019|
The soundtrack album of the film was released on 20 December 2019. The score was composed by Thomas Newman, the regular collaborator to Mendes. It was nominated for best original score at the Academy Awards. 
|2.||"Up the Down Trench"||6:19|
|4.||"A Scrap of Ribbon"||6:29|
|5.||"The Night Window"||3:41|
|8.||"A Bit of Tin"||2:02|
|10.||"Blake and Schofield"||4:20|
|17.||"Sixteen Hundred Men"||6:32|
|18.||"Mentions in Dispatches"||3:44|
|19.||"Come Back to Us"||5:39|
The film premiered on 4 December 2019 at the 2019 Royal Film Performance in London. It was released in limited theatres in the United States on 25 December 2019, before going to wide release on 10 January 2020. The studio spent an estimated $115 million on prints and advertisements promoting the film. The film was specially formatted for IMAX at the expanded aspect ratio of 1.9:1.
1917 grossed $159.2 million in the United States and Canada, and $225.7 million in other countries, for a worldwide total of $384.9 million, against a production budget of $90–100 million. Deadline Hollywood calculated the net profit of the film to be $77 million.
In the US, the film made $251,000 on its first day of limited release. It went on to have a limited opening weekend of $570,000, and a five-day gross of $1 million, for an average of $91,636 per-venue. The film would go on to make a total of $2.7 million over its 15 days of limited release. It then expanded wide on 10 January, making $14 million on its first day, including $3.25 million from Thursday night previews. It went on to gross $36.5 million for the weekend (beating the original projections of $25 million), becoming the first film to dethrone Star Wars: The Rise of Skywalker at the box office. In its second weekend of wide release the film made $22 million (and $26.8 million over the four-day Martin Luther King Jr. Day holiday), finishing third behind Bad Boys for Life and Dolittle. It then made $15.8 million and $9.7 million the following two weekends, remaining in second both times. During the four-day-weekend of the Academy Awards, the film made $9.3 million.
On review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 89% based on 448 reviews, with an average rating of 8.4/10. The website's critical consensus reads, "Hard-hitting, immersive, and an impressive technical achievement, 1917 captures the trench warfare of World War I with raw, startling immediacy." Metacritic assigned the film a weighted average score of 78 out of 100 based on 57 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews". Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "A−" on an A+ to F scale, and PostTrak reported it received an average 4.5 out of 5 from viewers they surveyed, with 69% saying they would definitely recommend it.
Several critics named the film among the best of 2019, including Kate Erbland of IndieWire and Sheri Linden of The Hollywood Reporter. Writing for the Hindustan Times, Rohan Naahar stated, "I can only imagine the effect 1917 will have on audiences that aren't familiar with the techniques Sam Mendes and Roger Deakins are about to unleash upon them." In his review for NPR, Justin Chang was less positive. He agreed the film was a "mind-boggling technical achievement" but did not think it was that spectacular overall, as Mendes's style with its impression of a continuous take "can be as distracting as it is immersive".
Manohla Dargis of The New York Times called the film, "A carefully organized and sanitized war picture [...] that turns one of the most catastrophic episodes in modern times into an exercise in preening showmanship." Alison Willmore of Vulture compared it unfavourably to the war film Dunkirk (2017), writing, "The artifice of the aesthetic premise overwhelms any of the film's other intentions."
1917 received ten nominations at the 92nd Academy Awards, winning for Best Cinematography, Best Sound Mixing, and Best Visual Effects. It received three nominations at the 77th Golden Globe Awards and won two awards: for Best Motion Picture – Drama and Best Director. It also received eight nominations at the 25th Critics' Choice Awards, winning three awards, including Best Director, and nine nominations at the 73rd British Academy Film Awards, winning the most awards – seven, including Best Film, Best Director and Outstanding British film. It was chosen by the National Board of Review and the American Film Institute as one of the top ten films of the year.
The film was inspired by Operation Alberich, a German withdrawal to new positions on the shorter and more easily defended Hindenburg Line that took place between 9 February and 20 March 1917. However, the main and supporting characters all appear to be fictional.
Writing in the New York Times, the playwright Cathy Tempelsman argues that the storyline offers a "dangerously misleading" picture of the war, suggesting "a concern for the sanctity of human life from the top down", whereas the reality was "an appalling indifference as the British high command sent hundreds of thousands of their young men to die". She adds that the "false heroics and filmmaking feats of wonder" serve to provide an "escape from the true carnage of the 'Great War'", and that in reality the scale of the casualties was such that the potential loss of 1,600 men would not have exacted the response portrayed in the film. The military historian Jeremy Banning wrote, "It made no sense, as the film depicts, to have some battalions nine miles beyond the former German line and others seemingly unaware of whether this line was manned [...] As for the assault by the Devons, no unit would attack without adequate artillery support".
