List of British divisions in World War II

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from British Divisions in World War II)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

During the Second World War, British divisions were commanded by major-generals. Here Major-General Charles Keightley, the commanding officer of the 78th Infantry Division, plans his division's next steps during the Battle of Monte Cassino.

During the Second World War, the basic tactical formation used by the majority of combatants was the division.[1] It was a self-contained formation that contained all the required forces for combat, which was supplemented by its own artillery, engineers, communications, and logistical units.[2] On 3 September 1939, at the start of the war, the United Kingdom had two armoured and 24 infantry divisions. In addition, the army had seven anti-aircraft divisions. The anti-aircraft divisions were not comparable in role, to formations that were intended to be deployed for combat such as infantry divisions. In September, the British Army stated that 55 divisions (a mix of armoured, infantry and cavalry) would be raised to combat Germany. The United Kingdom would provide 32 of these formations, and the remainder would be raised by the British Dominions and India.

In 1941, this goal was adjusted to 57 divisions, with the United Kingdom to provide 36. By the end of 1941, the United Kingdom had met its intended obligation. Over the course of the war, 85 divisional formations were raised. However, they did not all exist at the same time, and not all of them were combat formations. For example, the 12th Division (SDF) was raised to protect the lines of communication behind fighting formations. Several divisions were created when a division of one type was converted into another, for example the 42nd (East Lancashire) Infantry Division was converted into the 42nd Armoured Division. Others, such as the 79th Armoured Division were never intended to act as a single fighting entity, but acted rather in an administrative capacity over dispersed units that were engaged in combat. The 85 divisional formations included two airborne, 12 anti-aircraft, 11 armoured, one cavalry, ten coastal defense (known as County Divisions), and 49 infantry divisions. At the end of the war, in 1945, the British Army had 24 divisions.

Background[edit]

The British Army was split into two branches: the regular army, which numbered 224,000 men with a reserve of 173,700 at the start of the war, and the part-time Territorial Army, which numbered 438,100 with a reserve of around 20,750 men.[3] The main goal of the regular army, largely built around battalion-size formations, was to police and garrison the British Empire. The provision of a multi-division expeditionary force, for a continental war against an European adversary, was not considered for much of the inter-war period as it was deemed unlikely for such a war to occur.[4] In 1939, the regular army consisted of seven infantry and two armoured divisions. Two of the infantry divisions had been formed for a colonial police action—the 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine.[5][6] The Territorial Army was intended to be the primary method of expanding the number of divisions available to the army. However, during the inter-war period, the British government reduced the funding and size of the territorial army. By 1936, they had concluded that the territorial army could not be modernised or equipped for an European War over the following three year period, and therefore delayed further funding. At the beginning of 1939, the Territorial Army had twelve infantry divisions. Following the German occupation of the remnants of the Czechoslovak state in March 1939, the Territorial Army was ordered to double in size to 24 divisions.[7][8][9][10] By the outbreak of the war, some of these divisions had formed while others were still in the process of being created.[11][12]

On 8 September 1939, the British Army announced that it would raise 55 divisions for service against Nazi Germany and to be deployed to France as part of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF). Thirty-two of these formations were to come from the British Army, and rest would be formed and maintained by the separate armies of the British Dominions (for example, the Canadian Army) and the British Indian Army. The goal was to fully equip and deploy 20 divisions within the first year of the war, and all 55 divisions within two years. The British contingent was to come from the expanded Territorial Army and the regular army divisions based in the United Kingdom.[13] By May 1940, the BEF contained only 13 divisions.[14] A further division was raised, on an ad hoc basis, from rear-area personnel during the latter stages of the campaign in France.[15] As a result of the German victory in France and the return of the BEF following the Dunkirk evacuation, the original deployment of divisions was not realized.[16] The Battle of France resulted in the loss of the 51st (Highland) Infantry Division, and it was later reformed by the renaming of the 9th (Highland) Infantry Division. After the BEF returned to the United Kingdom, four infantry divisions were disbanded to reinforce other formations.[17][18][19] The British Army also increased the recruitment for their African regiments (the Nigeria Regiment, the Gold Coast Regiment, and the King's African Rifles), which resulted in two divisions being formed in Africa in mid-1940.[20]

The goal of 55 divisions was maintained through to January 1941, when the number was increased to 58. On 6 March, the final goal was changed to 57, with the United Kingdom to provide 36.[21] During 1941, the 2nd Armoured Division was overrun in North Africa and its headquarters captured. By the end of the year, the British Army had 37 active divisions (one airborne, nine armoured, and 27 infantry).[22][23] On 15 February 1942, following the Battle of Singapore, the 18th Infantry Division was captured.[24] The lack of equipment hindered further growth, and an increasing number of divisions based in the United Kingdom were decreased in size to provide men for formations fighting abroad. By 1943, it became necessary for frontline divisions in Europe to be cannibalized to provide reinforcements for other frontline formations.[22] During 1943, three new divisions were formed from African personnel after further expansion of the African regiments of the British Army.[25] By 1944, the United Kingdom still had 35 divisions, of which 18 were for training or a source of reinforcements.[22] By mid-1944, the army did not have enough men to replace the losses suffered by front line infantry units. While efforts were made to address this, such as transferring men from the Royal Artillery and the Royal Air Force to be retrained as infantry, more formations were disbanded to provide reinforcements so combat divisions could remain near full strength.[26][27] By the end of 1944, the army had shrank to 26 divisions: five armour and 21 infantry (including airborne), and in the final year of the war the number decreased to 24 divisions.[28][29]

Airborne[edit]

British paratroopers during training

Impressed by the German airborne force during the 1940 Battle of France, the British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, ordered the creation of a paratrooper force of 5,000 men. The success of Operation Colossus, a small scale commando raid, prompted further expansion of this force, and resulted in an additional requirement for a glider force of 10,000 men to be created.[30][31][32] The recruitment for the size of this force took through to 1943, by which time two divisions had been formed.[33] The airborne division was to comprise three brigades: two parachute brigades, each with three battalions from the Parachute Regiment, and an airlanding brigade with three infantry battalions.[34] The first parachute battalions were formed from volunteers from across the British military. As the airborne force grew, infantry battalions were selected to be converted into parachute battalions. The men were invited to volunteer for parachute service, or assigned to a new unit. The new battalions were then brought up to strength from volunteers from other units. The airlanding battalions came from existing infantry units that had been converted into this new role, and the soldiers did not have the ability to opt-out. The latter were flown into battle via gliders, while the former parachuted in.[35][36]

The war establishment, the on-paper strength, was set at 12,148 men, with a large number of automatic weapons assigned to the division. The establishment called for 7,171 bolt-action Lee Enfield rifles, 6,504 Sten submachine guns, 966 Bren light machine guns, and 46 Vickers machine guns. Each division was also expected to have 392 PIAT anti-tank weapons, 525 mortars, 100 Anti-tank guns, and twenty-seven 75 mm (3.0 in) pack howitzers. Just over 6,000 vehicles—primarily jeeps, motorcycles, and bicycles, but also including 22 tanks—were authorized for each division.[34] Gliders delivered the heavier equipment.[37]

Existing formation or date created Date formation ceased to exist Divisional insignia Formation name Locations served Notable campaigns Notes Source(s)

+Airborne divisions

1 November 1941 N/A UK 6th Airborne Division Patch.svg 1st Airborne Division United Kingdom, Tunisia, Italy, Netherlands, Norway Tunisian Campaign, Italian Campaign, Battle of Arnhem The division did not reach full strength until April 1943. After heavy losses in the battle of Arnhem, the division was reduced from three to one brigades. It ended the war in Norway. [38][39]
3 May 1943 N/A UK 6th Airborne Division Patch.svg 6th Airborne Division United Kingdom, France, Germany Operation Overlord, Operation Varsity, Western Allied invasion of Germany The division ended the war in Germany [39][40]

