Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers - ACL Anthology

Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

Yuji Matsumoto, Rashmi Prasad (Editors)

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Osaka, Japan
The COLING 2016 Organizing Committee
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Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers
Yuji Matsumoto | Rashmi Prasad

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Boosting for Efficient Model Selection for Syntactic Parsing
Rachel Bawden | Benoît Crabbé

We present an efficient model selection method using boosting for transition-based constituency parsing. It is designed for exploring a high-dimensional search space, defined by a large set of feature templates, as for example is typically the case when parsing morphologically rich languages. Our method removes the need to manually define heuristic constraints, which are often imposed in current state-of-the-art selection methods. Our experiments for French show that the method is more efficient and is also capable of producing compact, state-of-the-art models.

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A Universal Framework for Inductive Transfer Parsing across Multi-typed Treebanks
Jiang Guo | Wanxiang Che | Haifeng Wang | Ting Liu

Various treebanks have been released for dependency parsing. Despite that treebanks may belong to different languages or have different annotation schemes, they contain common syntactic knowledge that is potential to benefit each other. This paper presents a universal framework for transfer parsing across multi-typed treebanks with deep multi-task learning. We consider two kinds of treebanks as source: the multilingual universal treebanks and the monolingual heterogeneous treebanks. Knowledge across the source and target treebanks are effectively transferred through multi-level parameter sharing. Experiments on several benchmark datasets in various languages demonstrate that our approach can make effective use of arbitrary source treebanks to improve target parsing models.

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Grammar induction from (lots of) words alone
John K Pate | Mark Johnson

Grammar induction is the task of learning syntactic structure in a setting where that structure is hidden. Grammar induction from words alone is interesting because it is similiar to the problem that a child learning a language faces. Previous work has typically assumed richer but cognitively implausible input, such as POS tag annotated data, which makes that work less relevant to human language acquisition. We show that grammar induction from words alone is in fact feasible when the model is provided with sufficient training data, and present two new streaming or mini-batch algorithms for PCFG inference that can learn from millions of words of training data. We compare the performance of these algorithms to a batch algorithm that learns from less data. The minibatch algorithms outperform the batch algorithm, showing that cheap inference with more data is better than intensive inference with less data. Additionally, we show that the harmonic initialiser, which previous work identified as essential when learning from small POS-tag annotated corpora (Klein and Manning, 2004), is not superior to a uniform initialisation.

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A Redundancy-Aware Sentence Regression Framework for Extractive Summarization
Pengjie Ren | Furu Wei | Zhumin Chen | Jun Ma | Ming Zhou

Existing sentence regression methods for extractive summarization usually model sentence importance and redundancy in two separate processes. They first evaluate the importance f(s) of each sentence s and then select sentences to generate a summary based on both the importance scores and redundancy among sentences. In this paper, we propose to model importance and redundancy simultaneously by directly evaluating the relative importance f(s|S) of a sentence s given a set of selected sentences S. Specifically, we present a new framework to conduct regression with respect to the relative gain of s given S calculated by the ROUGE metric. Besides the single sentence features, additional features derived from the sentence relations are incorporated. Experiments on the DUC 2001, 2002 and 2004 multi-document summarization datasets show that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art extractive summarization approaches.

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Generating Video Description using Sequence-to-sequence Model with Temporal Attention
Natsuda Laokulrat | Sang Phan | Noriki Nishida | Raphael Shu | Yo Ehara | Naoaki Okazaki | Yusuke Miyao | Hideki Nakayama

Automatic video description generation has recently been getting attention after rapid advancement in image caption generation. Automatically generating description for a video is more challenging than for an image due to its temporal dynamics of frames. Most of the work relied on Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) and recently attentional mechanisms have also been applied to make the model learn to focus on some frames of the video while generating each word in a describing sentence. In this paper, we focus on a sequence-to-sequence approach with temporal attention mechanism. We analyze and compare the results from different attention model configuration. By applying the temporal attention mechanism to the system, we can achieve a METEOR score of 0.310 on Microsoft Video Description dataset, which outperformed the state-of-the-art system so far.

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An Improved Phrase-based Approach to Annotating and Summarizing Student Course Responses
Wencan Luo | Fei Liu | Diane Litman

Teaching large classes remains a great challenge, primarily because it is difficult to attend to all the student needs in a timely manner. Automatic text summarization systems can be leveraged to summarize the student feedback, submitted immediately after each lecture, but it is left to be discovered what makes a good summary for student responses. In this work we explore a new methodology that effectively extracts summary phrases from the student responses. Each phrase is tagged with the number of students who raise the issue. The phrases are evaluated along two dimensions: with respect to text content, they should be informative and well-formed, measured by the ROUGE metric; additionally, they shall attend to the most pressing student needs, measured by a newly proposed metric. This work is enabled by a phrase-based annotation and highlighting scheme, which is new to the summarization task. The phrase-based framework allows us to summarize the student responses into a set of bullet points and present to the instructor promptly.

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CATENA: CAusal and TEmporal relation extraction from NAtural language texts
Paramita Mirza | Sara Tonelli

We present CATENA, a sieve-based system to perform temporal and causal relation extraction and classification from English texts, exploiting the interaction between the temporal and the causal model. We evaluate the performance of each sieve, showing that the rule-based, the machine-learned and the reasoning components all contribute to achieving state-of-the-art performance on TempEval-3 and TimeBank-Dense data. Although causal relations are much sparser than temporal ones, the architecture and the selected features are mostly suitable to serve both tasks. The effects of the interaction between the temporal and the causal components, although limited, yield promising results and confirm the tight connection between the temporal and the causal dimension of texts.

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Forecasting Word Model: Twitter-based Influenza Surveillance and Prediction
Hayate Iso | Shoko Wakamiya | Eiji Aramaki

Because of the increasing popularity of social media, much information has been shared on the internet, enabling social media users to understand various real world events. Particularly, social media-based infectious disease surveillance has attracted increasing attention. In this work, we specifically examine influenza: a common topic of communication on social media. The fundamental theory of this work is that several words, such as symptom words (fever, headache, etc.), appear in advance of flu epidemic occurrence. Consequently, past word occurrence can contribute to estimation of the number of current patients. To employ such forecasting words, one can first estimate the optimal time lag for each word based on their cross correlation. Then one can build a linear model consisting of word frequencies at different time points for nowcasting and for forecasting influenza epidemics. Experimentally obtained results (using 7.7 million tweets of August 2012 – January 2016), the proposed model achieved the best nowcasting performance to date (correlation ratio 0.93) and practically sufficient forecasting performance (correlation ratio 0.91 in 1-week future prediction, and correlation ratio 0.77 in 3-weeks future prediction). This report is the first of the relevant literature to describe a model enabling prediction of future epidemics using Twitter.

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Task-Oriented Intrinsic Evaluation of Semantic Textual Similarity
Nils Reimers | Philip Beyer | Iryna Gurevych

Semantic Textual Similarity (STS) is a foundational NLP task and can be used in a wide range of tasks. To determine the STS of two texts, hundreds of different STS systems exist, however, for an NLP system designer, it is hard to decide which system is the best one. To answer this question, an intrinsic evaluation of the STS systems is conducted by comparing the output of the system to human judgments on semantic similarity. The comparison is usually done using Pearson correlation. In this work, we show that relying on intrinsic evaluations with Pearson correlation can be misleading. In three common STS based tasks we could observe that the Pearson correlation was especially ill-suited to detect the best STS system for the task and other evaluation measures were much better suited. In this work we define how the validity of an intrinsic evaluation can be assessed and compare different intrinsic evaluation methods. Understanding of the properties of the targeted task is crucial and we propose a framework for conducting the intrinsic evaluation which takes the properties of the targeted task into account.

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Expanding wordnets to new languages with multilingual sense disambiguation
Mihael Arcan | John Philip McCrae | Paul Buitelaar

Princeton WordNet is one of the most important resources for natural language processing, but is only available for English. While it has been translated using the expand approach to many other languages, this is an expensive manual process. Therefore it would be beneficial to have a high-quality automatic translation approach that would support NLP techniques, which rely on WordNet in new languages. The translation of wordnets is fundamentally complex because of the need to translate all senses of a word including low frequency senses, which is very challenging for current machine translation approaches. For this reason we leverage existing translations of WordNet in other languages to identify contextual information for wordnet senses from a large set of generic parallel corpora. We evaluate our approach using 10 translated wordnets for European languages. Our experiment shows a significant improvement over translation without any contextual information. Furthermore, we evaluate how the choice of pivot languages affects performance of multilingual word sense disambiguation.

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A Correlational Encoder Decoder Architecture for Pivot Based Sequence Generation
Amrita Saha | Mitesh M. Khapra | Sarath Chandar | Janarthanan Rajendran | Kyunghyun Cho

Interlingua based Machine Translation (MT) aims to encode multiple languages into a common linguistic representation and then decode sentences in multiple target languages from this representation. In this work we explore this idea in the context of neural encoder decoder architectures, albeit on a smaller scale and without MT as the end goal. Specifically, we consider the case of three languages or modalities X, Z and Y wherein we are interested in generating sequences in Y starting from information available in X. However, there is no parallel training data available between X and Y but, training data is available between X & Z and Z & Y (as is often the case in many real world applications). Z thus acts as a pivot/bridge. An obvious solution, which is perhaps less elegant but works very well in practice is to train a two stage model which first converts from X to Z and then from Z to Y. Instead we explore an interlingua inspired solution which jointly learns to do the following (i) encode X and Z to a common representation and (ii) decode Y from this common representation. We evaluate our model on two tasks: (i) bridge transliteration and (ii) bridge captioning. We report promising results in both these applications and believe that this is a right step towards truly interlingua inspired encoder decoder architectures.

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Zero-resource Dependency Parsing: Boosting Delexicalized Cross-lingual Transfer with Linguistic Knowledge
Lauriane Aufrant | Guillaume Wisniewski | François Yvon

This paper studies cross-lingual transfer for dependency parsing, focusing on very low-resource settings where delexicalized transfer is the only fully automatic option. We show how to boost parsing performance by rewriting the source sentences so as to better match the linguistic regularities of the target language. We contrast a data-driven approach with an approach relying on linguistically motivated rules automatically extracted from the World Atlas of Language Structures. Our findings are backed up by experiments involving 40 languages. They show that both approaches greatly outperform the baseline, the knowledge-driven method yielding the best accuracies, with average improvements of +2.9 UAS, and up to +90 UAS (absolute) on some frequent PoS configurations.

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Improving historical spelling normalization with bi-directional LSTMs and multi-task learning
Marcel Bollmann | Anders Søgaard

Natural-language processing of historical documents is complicated by the abundance of variant spellings and lack of annotated data. A common approach is to normalize the spelling of historical words to modern forms. We explore the suitability of a deep neural network architecture for this task, particularly a deep bi-LSTM network applied on a character level. Our model compares well to previously established normalization algorithms when evaluated on a diverse set of texts from Early New High German. We show that multi-task learning with additional normalization data can improve our model’s performance further.

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Deceptive Opinion Spam Detection Using Neural Network
Yafeng Ren | Yue Zhang

Deceptive opinion spam detection has attracted significant attention from both business and research communities. Existing approaches are based on manual discrete features, which can capture linguistic and psychological cues. However, such features fail to encode the semantic meaning of a document from the discourse perspective, which limits the performance. In this paper, we empirically explore a neural network model to learn document-level representation for detecting deceptive opinion spam. In particular, given a document, the model learns sentence representations with a convolutional neural network, which are combined using a gated recurrent neural network with attention mechanism to model discourse information and yield a document vector. Finally, the document representation is used directly as features to identify deceptive opinion spam. Experimental results on three domains (Hotel, Restaurant, and Doctor) show that our proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art methods.

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Integrating Topic Modeling with Word Embeddings by Mixtures of vMFs
Ximing Li | Jinjin Chi | Changchun Li | Jihong Ouyang | Bo Fu

Gaussian LDA integrates topic modeling with word embeddings by replacing discrete topic distribution over word types with multivariate Gaussian distribution on the embedding space. This can take semantic information of words into account. However, the Euclidean similarity used in Gaussian topics is not an optimal semantic measure for word embeddings. Acknowledgedly, the cosine similarity better describes the semantic relatedness between word embeddings. To employ the cosine measure and capture complex topic structure, we use von Mises-Fisher (vMF) mixture models to represent topics, and then develop a novel mix-vMF topic model (MvTM). Using public pre-trained word embeddings, we evaluate MvTM on three real-world data sets. Experimental results show that our model can discover more coherent topics than the state-of-the-art baseline models, and achieve competitive classification performance.

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Bayesian Language Model based on Mixture of Segmental Contexts for Spontaneous Utterances with Unexpected Words
Ryu Takeda | Kazunori Komatani

This paper describes a Bayesian language model for predicting spontaneous utterances. People sometimes say unexpected words, such as fillers or hesitations, that cause the miss-prediction of words in normal N-gram models. Our proposed model considers mixtures of possible segmental contexts, that is, a kind of context-word selection. It can reduce negative effects caused by unexpected words because it represents conditional occurrence probabilities of a word as weighted mixtures of possible segmental contexts. The tuning of mixture weights is the key issue in this approach as the segment patterns becomes numerous, thus we resolve it by using Bayesian model. The generative process is achieved by combining the stick-breaking process and the process used in the variable order Pitman-Yor language model. Experimental evaluations revealed that our model outperformed contiguous N-gram models in terms of perplexity for noisy text including hesitations.

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Label Embedding for Zero-shot Fine-grained Named Entity Typing
Yukun Ma | Erik Cambria | Sa Gao

Named entity typing is the task of detecting the types of a named entity in context. For instance, given “Eric is giving a presentation”, our goal is to infer that ‘Eric’ is a speaker or a presenter and a person. Existing approaches to named entity typing cannot work with a growing type set and fails to recognize entity mentions of unseen types. In this paper, we present a label embedding method that incorporates prototypical and hierarchical information to learn pre-trained label embeddings. In addition, we adapt a zero-shot learning framework that can predict both seen and previously unseen entity types. We perform evaluation on three benchmark datasets with two settings: 1) few-shots recognition where all types are covered by the training set; and 2) zero-shot recognition where fine-grained types are assumed absent from training set. Results show that prior knowledge encoded using our label embedding methods can significantly boost the performance of classification for both cases.

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The Role of Context in Neural Morphological Disambiguation
Qinlan Shen | Daniel Clothiaux | Emily Tagtow | Patrick Littell | Chris Dyer

Languages with rich morphology often introduce sparsity in language processing tasks. While morphological analyzers can reduce this sparsity by providing morpheme-level analyses for words, they will often introduce ambiguity by returning multiple analyses for the same surface form. The problem of disambiguating between these morphological parses is further complicated by the fact that a correct parse for a word is not only be dependent on the surface form but also on other words in its context. In this paper, we present a language-agnostic approach to morphological disambiguation. We address the problem of using context in morphological disambiguation by presenting several LSTM-based neural architectures that encode long-range surface-level and analysis-level contextual dependencies. We applied our approach to Turkish, Russian, and Arabic to compare effectiveness across languages, matching state-of-the-art results in two of the three languages. Our results also demonstrate that while context plays a role in learning how to disambiguate, the type and amount of context needed varies between languages.

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Asynchronous Parallel Learning for Neural Networks and Structured Models with Dense Features
Xu Sun

Existing asynchronous parallel learning methods are only for the sparse feature models, and they face new challenges for the dense feature models like neural networks (e.g., LSTM, RNN). The problem for dense features is that asynchronous parallel learning brings gradient errors derived from overwrite actions. We show that gradient errors are very common and inevitable. Nevertheless, our theoretical analysis shows that the learning process with gradient errors can still be convergent towards the optimum of objective functions for many practical applications. Thus, we propose a simple method AsynGrad for asynchronous parallel learning with gradient error. Base on various dense feature models (LSTM, dense-CRF) and various NLP tasks, experiments show that AsynGrad achieves substantial improvement on training speed, and without any loss on accuracy.

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An Empirical Exploration of Skip Connections for Sequential Tagging
Huijia Wu | Jiajun Zhang | Chengqing Zong

In this paper, we empirically explore the effects of various kinds of skip connections in stacked bidirectional LSTMs for sequential tagging. We investigate three kinds of skip connections connecting to LSTM cells: (a) skip connections to the gates, (b) skip connections to the internal states and (c) skip connections to the cell outputs. We present comprehensive experiments showing that skip connections to cell outputs outperform the remaining two. Furthermore, we observe that using gated identity functions as skip mappings works pretty well. Based on this novel skip connections, we successfully train deep stacked bidirectional LSTM models and obtain state-of-the-art results on CCG supertagging and comparable results on POS tagging.

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Exploring Text Links for Coherent Multi-Document Summarization
Xun Wang | Masaaki Nishino | Tsutomu Hirao | Katsuhito Sudoh | Masaaki Nagata

Summarization aims to represent source documents by a shortened passage. Existing methods focus on the extraction of key information, but often neglect coherence. Hence the generated summaries suffer from a lack of readability. To address this problem, we have developed a graph-based method by exploring the links between text to produce coherent summaries. Our approach involves finding a sequence of sentences that best represent the key information in a coherent way. In contrast to the previous methods that focus only on salience, the proposed method addresses both coherence and informativeness based on textual linkages. We conduct experiments on the DUC2004 summarization task data set. A performance comparison reveals that the summaries generated by the proposed system achieve comparable results in terms of the ROUGE metric, and show improvements in readability by human evaluation.

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Syntactic realization with data-driven neural tree grammars
Brian McMahan | Matthew Stone

A key component in surface realization in natural language generation is to choose concrete syntactic relationships to express a target meaning. We develop a new method for syntactic choice based on learning a stochastic tree grammar in a neural architecture. This framework can exploit state-of-the-art methods for modeling word sequences and generalizing across vocabulary. We also induce embeddings to generalize over elementary tree structures and exploit a tree recurrence over the input structure to model long-distance influences between NLG choices. We evaluate the models on the task of linearizing unannotated dependency trees, documenting the contribution of our modeling techniques to improvements in both accuracy and run time.

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Abstractive News Summarization based on Event Semantic Link Network
Wei Li | Lei He | Hai Zhuge

This paper studies the abstractive multi-document summarization for event-oriented news texts through event information extraction and abstract representation. Fine-grained event mentions and semantic relations between them are extracted to build a unified and connected event semantic link network, an abstract representation of source texts. A network reduction algorithm is proposed to summarize the most salient and coherent event information. New sentences with good linguistic quality are automatically generated and selected through sentences over-generation and greedy-selection processes. Experimental results on DUC 2006 and DUC 2007 datasets show that our system significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art extractive and abstractive baselines under both pyramid and ROUGE evaluation metrics.

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A General Optimization Framework for Multi-Document Summarization Using Genetic Algorithms and Swarm Intelligence
Maxime Peyrard | Judith Eckle-Kohler

Extracting summaries via integer linear programming and submodularity are popular and successful techniques in extractive multi-document summarization. However, many interesting optimization objectives are neither submodular nor factorizable into an integer linear program. We address this issue and present a general optimization framework where any function of input documents and a system summary can be plugged in. Our framework includes two kinds of summarizers – one based on genetic algorithms, the other using a swarm intelligence approach. In our experimental evaluation, we investigate the optimization of two information-theoretic summary evaluation metrics and find that our framework yields competitive results compared to several strong summarization baselines. Our comparative analysis of the genetic and swarm summarizers reveals interesting complementary properties.

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Exploiting Sentence and Context Representations in Deep Neural Models for Spoken Language Understanding
Lina M. Rojas-Barahona | Milica Gašić | Nikola Mrkšić | Pei-Hao Su | Stefan Ultes | Tsung-Hsien Wen | Steve Young

This paper presents a deep learning architecture for the semantic decoder component of a Statistical Spoken Dialogue System. In a slot-filling dialogue, the semantic decoder predicts the dialogue act and a set of slot-value pairs from a set of n-best hypotheses returned by the Automatic Speech Recognition. Most current models for spoken language understanding assume (i) word-aligned semantic annotations as in sequence taggers and (ii) delexicalisation, or a mapping of input words to domain-specific concepts using heuristics that try to capture morphological variation but that do not scale to other domains nor to language variation (e.g., morphology, synonyms, paraphrasing ). In this work the semantic decoder is trained using unaligned semantic annotations and it uses distributed semantic representation learning to overcome the limitations of explicit delexicalisation. The proposed architecture uses a convolutional neural network for the sentence representation and a long-short term memory network for the context representation. Results are presented for the publicly available DSTC2 corpus and an In-car corpus which is similar to DSTC2 but has a significantly higher word error rate (WER).

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Predictive Incremental Parsing Helps Language Modeling
Arne Köhn | Timo Baumann

Predictive incremental parsing produces syntactic representations of sentences as they are produced, e.g. by typing or speaking. In order to generate connected parses for such unfinished sentences, upcoming word types can be hypothesized and structurally integrated with already realized words. For example, the presence of a determiner as the last word of a sentence prefix may indicate that a noun will appear somewhere in the completion of that sentence, and the determiner can be attached to the predicted noun. We combine the forward-looking parser predictions with backward-looking N-gram histories and analyze in a set of experiments the impact on language models, i.e. stronger discriminative power but also higher data sparsity. Conditioning N-gram models, MaxEnt models or RNN-LMs on parser predictions yields perplexity reductions of about 6%. Our method (a) retains online decoding capabilities and (b) incurs relatively little computational overhead which sets it apart from previous approaches that use syntax for language modeling. Our method is particularly attractive for modular systems that make use of a syntax parser anyway, e.g. as part of an understanding pipeline where predictive parsing improves language modeling at no additional cost.

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A Neural Attention Model for Disfluency Detection
Shaolei Wang | Wanxiang Che | Ting Liu

In this paper, we study the problem of disfluency detection using the encoder-decoder framework. We treat disfluency detection as a sequence-to-sequence problem and propose a neural attention-based model which can efficiently model the long-range dependencies between words and make the resulting sentence more likely to be grammatically correct. Our model firstly encode the source sentence with a bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory (BI-LSTM) and then use the neural attention as a pointer to select an ordered sub sequence of the input as the output. Experiments show that our model achieves the state-of-the-art f-score of 86.7% on the commonly used English Switchboard test set. We also evaluate the performance of our model on the in-house annotated Chinese data and achieve a significantly higher f-score compared to the baseline of CRF-based approach.

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Detecting Sentence Boundaries in Sanskrit Texts
Oliver Hellwig

The paper applies a deep recurrent neural network to the task of sentence boundary detection in Sanskrit, an important, yet underresourced ancient Indian language. The deep learning approach improves the F scores set by a metrical baseline and by a Conditional Random Field classifier by more than 10%.

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Consistent Word Segmentation, Part-of-Speech Tagging and Dependency Labelling Annotation for Chinese Language
Mo Shen | Wingmui Li | HyunJeong Choe | Chenhui Chu | Daisuke Kawahara | Sadao Kurohashi

In this paper, we propose a new annotation approach to Chinese word segmentation, part-of-speech (POS) tagging and dependency labelling that aims to overcome the two major issues in traditional morphology-based annotation: Inconsistency and data sparsity. We re-annotate the Penn Chinese Treebank 5.0 (CTB5) and demonstrate the advantages of this approach compared to the original CTB5 annotation through word segmentation, POS tagging and machine translation experiments.

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Attending to Characters in Neural Sequence Labeling Models
Marek Rei | Gamal Crichton | Sampo Pyysalo

Sequence labeling architectures use word embeddings for capturing similarity, but suffer when handling previously unseen or rare words. We investigate character-level extensions to such models and propose a novel architecture for combining alternative word representations. By using an attention mechanism, the model is able to dynamically decide how much information to use from a word- or character-level component. We evaluated different architectures on a range of sequence labeling datasets, and character-level extensions were found to improve performance on every benchmark. In addition, the proposed attention-based architecture delivered the best results even with a smaller number of trainable parameters.

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A Word Labeling Approach to Thai Sentence Boundary Detection and POS Tagging
Nina Zhou | AiTi Aw | Nattadaporn Lertcheva | Xuancong Wang

Previous studies on Thai Sentence Boundary Detection (SBD) mostly assumed sentence ends at a space disambiguation problem, which classified space either as an indicator for Sentence Boundary (SB) or non-Sentence Boundary (nSB). In this paper, we propose a word labeling approach which treats space as a normal word, and detects SB between any two words. This removes the restriction for SB to be oc-curred only at space and makes our system more robust for modern Thai writing. It is because in modern Thai writing, space is not consistently used to indicate SB. As syntactic information contributes to better SBD, we further propose a joint Part-Of-Speech (POS) tagging and SBD framework based on Factorial Conditional Random Field (FCRF) model. We compare the performance of our proposed ap-proach with reported methods on ORCHID corpus. We also performed experiments of FCRF model on the TaLAPi corpus. The results show that the word labelling approach has better performance than pre-vious space-based classification approaches and FCRF joint model outperforms LCRF model in terms of SBD in all experiments.

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Assigning Fine-grained PoS Tags based on High-precision Coarse-grained Tagging
Tobias Horsmann | Torsten Zesch

We propose a new approach to PoS tagging where in a first step, we assign a coarse-grained tag corresponding to the main syntactic category. Based on this high-precision decision, in the second step we utilize specially trained fine-grained models with heavily reduced decision complexity. By analyzing the system under oracle conditions, we show that there is a quite large potential for significantly outperforming a competitive baseline. When we take error-propagation from the coarse-grained tagging into account, our approach is on par with the state of the art. Our approach also allows tailoring the tagger towards recognizing single word classes which are of interest e.g. for researchers searching for specific phenomena in large corpora. In a case study, we significantly outperform a standard model that also makes use of the same optimizations.

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Data-Driven Morphological Analysis and Disambiguation for Morphologically Rich Languages and Universal Dependencies
Amir More | Reut Tsarfaty

Parsing texts into universal dependencies (UD) in realistic scenarios requires infrastructure for the morphological analysis and disambiguation (MA&D) of typologically different languages as a first tier. MA&D is particularly challenging in morphologically rich languages (MRLs), where the ambiguous space-delimited tokens ought to be disambiguated with respect to their constituent morphemes, each morpheme carrying its own tag and a rich set features. Here we present a novel, language-agnostic, framework for MA&D, based on a transition system with two variants — word-based and morpheme-based — and a dedicated transition to mitigate the biases of variable-length morpheme sequences. Our experiments on a Modern Hebrew case study show state of the art results, and we show that the morpheme-based MD consistently outperforms our word-based variant. We further illustrate the utility and multilingual coverage of our framework by morphologically analyzing and disambiguating the large set of languages in the UD treebanks.

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Automatic Syllabification for Manipuri language
Loitongbam Gyanendro Singh | Lenin Laitonjam | Sanasam Ranbir Singh

Development of hand crafted rule for syllabifying words of a language is an expensive task. This paper proposes several data-driven methods for automatic syllabification of words written in Manipuri language. Manipuri is one of the scheduled Indian languages. First, we propose a language-independent rule-based approach formulated using entropy based phonotactic segmentation. Second, we project the syllabification problem as a sequence labeling problem and investigate its effect using various sequence labeling approaches. Third, we combine the effect of sequence labeling and rule-based method and investigate the performance of the hybrid approach. From various experimental observations, it is evident that the proposed methods outperform the baseline rule-based method. The entropy based phonotactic segmentation provides a word accuracy of 96%, CRF (sequence labeling approach) provides 97% and hybrid approach provides 98% word accuracy.

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Learning to Distill: The Essence Vector Modeling Framework
Kuan-Yu Chen | Shih-Hung Liu | Berlin Chen | Hsin-Min Wang

In the context of natural language processing, representation learning has emerged as a newly active research subject because of its excellent performance in many applications. Learning representations of words is a pioneering study in this school of research. However, paragraph (or sentence and document) embedding learning is more suitable/reasonable for some tasks, such as sentiment classification and document summarization. Nevertheless, as far as we are aware, there is only a dearth of research focusing on launching unsupervised paragraph embedding methods. Classic paragraph embedding methods infer the representation of a given paragraph by considering all of the words occurring in the paragraph. Consequently, those stop or function words that occur frequently may mislead the embedding learning process to produce a misty paragraph representation. Motivated by these observations, our major contributions are twofold. First, we propose a novel unsupervised paragraph embedding method, named the essence vector (EV) model, which aims at not only distilling the most representative information from a paragraph but also excluding the general background information to produce a more informative low-dimensional vector representation for the paragraph. We evaluate the proposed EV model on benchmark sentiment classification and multi-document summarization tasks. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed embedding method. Second, in view of the increasing importance of spoken content processing, an extension of the EV model, named the denoising essence vector (D-EV) model, is proposed. The D-EV model not only inherits the advantages of the EV model but also can infer a more robust representation for a given spoken paragraph against imperfect speech recognition. The utility of the D-EV model is evaluated on a spoken document summarization task, confirming the effectiveness of the proposed embedding method in relation to several well-practiced and state-of-the-art summarization methods.

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Continuous Expressive Speaking Styles Synthesis based on CVSM and MR-HMM
Jaime Lorenzo-Trueba | Roberto Barra-Chicote | Ascension Gallardo-Antolin | Junichi Yamagishi | Juan M. Montero

This paper introduces a continuous system capable of automatically producing the most adequate speaking style to synthesize a desired target text. This is done thanks to a joint modeling of the acoustic and lexical parameters of the speaker models by adapting the CVSM projection of the training texts using MR-HMM techniques. As such, we consider that as long as sufficient variety in the training data is available, we should be able to model a continuous lexical space into a continuous acoustic space. The proposed continuous automatic text to speech system was evaluated by means of a perceptual evaluation in order to compare them with traditional approaches to the task. The system proved to be capable of conveying the correct expressiveness (average adequacy of 3.6) with an expressive strength comparable to oracle traditional expressive speech synthesis (average of 3.6) although with a drop in speech quality mainly due to the semi-continuous nature of the data (average quality of 2.9). This means that the proposed system is capable of improving traditional neutral systems without requiring any additional user interaction.

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An Automatic Prosody Tagger for Spontaneous Speech
Mónica Domínguez | Mireia Farrús | Leo Wanner

Speech prosody is known to be central in advanced communication technologies. However, despite the advances of theoretical studies in speech prosody, so far, no large scale prosody annotated resources that would facilitate empirical research and the development of empirical computational approaches are available. This is to a large extent due to the fact that current common prosody annotation conventions offer a descriptive framework of intonation contours and phrasing based on labels. This makes it difficult to reach a satisfactory inter-annotator agreement during the annotation of gold standard annotations and, subsequently, to create consistent large scale annotations. To address this problem, we present an annotation schema for prominence and boundary labeling of prosodic phrases based upon acoustic parameters and a tagger for prosody annotation at the prosodic phrase level. Evaluation proves that inter-annotator agreement reaches satisfactory values, from 0.60 to 0.80 Cohen’s kappa, while the prosody tagger achieves acceptable recall and f-measure figures for five spontaneous samples used in the evaluation of monologue and dialogue formats in English and Spanish. The work presented in this paper is a first step towards a semi-automatic acquisition of large corpora for empirical prosodic analysis.

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Frustratingly Easy Neural Domain Adaptation
Young-Bum Kim | Karl Stratos | Ruhi Sarikaya

Popular techniques for domain adaptation such as the feature augmentation method of Daumé III (2009) have mostly been considered for sparse binary-valued features, but not for dense real-valued features such as those used in neural networks. In this paper, we describe simple neural extensions of these techniques. First, we propose a natural generalization of the feature augmentation method that uses K + 1 LSTMs where one model captures global patterns across all K domains and the remaining K models capture domain-specific information. Second, we propose a novel application of the framework for learning shared structures by Ando and Zhang (2005) to domain adaptation, and also provide a neural extension of their approach. In experiments on slot tagging over 17 domains, our methods give clear performance improvement over Daumé III (2009) applied on feature-rich CRFs.

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A House United: Bridging the Script and Lexical Barrier between Hindi and Urdu
Riyaz A. Bhat | Irshad A. Bhat | Naman Jain | Dipti Misra Sharma

In Computational Linguistics, Hindi and Urdu are not viewed as a monolithic entity and have received separate attention with respect to their text processing. From part-of-speech tagging to machine translation, models are separately trained for both Hindi and Urdu despite the fact that they represent the same language. The reasons mainly are their divergent literary vocabularies and separate orthographies, and probably also their political status and the social perception that they are two separate languages. In this article, we propose a simple but efficient approach to bridge the lexical and orthographic differences between Hindi and Urdu texts. With respect to text processing, addressing the differences between the Hindi and Urdu texts would be beneficial in the following ways: (a) instead of training separate models, their individual resources can be augmented to train single, unified models for better generalization, and (b) their individual text processing applications can be used interchangeably under varied resource conditions. To remove the script barrier, we learn accurate statistical transliteration models which use sentence-level decoding to resolve word ambiguity. Similarly, we learn cross-register word embeddings from the harmonized Hindi and Urdu corpora to nullify their lexical divergences. As a proof of the concept, we evaluate our approach on the Hindi and Urdu dependency parsing under two scenarios: (a) resource sharing, and (b) resource augmentation. We demonstrate that a neural network-based dependency parser trained on augmented, harmonized Hindi and Urdu resources performs significantly better than the parsing models trained separately on the individual resources. We also show that we can achieve near state-of-the-art results when the parsers are used interchangeably.