In reality, the number of black soldiers serving in the British Army (rather than colonial regiments) during World War I is unknown but is likely to have been negligible. Numerous segregated colonial troops with white officers, however, served on many fronts of World War I. Over 15,000 men from the Caribbean enlisted, including Afro-Caribbean men living in Britain, and by 1915 it was decided to group them together into a single segregated regiment, named the British West Indies Regiment. They served on the Western Front as a labour force, but were not allowed to serve in combat in Europe. Indian Sikhs would have served in their own regiments as part of the British Indian Army, not as individuals in the ranks of British regiments and Corps. By the end of 1915, the Indian infantry formations had been withdrawn from the Western Front and sent to the Middle East.
- "1917". British Board of Film Classification. 6 December 2019. Archived from the original on 19 December 2019. Retrieved 22 December 2019.
- 1917 at The Numbers. Nash Information Services, LLC. Archived from the original on 14 January 2021. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
- Siegel, Tatiana (26 December 2019). "Making of '1917': How Sam Mendes Filmed a "Ticking Clock Thriller"". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 26 December 2019. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
- Lang, Brent (10 January 2020). "Box Office: 1917 Picks Up Impressive $3.2 Million in Previews, Kristen Stewart's Underwater Bombing". Variety. Archived from the original on 12 January 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
- "1917". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. Archived from the original on 17 January 2021. Retrieved 17 January 2021.
- Simon, Scott (21 December 2019). "It Was Part Of Me": Director Sam Mendes On The Family History In '1917'". KTEP. Archived from the original on 25 December 2019. Retrieved 25 December 2019.
- Jr, Mike Fleming (18 June 2018). "Amblin, Sam Mendes Set WWI Drama '1917' As His First Directing Effort Since James Bond Pics 'Spectre' & 'Skyfall'". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on 31 March 2019. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
- Zinski, Dan (5 September 2018). "Tom Holland In Talks To Star In Sam Mendes' WWI Drama 1917". Screen Rant. Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
- Marc, Christopher (24 October 2018). "Oscar-Winning 'Blade Runner 2049' Cinematographer Roger Deakins Might Reunite With Sam Mendes For WWI Movie '1917'". Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
- Jr, Mike Fleming (26 October 2018). "George MacKay, 'GOT's Dean-Charles Chapman In Talks For Leads In Sam Mendes WWI Pic '1917'". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
- "Thomas Newman to Score Sam Mendes' '1917'". Film Music Reporter. Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
- Galuppo, Mia (28 March 2019). "Colin Firth, Benedict Cumberbatch Join Sam Mendes' WWI Movie '1917'". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 28 March 2019. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
- Moore, Matthew (7 August 2019). "Mendes epic is a personal battle". The Times. Archived from the original on 8 June 2020. Retrieved 14 January 2021.
- Vick, Karl (3 December 2019). "Sam Mendes on Taking World War I Out of the Trenches and Into the Theater in 1917". Time. New York City. Archived from the original on 3 December 2019.
- Bosley, Rachael (13 January 2020). "Lives Under Siege: The Goldfinch and 1917". American Cinematographer. American Society of Cinematographers. Archived from the original on 28 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
- Libbey, Dirk (15 January 2020). "Why 1917 Director Sam Mendes Broke The One Shot Format For That Scene". CinemaBlend. Portland, Oregon. Archived from the original on 15 January 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
- Sims, David (3 January 2020). "1917 Is a Visual Feat and a Bad Movie". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 3 January 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
- Giardina, Carolyn (30 September 2019). "New Video Shows How Sam Mendes, Roger Deakins Shot '1917' to Appear as One Continuous Take". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 30 September 2019. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
- Evangelista, Chris (30 September 2019). "'1917' Featurette Teases a War Epic Told in One Continuous Shot". Slash Film. Archived from the original on 30 September 2019. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
- Hertz, Barry (26 December 2019). "Let's talk about 1917's 'one-shot' conceit, and the line between gimmick and greatness". Globe and Mail. Toronto. Archived from the original on 1 January 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
- Guerrasio, Jason (24 January 2020). "The camera Roger Deakins used to shoot Oscar-nominated '1917' was the first of its kind. Here's the inside story of the Arri ALEXA Mini LF". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
- ARRI Interview: The immersive camera movement of "1917". YouTube: ARRIChannel. 11 February 2020. Event occurs at 3:25. Archived from the original on 27 February 2020. Retrieved 13 February 2020.