Anti-aircraft[edit]

An example of a heavy anti-aircraft gun battery in London

After aerial bombardment was used during the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939), the British Army formed anti-aircraft divisions. These formations were part of the Territorial Army, and were not intended to be comparable to other formations such as infantry divisions. The anti-aircraft divisions were assigned to a particular area, which could cover hundreds or thousands of square miles. They varied dramatically in manpower, the number of brigades controlled, and the number of weapons assigned. For example, the 1st Anti-Aircraft Division was assigned to defend London, while the 3rd Anti-Aircraft Division was assigned to defend both Scotland and Northern Ireland. In September 1939, the divisions had a combined total of 695 heavy anti-aircraft guns compared to an intended 2,232, and 253 light anti-aircraft guns out of an establishment of 1,200. The divisions also had access to 2,700 searchlights, out of a recommended total of 4,700. By 1941, the divisions had 1,691 heavy guns, 940 light guns, and 4,532 searchlights. At the start of the war, the divisions and their command structure had a total of 106,690 men; manpower increased to 157,319 by July 1940, and was over 300,000 by mid-1941.[41][42][43] All of the divisions were disbanded in October 1942 as part of a reorganization of the anti-aircraft command structure. The divisions were replaced by seven groups, which intended to reduce the overall number of formations, save manpower, and be more flexible.[44]

Existing formation or date created Date formation ceased to exist Divisional insignia Formation name Locations served Notable campaigns Notes Source(s)

+Anti-aircraft divisions

Existing October 1942 1AA Div.svg 1st Anti-Aircraft Division United Kingdom Battle of Britain, The Blitz [44][45]
Existing October 1942 2nd AA div.svg 2nd Anti-Aircraft Division United Kingdom Battle of Britain, The Blitz [44][46]
Existing October 1942 3rd AA div.jpg 3rd Anti-Aircraft Division United Kingdom Battle of Britain, The Blitz [44][46]
Existing October 1942 4th AA div (1).svg 4th Anti-Aircraft Division United Kingdom Battle of Britain, The Blitz The division's initial insignia is displayed [44][47]
Existing October 1942 5th AA div.svg 5th Anti-Aircraft Division United Kingdom Battle of Britain, The Blitz [44][48]
Existing October 1942 6th AA div.svg 6th Anti-Aircraft Division United Kingdom Battle of Britain, The Blitz [44][49]
Existing October 1942 7th AA div.svg 7th Anti-Aircraft Division United Kingdom Battle of Britain, The Blitz [44][50][51]
October 1940 October 1942 8th AA div.svg 8th Anti-Aircraft Division United Kingdom The Blitz [44][52][53]
October 1940 October 1942 9th AA div.svg 9th Anti-Aircraft Division United Kingdom The Blitz [44][51][52]
November 1940 October 1942 10th AA div.svg 10th Anti-Aircraft Division United Kingdom The Blitz [44][51][52]
November 1940 October 1942 11th AA div.jpg 11th Anti-Aircraft Division United Kingdom The Blitz [44][51][52]
November 1940 October 1942 12th AA div.svg 12th Anti-Aircraft Division United Kingdom The Blitz [44][51][54]

Armoured[edit]

A Cruiser IV tank in the foreground, followed by several others.
The 1st Armoured Division on manoeuvres, 1940

Between May 1939 and the end of the Second World War, the armoured division went through nine organisational changes. In 1939, it was intended that an armoured division would have 110 light tanks, 217 cruiser tanks, and 24 tanks equipped with howitzers for close support, as well as 2,500 other vehicles, 9,442 men, and 16 field guns. In 1940, the establishment was changed to two light tanks, 304 cruisers, and 36 close support tanks, with 2,600 vehicles, and 10,750 men.[55] The early armoured formations did not reach these proposed tank strengths. For example, the 1st Armoured Division landed in France, in 1940, with 114 light tanks and 143 cruisers. The 2nd Armoured Division, prior to being deployed to the Middle East in late 1940, peaked at a strength of 256 light tanks and 54 cruisers.[56][57] By 1942, a division was to consist of 13,235 men with 230 tanks, of which 183 would be cruisers and the rest would be for support, along with around 3,000 other vehicles and 48 field guns. For the final two years of the war, the establishment was set at 14,964 men, 246 medium tanks, 63 light tanks, 27 tanks equipped with anti-aircraft guns, 27 tanks that were outfitted as artillery observation posts, 24 field guns, 24 self-propelled field guns, 54 anti-tank guns, and 24 self-propelled anti-tank guns.[55] In July 1944, for example, the Guards, the 7th, and the 11th Armoured Divisions all averaged 250 medium tanks. The Guards had 15,600 men, the 7th had 15,100, and the 11th had 14,400.[58][59]

The early organisation of the armoured divisions included two armoured brigades (with six armoured regiments) and one support group of two infantry battalions, combat engineers, and artillery. The intent of the division was to exploit gaps in the opposing frontline created by the infantry divisions. The armoured divisions were considered 'tank-heavy', due to the lack of infantry support to guard the tanks. It took repeated setbacks during the Western Desert Campaign before a major reorganisation took place. By 1942, the division had evolved to be based around one armoured brigade containing three armoured regiments and one motorised infantry battalion, the support group was replaced by a three-battalion infantry brigade, and additional support weapons were allocated as divisional assets. However, doctrine still dictated for the artillery, infantry, and tanks to fight separate battles. The artillery would engage opposing anti-tank guns; the infantry would secure captured ground or provide flank protection in confined terrain; and the tanks would move ahead to destroy enemy tanks and disrupt the opposing lines of communication. The division, rather than exploiting gaps, would find itself increasingly being used a battering ram to break through the enemy frontline.[60][61][62] The armoured divisions diverged in how they were organised between those that were deployed to Northwest Europe in June 1944, and those operating in Italy. In Italy, the division's reconnaissance regiments were equipped with armoured cars, whereas the reconnaissance regiments of those assigned to fight in Northwest Europe were equipped with Cromwell tanks.[63] In Italy, starting June 1944, the infantry component was increased with a second infantry brigade that was either integrated or attached on an as needed basis.[64][65][66] The divisions assigned to Northwest Europe did not have this increased infantry, and it took further setbacks before military planners decided that the tanks and infantry needed to work more closely together. Starting in July 1944, an armoured regiment (including the reconnaissance regiment) was paired with one of the division's infantry battalions (three from the infantry brigade, and one motorised infantry battalion assigned to the armoured brigade) to implement this change, although on paper they maintained the existing separate brigade structure.[60][61]

Existing formation or date created Date formation ceased to exist Divisional insignia Formation name Locations served Notable campaigns Notes Source(s)

