Dodge WC series

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Dodge WC series
Dodge WC-51 during the VII Aircraft Picnic in Kraków.jpg
The most produced variants in the range were the 34-ton, 4×4, WC-51 and WC-52 Weapons Carriers – shown a WC-51: short front bumper, without winch.
Type12-ton, 34-ton 4×4 truck
112-ton 6×6 truck
Place of originWarren Truck Assembly, Michigan, United States
Service history
WarsWorld War II
Korean War
Various post 1945 conflicts
Production history
ManufacturerDodge / Fargo
Produced1940–1945
No. builtTotal: ≈382,350 excl. variants
Consisting of:
12-ton 4×2 models
1,542 units
All 4×4 Models
~337,600 units – across:
≈82,390 12-ton units (1940–1942) [1][2] [nb 1][nb 2] and
255,195 34-ton units (1942–1945)
112-ton 6×6 Models
43,224 units [4][5]
VariantsD8A  12-ton, 4×4 (1941, Canada) – 3,000 units [6]
D3/4 APT   34-ton, 4×4 (1945, Canada) – 11,750 units [6]
VF-401 – VF-407  112-ton, 4×4 (1940) – 6,472 units [7][8]
T-203B  112-ton, 4×4 (1941) – 1,500 units
WF-32 / G-618   112-ton, 4×2 (1942–1944, Iran) – 9,600 units
Specifications (WC-51 / WC-52[9])
Mass5,250 lb (2,380 kg) empty
(5,550 lb (2,520 kg) with winch)
Length166+78 in (424 cm)
(176+12 in (448 cm) with winch)
Width82+34 in (210 cm)
Height81+78 in (208 cm)

EngineDodge T-214
92 hp (69 kW)
Payload capacity1,500 pounds (680 kg)
Transmission4 speed × 1 range
SuspensionLive beam axles on leaf springs
Ground clearance10+2332 in (27.2 cm)
Fuel capacity30 US gal (114 l)
Operational
range
240 mi (386 km)
Maximum speed 55 mph (89 km/h)
The "Ben Hur" 1-ton, 2-wheel cargo-trailer was frequently mated to the WC series trucks.

The Dodge WC series, sometimes nicknamed 'Beeps',[nb 3] were a prolific range of light 4WD and medium 6WD military utility trucks, produced by Dodge / Fargo during World War II.[nb 4] Together with the 14-ton jeeps produced by Willys and Ford, the Dodge 12‑tons and 34‑tons made up nearly all of the light 4WD trucks supplied to the U.S. military in WWII – with Dodge contributing some 337,500 4WD units[nb 5] (over half as many as the jeep).[11][5][nb 6]

Contrary to the versatility of the highly standardized jeep, which was mostly achieved through field modification, the Dodge WC‑series came in many different, purpose-built, but mechanically uniform variants from the factory, much akin to the later family of High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicles. The WC series evolved out of, and was part of a more extended family of trucks, with great mechanical parts commonality, that included open- and closed-cab cargo trucks and weapons carriers, (radio) command cars, reconnaissance vehicles, ambulances, carryalls, panel vans, and telephone installation and mobile emergency / field workshop trucks.

The Dodge WC series were essentially built in two generations. From 1940 to early 1942, almost 82,400 of the 12‑ton 4×4 Dodge trucks were built — initially called the VC series, but the great majority (from 1941) in the WC series, and in more variants.[10][14][2] Contrary to what Dodge's nomenclature suggested, the 1941 WC models were a direct evolution of the 1940 VC models, retaining the U.S. Army's G-505 Ordnance Corps Supply Catalog number.

In 1942, the payload was uprated, and the trucks became the shorter G-502, 34‑ton, 4×4 Truck (Dodge), and the longer 1943, G-507, 112‑ton, 6x6 personnel and cargo truck (Dodge) — confusingly retaining Dodge WC model codes. Although the 34‑tons featured significant design improvements, they did retain some 80% interchangeable components and service parts with the 12‑ton models[14] — a vital Army requirement, for field maintenance and operability of the trucks.[15]

Dodge was the U.S. Army's main supplier of 12‑ton trucks, and its sole supplier of both 34‑ton trucks and 112‑ton 6x6 trucks in World War II.[5] With over a quarter million units built through August 1945, the G-502 34‑tons were the most common variants in the WC‑series.[5]
After the war, Dodge developed the 34-ton WC‑series into the civilian 4×4 Dodge Power Wagon; and in 1951, the WCs were replaced by the very similar 34‑ton 4x4 Dodge M-series vehicles .

Though the majority of Dodges built were 'Weapons Carriers', "WC" was not abbreviated from this, but a general Dodge model code – initially "W" for 1941, and "C" for a (nominal) half-ton payload rating. However, the "WC" model code was simply retained after 1941 — for both the 34-ton, as well as the 112‑ton rated 6x6 Dodges.[14]
All in all, not counting mechanically related variants, the WC series alone involved 52 model versions (thirty 12‑ton 4×4, eight 12‑ton 4×2, twelve 34‑ton 4×4, and two 112‑ton 6×6 models). Creating vehicles of a common platform in such a variety of designs, with payloads ranging from 12‑ton to 112‑tons, had no equal in its time, and is seen as an extraordinary feat of the WWII American auto industry.[16]

History and design[edit]

1900–1939 — Dodge Brothers start making cars and 4x4 trucks for the U.S. Army[edit]

1934 K-39-X-4(USA) – Dodge's first Army 4x4 truck
The initial Dodge VC-series military models had a lot in common with this 1939 T-series pickup

Dodge had been the United States military's primary supplier of light wheeled vehicles, since before the U.S. joined the First World War.[17] After starting business in 1900, producing precision engine and chassis components for other car builders in Detroit — Ford and Oldsmobile chief among these — Dodge introduced their first car, the Model 30/35 tourer, in 1914. It was stronger and more high quality than the ubiquitous Ford Model T, and in 1916, Dodge cars proved their durability, both in the 1910s U.S.–Mexico Border War — the U.S. military's first operation to use truck convoys,[18] as well as in World War I, when some 12,800 Dodge cars and light trucks were used,[17] primarily as ambulances and repair trucks.,[19] but also as staff and reconnaissance vehicles. All the while, Dodge maintained its reputation for high quality truck, transmission, and motor parts they made for other successful manufacturers.

Dodge light trucks were initially based largely on their passenger cars, but later specific truck chassis and bodies were designed. Light- and medium-duty models were offered first, then a heavy-duty range was added during the 1930s and 1940s. Dodge developed its first four-wheel drive truck in 1934 — an experimental 112 ton for the U.S. Army, designated K-39-X-4(USA), of which 796 units were built in several configurations.[17][7] Timken supplied driven front axles and transfer-cases, which were added to a militarized commercial truck. The Timken transfer case was the first part-time design,[20] that allowed the driver to engage or disengage four-wheel drive using a lever inside the cabin.[19][21] In spite of the limited 1930s U.S. military budgets, the ’34 truck was liked well-enough that the 112 tonners were further developed. Dodge built the U.S. Army further batches of 4WD 112-ton cargo trucks in 1938, 1939 and 1940.[22]

In 1938, a batch of 1,700 experimental RF-40-X-4(USA) trucks were procured, and a further 292 experimental types TF-40-X-4(USA) in 1939.[17] All of these 112-ton Army 4x4s rode on a 143 in (363 cm) wheelbase, and the 1938 RF-40 and 1939 TF-40 trucks were the first to receive a Dodge engineering code in the 200 range (T-200 and T-201 respectively).[7]

1940 Dodge VC-5 Open Cab pickup. The classic, pre-war bucket seats attempted to keep occupants on board, prior to the introduction of seat belts.

However, Dodge also eagerly pursued military contracts for half-ton four-by-fours at the same time. The smaller size had outperformed the 112-ton 4x4 during testing in 1938,[8] and Dodge had invested greatly in half- to one-ton trucks in prior years. In 1936, Dodge's light, car-based trucks had been crucially redesigned — abandoning the use of Dodge car frames, instead for the first time built on distinct, modern truck-style chassis, with side rails welded to the cross members on their half-ton to one-ton rated trucks.[23] Additionally, Dodge had built their all new, very large Warren Truck Assembly plant in Michigan, specifically for mass-production of light and medium trucks, opened in 1938.

Then, in 1939, Dodge again presented a completely redesigned line of pickups and trucks – the art-deco styled, "Job-Rated" trucks, available in an unprecedented number of configurations, aimed to fit every imaginable job.[23]

1940 — 12-ton VC and 112-ton VF models[edit]

1940 Fargo-badged truck at the Australian Army History Unit museum.
Dodge D15 Canadian Military Pattern truck, shared much with the 1940 VC-series.

Well before the onset of World War II, it was clear that the USA needed to update its military. The Quartermaster Corps (Q.C.), responsible at the time for providing the military with non-combat vehicles, moved to standardize truck designs, and by 1939, as the war in Europe exploded, the Army had settled on five payload-based general-purpose truck classes: 12-ton, 112-ton, 2+12-, 4- and 7+12-ton.[24] By June 1940 the Q.C. had tested and approved its first three standard commercial based, all-wheel drive trucks: the 112-ton 4x4 Dodge, the GMC 2+12-ton 6x6 and a Mack 6-ton 6x6.[25] With regards to Dodge however, the U.S. military reconsidered its preferences for the build-up for the war almost immediately after this.

Whereas in 1936, a Marmon-Herrington converted Ford had become the Army's first half-ton 4-wheel drive,[26] and the Army had initially standardized Dodge's 112-ton 4x4 truck — following Dodge's push for building 12‑tonners, after mid 1940 it was decided they preferred Dodge to build light-duty four-wheel drives, contracting for a series of half-ton trucks,[22] while GM / Chevrolet was instead going to become the standard supplier for 112-ton trucks.[5] So, when in the summer of 1940 the largest government truck contract awarded went to Chrysler's Dodge / Fargo Division, for more than 14,000 (mostly) 4x4 trucks,[27] this was in the midst of the transition, and thus included both orders for 12‑ton and 112‑ton trucks, as GM / Chevy still needed to tool up for the 112-tonners.

Dodge had started developing designs for a 4x4 half-ton in 1939, and began production in earnest in 1940 — both 4x4 half-tons, as well as 112-ton 4x4 and 4x2 trucks. On all 1940 trucks, front sheetmetal was mostly identical to the commercial VC and VF models of that year, with the addition of a big brush guard mounted in front of the grille and headlights. Except for the addition of 4-wheel drive, and custom bodies on the 12‑ton command cars, the trucks followed the 1939 procurement doctrine, to "use commercial trucks with only a few modifications such as brush guards and towing pintles to fit them for military use." [13]

The first of the 12-ton, 4x4, VC series military trucks were based on Dodge's 1939 civilian, one-ton rated model TC-series. The military VC models retained the civilian engine and wheelbase, but gained four-wheel drive, and a new internal technical code: T-202. Manufacturing of the Dodge VC models (SNL number G-505) began in 1940, making these the Army's first production half-ton 4WD trucks. The soldiers also called the light command reconnaissance vehicles "jeeps," but this was also common with several other vehicles at the time.[28] — before that term migrated to the quarter-tons, gradually starting in 1941.[29][30]

A total of 4,640 VC models were built across six variants – mostly pick-ups and reconnaissance cars. On the one hand, these 12‑ton VC trucks proved so successful, that much greater quantities were immediately ordered, and they were further developed into the G-505, 12‑ton WC models built in 1941. On the other hand, an even lighter and smaller 4x4 truck was needed: a quarter-ton, that would soon replace the Dodges as the U.S.' lightest 4x4 military trucks. Although no longer standard, the VC trucks remained in use until the end of the war.[31]

The 12-ton VC-series didn't include an ambulance, but the 112-ton VF-series did. The VF-407 was Dodge's first 4x4 military ambulance — only 3 were made.