- "How Was 1917 Filmed – The Making of 1917 Explained". StudioBinder. Archived from the original on 5 January 2021. Retrieved 14 January 2021.
- "Chance to star in Hollywood movie filming in Wiltshire". Spire FM. 4 January 2019. Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
- "World War One film to begin production on Hankley Common". Eagle Radio. 18 February 2019. Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
- Diamond, Claire (19 February 2019). "Spielberg movie wants to film in Glasgow". BBC News. Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
- Marc, Christopher (11 December 2018). "EXCLUSIVE: Sam Mendes' '1917' Adds 'Skyfall/Blade Runner 2049' Production Designer and 'Atonement' Art Director – Confirmed To Shoot At Shepperton Studios". Archived from the original on 2 April 2019. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
- Pulver, Andrew (6 February 2019). "Spielberg and Mendes Stonehenge war film plans hit by locals' objections". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2 April 2019. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
- D'Alessandro, Anthony (28 March 2019). "Sam Mendes' '1917' Nears Production: Mark Strong, Colin Firth, Benedict Cumberbatch & More Join Cast". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on 28 March 2019. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
- Chapman, Hannah, ed. (26 June 2019). "Spielberg's new drama filmed in Teesdale warns of prosthetic bodies". The Northern Echo. p. 6. ISSN 2043-0442. Archived from the original on 15 January 2020.
- "Shooting 1917 on Location on the River Tees". Keswick Adventures. Keswick Adventures. Archived from the original on 14 January 2021. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
- "'1917' Soundtrack Details". Film Music Reporter. Archived from the original on 29 October 2020. Retrieved 15 January 2021.
- Pentreath, Rosie (28 January 2020). "'1917' film soundtrack: who wrote it and how can I listen?". Archived from the original on 14 January 2021. Retrieved 27 December 2020 – via www.classicfm.com.
- Grater, Tom (29 October 2019). "Sam Mendes War Movie '1917' To World Premiere As UK Royal Charity Event". Archived from the original on 5 November 2019. Retrieved 21 November 2019.
- D'Alessandro, Anthony (14 April 2019). "WWI Epic '1917' Entrenched At No. 19 In Deadline's 2019 Most Valuable Blockbuster Tournament". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on 15 April 2020. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
- "1917 – IMAX Exclusive Artwork Released". 19 December 2019. Archived from the original on 14 January 2021. Retrieved 27 December 2020 – via www.theartsshelf.com.
- "1917 DVD Release Date". DVDs Release Dates. Archived from the original on 16 January 2020. Retrieved 21 February 2020.
- D'Alessandro, Anthony (26 December 2019). "'Rise of Skywalker' Rings Up Second Best Christmas Ever With $32M+; 'Little Women' $6M+; 'Spies in Disguise' Near $5M". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on 26 December 2019. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
- Ramos, Dino-Ray (29 December 2019). "'1917', 'Just Mercy' And 'Clemency' Open Strong In Limited Debuts Over Busy Holiday Weekend – Specialty Box Office". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on 29 December 2019. Retrieved 29 December 2019.
- D'Alessandro, Anthony (13 January 2020). "'1917' Great $37M, 'Like A Boss' Bests 'Just Mercy' For 4th With $10M; Why Kristen Stewart's 'Underwater' Went Kerplunk – Update". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on 8 November 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
- D'Alessandro, Anthony (19 January 2020). "'Bad Boys For Life' So Great With $100M+ Worldwide; 'Dolittle' Still A Dud With $57M+ Global – Box Office Update". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on 20 January 2020. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
- D'Alessandro, Anthony (24 January 2020). "'Bad Boys For Life' & '1917' Shooting Past $100M; 'The Turning' Slammed With Second 'F' Of 2020 e". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on 24 January 2020. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
- D'Alessandro, Anthony (2 February 2020). "'Bad Boys For Life' Scores Over Super Bowl Weekend With $17M+; 'Rhythm Section' Is A Mess". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
- D'Alessandro, Anthony (9 February 2020). "How 'Birds of Prey' Went Astray With $33M+ Opening". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on 8 February 2020. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
- D'Alessandro, Anthony (16 February 2020). "' 'Sonic The Hedgehog' Runs Faster With 4-Day Of $68M". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on 15 February 2020. Retrieved 16 February 2020.
- "1917". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Archived from the original on 18 December 2019. Retrieved 15 January 2021.