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Deeper syntax for better semantic parsing
Olivier Michalon | Corentin Ribeyre | Marie Candito | Alexis Nasr

Syntax plays an important role in the task of predicting the semantic structure of a sentence. But syntactic phenomena such as alternations, control and raising tend to obfuscate the relation between syntax and semantics. In this paper we predict the semantic structure of a sentence using a deeper syntax than what is usually done. This deep syntactic representation abstracts away from purely syntactic phenomena and proposes a structural organization of the sentence that is closer to the semantic representation. Experiments conducted on a French corpus annotated with semantic frames showed that a semantic parser reaches better performances with such a deep syntactic input.

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Language Independent Dependency to Constituent Tree Conversion
Young-Suk Lee | Zhiguo Wang

We present a dependency to constituent tree conversion technique that aims to improve constituent parsing accuracies by leveraging dependency treebanks available in a wide variety in many languages. The technique works in two steps. First, a partial constituent tree is derived from a dependency tree with a very simple deterministic algorithm that is both language and dependency type independent. Second, a complete high accuracy constituent tree is derived with a constraint-based parser, which uses the partial constituent tree as external constraints. Evaluated on Section 22 of the WSJ Treebank, the technique achieves the state-of-the-art conversion F-score 95.6. When applied to English Universal Dependency treebank and German CoNLL2006 treebank, the converted treebanks added to the human-annotated constituent parser training corpus improve parsing F-scores significantly for both languages.

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Promoting multiword expressions in A* TAG parsing
Jakub Waszczuk | Agata Savary | Yannick Parmentier

Multiword expressions (MWEs) are pervasive in natural languages and often have both idiomatic and compositional readings, which leads to high syntactic ambiguity. We show that for some MWE types idiomatic readings are usually the correct ones. We propose a heuristic for an A* parser for Tree Adjoining Grammars which benefits from this knowledge by promoting MWE-oriented analyses. This strategy leads to a substantial reduction in the parsing search space in case of true positive MWE occurrences, while avoiding parsing failures in case of false positives.

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Incrementally Learning a Dependency Parser to Support Language Documentation in Field Linguistics
Morgan Ulinski | Julia Hirschberg | Owen Rambow

We present experiments in incrementally learning a dependency parser. The parser will be used in the WordsEye Linguistics Tools (WELT) (Ulinski et al., 2014) which supports field linguists documenting a language’s syntax and semantics. Our goal is to make syntactic annotation faster for field linguists. We have created a new parallel corpus of descriptions of spatial relations and motion events, based on pictures and video clips used by field linguists for elicitation of language from native speaker informants. We collected descriptions for each picture and video from native speakers in English, Spanish, German, and Egyptian Arabic. We compare the performance of MSTParser (McDonald et al., 2006) and MaltParser (Nivre et al., 2006) when trained on small amounts of this data. We find that MaltParser achieves the best performance. We also present the results of experiments using the parser to assist with annotation. We find that even when the parser is trained on a single sentence from the corpus, annotation time significantly decreases.

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Inducing Multilingual Text Analysis Tools Using Bidirectional Recurrent Neural Networks
Othman Zennaki | Nasredine Semmar | Laurent Besacier

This work focuses on the development of linguistic analysis tools for resource-poor languages. We use a parallel corpus to produce a multilingual word representation based only on sentence level alignment. This representation is combined with the annotated source side (resource-rich language) of the parallel corpus to train text analysis tools for resource-poor languages. Our approach is based on Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) and has the following advantages: (a) it does not use word alignment information, (b) it does not assume any knowledge about foreign languages, which makes it applicable to a wide range of resource-poor languages, (c) it provides truly multilingual taggers. In a previous study, we proposed a method based on Simple RNN to automatically induce a Part-Of-Speech (POS) tagger. In this paper, we propose an improvement of our neural model. We investigate the Bidirectional RNN and the inclusion of external information (for instance low level information from Part-Of-Speech tags) in the RNN to train a more complex tagger (for instance, a multilingual super sense tagger). We demonstrate the validity and genericity of our method by using parallel corpora (obtained by manual or automatic translation). Our experiments are conducted to induce cross-lingual POS and super sense taggers.

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Bitext Name Tagging for Cross-lingual Entity Annotation Projection
Dongxu Zhang | Boliang Zhang | Xiaoman Pan | Xiaocheng Feng | Heng Ji | Weiran Xu

Annotation projection is a practical method to deal with the low resource problem in incident languages (IL) processing. Previous methods on annotation projection mainly relied on word alignment results without any training process, which led to noise propagation caused by word alignment errors. In this paper, we focus on the named entity recognition (NER) task and propose a weakly-supervised framework to project entity annotations from English to IL through bitexts. Instead of directly relying on word alignment results, this framework combines advantages of rule-based methods and deep learning methods by implementing two steps: First, generates a high-confidence entity annotation set on IL side with strict searching methods; Second, uses this high-confidence set to weakly supervise the model training. The model is finally used to accomplish the projecting process. Experimental results on two low-resource ILs show that the proposed method can generate better annotations projected from English-IL parallel corpora. The performance of IL name tagger can also be improved significantly by training on the newly projected IL annotation set.

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Determining the Multiword Expression Inventory of a Surprise Language
Bahar Salehi | Paul Cook | Timothy Baldwin

Much previous research on multiword expressions (MWEs) has focused on the token- and type-level tasks of MWE identification and extraction, respectively. Such studies typically target known prevalent MWE types in a given language. This paper describes the first attempt to learn the MWE inventory of a “surprise” language for which we have no explicit prior knowledge of MWE patterns, certainly no annotated MWE data, and not even a parallel corpus. Our proposed model is trained on a treebank with MWE relations of a source language, and can be applied to the monolingual corpus of the surprise language to identify its MWE construction types.

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A Hybrid Deep Learning Architecture for Sentiment Analysis
Md Shad Akhtar | Ayush Kumar | Asif Ekbal | Pushpak Bhattacharyya

In this paper, we propose a novel hybrid deep learning archtecture which is highly efficient for sentiment analysis in resource-poor languages. We learn sentiment embedded vectors from the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). These are augmented to a set of optimized features selected through a multi-objective optimization (MOO) framework. The sentiment augmented optimized vector obtained at the end is used for the training of SVM for sentiment classification. We evaluate our proposed approach for coarse-grained (i.e. sentence level) as well as fine-grained (i.e. aspect level) sentiment analysis on four Hindi datasets covering varying domains. In order to show that our proposed method is generic in nature we also evaluate it on two benchmark English datasets. Evaluation shows that the results of the proposed method are consistent across all the datasets and often outperforms the state-of-art systems. To the best of our knowledge, this is the very first attempt where such a deep learning model is used for less-resourced languages such as Hindi.

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Word Segmentation in Sanskrit Using Path Constrained Random Walks
Amrith Krishna | Bishal Santra | Pavankumar Satuluri | Sasi Prasanth Bandaru | Bhumi Faldu | Yajuvendra Singh | Pawan Goyal

In Sanskrit, the phonemes at the word boundaries undergo changes to form new phonemes through a process called as sandhi. A fused sentence can be segmented into multiple possible segmentations. We propose a word segmentation approach that predicts the most semantically valid segmentation for a given sentence. We treat the problem as a query expansion problem and use the path-constrained random walks framework to predict the correct segments.

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Mongolian Named Entity Recognition System with Rich Features
Weihua Wang | Feilong Bao | Guanglai Gao

In this paper, we first build a manually annotated named entity corpus of Mongolian. Then, we propose three morphological processing methods and study comprehensive features, including syllable features, lexical features, context features, morphological features and semantic features in Mongolian named entity recognition. Moreover, we also evaluate the influence of word cluster features on the system and combine all features together eventually. The experimental result shows that segmenting each suffix into an individual token achieves better results than deleting suffixes or using the suffixes as feature. The system based on segmenting suffixes with all proposed features yields benchmark result of F-measure=84.65 on this corpus.

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Appraising UMLS Coverage for Summarizing Medical Evidence
Elaheh ShafieiBavani | Mohammad Ebrahimi | Raymond Wong | Fang Chen

When making clinical decisions, practitioners need to rely on the most relevant evidence available. However, accessing a vast body of medical evidence and confronting with the issue of information overload can be challenging and time consuming. This paper proposes an effective summarizer for medical evidence by utilizing both UMLS and WordNet. Given a clinical query and a set of relevant abstracts, our aim is to generate a fluent, well-organized, and compact summary that answers the query. Analysis via ROUGE metrics shows that using WordNet as a general-purpose lexicon helps to capture the concepts not covered by the UMLS Metathesaurus, and hence significantly increases the performance. The effectiveness of our proposed approach is demonstrated by conducting a set of experiments over a specialized evidence-based medicine (EBM) corpus - which has been gathered and annotated for the purpose of biomedical text summarization.

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Large-scale Multi-class and Hierarchical Product Categorization for an E-commerce Giant
Ali Cevahir | Koji Murakami

In order to organize the large number of products listed in e-commerce sites, each product is usually assigned to one of the multi-level categories in the taxonomy tree. It is a time-consuming and difficult task for merchants to select proper categories within thousands of options for the products they sell. In this work, we propose an automatic classification tool to predict the matching category for a given product title and description. We used a combination of two different neural models, i.e., deep belief nets and deep autoencoders, for both titles and descriptions. We implemented a selective reconstruction approach for the input layer during the training of the deep neural networks, in order to scale-out for large-sized sparse feature vectors. GPUs are utilized in order to train neural networks in a reasonable time. We have trained our models for around 150 million products with a taxonomy tree with at most 5 levels that contains 28,338 leaf categories. Tests with millions of products show that our first predictions matches 81% of merchants’ assignments, when “others” categories are excluded.

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Product Classification in E-Commerce using Distributional Semantics
Vivek Gupta | Harish Karnick | Ashendra Bansal | Pradhuman Jhala

Product classification is the task of automatically predicting a taxonomy path for a product in a predefined taxonomy hierarchy given a textual product description or title. For efficient product classification we require a suitable representation for a document (the textual description of a product) feature vector and efficient and fast algorithms for prediction.To address the above challenges, we propose a new distributional semantics representation for document vector formation. We also develop a new two-level ensemble approach utilising (with respect to the taxonomy tree) path-wise, node-wise and depth-wise classifiers to reduce error in the final product classification task. Our experiments show the effectiveness of the distributional representation and the ensemble approach on data sets from a leading e-commerce platform and achieve improved results on various evaluation metrics compared to earlier approaches.

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AttSum: Joint Learning of Focusing and Summarization with Neural Attention
Ziqiang Cao | Wenjie Li | Sujian Li | Furu Wei | Yanran Li

Query relevance ranking and sentence saliency ranking are the two main tasks in extractive query-focused summarization. Previous supervised summarization systems often perform the two tasks in isolation. However, since reference summaries are the trade-off between relevance and saliency, using them as supervision, neither of the two rankers could be trained well. This paper proposes a novel summarization system called AttSum, which tackles the two tasks jointly. It automatically learns distributed representations for sentences as well as the document cluster. Meanwhile, it applies the attention mechanism to simulate the attentive reading of human behavior when a query is given. Extensive experiments are conducted on DUC query-focused summarization benchmark datasets. Without using any hand-crafted features, AttSum achieves competitive performance. We also observe that the sentences recognized to focus on the query indeed meet the query need.

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Using Relevant Public Posts to Enhance News Article Summarization
Chen Li | Zhongyu Wei | Yang Liu | Yang Jin | Fei Huang

A news article summary usually consists of 2-3 key sentences that reflect the gist of that news article. In this paper we explore using public posts following a new article to improve automatic summary generation for the news article. We propose different approaches to incorporate information from public posts, including using frequency information from the posts to re-estimate bigram weights in the ILP-based summarization model and to re-weight a dependency tree edge’s importance for sentence compression, directly selecting sentences from posts as the final summary, and finally a strategy to combine the summarization results generated from news articles and posts. Our experiments on data collected from Facebook show that relevant public posts provide useful information and can be effectively leveraged to improve news article summarization results.

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A Proposition-Based Abstractive Summariser
Yimai Fang | Haoyue Zhu | Ewa Muszyńska | Alexander Kuhnle | Simone Teufel

Abstractive summarisation is not yet common amongst today’s deployed and research systems. Most existing systems either extract sentences or compress individual sentences. In this paper, we present a summariser that works by a different paradigm. It is a further development of an existing summariser that has an incremental, proposition-based content selection process but lacks a natural language (NL) generator for the final output. Using an NL generator, we can now produce the summary text to directly reflect the selected propositions. Our evaluation compares textual quality of our system to the earlier preliminary output method, and also uses ROUGE to compare to various summarisers that use the traditional method of sentence extraction, followed by compression. Our results suggest that cutting out the middle-man of sentence extraction can lead to better abstractive summaries.

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Cross-lingual Learning of an Open-domain Semantic Parser
Kilian Evang | Johan Bos

We propose a method for learning semantic CCG parsers by projecting annotations via a parallel corpus. The method opens an avenue towards cheaply creating multilingual semantic parsers mapping open-domain text to formal meaning representations. A first cross-lingually learned Dutch (from English) semantic parser obtains f-scores ranging from 42.99% to 69.22% depending on the level of label informativity taken into account, compared to 58.40% to 78.88% for the underlying source-language system. These are promising numbers compared to state-of-the-art semantic parsing in open domains.

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A subtree-based factorization of dependency parsing
Qiuye Zhao | Qun Liu

We propose a dependency parsing pipeline, in which the parsing of long-distance projections and localized dependencies are explicitly decomposed at the input level. A chosen baseline dependency parsing model performs only on ‘carved’ sequences at the second stage, which are transformed from coarse constituent parsing outputs at the first stage. When k-best constituent parsing outputs are kept, a third-stage is required to search for an optimal combination of the overlapped dependency subtrees. In this sense, our dependency model is subtree-factored. We explore alternative approaches for scoring subtrees, including feature-based models as well as continuous representations. The search for optimal subset to combine is formulated as an ILP problem. This framework especially benefits the models poor on long sentences, generally improving baselines by 0.75-1.28 (UAS) on English, achieving comparable performance with high-order models but faster. For Chinese, the most notable increase is as high as 3.63 (UAS) when the proposed framework is applied to first-order parsing models.

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K-SRL: Instance-based Learning for Semantic Role Labeling
Alan Akbik | Yunyao Li

Semantic role labeling (SRL) is the task of identifying and labeling predicate-argument structures in sentences with semantic frame and role labels. A known challenge in SRL is the large number of low-frequency exceptions in training data, which are highly context-specific and difficult to generalize. To overcome this challenge, we propose the use of instance-based learning that performs no explicit generalization, but rather extrapolates predictions from the most similar instances in the training data. We present a variant of k-nearest neighbors (kNN) classification with composite features to identify nearest neighbors for SRL. We show that high-quality predictions can be derived from a very small number of similar instances. In a comparative evaluation we experimentally demonstrate that our instance-based learning approach significantly outperforms current state-of-the-art systems on both in-domain and out-of-domain data, reaching F1-scores of 89,28% and 79.91% respectively.

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Keystroke dynamics as signal for shallow syntactic parsing
Barbara Plank

Keystroke dynamics have been extensively used in psycholinguistic and writing research to gain insights into cognitive processing. But do keystroke logs contain actual signal that can be used to learn better natural language processing models? We postulate that keystroke dynamics contain information about syntactic structure that can inform shallow syntactic parsing. To test this hypothesis, we explore labels derived from keystroke logs as auxiliary task in a multi-task bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory (bi-LSTM). Our results show promising results on two shallow syntactic parsing tasks, chunking and CCG supertagging. Our model is simple, has the advantage that data can come from distinct sources, and produces models that are significantly better than models trained on the text annotations alone.

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A Bayesian model for joint word alignment and part-of-speech transfer
Robert Östling

Current methods for word alignment require considerable amounts of parallel text to deliver accurate results, a requirement which is met only for a small minority of the world’s approximately 7,000 languages. We show that by jointly performing word alignment and annotation transfer in a novel Bayesian model, alignment accuracy can be improved for language pairs where annotations are available for only one of the languages—a finding which could facilitate the study and processing of a vast number of low-resource languages. We also present an evaluation where our method is used to perform single-source and multi-source part-of-speech transfer with 22 translations of the same text in four different languages. This allows us to quantify the considerable variation in accuracy depending on the specific source text(s) used, even with different translations into the same language.

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Splitting compounds with ngrams
Naomi Tachikawa Shapiro

Compound words with unmarked word boundaries are problematic for many tasks in NLP and computational linguistics, including information extraction, machine translation, and syllabification. This paper introduces a simple, proof-of-concept language modeling approach to automatic compound segmentation, as applied to Finnish. This approach utilizes an off-the-shelf morphological analyzer to split training words into their constituent morphemes. A language model is subsequently trained on ngrams composed of morphemes, morpheme boundaries, and word boundaries. Linguistic constraints are then used to weed out phonotactically ill-formed segmentations, thereby allowing the language model to select the best grammatical segmentation. This approach achieves an accuracy of ~97%.

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GAKE: Graph Aware Knowledge Embedding
Jun Feng | Minlie Huang | Yang Yang | Xiaoyan Zhu

Knowledge embedding, which projects triples in a given knowledge base to d-dimensional vectors, has attracted considerable research efforts recently. Most existing approaches treat the given knowledge base as a set of triplets, each of whose representation is then learned separately. However, as a fact, triples are connected and depend on each other. In this paper, we propose a graph aware knowledge embedding method (GAKE), which formulates knowledge base as a directed graph, and learns representations for any vertices or edges by leveraging the graph’s structural information. We introduce three types of graph context for embedding: neighbor context, path context, and edge context, each reflects properties of knowledge from different perspectives. We also design an attention mechanism to learn representative power of different vertices or edges. To validate our method, we conduct several experiments on two tasks. Experimental results suggest that our method outperforms several state-of-art knowledge embedding models.

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Ranking Responses Oriented to Conversational Relevance in Chat-bots
Bowen Wu | Baoxun Wang | Hui Xue

For automatic chatting systems, it is indeed a great challenge to reply the given query considering the conversation history, rather than based on the query only. This paper proposes a deep neural network to address the context-aware response ranking problem by end-to-end learning, so as to help to select conversationally relevant candidate. By combining the multi-column convolutional layer and the recurrent layer, our model is able to model the semantics of the utterance sequence by grasping the semantic clue within the conversation, on the basis of the effective representation for each sentence. Especially, the network utilizes attention pooling to further emphasis the importance of essential words in conversations, thus the representations of contexts tend to be more meaningful and the performance of candidate ranking is notably improved. Meanwhile, due to the adoption of attention pooling, it is possible to visualize the semantic clues. The experimental results on the large amount of conversation data from social media have shown that our approach is promising for quantifying the conversational relevance of responses, and indicated its good potential for building practical IR based chat-bots.

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Probabilistic Prototype Model for Serendipitous Property Mining
Taesung Lee | Seung-won Hwang | Zhongyuan Wang

Besides providing the relevant information, amusing users has been an important role of the web. Many web sites provide serendipitous (unexpected but relevant) information to draw user traffic. In this paper, we study the representative scenario of mining an amusing quiz. An existing approach leverages a knowledge base to mine an unexpected property then find quiz questions on such property, based on prototype theory in cognitive science. However, existing deterministic model is vulnerable to noise in the knowledge base. Therefore, we instead propose to leverage probabilistic approach to build a prototype that can overcome noise. Our extensive empirical study shows that our approach not only significantly outperforms baselines by 0.06 in accuracy, and 0.11 in serendipity but also shows higher relevance than the traditional relevance-pursuing baseline using TF-IDF.

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Identifying Cross-Cultural Differences in Word Usage
Aparna Garimella | Rada Mihalcea | James Pennebaker

Personal writings have inspired researchers in the fields of linguistics and psychology to study the relationship between language and culture to better understand the psychology of people across different cultures. In this paper, we explore this relation by developing cross-cultural word models to identify words with cultural bias – i.e., words that are used in significantly different ways by speakers from different cultures. Focusing specifically on two cultures: United States and Australia, we identify a set of words with significant usage differences, and further investigate these words through feature analysis and topic modeling, shedding light on the attributes of language that contribute to these differences.

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Reading-Time Annotations for “Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese”
Masayuki Asahara | Hajime Ono | Edson T. Miyamoto

The Dundee Eyetracking Corpus contains eyetracking data collected while native speakers of English and French read newspaper editorial articles. Similar resources for other languages are still rare, especially for languages in which words are not overtly delimited with spaces. This is a report on a project to build an eyetracking corpus for Japanese. Measurements were collected while 24 native speakers of Japanese read excerpts from the Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese Texts were presented with or without segmentation (i.e. with or without space at the boundaries between bunsetsu segmentations) and with two types of methodologies (eyetracking and self-paced reading presentation). Readers’ background information including vocabulary-size estimation and Japanese reading-span score were also collected. As an example of the possible uses for the corpus, we also report analyses investigating the phenomena of anti-locality.

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“How Bullying is this Message?”: A Psychometric Thermometer for Bullying
Parma Nand | Rivindu Perera | Abhijeet Kasture

Cyberbullying statistics are shocking, the number of affected young people is increasing dramatically with the affordability of mobile technology devices combined with a growing number of social networks. This paper proposes a framework to analyse Tweets with the goal to identify cyberharassment in social networks as an important step to protect people from cyberbullying. The proposed framework incorporates latent or hidden variables with supervised learning to determine potential bullying cases resembling short blogging type texts such as Tweets. It uses the LIWC2007 - tool that translates Tweet messages into 67 numeric values, representing 67 word categories. The output vectors are then used as features for four different classifiers implemented in Weka. Tests on all four classifiers delivered encouraging predictive capability of Tweet messages. Overall it was found that the use of numeric psychometric values outperformed the same algorithms using both filtered and unfiltered words as features. The best performing algorithms was Random Forest with an F1-value of 0.947 using psychometric features compared to a value of 0.847 for the same algorithm using words as features.

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Learning grammatical categories using paradigmatic representations: Substitute words for language acquisition
Mehmet Ali Yatbaz | Volkan Cirik | Aylin Küntay | Deniz Yuret

Learning syntactic categories is a fundamental task in language acquisition. Previous studies show that co-occurrence patterns of preceding and following words are essential to group words into categories. However, the neighboring words, or frames, are rarely repeated exactly in the data. This creates data sparsity and hampers learning for frame based models. In this work, we propose a paradigmatic representation of word context which uses probable substitutes instead of frames. Our experiments on child-directed speech show that models based on probable substitutes learn more accurate categories with fewer examples compared to models based on frames.

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Understanding the Lexical Simplification Needs of Non-Native Speakers of English
Gustavo Paetzold | Lucia Specia

We report three user studies in which the Lexical Simplification needs of non-native English speakers are investigated. Our analyses feature valuable new insight on the relationship between the non-natives’ notion of complexity and various morphological, semantic and lexical word properties. Some of our findings contradict long-standing misconceptions about word simplicity. The data produced in our studies consists of 211,564 annotations made by 1,100 volunteers, which we hope will guide forthcoming research on Text Simplification for non-native speakers of English.

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How Interlocutors Coordinate with each other within Emotional Segments?
Firoj Alam | Shammur Absar Chowdhury | Morena Danieli | Giuseppe Riccardi

In this paper, we aim to investigate the coordination of interlocutors behavior in different emotional segments. Conversational coordination between the interlocutors is the tendency of speakers to predict and adjust each other accordingly on an ongoing conversation. In order to find such a coordination, we investigated 1) lexical similarities between the speakers in each emotional segments, 2) correlation between the interlocutors using psycholinguistic features, such as linguistic styles, psychological process, personal concerns among others, and 3) relation of interlocutors turn-taking behaviors such as competitiveness. To study the degree of coordination in different emotional segments, we conducted our experiments using real dyadic conversations collected from call centers in which agent’s emotional state include empathy and customer’s emotional states include anger and frustration. Our findings suggest that the most coordination occurs between the interlocutors inside anger segments, where as, a little coordination was observed when the agent was empathic, even though an increase in the amount of non-competitive overlaps was observed. We found no significant difference between anger and frustration segment in terms of turn-taking behaviors. However, the length of pause significantly decreases in the preceding segment of anger where as it increases in the preceding segment of frustration.

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Advancing Linguistic Features and Insights by Label-informed Feature Grouping: An Exploration in the Context of Native Language Identification
Serhiy Bykh | Detmar Meurers

We propose a hierarchical clustering approach designed to group linguistic features for supervised machine learning that is inspired by variationist linguistics. The method makes it possible to abstract away from the individual feature occurrences by grouping features together that behave alike with respect to the target class, thus providing a new, more general perspective on the data. On the one hand, it reduces data sparsity, leading to quantitative performance gains. On the other, it supports the formation and evaluation of hypotheses about individual choices of linguistic structures. We explore the method using features based on verb subcategorization information and evaluate the approach in the context of the Native Language Identification (NLI) task.

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Modeling Diachronic Change in Scientific Writing with Information Density
Raphael Rubino | Stefania Degaetano-Ortlieb | Elke Teich | Josef van Genabith

Previous linguistic research on scientific writing has shown that language use in the scientific domain varies considerably in register and style over time. In this paper we investigate the introduction of information theory inspired features to study long term diachronic change on three levels: lexis, part-of-speech and syntax. Our approach is based on distinguishing between sentences from 19th and 20th century scientific abstracts using supervised classification models. To the best of our knowledge, the introduction of information theoretic features to this task is novel. We show that these features outperform more traditional features, such as token or character n-grams, while leading to more compact models. We present a detailed analysis of feature informativeness in order to gain a better understanding of diachronic change on different linguistic levels.

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Different Contexts Lead to Different Word Embeddings
Wenpeng Hu | Jiajun Zhang | Nan Zheng

Recent work for learning word representations has applied successfully to many NLP applications, such as sentiment analysis and question answering. However, most of these models assume a single vector per word type without considering polysemy and homonymy. In this paper, we present an extension to the CBOW model which not only improves the quality of embeddings but also makes embeddings suitable for polysemy. It differs from most of the related work in that it learns one semantic center embedding and one context bias instead of training multiple embeddings per word type. Different context leads to different bias which is defined as the weighted average embeddings of local context. Experimental results on similarity task and analogy task show that the word representations learned by the proposed method outperform the competitive baselines.

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Machine Learning for Metrical Analysis of English Poetry
Manex Agirrezabal | Iñaki Alegria | Mans Hulden

In this work we tackle the challenge of identifying rhythmic patterns in poetry written in English. Although poetry is a literary form that makes use standard meters usually repeated among different authors, we will see in this paper how performing such analyses is a difficult task in machine learning due to the unexpected deviations from such standard patterns. After breaking down some examples of classical poetry, we apply a number of NLP techniques for the scansion of poetry, training and testing our systems against a human-annotated corpus. With these experiments, our purpose is establish a baseline of automatic scansion of poetry using NLP tools in a straightforward manner and to raise awareness of the difficulties of this task.

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Automated speech-unit delimitation in spoken learner English
Russell Moore | Andrew Caines | Calbert Graham | Paula Buttery

In order to apply computational linguistic analyses and pass information to downstream applications, transcriptions of speech obtained via automatic speech recognition (ASR) need to be divided into smaller meaningful units, in a task we refer to as ‘speech-unit (SU) delimitation’. We closely recreate the automatic delimitation system described by Lee and Glass (2012), ‘Sentence detection using multiple annotations’, Proceedings of INTERSPEECH, which combines a prosodic model, language model and speech-unit length model in log-linear fashion. Since state-of-the-art natural language processing (NLP) tools have been developed to deal with written text and its characteristic sentence-like units, SU delimitation helps bridge the gap between ASR and NLP, by normalising spoken data into a more canonical format. Previous work has focused on native speaker recordings; we test the system of Lee and Glass (2012) on non-native speaker (or ‘learner’) data, achieving performance above the state-of-the-art. We also consider alternative evaluation metrics which move away from the idea of a single ‘truth’ in SU delimitation, and frame this work in the context of downstream NLP applications.

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Learning to Identify Sentence Parallelism in Student Essays
Wei Song | Tong Liu | Ruiji Fu | Lizhen Liu | Hanshi Wang | Ting Liu

Parallelism is an important rhetorical device. We propose a machine learning approach for automated sentence parallelism identification in student essays. We build an essay dataset with sentence level parallelism annotated. We derive features by combining generalized word alignment strategies and the alignment measures between word sequences. The experimental results show that sentence parallelism can be effectively identified with a F1 score of 82% at pair-wise level and 72% at parallelism chunk level.Based on this approach, we automatically identify sentence parallelism in more than 2000 student essays and study the correlation between the use of sentence parallelism and the types and quality of essays.

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Evaluating anaphora and coreference resolution to improve automatic keyphrase extraction
Marco Basaldella | Giorgia Chiaradia | Carlo Tasso

In this paper we analyze the effectiveness of using linguistic knowledge from coreference and anaphora resolution for improving the performance for supervised keyphrase extraction. In order to verify the impact of these features, we define a baseline keyphrase extraction system and evaluate its performance on a standard dataset using different machine learning algorithms. Then, we consider new sets of features by adding combinations of the linguistic features we propose and we evaluate the new performance of the system. We also use anaphora and coreference resolution to transform the documents, trying to simulate the cohesion process performed by the human mind. We found that our approach has a slightly positive impact on the performance of automatic keyphrase extraction, in particular when considering the ranking of the results.

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Retrieving Occurrences of Grammatical Constructions
Anna Ehrlemark | Richard Johansson | Benjamin Lyngfelt

Finding authentic examples of grammatical constructions is central in constructionist approaches to linguistics, language processing, and second language learning. In this paper, we address this problem as an information retrieval (IR) task. To facilitate research in this area, we built a benchmark collection by annotating the occurrences of six constructions in a Swedish corpus. Furthermore, we implemented a simple and flexible retrieval system for finding construction occurrences, in which the user specifies a ranking function using lexical-semantic similarities (lexicon-based or distributional). The system was evaluated using standard IR metrics on the new benchmark, and we saw that lexical-semantical rerankers improve significantly over a purely surface-oriented system, but must be carefully tailored for each individual construction.

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Automatic Extraction of Learner Errors in ESL Sentences Using Linguistically Enhanced Alignments
Mariano Felice | Christopher Bryant | Ted Briscoe

We propose a new method of automatically extracting learner errors from parallel English as a Second Language (ESL) sentences in an effort to regularise annotation formats and reduce inconsistencies. Specifically, given an original and corrected sentence, our method first uses a linguistically enhanced alignment algorithm to determine the most likely mappings between tokens, and secondly employs a rule-based function to decide which alignments should be merged. Our method beats all previous approaches on the tested datasets, achieving state-of-the-art results for automatic error extraction.

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Contrasting Vertical and Horizontal Transmission of Typological Features
Kenji Yamauchi | Yugo Murawaki

Linguistic typology provides features that have a potential of uncovering deep phylogenetic relations among the world’s languages. One of the key challenges in using typological features for phylogenetic inference is that horizontal (spatial) transmission obscures vertical (phylogenetic) signals. In this paper, we characterize typological features with respect to the relative strength of vertical and horizontal transmission. To do this, we first construct (1) a spatial neighbor graph of languages and (2) a phylogenetic neighbor graph by collapsing known language families. We then develop an autologistic model that predicts a feature’s distribution from these two graphs. In the experiments, we managed to separate vertically and/or horizontally stable features from unstable ones, and the results are largely consistent with previous findings.

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How Regular is Japanese Loanword Adaptation? A Computational Study
Lingshuang Mao | Mans Hulden

The modifications that foreign loanwords undergo when adapted into Japanese have been the subject of much study in linguistics. The scholarly interest of the topic can be attributed to the fact that Japanese loanwords undergo a complex series of phonological adaptations, something which has been puzzling scholars for decades. While previous studies of Japanese loanword accommodation have focused on specific phonological phenomena of limited scope, the current study leverages computational methods to provide a more complete description of all the sound changes that occur when adopting English words into Japanese. To investigate this, we have developed a parallel corpus of 250 English transcriptions and their respective Japanese equivalents. These words were then used to develop a wide-coverage finite state transducer based phonological grammar that mimics the behavior of the Japanese adaption process. By developing rules with the goal of accounting completely for a large number of borrowing and analyzing forms mistakenly generated by the system, we discovered an internal inconsistency inside the loanword phonology of the Japanese language, something arguably underestimated by previous studies. The result of the investigation suggests that there are multiple ‘dimensions’ that shape the output form of the current Japanese loanwords. These dimensions include orthography, phonetics, and historical changes.

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Using Linguistic Data for English and Spanish Verb-Noun Combination Identification
Uxoa Iñurrieta | Arantza Díaz de Ilarraza | Gorka Labaka | Kepa Sarasola | Itziar Aduriz | John Carroll

We present a linguistic analysis of a set of English and Spanish verb+noun combinations (VNCs), and a method to use this information to improve VNC identification. Firstly, a sample of frequent VNCs are analysed in-depth and tagged along lexico-semantic and morphosyntactic dimensions, obtaining satisfactory inter-annotator agreement scores. Then, a VNC identification experiment is undertaken, where the analysed linguistic data is combined with chunking information and syntactic dependencies. A comparison between the results of the experiment and the results obtained by a basic detection method shows that VNC identification can be greatly improved by using linguistic information, as a large number of additional occurrences are detected with high precision.

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Analyzing Gender Bias in Student Evaluations
Andamlak Terkik | Emily Prud’hommeaux | Cecilia Ovesdotter Alm | Christopher Homan | Scott Franklin

University students in the United States are routinely asked to provide feedback on the quality of the instruction they have received. Such feedback is widely used by university administrators to evaluate teaching ability, despite growing evidence that students assign lower numerical scores to women and people of color, regardless of the actual quality of instruction. In this paper, we analyze students’ written comments on faculty evaluation forms spanning eight years and five STEM disciplines in order to determine whether open-ended comments reflect these same biases. First, we apply sentiment analysis techniques to the corpus of comments to determine the overall affect of each comment. We then use this information, in combination with other features, to explore whether there is bias in how students describe their instructors. We show that while the gender of the evaluated instructor does not seem to affect students’ expressed level of overall satisfaction with their instruction, it does strongly influence the language that they use to describe their instructors and their experience in class.