In 1940, Dodge also built 6,472 four-wheel drive 112-ton trucks, under two U.S. contracts – one awarded to Dodge, and one to Fargo.[8][32][nb 7] The models VF-401 to VF-407 (or engine/tech type T-203 by Dodge – and G-621 by the Army), were a continuation of their experimental pre-war predecessors, the RF-40(-X) and TF-40(-X) (or T-200 / T-201), still riding on a chassis of the same 143 in (3.63 m) wheelbase. Production consisted of just over 6,000 closed cab, open bed cargo trucks, plus just under 400 dump-trucks.

Like on the 12-ton VC-series, the 1940 VF-400 112-ton models simply used civilian front sheet-metal, based on the 1939 commercial model TE-30 cab, with a brush-guard fitted in front of the grille and headlights — but with a Dodge developed front driving axle, directional, cross-country tires, and a military cargo body.[33] Importantly, one thousand of the VF-400 series cargo trucks were equipped with a power take-off, gear-driven Braden model MU 10,000 lb (4,500 kg) capacity winch — a feature that was carried over on many of the subsequent 12-ton and 112-ton WC series models, directly from 1941. And although the light-duty WC models that followed, did not receive the VF-400's two-speed transfer cases, these did return on the 112-ton WC-62 and WC-63. An ambulance model, VF-407, was also designed, but only three units were built, likely experimental.[1][34]

These proved to be the last of Dodge's 112-ton 4x4 trucks for the war. Although the Army had steadily taken the bulk of its trucks in this category from Dodge / Fargo up til then, further production of 112-ton 4x4 trucks was instead awarded to GM's Chevrolet G506, which became the standard in this segment for the rest of the war.[8]

World War II soldiers called the 12-ton 1940/1941 Dodge Reconnaissance / Weapon Carriers a "Jeep" before the Willys MB.[29][30]

Aside from four-wheel drive trucks, production started for a militarized commercial 112-ton, rear-wheel drive truck in 1940 — initially Dodge's model VF-31, cargo (engineering code T-98) under the government SNL number G-618. The 4x2 model VF-31 was succeeded by the model WF-31 (internally T-118) for 1941 (closed cab tractor) and 1942 (cab and chassis) — both on a 135 in (3.43 m) wheelbase — and the 1942 model WF-32, closed cab, stake and platform cargo truck, on a 160 in (4.06 m) wheelbase.[35][1] After a modest production of 516 units of the WF-31,[34] at least 9,500 Dodge WF-32 trucks were built, mostly for lend-lease to Russia.[36][37][38]

External video
Dodge trucks in 1940 U.S. war promotion film
video icon "Army on Wheels" – WW II-era U.S. Army exercise stock film on Periscope Archives. Made by the U.S. War Department, together with Dodge, the May 1940 film opens with news of 7,000 new Dodge trucks for use by Uncle Sam (from 02:34) — showing VC and VF models. The four-wheel drive off-road capability, ruggedness, and the diverse uses for the vehicles are expounded, for instance: officers employ portable desks in their command cars to study maps and plot strategies (mark 13:00).

1941–1942 — 12-ton WC series[edit]

All three light U.S. 4x4 trucks, nicknamed 'jeeps' in World War II: a Willys 14‑ton, and Dodge 34‑ton and 12‑ton (L to R).

The 1940 VC-series Dodge 12-ton 4x4s were well liked but considered only an interim solution, because they were essentially a modified civilian truck. At the outset of World War II a more military design was laid out.[17] Dodge evolved the 1940 VC‑1 to VC‑6 into the equally half-ton rated WC series of military light trucks, produced in 38 model variants, of which 30 were four-wheel driven, in varying amounts — thousands of some models were produced, while only a few of some others were made. Where the military VC‑series still used much civilian sheet-metal, distinguished by a brush-guard in front of the grille — the WC‑series came with wide-open, almost flat fenders that prevented mud build-up, clogging rotation of the wheels — as well as a redesigned, sloping nose with an integrated, round, grated grille / brush-guard. A new ambulance with a fully enclosed, all-steel box rear body was designed, on a longer, 123 inch wheelbase; and PTO-driven winches were now fitted to some models.

The 12‑ton WC models were the first all-military design Dodge developed in the build-up to full mobilization for World War II,[14] and they were the U.S. Army's first standard light 4x4 trucks — prior to the quarter-tons — when the U.S. formally declared war in December 1941.[17] Soldiers would sometimes call the new vehicles 'jeeps', as was still common practice before the term migrated to the yet to be introduced Willys and Ford trucks, and eventually stuck to those.[28]

Both the Dodge half-ton VC and WC trucks were part of the Army G-505 series. Some 77,750 four-wheel drive 12‑ton WC numbered trucks were produced from late 1940 to early 1942, under War Department contracts.[1][2][nb 2] Additionally, aside from the fully military 4WD models, a small total of 1,542 two-wheel drive units retaining civilian sheet-metal were also supplied to the U.S. military, bearing WC model numbers in this same range. These models carried the SNL-code G-613, and brought the total number of half-ton WC‑series up to some 79,300 units, and the grand total of all half-tonners (VC and WC; 4WD and 2WD) to almost 84,000.

1942–1945 — 34-ton, G-502 WC series[edit]

The 34-ton and 112-ton T-214 redesign gave the Dodge WC series a distinctly different look and proportions.

In 1940 the Army revised its range of standard, payload-based, general-purpose truck classes: a 14-ton chassis requirement was added; the 12-ton was to be replaced by a 34-ton, and additional heavy categories were specified.[24] The Quartermaster General wanted to start direct negotiations with Dodge, GM and Mack for certain models immediately, but not until after February 1941 could the Quartermaster Corps choose manufacturers directly, based on their engineering and production capabilities.[24] One deciding factor had to do with availability of certain critical components, like transfer cases and especially constant-velocity joints, not used much on commercial trucks, but all-wheel drive vehicles all needed these; plus additionally, they would use two or three times the amount of driven axles, meaning more gears to cut for all the differentials. Produced up to the war by a few specialized firms with limited capacity, from spring 1942 Ford, Dodge and Chevrolet joined in fabricating these in mass quantity,[27] with Dodge's experience in making quality, precision parts dating back from the earliest beginnings of the company.

While very successful, the 12-ton WC trucks had to be supplanted by new 34‑ton trucks. In late 1941, Dodge introduced a redesigned WC‑series 4x4 trucks uprated to 34‑ton and their SNL code changed to G-502. The 34‑ton featured a lower profile truck bed that could seat eight troops, plus under seat stowage compartments; while service-parts remained 80 percent interchangeable with the existing 12‑ton series.[17] Maintaining 80% service parts interchangeability with the 12‑ton models was of great value. The 34‑ton models could swiftly be deployed, and the 12‑ton, G-505 WC‑trucks remained in use to the end of World War II.[14]

Throughout the war, Dodge was the U.S. Army's sole producer of 34‑ton trucks, and built a total of 255,193 of these across all variants from April 1942 to August 1945.[5][39][40] Standard vehicles in the 34‑ton 4x4 class were the WC-51 / WC-52 Weapons Carrier, WC-56 /-57 /-58 (Radio) Command Reconnaissance, WC-53 Carry‑all, and the WC-54 Ambulance. In the cargo/troop and command trucks, the WC-52 and WC-57 are identical to the WC-51 and WC-56, but with a longer frame, extending to carry the protruding front bumper with front-mounted winch.[41]

1943–1945 — 34-ton, G-502 and 112-ton, 6x6, G-507 WC series[edit]

Stretching the G-502 (WC-51 / WC-52) cargo, troop, and weapon carriers with a third driven axle, produced the 112‑ton, 6x6, G-507, WC-62 and WC-63 w/winch (latter shown).

After the U.S. Army reorganized from using eight-troop rifle squads to twelve-men squads, a single squad could no longer be carried as a unit in the 34‑ton, 4x4, WC-51 and WC-52 trucks. At the direction of Major General Courtney Hodges, Chief of Infantry, the G-502 troop- and weapons-carriers were, in 1943 also stretched, with an additional driven rear axle, to derive 48 in (1.22 m) longer 6-wheel drive trucks.[12] Using the same engine, gearbox, and cockpit, and sharing much of the other mechanicals, plus near-identical front-half sheet-metal as the 34-tons, the new 6x6, G-507, 112‑tons' main difference was the use of a dual-range transfer-case, instead of the single-speed of the prior 12-tons and 34-tons.[12] The result were the WC-62 and WC-63 troop and weapons carriers, to move whole 12-troop squad teams per vehicle.

The latter was of course equipped with a longer frame, housing an engine power take-off drive-shaft from the transfer-case forward, to drive a Braden MU2 winch, mounted on a 10 in (25 cm) more protruding front-bumper, reducing the approach angle. The winch capacity was originally rated at 5,000 lb (2,270 kg) pull-strength, but in late 1943 the wire rope size was upgraded from 38 in (9.5 mm) to 716 in (11 mm), the capacity rating was raised to 7,500 lb (3,400 kg), both on 34‑tons and the 6WDs.[12]

The chasses and certain other components were strengthened in the design of the new, longer, double the payload rated models, and many of these changes were incorporated back into subsequent production of the 34-ton G-502 models as well.[12] Although this caused some inconsistency in the mechanical uniformity of the 34-tons, it did keep parts the same as much as possible between the 34-tons and the new 112-tons, benefiting both the uniformity and ease of production of all the different models, as well as the 34‑tons, making them even more rugged from then on.

Further developments[edit]

Amphibious

WC-62 armored car prototype (one built).

Twelve G-614 half-ton capacity, 4x4, XAC-2 / experimental 'Aqua-Cheetah', amphibious vehicles were built in 1942, by the Amphibian Car Corporation.[42] One unit was submitted to Britain for testing, (under Lend-Lease),[43] and the remaining eleven were subsequently rebuilt by the same firm, as G-552, XAC-3, amphibious 3/4‑ton trucks.[42] Both the 12‑tons and the 34‑tons were built based on Dodge WC series mechanicals. The vehicles performed well in testing, but neither Britain nor the U.S. decided to standardize them.[43]

Armored

A single armored car prototype was built, based on the 112‑ton, 6x6, Dodge WC-62.

Models table – overview[edit]

Dodge VF-401 /-402 /-404 /-405 closed cab cargo

This table provides the relations between U.S. military and Dodge identification numbers, chassis payload classification in U.S. tons (907 kg), wheels and drive, and description of body fitted, according to the U.S. Army Ordnance SNL supply list.[35][44]
The U.S. government used category numbers starting with 'G-', whereas Dodge used technical category numbers starting with a 'T', and model numbers starting with two letters, like 'WC-'. The U.S. Army simply considered the 1941 Dodge WC series as evolutions of the initial 1940 VC series – all within the half-ton, 4x4, SNL G-505 trucks.

External image
image icon Restored VF truck (archived)

In the case of two vehicle identifications separated by a slash, the first code refers to the vehicle without a winch, and the second code, in bold print, to the same vehicle, on a longer frame, holding a front winch, typically resulting in a 10 in (25 cm) longer front overhang, and distinctly reduced approach angle. Not only were the winches driven by a power take-off from the engine,[9] but unlike the later Dodge M-series trucks, on which an extension was bolted to the frame when mounting a winch — on the WC‑series the winch equipped versions actually had a different frame.[45][46]

On the 112-ton rated VF-400 series trucks, the PTO-driven winch had a 10,000 pound capacity, but added almost 1,000 pounds to the vehicles weight, reducing the payload to 2400 pounds.[47]

Numbers separated by a comma indicate similar models but with different secondary details.