+Armoured divisions

17 June 1941 12 June 1945 Guards armoured.svg Guards Armoured Division United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany Operation Overlord, Allied advance from Paris to the Rhine, Operation Market Garden, Western Allied invasion of Germany The division was reorganised as the Guards Division on 12 June 1945. [67][68]
Existing 11 January 1945 1st Armoured Div.svg 1st Armoured Division United Kingdom, France, Egypt, Italian-Libya, Tunisia, Italy Battle of France, Western Desert Campaign, Tunisian Campaign, Italian Campaign The division's initial insignia is displayed. On 5 April 1943, the division was redesignated as the 1st British Armoured Division, to distinguish it from its American counterpart. On 26 October 1944, the division ceased to be an operational formation before it was disbanded on 11 January 1945. [68][69]
15 December 1939 10 May 1941 British 2nd Armoured Division.svg 2nd Armoured Division United Kingdom, Egypt, Italian-Libya Western Desert campaign On 8 April 1941, the divisional headquarters was captured during an Axis offensive. The surviving units were reassigned, and the division was officially disbanded on 10 May 1941. [23][70]
12 September 1940 N/A 6th Armoured Division flash.svg 6th Armoured Division United Kingdom, Tunisia, Italy, Austria Tunisian Campaign, Italian Campaign The division ended the war in Austria. [70][71]
Existing N/A 7th armd div (3).svg 7th Armoured Division Egypt, Italian-Libya, Tunisia, Italy, United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany Western Desert Campaign, Tunisian Campaign, Italian Campaign, Operation Overlord, Allied advance from Paris to the Rhine, Western Allied invasion of Germany On the outbreak of the Second World War, the division was redesignated from the Mobile Division to the Armoured Division (Egypt); on 16 February 1940, it became the 7th Armoured Division. It ended the war in Germany. The division's insignia used during the final two years of the war is shown. [70][72]
4 November 1940 1 January 1943 8ArmDiv.png 8th Armoured Division United Kingdom, Egypt Did not see combat as a division After arriving in Egypt, the division never operated as a single entity. The divisional headquarters and elements of the divisional troops took part in the Second Battle of El Alamein. The division was disbanded on 1 January 1943 in Egypt, so that its forces could be dispersed to other formations to ensure they stayed up to strength. [73][74][75][76]
1 December 1940 31 July 1944 9armd div.jpg 9th Armoured Division United Kingdom Did not see combat The division was disbanded on 31 July 1944 [74][77]
1 August 1941 15 June 1944 10th armoured div (2).svg 10th Armoured Division Palestine, Egypt, Syria Western Desert Campaign The division was formed by the redesignation and reorganisation of the 1st Cavalry Division. It was disbanded in Egypt on 15 June 1944. [74][78]
9 March 1941 N/A 11th Armoured Division (United Kingdom) Insignia.svg 11th Armoured Division United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany Operation Overlord, Allied advance from Paris to the Rhine, Western Allied invasion of Germany The division ended the war in Germany. [79][80]
1 November 1941 17 October 1943 42nf inf (armd) division WW2.svg 42nd Armoured Division United Kingdom Did not see combat The division was formed from the reorganisation of the 42nd (East Lancashire) Infantry Division. It was disbanded on 17 October 1943. [81][82]
14 August 1942 N/A 79th armoured division badge.jpg 79th Armoured Division United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany Was not intended to act as single entity. The division's units saw combat in Operation Overlord and the Western Allied invasion of Germany. In April 1943, the division was tasked with the development of specialised tanks ("Hobart's Funnies") and their usage. The division deployed to France as part of Operation Overlord, where its units were allotted to other formations as needed while the division retained command and administrive control. It ended the war in Germany. [80][83]

Cavalry[edit]

Elements of the division on patrol, 1941.

Prior to the outbreak of the war, the British military promised their French counterparts that the BEF would contain at least one cavalry division that would be dispatched within six months of the outbreak of the war. The division would be formed following the start of hostilities, by Territorial Army regiments that would coalesce.[7] The war establishment was set at 11,097 men, 6,081 horses, and 1,815 vehicles distributed between three brigades, each containing three cavalry regiments. The division was primarily equipped with rifles, and supported by 203 light machine guns, 36 medium machine guns, and 48 field guns. For anti-tank protection, the establishment called for 247 anti-tank rifles. As the only division type to include horses, it was required to have three mobile sections from the Royal Army Veterinary Corps.[34] Doctrine called for the division to be mounted infantry: moving from place to place on horseback, and then dismounting to engage opposing forces.[84]

Existing formation or date created Date formation ceased to exist Divisional insignia Formation name Locations served Notable campaigns Notes Source(s)

+Cavalry division

31 October 1939 1 August 1941 N/A 1st Cavalry Division United Kingdom, France, Palestine, Transjordan, Iraq, Syria Did not see combat as a division On 1 August 1941 the division was redesignated and reorganised as the 10th Armoured Division [85]

County[edit]

An infantryman, standing among an example of British anti-invasion beach defences, looks out over the English Channel.

In 1940, following the Battle of France, the United Kingdom prepared for potential Axis invasion.[86] As the year progressed, the size of the British Army increased dramatically. Newly formed infantry battalions were grouped together to create the county divisions.[87][88] These formations were around 10,000 men strong, and were assigned to defend the coastlines of threatened sectors of the country and man coastal artillery.[87][89] These divisions were largely immobile and lacked divisional assets such as artillery, engineers, and reconnaissance forces.[90] This allowed infantry divisions to be freed up from such duties and to form a reserve further inland for counterattacking enemy forces.[91]

On 22 June 1941, Germany launched a massive attack upon the Soviet Union. British planners considered the possibility that the Soviet Union could collapse under the German onslaught, and the ease in which Germany could transfer troops back to the west and possibly invade the United Kingdom. In late 1941, the arrival of autumn and winter weather meant that the perceived threat of invasion subsided. This, coupled with the production of new equipment for the British Army, allowed the War Office to take steps to better balance the army with the creation of additional armour and special forces units. Consequently, the county divisions were disbanded or redesignated.[92][93]

Existing formation or date created Date formation ceased to exist Divisional insignia Formation name Locations served Notable campaigns Notes Source(s)

+County divisions

28 February 1941 1 December 1941 Cornwall County Division Insignia vector.svg Devon and Cornwall County Division United Kingdom Did not see combat The division was redesignated as the 77th Infantry Division on 1 December 1941 [90][94]
24 February 1941 31 December 1941 Dorset County Division Insignia.svg Dorset County Division United Kingdom Did not see combat The division first took command of units on 24 April 1941, ceased to function on 24 November 1941, and was disbanded on 31 December 1941. [94][95]
12 March 1941 1 December 1941 Durham County Division -vector.svg Durham and North Riding County Division United Kingdom Did not see combat The division was redesignated Durham and North Riding Coastal Area on 1 December 1941, and ceased to act as a division. [94][96]
18 February 1941 7 October 1941 Essex County Division -vector.svg Essex County Division United Kingdom Did not see combat Formed from the redesignation of the West Sussex County Division, the division was disbanded on 7 October 1941. [94][97]
28 February 1941 31 December 1941 Hampshire County Division Insignia.jpg Hampshire County Division United Kingdom Did not see combat The division was formed from the redesignation of the Hampshire Area command, ceased to function as a division on 25 November 1941, and was disbanded on 31 December 1941. [94][98]
24 February 1941 31 December 1941 LincolnshireCounty Division Insignia.jpg Lincolnshire County Division United Kingdom Did not see combat The division became operational on 27 March 1941, ceased to function as a division on 25 November 1941, and was disbanded on 31 December 1941. [99][100]
24 December 1940 18 November 1941 N/A Norfolk County Division United Kingdom Did not see combat The division was redesignated as the 76th Infantry Division on 18 November 1941. The Imperial War Museum wrote that it is not known what insignia this division worn, or if it was the same one from when it became the 76th Division. [101][102]
24 February 1941 21 December 1941 Northumbrian County Division -vector.svg Northumberland County Division United Kingdom Did not see combat The division ceased to function as a division on 1 December 1941, and was disbanded on 21 December 1941. [100][103]
9 November 1940 18 February 1941 Westsussex county.svg West Sussex County Division United Kingdom Did not see combat The division was formed when "Brocforc" was redesignated. It became the Essex County Division on 18 February 1941. [100][104]
24 February 1941 1 December 1941 Yorkshire County Division -vector.svg Yorkshire County Division United Kingdom Did not see combat The division became operational on 19 March 1941, was redesignated as the East Riding District on 1 December 1941, and ceased to function as a division. [100][105]

Infantry[edit]

British infantry on the move, alongside Universal Carriers, 1945.