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Adverse Drug Reaction Classification With Deep Neural Networks
Trung Huynh | Yulan He | Alistair Willis | Stefan Rueger

We study the problem of detecting sentences describing adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and frame the problem as binary classification. We investigate different neural network (NN) architectures for ADR classification. In particular, we propose two new neural network models, Convolutional Recurrent Neural Network (CRNN) by concatenating convolutional neural networks with recurrent neural networks, and Convolutional Neural Network with Attention (CNNA) by adding attention weights into convolutional neural networks. We evaluate various NN architectures on a Twitter dataset containing informal language and an Adverse Drug Effects (ADE) dataset constructed by sampling from MEDLINE case reports. Experimental results show that all the NN architectures outperform the traditional maximum entropy classifiers trained from n-grams with different weighting strategies considerably on both datasets. On the Twitter dataset, all the NN architectures perform similarly. But on the ADE dataset, CNN performs better than other more complex CNN variants. Nevertheless, CNNA allows the visualisation of attention weights of words when making classification decisions and hence is more appropriate for the extraction of word subsequences describing ADRs.

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Chinese Preposition Selection for Grammatical Error Diagnosis
Hen-Hsen Huang | Yen-Chi Shao | Hsin-Hsi Chen

Misuse of Chinese prepositions is one of common word usage errors in grammatical error diagnosis. In this paper, we adopt the Chinese Gigaword corpus and HSK corpus as L1 and L2 corpora, respectively. We explore gated recurrent neural network model (GRU), and an ensemble of GRU model and maximum entropy language model (GRU-ME) to select the best preposition from 43 candidates for each test sentence. The experimental results show the advantage of the GRU models over simple RNN and n-gram models. We further analyze the effectiveness of linguistic information such as word boundary and part-of-speech tag in this task.

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Extending the Use of Adaptor Grammars for Unsupervised Morphological Segmentation of Unseen Languages
Ramy Eskander | Owen Rambow | Tianchun Yang

We investigate using Adaptor Grammars for unsupervised morphological segmentation. Using six development languages, we investigate in detail different grammars, the use of morphological knowledge from outside sources, and the use of a cascaded architecture. Using cross-validation on our development languages, we propose a system which is language-independent. We show that it outperforms two state-of-the-art systems on 5 out of 6 languages.

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CharNER: Character-Level Named Entity Recognition
Onur Kuru | Ozan Arkan Can | Deniz Yuret

We describe and evaluate a character-level tagger for language-independent Named Entity Recognition (NER). Instead of words, a sentence is represented as a sequence of characters. The model consists of stacked bidirectional LSTMs which inputs characters and outputs tag probabilities for each character. These probabilities are then converted to consistent word level named entity tags using a Viterbi decoder. We are able to achieve close to state-of-the-art NER performance in seven languages with the same basic model using only labeled NER data and no hand-engineered features or other external resources like syntactic taggers or Gazetteers.

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A Neural Model for Part-of-Speech Tagging in Historical Texts
Christian Hardmeier

Historical texts are challenging for natural language processing because they differ linguistically from modern texts and because of their lack of orthographical and grammatical standardisation. We use a character-level neural network to build a part-of-speech (POS) tagger that can process historical data directly without requiring a separate spelling normalisation stage. Its performance in a Swedish verb identification and a German POS tagging task is similar to that of a two-stage model. We analyse the performance of this tagger and a more traditional baseline system, discuss some of the remaining problems for tagging historical data and suggest how the flexibility of our neural tagger could be exploited to address diachronic divergences in morphology and syntax in early modern Swedish with the help of data from closely related languages.

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Extracting Discriminative Keyphrases with Learned Semantic Hierarchies
Yunli Wang | Yong Jin | Xiaodan Zhu | Cyril Goutte

The goal of keyphrase extraction is to automatically identify the most salient phrases from documents. The technique has a wide range of applications such as rendering a quick glimpse of a document, or extracting key content for further use. While previous work often assumes keyphrases are a static property of a given documents, in many applications, the appropriate set of keyphrases that should be extracted depends on the set of documents that are being considered together. In particular, good keyphrases should not only accurately describe the content of a document, but also reveal what discriminates it from the other documents. In this paper, we study this problem of extracting discriminative keyphrases. In particularly, we propose to use the hierarchical semantic structure between candidate keyphrases to promote keyphrases that have the right level of specificity to clearly distinguish the target document from others. We show that such knowledge can be used to construct better discriminative keyphrase extraction systems that do not assume a static, fixed set of keyphrases for a document. We show how this helps identify key expertise of authors from their papers, as well as competencies covered by online courses within different domains.

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Hashtag Recommendation Using End-To-End Memory Networks with Hierarchical Attention
Haoran Huang | Qi Zhang | Yeyun Gong | Xuanjing Huang

On microblogging services, people usually use hashtags to mark microblogs, which have a specific theme or content, making them easier for users to find. Hence, how to automatically recommend hashtags for microblogs has received much attention in recent years. Previous deep neural network-based hashtag recommendation approaches converted the task into a multi-class classification problem. However, most of these methods only took the microblog itself into consideration. Motivated by the intuition that the history of users should impact the recommendation procedure, in this work, we extend end-to-end memory networks to perform this task. We incorporate the histories of users into the external memory and introduce a hierarchical attention mechanism to select more appropriate histories. To train and evaluate the proposed method, we also construct a dataset based on microblogs collected from Twitter. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methods can significantly outperform state-of-the-art methods. By incorporating the hierarchical attention mechanism, the relative improvement in the proposed method over the state-of-the-art method is around 67.9% in the F1-score.

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Automatic Labelling of Topics with Neural Embeddings
Shraey Bhatia | Jey Han Lau | Timothy Baldwin

Topics generated by topic models are typically represented as list of terms. To reduce the cognitive overhead of interpreting these topics for end-users, we propose labelling a topic with a succinct phrase that summarises its theme or idea. Using Wikipedia document titles as label candidates, we compute neural embeddings for documents and words to select the most relevant labels for topics. Comparing to a state-of-the-art topic labelling system, our methodology is simpler, more efficient and finds better topic labels.

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Memory-Bounded Left-Corner Unsupervised Grammar Induction on Child-Directed Input
Cory Shain | William Bryce | Lifeng Jin | Victoria Krakovna | Finale Doshi-Velez | Timothy Miller | William Schuler | Lane Schwartz

This paper presents a new memory-bounded left-corner parsing model for unsupervised raw-text syntax induction, using unsupervised hierarchical hidden Markov models (UHHMM). We deploy this algorithm to shed light on the extent to which human language learners can discover hierarchical syntax through distributional statistics alone, by modeling two widely-accepted features of human language acquisition and sentence processing that have not been simultaneously modeled by any existing grammar induction algorithm: (1) a left-corner parsing strategy and (2) limited working memory capacity. To model realistic input to human language learners, we evaluate our system on a corpus of child-directed speech rather than typical newswire corpora. Results beat or closely match those of three competing systems.

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‘Calling on the classical phone’: a distributional model of adjective-noun errors in learners’ English
Aurélie Herbelot | Ekaterina Kochmar

In this paper we discuss three key points related to error detection (ED) in learners’ English. We focus on content word ED as one of the most challenging tasks in this area, illustrating our claims on adjective–noun (AN) combinations. In particular, we (1) investigate the role of context in accurately capturing semantic anomalies and implement a system based on distributional topic coherence, which achieves state-of-the-art accuracy on a standard test set; (2) thoroughly investigate our system’s performance across individual adjective classes, concluding that a class-dependent approach is beneficial to the task; (3) discuss the data size bottleneck in this area, and highlight the challenges of automatic error generation for content words.

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Are Cohesive Features Relevant for Text Readability Evaluation?
Amalia Todirascu | Thomas François | Delphine Bernhard | Núria Gala | Anne-Laure Ligozat

This paper investigates the effectiveness of 65 cohesion-based variables that are commonly used in the literature as predictive features to assess text readability. We evaluate the efficiency of these variables across narrative and informative texts intended for an audience of L2 French learners. In our experiments, we use a French corpus that has been both manually and automatically annotated as regards to co-reference and anaphoric chains. The efficiency of the 65 variables for readability is analyzed through a correlational analysis and some modelling experiments.

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Named Entity Recognition for Linguistic Rapid Response in Low-Resource Languages: Sorani Kurdish and Tajik
Patrick Littell | Kartik Goyal | David R. Mortensen | Alexa Little | Chris Dyer | Lori Levin

This paper describes our construction of named-entity recognition (NER) systems in two Western Iranian languages, Sorani Kurdish and Tajik, as a part of a pilot study of “Linguistic Rapid Response” to potential emergency humanitarian relief situations. In the absence of large annotated corpora, parallel corpora, treebanks, bilingual lexica, etc., we found the following to be effective: exploiting distributional regularities in monolingual data, projecting information across closely related languages, and utilizing human linguist judgments. We show promising results on both a four-month exercise in Sorani and a two-day exercise in Tajik, achieved with minimal annotation costs.

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Multilingual Supervision of Semantic Annotation
Peter Exner | Marcus Klang | Pierre Nugues

In this paper, we investigate the annotation projection of semantic units in a practical setting. Previous approaches have focused on using parallel corpora for semantic transfer. We evaluate an alternative approach using loosely parallel corpora that does not require the corpora to be exact translations of each other. We developed a method that transfers semantic annotations from one language to another using sentences aligned by entities, and we extended it to include alignments by entity-like linguistic units. We conducted our experiments on a large scale using the English, Swedish, and French language editions of Wikipedia. Our results show that the annotation projection using entities in combination with loosely parallel corpora provides a viable approach to extending previous attempts. In addition, it allows the generation of proposition banks upon which semantic parsers can be trained.

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Siamese Convolutional Networks for Cognate Identification
Taraka Rama

In this paper, we present phoneme level Siamese convolutional networks for the task of pair-wise cognate identification. We represent a word as a two-dimensional matrix and employ a siamese convolutional network for learning deep representations. We present siamese architectures that jointly learn phoneme level feature representations and language relatedness from raw words for cognate identification. Compared to previous works, we train and test on larger and realistic datasets; and, show that siamese architectures consistently perform better than traditional linear classifier approach.

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Exploring Differential Topic Models for Comparative Summarization of Scientific Papers
Lei He | Wei Li | Hai Zhuge

This paper investigates differential topic models (dTM) for summarizing the differences among document groups. Starting from a simple probabilistic generative model, we propose dTM-SAGE that explicitly models the deviations on group-specific word distributions to indicate how words are used differen-tially across different document groups from a background word distribution. It is more effective to capture unique characteristics for comparing document groups. To generate dTM-based comparative summaries, we propose two sentence scoring methods for measuring the sentence discriminative capacity. Experimental results on scientific papers dataset show that our dTM-based comparative summari-zation methods significantly outperform the generic baselines and the state-of-the-art comparative summarization methods under ROUGE metrics.

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Bridging the gap between extractive and abstractive summaries: Creation and evaluation of coherent extracts from heterogeneous sources
Darina Benikova | Margot Mieskes | Christian M. Meyer | Iryna Gurevych

Coherent extracts are a novel type of summary combining the advantages of manually created abstractive summaries, which are fluent but difficult to evaluate, and low-quality automatically created extractive summaries, which lack coherence and structure. We use a corpus of heterogeneous documents to address the issue that information seekers usually face – a variety of different types of information sources. We directly extract information from these, but minimally redact and meaningfully order it to form a coherent text. Our qualitative and quantitative evaluations show that quantitative results are not sufficient to judge the quality of a summary and that other quality criteria, such as coherence, should also be taken into account. We find that our manually created corpus is of high quality and that it has the potential to bridge the gap between reference corpora of abstracts and automatic methods producing extracts. Our corpus is available to the research community for further development.

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Chinese Poetry Generation with Planning based Neural Network
Zhe Wang | Wei He | Hua Wu | Haiyang Wu | Wei Li | Haifeng Wang | Enhong Chen

Chinese poetry generation is a very challenging task in natural language processing. In this paper, we propose a novel two-stage poetry generating method which first plans the sub-topics of the poem according to the user’s writing intent, and then generates each line of the poem sequentially, using a modified recurrent neural network encoder-decoder framework. The proposed planning-based method can ensure that the generated poem is coherent and semantically consistent with the user’s intent. A comprehensive evaluation with human judgments demonstrates that our proposed approach outperforms the state-of-the-art poetry generating methods and the poem quality is somehow comparable to human poets.

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Predicting sentential semantic compatibility for aggregation in text-to-text generation
Victor Chenal | Jackie Chi Kit Cheung

We examine the task of aggregation in the context of text-to-text generation. We introduce a new aggregation task which frames the process as grouping input sentence fragments into clusters that are to be expressed as a single output sentence. We extract datasets for this task from a corpus using an automatic extraction process. Based on the results of a user study, we develop two gold-standard clusterings and corresponding evaluation methods for each dataset. We present a hierarchical clustering framework for predicting aggregation decisions on this task, which outperforms several baselines and can serve as a reference in future work.

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Sequential Clustering and Contextual Importance Measures for Incremental Update Summarization
Markus Zopf | Eneldo Loza Mencía | Johannes Fürnkranz

Unexpected events such as accidents, natural disasters and terrorist attacks represent an information situation where it is crucial to give users access to important and non-redundant information as early as possible. Incremental update summarization (IUS) aims at summarizing events which develop over time. In this paper, we propose a combination of sequential clustering and contextual importance measures to identify important sentences in a stream of documents in a timely manner. Sequential clustering is used to cluster similar sentences. The created clusters are scored by a contextual importance measure which identifies important information as well as redundant information. Experiments on the TREC Temporal Summarization 2015 shared task dataset show that our system achieves superior results compared to the best participating systems.

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Natural Language Generation through Character-based RNNs with Finite-state Prior Knowledge
Raghav Goyal | Marc Dymetman | Eric Gaussier

Recently Wen et al. (2015) have proposed a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) approach to the generation of utterances from dialog acts, and shown that although their model requires less effort to develop than a rule-based system, it is able to improve certain aspects of the utterances, in particular their naturalness. However their system employs generation at the word-level, which requires one to pre-process the data by substituting named entities with placeholders. This pre-processing prevents the model from handling some contextual effects and from managing multiple occurrences of the same attribute. Our approach uses a character-level model, which unlike the word-level model makes it possible to learn to “copy” information from the dialog act to the target without having to pre-process the input. In order to avoid generating non-words and inventing information not present in the input, we propose a method for incorporating prior knowledge into the RNN in the form of a weighted finite-state automaton over character sequences. Automatic and human evaluations show improved performance over baselines on several evaluation criteria.

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A Hybrid Approach to Generation of Missing Abstracts in Biomedical Literature
Suchet Chachra | Asma Ben Abacha | Sonya Shooshan | Laritza Rodriguez | Dina Demner-Fushman

Readers usually rely on abstracts to identify relevant medical information from scientific articles. Abstracts are also essential to advanced information retrieval methods. More than 50 thousand scientific publications in PubMed lack author-generated abstracts, and the relevancy judgements for these papers have to be based on their titles alone. In this paper, we propose a hybrid summarization technique that aims to select the most pertinent sentences from articles to generate an extractive summary in lieu of a missing abstract. We combine i) health outcome detection, ii) keyphrase extraction, and iii) textual entailment recognition between sentences. We evaluate our hybrid approach and analyze the improvements of multi-factor summarization over techniques that rely on a single method, using a collection of 295 manually generated reference summaries. The obtained results show that the hybrid approach outperforms the baseline techniques with an improvement of 13% in recall and 4% in F1 score.

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Imitation learning for language generation from unaligned data
Gerasimos Lampouras | Andreas Vlachos

Natural language generation (NLG) is the task of generating natural language from a meaning representation. Current rule-based approaches require domain-specific and manually constructed linguistic resources, while most machine-learning based approaches rely on aligned training data and/or phrase templates. The latter are needed to restrict the search space for the structured prediction task defined by the unaligned datasets. In this work we propose the use of imitation learning for structured prediction which learns an incremental model that handles the large search space by avoiding explicit enumeration of the outputs. We focus on the Locally Optimal Learning to Search framework which allows us to train against non-decomposable loss functions such as the BLEU or ROUGE scores while not assuming gold standard alignments. We evaluate our approach on three datasets using both automatic measures and human judgements and achieve results comparable to the state-of-the-art approaches developed for each of them.

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Product Review Summarization by Exploiting Phrase Properties
Naitong Yu | Minlie Huang | Yuanyuan Shi | Xiaoyan Zhu

We propose a phrase-based approach for generating product review summaries. The main idea of our method is to leverage phrase properties to choose a subset of optimal phrases for generating the final summary. Specifically, we exploit two phrase properties, popularity and specificity. Popularity describes how popular the phrase is in the original reviews. Specificity describes how descriptive a phrase is in comparison to generic comments. We formalize the phrase selection procedure as an optimization problem and solve it using integer linear programming (ILP). An aspect-based bigram language model is used for generating the final summary with the selected phrases. Experiments show that our summarizer outperforms the other baselines.

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Generating Questions and Multiple-Choice Answers using Semantic Analysis of Texts
Jun Araki | Dheeraj Rajagopal | Sreecharan Sankaranarayanan | Susan Holm | Yukari Yamakawa | Teruko Mitamura

We present a novel approach to automated question generation that improves upon prior work both from a technology perspective and from an assessment perspective. Our system is aimed at engaging language learners by generating multiple-choice questions which utilize specific inference steps over multiple sentences, namely coreference resolution and paraphrase detection. The system also generates correct answers and semantically-motivated phrase-level distractors as answer choices. Evaluation by human annotators indicates that our approach requires a larger number of inference steps, which necessitate deeper semantic understanding of texts than a traditional single-sentence approach.

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Evaluation Strategies for Computational Construction Grammars
Tânia Marques | Katrien Beuls

Despite the growing number of Computational Construction Grammar implementations, the field is still lacking evaluation methods to compare grammar fragments across different platforms. Moreover, the hand-crafted nature of most grammars requires profiling tools to understand the complex interactions between constructions of different types. This paper presents a number of evaluation measures, partially based on existing measures in the field of semantic parsing, that are especially relevant for reversible grammar formalisms. The measures are tested on a grammar fragment for European Portuguese clitic placement that is currently under development.

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Building a Monolingual Parallel Corpus for Text Simplification Using Sentence Similarity Based on Alignment between Word Embeddings
Tomoyuki Kajiwara | Mamoru Komachi

Methods for text simplification using the framework of statistical machine translation have been extensively studied in recent years. However, building the monolingual parallel corpus necessary for training the model requires costly human annotation. Monolingual parallel corpora for text simplification have therefore been built only for a limited number of languages, such as English and Portuguese. To obviate the need for human annotation, we propose an unsupervised method that automatically builds the monolingual parallel corpus for text simplification using sentence similarity based on word embeddings. For any sentence pair comprising a complex sentence and its simple counterpart, we employ a many-to-one method of aligning each word in the complex sentence with the most similar word in the simple sentence and compute sentence similarity by averaging these word similarities. The experimental results demonstrate the excellent performance of the proposed method in a monolingual parallel corpus construction task for English text simplification. The results also demonstrated the superior accuracy in text simplification that use the framework of statistical machine translation trained using the corpus built by the proposed method to that using the existing corpora.

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Word2Vec vs DBnary: Augmenting METEOR using Vector Representations or Lexical Resources?
Christophe Servan | Alexandre Bérard | Zied Elloumi | Hervé Blanchon | Laurent Besacier

This paper presents an approach combining lexico-semantic resources and distributed representations of words applied to the evaluation in machine translation (MT). This study is made through the enrichment of a well-known MT evaluation metric: METEOR. METEOR enables an approximate match (synonymy or morphological similarity) between an automatic and a reference translation. Our experiments are made in the framework of the Metrics task of WMT 2014. We show that distributed representations are a good alternative to lexico-semanticresources for MT evaluation and they can even bring interesting additional information. The augmented versions of METEOR, using vector representations, are made available on our Github page.

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Broad Twitter Corpus: A Diverse Named Entity Recognition Resource
Leon Derczynski | Kalina Bontcheva | Ian Roberts

One of the main obstacles, hampering method development and comparative evaluation of named entity recognition in social media, is the lack of a sizeable, diverse, high quality annotated corpus, analogous to the CoNLL’2003 news dataset. For instance, the biggest Ritter tweet corpus is only 45,000 tokens – a mere 15% the size of CoNLL’2003. Another major shortcoming is the lack of temporal, geographic, and author diversity. This paper introduces the Broad Twitter Corpus (BTC), which is not only significantly bigger, but sampled across different regions, temporal periods, and types of Twitter users. The gold-standard named entity annotations are made by a combination of NLP experts and crowd workers, which enables us to harness crowd recall while maintaining high quality. We also measure the entity drift observed in our dataset (i.e. how entity representation varies over time), and compare to newswire. The corpus is released openly, including source text and intermediate annotations.

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Semantic overfitting: what ‘world’ do we consider when evaluating disambiguation of text?
Filip Ilievski | Marten Postma | Piek Vossen

Semantic text processing faces the challenge of defining the relation between lexical expressions and the world to which they make reference within a period of time. It is unclear whether the current test sets used to evaluate disambiguation tasks are representative for the full complexity considering this time-anchored relation, resulting in semantic overfitting to a specific period and the frequent phenomena within. We conceptualize and formalize a set of metrics which evaluate this complexity of datasets. We provide evidence for their applicability on five different disambiguation tasks. To challenge semantic overfitting of disambiguation systems, we propose a time-based, metric-aware method for developing datasets in a systematic and semi-automated manner, as well as an event-based QA task.

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Extraction of Keywords of Novelties From Patent Claims
Shoko Suzuki | Hiromichi Takatsuka

There are growing needs for patent analysis using Natural Language Processing (NLP)-based approaches. Although NLP-based approaches can extract various information from patents, there are very few approaches proposed to extract those parts what inventors regard as novel or having an inventive step compared to all existing works ever. To extract such parts is difficult even for human annotators except for well-trained experts. This causes many difficulties in analyzing patents. We propose a novel approach to automatically extract such keywords that relate to novelties or inventive steps from patent claims using the structure of the claims. In addition, we also propose a new framework of evaluating our approach. The experiments show that our approach outperforms the existing keyword extraction methods significantly in many technical fields.

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Leveraging Multilingual Training for Limited Resource Event Extraction
Andrew Hsi | Yiming Yang | Jaime Carbonell | Ruochen Xu

Event extraction has become one of the most important topics in information extraction, but to date, there is very limited work on leveraging cross-lingual training to boost performance. We propose a new event extraction approach that trains on multiple languages using a combination of both language-dependent and language-independent features, with particular focus on the case where target domain training data is of very limited size. We show empirically that multilingual training can boost performance for the tasks of event trigger extraction and event argument extraction on the Chinese ACE 2005 dataset.

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LILI: A Simple Language Independent Approach for Language Identification
Mohamed Al-Badrashiny | Mona Diab

We introduce a generic Language Independent Framework for Linguistic Code Switch Point Detection. The system uses characters level 5-grams and word level unigram language models to train a conditional random fields (CRF) model for classifying input words into various languages. We test our proposed framework and compare it to the state-of-the-art published systems on standard data sets from several language pairs: English-Spanish, Nepali-English, English-Hindi, Arabizi (Refers to Arabic written using the Latin/Roman script)-English, Arabic-Engari (Refers to English written using Arabic script), Modern Standard Arabic(MSA)-Egyptian, Levantine-MSA, Gulf-MSA, one more English-Spanish, and one more MSA-EGY. The overall weighted average F-score of each language pair are 96.4%, 97.3%, 98.0%, 97.0%, 98.9%, 86.3%, 88.2%, 90.6%, 95.2%, and 85.0% respectively. The results show that our approach despite its simplicity, either outperforms or performs at comparable levels to state-of-the-art published systems.

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High Accuracy Rule-based Question Classification using Question Syntax and Semantics
Harish Tayyar Madabushi | Mark Lee

We present in this paper a purely rule-based system for Question Classification which we divide into two parts: The first is the extraction of relevant words from a question by use of its structure, and the second is the classification of questions based on rules that associate these words to Concepts. We achieve an accuracy of 97.2%, close to a 6 point improvement over the previous State of the Art of 91.6%. Additionally, we believe that machine learning algorithms can be applied on top of this method to further improve accuracy.

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Incorporating Label Dependency for Answer Quality Tagging in Community Question Answering via CNN-LSTM-CRF
Yang Xiang | Xiaoqiang Zhou | Qingcai Chen | Zhihui Zheng | Buzhou Tang | Xiaolong Wang | Yang Qin

In community question answering (cQA), the quality of answers are determined by the matching degree between question-answer pairs and the correlation among the answers. In this paper, we show that the dependency between the answer quality labels also plays a pivotal role. To validate the effectiveness of label dependency, we propose two neural network-based models, with different combination modes of Convolutional Neural Net-works, Long Short Term Memory and Conditional Random Fields. Extensive experi-ments are taken on the dataset released by the SemEval-2015 cQA shared task. The first model is a stacked ensemble of the networks. It achieves 58.96% on macro averaged F1, which improves the state-of-the-art neural network-based method by 2.82% and outper-forms the Top-1 system in the shared task by 1.77%. The second is a simple attention-based model whose input is the connection of the question and its corresponding answers. It produces promising results with 58.29% on overall F1 and gains the best performance on the Good and Bad categories.

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Semantically Motivated Hebrew Verb-Noun Multi-Word Expressions Identification
Chaya Liebeskind | Yaakov HaCohen-Kerner

Identification of Multi-Word Expressions (MWEs) lies at the heart of many natural language processing applications. In this research, we deal with a particular type of Hebrew MWEs, Verb-Noun MWEs (VN-MWEs), which combine a verb and a noun with or without other words. Most prior work on MWEs classification focused on linguistic and statistical information. In this paper, we claim that it is essential to utilize semantic information. To this end, we propose a semantically motivated indicator for classifying VN-MWE and define features that are related to various semantic spaces and combine them as features in a supervised classification framework. We empirically demonstrate that our semantic feature set yields better performance than the common linguistic and statistical feature sets and that combining semantic features contributes to the VN-MWEs identification task.

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Semantic Relation Classification via Hierarchical Recurrent Neural Network with Attention
Minguang Xiao | Cong Liu

Semantic relation classification remains a challenge in natural language processing. In this paper, we introduce a hierarchical recurrent neural network that is capable of extracting information from raw sentences for relation classification. Our model has several distinctive features: (1) Each sentence is divided into three context subsequences according to two annotated nominals, which allows the model to encode each context subsequence independently so as to selectively focus as on the important context information; (2) The hierarchical model consists of two recurrent neural networks (RNNs): the first one learns context representations of the three context subsequences respectively, and the second one computes semantic composition of these three representations and produces a sentence representation for the relationship classification of the two nominals. (3) The attention mechanism is adopted in both RNNs to encourage the model to concentrate on the important information when learning the sentence representations. Experimental results on the SemEval-2010 Task 8 dataset demonstrate that our model is comparable to the state-of-the-art without using any hand-crafted features.

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A Unified Architecture for Semantic Role Labeling and Relation Classification
Jiang Guo | Wanxiang Che | Haifeng Wang | Ting Liu | Jun Xu

This paper describes a unified neural architecture for identifying and classifying multi-typed semantic relations between words in a sentence. We investigate two typical and well-studied tasks: semantic role labeling (SRL) which identifies the relations between predicates and arguments, and relation classification (RC) which focuses on the relation between two entities or nominals. While mostly studied separately in prior work, we show that the two tasks can be effectively connected and modeled using a general architecture. Experiments on CoNLL-2009 benchmark datasets show that our SRL models significantly outperform state-of-the-art approaches. Our RC models also yield competitive performance with the best published records. Furthermore, we show that the two tasks can be trained jointly with multi-task learning, resulting in additive significant improvements for SRL.

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Facing the most difficult case of Semantic Role Labeling: A collaboration of word embeddings and co-training
Quynh Ngoc Thi Do | Steven Bethard | Marie-Francine Moens

We present a successful collaboration of word embeddings and co-training to tackle in the most difficult test case of semantic role labeling: predicting out-of-domain and unseen semantic frames. Despite the fact that co-training is a successful traditional semi-supervised method, its application in SRL is very limited especially when a huge amount of labeled data is available. In this work, co-training is used together with word embeddings to improve the performance of a system trained on a large training dataset. We also introduce a semantic role labeling system with a simple learning architecture and effective inference that is easily adaptable to semi-supervised settings with new training data and/or new features. On the out-of-domain testing set of the standard benchmark CoNLL 2009 data our simple approach achieves high performance and improves state-of-the-art results.

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Predictability of Distributional Semantics in Derivational Word Formation
Sebastian Padó | Aurélie Herbelot | Max Kisselew | Jan Šnajder

Compositional distributional semantic models (CDSMs) have successfully been applied to the task of predicting the meaning of a range of linguistic constructions. Their performance on semi-compositional word formation process of (morphological) derivation, however, has been extremely variable, with no large-scale empirical investigation to date. This paper fills that gap, performing an analysis of CDSM predictions on a large dataset (over 30,000 German derivationally related word pairs). We use linear regression models to analyze CDSM performance and obtain insights into the linguistic factors that influence how predictable the distributional context of a derived word is going to be. We identify various such factors, notably part of speech, argument structure, and semantic regularity.

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Survey on the Use of Typological Information in Natural Language Processing
Helen O’Horan | Yevgeni Berzak | Ivan Vulić | Roi Reichart | Anna Korhonen

In recent years linguistic typologies, which classify the world’s languages according to their functional and structural properties, have been widely used to support multilingual NLP. While the growing importance of typologies in supporting multilingual tasks has been recognised, no systematic survey of existing typological resources and their use in NLP has been published. This paper provides such a survey as well as discussion which we hope will both inform and inspire future work in the area.

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From phonemes to images: levels of representation in a recurrent neural model of visually-grounded language learning
Lieke Gelderloos | Grzegorz Chrupała

We present a model of visually-grounded language learning based on stacked gated recurrent neural networks which learns to predict visual features given an image description in the form of a sequence of phonemes. The learning task resembles that faced by human language learners who need to discover both structure and meaning from noisy and ambiguous data across modalities. We show that our model indeed learns to predict features of the visual context given phonetically transcribed image descriptions, and show that it represents linguistic information in a hierarchy of levels: lower layers in the stack are comparatively more sensitive to form, whereas higher layers are more sensitive to meaning.

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Linguistic features for Hindi light verb construction identification
Ashwini Vaidya | Sumeet Agarwal | Martha Palmer

Light verb constructions (LVC) in Hindi are highly productive. If we can distinguish a case such as nirnay lenaa ‘decision take; decide’ from an ordinary verb-argument combination kaagaz lenaa ‘paper take; take (a) paper’,it has been shown to aid NLP applications such as parsing (Begum et al., 2011) and machine translation (Pal et al., 2011). In this paper, we propose an LVC identification system using language specific features for Hindi which shows an improvement over previous work(Begum et al., 2011). To build our system, we carry out a linguistic analysis of Hindi LVCs using Hindi Treebank annotations and propose two new features that are aimed at capturing the diversity of Hindi LVCs in the corpus. We find that our model performs robustly across a diverse range of LVCs and our results underscore the importance of semantic features, which is in keeping with the findings for English. Our error analysis also demonstrates that our classifier can be used to further refine LVC annotations in the Hindi Treebank and make them more consistent across the board.

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Cross-lingual Transfer of Correlations between Parts of Speech and Gaze Features
Maria Barrett | Frank Keller | Anders Søgaard

Several recent studies have shown that eye movements during reading provide information about grammatical and syntactic processing, which can assist the induction of NLP models. All these studies have been limited to English, however. This study shows that gaze and part of speech (PoS) correlations largely transfer across English and French. This means that we can replicate previous studies on gaze-based PoS tagging for French, but also that we can use English gaze data to assist the induction of French NLP models.

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Sentence Similarity Learning by Lexical Decomposition and Composition
Zhiguo Wang | Haitao Mi | Abraham Ittycheriah

Most conventional sentence similarity methods only focus on similar parts of two input sentences, and simply ignore the dissimilar parts, which usually give us some clues and semantic meanings about the sentences. In this work, we propose a model to take into account both the similarities and dissimilarities by decomposing and composing lexical semantics over sentences. The model represents each word as a vector, and calculates a semantic matching vector for each word based on all words in the other sentence. Then, each word vector is decomposed into a similar component and a dissimilar component based on the semantic matching vector. After this, a two-channel CNN model is employed to capture features by composing the similar and dissimilar components. Finally, a similarity score is estimated over the composed feature vectors. Experimental results show that our model gets the state-of-the-art performance on the answer sentence selection task, and achieves a comparable result on the paraphrase identification task.

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Chinese Hypernym-Hyponym Extraction from User Generated Categories
Chengyu Wang | Xiaofeng He

Hypernym-hyponym (“is-a”) relations are key components in taxonomies, object hierarchies and knowledge graphs. While there is abundant research on is-a relation extraction in English, it still remains a challenge to identify such relations from Chinese knowledge sources accurately due to the flexibility of language expression. In this paper, we introduce a weakly supervised framework to extract Chinese is-a relations from user generated categories. It employs piecewise linear projection models trained on a Chinese taxonomy and an iterative learning algorithm to update models incrementally. A pattern-based relation selection method is proposed to prevent “semantic drift” in the learning process using bi-criteria optimization. Experimental results illustrate that the proposed approach outperforms state-of-the-art methods.