12-ton 4×4 – G-505 12-ton 4×2 34-ton 4×4 – G-502 112-ton 4×4 112-ton 4×2 112-ton 6×6
T-202 T-207 T-211 T-215 G-613 / T-112 T-214 G-621 / T-203 G-618 / T-118 G-507 / T-223
Pick-up, closed cab, w. troop seats VC-3 WC-1 WC-12 WC-38, WC-47
Pick-up, closed cab, no rear seats VC-4 WC-5* WC-14* WC-40*, (WC-41) VF-401 / -402,
VF-404 / -405
Pick-up, open cab – cargo, troops, and weapons carriers VC-5 WC-3 / WC-4 WC-13 WC-21 / WC-22 WC-51 / WC-52 WC-62 / WC-63
Carry-all VC-6 WC-10 WC-17 WC-26 WC-36, WC-48 WC-53
Dump truck VF-403, -406
Command / Reconnaissance VC-1 WC-6 / WC-7 WC-15 WC-23 / WC-24 WC-56 / WC-57
Radio truck VC-2 WC-8 WC-16 WC-25, WC-42 WC-58, (WC-54)
Panel Van WC-11 WC-19 WC-42 WC-37, WC-49
Emergency Repair / maintenance workshop WC-14*, WC-20 WC-40*, WC-41 WC-60
Portee gun truck [nb 8] WC-55
Ambulance WC-9 WC-18 WC-27 WC-54, WC-64 (KD) VF-407
Telephone installation / maintenance WC-43 WC-39, WC-50 WC-59, WC-61
Closed cab, bare chassis WF-31
Closed cab, stake & platform WF-32
* The WC-5, WC-14, and WC-40 were U.S. ordered, and accepted as 'Emergency Repair' – but by Dodge listed as 'pickup' built.

Engines and drivetrains[edit]

All engines were liquid-cooled, straight-six Chrysler flathead gasoline engines, mated to four-speed manual transmissions and a single-range transfer-case offering part-time four-wheel drive.[48][49] Only the T203 and the T223 configurations applied in the 112‑ton VF-400 models, and in the G-507 6×6 trucks had a dual-ratio transfer-case.[47][50]

Tech. code Since [51] Block [52] Bore Stroke Displacement [53] Compression Torque Power
T-112 1941 23 inch 3+14 in (83 mm) 4+38 in (111 mm) 217.7 cu in (3,567 cm3) 6.8:1 [54] 170 lb⋅ft (230 N⋅m) @ 1200 rpm [55] 85 hp (63 kW) @ 3000 rpm [55]
T-118 1941 25 inch 3+716 in (87 mm) 4+14 in (108 mm) 236.6 cu in (3,877 cm3) 190 lb⋅ft (258 N⋅m) @ 1500–2200 rpm 104 hp (78 kW) @ 3000 rpm [56]
T-202 1940 23 inch 3+18 in (79 mm) 4+38 in (111 mm) 201.3 cu in (3,299 cm3) 6.7:1 154 lb⋅ft (209 N⋅m) [57] 79 hp (59 kW) @ 3000 rpm [48][31]
T-203 1940 25 inch 3+38 in (86 mm) 4+12 in (114 mm) 241.5 cu in (3,957 cm3) 6.5:1 188 lb⋅ft (255 N⋅m) @ 1200 rpm 99 hp (74 kW) @ 3000 rpm [58]
T-207 [nb 9] 1941 23 inch 3+14 in (83 mm) 4+38 in (111 mm) 217.7 cu in (3,567 cm3) 6.5:1 170 lb⋅ft (230 N⋅m) @ 1200 rpm [60] 85 hp (63 kW) @ 3000 rpm [60][48]
T-211 1941 23 inch 3+14 in (83 mm) 4+38 in (111 mm) 217.7 cu in (3,567 cm3) 6.5:1 170 lb⋅ft (230 N⋅m) @ 1200 rpm [60] 85 hp (63 kW) @ 3000 rpm [60]
T-211 from August 1941 [14] 23 inch 3+14 in (83 mm) 4+58 in (117 mm) 230.2 cu in (3,772 cm3) 6.7:1 92 hp (69 kW) [21]
T-214 1942 23 inch 3+14 in (83 mm) 4+58 in (117 mm) 230.2 cu in (3,772 cm3) 6.7:1 180 lb⋅ft (244 N⋅m) @ 1200 rpm [61] 92 hp (69 kW) gross 76 hp (57 kW) net @ 3200 rpm [62][17]
T-215 1941 23 inch 3+14 in (83 mm) 4+58 in (117 mm) 230.2 cu in (3,772 cm3) 6.7:1 180 lb⋅ft (244 N⋅m) @ 1200 rpm [63] 92 hp (69 kW) @ 3100 rpm [63][48]
T-223 1943 23 inch 3+14 in (83 mm) 4+58 in (117 mm) 230.2 cu in (3,772 cm3) 6.75:1 180 lb⋅ft (244 N⋅m) @ 1200 rpm [64] 92 hp (69 kW) gross /
76 hp (57 kW) net @ 3200 rpm [64]
T-236 [65] 1943 25 inch 3+716 in (87 mm) 4+14 in (108 mm) 236.6 cu in (3,877 cm3) 6.8:1 182 lb⋅ft (247 N⋅m) @ 1300 rpm (gross) 92.5 hp (69.0 kW) gross /
82.5 hp (61.5 kW) net @ 3200 rpm

Half-ton VC series[edit]

The 1940 Dodge VC-1 / VC-2 Radio and Command Reconnaissance cars had a new body by Budd.
Shown the civilian body that was fitted with windows and brush-guard as the VC-6 — and carried over to the 4×2 driven WC-36 / WC-48 carry-alls, and the WC-37 / WC-49 panel vans.

The 1940 Dodge / Fargo VC models formed the first production run in the U.S. military's G-505 range of half-ton,[nb 10] light four-wheel drive military trucks. Created based on Chrysler's 1939 commercial, one-ton rated,[nb 11] TC models of light trucks and carry-all,[31] the VC models formed the foundation for the subsequent 1941, 12‑ton WC series. (The company's naming system then progressed the first letter alphabetically per model year, and the second letter tied to the truck's payload rating, based on chassis and components strength.)

All variants used the same 116 in (295 cm) wheelbase as the civilian trucks, but with the addition of part-time four-wheel drive. Bodywork and sheet metal on the pick-ups and carryall were largely copied from the civilian models — however, for the reconnaissance and radio cars, a dedicated open four seater body was created, manufactured by Budd Company.[31] Also the same 201.3 cu in (3.3 l) inline six, flathead engine was used, but horsepower was raised from a 70 hp (52 kW) civilian rating in 1939 [66][67] to 79 hp (59 kW) at 3000 rpm in the 1940 G-505.[48][31] The transmission had 4 speeds, and the transfer case just one – it only shifted drive to the front axle, to engage or disengage four-wheel drive; on-road it remained rear-wheel drive.

The VC series came in six variants, numbered VC-1 to VC-6, and internally T-202 by Dodge:[31][1]

  • VC-1: Command Reconnaissance – 2,155 units
  • VC-2: Radio Command Reconnaissance – 34 units
  • VC-3: Closed cab Pickup with bed seating for troops – 816 units
  • VC-4: Closed cab Pickup without bed seats – 4 units
  • VC-5: Open cab Pickup with bed seating for troops – 1,607 units
  • VC-6: Carry-all – 24 units

None of these trucks came with winches yet.

Half-ton WC series[edit]

The half-ton, 4x4, Dodge WC series were evolutionary redesigns of the preceding VC series, retaining the military G-505 series code. Starting production in late 1940,[68][2] until replacement by the 3/4‑ton models in early 1942, they progressed through three mechanical engineering versions (T-207, T-211, and T-215), in barely a year and a half – while receiving the T-215 specification engine midway through production of the T-211 coded versions. Half-ton rated WC series models received thirty-eight numbers, roughly chronologically, in the WC-1 to WC-50 range, but skipping numbers WC-2, WC-28 to WC-35, and WC-44 to WC-46.

The WC series is immediately recognizable by its redesigned, now military sheet-metal. Wide-open, simplified front and rear fenders replaced the bulbous civilian ones, offering more wheel-travel, and less risk of wheels clogging stuck with thick mud in the wheel-well. The front brush-guard and grille were redesigned, replacing the civilian art-deco front with a single, integrated, upright, round welded grate.

The distribution across the versions was: [40]

  • 31,935 units of the WC-1 through WC-11 models, with the T-207 engineering code and a 217.7 cu in (3,567 cm3) engine with 85 hp (63 kW);
  • 17,293 units of the WC-12 through WC-20 models, with the T-211 engineering code and initially the same engine, however during August 1941 the T-211 engine was increased to 230.2 cu in (3,772 cm3) and 92 hp (69 kW), but the overall T-code number was not changed on affected models (e.g. WC-18) [14] [nb 12]
  • 28,537 units of the WC-21 through WC-27 and WC-40 through WC-43 model, with the T-215 engineering code and a 230.2 cu in (3,772 cm3) engine with 92 HP.

The T-207 range had an uprated 85 hp engine, and these units had front axles with Bendix-Weiss constant-velocity joints, whereas T-211 and T-215 models were given front axles either made by Bendix or with Rzeppa design CV joints, made by Ford.

From the T-211 models onwards, the rear brakes were 14-inch (360 mm) instead of 11-inch (280 mm) drums.[70] Among the T-211 versions, no single WC model number was explicitly used for winch-equipped units.

The T-215 types introduced a military design dashboard with round gauges, replacing the civilian dash with square ones.[14]

A further 1,542 rear-wheel drive units (engineering code T-112) were built as WC-36 through WC-39, and WC-47 through WC-50 — mostly carry-alls and pick-ups). These retained civilian bodywork, fenders and grilles, as well as regular front axles, and a one-ton on-road rating.

Open cab pickups/weapon carriers were the most numerous of the 12‑ton WC series

Common specifications[edit]

  • Drive: four-wheel drive — except for WC-36 to WC-39 and WC-47 to WC-50
  • Wheelbase: 116 in (295 cm) – both on four-wheel and two-wheel drive models
    • except 123 in (312 cm) for ambulances and phone line / emergency repair trucks
  • Track width: 59+38 in (151 cm) front – 61+38 in (156 cm) rear
    • except 55+34 in (142 cm) front track on rear-wheel drive models
  • Tires: 7.50×16
  • Brakes: Hydraulic
  • Engine: 6 cylinder, in-line, side valve engine
  • Transmission: manual, 4 forward / 1 reverse
  • Transfer case: Single speed


12-ton Ambulances[edit]

WC-9, WC-18, WC-27

Dodge WC-9 Ambulance

Entering production during 1941 to early 1942,[71] they were specifically designed to serve as military ambulances. These early variants are distinguishable from the later ones by having a curved radiator grille, while the later ones (WC-51 onwards) featured a flat grille. These versions were given a longer 123 in (3,100 mm) wheelbase.

  • Length: 195 in (4.95 m)
  • Width: 75+1316 in (1.93 m)
  • Height: 90 in (2.29 m)
  • Weight: 5,340 lb (2,420 kg)
  • Payload: 1,300 lb (590 kg)


Half-ton Carry-all (4x4 pictured)

12-ton Carry-alls[edit]

WC-10, WC-17, WC-26, WC-36, WC-48

Carryall trucks with a nominal carrying capacity of 1,000 lb (450 kg). The WC-10, WC-17 and WC-26 followed engineering patterns T-207, T-211 and T-215 respectively — whereas the WC-36 and WC-48 were T-112, rear-wheel drive only models.


Command / reconnaissance cars
Lord Mountbatten, Allied Commander South East Asia, stands in a 12‑ton WC Command Car near Mandalay, 1945.
Dodge WC-24 w. winch

12-ton (Radio) Command Reconnaissance[edit]

WC-6, WC-15, WC-23

Command / reconnaissance cars.