- 1917 at Metacritic. Red Ventures. Archived from the original on 9 December 2019. Retrieved 15 January 2021.
- Kohn, Eric; Thompson, Anne; Erbland, Kate; Ehrlich, David; Obenson, Tambay A.; Blauvelt, Christian (11 December 2019). "The 15 Best Film Performances By Actors in 2019". Archived from the original on 18 December 2019. Retrieved 10 January 2020.
- "Awkwafina – Hollywood Reporter Film Critics Pick the 25 Best Performances of the Year". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 10 January 2020. Retrieved 10 January 2020.
- "1917 movie review: Sam Mendes directs one of the best war movies of all time, will leave you stunned in your seat". Hindustan Times. 17 January 2020. Archived from the original on 19 January 2020. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
- Chang, Justin. "'1917' Is A Mind-Boggling Technological Achievement — But Not A Great Film". Fresh Air. NPR. Archived from the original on 18 January 2020. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
- Dargis, Manohla. "'1917' Review: Paths of Technical Glory". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 29 January 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- Willmore, Alison. "1917 Is More Filmmaking Stunt Than Movie". Vulture. Archived from the original on 26 April 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- Rottenberg, Josh (13 January 2020). "'Joker' tops this year's Oscar nominations, with '1917,' 'Irishman,' 'Once Upon a Time' close behind". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 13 January 2020. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
- Snierson, Dan (10 March 2020). "Oscars 2020: See the complete winners list". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on 2 December 2020. Retrieved 15 January 2021.
- Bisset, Jennifer (5 January 2020). "Golden Globes 2020: The full winners list". CNET. Archived from the original on 6 January 2020. Retrieved 9 January 2020.
- Malkin, Marc (8 December 2019). "Critics' Choice: 'The Irishman,' 'Once Upon a Time in Hollywood' Lead Movie Nominations". Variety. Archived from the original on 9 December 2019. Retrieved 8 December 2019.
- "Critics' Choice Awards 2020: The complete winners list". USA Today. 13 January 2020. Archived from the original on 29 April 2020. Retrieved 15 January 2021.
- Ritman, Alex (6 January 2020). "BAFTA Nominations: 'Joker' Leads the Pack". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 7 January 2020. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
- Brown, Mark (2 February 2020). "Baftas 2020: Sam Mendes and 1917 emerge victorious with seven awards". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 14 February 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
- Lewis, Hilary (3 December 2019). "'The Irishman' Named Best Film by National Board of Review". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 5 December 2019. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- "AFI AWARDS 2019 Honorees Announced". American Film Institute. Archived from the original on 10 December 2019. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- "Operation Alberich, the campaign that inspired Sam Mendes' 1917". History.co.uk. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
- Simkins, P.; Jukes, G.; Hickey, M. (2003). The First World War: The War to End All Wars. Oxford: Osprey. pp. 111–119. ISBN 978-1-84176-738-3. Archived from the original on 16 January 2021. Retrieved 16 January 2021.
- "1917 was Inspired by a True Story Sam Mendes' Grandfather Told to Him". History vs. Hollywood. Archived from the original on 10 February 2020. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
- Tempelsman, Cathy (8 February 2020). "'1917' Turns a Horrific War Into an Uplifting Hero's Journey". New York Times. Archived from the original on 10 February 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
- ""A staggering tour de force – but an opportunity missed": a historian's review of the film 1917". HistoryExtra. 14 January 2020. Archived from the original on 14 January 2020. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
- "Experiences of colonial troops". British Library. 29 January 2014. Archived from the original on 14 January 2021. Retrieved 14 November 2020.
- "Fact-checking 1917: how historically accurate is Sam Mendes's First World War film?". The Daily Telegraph. 10 February 2020. Archived from the original on 10 February 2020. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
- Storm, Eric; Tuma, Ali Al (22 December 2015). Colonial Soldiers in Europe, 1914–1945: "Aliens in Uniform" in Wartime Societies. pp. 97–102. ISBN 9781317330981. Archived from the original on 20 November 2020. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
- "How accurate is Sam Mendes's film, 1917?". The Times. 6 January 2020. Archived from the original on 12 February 2020. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
- Quiroga, Stefan Aguirre (2019). "Race, Battlefield 1 and the White Mythic Space of the First World War". Alicante Journal of English Studies. 31: 187–193. Archived from the original on 14 January 2021. Retrieved 23 October 2020.
- "India and the Western Front". BBC History. Archived from the original on 28 January 2011. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: 1917 (2019 film)|