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Dynamic Generative model for Diachronic Sense Emergence Detection
Martin Emms | Arun Kumar Jayapal

As time passes words can acquire meanings they did not previously have, such as the ‘twitter post’ usage of ‘tweet’. We address how this can be detected from time-stamped raw text. We propose a generative model with senses dependent on times and context words dependent on senses but otherwise eternal, and a Gibbs sampler for estimation. We obtain promising parameter estimates for positive (resp. negative) cases of known sense emergence (resp non-emergence) and adapt the ‘pseudo-word’ technique (Schutze, 1992) to give a novel further evaluation via ‘pseudo-neologisms’. The question of ground-truth is also addressed and a technique proposed to locate an emergence date for evaluation purposes.

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Semi-supervised Word Sense Disambiguation with Neural Models
Dayu Yuan | Julian Richardson | Ryan Doherty | Colin Evans | Eric Altendorf

Determining the intended sense of words in text – word sense disambiguation (WSD) – is a long-standing problem in natural language processing. Recently, researchers have shown promising results using word vectors extracted from a neural network language model as features in WSD algorithms. However, a simple average or concatenation of word vectors for each word in a text loses the sequential and syntactic information of the text. In this paper, we study WSD with a sequence learning neural net, LSTM, to better capture the sequential and syntactic patterns of the text. To alleviate the lack of training data in all-words WSD, we employ the same LSTM in a semi-supervised label propagation classifier. We demonstrate state-of-the-art results, especially on verbs.

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Fast Gated Neural Domain Adaptation: Language Model as a Case Study
Jian Zhang | Xiaofeng Wu | Andy Way | Qun Liu

Neural network training has been shown to be advantageous in many natural language processing applications, such as language modelling or machine translation. In this paper, we describe in detail a novel domain adaptation mechanism in neural network training. Instead of learning and adapting the neural network on millions of training sentences – which can be very time-consuming or even infeasible in some cases – we design a domain adaptation gating mechanism which can be used in recurrent neural networks and quickly learn the out-of-domain knowledge directly from the word vector representations with little speed overhead. In our experiments, we use the recurrent neural network language model (LM) as a case study. We show that the neural LM perplexity can be reduced by 7.395 and 12.011 using the proposed domain adaptation mechanism on the Penn Treebank and News data, respectively. Furthermore, we show that using the domain-adapted neural LM to re-rank the statistical machine translation n-best list on the French-to-English language pair can significantly improve translation quality.

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Machine Translation Evaluation for Arabic using Morphologically-enriched Embeddings
Francisco Guzmán | Houda Bouamor | Ramy Baly | Nizar Habash

Evaluation of machine translation (MT) into morphologically rich languages (MRL) has not been well studied despite posing many challenges. In this paper, we explore the use of embeddings obtained from different levels of lexical and morpho-syntactic linguistic analysis and show that they improve MT evaluation into an MRL. Specifically we report on Arabic, a language with complex and rich morphology. Our results show that using a neural-network model with different input representations produces results that clearly outperform the state-of-the-art for MT evaluation into Arabic, by almost over 75% increase in correlation with human judgments on pairwise MT evaluation quality task. More importantly, we demonstrate the usefulness of morpho-syntactic representations to model sentence similarity for MT evaluation and address complex linguistic phenomena of Arabic.

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Ensemble Learning for Multi-Source Neural Machine Translation
Ekaterina Garmash | Christof Monz

In this paper we describe and evaluate methods to perform ensemble prediction in neural machine translation (NMT). We compare two methods of ensemble set induction: sampling parameter initializations for an NMT system, which is a relatively established method in NMT (Sutskever et al., 2014), and NMT systems translating from different source languages into the same target language, i.e., multi-source ensembles, a method recently introduced by Firat et al. (2016). We are motivated by the observation that for different language pairs systems make different types of mistakes. We propose several methods with different degrees of parameterization to combine individual predictions of NMT systems so that they mutually compensate for each other’s mistakes and improve overall performance. We find that the biggest improvements can be obtained from a context-dependent weighting scheme for multi-source ensembles. This result offers stronger support for the linguistic motivation of using multi-source ensembles than previous approaches. Evaluation is carried out for German and French into English translation. The best multi-source ensemble method achieves an improvement of up to 2.2 BLEU points over the strongest single-source ensemble baseline, and a 2 BLEU improvement over a multi-source ensemble baseline.

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Phrase-based Machine Translation using Multiple Preordering Candidates
Yusuke Oda | Taku Kudo | Tetsuji Nakagawa | Taro Watanabe

In this paper, we propose a new decoding method for phrase-based statistical machine translation which directly uses multiple preordering candidates as a graph structure. Compared with previous phrase-based decoding methods, our method is based on a simple left-to-right dynamic programming in which no decoding-time reordering is performed. As a result, its runtime is very fast and implementing the algorithm becomes easy. Our system does not depend on specific preordering methods as long as they output multiple preordering candidates, and it is trivial to employ existing preordering methods into our system. In our experiments for translating diverse 11 languages into English, the proposed method outperforms conventional phrase-based decoder in terms of translation qualities under comparable or faster decoding time.

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Hand in Glove: Deep Feature Fusion Network Architectures for Answer Quality Prediction in Community Question Answering
Sai Praneeth Suggu | Kushwanth Naga Goutham | Manoj K. Chinnakotla | Manish Shrivastava

Community Question Answering (cQA) forums have become a popular medium for soliciting direct answers to specific questions of users from experts or other experienced users on a given topic. However, for a given question, users sometimes have to sift through a large number of low-quality or irrelevant answers to find out the answer which satisfies their information need. To alleviate this, the problem of Answer Quality Prediction (AQP) aims to predict the quality of an answer posted in response to a forum question. Current AQP systems either learn models using - a) various hand-crafted features (HCF) or b) Deep Learning (DL) techniques which automatically learn the required feature representations. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for AQP known as - “Deep Feature Fusion Network (DFFN)” which combines the advantages of both hand-crafted features and deep learning based systems. Given a question-answer pair along with its metadata, the DFFN architecture independently - a) learns features from the Deep Neural Network (DNN) and b) computes hand-crafted features using various external resources and then combines them using a fully connected neural network trained to predict the final answer quality. DFFN is end-end differentiable and trained as a single system. We propose two different DFFN architectures which vary mainly in the way they model the input question/answer pair - DFFN-CNN uses a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and DFFN-BLNA uses a Bi-directional LSTM with Neural Attention (BLNA). Both these proposed variants of DFFN (DFFN-CNN and DFFN-BLNA) achieve state-of-the-art performance on the standard SemEval-2015 and SemEval-2016 benchmark datasets and outperforms baseline approaches which individually employ either HCF or DL based techniques alone.

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Learning Event Expressions via Bilingual Structure Projection
Fangyuan Li | Ruihong Huang | Deyi Xiong | Min Zhang

Identifying events of a specific type is a challenging task as events in texts are described in numerous and diverse ways. Aiming to resolve high complexities of event descriptions, previous work (Huang and Riloff, 2013) proposes multi-faceted event recognition and a bootstrapping method to automatically acquire both event facet phrases and event expressions from unannotated texts. However, to ensure high quality of learned phrases, this method is constrained to only learn phrases that match certain syntactic structures. In this paper, we propose a bilingual structure projection algorithm that explores linguistic divergences between two languages (Chinese and English) and mines new phrases with new syntactic structures, which have been ignored in the previous work. Experiments show that our approach can successfully find novel event phrases and structures, e.g., phrases headed by nouns. Furthermore, the newly mined phrases are capable of recognizing additional event descriptions and increasing the recall of event recognition.

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Global Inference to Chinese Temporal Relation Extraction
Peifeng Li | Qiaoming Zhu | Guodong Zhou | Hongling Wang

Previous studies on temporal relation extraction focus on mining sentence-level information or enforcing coherence on different temporal relation types among various event mentions in the same sentence or neighboring sentences, largely ignoring those discourse-level temporal relations in nonadjacent sentences. In this paper, we propose a discourse-level global inference model to mine those temporal relations between event mentions in document-level, especially in nonadjacent sentences. Moreover, we provide various kinds of discourse-level constraints, which derived from event semantics, to further improve our global inference model. Evaluation on a Chinese corpus justifies the effectiveness of our discourse-level global inference model over two strong baselines.

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Improved relation classification by deep recurrent neural networks with data augmentation
Yan Xu | Ran Jia | Lili Mou | Ge Li | Yunchuan Chen | Yangyang Lu | Zhi Jin

Nowadays, neural networks play an important role in the task of relation classification. By designing different neural architectures, researchers have improved the performance to a large extent in comparison with traditional methods. However, existing neural networks for relation classification are usually of shallow architectures (e.g., one-layer convolutional neural networks or recurrent networks). They may fail to explore the potential representation space in different abstraction levels. In this paper, we propose deep recurrent neural networks (DRNNs) for relation classification to tackle this challenge. Further, we propose a data augmentation method by leveraging the directionality of relations. We evaluated our DRNNs on the SemEval-2010 Task 8, and achieve an F1-score of 86.1%, outperforming previous state-of-the-art recorded results.

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Relation Extraction with Multi-instance Multi-label Convolutional Neural Networks
Xiaotian Jiang | Quan Wang | Peng Li | Bin Wang

Distant supervision is an efficient approach that automatically generates labeled data for relation extraction (RE). Traditional distantly supervised RE systems rely heavily on handcrafted features, and hence suffer from error propagation. Recently, a neural network architecture has been proposed to automatically extract features for relation classification. However, this approach follows the traditional expressed-at-least-once assumption, and fails to make full use of information across different sentences. Moreover, it ignores the fact that there can be multiple relations holding between the same entity pair. In this paper, we propose a multi-instance multi-label convolutional neural network for distantly supervised RE. It first relaxes the expressed-at-least-once assumption, and employs cross-sentence max-pooling so as to enable information sharing across different sentences. Then it handles overlapping relations by multi-label learning with a neural network classifier. Experimental results show that our approach performs significantly and consistently better than state-of-the-art methods.

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Named Entity Disambiguation for little known referents: a topic-based approach
Andrea Glaser | Jonas Kuhn

We propose an approach to Named Entity Disambiguation that avoids a problem of standard work on the task (likewise affecting fully supervised, weakly supervised, or distantly supervised machine learning techniques): the treatment of name mentions referring to people with no (or very little) coverage in the textual training data is systematically incorrect. We propose to indirectly take into account the property information for the “non-prominent” name bearers, such as nationality and profession (e.g., for a Canadian law professor named Michael Jackson, with no Wikipedia article, it is very hard to obtain reliable textual training data). The target property information for the entities is directly available from name authority files, or inferrable, e.g., from listings of sportspeople etc. Our proposed approach employs topic modeling to exploit textual training data based on entities sharing the relevant properties. In experiments with a pilot implementation of the general approach, we show that the approach does indeed work well for name/referent pairs with limited textual coverage in the training data.

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Building RDF Content for Data-to-Text Generation
Laura Perez-Beltrachini | Rania Sayed | Claire Gardent

In Natural Language Generation (NLG), one important limitation is the lack of common benchmarks on which to train, evaluate and compare data-to-text generators. In this paper, we make one step in that direction and introduce a method for automatically creating an arbitrary large repertoire of data units that could serve as input for generation. Using both automated metrics and a human evaluation, we show that the data units produced by our method are both diverse and coherent.

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Parallel Sentence Compression
Julia Ive | François Yvon

Sentence compression is a way to perform text simplification and is usually handled in a monolingual setting. In this paper, we study ways to extend sentence compression in a bilingual context, where the goal is to obtain parallel compressions of parallel sentences. This can be beneficial for a series of multilingual natural language processing (NLP) tasks. We compare two ways to take bilingual information into account when compressing parallel sentences. Their efficiency is contrasted on a parallel corpus of News articles.

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An Unsupervised Multi-Document Summarization Framework Based on Neural Document Model
Shulei Ma | Zhi-Hong Deng | Yunlun Yang

In the age of information exploding, multi-document summarization is attracting particular attention for the ability to help people get the main ideas in a short time. Traditional extractive methods simply treat the document set as a group of sentences while ignoring the global semantics of the documents. Meanwhile, neural document model is effective on representing the semantic content of documents in low-dimensional vectors. In this paper, we propose a document-level reconstruction framework named DocRebuild, which reconstructs the documents with summary sentences through a neural document model and selects summary sentences to minimize the reconstruction error. We also apply two strategies, sentence filtering and beamsearch, to improve the performance of our method. Experimental results on the benchmark datasets DUC 2006 and DUC 2007 show that DocRebuild is effective and outperforms the state-of-the-art unsupervised algorithms.

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From OpenCCG to AI Planning: Detecting Infeasible Edges in Sentence Generation
Maximilian Schwenger | Álvaro Torralba | Joerg Hoffmann | David M. Howcroft | Vera Demberg

The search space in grammar-based natural language generation tasks can get very large, which is particularly problematic when generating long utterances or paragraphs. Using surface realization with OpenCCG as an example, we show that we can effectively detect partial solutions (edges) which cannot ultimately be part of a complete sentence because of their syntactic category. Formulating the completion of an edge into a sentence as finding a solution path in a large state-transition system, we demonstrate a connection to AI Planning which is concerned with this kind of problem. We design a compilation from OpenCCG into AI Planning allowing the detection of infeasible edges via AI Planning dead-end detection methods (proving the absence of a solution to the compilation). Our experiments show that this can filter out large fractions of infeasible edges in, and thus benefit the performance of, complex realization processes.

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The Next Step for Multi-Document Summarization: A Heterogeneous Multi-Genre Corpus Built with a Novel Construction Approach
Markus Zopf | Maxime Peyrard | Judith Eckle-Kohler

Research in multi-document summarization has focused on newswire corpora since the early beginnings. However, the newswire genre provides genre-specific features such as sentence position which are easy to exploit in summarization systems. Such easy to exploit genre-specific features are available in other genres as well. We therefore present the new hMDS corpus for multi-document summarization, which contains heterogeneous source documents from multiple text genres, as well as summaries with different lengths. For the construction of the corpus, we developed a novel construction approach which is suited to build large and heterogeneous summarization corpora with little effort. The method reverses the usual process of writing summaries for given source documents: it combines already available summaries with appropriate source documents. In a detailed analysis, we show that our new corpus is significantly different from the homogeneous corpora commonly used, and that it is heterogeneous along several dimensions. Our experimental evaluation using well-known state-of-the-art summarization systems shows that our corpus poses new challenges in the field of multi-document summarization. Last but not least, we make our corpus publicly available to the research community at the corpus web page

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SentiHood: Targeted Aspect Based Sentiment Analysis Dataset for Urban Neighbourhoods
Marzieh Saeidi | Guillaume Bouchard | Maria Liakata | Sebastian Riedel

In this paper, we introduce the task of targeted aspect-based sentiment analysis. The goal is to extract fine-grained information with respect to entities mentioned in user comments. This work extends both aspect-based sentiment analysis – that assumes a single entity per document — and targeted sentiment analysis — that assumes a single sentiment towards a target entity. In particular, we identify the sentiment towards each aspect of one or more entities. As a testbed for this task, we introduce the SentiHood dataset, extracted from a question answering (QA) platform where urban neighbourhoods are discussed by users. In this context units of text often mention several aspects of one or more neighbourhoods. This is the first time that a generic social media platform,i.e. QA, is used for fine-grained opinion mining. Text coming from QA platforms are far less constrained compared to text from review specific platforms which current datasets are based on. We develop several strong baselines, relying on logistic regression and state-of-the-art recurrent neural networks

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On the Impact of Seed Words on Sentiment Polarity Lexicon Induction
Dame Jovanoski | Veno Pachovski | Preslav Nakov

Sentiment polarity lexicons are key resources for sentiment analysis, and researchers have invested a lot of efforts in their manual creation. However, there has been a recent shift towards automatically extracted lexicons, which are orders of magnitude larger and perform much better. These lexicons are typically mined using bootstrapping, starting from very few seed words whose polarity is given, e.g., 50-60 words, and sometimes even just 5-6. Here we demonstrate that much higher-quality lexicons can be built by starting with hundreds of words and phrases as seeds, especially when they are in-domain. Thus, we combine (i) mid-sized high-quality manually crafted lexicons as seeds and (ii) bootstrapping, in order to build large-scale lexicons.

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Evaluating Argumentative and Narrative Essays using Graphs
Swapna Somasundaran | Brian Riordan | Binod Gyawali | Su-Youn Yoon

This work investigates whether the development of ideas in writing can be captured by graph properties derived from the text. Focusing on student essays, we represent the essay as a graph, and encode a variety of graph properties including PageRank as features for modeling essay scores related to quality of development. We demonstrate that our approach improves on a state-of-the-art system on the task of holistic scoring of persuasive essays and on the task of scoring narrative essays along the development dimension.

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Selective Co-occurrences for Word-Emotion Association
Ameeta Agrawal | Aijun An

Emotion classification from text typically requires some degree of word-emotion association, either gathered from pre-existing emotion lexicons or calculated using some measure of semantic relatedness. Most emotion lexicons contain a fixed number of emotion categories and provide a rather limited coverage. Current measures of computing semantic relatedness, on the other hand, do not adapt well to the specific task of word-emotion association and therefore, yield average results. In this work, we propose an unsupervised method of learning word-emotion association from large text corpora, called Selective Co-occurrences (SECO), by leveraging the property of mutual exclusivity generally exhibited by emotions. Extensive evaluation, using just one seed word per emotion category, indicates the effectiveness of the proposed approach over three emotion lexicons and two state-of-the-art models of word embeddings on three datasets from different domains.

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Weighted Neural Bag-of-n-grams Model: New Baselines for Text Classification
Bofang Li | Zhe Zhao | Tao Liu | Puwei Wang | Xiaoyong Du

NBSVM is one of the most popular methods for text classification and has been widely used as baselines for various text representation approaches. It uses Naive Bayes (NB) feature to weight sparse bag-of-n-grams representation. N-gram captures word order in short context and NB feature assigns more weights to those important words. However, NBSVM suffers from sparsity problem and is reported to be exceeded by newly proposed distributed (dense) text representations learned by neural networks. In this paper, we transfer the n-grams and NB weighting to neural models. We train n-gram embeddings and use NB weighting to guide the neural models to focus on important words. In fact, our methods can be viewed as distributed (dense) counterparts of sparse bag-of-n-grams in NBSVM. We discover that n-grams and NB weighting are also effective in distributed representations. As a result, our models achieve new strong baselines on 9 text classification datasets, e.g. on IMDB dataset, we reach performance of 93.5% accuracy, which exceeds previous state-of-the-art results obtained by deep neural models. All source codes are publicly available at

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A Deeper Look into Sarcastic Tweets Using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks
Soujanya Poria | Erik Cambria | Devamanyu Hazarika | Prateek Vij

Sarcasm detection is a key task for many natural language processing tasks. In sentiment analysis, for example, sarcasm can flip the polarity of an “apparently positive” sentence and, hence, negatively affect polarity detection performance. To date, most approaches to sarcasm detection have treated the task primarily as a text categorization problem. Sarcasm, however, can be expressed in very subtle ways and requires a deeper understanding of natural language that standard text categorization techniques cannot grasp. In this work, we develop models based on a pre-trained convolutional neural network for extracting sentiment, emotion and personality features for sarcasm detection. Such features, along with the network’s baseline features, allow the proposed models to outperform the state of the art on benchmark datasets. We also address the often ignored generalizability issue of classifying data that have not been seen by the models at learning phase.

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Exploring Distributional Representations and Machine Translation for Aspect-based Cross-lingual Sentiment Classification.
Jeremy Barnes | Patrik Lambert | Toni Badia

Cross-lingual sentiment classification (CLSC) seeks to use resources from a source language in order to detect sentiment and classify text in a target language. Almost all research into CLSC has been carried out at sentence and document level, although this level of granularity is often less useful. This paper explores methods for performing aspect-based cross-lingual sentiment classification (aspect-based CLSC) for under-resourced languages. Given the limited nature of parallel data for many languages, we would like to make the most of this resource for our task. We compare zero-shot learning, bilingual word embeddings, stacked denoising autoencoder representations and machine translation techniques for aspect-based CLSC. Each of these approaches requires differing amounts of parallel data. We show that models based on distributed semantics can achieve comparable results to machine translation on aspect-based CLSC and give an analysis of the errors found for each method.

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A Bilingual Attention Network for Code-switched Emotion Prediction
Zhongqing Wang | Yue Zhang | Sophia Lee | Shoushan Li | Guodong Zhou

Emotions in code-switching text can be expressed in either monolingual or bilingual forms. However, relatively little research has emphasized on code-switching text. In this paper, we propose a Bilingual Attention Network (BAN) model to aggregate the monolingual and bilingual informative words to form vectors from the document representation, and integrate the attention vectors to predict the emotion. The experiments show that the effectiveness of the proposed model. Visualization of the attention layers illustrates that the model selects qualitatively informative words.

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UTCNN: a Deep Learning Model of Stance Classification on Social Media Text
Wei-Fan Chen | Lun-Wei Ku

Most neural network models for document classification on social media focus on text information to the neglect of other information on these platforms. In this paper, we classify post stance on social media channels and develop UTCNN, a neural network model that incorporates user tastes, topic tastes, and user comments on posts. UTCNN not only works on social media texts, but also analyzes texts in forums and message boards. Experiments performed on Chinese Facebook data and English online debate forum data show that UTCNN achieves a 0.755 macro average f-score for supportive, neutral, and unsupportive stance classes on Facebook data, which is significantly better than models in which either user, topic, or comment information is withheld. This model design greatly mitigates the lack of data for the minor class. In addition, UTCNN yields a 0.842 accuracy on English online debate forum data, which also significantly outperforms results from previous work, showing that UTCNN performs well regardless of language or platform.

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The Role of Intrinsic Motivation in Artificial Language Emergence: a Case Study on Colour
Miquel Cornudella | Thierry Poibeau | Remi van Trijp

Human languages have multiple strategies that allow us to discriminate objects in a vast variety of contexts. Colours have been extensively studied from this point of view. In particular, previous research in artificial language evolution has shown how artificial languages may emerge based on specific strategies to distinguish colours. Still, it has not been shown how several strategies of diverse complexity can be autonomously managed by artificial agents . We propose an intrinsic motivation system that allows agents in a population to create a shared artificial language and progressively increase its expressive power. Our results show that with such a system agents successfully regulate their language development, which indicates a relation between population size and consistency in the emergent communicative systems.

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Predicting the Evocation Relation between Lexicalized Concepts
Yoshihiko Hayashi

Evocation is a directed yet weighted semantic relationship between lexicalized concepts. Although evocation relations are considered potentially useful in several semantic NLP tasks, the prediction of the evocation relation between an arbitrary pair of concepts remains difficult, since evocation relationships cover a broader range of semantic relations rooted in human perception and experience. This paper presents a supervised learning approach to predict the strength (by regression) and to determine the directionality (by classification) of the evocation relation that might hold between a pair of lexicalized concepts. Empirical results that were obtained by investigating useful features are shown, indicating that a combination of the proposed features largely outperformed individual baselines, and also suggesting that semantic relational vectors computed from existing semantic vectors for lexicalized concepts were indeed effective for both the prediction of strength and the determination of directionality.

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Collecting and Exploring Everyday Language for Predicting Psycholinguistic Properties of Words
Gustavo Paetzold | Lucia Specia

Exploring language usage through frequency analysis in large corpora is a defining feature in most recent work in corpus and computational linguistics. From a psycholinguistic perspective, however, the corpora used in these contributions are often not representative of language usage: they are either domain-specific, limited in size, or extracted from unreliable sources. In an effort to address this limitation, we introduce SubIMDB, a corpus of everyday language spoken text we created which contains over 225 million words. The corpus was extracted from 38,102 subtitles of family, comedy and children movies and series, and is the first sizeable structured corpus of subtitles made available. Our experiments show that word frequency norms extracted from this corpus are more effective than those from well-known norms such as Kucera-Francis, HAL and SUBTLEXus in predicting various psycholinguistic properties of words, such as lexical decision times, familiarity, age of acquisition and simplicity. We also provide evidence that contradict the long-standing assumption that the ideal size for a corpus can be determined solely based on how well its word frequencies correlate with lexical decision times.

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Using Argument Mining to Assess the Argumentation Quality of Essays
Henning Wachsmuth | Khalid Al-Khatib | Benno Stein

Argument mining aims to determine the argumentative structure of texts. Although it is said to be crucial for future applications such as writing support systems, the benefit of its output has rarely been evaluated. This paper puts the analysis of the output into the focus. In particular, we investigate to what extent the mined structure can be leveraged to assess the argumentation quality of persuasive essays. We find insightful statistical patterns in the structure of essays. From these, we derive novel features that we evaluate in four argumentation-related essay scoring tasks. Our results reveal the benefit of argument mining for assessing argumentation quality. Among others, we improve the state of the art in scoring an essay’s organization and its argument strength.

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Grammatical Templates: Improving Text Difficulty Evaluation for Language Learners
Shuhan Wang | Erik Andersen

Language students are most engaged while reading texts at an appropriate difficulty level. However, existing methods of evaluating text difficulty focus mainly on vocabulary and do not prioritize grammatical features, hence they do not work well for language learners with limited knowledge of grammar. In this paper, we introduce grammatical templates, the expert-identified units of grammar that students learn from class, as an important feature of text difficulty evaluation. Experimental classification results show that grammatical template features significantly improve text difficulty prediction accuracy over baseline readability features by 7.4%. Moreover,we build a simple and human-understandable text difficulty evaluation approach with 87.7% accuracy, using only 5 grammatical template features.

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Still not there? Comparing Traditional Sequence-to-Sequence Models to Encoder-Decoder Neural Networks on Monotone String Translation Tasks
Carsten Schnober | Steffen Eger | Erik-Lân Do Dinh | Iryna Gurevych

We analyze the performance of encoder-decoder neural models and compare them with well-known established methods. The latter represent different classes of traditional approaches that are applied to the monotone sequence-to-sequence tasks OCR post-correction, spelling correction, grapheme-to-phoneme conversion, and lemmatization. Such tasks are of practical relevance for various higher-level research fields including digital humanities, automatic text correction, and speech recognition. We investigate how well generic deep-learning approaches adapt to these tasks, and how they perform in comparison with established and more specialized methods, including our own adaptation of pruned CRFs.

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Towards Time-Aware Knowledge Graph Completion
Tingsong Jiang | Tianyu Liu | Tao Ge | Lei Sha | Baobao Chang | Sujian Li | Zhifang Sui

Knowledge graph (KG) completion adds new facts to a KG by making inferences from existing facts. Most existing methods ignore the time information and only learn from time-unknown fact triples. In dynamic environments that evolve over time, it is important and challenging for knowledge graph completion models to take into account the temporal aspects of facts. In this paper, we present a novel time-aware knowledge graph completion model that is able to predict links in a KG using both the existing facts and the temporal information of the facts. To incorporate the happening time of facts, we propose a time-aware KG embedding model using temporal order information among facts. To incorporate the valid time of facts, we propose a joint time-aware inference model based on Integer Linear Programming (ILP) using temporal consistencyinformationasconstraints. Wefurtherintegratetwomodelstomakefulluseofglobal temporal information. We empirically evaluate our models on time-aware KG completion task. Experimental results show that our time-aware models achieve the state-of-the-art on temporal facts consistently.

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Learning to Weight Translations using Ordinal Linear Regression and Query-generated Training Data for Ad-hoc Retrieval with Long Queries
Javid Dadashkarimi | Masoud Jalili Sabet | Azadeh Shakery

Ordinal regression which is known with learning to rank has long been used in information retrieval (IR). Learning to rank algorithms, have been tailored in document ranking, information filtering, and building large aligned corpora successfully. In this paper, we propose to use this algorithm for query modeling in cross-language environments. To this end, first we build a query-generated training data using pseudo-relevant documents to the query and all translation candidates. The pseudo-relevant documents are obtained by top-ranked documents in response to a translation of the original query. The class of each candidate in the training data is determined based on presence/absence of the candidate in the pseudo-relevant documents. We learn an ordinal regression model to score the candidates based on their relevance to the context of the query, and after that, we construct a query-dependent translation model using a softmax function. Finally, we re-weight the query based on the obtained model. Experimental results on French, German, Spanish, and Italian CLEF collections demonstrate that the proposed method achieves better results compared to state-of-the-art cross-language information retrieval methods, particularly in long queries with large training data.

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Neural Attention for Learning to Rank Questions in Community Question Answering
Salvatore Romeo | Giovanni Da San Martino | Alberto Barrón-Cedeño | Alessandro Moschitti | Yonatan Belinkov | Wei-Ning Hsu | Yu Zhang | Mitra Mohtarami | James Glass

In real-world data, e.g., from Web forums, text is often contaminated with redundant or irrelevant content, which leads to introducing noise in machine learning algorithms. In this paper, we apply Long Short-Term Memory networks with an attention mechanism, which can select important parts of text for the task of similar question retrieval from community Question Answering (cQA) forums. In particular, we use the attention weights for both selecting entire sentences and their subparts, i.e., word/chunk, from shallow syntactic trees. More interestingly, we apply tree kernels to the filtered text representations, thus exploiting the implicit features of the subtree space for learning question reranking. Our results show that the attention-based pruning allows for achieving the top position in the cQA challenge of SemEval 2016, with a relatively large gap from the other participants while greatly decreasing running time.

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Simple Question Answering by Attentive Convolutional Neural Network
Wenpeng Yin | Mo Yu | Bing Xiang | Bowen Zhou | Hinrich Schütze

This work focuses on answering single-relation factoid questions over Freebase. Each question can acquire the answer from a single fact of form (subject, predicate, object) in Freebase. This task, simple question answering (SimpleQA), can be addressed via a two-step pipeline: entity linking and fact selection. In fact selection, we match the subject entity in a fact candidate with the entity mention in the question by a character-level convolutional neural network (char-CNN), and match the predicate in that fact with the question by a word-level CNN (word-CNN). This work makes two main contributions. (i) A simple and effective entity linker over Freebase is proposed. Our entity linker outperforms the state-of-the-art entity linker over SimpleQA task. (ii) A novel attentive maxpooling is stacked over word-CNN, so that the predicate representation can be matched with the predicate-focused question representation more effectively. Experiments show that our system sets new state-of-the-art in this task.

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Recurrent Dropout without Memory Loss
Stanislau Semeniuta | Aliaksei Severyn | Erhardt Barth

This paper presents a novel approach to recurrent neural network (RNN) regularization. Differently from the widely adopted dropout method, which is applied to forward connections of feedforward architectures or RNNs, we propose to drop neurons directly in recurrent connections in a way that does not cause loss of long-term memory. Our approach is as easy to implement and apply as the regular feed-forward dropout and we demonstrate its effectiveness for the most effective modern recurrent network – Long Short-Term Memory network. Our experiments on three NLP benchmarks show consistent improvements even when combined with conventional feed-forward dropout.

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Modeling topic dependencies in semantically coherent text spans with copulas
Georgios Balikas | Hesam Amoualian | Marianne Clausel | Eric Gaussier | Massih R. Amini

The exchangeability assumption in topic models like Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) often results in inferring inconsistent topics for the words of text spans like noun-phrases, which are usually expected to be topically coherent. We propose copulaLDA, that extends LDA by integrating part of the text structure to the model and relaxes the conditional independence assumption between the word-specific latent topics given the per-document topic distributions. To this end, we assume that the words of text spans like noun-phrases are topically bound and we model this dependence with copulas. We demonstrate empirically the effectiveness of copulaLDA on both intrinsic and extrinsic evaluation tasks on several publicly available corpora.

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Consensus Attention-based Neural Networks for Chinese Reading Comprehension
Yiming Cui | Ting Liu | Zhipeng Chen | Shijin Wang | Guoping Hu

Reading comprehension has embraced a booming in recent NLP research. Several institutes have released the Cloze-style reading comprehension data, and these have greatly accelerated the research of machine comprehension. In this work, we firstly present Chinese reading comprehension datasets, which consist of People Daily news dataset and Children’s Fairy Tale (CFT) dataset. Also, we propose a consensus attention-based neural network architecture to tackle the Cloze-style reading comprehension problem, which aims to induce a consensus attention over every words in the query. Experimental results show that the proposed neural network significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art baselines in several public datasets. Furthermore, we setup a baseline for Chinese reading comprehension task, and hopefully this would speed up the process for future research.

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Semantic Annotation Aggregation with Conditional Crowdsourcing Models and Word Embeddings
Paul Felt | Eric Ringger | Kevin Seppi

In modern text annotation projects, crowdsourced annotations are often aggregated using item response models or by majority vote. Recently, item response models enhanced with generative data models have been shown to yield substantial benefits over those with conditional or no data models. However, suitable generative data models do not exist for many tasks, such as semantic labeling tasks. When no generative data model exists, we demonstrate that similar benefits may be derived by conditionally modeling documents that have been previously embedded in a semantic space using recent work in vector space models. We use this approach to show state-of-the-art results on a variety of semantic annotation aggregation tasks.