WC-7, WC-24

Command / reconnaissance car with winch.

WC-8, WC-16, WC-25

Radio car / Command reconnaissance car with radio, 12 volt.


Dodge WC-14 pickup 1941

12-ton Trucks, Closed Cab[edit]

WC-1, WC-5, WC-12, WC-14, WC-40

Closed cab, two seater pickups with a nominal carrying capacity of a 1,000 lb (450 kg). Some portion of these models were manufactured with winch,[72] at least of the WC-12, the WC-14 (pictured), and the WC-40, reducing the payload to 700 lb (320 kg) — but no distinct model number was assigned for such units. The WC-12's engine displacement was increased to the T-215's volume of 230.2 cu in (3,772 cm3) mid-series, after engine No. 42001.[72]


12-ton Trucks, Open Cab[edit]

Open cab 12-tons, w/wo winch
WC-13 half-ton 4x4 with optional M24 machine gun mount.
Dodge WC-4 open cab with winch.

WC-3, WC-13, WC-21

Weapon carriers, two seater pickups with open cab. The open cab pickups could be fitted with an optional M24 machine gun mount, which bolted across the front of the bed. The mount could carry the M1918 Browning Automatic Rifle, as well as the M1919 Browning machine gun, and the 0.5 in (12.7 mm) M2 Browning machine gun.

  • Length: 181+116 in (4.60 m)
  • Width: 75+1316 in (1.93 m)
  • Height: with top 88+18 in (2.24 m)
  • Weight: 4,440 lb (2,010 kg)
  • Payload: 1,300 lb (590 kg)

WC-4, WC-22

Open cab weapons carrier, with Braden MU winch, and transverse seats, designed to tow the 37mm M3 anti-tank gun as well as carry the gun crew and ammunition. This type was usually issued to early tank destroyer units. 5570 built.

  • Length: 191+516 in (4.86 m)
  • Width: 75+1316 in (1.93 m)
  • Height: with top 88+18 in (2.24 m)
  • Weight: 4,775 lb (2,166 kg) net
  • Payload: 1,000 lb (450 kg)


12-ton (Radio) Panel Vans[edit]

Half-ton 4x4 basic panel van.

WC-11, WC-19, WC-42

Almost 1,400 panel van trucks, and panel van bodied radio communication cars. At first, regular panel van trucks were ordered: 642 units of WC-11,[68][73] and 103 units of WC-19.[69] The subsequent WC-42 panel vans were however furnished and equipped as radio communication cars. The 650 WC-42 radio panel vans almost outnumbered their bare transportation siblings, and they were also the only radio communication cars that Dodge built in a panel van body style in the entire VC and WC series range.

Almost half of production, 650 units, went to the British Empire under the U.S. Lend-Lease agreement.[74]

There were also negligible numbers made with civilian style bodywork, similar to the 1940 VC-6 Carryall, with only rear-wheel drive, with the T-112 (Dodge) and G-613 (U.S.) internal codes – six units of WC-37 (1941), and a further eight as WC-49, in 1942.

12-ton Telephone Service[edit]

WC-43 K-50 phone service truck

WC-39, WC-43, WC-50

These models were built as technical service trucks for the U.S. Army Signal Corps, designed to install and repair hard telephone lines. Together with some earlier 12‑ton GMC/Chevrolet models, and the later 34‑ton WC-59 and WC-61, they were also known by the Signal Corps as the K-50 trucks.

Of the two-wheel drive WC-39 and WC-50, only a single unit of each were built, but the four-wheel drive WC-43 numbered 370 units.


12-ton Trucks, Emergency Repair[edit]

M1 emergency repair truck, WC-41 — compare external picture here.

WC-5, WC-14, WC-20, WC-40, WC-41

Just over one thousand emergency repair chassis and trucks were ordered within the half-ton Dodge G-505, WC series.[68][69][75] The Dodge SNL G-657 Master Parts List doesn't explicitly list most of them as built to serve as emergency repair trucks, but the Summary Report of Acceptances, Tank-Automotive Materiel, 1940–1945, shows that at least 956 emergency repair chassis and trucks were received by the Army, involving at least all of the WC-14, WC-20, WC-40, and WC-41 models.[76][77]

Dodge delivered at least all thirty WC-20, and most of the WC-41 units, as closed cabs with a bare chassis, on a 123 in (312 cm) wheelbase, fitted with dual rear wheels, though a minority, particularly of the WC-5, WC-14, and WC-40s, were possibly built on a 116 in (295 cm) wheelbase; and some as pick-ups.[76] Most were furnished with third party utility service rear bodies, as M1 emergency repair trucks, to provide mobile facilities for emergency ordnance repair (G-061 / G-505). One other body-type was ordered: one T-211 oil servicing truck in 1941.[69]

U.S. Gvmt. Contract nr. Tech model Units ordered Vehicle / body type – as ordered [68][69][75] Units built Model code Vehicle / body type – Dodge description [1] Units accepted Summary Report of Acceptances model / type [78]
W-398-QM-8286 T-207 60 Emergency Repair 60 WC-5 Closed cab pickup
W-398-QM-9388 T-211 268 Emergency Repair 268 WC-14 Closed cab pickup 298 Emergency Repair, chassis
T-211 30 Emergency Repair, chassis 30 WC-20 Closed cab – bare chassis
W-398-QM-10327 T-215 275 Emergency Repair 275 WC-40 Closed cab pickup 275 Emergency Repair
W-398-QM-10327 T-215 267 Emergency Repair, chassis 267 WC-41 Closed cab – bare chassis 54 (Closed cab) chassis [42]
213 Chassis, Emergency Repair
W-398-QM-11244 T-215 39 Emergency Repair 39 WC-41 Closed cab 39 Emergency Repair, chassis
W-398-QM-11592 T-215 77 Emergency Repair, chassis 77 WC-41 Emergency Repair, cab & chassis 77 Emergency Repair, chassis


Three-quarter-ton models[edit]

Three-quarter ton WC series
The ≈190,000 WC‑51 & WC‑52 trucks (shown) make up half of the total of ≈380,000 different WC-series built.
Top view of WC-55 (a version of the WC‑51 / WC‑52) shows the squat, short and wide stance, proportions of the revised 34‑ton Dodges

By late 1941, the Dodge WC range was significantly revised. All four-wheeled models were reinforced and uprated for a nominal three-quarter ton off-road payload; and for 1943, a stretched six-wheel drive, 112-ton rated variant was developed.

All models were widened to front and rear tracks of 64+34 in (1.64 m), widening the front track by as much as 5+38 in (14 cm), and the rear track by 3+38 in (8.6 cm) on most models. The tires were widened from 7.50×16 to 9 inches (from 19 cm to 23 cm) wide. moreover, the bulk production variants were significantly shortened, giving the vehicles much more square proportions, like on their younger 14‑ton brothers. On the troops & weapons carriers, and command/reconnaissance & radio trucks, the wheelbase were all cut by almost half a meter (18 in / 46 cm), from a 116 in (2.95 m) to a 98 in (2.49 m) wheelbase. Only ambulances, carry-alls, and technical service trucks kept a long wheelbase. Panel vans were dropped from the range and no longer made.

The big volume models (the WC-51/-52, and the WC-56/-57/-58) also got literally more square bodies, and overall length to width ratios. The integrated grille / brush-guard became straight, and the hoods (bonnets) became lower and wider, and were flattened – both as in losing their previous curvature, and now being simply horizontal – so they became more useful as an improvised table-top, and the front windows / windshields on these models could now also be folded forward, to lay flat on their hoods, just like on the 14-tons. Under the hood, the 34-tons kept the 6-cylinder inline, L-head engine of 92 hp (73 kW) gross, from the later model half‑ton WC series.

The biggest volume production variants, the pick-up / troops and weapons-carrier models, received a completely redesigned rear bed, that mostly consisted of two longitudinal, rectangular boxes, that integrated the rear wheel wells with under-seat stowage compartments fore and aft of the rear wheels, while now seating troops on top of the rear wheels, facing each other, instead of in between the wheels, further widening these models to 6 ft 11 in (2.11 m), but offering much more space for the troops' backpacks and gear, between their feet. A single such truck, at less than (4.50 m (14.8 ft) long, offered practical all-terrain transportation to a full eight man rifle squad, their weapons and personal kit.

With the nickname 'jeep' now moving on to the smaller 14‑ton trucks, some soldiers called the Dodges 'Beeps' (for "Big jeep") instead.[79]

Eventually, as much as half of the more than fifty different WC series models manufactured, were WC‑51 & WC‑52 cargo/troop and weapons carriers — and one third of those with an engine-powered front winch.


34-ton Ambulances[edit]

WC-54

1943 WC-54 Ambulance

The WC-54 Truck, 3/4 ton, 4×4 Ambulance, Dodge (G-502), was produced as an ambulance, but a few were modified to serve as radio/telephone trucks with the US Signal Corps. A total of 26,002 WC-54 units were built from 1942 through 1944, after which the ambulance was redesigned, and replaced by the WC-64 in 1945.[80][81]

  • Length: 16 ft 3 in (4.95 m)
  • Width: 6 ft 6 in (1.98 m)
  • Height: 7 ft 6 in (2.29 m)
  • Weight: 5,920 lb (2,685 kg)
  • Payload: 1,800 lb (820 kg)
Dodge WC-64 Ambulance

WC-64

The WC-64 KD Truck, 3/4 ton, 4x4 Ambulance Dodge (G-502) was an ambulance based on the same chassis as the WC-54 but with a knock-down body designed to increase the number of vehicles that could be shipped at the same time. The rear boxes were supplied in two major parts: lower and upper. The lower part of the box was attached to the chassis at the factory, while the upper box was crated for installation in the field.[82] 3,500 Knock-down ambulances were built between the beginning of 1945 and the end of the war,[83] the great majority (2,531 units) went to allies under lend-lease:[74]

  • 1,123 to the Free French forces
  • 644 to British Commonwealth
  • 475 to China
  • 149 to Brazil and 82 to other Latin American republics

34-ton Carryall[edit]

WC-53 Carry-all
Split tailgate shown on rear

WC-53

A carryall, mechanically the WC-53 was virtually identical to the WC-54 but was fitted with a body which was the 1939 civilian carryall modified to military specifications. All four rear side windows were wind-up opening and the seating consisted of front folding passenger seat to allow rear access, two person second row leaving space to access to the rear full width three person seat. The spare wheel was carried on a mount on the driver's side and although the door was fully operational it could not be opened and the driver had to enter from the passenger side. The rear end had split tailgates.[84][85]
WC-53s were also fitted as radio trucks with a bench on the left side with the operator seated sideways. 8,400 WC-53: Truck, 3/4 ton, 4×4 Dodge Carryall (G-502) were built. No carryalls came from the factory with a winch, though there was a field modification available.[86]

  • Length: 15 ft 6 in (4.72 m)
  • Width: 6 ft 7 in (2.01 m)
  • Height: 6 ft 8 in (2.03 m)
  • Weight: 5,700 lb (2,590 kg)
  • Payload: 1,750 lb (790 kg)


34-ton (Radio) Command Reconnaissance[edit]

WC-56

Rear of command car, desert tan
The WC-56 was wider and much shorter than the 12‑ton command cars, giving it squat proportions.

The WC-56 Truck, Command Reconnaissance, 3/4 ton, 4x4 w/o Winch, Dodge (G-502) was a command and reconnaissance vehicle akin to a large quarter-ton jeep. It did not prove popular as it was heavier and not as maneuverable as the jeep, and its distinctive profile made it a target. The soft-top included side-curtains, for better weather shielding. 21,156 units were built.[87][81]

  • Length: 13 ft 10 in (4.22 m)
  • Width: 6 ft 7 in (2.00 m)
  • Height: 6 ft 9 in (2.07 m)
  • Weight: 5,335 lb (2,420 kg)
  • Payload: 1,750 lb (800 kg)

WC-57

Unlike jeeps, the Dodge command cars' soft-top included canvas sides (WC-57 with winch).