The infantry were the backbone of the British Army, and were intended to be mobile and with sufficient integrated artillery to be able to overcome opposing forces.[106] At the start of the war, the infantry were separated into two classes: infantry divisions and motor divisions. Each infantry division had three infantry brigades and three artillery regiments. In 1939, these divisions had an establishment of 13,863 men, 72 field guns, and 2,993 vehicles. The motor division had two motorised infantry brigades and two artillery regiments, with an establishment of 10,136 men, 48 field guns, and 2,326 vehicles. The intended offensive use of the infantry division was to penetrate the enemy's defensive line, with the support of infantry tanks from independent tank brigades. Any gap created would then be exploited by armoured divisions, and the subsequent captured territory would be secured by the faster and more mobile motor divisions. The motor division, while being able to transport all of its infantry, was weaker than the infantry division as a result of the decreased amount of manpower and firepower.[107][108] After the Battle of France, the British Army implemented lessons learnt from the campaign in France, which included the decision to base the standard division around three brigades, and the abandonment of the motor division concept. This change saw four infantry divisions disbanded to reassign troops to the former motor divisions.[18][19][109]

The Army was split into two branches: the full-time professional force of regulars, and the part-time Territorial Army. Both branches maintained divisions. By 1939, the Territorial Army's intended role was to be the sole method of expanding the size of the army (in contrast to the creation of Kitchener's Army during the First World War). All members of the Territorial Army were required to take the general service obligation: if the British Government decided, territorial soldiers could be deployed overseas for combat. This avoided the complications of the First World War-era Territorial Force, whose members were initially not required to leave Britain unless they volunteered for overseas service.[110] The pre-war Territorial Army divisions were referred to as 'the first-line'. Prior to the outbreak of the Second World War, the first-line formations were ordered to create new formations in a process called 'duplicating'; the new formations were called 'the second-line'. Planners intended the first-line formations to recruit over their establishments (aided by an increase in pay, the removal of restrictions on promotion which had hindered prior recruiting, construction of better-quality barracks, and an increase in supper rations) and then form second-line formations from cadres around which the divisions could be expanded.[111][112]

In 1941, the divisions were divided between being listed as higher establishment formations, and lower establishment ones. The former were intended for deployment overseas and combat, whereas the latter were restricted to home defence in a static role, and were reduced in size.[22][113] In 1941, the establishment of an higher establishment infantry division was increased to 17,298 men, equipped primarily with rifles but supplemented by 451 sub-machine guns, 768 light machine guns, 48 medium machine guns, 218 mortars, 72 field guns, 48 anti-tank guns, 48 anti-aircraft guns, and 4,166 vehicles. In 1944, the establishment was changed again so that each division was intended to have 18,347 men, 6,525 sub-machine guns, 1,162 light machine guns, 359 mortars, 436 PIAT anti-tank weapons, 72 field guns, 110 anti-tank guns, and 4,330 vehicles.[107] Out of the overall total of men within the division, around 7,000 were frontline infantry and the rest allocated to the various divisional supporting arms and services.[114] The overall strength of a division could vary considerably. For example, during the Siege of Tobruk in 1941, the 70th Infantry Division was 28,000 men strong; in June 1944, the total combined strength of the remaining five lower establishment divisions was 17,845 men; and in July 1944, the higher establishment 15th (Scottish) Infantry Division was 16,970 men strong.[115][116][117]

In 1942, the British Army experimented with the format of their infantry divisions. Several divisions were converted into "mixed divisions", which saw the removal of one infantry brigade and it replaced by a brigade of tanks. The concept was deemed not successful, and abandoned the following year.[118][119] During 1943, the War Office intended to provide eight Tank Brigades (equipped with Infantry Tanks) to the army. These would be a Corps-level asset that could then be attached to infantry divisions as needed. Due to the lack of infantry tank production, only three such brigades were formed during the year. However, several independent armoured brigades (equipped with the M4 Sherman medium tanks) were formed. It was intended that these would be replaced by infantry tanks, as production increased but this did not happen. The independent armoured brigades were utilized in the same manner as the tank brigades.[120] In Northwest Europe, infantry divisions also had access to specialized tanks from the 79th Armoured Division attached, which would be attached as needed.[121]

Existing or date created Date formation ceased to exist Divisional insignia Formation name Locations served Notable campaigns Branch Notes Source(s)