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Interactive-Predictive Machine Translation based on Syntactic Constraints of Prefix
Na Ye | Guiping Zhang | Dongfeng Cai

Interactive-predictive machine translation (IPMT) is a translation mode which combines machine translation technology and human behaviours. In the IPMT system, the utilization of the prefix greatly affects the interaction efficiency. However, state-of-the-art methods filter translation hypotheses mainly according to their matching results with the prefix on character level, and the advantage of the prefix is not fully developed. Focusing on this problem, this paper mines the deep constraints of prefix on syntactic level to improve the performance of IPMT systems. Two syntactic subtree matching rules based on phrase structure grammar are proposed to filter the translation hypotheses more strictly. Experimental results on LDC Chinese-English corpora show that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art phrase-based IPMT system while keeping comparable decoding speed.

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Topic-Informed Neural Machine Translation
Jian Zhang | Liangyou Li | Andy Way | Qun Liu

In recent years, neural machine translation (NMT) has demonstrated state-of-the-art machine translation (MT) performance. It is a new approach to MT, which tries to learn a set of parameters to maximize the conditional probability of target sentences given source sentences. In this paper, we present a novel approach to improve the translation performance in NMT by conveying topic knowledge during translation. The proposed topic-informed NMT can increase the likelihood of selecting words from the same topic and domain for translation. Experimentally, we demonstrate that topic-informed NMT can achieve a 1.15 (3.3% relative) and 1.67 (5.4% relative) absolute improvement in BLEU score on the Chinese-to-English language pair using NIST 2004 and 2005 test sets, respectively, compared to NMT without topic information.

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A Distribution-based Model to Learn Bilingual Word Embeddings
Hailong Cao | Tiejun Zhao | Shu Zhang | Yao Meng

We introduce a distribution based model to learn bilingual word embeddings from monolingual data. It is simple, effective and does not require any parallel data or any seed lexicon. We take advantage of the fact that word embeddings are usually in form of dense real-valued low-dimensional vector and therefore the distribution of them can be accurately estimated. A novel cross-lingual learning objective is proposed which directly matches the distributions of word embeddings in one language with that in the other language. During the joint learning process, we dynamically estimate the distributions of word embeddings in two languages respectively and minimize the dissimilarity between them through standard back propagation algorithm. Our learned bilingual word embeddings allow to group each word and its translations together in the shared vector space. We demonstrate the utility of the learned embeddings on the task of finding word-to-word translations from monolingual corpora. Our model achieved encouraging performance on data in both related languages and substantially different languages.

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Pre-Translation for Neural Machine Translation
Jan Niehues | Eunah Cho | Thanh-Le Ha | Alex Waibel

Recently, the development of neural machine translation (NMT) has significantly improved the translation quality of automatic machine translation. While most sentences are more accurate and fluent than translations by statistical machine translation (SMT)-based systems, in some cases, the NMT system produces translations that have a completely different meaning. This is especially the case when rare words occur. When using statistical machine translation, it has already been shown that significant gains can be achieved by simplifying the input in a preprocessing step. A commonly used example is the pre-reordering approach. In this work, we used phrase-based machine translation to pre-translate the input into the target language. Then a neural machine translation system generates the final hypothesis using the pre-translation. Thereby, we use either only the output of the phrase-based machine translation (PBMT) system or a combination of the PBMT output and the source sentence. We evaluate the technique on the English to German translation task. Using this approach we are able to outperform the PBMT system as well as the baseline neural MT system by up to 2 BLEU points. We analyzed the influence of the quality of the initial system on the final result.

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Direct vs. indirect evaluation of distributional thesauri
Vincent Claveau | Ewa Kijak

With the success of word embedding methods in various Natural Language Processing tasks, all the field of distributional semantics has experienced a renewed interest. Beside the famous word2vec, recent studies have presented efficient techniques to build distributional thesaurus; in particular, Claveau et al. (2014) have already shown that Information Retrieval (IR) tools and concepts can be successfully used to build a thesaurus. In this paper, we address the problem of the evaluation of such thesauri or embedding models and compare their results. Through several experiments and by evaluating directly the results with reference lexicons, we show that the recent IR-based distributional models outperform state-of-the-art systems such as word2vec. Following the work of Claveau and Kijak (2016), we use IR as an applicative framework to indirectly evaluate the generated thesaurus. Here again, this task-based evaluation validates the IR approach used to build the thesaurus. Moreover, it allows us to compare these results with those from the direct evaluation framework used in the literature. The observed differences bring these evaluation habits into question.

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D-GloVe: A Feasible Least Squares Model for Estimating Word Embedding Densities
Shoaib Jameel | Steven Schockaert

We propose a new word embedding model, inspired by GloVe, which is formulated as a feasible least squares optimization problem. In contrast to existing models, we explicitly represent the uncertainty about the exact definition of each word vector. To this end, we estimate the error that results from using noisy co-occurrence counts in the formulation of the model, and we model the imprecision that results from including uninformative context words. Our experimental results demonstrate that this model compares favourably with existing word embedding models.

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Predicting human similarity judgments with distributional models: The value of word associations.
Simon De Deyne | Amy Perfors | Daniel J Navarro

Most distributional lexico-semantic models derive their representations based on external language resources such as text corpora. In this study, we propose that internal language models, that are more closely aligned to the mental representations of words could provide important insights into cognitive science, including linguistics. Doing so allows us to reflect upon theoretical questions regarding the structure of the mental lexicon, and also puts into perspective a number of assumptions underlying recently proposed distributional text-based models. In particular, we focus on word-embedding models which have been proposed to learn aspects of word meaning in a manner similar to humans. These are contrasted with internal language models derived from a new extensive data set of word associations. Using relatedness and similarity judgments we evaluate these models and find that the word-association-based internal language models consistently outperform current state-of-the art text-based external language models, often with a large margin. These results are not just a performance improvement; they also have implications for our understanding of how distributional knowledge is used by people.

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Distributional Hypernym Generation by Jointly Learning Clusters and Projections
Josuke Yamane | Tomoya Takatani | Hitoshi Yamada | Makoto Miwa | Yutaka Sasaki

We propose a novel word embedding-based hypernym generation model that jointly learns clusters of hyponym-hypernym relations, i.e., hypernymy, and projections from hyponym to hypernym embeddings. Most of the recent hypernym detection models focus on a hypernymy classification problem that determines whether a pair of words is in hypernymy or not. These models do not directly deal with a hypernym generation problem in that a model generates hypernyms for a given word. Differently from previous studies, our model jointly learns the clusters and projections with adjusting the number of clusters so that the number of clusters can be determined depending on the learned projections and vice versa. Our model also boosts the performance by incorporating inner product-based similarity measures and negative examples, i.e., sampled non-hypernyms, into our objectives in learning. We evaluated our joint learning models on the task of Japanese and English hypernym generation and showed a significant improvement over an existing pipeline model. Our model also compared favorably to existing distributed hypernym detection models on the English hypernym classification task.

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Incremental Fine-grained Information Status Classification Using Attention-based LSTMs
Yufang Hou

Information status plays an important role in discourse processing. According to the hearer’s common sense knowledge and his comprehension of the preceding text, a discourse entity could be old, mediated or new. In this paper, we propose an attention-based LSTM model to address the problem of fine-grained information status classification in an incremental manner. Our approach resembles how human beings process the task, i.e., decide the information status of the current discourse entity based on its preceding context. Experimental results on the ISNotes corpus (Markert et al., 2012) reveal that (1) despite its moderate result, our model with only word embedding features captures the necessary semantic knowledge needed for the task by a large extent; and (2) when incorporating with additional several simple features, our model achieves the competitive results compared to the state-of-the-art approach (Hou et al., 2013) which heavily depends on lots of hand-crafted semantic features.

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Detection, Disambiguation and Argument Identification of Discourse Connectives in Chinese Discourse Parsing
Yong-Siang Shih | Hsin-Hsi Chen

In this paper, we investigate four important issues together for explicit discourse relation labelling in Chinese texts: (1) discourse connective extraction, (2) linking ambiguity resolution, (3) relation type disambiguation, and (4) argument boundary identification. In a pipelined Chinese discourse parser, we identify potential connective candidates by string matching, eliminate non-discourse usages from them with a binary classifier, resolve linking ambiguities among connective components by ranking, disambiguate relation types by a multiway classifier, and determine the argument boundaries by conditional random fields. The experiments on Chinese Discourse Treebank show that the F1 scores of 0.7506, 0.7693, 0.7458, and 0.3134 are achieved for discourse usage disambiguation, linking disambiguation, relation type disambiguation, and argument boundary identification, respectively, in a pipelined Chinese discourse parser.

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Multi-view and multi-task training of RST discourse parsers
Chloé Braud | Barbara Plank | Anders Søgaard

We experiment with different ways of training LSTM networks to predict RST discourse trees. The main challenge for RST discourse parsing is the limited amounts of training data. We combat this by regularizing our models using task supervision from related tasks as well as alternative views on discourse structures. We show that a simple LSTM sequential discourse parser takes advantage of this multi-view and multi-task framework with 12-15% error reductions over our baseline (depending on the metric) and results that rival more complex state-of-the-art parsers.

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Implicit Discourse Relation Recognition with Context-aware Character-enhanced Embeddings
Lianhui Qin | Zhisong Zhang | Hai Zhao

For the task of implicit discourse relation recognition, traditional models utilizing manual features can suffer from data sparsity problem. Neural models provide a solution with distributed representations, which could encode the latent semantic information, and are suitable for recognizing semantic relations between argument pairs. However, conventional vector representations usually adopt embeddings at the word level and cannot well handle the rare word problem without carefully considering morphological information at character level. Moreover, embeddings are assigned to individual words independently, which lacks of the crucial contextual information. This paper proposes a neural model utilizing context-aware character-enhanced embeddings to alleviate the drawbacks of the current word level representation. Our experiments show that the enhanced embeddings work well and the proposed model obtains state-of-the-art results.

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Measuring Non-cooperation in Dialogue
Brian Plüss | Paul Piwek

This paper introduces a novel method for measuring non-cooperation in dialogue. The key idea is that linguistic non-cooperation can be measured in terms of the extent to which dialogue participants deviate from conventions regarding the proper introduction and discharging of conversational obligations (e.g., the obligation to respond to a question). Previous work on non cooperation has focused mainly on non-linguistic task-related non-cooperation or modelled non-cooperation in terms of special rules describing non-cooperative behaviours. In contrast, we start from rules for normal/correct dialogue behaviour - i.e., a dialogue game - which in principle can be derived from a corpus of cooperative dialogues, and provide a quantitative measure for the degree to which participants comply with these rules. We evaluated the model on a corpus of political interviews, with encouraging results. The model predicts accurately the degree of cooperation for one of the two dialogue game roles (interviewer) and also the relative cooperation for both roles (i.e., which interlocutor in the conversation was most cooperative). Being able to measure cooperation has applications in many areas from the analysis - manual, semi and fully automatic - of natural language interactions to human-like virtual personal assistants, tutoring agents, sophisticated dialogue systems, and role-playing virtual humans.

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Representation and Learning of Temporal Relations
Leon Derczynski

Determining the relative order of events and times described in text is an important problem in natural language processing. It is also a difficult one: general state-of-the-art performance has been stuck at a relatively low ceiling for years. We investigate the representation of temporal relations, and empirically evaluate the effect that various temporal relation representations have on machine learning performance. While machine learning performance decreases with increased representational expressiveness, not all representation simplifications have equal impact.

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Revisiting the Evaluation for Cross Document Event Coreference
Shyam Upadhyay | Nitish Gupta | Christos Christodoulopoulos | Dan Roth

Cross document event coreference (CDEC) is an important task that aims at aggregating event-related information across multiple documents. We revisit the evaluation for CDEC, and discover that past works have adopted different, often inconsistent, evaluation settings, which either overlook certain mistakes in coreference decisions, or make assumptions that simplify the coreference task considerably. We suggest a new evaluation methodology which overcomes these limitations, and allows for an accurate assessment of CDEC systems. Our new evaluation setting better reflects the corpus-wide information aggregation ability of CDEC systems by separating event-coreference decisions made across documents from those made within a document. In addition, we suggest a better baseline for the task and semi-automatically identify several inconsistent annotations in the evaluation dataset.

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Modeling Discourse Segments in Lyrics Using Repeated Patterns
Kento Watanabe | Yuichiroh Matsubayashi | Naho Orita | Naoaki Okazaki | Kentaro Inui | Satoru Fukayama | Tomoyasu Nakano | Jordan Smith | Masataka Goto

This study proposes a computational model of the discourse segments in lyrics to understand and to model the structure of lyrics. To test our hypothesis that discourse segmentations in lyrics strongly correlate with repeated patterns, we conduct the first large-scale corpus study on discourse segments in lyrics. Next, we propose the task to automatically identify segment boundaries in lyrics and train a logistic regression model for the task with the repeated pattern and textual features. The results of our empirical experiments illustrate the significance of capturing repeated patterns in predicting the boundaries of discourse segments in lyrics.

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Multi-level Gated Recurrent Neural Network for dialog act classification
Wei Li | Yunfang Wu

In this paper we focus on the problem of dialog act (DA) labelling. This problem has recently attracted a lot of attention as it is an important sub-part of an automatic question answering system, which is currently in great demand. Traditional methods tend to see this problem as a sequence labelling task and deals with it by applying classifiers with rich features. Most of the current neural network models still omit the sequential information in the conversation. Henceforth, we apply a novel multi-level gated recurrent neural network (GRNN) with non-textual information to predict the DA tag. Our model not only utilizes textual information, but also makes use of non-textual and contextual information. In comparison, our model has shown significant improvement over previous works on Switchboard Dialog Act (SWDA) task by over 6%.

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Multimodal Mood Classification - A Case Study of Differences in Hindi and Western Songs
Braja Gopal Patra | Dipankar Das | Sivaji Bandyopadhyay

Music information retrieval has emerged as a mainstream research area in the past two decades. Experiments on music mood classification have been performed mainly on Western music based on audio, lyrics and a combination of both. Unfortunately, due to the scarcity of digitalized resources, Indian music fares poorly in music mood retrieval research. In this paper, we identified the mood taxonomy and prepared multimodal mood annotated datasets for Hindi and Western songs. We identified important audio and lyric features using correlation based feature selection technique. Finally, we developed mood classification systems using Support Vector Machines and Feed Forward Neural Networks based on the features collected from audio, lyrics, and a combination of both. The best performing multimodal systems achieved F-measures of 75.1 and 83.5 for classifying the moods of the Hindi and Western songs respectively using Feed Forward Neural Networks. A comparative analysis indicates that the selected features work well for mood classification of the Western songs and produces better results as compared to the mood classification systems for Hindi songs.

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Detecting Context Dependent Messages in a Conversational Environment
Chaozhuo Li | Yu Wu | Wei Wu | Chen Xing | Zhoujun Li | Ming Zhou

While automatic response generation for building chatbot systems has drawn a lot of attention recently, there is limited understanding on when we need to consider the linguistic context of an input text in the generation process. The task is challenging, as messages in a conversational environment are short and informal, and evidence that can indicate a message is context dependent is scarce. After a study of social conversation data crawled from the web, we observed that some characteristics estimated from the responses of messages are discriminative for identifying context dependent messages. With the characteristics as weak supervision, we propose using a Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) network to learn a classifier. Our method carries out text representation and classifier learning in a unified framework. Experimental results show that the proposed method can significantly outperform baseline methods on accuracy of classification.

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Joint Inference for Mode Identification in Tutorial Dialogues
Deepak Venugopal | Vasile Rus

Identifying dialogue acts and dialogue modes during tutorial interactions is an extremely crucial sub-step in understanding patterns of effective tutor-tutee interactions. In this work, we develop a novel joint inference method that labels each utterance in a tutoring dialogue session with a dialogue act and a specific mode from a set of pre-defined dialogue acts and modes, respectively. Specifically, we develop our joint model using Markov Logic Networks (MLNs), a framework that combines first-order logic with probabilities, and is thus capable of representing complex, uncertain knowledge. We define first-order formulas in our MLN that encode the inter-dependencies between dialogue modes and more fine-grained dialogue actions. We then use a joint inference to jointly label the modes as well as the dialogue acts in an utterance. We compare our system against a pipeline system based on SVMs on a real-world dataset with tutoring sessions of over 500 students. Our results show that the joint inference system is far more effective than the pipeline system in mode detection, and improves over the performance of the pipeline system by about 6 points in F1 score. The joint inference system also performs much better than the pipeline system in the context of labeling modes that highlight important pedagogical steps in tutoring.

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Dialogue Act Classification in Domain-Independent Conversations Using a Deep Recurrent Neural Network
Hamed Khanpour | Nishitha Guntakandla | Rodney Nielsen

In this study, we applied a deep LSTM structure to classify dialogue acts (DAs) in open-domain conversations. We found that the word embeddings parameters, dropout regularization, decay rate and number of layers are the parameters that have the largest effect on the final system accuracy. Using the findings of these experiments, we trained a deep LSTM network that outperforms the state-of-the-art on the Switchboard corpus by 3.11%, and MRDA by 2.2%.

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Non-sentential Question Resolution using Sequence to Sequence Learning
Vineet Kumar | Sachindra Joshi

An interactive Question Answering (QA) system frequently encounters non-sentential (incomplete) questions. These non-sentential questions may not make sense to the system when a user asks them without the context of conversation. The system thus needs to take into account the conversation context to process the question. In this work, we present a recurrent neural network (RNN) based encoder decoder network that can generate a complete (intended) question, given an incomplete question and conversation context. RNN encoder decoder networks have been show to work well when trained on a parallel corpus with millions of sentences, however it is extremely hard to obtain conversation data of this magnitude. We therefore propose to decompose the original problem into two separate simplified problems where each problem focuses on an abstraction. Specifically, we train a semantic sequence model to learn semantic patterns, and a syntactic sequence model to learn linguistic patterns. We further combine syntactic and semantic sequence models to generate an ensemble model. Our model achieves a BLEU score of 30.15 as compared to 18.54 using a standard RNN encoder decoder model.

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Context-aware Natural Language Generation for Spoken Dialogue Systems
Hao Zhou | Minlie Huang | Xiaoyan Zhu

Natural language generation (NLG) is an important component of question answering(QA) systems which has a significant impact on system quality. Most tranditional QA systems based on templates or rules tend to generate rigid and stylised responses without the natural variation of human language. Furthermore, such methods need an amount of work to generate the templates or rules. To address this problem, we propose a Context-Aware LSTM model for NLG. The model is completely driven by data without manual designed templates or rules. In addition, the context information, including the question to be answered, semantic values to be addressed in the response, and the dialogue act type during interaction, are well approached in the neural network model, which enables the model to produce variant and informative responses. The quantitative evaluation and human evaluation show that CA-LSTM obtains state-of-the-art performance.

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Weakly-supervised text-to-speech alignment confidence measure
Guillaume Serrière | Christophe Cerisara | Dominique Fohr | Odile Mella

This work proposes a new confidence measure for evaluating text-to-speech alignment systems outputs, which is a key component for many applications, such as semi-automatic corpus anonymization, lips syncing, film dubbing, corpus preparation for speech synthesis and speech recognition acoustic models training. This confidence measure exploits deep neural networks that are trained on large corpora without direct supervision. It is evaluated on an open-source spontaneous speech corpus and outperforms a confidence score derived from a state-of-the-art text-to-speech aligner. We further show that this confidence measure can be used to fine-tune the output of this aligner and improve the quality of the resulting alignment.

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Domainless Adaptation by Constrained Decoding on a Schema Lattice
Young-Bum Kim | Karl Stratos | Ruhi Sarikaya

In many applications such as personal digital assistants, there is a constant need for new domains to increase the system’s coverage of user queries. A conventional approach is to learn a separate model every time a new domain is introduced. This approach is slow, inefficient, and a bottleneck for scaling to a large number of domains. In this paper, we introduce a framework that allows us to have a single model that can handle all domains: including unknown domains that may be created in the future as long as they are covered in the master schema. The key idea is to remove the need for distinguishing domains by explicitly predicting the schema of queries. Given permitted schema of a query, we perform constrained decoding on a lattice of slot sequences allowed under the schema. The proposed model achieves competitive and often superior performance over the conventional model trained separately per domain.

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Sub-Word Similarity based Search for Embeddings: Inducing Rare-Word Embeddings for Word Similarity Tasks and Language Modelling
Mittul Singh | Clayton Greenberg | Youssef Oualil | Dietrich Klakow

Training good word embeddings requires large amounts of data. Out-of-vocabulary words will still be encountered at test-time, leaving these words without embeddings. To overcome this lack of embeddings for rare words, existing methods leverage morphological features to generate embeddings. While the existing methods use computationally-intensive rule-based (Soricut and Och, 2015) or tool-based (Botha and Blunsom, 2014) morphological analysis to generate embeddings, our system applies a computationally-simpler sub-word search on words that have existing embeddings. Embeddings of the sub-word search results are then combined using string similarity functions to generate rare word embeddings. We augmented pre-trained word embeddings with these novel embeddings and evaluated on a rare word similarity task, obtaining up to 3 times improvement in correlation over the original set of embeddings. Applying our technique to embeddings trained on larger datasets led to on-par performance with the existing state-of-the-art for this task. Additionally, while analysing augmented embeddings in a log-bilinear language model, we observed up to 50% reduction in rare word perplexity in comparison to other more complex language models.

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Semi-automatic Detection of Cross-lingual Marketing Blunders based on Pragmatic Label Propagation in Wiktionary
Christian M. Meyer | Judith Eckle-Kohler | Iryna Gurevych

We introduce the task of detecting cross-lingual marketing blunders, which occur if a trade name resembles an inappropriate or negatively connotated word in a target language. To this end, we suggest a formal task definition and a semi-automatic method based the propagation of pragmatic labels from Wiktionary across sense-disambiguated translations. Our final tool assists users by providing clues for problematic names in any language, which we simulate in two experiments on detecting previously occurred marketing blunders and identifying relevant clues for established international brands. We conclude the paper with a suggested research roadmap for this new task. To initiate further research, we publish our online demo along with the source code and data at

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Ambient Search: A Document Retrieval System for Speech Streams
Benjamin Milde | Jonas Wacker | Stefan Radomski | Max Mühlhäuser | Chris Biemann

We present Ambient Search, an open source system for displaying and retrieving relevant documents in real time for speech input. The system works ambiently, that is, it unobstructively listens to speech streams in the background, identifies keywords and keyphrases for query construction and continuously serves relevant documents from its index. Query terms are ranked with Word2Vec and TF-IDF and are continuously updated to allow for ongoing querying of a document collection. The retrieved documents, in our case Wikipedia articles, are visualized in real time in a browser interface. Our evaluation shows that Ambient Search compares favorably to another implicit information retrieval system on speech streams. Furthermore, we extrinsically evaluate multiword keyphrase generation, showing positive impact for manual transcriptions.

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Semi-supervised Gender Classification with Joint Textual and Social Modeling
Shoushan Li | Bin Dai | Zhengxian Gong | Guodong Zhou

In gender classification, labeled data is often limited while unlabeled data is ample. This motivates semi-supervised learning for gender classification to improve the performance by exploring the knowledge in both labeled and unlabeled data. In this paper, we propose a semi-supervised approach to gender classification by leveraging textual features and a specific kind of indirect links among the users which we call “same-interest” links. Specifically, we propose a factor graph, namely Textual and Social Factor Graph (TSFG), to model both the textual and the “same-interest” link information. Empirical studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach to semi-supervised gender classification.

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Predicting proficiency levels in learner writings by transferring a linguistic complexity model from expert-written coursebooks
Ildikó Pilán | Elena Volodina | Torsten Zesch

The lack of a sufficient amount of data tailored for a task is a well-recognized problem for many statistical NLP methods. In this paper, we explore whether data sparsity can be successfully tackled when classifying language proficiency levels in the domain of learner-written output texts. We aim at overcoming data sparsity by incorporating knowledge in the trained model from another domain consisting of input texts written by teaching professionals for learners. We compare different domain adaptation techniques and find that a weighted combination of the two types of data performs best, which can even rival systems based on considerably larger amounts of in-domain data. Moreover, we show that normalizing errors in learners’ texts can substantially improve classification when level-annotated in-domain data is not available.

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User Classification with Multiple Textual Perspectives
Dong Zhang | Shoushan Li | Hongling Wang | Guodong Zhou

Textual information is of critical importance for automatic user classification in social media. However, most previous studies model textual features in a single perspective while the text in a user homepage typically possesses different styles of text, such as original message and comment from others. In this paper, we propose a novel approach, namely ensemble LSTM, to user classification by incorporating multiple textual perspectives. Specifically, our approach first learns a LSTM representation with a LSTM recurrent neural network and then presents a joint learning method to integrating all naturally-divided textual perspectives. Empirical studies on two basic user classification tasks, i.e., gender classification and age classification, demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach to user classification with multiple textual perspectives.

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Says Who…? Identification of Expert versus Layman Critics’ Reviews of Documentary Films
Ming Jiang | Jana Diesner

We extend classic review mining work by building a binary classifier that predicts whether a review of a documentary film was written by an expert or a layman with 90.70% accuracy (F1 score), and compare the characteristics of the predicted classes. A variety of standard lexical and syntactic features was used for this supervised learning task. Our results suggest that experts write comparatively lengthier and more detailed reviews that feature more complex grammar and a higher diversity in their vocabulary. Layman reviews are more subjective and contextualized in peoples’ everyday lives. Our error analysis shows that laymen are about twice as likely to be mistaken as experts than vice versa. We argue that the type of author might be a useful new feature for improving the accuracy of predicting the rating, helpfulness and authenticity of reviews. Finally, the outcomes of this work might help researchers and practitioners in the field of impact assessment to gain a more fine-grained understanding of the perception of different types of media consumers and reviewers of a topic, genre or information product.

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Knowledge-Driven Event Embedding for Stock Prediction
Xiao Ding | Yue Zhang | Ting Liu | Junwen Duan

Representing structured events as vectors in continuous space offers a new way for defining dense features for natural language processing (NLP) applications. Prior work has proposed effective methods to learn event representations that can capture syntactic and semantic information over text corpus, demonstrating their effectiveness for downstream tasks such as event-driven stock prediction. On the other hand, events extracted from raw texts do not contain background knowledge on entities and relations that they are mentioned. To address this issue, this paper proposes to leverage extra information from knowledge graph, which provides ground truth such as attributes and properties of entities and encodes valuable relations between entities. Specifically, we propose a joint model to combine knowledge graph information into the objective function of an event embedding learning model. Experiments on event similarity and stock market prediction show that our model is more capable of obtaining better event embeddings and making more accurate prediction on stock market volatilities.

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Distributed Representations for Building Profiles of Users and Items from Text Reviews
Wenliang Chen | Zhenjie Zhang | Zhenghua Li | Min Zhang

In this paper, we propose an approach to learn distributed representations of users and items from text comments for recommendation systems. Traditional recommendation algorithms, e.g. collaborative filtering and matrix completion, are not designed to exploit the key information hidden in the text comments, while existing opinion mining methods do not provide direct support to recommendation systems with useful features on users and items. Our approach attempts to construct vectors to represent profiles of users and items under a unified framework to maximize word appearance likelihood. Then, the vector representations are used for a recommendation task in which we predict scores on unobserved user-item pairs without given texts. The recommendation-aware distributed representation approach is fully supported by effective and efficient learning algorithms over massive text archive. Our empirical evaluations on real datasets show that our system outperforms the state-of-the-art baseline systems.

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Improving Statistical Machine Translation with Selectional Preferences
Haiqing Tang | Deyi Xiong | Min Zhang | Zhengxian Gong

Long-distance semantic dependencies are crucial for lexical choice in statistical machine translation. In this paper, we study semantic dependencies between verbs and their arguments by modeling selectional preferences in the context of machine translation. We incorporate preferences that verbs impose on subjects and objects into translation. In addition, bilingual selectional preferences between source-side verbs and target-side arguments are also investigated. Our experiments on Chinese-to-English translation tasks with large-scale training data demonstrate that statistical machine translation using verbal selectional preferences can achieve statistically significant improvements over a state-of-the-art baseline.

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Hierarchical Permutation Complexity for Word Order Evaluation
Miloš Stanojević | Khalil Sima’an

Existing approaches for evaluating word order in machine translation work with metrics computed directly over a permutation of word positions in system output relative to a reference translation. However, every permutation factorizes into a permutation tree (PET) built of primal permutations, i.e., atomic units that do not factorize any further. In this paper we explore the idea that permutations factorizing into (on average) shorter primal permutations should represent simpler ordering as well. Consequently, we contribute Permutation Complexity, a class of metrics over PETs and their extension to forests, and define tight metrics, a sub-class of metrics implementing this idea. Subsequently we define example tight metrics and empirically test them in word order evaluation. Experiments on the WMT13 data sets for ten language pairs show that a tight metric is more often than not better than the baselines.

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Interactive Attention for Neural Machine Translation
Fandong Meng | Zhengdong Lu | Hang Li | Qun Liu

Conventional attention-based Neural Machine Translation (NMT) conducts dynamic alignment in generating the target sentence. By repeatedly reading the representation of source sentence, which keeps fixed after generated by the encoder (Bahdanau et al., 2015), the attention mechanism has greatly enhanced state-of-the-art NMT. In this paper, we propose a new attention mechanism, called INTERACTIVE ATTENTION, which models the interaction between the decoder and the representation of source sentence during translation by both reading and writing operations. INTERACTIVE ATTENTION can keep track of the interaction history and therefore improve the translation performance. Experiments on NIST Chinese-English translation task show that INTERACTIVE ATTENTION can achieve significant improvements over both the previous attention-based NMT baseline and some state-of-the-art variants of attention-based NMT (i.e., coverage models (Tu et al., 2016)). And neural machine translator with our INTERACTIVE ATTENTION can outperform the open source attention-based NMT system Groundhog by 4.22 BLEU points and the open source phrase-based system Moses by 3.94 BLEU points averagely on multiple test sets.

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Get Semantic With Me! The Usefulness of Different Feature Types for Short-Answer Grading
Ulrike Padó

Automated short-answer grading is key to help close the automation loop for large-scale, computerised testing in education. A wide range of features on different levels of linguistic processing has been proposed so far. We investigate the relative importance of the different types of features across a range of standard corpora (both from a language skill and content assessment context, in English and in German). We find that features on the lexical, text similarity and dependency level often suffice to approximate full-model performance. Features derived from semantic processing particularly benefit the linguistically more varied answers in content assessment corpora.

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Automatically Processing Tweets from Gang-Involved Youth: Towards Detecting Loss and Aggression
Terra Blevins | Robert Kwiatkowski | Jamie MacBeth | Kathleen McKeown | Desmond Patton | Owen Rambow

Violence is a serious problems for cities like Chicago and has been exacerbated by the use of social media by gang-involved youths for taunting rival gangs. We present a corpus of tweets from a young and powerful female gang member and her communicators, which we have annotated with discourse intention, using a deep read to understand how and what triggered conversations to escalate into aggression. We use this corpus to develop a part-of-speech tagger and phrase table for the variant of English that is used and a classifier for identifying tweets that express grieving and aggression.

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Content-based Influence Modeling for Opinion Behavior Prediction
Chengyao Chen | Zhitao Wang | Yu Lei | Wenjie Li

Nowadays, social media has become a popular platform for companies to understand their customers. It provides valuable opportunities to gain new insights into how a person’s opinion about a product is influenced by his friends. Though various approaches have been proposed to study the opinion formation problem, they all formulate opinions as the derived sentiment values either discrete or continuous without considering the semantic information. In this paper, we propose a Content-based Social Influence Model to study the implicit mechanism underlying the change of opinions. We then apply the learned model to predict users’ future opinions. The advantages of the proposed model is the ability to handle the semantic information and to learn two influence components including the opinion influence of the content information and the social relation factors. In the experiments conducted on Twitter datasets, our model significantly outperforms other popular opinion formation models.

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Data-driven learning of symbolic constraints for a log-linear model in a phonological setting
Gabriel Doyle | Roger Levy

We propose a non-parametric Bayesian model for learning and weighting symbolically-defined constraints to populate a log-linear model. The model jointly infers a vector of binary constraint values for each candidate output and likely definitions for these constraints, combining observations of the output classes with a (potentially infinite) grammar over potential constraint definitions. We present results on a small morphophonological system, English regular plurals, as a test case. The inferred constraints, based on a grammar of articulatory features, perform as well as theoretically-defined constraints on both observed and novel forms of English regular plurals. The learned constraint values and definitions also closely resemble standard constraints defined within phonological theory.

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Chinese Tense Labelling and Causal Analysis
Hen-Hsen Huang | Chang-Rui Yang | Hsin-Hsi Chen

This paper explores the role of tense information in Chinese causal analysis. Both tasks of causal type classification and causal directionality identification are experimented to show the significant improvement gained from tense features. To automatically extract the tense features, a Chinese tense predictor is proposed. Based on large amount of parallel data, our semi-supervised approach improves the dependency-based convolutional neural network (DCNN) models for Chinese tense labelling and thus the causal analysis.

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Exploring Topic Discriminating Power of Words in Latent Dirichlet Allocation
Kai Yang | Yi Cai | Zhenhong Chen | Ho-fung Leung | Raymond Lau

Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) and its variants have been widely used to discover latent topics in textual documents. However, some of topics generated by LDA may be noisy with irrelevant words scattering across these topics. We name this kind of words as topic-indiscriminate words, which tend to make topics more ambiguous and less interpretable by humans. In our work, we propose a new topic model named TWLDA, which assigns low weights to words with low topic discriminating power (ability). Our experimental results show that the proposed approach, which effectively reduces the number of topic-indiscriminate words in discovered topics, improves the effectiveness of LDA.