The WC-57 Truck, Command Reconnaissance, 3/4 ton, 4x4 w/Winch Dodge (G-502) was identical to the WC-56, but fitted with a Braden MU2 7,500 lb (3,402 kg) capacity winch at the front bumper. 6,010 units built.[87][81]

  • Length: 14 ft 8 in (4.46 m)
  • Width: 6 ft 7 in (2.00 m)
  • Height: 6 ft 9 in (2.07 m)
  • Weight: 5,644 lb ( 2,560 kg)
  • Payload: 1,750 lb (800 kg)

WC-58

The WC-58 Truck, Radio, 3/4 ton, 4×4 w/o Winch, Dodge (G-502) was identical to the WC-56 Command / Reconnaissance Car, but fitted with a Signal Corps Radio set in front of the rear seat, and a 12-volt electrical system.[88][89] Some WC-58 models may have been built, based on the WC-57 with winch, as well.[17][90] A total of 2,344 radio equipped units were built,[89] but it is unclear whether these were included as part of the WC-56 / WC-57 production, or constituted an additional 2,344 WC-58 radio car units.

  • Length: 13 ft 10 in (4.22 m) / 14 ft 7 in (4.46 m) with winch
  • Width: 6 ft 7 in (2.00 m)
  • Height: 6 ft 9 in (2.07 m)
  • Weight: 5,644 lb (2,560 kg)
  • Payload: 1,750 lb (800 kg)


34-ton Trucks, Weapons Carrier[edit]

WC-51 and WC-52

With its top and bows down, the WC-51/52 followed the low-profile design doctrine – in Russian called the "Dodge 3/4"[16]UMMC Museum of Military and Automotive Equipment, Verkhnyaya Pyshma, Russia.
Up to ten troops would fit in a WC-51 or WC-52. Shown WC-52 is identical to the WC-51, but with a power take-off front winch.

The G-502, WC-51 & WC-52: "Truck, Cargo, 34-ton, 4x4, Weapons Carrier" (T-214; from early 1942), had largely redesigned bodies and frames, compared to their half-ton, 1940–1941 forebears, yet retained mechanically as much as possible — improving what was necessary, while maintaining supply, logistics, and training continuity. The design was now blatantly more jeep-like, with a much shorter, lower, wider, versatile, open cab pickup body. The hood became flat and horizontal, and the windshield could now also be folded forward, flat on it. With the top and bows down, the WC-51 and -52 followed the low-profile design doctrine of the time. Engine and drive-train were almost completely carried over from the T-215 half-tons, except for the uprated, wider track axles (64+34 in (1.64 m)), which were now 18 in (46 cm) closer together, for a 98 in (2.49 m) wheelbase.

The WC-51 and -52 could be fitted with an optional M24A1 machine gun mount, or other devices. The M24A1 mount bolted across the front of the bed, and could carry the M1918 Browning Automatic Rifle, the M1919 Browning machine gun, or the M2 Browning machine gun. Lack of a winch gave the WC-51 a 10 in (25 cm) shorter front overhang, and thus a better approach angle. The WC-52 not only differed from the WC-51 by having a power take-off driven Braden MU‑2 7,500 lb (3,400 kg) capacity winch on the front bumper, but to accommodate it, the WC-52 was actually built on its own, longer frame. With about every third unit carrying a winch, these were thus rarely ever retrofitted.

Almost three quarters of Dodge's 255,195 total 34‑ton, G-502, WC series production, were built as WC-51 and WC-52, cargo, troops and weapon carriers. 123,541 were built without winch as the WC-51, and 59,114 with a front winch as WC-52 — for a total of 182,655 units.[15] When adding the 5,380 WC-55, M6 Gun Motor Carriages, that were later downgraded back to WC-52 specification, it brings the total number to over 188,000 of these models. Although nearly a quarter of that (44,229) were passed on to allies, mostly through Lend-Lease, once the 1939 U.S. Army reorganization from 8‑man to 12‑man (rifle) squads got tied more closely into troop-car procurement, Dodge received orders for a similar amount (43,224 built) of the stretched, 12‑troop (one squad) capacity, WC-62 & WC-63, 112‑ton, 6x6 trucks.

WC-51 cabin interior
  • Length: 13 ft 11 in (4.24 m) – 14 ft 9 in (4.48 m) with winch
  • Width: 6 ft 11 in (2.11 meters)
  • Height (with canvas cover): 6 ft 10 in (2.08 m)
  • Height (with top down): 5 ft 2 in (1.57 m)
  • Weight: 5,250 lb (2,382 kg) net – 5,550 lb (2,518 kg) net with winch
  • Payload: 1,750 lb (800 kg)
  • Tires: 9.00 x 16 in., 8ply

A substantial amount – almost a quarter – of all the 34‑ton weapons carriers (a total of 44,229 WC-51 and WC-52 trucks), were provided through Lend-Lease to various Allies:[74]

  • 24,902 to the Soviet Union, who used some to pull their excellent ZiS-3 76-mm anti-tank guns,[15]
  • 10,884 to Britain
  • 3,711 to China
  • 3,495 to the Free French forces
  • 954 to Brazil and 204 to other Latin American countries


34-ton Truck, M6 Gun Motor Carriage[edit]

WC-55, M6 Gun Motor Carriage

WC-55

The M6 37 mm Gun Motor Carriage, 3/4-ton, 4×4 (abbreviated as M6 GMC), or fully described "M6 Fargo Gun Motor Carriage with 37mm Anti-tank Gun," (by Dodge numbered WC-55), was a modified G-502 Dodge WC-52, designed and built to carry an M3A1 37mm anti-tank gun combined with gun shield, mounted on its cargo bed, facing rearward. The WC-55 with gun combination was designated by Standard Nomenclature List supply catalog number G-121. A total of 5,380 were built by Fargo in 1942,[91] but most were later dismantled / downgraded and returned to service as WC-52 cargo trucks.

Fielded as a stopgap design from late 1942 in North Africa, in limited use with the US Army Tank Destroyer Battalions, and in the Pacific War in 1943/1944, improvements in enemy tanks quickly rendered the 37mm gun underpowered, and better guns became available. The WC-55 was first downgraded to "limited standard" in 1943, and subsequently declared obsolete, finally by early 1945.

  • Length: 14 ft 812 in (4.48 m)
  • Width: 7 ft 2 in (2.18 m)
  • Height: 8 ft 2 in (2.49 m) to top of gun shield
  • Weight: 5,600 lb (2 540 kg)
  • Storage: 80 rounds of 37mm munitions


34-ton Telephone Service[edit]

WC-59

WC-59, 34-ton K-50 telephone truck with ladder on side.

The WC-59 Truck, Telephone Maintenance, 3/4 ton, 4×4 Dodge (G-502) was designed to install and repair telephone lines. Based on the same chassis as the WC-54 ambulances, sharing a 23 in (58 cm) longer wheelbase than the regular 34‑ton WC series. The spare wheel was carried behind the seats, and a step ladder fitted where the spare wheel normally would have been. 549 units were built. The bespoke bed made it a K-50 truck to the Signal Corps. These were initially fitted to both Dodge and Chevrolet chassis.

  • Length: 16 ft 0 in (4.88 m)
  • Width: 6 ft 6 in (1.98 m)
  • Height: 6 ft 9 in (2.06 m)
  • Weight: 5,357 lb (2,430 kg)
  • Payload: 1,750 lb (800 kg)

WC-61

WC-61 / K-50B truck

The WC-61 Light Maintenance Truck, 3/4 ton, 4×4 Dodge (G-502) was also designed to install and repair telephone lines. Replacement for the WC-59, the WC-61 had the step ladder mounted on the roof, the spare wheel was still fitted behind the seats, and the tool trunks were accessible from the outside. Just 58 were built. The US Signal Corps referred to these as the K-50B truck.

  • Length: 15 ft 6 in (4.73 m)
  • Width: 6 ft 10 in (2.08 m)
  • Height (without ladder): 7 ft 5 in (2.26 m)
  • Weight: 5,952 lb (2,700 kg)
  • Payload: 1,750 lb (800 kg)

34-ton Truck, Emergency Repair[edit]

WC-60

Dodge WC-60 Emergency Repair Chassis, M2

The WC-60 chassis, fitted with a bed similar to the WC-61 by the American Coach and Body Co. of Cleveland, Ohio, formed the M2 Emergency Repair truck, 3/4 ton, 4×4 Dodge (SNL supply code G-061), a mobile workshop designed for field maintenance. Its open-topped service-type bed featured numerous tool trunks and stowage bins, accessible from the outside. 296 units were built.

  • Length: 15 ft 6 in (4.73 m)
  • Width: 6 ft 10 in (2.08 m)
  • Height: 7 ft 5 in (2.26 m)
  • Weight: 5,952 lb (2 700 kg)
  • Payload: 1,750 lb (800 kg)

One-and-a-half-ton models[edit]

G-507, 112-ton, 6x6 trucks
WC-62without winch
WC-63with winch
WC-62 / WC-63 cabin interior

WC-62[edit]

The G-507 Cargo and Personnel Carrier, 112-ton, 6x6 Truck, Dodge (WC-62 w/o Winch) was based on a lengthened WC-51 Weapons Carrier with an extra axle added. When the U.S. Army enlarged rifle squads from eight to twelve men, the 34‑ton no longer sufficed, and a 48-inch (1,200 mm) longer 6×6 variant was created that used most of the mechanical parts and some of the sheet metal of the G-502. The G-507 trucks could be driven by all six wheels (6x6) or by the four rear wheels only (6×4).[92] A number of components were strengthened in this design, and many of these changes were also incorporated in subsequent 34‑ton production. Production amounted to 43,224 units total,[5] — 23,092 WC-62 units without winch, and 20,132 WC-63 variants with winch.[81][4] One prototype was produced as an armored car.[93]

A total of 6,344 WC-62 and WC-63 cargo trucks were provided to World War II Allies — 4,074 to the Free French forces, 2,123 to British, and 137 units to Brazil.[74]

  • Length: 17 ft 11 in (5.47 m)
  • Width: 6 ft 11 in (2.11 m)
  • Height (with canvas cover): 7 ft 3 in (2.21 m)
  • Height (with top down): 5 ft 2 in (1.57 m)
  • Weight: 6,925 lb (3,141 kg)
  • Payload: 3,300 lb (1,500 kg)

WC-63[edit]

The WC-63 Truck, Cargo and Personnel Carrier, 112 ton, 6×6 with Winch, Dodge (G-507) Weapons Carrier was based on a lengthened WC-52 with an extra axle added. Identical to the WC-62 but fitted with a PTO-powered Braden MU2 winch, initially of 5,000 lb (2,300 kg), later 7,500 lb (3,400 kg) capacity.

  • Length: 18 ft 9 in (5.72 m)
  • Width: 6 ft 11 in (2.10 m)
  • Height (with canvas cover): 7 ft 3 in (2.21 m)
  • Height (with top down): 5 ft 2 in (1.57 m)
  • Weight: 7,175 lb (3,250 kg)
  • Payload: 3,300 lb (1500 kg)

Comprehensive models table[edit]

The table below lists the comprehensive set of models in the Dodge WC series family showing the different codes that were assigned together with each model's core specifications.[nb 13]

Different colors have been used to code groupings for maximum convenience, based on nominal payload rating, model family, and wheels and drive.

Lend-lease models (mainly for Russia), and Canadian-built models are presented in red, at the bottom.