+Infantry divisions

12 June 1945 N/A Guards armoured.svg Guards Division North West Europe Did not see combat Regular Army The division was formed in Germany following the reorganisation of the Guards Armoured Division [122][68]
Existing N/A 1st Infantry Division sign WW2.svg 1st Infantry Division United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Tunisia, Italy, Palestine Battle of France, Tunisian Campaign, Italian Campaign Regular Army The division ended the war in Palestine. The division's first insignia is shown. [123][124]
24 July 1940
20 August 1941
24 November 1940
23 November 1941
11th (Africa) division.svg 1st (African) Division British Kenya, Italian Somaliland, Abyssinia Did not see combat Regular Army The division was raised from men recruited in Nigeria and the British East Africa colonies. The division was redesignated as the 11th (African) Division on 24 November 1940. It was reformed in Kenya on 20 August 1941, and disbanded again on 23 November 1941. [125][126][127]
Existing N/A 56 inf div -vector.svg 1st London Division United Kingdom, Iraq, Palestine, Tunisia, Italy, Egypt, Italian-Libya Tunisian Campaign, Italian Campaign First-line Territorial Army At the start of the war, the division was a motor division. It became an infantry division in July 1940, and was redesignated the 56th (London) Infantry Division on 16 November 1940. It ended the war in Italy. [128][129]
Existing N/A British 2nd Infantry Division.svg 2nd Infantry Division United Kingdom, France, Belgium, India, Burma Battle of France, Battle of Kohima, Burma campaign 1944–45 Regular Army The division ended the war in India. [130][124]
19 July 1940 24 November 1940 12th african.svg 2nd (African) Division East Africa, Italian Somaliland, Abyssinia Did not see combat Regular Army The division was raised from men recruited in the Gold Coast and the British East African colonies. The division was redesignated as the 12th (African) Division on 24 November 1940. [126][131][127]
Existing N/A 47th div.svg 2nd London Division United Kingdom Did not see combat Second-line Territorial Army The division was formed as the duplicate of the 1st London Division. At the start of the war, it was a motor division. It became an infantry division in June 1940, and was redesignated the 47th (London) Infantry Division on 21 November 1940. In December 1941, it became a lower establishment division. It was disbanded on 31 August 1944, and reformed on 1 September as the 47th Infantry (Reserve) Division, a training formation. [132][133][134]
Existing N/A British 3rd Infantry Division2.svg 3rd Infantry Division United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany Battle of France, Operation Overlord, Allied advance from Paris to the Rhine, Western Allied invasion of Germany Regular Army The division ended the war in Germany [135][124]
Existing N/A 4th div (1).svg 4th Infantry Division United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Tunisia, Egypt, Italy, Greece Battle of France, Tunisian Campaign, Italian Campaign, Greek Civil War Regular Army The division's first insignia is shown. The division ended the war in Greece. [136][137]
Existing N/A 5 inf div -vector.svg 5th Infantry Division United Kingdom, France, Belgium, India, Iraq, Iran, Syria, Egypt, Italy, Palestine, Germany Battle of France, Allied invasion of Sicily, Italian Campaign, Western Allied invasion of Germany Regular Army The division ended the war in Germany. [137][138]
3 November 1939
17 February 1941
17 June 1940
10 October 1941
British WWII 6th Infantry Division.svg 6th Infantry Division Egypt, Palestine, Greece, Syria, Italian-Libya Battle of Crete, Syria–Lebanon Campaign, Siege of Tobruk Regular Army The division was formed by the redesignation of the 7th Infantry Division. It ceased to exist on 17 June 1940, and was then reformed on 17 February 1941. The division was redesignated as the 70th Infantry Division on 10 October 1941. [137][139][140][141]
Existing 3 November 1939 N/A 7th Infantry Division Palestine, Egypt Did not see combat Regular Army The division was redesignated as the 6th Infantry Division, on 3 November 1939. [142]
Existing
2 June 1942
3 November 1939
31 October 1943
8th Infantry Division WW2.svg 8th Infantry Division
8th Division (Syria)
Palestine, Syria Did not see combat Regular Army The existing division was disbanded on 28 February 1940. A new 8th Division was raised on 2 June 1942, as an internal security formation, and consisted largely of administration personnel. The reformed division was disbanded on 31 October 1943 [143][144]
Existing 7 August 1940 9th Division ww1.jpg 9th (Highland) Infantry Division United Kingdom Did not see combat Second-line Territorial Army The division was formed as the duplicate of the 51st (Highland) Infantry Division. On 7 August 1940, the division was redesignated as the 51st (Highland) Infantry Division. [144][145]
24 November 1940 26 July 1941 11th (Africa) division.svg 11th (African) Division British Kenya, Italian Somaliland, Abyssinia East African campaign Regular Army The division was formed when the 1st (African) Division was redesignated [127][125]
15 February 1943 N/A 11th EA div (1).svg 11th (East Africa) Division East Africa, Ceylon, Burma, India Burma Campaign Regular Army The division was formed from men recruited in Kenya, Northern Rhodesia, Nyasaland, Tanganyika, and Uganda. The division's first insignia is shown. The division ended the war in India [127][146][147]
24 November 1940 18 April 1943 12th african.svg 12th (African) Division East Africa, Italian Somaliland, Abyssinia East African campaign Regular Army The division was formed when the 2nd (African) Division was redesignated, and was disbanded 18 April 1943. [131][127]
10 October 1939 11 July 1940 12th British Infantry Division WW2.svg 12th (Eastern) Infantry Division United Kingdom, France Battle of France Second-line Territorial Army Duplicate of the 44th (Home Counties) Infantry Division, the division was disbanded on 11 July 1940, after it returned to the United Kingdom. [148][144]
11 July 1942 12 January 1945 12th British Infantry Division WW2.svg 12th Division (SDF) Italian-Libya Did not see combat Regular Army The division was formed by the redesignation of the 1st Sudan Defence Force Brigade, and served as a security force on the lines of communication behind the Eighth Army. On 12 January 1945, the formation lost its division title when it was redesignated the Sudan Defence Force Group (North Africa). The Imperial War Museum stated that the division worn a white diamond as a divisional insignia, potentially alongside the Sudan Defence Force insignia. [149][147]
Existing N/A 15 inf div.jpg 15th (Scottish) Infantry Division United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany Operation Overlord, Allied advance from Paris to the Rhine, Western Allied invasion of Germany Second-line Territorial Army The division was formed as the duplicate of the 52nd (Lowland) Infantry Division, and ended the war in Germany. [150][151]
30 September 1939 15 February 1942 18 inf div -vector.svg 18th Infantry Division United Kingdom, India, Malaya, Singapore Battle of Singapore Second-line Territorial Army The division was formed as the duplicate of the 54th (East Anglian) Infantry Division. On 15 February 1942, after the Battle of Singapore, and its personnel were taken prisoner. [151][24]
2 October 1939 30 June 1940 23rd (Northumbrian) Division formation sign.svg 23rd (Northumbrian) Division United Kingdom, France Battle of France Second-line Territorial Army The division was formed as the duplicate of the 50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Division, and was disbanded on 30 June 1940 following its return to the United Kingdom. [152][153]
1 September 1944 N/A 36 inf div -vector.svg 36th Infantry Division Burma, India Burma Campaign Regular Army The division was formed from the redesignation of the 36th Indian Infantry Division, and ended the war in India. [153][154]
18 September 1939
1 September 1944
15 August 1944
N/A
38 inf div -vector.svg 38th (Welsh) Infantry Division United Kingdom Did not see combat Second-line Territorial Army The division was formed as the duplicate of the 53rd (Welsh) Infantry Division. The division was placed on lower establishment on 1 December 1941, and was disbanded on 15 August 1944. It was reformed as the 38th Infantry (Reserve) Division, a training formation to replace the disbanded 80th Infantry (Reserve) Division, on 1 September 1944. [153][133][155]
Existing 1 November 1941 42nf inf (armd) division WW2.svg 42nd (East Lancashire) Infantry Division United Kingdom, France, Belgium Battle of France First-line Territorial Army On 1 November 1941, the division was redesignated and reorganised as the 42nd Armoured Division. [156][82]
Existing N/A 43 inf div -vector.svg 43rd (Wessex) Infantry Division United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany Operation Overlord, Allied advance from Paris to the Rhine, Operation Market Garden, Western Allied invasion of Germany First-line Territorial Army The division ended the war in Germany [82][157]