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Textual Entailment with Structured Attentions and Composition
Kai Zhao | Liang Huang | Mingbo Ma

Deep learning techniques are increasingly popular in the textual entailment task, overcoming the fragility of traditional discrete models with hard alignments and logics. In particular, the recently proposed attention models (Rocktäschel et al., 2015; Wang and Jiang, 2015) achieves state-of-the-art accuracy by computing soft word alignments between the premise and hypothesis sentences. However, there remains a major limitation: this line of work completely ignores syntax and recursion, which is helpful in many traditional efforts. We show that it is beneficial to extend the attention model to tree nodes between premise and hypothesis. More importantly, this subtree-level attention reveals information about entailment relation. We study the recursive composition of this subtree-level entailment relation, which can be viewed as a soft version of the Natural Logic framework (MacCartney and Manning, 2009). Experiments show that our structured attention and entailment composition model can correctly identify and infer entailment relations from the bottom up, and bring significant improvements in accuracy.

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plWordNet 3.0 – a Comprehensive Lexical-Semantic Resource
Marek Maziarz | Maciej Piasecki | Ewa Rudnicka | Stan Szpakowicz | Paweł Kędzia

We have released plWordNet 3.0, a very large wordnet for Polish. In addition to what is expected in wordnets – richly interrelated synsets – it contains sentiment and emotion annotations, a large set of multi-word expressions, and a mapping onto WordNet 3.1. Part of the release is enWordNet 1.0, a substantially enlarged copy of WordNet 3.1, with material added to allow for a more complete mapping. The paper discusses the design principles of plWordNet, its content, its statistical portrait, a comparison with similar resources, and a partial list of applications.

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Time-Independent and Language-Independent Extraction of Multiword Expressions From Twitter
Nikhil Londhe | Rohini Srihari | Vishrawas Gopalakrishnan

Multiword Expressions (MWEs) are crucial lexico-semantic units in any language. However, most work on MWEs has been focused on standard monolingual corpora. In this work, we examine MWE usage on Twitter - an inherently multilingual medium with an extremely short average text length that is often replete with grammatical errors. In this work we present a new graph based, language agnostic method for automatically extracting MWEs from tweets. We show how our method outperforms standard Association Measures. We also present a novel unsupervised evaluation technique to ascertain the accuracy of MWE extraction.

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Incremental Global Event Extraction
Alex Judea | Michael Strube

Event extraction is a difficult information extraction task. Li et al. (2014) explore the benefits of modeling event extraction and two related tasks, entity mention and relation extraction, jointly. This joint system achieves state-of-the-art performance in all tasks. However, as a system operating only at the sentence level, it misses valuable information from other parts of the document. In this paper, we present an incremental easy-first approach to make the global context of the entire document available to the intra-sentential, state-of-the-art event extractor. We show that our method robustly increases performance on two datasets, namely ACE 2005 and TAC 2015.

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Hierarchical Memory Networks for Answer Selection on Unknown Words
Jiaming Xu | Jing Shi | Yiqun Yao | Suncong Zheng | Bo Xu | Bo Xu

Recently, end-to-end memory networks have shown promising results on Question Answering task, which encode the past facts into an explicit memory and perform reasoning ability by making multiple computational steps on the memory. However, memory networks conduct the reasoning on sentence-level memory to output coarse semantic vectors and do not further take any attention mechanism to focus on words, which may lead to the model lose some detail information, especially when the answers are rare or unknown words. In this paper, we propose a novel Hierarchical Memory Networks, dubbed HMN. First, we encode the past facts into sentence-level memory and word-level memory respectively. Then, k-max pooling is exploited following reasoning module on the sentence-level memory to sample the k most relevant sentences to a question and feed these sentences into attention mechanism on the word-level memory to focus the words in the selected sentences. Finally, the prediction is jointly learned over the outputs of the sentence-level reasoning module and the word-level attention mechanism. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach successfully conducts answer selection on unknown words and achieves a better performance than memory networks.

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Revisiting Taxonomy Induction over Wikipedia
Amit Gupta | Francesco Piccinno | Mikhail Kozhevnikov | Marius Paşca | Daniele Pighin

Guided by multiple heuristics, a unified taxonomy of entities and categories is distilled from the Wikipedia category network. A comprehensive evaluation, based on the analysis of upward generalization paths, demonstrates that the taxonomy supports generalizations which are more than twice as accurate as the state of the art. The taxonomy is available at

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Joint Learning of Local and Global Features for Entity Linking via Neural Networks
Thien Huu Nguyen | Nicolas Fauceglia | Mariano Rodriguez Muro | Oktie Hassanzadeh | Alfio Massimiliano Gliozzo | Mohammad Sadoghi

Previous studies have highlighted the necessity for entity linking systems to capture the local entity-mention similarities and the global topical coherence. We introduce a novel framework based on convolutional neural networks and recurrent neural networks to simultaneously model the local and global features for entity linking. The proposed model benefits from the capacity of convolutional neural networks to induce the underlying representations for local contexts and the advantage of recurrent neural networks to adaptively compress variable length sequences of predictions for global constraints. Our evaluation on multiple datasets demonstrates the effectiveness of the model and yields the state-of-the-art performance on such datasets. In addition, we examine the entity linking systems on the domain adaptation setting that further demonstrates the cross-domain robustness of the proposed model.

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Structured Aspect Extraction
Omer Gunes | Tim Furche | Giorgio Orsi

Aspect extraction identifies relevant features from a textual description of an entity, e.g., a phone, and is typically targeted to product descriptions, reviews, and other short texts as an enabling task for, e.g., opinion mining and information retrieval. Current aspect extraction methods mostly focus on aspect terms and often neglect interesting modifiers of the term or embed them in the aspect term without proper distinction. Moreover, flat syntactic structures are often assumed, resulting in inaccurate extractions of complex aspects. This paper studies the problem of structured aspect extraction, a variant of traditional aspect extraction aiming at a fine-grained extraction of complex (i.e., hierarchical) aspects. We propose an unsupervised and scalable method for structured aspect extraction consisting of statistical noun phrase clustering, cPMI-based noun phrase segmentation, and hierarchical pattern induction. Our evaluation shows a substantial improvement over existing methods in terms of both quality and computational efficiency.

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Robust Text Classification for Sparsely Labelled Data Using Multi-level Embeddings
Simon Baker | Douwe Kiela | Anna Korhonen

The conventional solution for handling sparsely labelled data is extensive feature engineering. This is time consuming and task and domain specific. We present a novel approach for learning embedded features that aims to alleviate this problem. Our approach jointly learns embeddings at different levels of granularity (word, sentence and document) along with the class labels. The intuition is that topic semantics represented by embeddings at multiple levels results in better classification. We evaluate this approach in unsupervised and semi-supervised settings on two sparsely labelled classification tasks, outperforming the handcrafted models and several embedding baselines.

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Mathematical Information Retrieval based on Type Embeddings and Query Expansion
Yiannos Stathopoulos | Simone Teufel

We present an approach to mathematical information retrieval (MIR) that exploits a special kind of technical terminology, referred to as a mathematical type. In this paper, we present and evaluate a type detection mechanism and show its positive effect on the retrieval of research-level mathematics. Our best model, which performs query expansion with a type-aware embedding space, strongly outperforms standard IR models with state-of-the-art query expansion (vector space-based and language modelling-based), on a relatively new corpus of research-level queries.

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Text Retrieval by Term Co-occurrences in a Query-based Vector Space
Eriks Sneiders

Term co-occurrence in a sentence or paragraph is a powerful and often overlooked feature for text matching in document retrieval. In our experiments with matching email-style query messages to webpages, such term co-occurrence helped greatly to filter and rank documents, compared to matching document-size bags-of-words. The paper presents the results of the experiments as well as a text-matching model where the query shapes the vector space, a document is modelled by two or three vectors in this vector space, and the query-document similarity score depends on the length of the vectors and the relationships between them.

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Pairwise Relation Classification with Mirror Instances and a Combined Convolutional Neural Network
Jianfei Yu | Jing Jiang

Relation classification is the task of classifying the semantic relations between entity pairs in text. Observing that existing work has not fully explored using different representations for relation instances, especially in order to better handle the asymmetry of relation types, in this paper, we propose a neural network based method for relation classification that combines the raw sequence and the shortest dependency path representations of relation instances and uses mirror instances to perform pairwise relation classification. We evaluate our proposed models on the SemEval-2010 Task 8 dataset. The empirical results show that with two additional features, our model achieves the state-of-the-art result of F1 score of 85.7.

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FastHybrid: A Hybrid Model for Efficient Answer Selection
Lidan Wang | Ming Tan | Jiawei Han

Answer selection is a core component in any question-answering systems. It aims to select correct answer sentences for a given question from a pool of candidate sentences. In recent years, many deep learning methods have been proposed and shown excellent results for this task. However, these methods typically require extensive parameter (and hyper-parameter) tuning, which give rise to efficiency issues for large-scale datasets, and potentially make them less portable across new datasets and domains (as re-tuning is usually required). In this paper, we propose an extremely efficient hybrid model (FastHybrid) that tackles the problem from both an accuracy and scalability point of view. FastHybrid is a light-weight model that requires little tuning and adaptation across different domains. It combines a fast deep model (which will be introduced in the method section) with an initial information retrieval model to effectively and efficiently handle answer selection. We introduce a new efficient attention mechanism in the hybrid model and demonstrate its effectiveness on several QA datasets. Experimental results show that although the hybrid uses no training data, its accuracy is often on-par with supervised deep learning techniques, while significantly reducing training and tuning costs across different domains.

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Extracting Spatial Entities and Relations in Korean Text
Bogyum Kim | Jae Sung Lee

A spatial information extraction system retrieves spatial entities and their relationships for geological searches and reasoning. Spatial information systems have been developed mainly for English text, e.g., through the SpaceEval competition. Some of the techniques are useful but not directly applicable to Korean text, because of linguistic differences and the lack of language resources. In this paper, we propose a Korean spatial entity extraction model and a spatial relation extraction model; the spatial entity extraction model uses word vectors to alleviate the over generation and the spatial relation extraction mod-el uses dependency parse labels to find the proper arguments in relations. Experiments with Korean text show that the two models are effective for spatial information extraction.

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Hybrid Question Answering over Knowledge Base and Free Text
Kun Xu | Yansong Feng | Songfang Huang | Dongyan Zhao

Recent trend in question answering (QA) systems focuses on using structured knowledge bases (KBs) to find answers. While these systems are able to provide more precise answers than information retrieval (IR) based QA systems, the natural incompleteness of KB inevitably limits the question scope that the system can answer. In this paper, we present a hybrid question answering (hybrid-QA) system which exploits both structured knowledge base and free text to answer a question. The main challenge is to recognize the meaning of a question using these two resources, i.e., structured KB and free text. To address this, we map relational phrases to KB predicates and textual relations simultaneously, and further develop an integer linear program (ILP) model to infer on these candidates and provide a globally optimal solution. Experiments on benchmark datasets show that our system can benefit from both structured KB and free text, outperforming the state-of-the-art systems.

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Improved Word Embeddings with Implicit Structure Information
Jie Shen | Cong Liu

Distributed word representation is an efficient method for capturing semantic and syntactic word relations. In this work, we introduce an extension to the continuous bag-of-words model for learning word representations efficiently by using implicit structure information. Instead of relying on a syntactic parser which might be noisy and slow to build, we compute weights representing probabilities of syntactic relations based on the Huffman softmax tree in an efficient heuristic. The constructed “implicit graphs” from these weights show that these weights contain useful implicit structure information. Extensive experiments performed on several word similarity and word analogy tasks show gains compared to the basic continuous bag-of-words model.

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Word Embeddings and Convolutional Neural Network for Arabic Sentiment Classification
Abdelghani Dahou | Shengwu Xiong | Junwei Zhou | Mohamed Houcine Haddoud | Pengfei Duan

With the development and the advancement of social networks, forums, blogs and online sales, a growing number of Arabs are expressing their opinions on the web. In this paper, a scheme of Arabic sentiment classification, which evaluates and detects the sentiment polarity from Arabic reviews and Arabic social media, is studied. We investigated in several architectures to build a quality neural word embeddings using a 3.4 billion words corpus from a collected 10 billion words web-crawled corpus. Moreover, a convolutional neural network trained on top of pre-trained Arabic word embeddings is used for sentiment classification to evaluate the quality of these word embeddings. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme outperforms the existed methods on 4 out of 5 balanced and unbalanced datasets.

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Combination of Convolutional and Recurrent Neural Network for Sentiment Analysis of Short Texts
Xingyou Wang | Weijie Jiang | Zhiyong Luo

Sentiment analysis of short texts is challenging because of the limited contextual information they usually contain. In recent years, deep learning models such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and recurrent neural networks (RNNs) have been applied to text sentiment analysis with comparatively remarkable results. In this paper, we describe a jointed CNN and RNN architecture, taking advantage of the coarse-grained local features generated by CNN and long-distance dependencies learned via RNN for sentiment analysis of short texts. Experimental results show an obvious improvement upon the state-of-the-art on three benchmark corpora, MR, SST1 and SST2, with 82.28%, 51.50% and 89.95% accuracy, respectively.

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Stance Classification in Rumours as a Sequential Task Exploiting the Tree Structure of Social Media Conversations
Arkaitz Zubiaga | Elena Kochkina | Maria Liakata | Rob Procter | Michal Lukasik

Rumour stance classification, the task that determines if each tweet in a collection discussing a rumour is supporting, denying, questioning or simply commenting on the rumour, has been attracting substantial interest. Here we introduce a novel approach that makes use of the sequence of transitions observed in tree-structured conversation threads in Twitter. The conversation threads are formed by harvesting users’ replies to one another, which results in a nested tree-like structure. Previous work addressing the stance classification task has treated each tweet as a separate unit. Here we analyse tweets by virtue of their position in a sequence and test two sequential classifiers, Linear-Chain CRF and Tree CRF, each of which makes different assumptions about the conversational structure. We experiment with eight Twitter datasets, collected during breaking news, and show that exploiting the sequential structure of Twitter conversations achieves significant improvements over the non-sequential methods. Our work is the first to model Twitter conversations as a tree structure in this manner, introducing a novel way of tackling NLP tasks on Twitter conversations.

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Tweet Sarcasm Detection Using Deep Neural Network
Meishan Zhang | Yue Zhang | Guohong Fu

Sarcasm detection has been modeled as a binary document classification task, with rich features being defined manually over input documents. Traditional models employ discrete manual features to address the task, with much research effect being devoted to the design of effective feature templates. We investigate the use of neural network for tweet sarcasm detection, and compare the effects of the continuous automatic features with discrete manual features. In particular, we use a bi-directional gated recurrent neural network to capture syntactic and semantic information over tweets locally, and a pooling neural network to extract contextual features automatically from history tweets. Results show that neural features give improved accuracies for sarcasm detection, with different error distributions compared with discrete manual features.

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Agreement and Disagreement: Comparison of Points of View in the Political Domain
Stefano Menini | Sara Tonelli

The automated comparison of points of view between two politicians is a very challenging task, due not only to the lack of annotated resources, but also to the different dimensions participating to the definition of agreement and disagreement. In order to shed light on this complex task, we first carry out a pilot study to manually annotate the components involved in detecting agreement and disagreement. Then, based on these findings, we implement different features to capture them automatically via supervised classification. We do not focus on debates in dialogical form, but we rather consider sets of documents, in which politicians may express their position with respect to different topics in an implicit or explicit way, like during an electoral campaign. We create and make available three different datasets.

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Targeted Sentiment to Understand Student Comments
Charles Welch | Rada Mihalcea

We address the task of targeted sentiment as a means of understanding the sentiment that students hold toward courses and instructors, as expressed by students in their comments. We introduce a new dataset consisting of student comments annotated for targeted sentiment and describe a system that can both identify the courses and instructors mentioned in student comments, as well as label the students’ sentiment toward those entities. Through several comparative evaluations, we show that our system outperforms previous work on a similar task.

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Towards Sub-Word Level Compositions for Sentiment Analysis of Hindi-English Code Mixed Text
Aditya Joshi | Ameya Prabhu | Manish Shrivastava | Vasudeva Varma

Sentiment analysis (SA) using code-mixed data from social media has several applications in opinion mining ranging from customer satisfaction to social campaign analysis in multilingual societies. Advances in this area are impeded by the lack of a suitable annotated dataset. We introduce a Hindi-English (Hi-En) code-mixed dataset for sentiment analysis and perform empirical analysis comparing the suitability and performance of various state-of-the-art SA methods in social media. In this paper, we introduce learning sub-word level representations in our LSTM (Subword-LSTM) architecture instead of character-level or word-level representations. This linguistic prior in our architecture enables us to learn the information about sentiment value of important morphemes. This also seems to work well in highly noisy text containing misspellings as shown in our experiments which is demonstrated in morpheme-level feature maps learned by our model. Also, we hypothesize that encoding this linguistic prior in the Subword-LSTM architecture leads to the superior performance. Our system attains accuracy 4-5% greater than traditional approaches on our dataset, and also outperforms the available system for sentiment analysis in Hi-En code-mixed text by 18%.

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Distance Metric Learning for Aspect Phrase Grouping
Shufeng Xiong | Yue Zhang | Donghong Ji | Yinxia Lou

Aspect phrase grouping is an important task in aspect-level sentiment analysis. It is a challenging problem due to polysemy and context dependency. We propose an Attention-based Deep Distance Metric Learning (ADDML) method, by considering aspect phrase representation as well as context representation. First, leveraging the characteristics of the review text, we automatically generate aspect phrase sample pairs for distant supervision. Second, we feed word embeddings of aspect phrases and their contexts into an attention-based neural network to learn feature representation of contexts. Both aspect phrase embedding and context embedding are used to learn a deep feature subspace for measure the distances between aspect phrases for K-means clustering. Experiments on four review datasets show that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art strong baseline methods.

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Constraint-Based Question Answering with Knowledge Graph
Junwei Bao | Nan Duan | Zhao Yan | Ming Zhou | Tiejun Zhao

WebQuestions and SimpleQuestions are two benchmark data-sets commonly used in recent knowledge-based question answering (KBQA) work. Most questions in them are ‘simple’ questions which can be answered based on a single relation in the knowledge base. Such data-sets lack the capability of evaluating KBQA systems on complicated questions. Motivated by this issue, we release a new data-set, namely ComplexQuestions, aiming to measure the quality of KBQA systems on ‘multi-constraint’ questions which require multiple knowledge base relations to get the answer. Beside, we propose a novel systematic KBQA approach to solve multi-constraint questions. Compared to state-of-the-art methods, our approach not only obtains comparable results on the two existing benchmark data-sets, but also achieves significant improvements on the ComplexQuestions.

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Selecting Sentences versus Selecting Tree Constituents for Automatic Question Ranking
Alberto Barrón-Cedeño | Giovanni Da San Martino | Salvatore Romeo | Alessandro Moschitti

Community question answering (cQA) websites are focused on users who query questions onto an online forum, expecting for other users to provide them answers or suggestions. Unlike other social media, the length of the posted queries has no limits and queries tend to be multi-sentence elaborations combining context, actual questions, and irrelevant information. We approach the problem of question ranking: given a user’s new question, to retrieve those previously-posted questions which could be equivalent, or highly relevant. This could prevent the posting of nearly-duplicate questions and provide the user with instantaneous answers. For the first time in cQA, we address the selection of relevant text —both at sentence- and at constituent-level— for parse tree-based representations. Our supervised models for text selection boost the performance of a tree kernel-based machine learning model, allowing it to overtake the current state of the art on a recently released cQA evaluation framework.

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Attention-Based Convolutional Neural Network for Semantic Relation Extraction
Yatian Shen | Xuanjing Huang

Nowadays, neural networks play an important role in the task of relation classification. In this paper, we propose a novel attention-based convolutional neural network architecture for this task. Our model makes full use of word embedding, part-of-speech tag embedding and position embedding information. Word level attention mechanism is able to better determine which parts of the sentence are most influential with respect to the two entities of interest. This architecture enables learning some important features from task-specific labeled data, forgoing the need for external knowledge such as explicit dependency structures. Experiments on the SemEval-2010 Task 8 benchmark dataset show that our model achieves better performances than several state-of-the-art neural network models and can achieve a competitive performance just with minimal feature engineering.

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Table Filling Multi-Task Recurrent Neural Network for Joint Entity and Relation Extraction
Pankaj Gupta | Hinrich Schütze | Bernt Andrassy

This paper proposes a novel context-aware joint entity and word-level relation extraction approach through semantic composition of words, introducing a Table Filling Multi-Task Recurrent Neural Network (TF-MTRNN) model that reduces the entity recognition and relation classification tasks to a table-filling problem and models their interdependencies. The proposed neural network architecture is capable of modeling multiple relation instances without knowing the corresponding relation arguments in a sentence. The experimental results show that a simple approach of piggybacking candidate entities to model the label dependencies from relations to entities improves performance. We present state-of-the-art results with improvements of 2.0% and 2.7% for entity recognition and relation classification, respectively on CoNLL04 dataset.

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Bilingual Autoencoders with Global Descriptors for Modeling Parallel Sentences
Biao Zhang | Deyi Xiong | Jinsong Su | Hong Duan | Min Zhang

Parallel sentence representations are important for bilingual and cross-lingual tasks in natural language processing. In this paper, we explore a bilingual autoencoder approach to model parallel sentences. We extract sentence-level global descriptors (e.g. min, max) from word embeddings, and construct two monolingual autoencoders over these descriptors on the source and target language. In order to tightly connect the two autoencoders with bilingual correspondences, we force them to share the same decoding parameters and minimize a corpus-level semantic distance between the two languages. Being optimized towards a joint objective function of reconstruction and semantic errors, our bilingual antoencoder is able to learn continuous-valued latent representations for parallel sentences. Experiments on both intrinsic and extrinsic evaluations on statistical machine translation tasks show that our autoencoder achieves substantial improvements over the baselines.

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Multi-Engine and Multi-Alignment Based Automatic Post-Editing and its Impact on Translation Productivity
Santanu Pal | Sudip Kumar Naskar | Josef van Genabith

In this paper we combine two strands of machine translation (MT) research: automatic post-editing (APE) and multi-engine (system combination) MT. APE systems learn a target-language-side second stage MT system from the data produced by human corrected output of a first stage MT system, to improve the output of the first stage MT in what is essentially a sequential MT system combination architecture. At the same time, there is a rich research literature on parallel MT system combination where the same input is fed to multiple engines and the best output is selected or smaller sections of the outputs are combined to obtain improved translation output. In the paper we show that parallel system combination in the APE stage of a sequential MT-APE combination yields substantial translation improvements both measured in terms of automatic evaluation metrics as well as in terms of productivity improvements measured in a post-editing experiment. We also show that system combination on the level of APE alignments yields further improvements. Overall our APE system yields statistically significant improvement of 5.9% relative BLEU over a strong baseline (English–Italian Google MT) and 21.76% productivity increase in a human post-editing experiment with professional translators.

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Measuring the Effect of Conversational Aspects on Machine Translation Quality
Marlies van der Wees | Arianna Bisazza | Christof Monz

Research in statistical machine translation (SMT) is largely driven by formal translation tasks, while translating informal text is much more challenging. In this paper we focus on SMT for the informal genre of dialogues, which has rarely been addressed to date. Concretely, we investigate the effect of dialogue acts, speakers, gender, and text register on SMT quality when translating fictional dialogues. We first create and release a corpus of multilingual movie dialogues annotated with these four dialogue-specific aspects. When measuring translation performance for each of these variables, we find that BLEU fluctuations between their categories are often significantly larger than randomly expected. Following this finding, we hypothesize and show that SMT of fictional dialogues benefits from adaptation towards dialogue acts and registers. Finally, we find that male speakers are harder to translate and use more vulgar language than female speakers, and that vulgarity is often not preserved during translation.

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Enriching Phrase Tables for Statistical Machine Translation Using Mixed Embeddings
Peyman Passban | Qun Liu | Andy Way

The phrase table is considered to be the main bilingual resource for the phrase-based statistical machine translation (PBSMT) model. During translation, a source sentence is decomposed into several phrases. The best match of each source phrase is selected among several target-side counterparts within the phrase table, and processed by the decoder to generate a sentence-level translation. The best match is chosen according to several factors, including a set of bilingual features. PBSMT engines by default provide four probability scores in phrase tables which are considered as the main set of bilingual features. Our goal is to enrich that set of features, as a better feature set should yield better translations. We propose new scores generated by a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) which indicate the semantic relatedness of phrase pairs. We evaluate our model in different experimental settings with different language pairs. We observe significant improvements when the proposed features are incorporated into the PBSMT pipeline.

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Anecdote Recognition and Recommendation
Wei Song | Ruiji Fu | Lizhen Liu | Hanshi Wang | Ting Liu

We introduce a novel task Anecdote Recognition and Recommendation. An anecdote is a story with a point revealing account of an individual person. Recommending proper anecdotes can be used as evidence to support argumentative writing or as a clue for further reading. We represent an anecdote as a structured tuple — < person, story, implication >. Anecdote recognition runs on archived argumentative essays. We extract narratives containing events of a person as the anecdote story. More importantly, we uncover the anecdote implication, which reveals the meaning and topic of an anecdote. Our approach depends on discourse role identification. Discourse roles such as thesis, main ideas and support help us locate stories and their implications in essays. The experiments show that informative and interpretable anecdotes can be recognized. These anecdotes are used for anecdote recommendation. The anecdote recommender can recommend proper anecdotes in response to given topics. The anecdote implication contributes most for bridging user interested topics and relevant anecdotes.

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Training Data Enrichment for Infrequent Discourse Relations
Kailang Jiang | Giuseppe Carenini | Raymond Ng

Discourse parsing is a popular technique widely used in text understanding, sentiment analysis and other NLP tasks. However, for most discourse parsers, the performance varies significantly across different discourse relations. In this paper, we first validate the underfitting hypothesis, i.e., the less frequent a relation is in the training data, the poorer the performance on that relation. We then explore how to increase the number of positive training instances, without resorting to manually creating additional labeled data. We propose a training data enrichment framework that relies on co-training of two different discourse parsers on unlabeled documents. Importantly, we show that co-training alone is not sufficient. The framework requires a filtering step to ensure that only “good quality” unlabeled documents can be used for enrichment and re-training. We propose and evaluate two ways to perform the filtering. The first is to use an agreement score between the two parsers. The second is to use only the confidence score of the faster parser. Our empirical results show that agreement score can help to boost the performance on infrequent relations, and that the confidence score is a viable approximation of the agreement score for infrequent relations.

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Inferring Discourse Relations from PDTB-style Discourse Labels for Argumentative Revision Classification
Fan Zhang | Diane Litman | Katherine Forbes Riley

Penn Discourse Treebank (PDTB)-style annotation focuses on labeling local discourse relations between text spans and typically ignores larger discourse contexts. In this paper we propose two approaches to infer discourse relations in a paragraph-level context from annotated PDTB labels. We investigate the utility of inferring such discourse information using the task of revision classification. Experimental results demonstrate that the inferred information can significantly improve classification performance compared to baselines, not only when PDTB annotation comes from humans but also from automatic parsers.

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Capturing Pragmatic Knowledge in Article Usage Prediction using LSTMs
Jad Kabbara | Yulan Feng | Jackie Chi Kit Cheung

We examine the potential of recurrent neural networks for handling pragmatic inferences involving complex contextual cues for the task of article usage prediction. We train and compare several variants of Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks with an attention mechanism. Our model outperforms a previous state-of-the-art system, achieving up to 96.63% accuracy on the WSJ/PTB corpus. In addition, we perform a series of analyses to understand the impact of various model choices. We find that the gain in performance can be attributed to the ability of LSTMs to pick up on contextual cues, both local and further away in distance, and that the model is able to solve cases involving reasoning about coreference and synonymy. We also show how the attention mechanism contributes to the interpretability of the model’s effectiveness.

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Aspect Based Sentiment Analysis using Sentiment Flow with Local and Non-local Neighbor Information
Shubham Pateria

Aspect-level analysis of sentiments contained in a review text is important to reveal a detailed picture of consumer opinions. While a plethora of methods have been traditionally employed for this task, majority focus has been on analyzing only aspect-centered local information. However, incorporating context information from non-local aspect neighbors may capture richer structure in review text and enhance prediction. This may especially be helpful to resolve ambiguous predictions. The context around an aspect can be incorporated using semantic relations within text and inter-label dependencies in the output. On the output side, this becomes a structured prediction task. However, non-local label correlations are computationally heavy and intractable to infer for structured prediction models like Conditional Random Fields (CRF). Moreover, some prior intuition is required to incorporate non-local context. Thus, inspired by previous research on multi-stage prediction, we propose a two-level model for aspect-based analysis. The proposed model uses predicted probability estimates from first level to incorporate neighbor information in the second level. The model is evaluated on data taken from SemEval Workshops and Bing Liu’s review collection. It shows comparatively better performance against few existing methods. Overall, we get prediction accuracy in a range of 83-88% and almost 3-4 point increment against baseline (first level only) scores.

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Two-View Label Propagation to Semi-supervised Reader Emotion Classification
Shoushan Li | Jian Xu | Dong Zhang | Guodong Zhou

In the literature, various supervised learning approaches have been adopted to address the task of reader emotion classification. However, the classification performance greatly suffers when the size of the labeled data is limited. In this paper, we propose a two-view label propagation approach to semi-supervised reader emotion classification by exploiting two views, namely source text and response text in a label propagation algorithm. Specifically, our approach depends on two word-document bipartite graphs to model the relationship among the samples in the two views respectively. Besides, the two bipartite graphs are integrated by linking each source text sample with its corresponding response text sample via a length-sensitive transition probability. In this way, our two-view label propagation approach to semi-supervised reader emotion classification largely alleviates the reliance on the strong sufficiency and independence assumptions of the two views, as required in co-training. Empirical evaluation demonstrates the effectiveness of our two-view label propagation approach to semi-supervised reader emotion classification.

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A Joint Sentiment-Target-Stance Model for Stance Classification in Tweets
Javid Ebrahimi | Dejing Dou | Daniel Lowd

Classifying the stance expressed in online microblogging social media is an emerging problem in opinion mining. We propose a probabilistic approach to stance classification in tweets, which models stance, target of stance, and sentiment of tweet, jointly. Instead of simply conjoining the sentiment or target variables as extra variables to the feature space, we use a novel formulation to incorporate three-way interactions among sentiment-stance-input variables and three-way interactions among target-stance-input variables. The proposed specification intuitively aims to discriminate sentiment features from target features for stance classification. In addition, regularizing a single stance classifier, which handles all targets, acts as a soft weight-sharing among them. We demonstrate that discriminative training of this model achieves the state-of-the-art results in supervised stance classification, and its generative training obtains competitive results in the weakly supervised setting.

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SenticNet 4: A Semantic Resource for Sentiment Analysis Based on Conceptual Primitives
Erik Cambria | Soujanya Poria | Rajiv Bajpai | Bjoern Schuller

An important difference between traditional AI systems and human intelligence is the human ability to harness commonsense knowledge gleaned from a lifetime of learning and experience to make informed decisions. This allows humans to adapt easily to novel situations where AI fails catastrophically due to a lack of situation-specific rules and generalization capabilities. Commonsense knowledge also provides background information that enables humans to successfully operate in social situations where such knowledge is typically assumed. Since commonsense consists of information that humans take for granted, gathering it is an extremely difficult task. Previous versions of SenticNet were focused on collecting this kind of knowledge for sentiment analysis but they were heavily limited by their inability to generalize. SenticNet 4 overcomes such limitations by leveraging on conceptual primitives automatically generated by means of hierarchical clustering and dimensionality reduction.

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Joint Embedding of Hierarchical Categories and Entities for Concept Categorization and Dataless Classification
Yuezhang Li | Ronghuo Zheng | Tian Tian | Zhiting Hu | Rahul Iyer | Katia Sycara

Existing work learning distributed representations of knowledge base entities has largely failed to incorporate rich categorical structure, and is unable to induce category representations. We propose a new framework that embeds entities and categories jointly into a semantic space, by integrating structured knowledge and taxonomy hierarchy from large knowledge bases. Our framework enables to compute meaningful semantic relatedness between entities and categories in a principled way, and can handle both single-word and multiple-word concepts. Our method shows significant improvement on the tasks of concept categorization and dataless hierarchical classification.

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Latent Topic Embedding
Di Jiang | Lei Shi | Rongzhong Lian | Hua Wu

Topic modeling and word embedding are two important techniques for deriving latent semantics from data. General-purpose topic models typically work in coarse granularity by capturing word co-occurrence at the document/sentence level. In contrast, word embedding models usually work in much finer granularity by modeling word co-occurrence within small sliding windows. With the aim of deriving latent semantics by considering word co-occurrence at different levels of granularity, we propose a novel model named Latent Topic Embedding (LTE), which seamlessly integrates topic generation and embedding learning in one unified framework. We further propose an efficient Monte Carlo EM algorithm to estimate the parameters of interest. By retaining the individual advantages of topic modeling and word embedding, LTE results in better latent topics and word embedding. Extensive experiments verify the superiority of LTE over the state-of-the-arts.

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Neural-based Noise Filtering from Word Embeddings
Kim Anh Nguyen | Sabine Schulte im Walde | Ngoc Thang Vu

Word embeddings have been demonstrated to benefit NLP tasks impressively. Yet, there is room for improvements in the vector representations, because current word embeddings typically contain unnecessary information, i.e., noise. We propose two novel models to improve word embeddings by unsupervised learning, in order to yield word denoising embeddings. The word denoising embeddings are obtained by strengthening salient information and weakening noise in the original word embeddings, based on a deep feed-forward neural network filter. Results from benchmark tasks show that the filtered word denoising embeddings outperform the original word embeddings.