Table of Dodge VC and WC series vehicles, codes and specifications
Payload rating Dodge model US Army SNL-nr. Dodge
T-code
Wheels & drive U.S. Mil
body code [94]
Model and body description Winch Years Number built Wheel base Length Width Height Payload
12-ton VC-1 G-505 T-202 4×4 USM-BT-15 Command reconnaissance 1940 2,155 116 in (2.95 m) 188 in (4.78 m) 74 in (1.88 m) 83+38 in (2.12 m) 945 lb (429 kg)
12-ton VC-2 G-505 T-202 4×4 USM-BT-15 Radio command reconnaissance 1940 34 116 in (2.95 m) 188 in (4.78 m) 74 in (1.88 m) 83+38 in (2.12 m)
12-ton VC-3 G-505 T-202 4×4 USM-BT-5 Pick-up, closed cab, with troop seats 1940 816 116 in (2.95 m) 188 in (4.78 m) 74 in (1.88 m) 88 in (2.24 m)
12-ton VC-4 G-505 T-202 4×4 USM-BT-5 Pick-up, closed cab, no bed seats 1940 4 116 in (2.95 m) 188 in (4.78 m) 74 in (1.88 m) 88 in (2.24 m)
12-ton VC-5 G-505 T-202 4×4 USM-BT-9 Pick-up, open cab / Weapon Carrier; transverse seats 1940 1,607 116 in (2.95 m) 188 in (4.78 m) 74 in (1.88 m) 88 in (2.24 m)
12-ton VC-6 G-505 T-202 4×4 USM-BT-7 Carry-all 1940 24 116 in (2.95 m) 74 in (1.88 m) 84+18 in (2.14 m)
12-ton WC-1 G-505 T-207 4×4 USM-BT-6 Pick-up, closed cab; longitudinal seats 1941 2,573 116 in (2.95 m) 181+116 in (4.60 m) 75+1316 in (1.93 m) 88.2 in (2.24 m) 1000 lb / 1300 lb [nb 14]
12-ton WC-3 G-505 T-207 4×4 USM-BT-10 Pick-up, open cab / Weapon Carrier; transverse seats 1941 7,808 116 in (2.95 m) 181+116 in (4.60 m) 75+1316 in (1.93 m) 88+18 in (2.24 m) 1,000 lb (450 kg)
12-ton WC-4 G-505 T-207 4×4 USM-BT-10 Pick-up, open cab / Weapon Carrier; transverse seats w / winch 1941 5,570 116 in (2.95 m) 191+516 in (4.86 m) 75+1316 in (1.93 m) 88+18 in (2.24 m) 1,000 lb (450 kg)
12-ton WC-5 G-505 T-207 4×4 USM-BT-6 Pick-up, closed cab; no bed seating 1941 60 116 in (2.95 m) 181+116 in (4.60 m) 75+1316 in (1.93 m) 88.2 in (2.24 m) 1000 lb / 1300 lb [nb 14]
12-ton WC-6 G-505 T-207 4×4 USM-BT-17 Command reconnaissance 1941 9,365 116 in (2.95 m) 178+1116 in (4.54 m) 75+1316 in (1.93 m) 83+38 in (2.12 m) 1,000 lb (450 kg)
12-ton WC-7 G-505 T-207 4×4 USM-BT-17 Command reconnaissance w / winch 1941 1,438 116 in (2.95 m) 189+316 in (4.81 m) 75+1316 in (1.93 m) 83+38 in (2.12 m) 700 lb (320 kg)
12-ton WC-8 G-505 T-207 4×4 USM-BT-17 Radio command reconnaissance 1941 548 116 in (2.95 m) 178+1116 in (4.54 m) 75+1316 in (1.93 m) 83+38 in (2.12 m) 1,000 lb (450 kg)
12-ton WC-9 G-505 T-207 4×4 USM-BT-19 Ambulance 1941 2,288 123 in (3.12 m) 195 in (4.95 m) 76 in (1.93 m) 90 in (2.29 m) 1,000 lb (450 kg)
12-ton WC-10 G-505 T-207 4×4 USM-BT-7 Carry-all 1941 1,643 116 in (2.95 m) 183+78 in (4.67 m) 75+1316 in (1.93 m) 84+18 in (2.14 m) 1,000 lb (450 kg)
12-ton WC-11 G-505 T-207 4×4 USM-BT-13 Panel van 1941 642 116 in (2.95 m) 183+78 in (4.67 m) 75+1316 in (1.93 m) 84+18 in (2.14 m) 1,000 lb (450 kg)
12-ton WC-12 G-505 T-211 4×4 USM-BT-6 Pick-up, closed cab 1941 6,047 116 in (2.95 m) 181+116 in (4.60 m) 75+1316 in (1.93 m) 88.2 in (2.24 m) 1000 lb / 1300 lb [nb 14]
12-ton WC-13 G-505 T-211 4×4 USM-BT-10 Pick-up, open cab / Weapon Carrier 1941 4,019 116 in (2.95 m) 181+116 in (4.60 m) 75+1316 in (1.93 m) 88+18 in (2.24 m) 1000 lb / 1300 lb [nb 14]
12-ton WC-14 G-505 T-211 4×4 USM-BT-6 Pick-up, closed cab / Emergency Repair [nb 15] 1941 268 116 in (2.95 m) 181+116 in (4.60 m) 75+1316 in (1.93 m) 88.2 in (2.24 m) 1000 lb / 1300 lb [nb 14]
12-ton WC-15 G-505 T-211 4×4 USM-BT-17 Command reconnaissance 1941 3,980 116 in (2.95 m) 178+1116 in (4.54 m) 75+1316 in (1.93 m) 83+38 in (2.12 m) 1,000 lb (450 kg)
12-ton WC-16 G-505 T-211 4×4 USM-BT-17 Radio command reconnaissance 1941 1,284 116 in (2.95 m) 178+1116 in (4.54 m) 75+1316 in (1.93 m) 83+38 in (2.12 m) 1,000 lb (450 kg)
12-ton WC-17 G-505 T-211 4×4 USM-BT-7 Carry-all 1941 274 116 in (2.95 m) 183+78 in (4.67 m) 75+1316 in (1.93 m) 84+18 in (2.14 m) 1,000 lb (450 kg)
12-ton WC-18 G-505 T-211 4×4 USM-BT-19 Ambulance 1941 1,555 123 in (3.12 m) 195 in (4.95 m) 76 in (1.93 m) 90 in (2.29 m) 1,000 lb (450 kg)
12-ton WC-19 G-505 T-211 4×4 USM-BT-13 Panel van 1941 103 116 in (2.95 m) 183+78 in (4.67 m) 75+1316 in (1.93 m) 84+18 in (2.14 m) 1,000 lb (450 kg)
12-ton WC-20 G-061 T-211 4×4 USM-BT-1 Emergency repair, M1, Closed cab chassis 1941 30 123 in (3.12 m) 187+38 in (4.76 m) 91+12 in (2.32 m) 81+116 in (2.06 m) 1420 lb / 2170 lb [nb 14]
12-ton WC-21 G-505 T-215 4×4 USM-BT-10 Pick-up, open cab / Weapon Carrier; transverse seats 1941–1942 14,287 116 in (2.95 m) 181+116 in (4.60 m) 75+1316 in (1.93 m) 88+18 in (2.24 m) 1000 lb / 1300 lb [nb 14]
12-ton WC-22 G-505 T-215 4×4 USM-BT-10 Pick-up, open cab / Weapon Carrier w / winch 1941 1,900 116 in (2.95 m) 191+516 in (4.86 m) 75+1316 in (1.93 m) 88+18 in (2.24 m) 1000 lb / 1300 lb [nb 14]
12-ton WC-23 G-505 T-215 4×4 USM-BT-17 Command reconnaissance 1941–1942 2,637 116 in (2.95 m) 178+1116 in (4.54 m) 75+1316 in (1.93 m) 83+38 in (2.12 m) 1000 lb / 1300 lb [nb 14]
12-ton WC-24 G-505 T-215 4×4 USM-BT-17 Command reconnaissance w / winch 1941–1942 1,412 116 in (2.95 m) 189+316 in (4.81 m) 75+1316 in (1.93 m) 83+38 in (2.12 m) 700 lb / 1300 lb [nb 14]
12-ton WC-25 G-505 T-215 4 x 4 USM-BT-17 Radio command reconnaissance 1941–1942 1,630 116 in (2.95 m) 178+1116 in (4.54 m) 75+1316 in (1.93 m) 83+38 in (2.12 m) 1000 lb / 1300 lb [nb 14]
12-ton WC-26 G-505 T-215 4 x 4 USM-BT-7 Carry-all 1941–1942 2,900 116 in (2.95 m) 183+78 in (4.67 m) 75+1316 in (1.93 m) 84+18 in (2.14 m) 1000 lb / 1300 lb [nb 14]
12-ton WC-27 G-505 T-215 4×4 USM-BT-19 Ambulance 1941–1942 2,579 123 in (3.12 m) 195 in (4.95 m) 76 in (1.93 m) 90 in (2.29 m) 1,300 lb (590 kg)
12-ton WC-36 G-613 T-112 4×2 USM-BT-7 Carry-all 1941 400 116 in (2.95 m) 191+38 in (4.86 m) 74.5[54] in (1.89 m) 80[54] in (2.03 m) 1,000 lb (450 kg)
12-ton WC-37 G-613 T-112 4×2 USM-BT-14* Panel van — VC model civilian body 1941 6 116 in (2.95 m) 183+78 in (4.67 m) 75+1316 in (1.93 m) 84+18 in (2.14 m) 1,000 lb (450 kg)
12-ton WC-38 G-613 T-112 4×2 USM-BT-5* Pick-up, closed cab – VC model civilian body 1941 362 116 in (2.95 m) 185+516 in (4.71 m) 74.5 in (1.89 m) 74+716 in (1.89 m) 1,000 lb (450 kg)
12-ton WC-39 G-613 T-112 4×2 USM-BT-12 Telephone installation, K-50 1941 1 116 in (2.95 m)
12-ton WC-40 G-505 T-215 4×4 USM-BT-6 Pick-up, closed cab / Emergency Repair [nb 15] 1941 275 116 in (2.95 m) 181+116 in (4.60 m) 75+1316 in (1.93 m) 88.2 in (2.24 m) 1000 lb / 1300 lb [nb 14]
12-ton WC-41A G-505 T-215 4×4 USM-BT-6 Pick-up, closed cab / Emergency Repair [nb 15] 1941 39 116 in (2.95 m) 181+116 in (4.60 m) 75+1316 in (1.93 m) 88.2 in (2.24 m) 1000 lb / 1300 lb [nb 14]
12-ton WC-41B G-061 T-215 4×4 USM-BT-1 Emergency repair, M1, Closed cab chassis 1941–1942 306 123 in (3.12 m) 187+38 in (4.76 m) 91+12 in (2.32 m) 81+116 in (2.06 m) 1420 lb / 2170 lb [nb 14]
12-ton WC-42 G-505 T-215 4×4 USM-BT-13 Radio – Panel van 1942 650 116 in (2.95 m) 183+78 in (4.67 m) 75+1316 in (1.93 m) 84+18 in (2.14 m) 1000 lb / 1300 lb [nb 14]
12-ton WC-43 G-505 T-215 4×4 USM-BT-12 Telephone installation, K-50 1942 370 116 in (2.95 m)
12-ton WC-47 G-613 T-112 4×2 USM-BT-5* Pick-up, closed cab — VC model civilian body 1942 390 116 in (2.95 m) 185+516 in (4.71 m) 74.5 in (1.89 m) 74+716 in (1.89 m) 1,000 lb (450 kg)
12-ton WC-48 G-613 T-112 4×2 USM-BT-7 Carry-all 1942 374 116 in (2.95 m) 191+38 in (4.86 m) 74.5[54] in (1.89 m) 80[54] in (2.03 m) 1,000 lb (450 kg)
12-ton WC-49 G-613 T-112 4×2 USM-BT-14* Panel van — VC model civilian body 1942 8 116 in (2.95 m) 183+78 in (4.67 m) 75+1316 in (1.93 m) 84+18 in (2.14 m) 1,000 lb (450 kg)
12-ton WC-50 G-613 T-112 4×2 USM-BT-12 Telephone installation, K-50 1942 1 116 in (2.95 m)
34-ton WC-51 G-502 T-214 4×4 USM-BT-11 Pick-up, open cab / Weapon Carrier 1942–1945 123,541 98 in (2.49 m) 166+78 in (4.24 m) 82+34 in (2.10 m) 81+78 in (2.08 m) 1,500 lb (680 kg)
34-ton WC-52 G-502 T-214 4×4 USM-BT-11 Pick-up, open cab / Weapon Carrier w / winch 1942–1945 59,114 98 in (2.49 m) 176.5 in (4.48 m) 82+34 in (2.10 m) 81+78 in (2.08 m) 1,500 lb (680 kg)
34-ton WC-53 G-502 T-214 4×4 USM-BT-8 Carry-all 1942–1943 8,400 114 in (2.90 m) 185+58 in (4.71 m) 78+58 in (2.00 m) 80+14 in (2.04 m) 1,800 lb (820 kg)
34-ton WC-54 G-502 T-214 4×4 USM-BT-20 Ambulance 1942–1944 26,002 121 in (3.07 m) 194.5 in (4.94 m) 77+34 in (1.97 m) 90+38 in (2.30 m) 1,800 lb (820 kg)
34-ton WC-55 G-121 T-214 4×4 USM-BT-11 Pick-up, open cab "M6 Gun Motor Carriage" w / winch 1942 5,380 98 in (2.49 m) 178 in (4.52 m) 88 in (2.24 m) 82 in (2.08 m) 1,200 lb (540 kg)
34-ton WC-56 G-502 T-214 4×4 USM-BT-16 Command reconnaissance 1942–1944 21,156 98 in (2.49 m) 165+34 in (4.21 m) 78+58 in (2.00 m) 81.5 in (2.07 m) 1500 lb / 1800 lb [nb 14]
34-ton WC-57 G-502 T-214 4×4 USM-BT-16 Command reconnaissance w / winch 1942–1944 6,010 98 in (2.49 m) 175+58 in (4.46 m) 78+58 in (2.00 m) 81.5 in (2.07 m) 1500 lb / 1800 lb [nb 14]
34-ton WC-58 G-502 T-214 4 x 4 USM-BT-16 Radio command reconnaissance unclear 1942 2,344 [nb 16] 98 in (2.49 m) 165+34 in (4.21 m) 78+58 in (2.00 m) 81.5 in (2.07 m) 1500 lb / 1800 lb [nb 14]
34-ton WC-59 G-502 T-214 4 x 4 USM-BT-21 Telephone installation, K-50 1942–1943 549 121 in (3.07 m) 191.5 in (4.86 m) 77.5 in (1.97 m) 80+58 in (2.05 m) 500 lb / 1210 lb [nb 14]
34-ton WC-60 G-061 T-214 4×4 USM-BT-22 Emergency repair, M2, Closed cab chassis 1943 300 121 in (3.07 m) 186 in (4.72 m) 81.5 in (2.07 m) 88.5 in (2.25 m) 2,170 lb (980 kg)
34-ton WC-61 G-502 T-214 4×4 Phone / Maintenance, K-50B 1943 58 121 in (3.07 m) 191+1332 in (4.86 m) 77+34 in (1.97 m) 80+1116 in (2.05 m) 1,300 lb (590 kg)
34-ton WC-64 G-502 T-214 4×4 Ambulance, Knock-down 1945 3,500 121 in (3.07 m) 191.5 in (4.86 m) 82+34 in (2.10 m) 90+34 in (2.31 m) 1,500 lb (680 kg)
112-ton VF-401 G-621 T-203 4×4 USM-BT-3 Pick-up / cargo, closed cab 1940 3,122 143 in (3.63 m) 223+38 in (5.67 m) 86 in (2.18 m) 111+78 in (2.84 m) 3,000 lb (1,400 kg)
112-ton VF-402 G-621 T-203 4×4 USM-BT-3 Pick-up / cargo, closed cab w / winch 1940 491 143 in (3.63 m) 233+112 in (5.92 m) 86 in (2.18 m) 111+78 in (2.84 m) 2,400 lb (1,100 kg)
112-ton VF-403 G-621 T-203 4×4 USM-BT-4 Dump truck, closed cab 1940 323 143 in (3.63 m) 225+332 in (5.72 m) 85 in (2.16 m) 113.5 in (2.88 m) 3,000 lb (1,400 kg)
112-ton VF-404 G-621 T-203 4×4 USM-BT-3 Pick-up / cargo, closed cab 1940 1,956 143 in (3.63 m) 223+38 in (5.67 m) 86 in (2.18 m) 111+78 in (2.84 m) 3,000 lb (1,400 kg)
112-ton VF-405 G-621 T-203 4×4 USM-BT-3 Pick-up / cargo, closed cab w / winch 1940 509 143 in (3.63 m) 233+112 in (5.92 m) 86 in (2.18 m) 111+78 in (2.84 m) 2,400 lb (1,100 kg)
112-ton VF-406 G-621 T-203 4×4 USM-BT-4 Dump truck, closed cab 1940 67 143 in (3.63 m) 225+332 in (5.72 m) 85 in (2.16 m) 113.5 in (2.88 m) 3,000 lb (1,400 kg)
112-ton VF-407 G-621 T-203 4×4 USM-BT-18 Ambulance 1940 3 143 in (3.63 m)
112-ton WC-62 G-507 T-223 6×6 USM-BT-25/26 (Personnel and) Cargo Carrier 1943–1945 23,092 125 in (3.18 m) [nb 17] 214+78 in (5.46 m) 82+34 in (2.10 m) 8934 in /
8434 in [nb 18]
3,300 lb (1,500 kg)
112-ton WC-63 G-507 T-223 6×6 USM-BT-23/24 (Personnel and) Cargo Carrier w / winch 1943–1945 20,132 125 in (3.18 m) [nb 17] 224+34 in (5.71 m) 82+34 in (2.10 m) 8934 in /
8434 in [nb 18]
3,300 lb (1,500 kg)
112-ton T-203B T-203-B 4×4 Lend-lease Cargo truck / Lend-Lease to Russia 1940 1,500 [97] 160 in (4.06 m)
112-ton WF-32 G-618 T-118 4×2 Lend-lease;
made in Iran
Closed cab, stake and platform 1942–1944 9,600 [36] 160 in (4.06 m) 253.5 in (6.44 m) 88 in (2.24 m) 82+1116 in (2.10 m) 3,170 lb (1,440 kg)
12-ton D8A T-212 4×4 Canadian production Pick-up, open cab / Weapon Carrier 3,001 [6] 116 in (2.95 m)
34-ton D3/4 APT T-236 4×4 Canadian production Pick-up, open cab / Weapon Carrier; Air-Portable w / winch 1945 11,750 [6] 98 in (2.49 m) 182 in (4.62 m) 77+18 in (1.96 m) 84 in (2.13 m) [nb 19] 1,750 lb (790 kg)