Existing 31 January 1943 44InfDiv.png 44th (Home Counties) Infantry Division United Kingdom, France, Egypt Battle of France, Second Battle of El Alamein First-line Territorial Army The division was disbanded in Egypt, so that its forces could be dispersed to other formations to ensure they stayed up to strength. [158][159][76]
Existing N/A 45 inf div -vector.svg 45th Infantry Division United Kingdom Did not see combat Second-line Territorial Army The division was formed as the duplicate of the 43rd (Wessex) Infantry Division. It was placed on the lower establishment in December 1941, and was disbanded on 30 August 1944. It was reformed as the 45th (Holding) Division on 1 September, to replace the 77th (Holding) Division, and was redesignated as the 45th Division on 1 December 1944. [159][160]
2 October 1939 N/A 46 inf div -vector.svg 46th Infantry Division United Kingdom, France, Tunisia, Italy, Egypt, Palestine, Greece, Austria Battle of France, Tunisian Campaign, Italian Campaign, Greek Civil War Second-line Territorial Army The division was formed as the duplicate of the 49th (West Riding) Infantry Division, and ended the war in Austria. [159][161]
Existing N/A 48 inf div -vector.svg 48th (South Midland) Infantry Division United Kingdom, France, Belgium Battle of France First-line Territorial Army The division was placed on the lower establishment in November 1941. On 20 December 1942, it was redesignated as the 48th Infantry (Reserve) Division, a training formation. [133][162][134]
Existing N/A 49th Infantry Division 3rd pattern.svg 49th (West Riding) Infantry Division United Kingdom, Iceland, France, Belgium, Netherlands Operation Overlord, Allied advance from Paris to the Rhine, Western Allied invasion of Germany First-line Territorial Army The division became "Alabaster Force", for the occupation of Iceland. On return to the United Kingdom, in 1942, it was reformed as the 49th (West Riding) Infantry Division. It ended the war in the Netherlands, under Canadian command. [163][164]
Existing N/A 50 inf div -vector.svg 50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Division United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Egypt, Cyprus, Iraq, Syria, Italian-Libya, Tunisia, Italy, Norway Battle of France, Western Desert Campaign, Tunisian Campaign, Allied invasion of Sicily, Operation Overlord, Western Allied invasion of Germany First-line Territorial Army The division started the war as a motor division, and was reorganized as an infantry division in June 1940. On 16 December 1944, after being withdrawn from Europe, the division was redesignated as the 50th Infantry (Reserve) Division, a training formation. On 1 August 1945, the divisional headquarters moved to Norway, and became British Land Forces Norway. [164][133][165]
Existing
7 August 1940
N/A 51 inf div -vector.svg 51st (Highland) Infantry Division United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Egypt, Italian-Libya, Tunisia, Italy, Netherlands, Germany Battle of France, Western Desert Campaign, Tunisian Campaign, Allied invasion of Sicily, Italian Campaign, Operation Overlord, Allied advance from Paris to the Rhine, Western Allied invasion of Germany First-line Territorial Army The division was captured in France in 1940, and then reformed on 7 August 1940 by the redesignation of the 9th (Highland) Infantry Division in the United Kingdom. The division ended the war in Germany. [17][166]
Existing N/A 52 inf div -vector.svg 52nd (Lowland) Infantry Division United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany Allied advance from Paris to the Rhine, Western Allied invasion of Germany First-line Territorial Army The division was deployed to France for seven days, during June 1940, following the Dunkirk Evacuation. On return to the United Kingdom, the division retrained as a mountain division and then retrained for airlanding operations. The division did not operate in either role, and was deployed in October 1944 as an infantry division. It ended the war in Germany. [166][167]
Existing N/A 53 inf div -vector.svg 53rd (Welsh) Infantry Division United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany Operation Overlord, Allied advance from Paris to the Rhine, Western Allied invasion of Germany First-line Territorial Army The division ended the war in Germany [168][169]
Existing 14 December 1943 54 inf div -vector.svg 54th (East Anglian) Infantry Division United Kingdom Did not see combat First-line Territorial Army The division was placed on the lower establishment in January 1942, and was disbanded on 14 December 1943. [169][170]
Existing N/A 55 inf div -vector2.svg 55th (West Lancashire) Infantry Division United Kingdom Did not see combat First-line Territorial Army The division was a motor division at the start of the war, and was reorganised as an infantry formation in June 1940. It was placed on the lower establishment in January 1942, and raised to the higher establishment in May 1944. The division was subsequently drained of manpower until it no longer existed, but the name was maintained for deception purposes. [169][171][172]
15 September 1939 19 October 1944 59 inf div -vector.svg 59th (Staffordshire) Infantry Division United Kingdom, France Operation Overlord Second-line Territorial Army The division was formed as a duplicate of the 55th (West Lancashire) Infantry Division. It started the war as a motor division, and was reorganised as an infantry division in June 1940. At the end of the Normandy Campaign, the division was broken-up to provide reinforcements for other formations. The division headquarters was placed in 'suspended animation' on 19 October 1944, and was never reformed. [129][173][174]
Existing N/A 61 inf div -vector.svg 61st Infantry Division United Kingdom Did not see combat Second-line Territorial Army The division was formed as the duplicate of the 48th (South Midland) Infantry Division. The divisional headquarters deployed to Norway, during the Norwegian Campaign, although the division itself was not deployed. In August 1945, the division was reorganised as a Light Division. [129][175]
27 September 1939 23 June 1940 66 inf div.svg 66th Infantry Division United Kingdom Did not see combat Second-line Territorial Army The division was formed as the duplicate of the 42nd (East Lancashire) Infantry Division, and was disbanded on 23 June 1940. [129][176]
10 October 1941 24 November 1943 British WWII 6th Infantry Division.svg 70th Infantry Division Italian-Libya, Egypt, India Siege of Tobruk Regular Army The division was formed by the redesignation of the 6th Infantry Division. In September 1943, the division was assigned to the Chindits and started reorganising its forces into long range penetration units. The division ceased to function on 24 October, and was disbanded on 24 November 1943. [177][142]
18 November 1941 1 September 1944 76th Infantry vector2.svg 76th Infantry Division United Kingdom Did not see combat Regular Army The division was formed as a lower establishment formation, by the redesignation of the Norfolk County Division. It was redesignated as the 76th Infantry (Reserve) Division, a training formation, on 20 December 1942. On 1 September 1944, the division was disbanded. [177][133][178]
1 December 1941 1 September 1944 77 inf div -vector.svg 77th Infantry Division United Kingdom Did not see combat Regular Army The division formed as a lower establishment formation, by the redesignation of the Devon and Cornwall County Division. It was redesignated as the 77th Infantry (Reserve) Division, a training formation, on 20 December 1942. On 1 December 1943, it was redesignated as the 77th Holding Division, an organisation to temporarily hold, retrain, and sort personnel. The division was disbanded on 1 September 1944. [177][133][178]
25 May 1942 N/A 78 inf div -vector.svg 78th Infantry Division United Kingdom, Tunisia, Italy, Austria Tunisian Campaign, Allied invasion of Sicily, Italian Campaign Regular Army The division ended the war in Austria [177][179]
1 January 1943 1 September 1944 British 80th Infantry (Reserve) Badge.svg 80th Infantry (Reserve) Division United Kingdom Did not see combat Regular Army The division was formed as a training formation, and was disbanded on 1 September 1944. [133][178][180]
1 March 1943 N/A 81st WA Division.svg 81st (West Africa) Division Nigeria , India, Burma Burma Campaign Regular Army The division was formed from men recruited in Nigeria, the Gold Coast, and Sierra Leone. The original name of the division, which lasted for three days, was the 1st (West African) Division. The division ended the war in India. [181][182]
1 August 1943 N/A 82nd WA div.svg 82nd (West Africa) Division Nigeria , India, Burma Burma Campaign Regular Army The division was formed from men recruited in Nigeria, the Gold Coast, and Sierra Leone. The division ended the war in Burma. [182][183]