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Integrating Distributional and Lexical Information for Semantic Classification of Words using MRMF
Rosa Tsegaye Aga | Lucas Drumond | Christian Wartena | Lars Schmidt-Thieme

Semantic classification of words using distributional features is usually based on the semantic similarity of words. We show on two different datasets that a trained classifier using the distributional features directly gives better results. We use Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Multi-relational Matrix Factorization (MRMF) to train classifiers. Both give similar results. However, MRMF, that was not used for semantic classification with distributional features before, can easily be extended with more matrices containing more information from different sources on the same problem. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the novel approach by including information from WordNet. Thus we show, that MRMF provides an interesting approach for building semantic classifiers that (1) gives better results than unsupervised approaches based on vector similarity, (2) gives similar results as other supervised methods and (3) can naturally be extended with other sources of information in order to improve the results.

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Semi Supervised Preposition-Sense Disambiguation using Multilingual Data
Hila Gonen | Yoav Goldberg

Prepositions are very common and very ambiguous, and understanding their sense is critical for understanding the meaning of the sentence. Supervised corpora for the preposition-sense disambiguation task are small, suggesting a semi-supervised approach to the task. We show that signals from unannotated multilingual data can be used to improve supervised preposition-sense disambiguation. Our approach pre-trains an LSTM encoder for predicting the translation of a preposition, and then incorporates the pre-trained encoder as a component in a supervised classification system, and fine-tunes it for the task. The multilingual signals consistently improve results on two preposition-sense datasets.

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Monday mornings are my fave :) #not Exploring the Automatic Recognition of Irony in English tweets
Cynthia Van Hee | Els Lefever | Véronique Hoste

Recognising and understanding irony is crucial for the improvement natural language processing tasks including sentiment analysis. In this study, we describe the construction of an English Twitter corpus and its annotation for irony based on a newly developed fine-grained annotation scheme. We also explore the feasibility of automatic irony recognition by exploiting a varied set of features including lexical, syntactic, sentiment and semantic (Word2Vec) information. Experiments on a held-out test set show that our irony classifier benefits from this combined information, yielding an F1-score of 67.66%. When explicit hashtag information like #irony is included in the data, the system even obtains an F1-score of 92.77%. A qualitative analysis of the output reveals that recognising irony that results from a polarity clash appears to be (much) more feasible than recognising other forms of ironic utterances (e.g., descriptions of situational irony).

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CNN- and LSTM-based Claim Classification in Online User Comments
Chinnappa Guggilla | Tristan Miller | Iryna Gurevych

When processing arguments in online user interactive discourse, it is often necessary to determine their bases of support. In this paper, we describe a supervised approach, based on deep neural networks, for classifying the claims made in online arguments. We conduct experiments using convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and long short-term memory networks (LSTMs) on two claim data sets compiled from online user comments. Using different types of distributional word embeddings, but without incorporating any rich, expensive set of features, we achieve a significant improvement over the state of the art for one data set (which categorizes arguments as factual vs. emotional), and performance comparable to the state of the art on the other data set (which categorizes propositions according to their verifiability). Our approach has the advantages of using a generalized, simple, and effective methodology that works for claim categorization on different data sets and tasks.

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Experiments in Idiom Recognition
Jing Peng | Anna Feldman

Some expressions can be ambiguous between idiomatic and literal interpretations depending on the context they occur in, e.g., ‘sales hit the roof’ vs. ‘hit the roof of the car’. We present a novel method of classifying whether a given instance is literal or idiomatic, focusing on verb-noun constructions. We report state-of-the-art results on this task using an approach based on the hypothesis that the distributions of the contexts of the idiomatic phrases will be different from the contexts of the literal usages. We measure contexts by using projections of the words into vector space. For comparison, we implement Fazly et al. (2009)’s, Sporleder and Li (2009)’s, and Li and Sporleder (2010b)’s methods and apply them to our data. We provide experimental results validating the proposed techniques.

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An Empirical Evaluation of various Deep Learning Architectures for Bi-Sequence Classification Tasks
Anirban Laha | Vikas Raykar

Several tasks in argumentation mining and debating, question-answering, and natural language inference involve classifying a sequence in the context of another sequence (referred as bi-sequence classification). For several single sequence classification tasks, the current state-of-the-art approaches are based on recurrent and convolutional neural networks. On the other hand, for bi-sequence classification problems, there is not much understanding as to the best deep learning architecture. In this paper, we attempt to get an understanding of this category of problems by extensive empirical evaluation of 19 different deep learning architectures (specifically on different ways of handling context) for various problems originating in natural language processing like debating, textual entailment and question-answering. Following the empirical evaluation, we offer our insights and conclusions regarding the architectures we have considered. We also establish the first deep learning baselines for three argumentation mining tasks.

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Learning Succinct Models: Pipelined Compression with L1-Regularization, Hashing, Elias-Fano Indices, and Quantization
Hajime Senuma | Akiko Aizawa

The recent proliferation of smart devices necessitates methods to learn small-sized models. This paper demonstrates that if there are m features in total but only n = o(√m) features are required to distinguish examples, with 𝛺(log m) training examples and reasonable settings, it is possible to obtain a good model in a succinct representation using n log2 mn + o(m) bits, by using a pipeline of existing compression methods: L1-regularized logistic regression, feature hashing, Elias–Fano indices, and randomized quantization. An experiment shows that a noun phrase chunking task for which an existing library requires 27 megabytes can be compressed to less than 13 kilobytes without notable loss of accuracy.

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Bad Company—Neighborhoods in Neural Embedding Spaces Considered Harmful
Johannes Hellrich | Udo Hahn

We assess the reliability and accuracy of (neural) word embeddings for both modern and historical English and German. Our research provides deeper insights into the empirically justified choice of optimal training methods and parameters. The overall low reliability we observe, nevertheless, casts doubt on the suitability of word neighborhoods in embedding spaces as a basis for qualitative conclusions on synchronic and diachronic lexico-semantic matters, an issue currently high up in the agenda of Digital Humanities.

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Implementing a Reverse Dictionary, based on word definitions, using a Node-Graph Architecture
Sushrut Thorat | Varad Choudhari

In this paper, we outline an approach to build graph-based reverse dictionaries using word definitions. A reverse dictionary takes a phrase as an input and outputs a list of words semantically similar to that phrase. It is a solution to the Tip-of-the-Tongue problem. We use a distance-based similarity measure, computed on a graph, to assess the similarity between a word and the input phrase. We compare the performance of our approach with the Onelook Reverse Dictionary and a distributional semantics method based on word2vec, and show that our approach is much better than the distributional semantics method, and as good as Onelook, on a 3k lexicon. This simple approach sets a new performance baseline for reverse dictionaries.

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Is an Image Worth More than a Thousand Words? On the Fine-Grain Semantic Differences between Visual and Linguistic Representations
Guillem Collell | Marie-Francine Moens

Human concept representations are often grounded with visual information, yet some aspects of meaning cannot be visually represented or are better described with language. Thus, vision and language provide complementary information that, properly combined, can potentially yield more complete concept representations. Recently, state-of-the-art distributional semantic models and convolutional neural networks have achieved great success in representing linguistic and visual knowledge respectively. In this paper, we compare both, visual and linguistic representations in their ability to capture different types of fine-grain semantic knowledge—or attributes—of concepts. Humans often describe objects using attributes, that is, properties such as shape, color or functionality, which often transcend the linguistic and visual modalities. In our setting, we evaluate how well attributes can be predicted by using the unimodal representations as inputs. We are interested in first, finding out whether attributes are generally better captured by either the vision or by the language modality; and second, if none of them is clearly superior (as we hypothesize), what type of attributes or semantic knowledge are better encoded from each modality. Ultimately, our study sheds light on the potential of combining visual and textual representations.

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On the contribution of word embeddings to temporal relation classification
Paramita Mirza | Sara Tonelli

Temporal relation classification is a challenging task, especially when there are no explicit markers to characterise the relation between temporal entities. This occurs frequently in inter-sentential relations, whose entities are not connected via direct syntactic relations making classification even more difficult. In these cases, resorting to features that focus on the semantic content of the event words may be very beneficial for inferring implicit relations. Specifically, while morpho-syntactic and context features are considered sufficient for classifying event-timex pairs, we believe that exploiting distributional semantic information about event words can benefit supervised classification of other types of pairs. In this work, we assess the impact of using word embeddings as features for event words in classifying temporal relations of event-event pairs and event-DCT (document creation time) pairs.

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Modeling Context-sensitive Selectional Preference with Distributed Representations
Naoya Inoue | Yuichiroh Matsubayashi | Masayuki Ono | Naoaki Okazaki | Kentaro Inui

This paper proposes a novel problem setting of selectional preference (SP) between a predicate and its arguments, called as context-sensitive SP (CSP). CSP models the narrative consistency between the predicate and preceding contexts of its arguments, in addition to the conventional SP based on semantic types. Furthermore, we present a novel CSP model that extends the neural SP model (Van de Cruys, 2014) to incorporate contextual information into the distributed representations of arguments. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed CSP model successfully learns CSP and outperforms the conventional SP model in coreference cluster ranking.

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Exploring the value space of attributes: Unsupervised bidirectional clustering of adjectives in German
Wiebke Petersen | Oliver Hellwig

The paper presents an iterative bidirectional clustering of adjectives and nouns based on a co-occurrence matrix. The clustering method combines a Vector Space Models (VSM) and the results of a Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), whose results are merged in each iterative step. The aim is to derive a clustering of German adjectives that reflects latent semantic classes of adjectives, and that can be used to induce frame-based representations of nouns in a later step. We are able to show that the method induces meaningful groups of adjectives, and that it outperforms a baseline k-means algorithm.

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Distributional Inclusion Hypothesis for Tensor-based Composition
Dimitri Kartsaklis | Mehrnoosh Sadrzadeh

According to the distributional inclusion hypothesis, entailment between words can be measured via the feature inclusions of their distributional vectors. In recent work, we showed how this hypothesis can be extended from words to phrases and sentences in the setting of compositional distributional semantics. This paper focuses on inclusion properties of tensors; its main contribution is a theoretical and experimental analysis of how feature inclusion works in different concrete models of verb tensors. We present results for relational, Frobenius, projective, and holistic methods and compare them to the simple vector addition, multiplication, min, and max models. The degrees of entailment thus obtained are evaluated via a variety of existing word-based measures, such as Weed’s and Clarke’s, KL-divergence, APinc, balAPinc, and two of our previously proposed metrics at the phrase/sentence level. We perform experiments on three entailment datasets, investigating which version of tensor-based composition achieves the highest performance when combined with the sentence-level measures.

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Parameter estimation of Japanese predicate argument structure analysis model using eye gaze information
Ryosuke Maki | Hitoshi Nishikawa | Takenobu Tokunaga

In this paper, we propose utilising eye gaze information for estimating parameters of a Japanese predicate argument structure (PAS) analysis model. We employ not only linguistic information in the text, but also the information of annotator eye gaze during their annotation process. We hypothesise that annotator’s frequent looks at certain candidates imply their plausibility of being the argument of the predicate. Based on this hypothesis, we consider annotator eye gaze for estimating the model parameters of the PAS analysis. The evaluation experiment showed that introducing eye gaze information increased the accuracy of the PAS analysis by 0.05 compared with the conventional methods.

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Reading and Thinking: Re-read LSTM Unit for Textual Entailment Recognition
Lei Sha | Baobao Chang | Zhifang Sui | Sujian Li

Recognizing Textual Entailment (RTE) is a fundamentally important task in natural language processing that has many applications. The recently released Stanford Natural Language Inference (SNLI) corpus has made it possible to develop and evaluate deep neural network methods for the RTE task. Previous neural network based methods usually try to encode the two sentences (premise and hypothesis) and send them together into a multi-layer perceptron to get their entailment type, or use LSTM-RNN to link two sentences together while using attention mechanic to enhance the model’s ability. In this paper, we propose to use the re-read mechanic, which means to read the premise again and again while reading the hypothesis. After read the premise again, the model can get a better understanding of the premise, which can also affect the understanding of the hypothesis. On the contrary, a better understanding of the hypothesis can also affect the understanding of the premise. With the alternative re-read process, the model can “think” of a better decision of entailment type. We designed a new LSTM unit called re-read LSTM (rLSTM) to implement this “thinking” process. Experiments show that we achieve results better than current state-of-the-art equivalents.

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A Paraphrase and Semantic Similarity Detection System for User Generated Short-Text Content on Microblogs
Kuntal Dey | Ritvik Shrivastava | Saroj Kaushik

Existing systems deliver high accuracy and F1-scores for detecting paraphrase and semantic similarity on traditional clean-text corpus. For instance, on the clean-text Microsoft Paraphrase benchmark database, the existing systems attain an accuracy as high as 0:8596. However, existing systems for detecting paraphrases and semantic similarity on user-generated short-text content on microblogs such as Twitter, comprising of noisy and ad hoc short-text, needs significant research attention. In this paper, we propose a machine learning based approach towards this. We propose a set of features that, although well-known in the NLP literature for solving other problems, have not been explored for detecting paraphrase or semantic similarity, on noisy user-generated short-text data such as Twitter. We apply support vector machine (SVM) based learning. We use the benchmark Twitter paraphrase data, released as a part of SemEval 2015, for experiments. Our system delivers a paraphrase detection F1-score of 0.717 and semantic similarity detection F1-score of 0.741, thereby significantly outperforming the existing systems, that deliver F1-scores of 0.696 and 0.724 for the two problems respectively. Our features also allow us to obtain a rank among the top-10, when trained on the Microsoft Paraphrase corpus and tested on the corresponding test data, thereby empirically establishing our approach as ubiquitous across the different paraphrase detection databases.

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Modeling Extractive Sentence Intersection via Subtree Entailment
Omer Levy | Ido Dagan | Gabriel Stanovsky | Judith Eckle-Kohler | Iryna Gurevych

Sentence intersection captures the semantic overlap of two texts, generalizing over paradigms such as textual entailment and semantic text similarity. Despite its modeling power, it has received little attention because it is difficult for non-experts to annotate. We analyze 200 pairs of similar sentences and identify several underlying properties of sentence intersection. We leverage these insights to design an algorithm that decomposes the sentence intersection task into several simpler annotation tasks, facilitating the construction of a high quality dataset via crowdsourcing. We implement this approach and provide an annotated dataset of 1,764 sentence intersections.

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Context-Sensitive Inference Rule Discovery: A Graph-Based Method
Xianpei Han | Le Sun

Inference rule discovery aims to identify entailment relations between predicates, e.g., ‘X acquire Y –> X purchase Y’ and ‘X is author of Y –> X write Y’. Traditional methods dis-cover inference rules by computing distributional similarities between predicates, with each predicate is represented as one or more feature vectors of its instantiations. These methods, however, have two main drawbacks. Firstly, these methods are mostly context-insensitive, cannot accurately measure the similarity between two predicates in a specific context. Secondly, traditional methods usually model predicates independently, ignore the rich inter-dependencies between predicates. To address the above two issues, this pa-per proposes a graph-based method, which can discover inference rules by effectively modelling and exploiting both the context and the inter-dependencies between predicates. Specifically, we propose a graph-based representation—Predicate Graph, which can capture the semantic relevance between predicates using both the predicate-feature co-occurrence statistics and the inter-dependencies between predicates. Based on the predicate graph, we propose a context-sensitive random walk algorithm, which can learn con-text-specific predicate representations by distinguishing context-relevant information from context-irrelevant information. Experimental results show that our method significantly outperforms traditional inference rule discovery methods.

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Modelling Sentence Pairs with Tree-structured Attentive Encoder
Yao Zhou | Cong Liu | Yan Pan

We describe an attentive encoder that combines tree-structured recursive neural networks and sequential recurrent neural networks for modelling sentence pairs. Since existing attentive models exert attention on the sequential structure, we propose a way to incorporate attention into the tree topology. Specially, given a pair of sentences, our attentive encoder uses the representation of one sentence, which generated via an RNN, to guide the structural encoding of the other sentence on the dependency parse tree. We evaluate the proposed attentive encoder on three tasks: semantic similarity, paraphrase identification and true-false question selection. Experimental results show that our encoder outperforms all baselines and achieves state-of-the-art results on two tasks.

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Neural Paraphrase Generation with Stacked Residual LSTM Networks
Aaditya Prakash | Sadid A. Hasan | Kathy Lee | Vivek Datla | Ashequl Qadir | Joey Liu | Oladimeji Farri

In this paper, we propose a novel neural approach for paraphrase generation. Conventional paraphrase generation methods either leverage hand-written rules and thesauri-based alignments, or use statistical machine learning principles. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first to explore deep learning models for paraphrase generation. Our primary contribution is a stacked residual LSTM network, where we add residual connections between LSTM layers. This allows for efficient training of deep LSTMs. We evaluate our model and other state-of-the-art deep learning models on three different datasets: PPDB, WikiAnswers, and MSCOCO. Evaluation results demonstrate that our model outperforms sequence to sequence, attention-based, and bi-directional LSTM models on BLEU, METEOR, TER, and an embedding-based sentence similarity metric.

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English-Chinese Knowledge Base Translation with Neural Network
Xiaocheng Feng | Duyu Tang | Bing Qin | Ting Liu

Knowledge base (KB) such as Freebase plays an important role for many natural language processing tasks. English knowledge base is obviously larger and of higher quality than low resource language like Chinese. To expand Chinese KB by leveraging English KB resources, an effective way is to translate English KB (source) into Chinese (target). In this direction, two major challenges are to model triple semantics and to build a robust KB translator. We address these challenges by presenting a neural network approach, which learns continuous triple representation with a gated neural network. Accordingly, source triples and target triples are mapped in the same semantic vector space. We build a new dataset for English-Chinese KB translation from Freebase, and compare with several baselines on it. Experimental results show that the proposed method improves translation accuracy compared with baseline methods. We show that adaptive composition model improves standard solution such as neural tensor network in terms of translation accuracy.

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Keyphrase Annotation with Graph Co-Ranking
Adrien Bougouin | Florian Boudin | Béatrice Daille

Keyphrase annotation is the task of identifying textual units that represent the main content of a document. Keyphrase annotation is either carried out by extracting the most important phrases from a document, keyphrase extraction, or by assigning entries from a controlled domain-specific vocabulary, keyphrase assignment. Assignment methods are generally more reliable. They provide better-formed keyphrases, as well as keyphrases that do not occur in the document. But they are often silent on the contrary of extraction methods that do not depend on manually built resources. This paper proposes a new method to perform both keyphrase extraction and keyphrase assignment in an integrated and mutual reinforcing manner. Experiments have been carried out on datasets covering different domains of humanities and social sciences. They show statistically significant improvements compared to both keyphrase extraction and keyphrase assignment state-of-the art methods.

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What’s in an Explanation? Characterizing Knowledge and Inference Requirements for Elementary Science Exams
Peter Jansen | Niranjan Balasubramanian | Mihai Surdeanu | Peter Clark

QA systems have been making steady advances in the challenging elementary science exam domain. In this work, we develop an explanation-based analysis of knowledge and inference requirements, which supports a fine-grained characterization of the challenges. In particular, we model the requirements based on appropriate sources of evidence to be used for the QA task. We create requirements by first identifying suitable sentences in a knowledge base that support the correct answer, then use these to build explanations, filling in any necessary missing information. These explanations are used to create a fine-grained categorization of the requirements. Using these requirements, we compare a retrieval and an inference solver on 212 questions. The analysis validates the gains of the inference solver, demonstrating that it answers more questions requiring complex inference, while also providing insights into the relative strengths of the solvers and knowledge sources. We release the annotated questions and explanations as a resource with broad utility for science exam QA, including determining knowledge base construction targets, as well as supporting information aggregation in automated inference.

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“All I know about politics is what I read in Twitter”: Weakly Supervised Models for Extracting Politicians’ Stances From Twitter
Kristen Johnson | Dan Goldwasser

During the 2016 United States presidential election, politicians have increasingly used Twitter to express their beliefs, stances on current political issues, and reactions concerning national and international events. Given the limited length of tweets and the scrutiny politicians face for what they choose or neglect to say, they must craft and time their tweets carefully. The content and delivery of these tweets is therefore highly indicative of a politician’s stances. We present a weakly supervised method for extracting how issues are framed and temporal activity patterns on Twitter for popular politicians and issues of the 2016 election. These behavioral components are combined into a global model which collectively infers the most likely stance and agreement patterns among politicians, with respective accuracies of 86.44% and 84.6% on average.

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Leveraging Multiple Domains for Sentiment Classification
Fan Yang | Arjun Mukherjee | Yifan Zhang

Sentiment classification becomes more and more important with the rapid growth of user generated content. However, sentiment classification task usually comes with two challenges: first, sentiment classification is highly domain-dependent and training sentiment classifier for every domain is inefficient and often impractical; second, since the quantity of labeled data is important for assessing the quality of classifier, it is hard to evaluate classifiers when labeled data is limited for certain domains. To address the challenges mentioned above, we focus on learning high-level features that are able to generalize across domains, so a global classifier can benefit with a simple combination of documents from multiple domains. In this paper, the proposed model incorporates both sentiment polarity and unlabeled data from multiple domains and learns new feature representations. Our model doesn’t require labels from every domain, which means the learned feature representation can be generalized for sentiment domain adaptation. In addition, the learned feature representation can be used as classifier since our model defines the meaning of feature value and arranges high-level features in a prefixed order, so it is not necessary to train another classifier on top of the new features. Empirical evaluations demonstrate our model outperforms baselines and yields competitive results to other state-of-the-art works on benchmark datasets.

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Political News Sentiment Analysis for Under-resourced Languages
Patrik F. Bakken | Terje A. Bratlie | Cristina Marco | Jon Atle Gulla

This paper presents classification results for the analysis of sentiment in political news articles. The domain of political news is particularly challenging, as journalists are presumably objective, whilst at the same time opinions can be subtly expressed. To deal with this challenge, in this work we conduct a two-step classification model, distinguishing first subjective and second positive and negative sentiment texts. More specifically, we propose a shallow machine learning approach where only minimal features are needed to train the classifier, including sentiment-bearing Co-Occurring Terms (COTs) and negation words. This approach yields close to state-of-the-art results. Contrary to results in other domains, the use of negations as features does not have a positive impact in the evaluation results. This method is particularly suited for languages that suffer from a lack of resources, such as sentiment lexicons or parsers, and for those systems that need to function in real-time.

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Fast Inference for Interactive Models of Text
Jeffrey Lund | Paul Felt | Kevin Seppi | Eric Ringger

Probabilistic models are a useful means for analyzing large text corpora. Integrating such models with human interaction enables many new use cases. However, adding human interaction to probabilistic models requires inference algorithms which are both fast and accurate. We explore the use of Iterated Conditional Modes as a fast alternative to Gibbs sampling or variational EM. We demonstrate superior performance both in run time and model quality on three different models of text including a DP Mixture of Multinomials for web search result clustering, the Interactive Topic Model, and M OM R ESP , a multinomial crowdsourcing model.

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Combining Heterogeneous User Generated Data to Sense Well-being
Adam Tsakalidis | Maria Liakata | Theo Damoulas | Brigitte Jellinek | Weisi Guo | Alexandra Cristea

In this paper we address a new problem of predicting affect and well-being scales in a real-world setting of heterogeneous, longitudinal and non-synchronous textual as well as non-linguistic data that can be harvested from on-line media and mobile phones. We describe the method for collecting the heterogeneous longitudinal data, how features are extracted to address missing information and differences in temporal alignment, and how the latter are combined to yield promising predictions of affect and well-being on the basis of widely used psychological scales. We achieve a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.71-0.76 and a correlation coefficient of 0.68-0.87 which is higher than the state-of-the art in equivalent multi-modal tasks for affect.

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Hashtag Recommendation with Topical Attention-Based LSTM
Yang Li | Ting Liu | Jing Jiang | Liang Zhang

Microblogging services allow users to create hashtags to categorize their posts. In recent years, the task of recommending hashtags for microblogs has been given increasing attention. However, most of existing methods depend on hand-crafted features. Motivated by the successful use of long short-term memory (LSTM) for many natural language processing tasks, in this paper, we adopt LSTM to learn the representation of a microblog post. Observing that hashtags indicate the primary topics of microblog posts, we propose a novel attention-based LSTM model which incorporates topic modeling into the LSTM architecture through an attention mechanism. We evaluate our model using a large real-world dataset. Experimental results show that our model significantly outperforms various competitive baseline methods. Furthermore, the incorporation of topical attention mechanism gives more than 7.4% improvement in F1 score compared with standard LSTM method.

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Better call Saul: Flexible Programming for Learning and Inference in NLP
Parisa Kordjamshidi | Daniel Khashabi | Christos Christodoulopoulos | Bhargav Mangipudi | Sameer Singh | Dan Roth

We present a novel way for designing complex joint inference and learning models using Saul (Kordjamshidi et al., 2015), a recently-introduced declarative learning-based programming language (DeLBP). We enrich Saul with components that are necessary for a broad range of learning based Natural Language Processing tasks at various levels of granularity. We illustrate these advances using three different, well-known NLP problems, and show how these generic learning and inference modules can directly exploit Saul’s graph-based data representation. These properties allow the programmer to easily switch between different model formulations and configurations, and consider various kinds of dependencies and correlations among variables of interest with minimal programming effort. We argue that Saul provides an extremely useful paradigm both for the design of advanced NLP systems and for supporting advanced research in NLP.

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Crowdsourcing Complex Language Resources: Playing to Annotate Dependency Syntax
Bruno Guillaume | Karën Fort | Nicolas Lefebvre

This article presents the results we obtained on a complex annotation task (that of dependency syntax) using a specifically designed Game with a Purpose, ZombiLingo. We show that with suitable mechanisms (decomposition of the task, training of the players and regular control of the annotation quality during the game), it is possible to obtain annotations whose quality is significantly higher than that obtainable with a parser, provided that enough players participate. The source code of the game and the resulting annotated corpora (for French) are freely available.

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Borrow a Little from your Rich Cousin: Using Embeddings and Polarities of English Words for Multilingual Sentiment Classification
Prerana Singhal | Pushpak Bhattacharyya

In this paper, we provide a solution to multilingual sentiment classification using deep learning. Given input text in a language, we use word translation into English and then the embeddings of these English words to train a classifier. This projection into the English space plus word embeddings gives a simple and uniform framework for multilingual sentiment analysis. A novel idea is augmentation of the training data with polar words, appearing in these sentences, along with their polarities. This approach leads to a performance gain of 7-10% over traditional classifiers on many languages, irrespective of text genre, despite the scarcity of resources in most languages.

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A Character-Aware Encoder for Neural Machine Translation
Zhen Yang | Wei Chen | Feng Wang | Bo Xu

This article proposes a novel character-aware neural machine translation (NMT) model that views the input sequences as sequences of characters rather than words. On the use of row convolution (Amodei et al., 2015), the encoder of the proposed model composes word-level information from the input sequences of characters automatically. Since our model doesn’t rely on the boundaries between each word (as the whitespace boundaries in English), it is also applied to languages without explicit word segmentations (like Chinese). Experimental results on Chinese-English translation tasks show that the proposed character-aware NMT model can achieve comparable translation performance with the traditional word based NMT models. Despite the target side is still word based, the proposed model is able to generate much less unknown words.

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Convolution-Enhanced Bilingual Recursive Neural Network for Bilingual Semantic Modeling
Jinsong Su | Biao Zhang | Deyi Xiong | Ruochen Li | Jianmin Yin

Estimating similarities at different levels of linguistic units, such as words, sub-phrases and phrases, is helpful for measuring semantic similarity of an entire bilingual phrase. In this paper, we propose a convolution-enhanced bilingual recursive neural network (ConvBRNN), which not only exploits word alignments to guide the generation of phrase structures but also integrates multiple-level information of the generated phrase structures into bilingual semantic modeling. In order to accurately learn the semantic hierarchy of a bilingual phrase, we develop a recursive neural network to constrain the learned bilingual phrase structures to be consistent with word alignments. Upon the generated source and target phrase structures, we stack a convolutional neural network to integrate vector representations of linguistic units on the structures into bilingual phrase embeddings. After that, we fully incorporate information of different linguistic units into a bilinear semantic similarity model. We introduce two max-margin losses to train the ConvBRNN model: one for the phrase structure inference and the other for the semantic similarity model. Experiments on NIST Chinese-English translation tasks demonstrate the high quality of the generated bilingual phrase structures with respect to word alignments and the effectiveness of learned semantic similarities on machine translation.

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Improving Attention Modeling with Implicit Distortion and Fertility for Machine Translation
Shi Feng | Shujie Liu | Nan Yang | Mu Li | Ming Zhou | Kenny Q. Zhu

In neural machine translation, the attention mechanism facilitates the translation process by producing a soft alignment between the source sentence and the target sentence. However, without dedicated distortion and fertility models seen in traditional SMT systems, the learned alignment may not be accurate, which can lead to low translation quality. In this paper, we propose two novel models to improve attention-based neural machine translation. We propose a recurrent attention mechanism as an implicit distortion model, and a fertility conditioned decoder as an implicit fertility model. We conduct experiments on large-scale Chinese–English translation tasks. The results show that our models significantly improve both the alignment and translation quality compared to the original attention mechanism and several other variations.

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Neural Machine Translation with Supervised Attention
Lemao Liu | Masao Utiyama | Andrew Finch | Eiichiro Sumita

The attention mechanism is appealing for neural machine translation, since it is able to dynamically encode a source sentence by generating a alignment between a target word and source words. Unfortunately, it has been proved to be worse than conventional alignment models in alignment accuracy. In this paper, we analyze and explain this issue from the point view of reordering, and propose a supervised attention which is learned with guidance from conventional alignment models. Experiments on two Chinese-to-English translation tasks show that the supervised attention mechanism yields better alignments leading to substantial gains over the standard attention based NMT.

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Lightly Supervised Quality Estimation
Matthias Sperber | Graham Neubig | Jan Niehues | Sebastian Stüker | Alex Waibel

Evaluating the quality of output from language processing systems such as machine translation or speech recognition is an essential step in ensuring that they are sufficient for practical use. However, depending on the practical requirements, evaluation approaches can differ strongly. Often, reference-based evaluation measures (such as BLEU or WER) are appealing because they are cheap and allow rapid quantitative comparison. On the other hand, practitioners often focus on manual evaluation because they must deal with frequently changing domains and quality standards requested by customers, for which reference-based evaluation is insufficient or not possible due to missing in-domain reference data (Harris et al., 2016). In this paper, we attempt to bridge this gap by proposing a framework for lightly supervised quality estimation. We collect manually annotated scores for a small number of segments in a test corpus or document, and combine them with automatically predicted quality scores for the remaining segments to predict an overall quality estimate. An evaluation shows that our framework estimates quality more reliably than using fully automatic quality estimation approaches, while keeping annotation effort low by not requiring full references to be available for the particular domain.

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Improving Translation Selection with Supersenses
Haiqing Tang | Deyi Xiong | Oier Lopez de Lacalle | Eneko Agirre

Selecting appropriate translations for source words with multiple meanings still remains a challenge for statistical machine translation (SMT). One reason for this is that most SMT systems are not good at detecting the proper sense for a polysemic word when it appears in different contexts. In this paper, we adopt a supersense tagging method to annotate source words with coarse-grained ontological concepts. In order to enable the system to choose an appropriate translation for a word or phrase according to the annotated supersense of the word or phrase, we propose two translation models with supersense knowledge: a maximum entropy based model and a supersense embedding model. The effectiveness of our proposed models is validated on a large-scale English-to-Spanish translation task. Results indicate that our method can significantly improve translation quality via correctly conveying the meaning of the source language to the target language.

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Is all that Glitters in Machine Translation Quality Estimation really Gold?
Yvette Graham | Timothy Baldwin | Meghan Dowling | Maria Eskevich | Teresa Lynn | Lamia Tounsi

Human-targeted metrics provide a compromise between human evaluation of machine translation, where high inter-annotator agreement is difficult to achieve, and fully automatic metrics, such as BLEU or TER, that lack the validity of human assessment. Human-targeted translation edit rate (HTER) is by far the most widely employed human-targeted metric in machine translation, commonly employed, for example, as a gold standard in evaluation of quality estimation. Original experiments justifying the design of HTER, as opposed to other possible formulations, were limited to a small sample of translations and a single language pair, however, and this motivates our re-evaluation of a range of human-targeted metrics on a substantially larger scale. Results show significantly stronger correlation with human judgment for HBLEU over HTER for two of the nine language pairs we include and no significant difference between correlations achieved by HTER and HBLEU for the remaining language pairs. Finally, we evaluate a range of quality estimation systems employing HTER and direct assessment (DA) of translation adequacy as gold labels, resulting in a divergence in system rankings, and propose employment of DA for future quality estimation evaluations.

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Connecting Phrase based Statistical Machine Translation Adaptation
Rui Wang | Hai Zhao | Bao-Liang Lu | Masao Utiyama | Eiichiro Sumita

Although more additional corpora are now available for Statistical Machine Translation (SMT), only the ones which belong to the same or similar domains of the original corpus can indeed enhance SMT performance directly. A series of SMT adaptation methods have been proposed to select these similar-domain data, and most of them focus on sentence selection. In comparison, phrase is a smaller and more fine grained unit for data selection, therefore we propose a straightforward and efficient connecting phrase based adaptation method, which is applied to both bilingual phrase pair and monolingual n-gram adaptation. The proposed method is evaluated on IWSLT/NIST data sets, and the results show that phrase based SMT performances are significantly improved (up to +1.6 in comparison with phrase based SMT baseline system and +0.9 in comparison with existing methods).

