govern the majority of the 193 countries in the United Nations, and 27 countries, comprising 40 percent of the world's population, have adopted a federal system of government.
Less attention has been paid to decentralized, non-coercive mechanisms for policy change in unitary states
. One of the reasons for this bias is probably that lower-level tiers of government are on the whole more autonomous in federal systems than in unitary states
(Pollitt and Bouckaert, 2011, p.
ySTANBUL (CyHAN)- President Recep Tayyip Erdoy-an referenced Hitler's Germany while claiming that there are examples of successful "presidency" models in unitary states
. It was quite an interesting example.
This paper argues such incongruity is due to a theoretical framework employed by existing international relations scholarship that uses conceptions of unitary states
and societies, and this paper asserts instead that the behavior of Chinese netizens may be better addressed by an alternative theoretical approach that describes on-line communities as cultures.
I prefer this concept to the well-known asymmetric federalism, due to its larger sphere: it is appropriate for the classical federations as well as for the unitary states
and for the supranational structures (i.e., the European Union).
have a single, central government that is all-powerful.
(2001) demonstrated analytically and with simulations that tax rate changes cause little or no change in the allocation of property and labor for nonunitary states, but can result in significant changes for unitary states
. These conclusions are consistent with firms in unitary states
being less able to use tax-planning techniques to minimize state
income taxes, as well as being taxed on a broader base of income (Moore et al.
Due to the elimination of intercorporate transactions, pursuant to a combined income tax filing in a unitary state
, the use of traditional state
tax planning strategies (such as intercorporate financing and intellectual property management/licensing) generally provide no state
tax benefit in unitary states
(21) As Albert Breton points out, many of the advantages gained by federal states are in reality advantages of decentralization, and because most unitary states
are in fact decentralized, they also gain those advantages.
Whereas unitary states
often change policies rapidly, going from high to low inflation and vice versa, decentralized political institutions make a change in macroeconomic policies, whether good or bad, more difficult.
This is a running sore in the case of countries which are federal as opposed to unitary states
. West Germany is a prime example, but Italy and Spain have also devolved extensive powers to their regional governments and these can flout EC law with a healthy dose of impunity because the Treaty simply doesn't bind them.
Even in Western European countries, the textbook distinction between federal and unitary states
has become more blurred as some formal unitary states
respond to pressures from minority nationalisms and local democracy to grant autonomy to ethnic groups occupying particular areas.