Service history[edit]

Although Dodge supplied over 380,000 WC-series to the war effort – more than the number of MB jeeps actually built by Willys (some 360,000), and the vehicles served with equal versatility – the Dodge WC-series, that were nicknamed "jeeps" by the soldiers, before that moniker went to its quarter-ton brother, never received a comparable level of fame. The Dodge WC-series has therefore been called one of WW II's unsung heroes.[98]

Lend-Lease[edit]

Almost 60,000 Dodge WC series models were provided to the U.S.' allies of World War II under the Lend-Lease program:[74]

  • 650 of the total 1,400 12-ton Panel vans built, possibly with radio, went to the British,
  • 886 34-ton Carry-alls went mainly to the British and the Soviets, with small numbers to various other countries,
  • over 2,500 of the total 3,500 WC-64, 34-ton knock-down ambulances went primarily to the Free French, the British, and to China,
  • some 3,800 34-ton WC-56 / WC-57 Command Cars (with or without winch) went mainly to the British, the Free French, and to China,
  • plus a further 650 34-ton Radio cars, likely WC-58 model, also for the British,
  • the bulk of lend-lease Dodges – over 44,000 units – were WC-51 and WC-52 34-ton Troops and Weapons Carriers – see their section above,
  • and lastly, 6,344 of WC-62 and WC-63 112-ton, 6x6 Cargo, Troops and Weapons Carriers were provided – mainly to the French (over 4,000), and to the British (over 2,000).

To the Soviets, the almost 25,000 new 1942 all-wheel drive 34-ton multi-purpose WC series were so fundamentally innovative, that they fitted no standard Red Army category. Russia much appreciated these vehicles, that perfectly filled the gap between 4WD automobiles and heavy trucks, and simply called them "Dodge three-quarters".[16]

Former operators[edit]

Gallery[edit]

In popular culture[edit]

Dodge WC series vehicles are visible in many World War II movies, and American TV series. One of the most conspicuous examples is the frequent use of the WC-54 ambulances in the acclaimed M*A*S*H TV series, situated in the Korean War.

In many WW II films, directors would place high-ranking allied officers in Dodge Command Cars, although in reality, the German military quickly realized that personnel riding in the Command Cars were typically prime targets, and Allied generals and dignitaries would in reality prefer to ride in regular jeeps, to prevent advertising themselves as high-profile targets.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Chrysler Corporation Mopar's 1946 annual model chart and serial number guide indicates 4,640 12‑ton VC units, and a maximum of 77,765 12‑ton WC serial numbers: [3]
    – 31,935 units of the WC-1 through WC-11,
    – 17,293 units of the WC-12 through WC-20, and
    – 28,537 units of the WC-21 through WC-27 and WC-40 through WC-43
  2. ^ a b The Summary Report – Tank-Automotive Materiel lists a total of 82,454 12‑ton 4×4 trucks (page 58), including 65 Marmon-Herrington Fords (p. 57) and 12 'Amphibian Car Corp.' units (p. 55), and a matching number of 4640 VC-series units (1940), leaving 82,377 half-ton, G-505 series, 4×4 units
  3. ^ Contraction of "Big jeeps" [10]
  4. ^ Although within the Chrysler Corporation, the Fargo Division handled government contracts,[11] the trucks were all built at Dodge’s Mound Road, Warren truck plant near Detroit, Michigan.[5][12]
  5. ^ Including the 4,640 G-505 VC trucks of 1940
  6. ^ The U.S. Army at that time grouped motor transport vehicles into four payload classes — 34‑ton or one-ton and under were "light", 112‑tons were "medium", and above that were two classes of "heavy" trucks.[5][13]
  7. ^ Chrysler Corp. Mopar's 1946 annual model chart and serial number guide indicates 6,472 serial numbers across the VF-400 models,[7] exactly matching Dodge's contract W-398-QM-7471 for 3,936 units, and Fargo's contract W-398-QM-7813 for 2,534 units, plus one pilot truck each.[8] The 1946 Summary Report of Acceptances – Tank-Automotive Materiel lists another 292 cargo trucks in addition to these same numbers, but under earlier contracts, matching the 292 TF-40(-X) / T-201 pre-standard units from 1939.[32]
  8. ^ truck with bed-mounted gun, typically unarmored, except for possibly a gun shield
  9. ^ Recommended fuel octane was just 60–65.[59]
  10. ^ (nominal off-road payload rating)
  11. ^ (nominal on-road payload rating)
  12. ^ U.S. government contracts explicitly referred to these units as T-211 models with a T-215 engine.[69]
  13. ^ Based on Dodge's SNL G-657 Master Parts List (1943), U.S. Army technical model manuals, such as the TM9-2800 (1943 and 1947 editions) and others, and the U.S. Summary Report of Tank Automotive Acceptances (1945/1946).
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Ratings given in Technical Manual TM9-2800 editions of 1943 and 1947, respectively.[95] [96]
  15. ^ a b c According to both contract and acceptance count in Summary Report
  16. ^ Unclear whether 2344 were built in addition to the WC-56/57 units, or whether this number of these were equipped as radio units !
  17. ^ a b 104 in (2.64 m) + 42 in (1.07 m)
  18. ^ a b TM9-810: max. height: tarpaulin up, with / without ringmount; Lowest operable reducible to 62 in (1.57 m)
  19. ^ Max. height with tarpaulin up; lowest operable: 62 in (1.57 m)