29 May 1940 June 1940 N/A Beauman Division France Battle of France Regular Army The division was disbanded following its evacuation from France, on 17 June 1940. [15][184]
August 1940 April 1943 116th RM infantry brigade.svg Royal Marines Division United Kingdom Did not see combat as a division Royal Marines The division was disbanded in April 1943, and the men were either trained to man landing craft, or joined the Commandos and helped raise six new Royal Marine units. [185][186][187]
Mid-February 1943 16 March 1943 N/A Y Division Tunisia Tunisian Campaign Regular Army An ad hoc formation formed during the Tunisia Campaign, and disbanded on 16 March 1943. [188][189]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Dear & Foot 2001, p. 48.
  2. ^ Fraser 1999, p. 85.
  3. ^ French 2001, pp. 63–64.
  4. ^ French 2001, p. 15.
  5. ^ Perry 1988, p. 49.
  6. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 13–15, 19–21, 35–36, 39–40, 43–53.
  7. ^ a b Butler 1957, p. 27.
  8. ^ Gibbs 1976, pp. 54, 263, 518.
  9. ^ French 2001, pp. 53–54.
  10. ^ Perry 1988, pp. 41–42.
  11. ^ Perry 1988, p. 48.
  12. ^ Levy 2006, p. 66.
  13. ^ Butler 1957, pp. 27, 32.
  14. ^ French 2001, p. 157.
  15. ^ a b Karslake 1979, pp. 249–251.
  16. ^ Fraser 1999, pp. 72–77.
  17. ^ a b Joslen 2003, pp. 83–84.
  18. ^ a b French 2001, pp. 189–191.
  19. ^ a b Perry 1988, p. 54.
  20. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 118—119, 419—421, 432—434.
  21. ^ Perry 1988, p. 55.
  22. ^ a b c d French 2001, p. 188.
  23. ^ a b Joslen 2003, p. 16.
  24. ^ a b Joslen 2003, pp. 60–61.
  25. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 121, 123, 125.
  26. ^ Messenger 1994, p. 122.
  27. ^ Allport 2015, p. 216.
  28. ^ French 2001, p. 189.
  29. ^ Perry 1988, p. 74.
  30. ^ Otway 1990, p. 21.
  31. ^ Harclerode 2006, pp. 204–205, 218.
  32. ^ Tugwell 1971, p. 123.
  33. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 104–107.
  34. ^ a b c Joslen 2003, pp. 132–133.
  35. ^ Messenger 1994, p. 112.
  36. ^ Flint 2004, p. 90.
  37. ^ Flint 2004, pp. 28, 46, 56, 106–107, 138.
  38. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 104–105.
  39. ^ a b "Badge, Formation, 1st Airborne Division & 6th Airborne Division & 16th Airborne Division TA". Imperial War Museum. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
  40. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 106–107.
  41. ^ "No. 38149". The London Gazette. 16 December 1947. p. 5973. and "No. 38149". The London Gazette. 16 December 1947. p. 5974.
  42. ^ Forty 2013, The Combat Arms, AA Command.
  43. ^ Gibbs 1976, p. 464.
  44. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "No. 38149". The London Gazette. 16 December 1947. p. 5985.
  45. ^ Cole 1950, pp. 54, 77.
  46. ^ a b Cole 1950, pp. 54, 78.
  47. ^ Cole 1950, pp. 55, 78.
  48. ^ Cole 1950, pp. 55, 79.
  49. ^ Cole 1950, pp. 55, 80.
  50. ^ Cole 1950, p. 55.
  51. ^ a b c d e Lord & Watson 2003, p. 251.
  52. ^ a b c d Cole 1950, p. 56.
  53. ^ Lord & Watson 2003, p. 170.
  54. ^ Cole 1950, p. 57.
  55. ^ a b Joslen 2003, pp. 3, 128–129.
  56. ^ Newbold 1988, pp. 422, 426.
  57. ^ Ellis 1954, p. 254.
  58. ^ Jackson 2006, p. 84.
  59. ^ Ellis et al. 2004, p. 336.
  60. ^ a b Joslen 2003, pp. 4–5.
  61. ^ a b French 2001, pp. 37–42, 269–270.
  62. ^ Buckley 2006, p. 34.
  63. ^ Crow 1972, pp. 34, 38.
  64. ^ Molony et al. 2004, p. 256.
  65. ^ Jackson & Gleave 2004, p. 233.
  66. ^ Joslen 2003, p. 226.
  67. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 11–12.
  68. ^ a b c Cole 1950, p. 32.
  69. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 13–15.
  70. ^ a b c Cole 1950, p. 33.
  71. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 17–18.
  72. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 19–21.
  73. ^ Joslen 2003, p. 22.
  74. ^ a b c Cole 1950, p. 34.
  75. ^ Playfair et al. 2004, p. 8.
  76. ^ a b Perry 1988, p. 69.
  77. ^ Joslen 2003, p. 23.
  78. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 25–26.
  79. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 27–28.
  80. ^ a b Cole 1950, p. 35.
  81. ^ Joslen 2003, p. 29.
  82. ^ a b c Cole 1950, p. 41.
  83. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 30–32.
  84. ^ French 2001, pp. 221–222.
  85. ^ Joslen 2003, p. 33.
  86. ^ Fraser 1999, p. 83.
  87. ^ a b Perry 1988, p. 53.
  88. ^ Forty 2013, County Divisions.
  89. ^ Churchill & Gilbert 2001, p. 1321.
  90. ^ a b Joslen 2003, p. 108.
  91. ^ Messenger 1994, p. 61.
  92. ^ Goldstein & McKercher 2003, p. 274.
  93. ^ Perry 1988, pp. 53–54, 65.
  94. ^ a b c d e Cole 1950, p. 58.
  95. ^ Joslen 2003, p. 109.
  96. ^ Joslen 2003, p. 110.
  97. ^ Joslen 2003, p. 111.
  98. ^ Joslen 2003, p. 112.
  99. ^ Joslen 2003, p. 113.
  100. ^ a b c d Cole 1950, p. 59.
  101. ^ Joslen 2003, p. 114.
  102. ^ "Badge, Formation, 76th Infantry Division". Imperial War Museum. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
  103. ^ Joslen 2003, p. 115.
  104. ^ Joslen 2003, p. 116.
  105. ^ Joslen 2003, p. 117.
  106. ^ French 2001, pp. 27, 29, 31.
  107. ^ a b Joslen 2003, pp. 130–133.
  108. ^ French 2001, pp. 37–41.
  109. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 37, 41, 61, 90.
  110. ^ Allport 2015, p. 323; French 2001, p. 53; Perry 1988, pp. 41–42; Simkins 2007, pp. 43–46.
  111. ^ Gibbs 1976, p. 518.
  112. ^ Messenger 1994, pp. 47, 49.
  113. ^ Perry 1988, p. 65.
  114. ^ French 2001, p. 186.
  115. ^ Playfair et al. 2004, pp. 25–26.
  116. ^ Hart 2007, p. 52.
  117. ^ Jackson 2006, p. 123.
  118. ^ Playfair et al. 2004, p. 7.
  119. ^ Crow 1972, pp. 35-36.
  120. ^ Buckley 2006, p. 77.
  121. ^ Buckley 2006, p. 15.
  122. ^ Joslen 2003, p. 34.
  123. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 35–36.
  124. ^ a b c Cole 1950, p. 36.
  125. ^ a b Joslen 2003, pp. 118, 419–420, 432–433.
  126. ^ a b Playfair et al. 2004, p. 181.
  127. ^ a b c d e Cole 1950, p. 91.
  128. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 37–38.
  129. ^ a b c d Cole 1950, p. 47.
  130. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 39–40.
  131. ^ a b Joslen 2003, pp. 119–120, 421—422, 434–435.
  132. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 41–42.
  133. ^ a b c d e f g Forty 2013, Reserve Divisions.
  134. ^ a b Cole 1950, p. 43.
  135. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 43–44.
  136. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 45–46.
  137. ^ a b c Cole 1950, p. 37.
  138. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 47–48.
  139. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 49–51, 258, 266.
  140. ^ Long 1953, pp. 281–285.
  141. ^ Playfair et al. 2004, pp. 207, 209.
  142. ^ a b Joslen 2003, pp. 49–51.
  143. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 53–54.
  144. ^ a b c Cole 1950, p. 38.
  145. ^ Joslen 2003, p. 55.
  146. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 121–122, 419, 423—424.
  147. ^ a b "badge, formation, 11th East Africa Division". Imperial War Museum. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  148. ^ Joslen 2003, p. 56.
  149. ^ Joslen 2003, p. 57.
  150. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 58–59.
  151. ^ a b Cole 1950, p. 39.
  152. ^ Joslen 2003, p. 62.
  153. ^ a b c Cole 1950, p. 40.
  154. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 63–64.
  155. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 65–66.
  156. ^ Joslen 2003, p. 68.
  157. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 69–70.
  158. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 71–72.
  159. ^ a b c Cole 1950, p. 42.
  160. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 73–74.
  161. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 75–76.
  162. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 77–78.
  163. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 79–80, 331–332.
  164. ^ a b Cole 1950, p. 44.
  165. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 81–82.
  166. ^ a b Cole 1950, p. 45.
  167. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 85–86.
  168. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 87–88.
  169. ^ a b c Cole 1950, p. 46.
  170. ^ Joslen 2003, p. 89.
  171. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 90–91.
  172. ^ Holt 2004, p. 922.
  173. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 93–94.
  174. ^ Hart 2007, p. 49.
  175. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 95–96.
  176. ^ Joslen 2003, p. 97.
  177. ^ a b c d Cole 1950, p. 48.
  178. ^ a b c Joslen 2003, p. 99.
  179. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 101–102.
  180. ^ Cole 1950, p. 49.
  181. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 123–124, 436, 439, 440.
  182. ^ a b Cole 1950, p. 92.
  183. ^ Joslen 2003, pp. 125–126, 433—434, 438.
  184. ^ "No. 34922". The London Gazette. 13 August 1940. p. 5001. and "No. 37573". The London Gazette. 21 May 1946. p. 2439.
  185. ^ Messenger 1991, p. 123.
  186. ^ Speller 2001, p. 29.
  187. ^ Cole 1950, p. 95.
  188. ^ Doherty 1993, p. 41.
  189. ^ Joslen 2003, p. 373.