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Fast Collocation-Based Bayesian HMM Word Alignment
Philip Schulz | Wilker Aziz

We present a new Bayesian HMM word alignment model for statistical machine translation. The model is a mixture of an alignment model and a language model. The alignment component is a Bayesian extension of the standard HMM. The language model component is responsible for the generation of words needed for source fluency reasons from source language context. This allows for untranslatable source words to remain unaligned and at the same time avoids the introduction of artificial NULL words which introduces unusually long alignment jumps. Existing Bayesian word alignment models are unpractically slow because they consider each target position when resampling a given alignment link. The sampling complexity therefore grows linearly in the target sentence length. In order to make our model useful in practice, we devise an auxiliary variable Gibbs sampler that allows us to resample alignment links in constant time independently of the target sentence length. This leads to considerable speed improvements. Experimental results show that our model performs as well as existing word alignment toolkits in terms of resulting BLEU score.

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Learning to translate from graded and negative relevance information
Laura Jehl | Stefan Riezler

We present an approach for learning to translate by exploiting cross-lingual link structure in multilingual document collections. We propose a new learning objective based on structured ramp loss, which learns from graded relevance, explicitly including negative relevance information. Our results on English German translation of Wikipedia entries show small, but significant, improvements of our method over an unadapted baseline, even when only a weak relevance signal is used. We also compare our method to monolingual language model adaptation and automatic pseudo-parallel data extraction and find small improvements even over these strong baselines.

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Universal Reordering via Linguistic Typology
Joachim Daiber | Miloš Stanojević | Khalil Sima’an

In this paper we explore the novel idea of building a single universal reordering model from English to a large number of target languages. To build this model we exploit typological features of word order for a large number of target languages together with source (English) syntactic features and we train this model on a single combined parallel corpus representing all (22) involved language pairs. We contribute experimental evidence for the usefulness of linguistically defined typological features for building such a model. When the universal reordering model is used for preordering followed by monotone translation (no reordering inside the decoder), our experiments show that this pipeline gives comparable or improved translation performance with a phrase-based baseline for a large number of language pairs (12 out of 22) from diverse language families.

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A Deep Fusion Model for Domain Adaptation in Phrase-based MT
Nadir Durrani | Hassan Sajjad | Shafiq Joty | Ahmed Abdelali

We present a novel fusion model for domain adaptation in Statistical Machine Translation. Our model is based on the joint source-target neural network Devlin et al., 2014, and is learned by fusing in- and out-domain models. The adaptation is performed by backpropagating errors from the output layer to the word embedding layer of each model, subsequently adjusting parameters of the composite model towards the in-domain data. On the standard tasks of translating English-to-German and Arabic-to-English TED talks, we observed average improvements of +0.9 and +0.7 BLEU points, respectively over a competition grade phrase-based system. We also demonstrate improvements over existing adaptation methods.

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Inducing Bilingual Lexica From Non-Parallel Data With Earth Mover’s Distance Regularization
Meng Zhang | Yang Liu | Huanbo Luan | Yiqun Liu | Maosong Sun

Being able to induce word translations from non-parallel data is often a prerequisite for cross-lingual processing in resource-scarce languages and domains. Previous endeavors typically simplify this task by imposing the one-to-one translation assumption, which is too strong to hold for natural languages. We remove this constraint by introducing the Earth Mover’s Distance into the training of bilingual word embeddings. In this way, we take advantage of its capability to handle multiple alternative word translations in a natural form of regularization. Our approach shows significant and consistent improvements across four language pairs. We also demonstrate that our approach is particularly preferable in resource-scarce settings as it only requires a minimal seed lexicon.

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What Makes Word-level Neural Machine Translation Hard: A Case Study on English-German Translation
Fabian Hirschmann | Jinseok Nam | Johannes Fürnkranz

Traditional machine translation systems often require heavy feature engineering and the combination of multiple techniques for solving different subproblems. In recent years, several end-to-end learning architectures based on recurrent neural networks have been proposed. Unlike traditional systems, Neural Machine Translation (NMT) systems learn the parameters of the model and require only minimal preprocessing. Memory and time constraints allow to take only a fixed number of words into account, which leads to the out-of-vocabulary (OOV) problem. In this work, we analyze why the OOV problem arises and why it is considered a serious problem in German. We study the effectiveness of compound word splitters for alleviating the OOV problem, resulting in a 2.5+ BLEU points improvement over a baseline on the WMT’14 German-to-English translation task. For English-to-German translation, we use target-side compound splitting through a special syntax during training that allows the model to merge compound words and gain 0.2 BLEU points.

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Improving Word Alignment of Rare Words with Word Embeddings
Masoud Jalili Sabet | Heshaam Faili | Gholamreza Haffari

We address the problem of inducing word alignment for language pairs by developing an unsupervised model with the capability of getting applied to other generative alignment models. We approach the task by: i)proposing a new alignment model based on the IBM alignment model 1 that uses vector representation of words, and ii)examining the use of similar source words to overcome the problem of rare source words and improving the alignments. We apply our method to English-French corpora and run the experiments with different sizes of sentence pairs. Our results show competitive performance against the baseline and in some cases improve the results up to 6.9% in terms of precision.

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Measuring the Information Content of Financial News
Ching-Yun Chang | Yue Zhang | Zhiyang Teng | Zahn Bozanic | Bin Ke

Measuring the information content of news text is useful for decision makers in their investments since news information can influence the intrinsic values of companies. We propose a model to automatically measure the information content given news text, trained using news and corresponding cumulative abnormal returns of listed companies. Existing methods in finance literature exploit sentiment signal features, which are limited by not considering factors such as events. We address this issue by leveraging deep neural models to extract rich semantic features from news text. In particular, a novel tree-structured LSTM is used to find target-specific representations of news text given syntax structures. Empirical results show that the neural models can outperform sentiment-based models, demonstrating the effectiveness of recent NLP technology advances for computational finance.

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Automatic Generation and Classification of Minimal Meaningful Propositions in Educational Systems
Andreea Godea | Florin Bulgarov | Rodney Nielsen

Truly effective and practical educational systems will only be achievable when they have the ability to fully recognize deep relationships between a learner’s interpretation of a subject and the desired conceptual understanding. In this paper, we take important steps in this direction by introducing a new representation of sentences – Minimal Meaningful Propositions (MMPs), which will allow us to significantly improve the mapping between a learner’s answer and the ideal response. Using this technique, we make significant progress towards highly scalable and domain independent educational systems, that will be able to operate without human intervention. Even though this is a new task, we show very good results both for the extraction of MMPs and for classification with respect to their importance.

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First Story Detection using Entities and Relations
Nikolaos Panagiotou | Cem Akkaya | Kostas Tsioutsiouliklis | Vana Kalogeraki | Dimitrios Gunopulos

News portals, such as Yahoo News or Google News, collect large amounts of documents from a variety of sources on a daily basis. Only a small portion of these documents can be selected and displayed on the homepage. Thus, there is a strong preference for major, recent events. In this work, we propose a scalable and accurate First Story Detection (FSD) pipeline that identifies fresh news. In comparison to other FSD systems, our method relies on relation extraction methods exploiting entities and their relations. We evaluate our pipeline using two distinct datasets from Yahoo News and Google News. Experimental results demonstrate that our method improves over the state-of-the-art systems on both datasets with constant space and time requirements.

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Textual complexity as a predictor of difficulty of listening items in language proficiency tests
Anastassia Loukina | Su-Youn Yoon | Jennifer Sakano | Youhua Wei | Kathy Sheehan

In this paper we explore to what extent the difficulty of listening items in an English language proficiency test can be predicted by the textual properties of the prompt. We show that a system based on multiple text complexity features can predict item difficulty for several different item types and for some items achieves higher accuracy than human estimates of item difficulty.

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The Construction of a Chinese Collocational Knowledge Resource and Its Application for Second Language Acquisition
Renfen Hu | Jiayong Chen | Kuang-hua Chen

The appropriate use of collocations is a challenge for second language acquisition. However, high quality and easily accessible Chinese collocation resources are not available for both teachers and students. This paper presents the design and construction of a large scale resource of Chinese collocational knowledge, and a web-based application (OCCA, Online Chinese Collocation Assistant) which offers free and convenient collocation search service to end users. We define and classify collocations based on practical language acquisition needs and utilize a syntax based method to extract nine types of collocations. Totally 37 extraction rules are compiled with word, POS and dependency relation features, 1,750,000 collocations are extracted from a corpus for L2 learning and complementary Wikipedia data, and OCCA is implemented based on these extracted collocations. By comparing OCCA with two traditional collocation dictionaries, we find OCCA has higher entry coverage and collocation quantity, and our method achieves quite low error rate at less than 5%. We also discuss how to apply collocational knowledge to grammatical error detection and demonstrate comparable performance to the best results in 2015 NLP-TEA CGED shared task. The preliminary experiment shows that the collocation knowledge is helpful in detecting all the four types of grammatical errors.

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Joint Inference for Event Coreference Resolution
Jing Lu | Deepak Venugopal | Vibhav Gogate | Vincent Ng

Event coreference resolution is a challenging problem since it relies on several components of the information extraction pipeline that typically yield noisy outputs. We hypothesize that exploiting the inter-dependencies between these components can significantly improve the performance of an event coreference resolver, and subsequently propose a novel joint inference based event coreference resolver using Markov Logic Networks (MLNs). However, the rich features that are important for this task are typically very hard to explicitly encode as MLN formulas since they significantly increase the size of the MLN, thereby making joint inference and learning infeasible. To address this problem, we propose a novel solution where we implicitly encode rich features into our model by augmenting the MLN distribution with low dimensional unit clauses. Our approach achieves state-of-the-art results on two standard evaluation corpora.

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Event Detection with Burst Information Networks
Tao Ge | Lei Cui | Baobao Chang | Zhifang Sui | Ming Zhou

Retrospective event detection is an important task for discovering previously unidentified events in a text stream. In this paper, we propose two fast centroid-aware event detection models based on a novel text stream representation – Burst Information Networks (BINets) for addressing the challenge. The BINets are time-aware, efficient and can be easily analyzed for identifying key information (centroids). These advantages allow the BINet-based approaches to achieve the state-of-the-art performance on multiple datasets, demonstrating the efficacy of BINets for the task of event detection.

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Corpus Fusion for Emotion Classification
Suyang Zhu | Shoushan Li | Ying Chen | Guodong Zhou

Machine learning-based methods have obtained great progress on emotion classification. However, in most previous studies, the models are learned based on a single corpus which often suffers from insufficient labeled data. In this paper, we propose a corpus fusion approach to address emotion classification across two corpora which use different emotion taxonomies. The objective of this approach is to utilize the annotated data from one corpus to help the emotion classification on another corpus. An Integer Linear Programming (ILP) optimization is proposed to refine the classification results. Empirical studies show the effectiveness of the proposed approach to corpus fusion for emotion classification.

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Effective LSTMs for Target-Dependent Sentiment Classification
Duyu Tang | Bing Qin | Xiaocheng Feng | Ting Liu

Target-dependent sentiment classification remains a challenge: modeling the semantic relatedness of a target with its context words in a sentence. Different context words have different influences on determining the sentiment polarity of a sentence towards the target. Therefore, it is desirable to integrate the connections between target word and context words when building a learning system. In this paper, we develop two target dependent long short-term memory (LSTM) models, where target information is automatically taken into account. We evaluate our methods on a benchmark dataset from Twitter. Empirical results show that modeling sentence representation with standard LSTM does not perform well. Incorporating target information into LSTM can significantly boost the classification accuracy. The target-dependent LSTM models achieve state-of-the-art performances without using syntactic parser or external sentiment lexicons.

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Towards assessing depth of argumentation
Manfred Stede

For analyzing argumentative text, we propose to study the ‘depth’ of argumentation as one important component, which we distinguish from argument quality. In a pilot study with German newspaper commentary texts, we asked students to rate the degree of argumentativeness, and then looked for correlations with features of the annotated argumentation structure and the rhetorical structure (in terms of RST). The results indicate that the human judgements correlate with our operationalization of depth and with certain structural features of RST trees.

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Video Event Detection by Exploiting Word Dependencies from Image Captions
Sang Phan | Yusuke Miyao | Duy-Dinh Le | Shin’ichi Satoh

Video event detection is a challenging problem in information and multimedia retrieval. Different from single action detection, event detection requires a richer level of semantic information from video. In order to overcome this challenge, existing solutions often represent videos using high level features such as concepts. However, concept-based representation can be confusing because it does not encode the relationship between concepts. This issue can be addressed by exploiting the co-occurrences of the concepts, however, it often leads to a very huge number of possible combinations. In this paper, we propose a new approach to obtain the relationship between concepts by exploiting the syntactic dependencies between words in the image captions. The main advantage of this approach is that it significantly reduces the number of informative combinations between concepts. We conduct extensive experiments to analyze the effectiveness of using the new dependency representation for event detection on two large-scale TRECVID Multimedia Event Detection 2013 and 2014 datasets. Experimental results show that i) Dependency features are more discriminative than concept-based features. ii) Dependency features can be combined with our current event detection system to further improve the performance. For instance, the relative improvement can be as far as 8.6% on the MEDTEST14 10Ex setting.

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Predicting Restaurant Consumption Level through Social Media Footprints
Yang Xiao | Yuan Wang | Hangyu Mao | Zhen Xiao

Accurate prediction of user attributes from social media is valuable for both social science analysis and consumer targeting. In this paper, we propose a systematic method to leverage user online social media content for predicting offline restaurant consumption level. We utilize the social login as a bridge and construct a dataset of 8,844 users who have been linked across Dianping (similar to Yelp) and Sina Weibo. More specifically, we construct consumption level ground truth based on user self report spending. We build predictive models using both raw features and, especially, latent features, such as topic distributions and celebrities clusters. The employed methods demonstrate that online social media content has strong predictive power for offline spending. Finally, combined with qualitative feature analysis, we present the differences in words usage, topic interests and following behavior between different consumption level groups.

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A Novel Fast Framework for Topic Labeling Based on Similarity-preserved Hashing
Xian-Ling Mao | Yi-Jing Hao | Qiang Zhou | Wen-Qing Yuan | Liner Yang | Heyan Huang

Recently, topic modeling has been widely applied in data mining due to its powerful ability. A common, major challenge in applying such topic models to other tasks is to accurately interpret the meaning of each topic. Topic labeling, as a major interpreting method, has attracted significant attention recently. However, most of previous works only focus on the effectiveness of topic labeling, and less attention has been paid to quickly creating good topic descriptors; meanwhile, it’s hard to assign labels for new emerging topics by using most of existing methods. To solve the problems above, in this paper, we propose a novel fast topic labeling framework that casts the labeling problem as a k-nearest neighbor (KNN) search problem in a probability vector set. Our experimental results show that the proposed sequential interleaving method based on locality sensitive hashing (LSH) technology is efficient in boosting the comparison speed among probability distributions, and the proposed framework can generate meaningful labels to interpret topics, including new emerging topics.

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Sequence to Backward and Forward Sequences: A Content-Introducing Approach to Generative Short-Text Conversation
Lili Mou | Yiping Song | Rui Yan | Ge Li | Lu Zhang | Zhi Jin

Using neural networks to generate replies in human-computer dialogue systems is attracting increasing attention over the past few years. However, the performance is not satisfactory: the neural network tends to generate safe, universally relevant replies which carry little meaning. In this paper, we propose a content-introducing approach to neural network-based generative dialogue systems. We first use pointwise mutual information (PMI) to predict a noun as a keyword, reflecting the main gist of the reply. We then propose seq2BF, a “sequence to backward and forward sequences” model, which generates a reply containing the given keyword. Experimental results show that our approach significantly outperforms traditional sequence-to-sequence models in terms of human evaluation and the entropy measure, and that the predicted keyword can appear at an appropriate position in the reply.

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Disfluent but effective? A quantitative study of disfluencies and conversational moves in team discourse
Felix Gervits | Kathleen Eberhard | Matthias Scheutz

Situated dialogue systems that interact with humans as part of a team (e.g., robot teammates) need to be able to use information from communication channels to gauge the coordination level and effectiveness of the team. Currently, the feasibility of this end goal is limited by several gaps in both the empirical and computational literature. The purpose of this paper is to address those gaps in the following ways: (1) investigate which properties of task-oriented discourse correspond with effective performance in human teams, and (2) discuss how and to what extent these properties can be utilized in spoken dialogue systems. To this end, we analyzed natural language data from a unique corpus of spontaneous, task-oriented dialogue (CReST corpus), which was annotated for disfluencies and conversational moves. We found that effective teams made more self-repair disfluencies and used specific communication strategies to facilitate grounding and coordination. Our results indicate that truly robust and natural dialogue systems will need to interpret highly disfluent utterances and also utilize specific collaborative mechanisms to facilitate grounding. These data shed light on effective communication in performance scenarios and directly inform the development of robust dialogue systems for situated artificial agents.

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A Neural Network Approach for Knowledge-Driven Response Generation
Pavlos Vougiouklis | Jonathon Hare | Elena Simperl

We present a novel response generation system. The system assumes the hypothesis that participants in a conversation base their response not only on previous dialog utterances but also on their background knowledge. Our model is based on a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) that is trained over concatenated sequences of comments, a Convolution Neural Network that is trained over Wikipedia sentences and a formulation that couples the two trained embeddings in a multimodal space. We create a dataset of aligned Wikipedia sentences and sequences of Reddit utterances, which we we use to train our model. Given a sequence of past utterances and a set of sentences that represent the background knowledge, our end-to-end learnable model is able to generate context-sensitive and knowledge-driven responses by leveraging the alignment of two different data sources. Our approach achieves up to 55% improvement in perplexity compared to purely sequential models based on RNNs that are trained only on sequences of utterances.

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PersoNER: Persian Named-Entity Recognition
Hanieh Poostchi | Ehsan Zare Borzeshi | Mohammad Abdous | Massimo Piccardi

Named-Entity Recognition (NER) is still a challenging task for languages with low digital resources. The main difficulties arise from the scarcity of annotated corpora and the consequent problematic training of an effective NER pipeline. To abridge this gap, in this paper we target the Persian language that is spoken by a population of over a hundred million people world-wide. We first present and provide ArmanPerosNERCorpus, the first manually-annotated Persian NER corpus. Then, we introduce PersoNER, an NER pipeline for Persian that leverages a word embedding and a sequential max-margin classifier. The experimental results show that the proposed approach is capable of achieving interesting MUC7 and CoNNL scores while outperforming two alternatives based on a CRF and a recurrent neural network.

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OCR++: A Robust Framework For Information Extraction from Scholarly Articles
Mayank Singh | Barnopriyo Barua | Priyank Palod | Manvi Garg | Sidhartha Satapathy | Samuel Bushi | Kumar Ayush | Krishna Sai Rohith | Tulasi Gamidi | Pawan Goyal | Animesh Mukherjee

This paper proposes OCR++, an open-source framework designed for a variety of information extraction tasks from scholarly articles including metadata (title, author names, affiliation and e-mail), structure (section headings and body text, table and figure headings, URLs and footnotes) and bibliography (citation instances and references). We analyze a diverse set of scientific articles written in English to understand generic writing patterns and formulate rules to develop this hybrid framework. Extensive evaluations show that the proposed framework outperforms the existing state-of-the-art tools by a large margin in structural information extraction along with improved performance in metadata and bibliography extraction tasks, both in terms of accuracy (around 50% improvement) and processing time (around 52% improvement). A user experience study conducted with the help of 30 researchers reveals that the researchers found this system to be very helpful. As an additional objective, we discuss two novel use cases including automatically extracting links to public datasets from the proceedings, which would further accelerate the advancement in digital libraries. The result of the framework can be exported as a whole into structured TEI-encoded documents. Our framework is accessible online at

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Efficient Data Selection for Bilingual Terminology Extraction from Comparable Corpora
Amir Hazem | Emmanuel Morin

Comparable corpora are the main alternative to the use of parallel corpora to extract bilingual lexicons. Although it is easier to build comparable corpora, specialized comparable corpora are often of modest size in comparison with corpora issued from the general domain. Consequently, the observations of word co-occurrences which are the basis of context-based methods are unreliable. We propose in this article to improve word co-occurrences of specialized comparable corpora and thus context representation by using general-domain data. This idea, which has been already used in machine translation task for more than a decade, is not straightforward for the task of bilingual lexicon extraction from specific-domain comparable corpora. We go against the mainstream of this task where many studies support the idea that adding out-of-domain documents decreases the quality of lexicons. Our empirical evaluation shows the advantages of this approach which induces a significant gain in the accuracy of extracted lexicons.

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TweetGeo - A Tool for Collecting, Processing and Analysing Geo-encoded Linguistic Data
Nikola Ljubešić | Tanja Samardžić | Curdin Derungs

In this paper we present a newly developed tool that enables researchers interested in spatial variation of language to define a geographic perimeter of interest, collect data from the Twitter streaming API published in that perimeter, filter the obtained data by language and country, define and extract variables of interest and analyse the extracted variables by one spatial statistic and two spatial visualisations. We showcase the tool on the area and a selection of languages spoken in former Yugoslavia. By defining the perimeter, languages and a series of linguistic variables of interest we demonstrate the data collection, processing and analysis capabilities of the tool.

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Extending WordNet with Fine-Grained Collocational Information via Supervised Distributional Learning
Luis Espinosa-Anke | Jose Camacho-Collados | Sara Rodríguez-Fernández | Horacio Saggion | Leo Wanner

WordNet is probably the best known lexical resource in Natural Language Processing. While it is widely regarded as a high quality repository of concepts and semantic relations, updating and extending it manually is costly. One important type of relation which could potentially add enormous value to WordNet is the inclusion of collocational information, which is paramount in tasks such as Machine Translation, Natural Language Generation and Second Language Learning. In this paper, we present ColWordNet (CWN), an extended WordNet version with fine-grained collocational information, automatically introduced thanks to a method exploiting linear relations between analogous sense-level embeddings spaces. We perform both intrinsic and extrinsic evaluations, and release CWN for the use and scrutiny of the community.

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A News Editorial Corpus for Mining Argumentation Strategies
Khalid Al-Khatib | Henning Wachsmuth | Johannes Kiesel | Matthias Hagen | Benno Stein

Many argumentative texts, and news editorials in particular, follow a specific strategy to persuade their readers of some opinion or attitude. This includes decisions such as when to tell an anecdote or where to support an assumption with statistics, which is reflected by the composition of different types of argumentative discourse units in a text. While several argument mining corpora have recently been published, they do not allow the study of argumentation strategies due to incomplete or coarse-grained unit annotations. This paper presents a novel corpus with 300 editorials from three diverse news portals that provides the basis for mining argumentation strategies. Each unit in all editorials has been assigned one of six types by three annotators with a high Fleiss’ Kappa agreement of 0.56. We investigate various challenges of the annotation process and we conduct a first corpus analysis. Our results reveal different strategies across the news portals, exemplifying the benefit of studying editorials—a so far underresourced text genre in argument mining.

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Universal Dependencies for Turkish
Umut Sulubacak | Memduh Gokirmak | Francis Tyers | Çağrı Çöltekin | Joakim Nivre | Gülşen Eryiğit

The Universal Dependencies (UD) project was conceived after the substantial recent interest in unifying annotation schemes across languages. With its own annotation principles and abstract inventory for parts of speech, morphosyntactic features and dependency relations, UD aims to facilitate multilingual parser development, cross-lingual learning, and parsing research from a language typology perspective. This paper presents the Turkish IMST-UD Treebank, the first Turkish treebank to be in a UD release. The IMST-UD Treebank was automatically converted from the IMST Treebank, which was also recently released. We describe this conversion procedure in detail, complete with mapping tables. We also present our evaluation of the parsing performances of both versions of the IMST Treebank. Our findings suggest that the UD framework is at least as viable for Turkish as the original annotation framework of the IMST Treebank.

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Creating Resources for Dialectal Arabic from a Single Annotation: A Case Study on Egyptian and Levantine
Ramy Eskander | Nizar Habash | Owen Rambow | Arfath Pasha

Arabic dialects present a special problem for natural language processing because there are few resources, they have no standard orthography, and have not been studied much. However, as more and more written dialectal Arabic is found in social media, NLP for Arabic dialects becomes an important goal. We present a methodology for creating a morphological analyzer and a morphological tagger for dialectal Arabic, and we illustrate it on Egyptian and Levantine Arabic. To our knowledge, these are the first analyzer and tagger for Levantine.

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Multilingual Aliasing for Auto-Generating Proposition Banks
Alan Akbik | Xinyu Guan | Yunyao Li

Semantic Role Labeling (SRL) is the task of identifying the predicate-argument structure in sentences with semantic frame and role labels. For the English language, the Proposition Bank provides both a lexicon of all possible semantic frames and large amounts of labeled training data. In order to expand SRL beyond English, previous work investigated automatic approaches based on parallel corpora to automatically generate Proposition Banks for new target languages (TLs). However, this approach heuristically produces the frame lexicon from word alignments, leading to a range of lexicon-level errors and inconsistencies. To address these issues, we propose to manually alias TL verbs to existing English frames. For instance, the German verb drehen may evoke several meanings, including “turn something” and “film something”. Accordingly, we alias the former to the frame TURN.01 and the latter to a group of frames that includes FILM.01 and SHOOT.03. We execute a large-scale manual aliasing effort for three target languages and apply the new lexicons to automatically generate large Proposition Banks for Chinese, French and German with manually curated frames. We present a detailed evaluation in which we find that our proposed approach significantly increases the quality and consistency of the generated Proposition Banks. We release these resources to the research community.

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PanPhon: A Resource for Mapping IPA Segments to Articulatory Feature Vectors
David R. Mortensen | Patrick Littell | Akash Bharadwaj | Kartik Goyal | Chris Dyer | Lori Levin

This paper contributes to a growing body of evidence that—when coupled with appropriate machine-learning techniques–linguistically motivated, information-rich representations can outperform one-hot encodings of linguistic data. In particular, we show that phonological features outperform character-based models. PanPhon is a database relating over 5,000 IPA segments to 21 subsegmental articulatory features. We show that this database boosts performance in various NER-related tasks. Phonologically aware, neural CRF models built on PanPhon features are able to perform better on monolingual Spanish and Turkish NER tasks that character-based models. They have also been shown to work well in transfer models (as between Uzbek and Turkish). PanPhon features also contribute measurably to Orthography-to-IPA conversion tasks.

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Text Classification Improved by Integrating Bidirectional LSTM with Two-dimensional Max Pooling
Peng Zhou | Zhenyu Qi | Suncong Zheng | Jiaming Xu | Hongyun Bao | Bo Xu

Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) is one of the most popular architectures used in Natural Language Processsing (NLP) tasks because its recurrent structure is very suitable to process variable-length text. RNN can utilize distributed representations of words by first converting the tokens comprising each text into vectors, which form a matrix. And this matrix includes two dimensions: the time-step dimension and the feature vector dimension. Then most existing models usually utilize one-dimensional (1D) max pooling operation or attention-based operation only on the time-step dimension to obtain a fixed-length vector. However, the features on the feature vector dimension are not mutually independent, and simply applying 1D pooling operation over the time-step dimension independently may destroy the structure of the feature representation. On the other hand, applying two-dimensional (2D) pooling operation over the two dimensions may sample more meaningful features for sequence modeling tasks. To integrate the features on both dimensions of the matrix, this paper explores applying 2D max pooling operation to obtain a fixed-length representation of the text. This paper also utilizes 2D convolution to sample more meaningful information of the matrix. Experiments are conducted on six text classification tasks, including sentiment analysis, question classification, subjectivity classification and newsgroup classification. Compared with the state-of-the-art models, the proposed models achieve excellent performance on 4 out of 6 tasks. Specifically, one of the proposed models achieves highest accuracy on Stanford Sentiment Treebank binary classification and fine-grained classification tasks.

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More is not always better: balancing sense distributions for all-words Word Sense Disambiguation
Marten Postma | Ruben Izquierdo Bevia | Piek Vossen

Current Word Sense Disambiguation systems show an extremely poor performance on low frequent senses, which is mainly caused by the difference in sense distributions between training and test data. The main focus in tackling this problem has been on acquiring more data or selecting a single predominant sense and not necessarily on the meta properties of the data itself. We demonstrate that these properties, such as the volume, provenance, and balancing, play an important role with respect to system performance. In this paper, we describe a set of experiments to analyze these meta properties in the framework of a state-of-the-art WSD system when evaluated on the SemEval-2013 English all-words dataset. We show that volume and provenance are indeed important, but that approximating the perfect balancing of the selected training data leads to an improvement of 21 points and exceeds state-of-the-art systems by 14 points while using only simple features. We therefore conclude that unsupervised acquisition of training data should be guided by strategies aimed at matching meta properties.

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Language classification from bilingual word embedding graphs
Steffen Eger | Armin Hoenen | Alexander Mehler

We study the role of the second language in bilingual word embeddings in monolingual semantic evaluation tasks. We find strongly and weakly positive correlations between down-stream task performance and second language similarity to the target language. Additionally, we show how bilingual word embeddings can be employed for the task of semantic language classification and that joint semantic spaces vary in meaningful ways across second languages. Our results support the hypothesis that semantic language similarity is influenced by both structural similarity as well as geography/contact.

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Word Embeddings, Analogies, and Machine Learning: Beyond king - man + woman = queen
Aleksandr Drozd | Anna Gladkova | Satoshi Matsuoka

Solving word analogies became one of the most popular benchmarks for word embeddings on the assumption that linear relations between word pairs (such as king:man :: woman:queen) are indicative of the quality of the embedding. We question this assumption by showing that the information not detected by linear offset may still be recoverable by a more sophisticated search method, and thus is actually encoded in the embedding. The general problem with linear offset is its sensitivity to the idiosyncrasies of individual words. We show that simple averaging over multiple word pairs improves over the state-of-the-art. A further improvement in accuracy (up to 30% for some embeddings and relations) is achieved by combining cosine similarity with an estimation of the extent to which a candidate answer belongs to the correct word class. In addition to this practical contribution, this work highlights the problem of the interaction between word embeddings and analogy retrieval algorithms, and its implications for the evaluation of word embeddings and the use of analogies in extrinsic tasks.

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Semantic Tagging with Deep Residual Networks
Johannes Bjerva | Barbara Plank | Johan Bos

We propose a novel semantic tagging task, semtagging, tailored for the purpose of multilingual semantic parsing, and present the first tagger using deep residual networks (ResNets). Our tagger uses both word and character representations, and includes a novel residual bypass architecture. We evaluate the tagset both intrinsically on the new task of semantic tagging, as well as on Part-of-Speech (POS) tagging. Our system, consisting of a ResNet and an auxiliary loss function predicting our semantic tags, significantly outperforms prior results on English Universal Dependencies POS tagging (95.71% accuracy on UD v1.2 and 95.67% accuracy on UD v1.3).

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A Supervised Approach for Enriching the Relational Structure of Frame Semantics in FrameNet
Shafqat Mumtaz Virk | Philippe Muller | Juliette Conrath

Frame semantics is a theory of linguistic meanings, and is considered to be a useful framework for shallow semantic analysis of natural language. FrameNet, which is based on frame semantics, is a popular lexical semantic resource. In addition to providing a set of core semantic frames and their frame elements, FrameNet also provides relations between those frames (hence providing a network of frames i.e. FrameNet). We address here the limited coverage of the network of conceptual relations between frames in FrameNet, which has previously been pointed out by others. We present a supervised model using rich features from three different sources: structural features from the existing FrameNet network, information from the WordNet relations between synsets projected into semantic frames, and corpus-collected lexical associations. We show large improvements over baselines consisting of each of the three groups of features in isolation. We then use this model to select frame pairs as candidate relations, and perform evaluation on a sample with good precision.

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Reddit Temporal N-gram Corpus and its Applications on Paraphrase and Semantic Similarity in Social Media using a Topic-based Latent Semantic Analysis
Anh Dang | Abidalrahman Moh’d | Aminul Islam | Rosane Minghim | Michael Smit | Evangelos Milios

This paper introduces a new large-scale n-gram corpus that is created specifically from social media text. Two distinguishing characteristics of this corpus are its monthly temporal attribute and that it is created from 1.65 billion comments of user-generated text in Reddit. The usefulness of this corpus is exemplified and evaluated by a novel Topic-based Latent Semantic Analysis (TLSA) algorithm. The experimental results show that unsupervised TLSA outperforms all the state-of-the-art unsupervised and semi-supervised methods in SEMEVAL 2015: paraphrase and semantic similarity in Twitter tasks.

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Dictionaries as Networks: Identifying the graph structure of Ogden’s Basic English
Camilo Garrido | Claudio Gutierrez

We study the network structure underlying dictionaries. We systematize the properties of such networks and show their relevance for linguistics. As case of study, we apply this technique to identify the graph structure of Ogden’s Basic English. We show that it constitutes a strong core of the English language network and that classic centrality measures fail to capture this set of words.

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Structured Generative Models of Continuous Features for Word Sense Induction
Alexandros Komninos | Suresh Manandhar

We propose a structured generative latent variable model that integrates information from multiple contextual representations for Word Sense Induction. Our approach jointly models global lexical, local lexical and dependency syntactic context. Each context type is associated with a latent variable and the three types of variables share a hierarchical structure. We use skip-gram based word and dependency context embeddings to construct all three types of representations, reducing the total number of parameters to be estimated and enabling better generalization. We describe an EM algorithm to efficiently estimate model parameters and use the Integrated Complete Likelihood criterion to automatically estimate the number of senses. Our model achieves state-of-the-art results on the SemEval-2010 and SemEval-2013 Word Sense Induction datasets.