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f SNL G-657 Master Parts List (1943), p. XX–XXII.
  2. ^ a b c d Summary Report – Tank-Automotive Materiel (1945), pp. 55–58.
  3. ^ Serial Number Guide – Dodge Trucks Built for the U.S. Government (1946), Page 24 & 25.
  4. ^ a b Summary Report – Tank-Automotive Materiel (1945), p. 66.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Hyde, Charles K. (2013). Arsenal of Democracy: The American Automobile Industry in World War II. Wayne State University Press. pp. 152–153. ISBN 9780814339527.
  6. ^ a b c d Dodge / Fargo start and end serials for T-212, T-236 and other types
  7. ^ a b c d "Serial Number Guide – Dodge Trucks Built for the U.S. Government". T137.com. Archived from the original on 18 July 2016. Retrieved 15 February 2018. scanned images of parts books pages showing serial numbers, engine numbers, and other information from factory MoPar parts books covering Dodge and Fargo trucks manufactured from 1939–1977
  8. ^ a b c d e Doyle, David (2019). Chevrolet G-506 – 1 1/2-ton 4x4 Development, Production and Variants in WW2. Branchville, NJ: Portrayal Press. p. 8. ISBN 9780938242062. Archived from the original on 8 April 2019.
  9. ^ a b "TM 9 808 Dodge 3/4 ton 4x4". US Dept. of the Army. 31 January 1944. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
  10. ^ a b Bishop, Chris (2002). The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II. Sterling Publishing. pp. 105–106. ISBN 9781586637620. Retrieved 7 August 2021.
  11. ^ a b Summary Report – Tank-Automotive Materiel (1945), pp. 19, 58, 64.
  12. ^ a b c d e David Doyle: Standard Catalog of U.S. Military Vehicles – 2nd Edition, pg. 205
  13. ^ a b Thomson, Harry C.; Mayo, Lida (2003). The Ordnance Department: procurement and supply. Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, U.S. Army (Originally published: 1960, Washington, D.C., Office of the Chief of Military History, Dept. of the Army). p. 269/270.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h "Truck, 1/2 ton, 4x4, Dodge WC (G505)". Olive-drab.com. Retrieved 13 February 2018.
  15. ^ a b c Norris, John (2020). Logistics in World War II: 1939–1945. Barnsley, England: Pen and Sword Military. p. 192. ISBN 978-1473859159. One of the truly outstanding features of Dodge designs was the high degree of interchangeability in parts. Spares could fit many vehicles which facilitated maintenance.
  16. ^ a b c Kochnev, Evgeny (13 October 2019). "Lend-lizovskiye "tri chetverti"_ o takikh mashinakh v Krasnoy armii i ne mechtali" Ленд-лизовские «три четверти»_ о таких машинах в Красной армии и не мечтали ["Three Quarters" from the USA: Lend-Lease Dodge WC in the Red Army]. KOLESA.ru. Automotive magazine (in Russian). Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i Allen, Jim (7 December 2016). "1943 Dodge WC-51 Weapons Carrier, Power & Glory: Backward Glances". FourWheeler.com. Extreme Ventures, LLC. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
  18. ^ Jowett, Philip; de Quesada, Alejandro (28 February 2006). The Mexican Revolution 1910–20. Osprey. p. 25. ISBN 978-1-84176-989-9.
  19. ^ a b DeLorenzo, Matt (15 February 2014). Dodge 100 Years. MotorBooks International. p. 55. ISBN 9781627880848.
  20. ^ Allen, Jim (2009). Four-Wheeler's Bible. MotorBooks International. p. 21. ISBN 9781616730888.
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  22. ^ a b Bunn, Don (26 September 2012). "1940–1980: Power Wagon Pickups". One Classics. Retrieved 22 May 2018.
  23. ^ a b "History of the Dodge Pickup Trucks, 1921–1953". Allpar. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
  24. ^ a b c Hyde (2013), page 147–148.
  25. ^ Thomson & Mayo (2003), page 271.
  26. ^ Will The Real Jeep Please Stand Up – Offroaders.com
  27. ^ a b Thomson & Mayo (2003), page 274.
  28. ^ a b "Pages of Interest to 4x4ers: 4x4 History – Where It All Began". Dog-walker.us. Archived from the original on 11 February 2014. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
  29. ^ a b Zaloga, Steven J. (2011). Jeeps 1941–45. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9781780961477. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
  30. ^ a b Morr, Tom; Brubaker, Ken (2007). Jeep Off-Road. MotorBooks International. p. 11. ISBN 9781610590563. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
  31. ^ a b c d e f Truck, 1/2 ton, 4x4, Dodge VC (G505) – Olive Drab
  32. ^ a b Summary Report – Tank-Automotive Materiel (1945), pp. 66–69.
  33. ^ 1940 Dodge VF-401 Cargo Trucks (archived)
  34. ^ a b Dodge Trucks – US auto industry in WW II
  35. ^ a b Ordnance Publications For Supply Index (OPSI). Washington: War Department, Ordnance Office. 1 July 1943. pp. 104–108, 123–125.
  36. ^ a b Dodge WF32 – Lend-Lease Legends (in Russian)
  37. ^ Lend Lease trucks in Russia (archived)
  38. ^ Dodge WF-32 – Engines of the Red Army in WW2
  39. ^ David D. Jackson (2010). Chrysler's contribution to the war effort during WWII (Museum wall plaque). Auburn Hills, Michigan: Walter P. Chrysler Museum. Retrieved 16 May 2018.
  40. ^ a b Serial Number Guide – Dodge Trucks Built for the U.S. Government (1946), Page 25.
  41. ^ "Dodge Military Trucks". Olive-drab.com. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
  42. ^ a b c Summary Report – Tank-Automotive Materiel (1945), p. 55.
  43. ^ a b Vehicules Militaires Magazine n°19, p.32 (2008, in French)
  44. ^ T. Richards and R.M. Clarke, op. cit. pg 24–26
  45. ^ SNL G-657 Master Parts List (1943), p. 296.
  46. ^ Doyle, 2011: Standard Catalog of U.S. Military Vehicles – 2nd Edition, pg. 56
  47. ^ a b Article page on the 112‑ton 4x4 VF-400 series
  48. ^ a b c d e David Doyle: Standard Catalog of U.S. Military Vehicles – 2nd Edition, pg. 44
  49. ^ TM 9-808 – 3⁄4-Ton 4x4 Truck (Dodge), Technical Manual (1944), p. 12.
  50. ^ Doyle, David (28 February 2011). Doyle, 2011: Standard Catalog of U.S. Military Vehicles – 2nd Edition, pg. 100. ISBN 9781440227998. Archived from the original on 20 June 2018. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
  51. ^ SNL G-657 Master Parts List, Dodge Trucks, US Army, 1944, Front cover (archived)
  52. ^ T Flathead Six Engines – T137.com
  53. ^ TM 9-2800 'Standard Military Motor Vehicles' (1943).
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  55. ^ a b TM9-2800 manual (1947), p. 224, 231.
  56. ^ TM9-2800 manual (1947), p. 243.
  57. ^ 1940 Dodge VC-3 Express poster and specs – Gary Grant Robertson (archived)
  58. ^ TM9-2800 manual (1947), page 248, 254.
  59. ^ Dodge WC-6 (T-207) dashboard data plate (archived)
  60. ^ a b c d TM9-2800 manual (1947), p. 230, 232.
  61. ^ TM9-2800 manual (1947), p. 234–239.
  62. ^ TM9-808 3⁄4-ton 4x4 Dodge Truck Manual, 1944, page 13
  63. ^ a b TM9-2800 manual (1947), p. 227, 228, 229.
  64. ^ a b TM9-2800 manual (1947), p. 261.
  65. ^ Dodge truck 236.6 cuin, 92.5hp engine specifications
  66. ^ 1939 Dodge Half Three Quarter One Ton Trucks TC & TD Series Specs Sale Brochure (archived 7 April 2019)
  67. ^ Autopaper 1939 Dodge Trucks brochure specifications archived 7 April 2019)
  68. ^ a b c d Ordnance Department Administrative and Tactical Vehicles per QMC Contract.nr, 1940 through 1 January 1944 (Dodge T-207) (archived 6 March 2006)
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  71. ^ "Dodge WC9 WC18 WC27 Truck, 1/2 ton Ambulance". Olive-drab.com. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
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  76. ^ a b SNL G-657 Master Parts List (1943), pp. VI, XX–XXII.
  77. ^ Summary Report – Tank-Automotive Materiel (1945), pp. 55–56.
  78. ^ Summary Report – Tank-Automotive Materiel (1945), p. 56.
  79. ^ Dodge Weapons Carrier depiction
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  81. ^ a b c d Benedict, Chris (July 1979). "Dodge 3/4 Ton 4X4 And 1½ Ton 6X6 Production, 1942–1945". Army Motors magazine.
  82. ^ Dodge WC-64 KD Ambulance – Technical
  83. ^ "Dodge WC64KD Ambulance History". Guido Wilmes. Archived from the original on 9 December 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
  84. ^ 1942 Dodge Power Wagon WC-53 Carryall Bring a Trailer, 2010
  85. ^ SNL G-657 Master Parts List (1943), page 381.
  86. ^ Dodge: Cinq generations de tous terrains – Boniface and Jeudy (in French)
  87. ^ a b Summary Report – Tank-Automotive Materiel (1945), p. 63.
  88. ^ SNL G-657 Master Parts List (1943), p. XIII; 296.
  89. ^ a b David Doyle : Standard Catalog of U.S. Military Vehicles – 2nd Edition, pg. 60
  90. ^ Dodge WC-58 Truck, Radio, 3/4 ton, 4x4 with winch (G-502), Olive-Drab
  91. ^ Summary Report – Tank-Automotive Materiel (1945), p. 19.
  92. ^ U.S. Army Technical Manual TM9-1808B, 1943, page 4
  93. ^ "T230 "Fargo" 6x6 Armored Car". Warwheels.net. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
  94. ^ SNL G-657 Master Parts List (1943).
  95. ^ TM9-2800 manual (1943).
  96. ^ TM9-2800 manual (1947).
  97. ^ Dodge T-203B – Engines of the Red Army in WW2
  98. ^ A Visual History of Army Off-Roaders – The Drive
  99. ^ JWH1975 (14 June 2015). "Rearming Austria: WWII weapons". wwiiafterwwii.[self-published source?]
  100. ^ Kochnev, Evgenii (2010). Военные автомобили Союзников [Military cars of the Allies] (in Russian). Moscow: Yauza. Eksmo. p. 512. ISBN 978-5-699-41199-3.
  101. ^ "Swissmotor / Dodge". Swissmotor.com. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
  102. ^ Yuri Pasholok, 27 August 2017 "Israeli Sandwiches" Tank Archives
  103. ^ Rossagraph Dodge WC-51 monograph Review, Armorama]

General references[edit]

External links[edit]

image icon Dodge company promo film of their WW II trucks, mostly WC models (YouTube)