References[edit]

  • Allport, Alan (2015). Browned Off and Bloody-minded: The British Soldier Goes to War 1939–1945. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-30017-075-7.
  • Buckley, John (2006) [2004]. British Armour in the Normandy Campaign 1944. London: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-41540-773-1.
  • Butler, J. R. M. (1957). Grand Strategy: September 1939–June 1941. History of the Second World War. II. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office. OCLC 1035320124.
  • Churchill, Winston (2001). Gilbert, Martin (ed.). The Churchill War Papers: The Ever-Widening War. 3. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-39301-959-9.
  • Cole, Howard N. (1950). Heraldry in War: Formation Badges, 1939-1945 (3rd ed.). Aldershot: Wellington Press. OCLC 224096091.
  • Crow, Duncan (1972). British and Commonwealth Armoured Formations (1919-46). AFV/Weapons series. Windsor: Profile Publications Limited. ISBN 978-0-853-83081-8.
  • Dear, Ian; Foot, Michael Richard Daniell (2001). The Oxford Companion to World War II. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19860-446-4.
  • Doherty, Richard (1993). Clear the Way!: A History of the 38th (Irish) Brigade, 1941-1947. Blackrock, County Dublin: Irish Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-71652-542-4.
  • Ellis, Lionel F. (1954). Butler, J. R. M. (ed.). The War in France and Flanders 1939–1940. History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office. OCLC 1087882503.
  • Ellis, Lionel F.; Allen, G.R.G.; Warhurst, A.E.; Robb, James (2004) [1962]. Butler, J. R. M. (ed.). Victory in the West: The Battle of Normandy. History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series. I. London: Naval & Military Press. ISBN 978-1-84574-058-0.
  • Flint, Keith (2004). Airborne Armour: Tetrarch, Locust, Hamilcar and the 6th Airborne Armoured Reconnaissance Regiment 1938–1950. Solihull: Helion. ISBN 978-1-87462-237-6.
  • Forty, George (2013) [1998]. Companion to the British Army 1939-1945 (ePub ed.). Spellmount. ISBN 978-0-75095-139-5.
  • Fraser, David (1999) [1983]. And We Shall Shock Them: The British Army in the Second World War. London: Cassell Military. ISBN 978-0-30435-233-3.
  • French, David (2001) [2000]. Raising Churchill's Army: The British Army and the War Against Germany 1919–1945. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19924-630-4.
  • Gibbs, N. H. (1976). Grand Strategy. History of the Second World War. I. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office. ISBN 978-0-11630-181-9.
  • Goldstein, Erik; McKercher, Brian, eds. (2003). Power and Stability: British Foreign Policy, 1865–1965. Diplomacy & Statecraft. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-71468-442-0.
  • Harclerode, Peter (2006). Wings Of War – Airborne Warfare 1918–1945. London: Cassell. ISBN 978-0-30436-730-6.
  • Hart, Stephen Ashley (2007) [2000]. Colossal Cracks: Montgomery's 21st Army Group in Northwest Europe, 1944–45. Mechanicsburg: Stackpole Books. ISBN 978-0-81173-383-0.
  • Holt, Thaddeus (2004). The Deceivers: Allied Military Deception in the Second World War. New York: Scribner. ISBN 978-0-74325-042-9.
  • Jackson, G. S. (2006) [1945]. Operations of Eighth Corps: Account of Operations from Normandy to the River Rhine. Staff, 8 Corps (MLRS ed.). London: St. Clements Press. ISBN 978-1-905696-25-3.
  • Jackson, William; Gleave, T. P. (2004) [1986]. Butler, J. R. M. (ed.). The Mediterranean and Middle East: Victory in the Mediterranean Part II: June to October 1944. History of the Second World War United Kingdom Military Series. VI. London: Naval & Military Press. ISBN 978-1-845-74071-9.
  • Joslen, H. F. (2003) [1990]. Orders of Battle: Second World War, 1939–1945. Uckfield: Naval and Military Press. ISBN 978-1-84342-474-1.
  • Karslake, B. (1979). 1940 The Last Act: The Story of the British Forces in France After Dunkirk. London: Leo Cooper. ISBN 978-0-85052-240-2.
  • Levy, James P. (2006). Appeasement and Rearmament: Britain, 1936–1939. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-742-54537-3.
  • Long, Gavin Merrick (1953). Greece, Crete and Syria. Australia in the War of 1939–1945, Series 1 – Army. II. Canberra: Australian War Memorial. OCLC 3134080.
  • Lord, Cliff; Watson, Graham (2003). The Royal Corps of Signals: Unit Histories of the Corps (1920–2001) and its Antecedents. West Midlands: Helion. ISBN 978-1-874622-07-9.
  • Messenger, Charles (1991). The Commandos: 1940–1946. London: Grafton Books. ISBN 978-0-58621-034-5.
  • Messenger, Charles (1994). For Love of Regiment 1915–1994. A History of British Infantry. II. London: Pen & Sword Books. ISBN 978-0-850-52422-2.
  • Molony, C. J. C.; Flynn, F. C.; Davies, H. L.; Gleave, T. P.; Jackson, William (2004) [1984]. Butler, J. R. M. (ed.). The Mediterranean and Middle East: Victory in the Mediterranean Part I: 1st April to 4th June 1944. History of the Second World War United Kingdom Military Series. VI. London: Naval & Military Press. ISBN 978-1-84574-070-2.
  • Newbold, David John (1988). British Planning And Preparations To Resist Invasion On Land, September 1939 – September 1940 (PDF) (Ph.D. thesis). London: King's College London. OCLC 556820697.
  • Otway, T.B.H. (1990). The Second World War 1939–1945 Army – Airborne Forces. London: Imperial War Museum. ISBN 978-0-90162-757-5.
  • Perry, Frederick William (1988). The Commonwealth Armies: Manpower and Organisation in Two World Wars. War, Armed Forces and Society. Manchester: Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-2595-2.
  • Playfair, I. S. O.; et al. (2004) [1954]. Butler, J. R. M. (ed.). The Mediterranean and Middle East: The Early Successes Against Italy (to May 1941). History of the Second World War United Kingdom Military Series. I. London: Naval & Military Press. ISBN 978-1-84574-065-8.
  • Playfair, I. S. O.; et al. (2004) [1956]. Butler, J. R. M. (ed.). The Mediterranean and Middle East: The Germans Come to the Help of their Ally (1941). History of the Second World War United Kingdom Military Series. II. London: Naval & Military Press. ISBN 978-1-84574-066-5.
  • Playfair, I. S. O.; et al. (2004) [1960]. Butler, J. R. M. (ed.). The Mediterranean and Middle East: British Fortunes Reach their Lowest Ebb (September 1941 to September 1942). History of the Second World War United Kingdom Military Series. III. London: Naval & Military Press. ISBN 978-1-84574-067-2.
  • Playfair, I. S. O.; Molony, C. J. C.; Flynn, F. C. & Gleave, T. P. (2004) [1966]. Butler, J. R. M. (ed.). The Mediterranean and Middle East: The Destruction of the Axis Forces in Africa. History of the Second World War United Kingdom Military Series. IV. London: Naval & Military Press. ISBN 978-1-845-74068-9.
  • Simkins, Peter (2007) [1988]. Kitchener's Army: The Raising of the New Armies 1914–1916. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Military. ISBN 978-1-844-15585-9.
  • Speller, Ian (2001) [2000]. The Role of Amphibious Warfare in British Defense Policy. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave. ISBN 978-1-34942-088-9.
  • Tugwell, Maurice (1971). Airborne to Battle: A History of Airborne Warfare, 1918–1971. London: William Kimber. ISBN 978-0-71830-262-7.