The Washington Post
|Democracy Dies in Darkness|
Front page on March 15, 2020
|Managing editor||Emilio Garcia-Ruiz|
|Staff writers||~800 (journalists)|
|Founded||December 6, 1877|
|Circulation||356,768 (Daily, 2015)|
838,014 (Sunday, 2013)
1,000,000 (Digital, 2018)
The Washington Post (informally, WaPo) is an American daily newspaper published in Washington, D.C. It is the most-widely circulated newspaper within the Washington metropolitan area, and has a large national audience. Daily broadsheet editions are printed for the District of Columbia, Maryland, and Virginia.
The newspaper has won 69 Pulitzer Prizes, the second-most of any publication, after The New York Times. Post journalists have also received 18 Nieman Fellowships and 368 White House News Photographers Association awards. The paper is well-known for its political reporting.
In the early 1970s, in the best-known episode in the newspaper's history, reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein led the American press's investigation into what became known as the Watergate scandal, which resulted in the resignation of President Richard Nixon. In years since, the Post's investigations have led to increased review of the Walter Reed Army Medical Center.
The Washington Post is regarded as one of the leading daily American newspapers along with The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, and The Wall Street Journal. The Post has distinguished itself through its political reporting on the workings of the White House, Congress, and other aspects of the U.S. government.
Unlike The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post does not print an edition for distribution away from the East Coast. In 2009, the newspaper ceased publication of its National Weekly Edition, which combined stories from the week's print editions, due to shrinking circulation. The majority of its newsprint readership is in the District of Columbia and its suburbs in Maryland and Northern Virginia.
The newspaper is one of a few U.S. newspapers with foreign bureaus, located in Beirut, Berlin, Beijing, Bogotá, Cairo, Hong Kong, Islamabad, Jerusalem, Kabul, London, Mexico City, Moscow, Nairobi, New Delhi, Paris, and Tokyo. In November 2009, it announced the closure of its U.S. regional bureaus—Chicago, Los Angeles and New York—as part of an increased focus on "political stories and local news coverage in Washington." The newspaper has local bureaus in Maryland (Annapolis, Montgomery County, Prince George's County, and Southern Maryland) and Virginia (Alexandria, Fairfax, Loudoun County, Richmond, and Prince William County).
As of May 2013[update], its average weekday circulation was 474,767, according to the Audit Bureau of Circulations, making it the seventh largest newspaper in the country by circulation, behind USA Today, The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, the Daily News, and the New York Post. Although its circulation (like almost all newspapers) has been slipping, it has one of the highest market penetration rates of any metropolitan news daily.
For many decades, the Post had its main office at 1150 15th Street NW. This real estate remained with Graham Holdings when the newspaper was sold to Jeff Bezos' Nash Holdings in 2013. Graham Holdings sold 1150 15th Street (along with 1515 L Street, 1523 L Street, and land beneath 1100 15th Street) for US$159 millionin November 2013. The Washington Post continued to lease space at 1150 L Street NW. In May 2014, The Washington Post leased the west tower of One Franklin Square, a high-rise building at 1301 K Street NW in Washington, D.C. The newspaper moved into its new offices on December 14, 2015.
The Post has its own exclusive zip code, 20071.
Founding and early period
In April 1878, about four months into publication, The Washington Post purchased The Washington Union, a competing newspaper which was founded by John Lynch in late 1877. The Union had only been in operation about six months at the time of the acquisition. The combined newspaper was published from the Globe Building as The Washington Post and Union beginning on April 15, 1878, with a circulation of 13,000. The Post and Union name was used about two weeks until April 29, 1878, returning to the original masthead the following day.
In 1889, Hutchins sold the newspaper to Frank Hatton, a former Postmaster General, and Beriah Wilkins, a former Democratic congressman from Ohio. To promote the newspaper, the new owners requested the leader of the United States Marine Band, John Philip Sousa, to compose a march for the newspaper's essay contest awards ceremony. Sousa composed "The Washington Post". It became the standard music to accompany the two-step, a late 19th-century dance craze, and remains one of Sousa's best-known works.
In 1893, the newspaper moved to a building at 14th and E streets NW, where it would remain until 1950. This building combined all functions of the newspaper into one headquarters – newsroom, advertising, typesetting, and printing – that ran 24 hours per day.
In 1898, during the Spanish–American War, the Post printed Clifford K. Berryman's classic illustration Remember the Maine, which became the battle-cry for American sailors during the War. In 1902, Berryman published another famous cartoon in the Post – Drawing the Line in Mississippi. This cartoon depicts President Theodore Roosevelt showing compassion for a small bear cub and inspired New York store owner Morris Michtom to create the teddy bear.
Wilkins acquired Hatton's share of the newspaper in 1894 at Hatton's death. After Wilkins' death in 1903, his sons John and Robert ran the Post for two years before selling it in 1905 to John Roll McLean, owner of the Cincinnati Enquirer. During the Wilson presidency, the Post was credited with the "most famous newspaper typo" in D.C. history according to Reason magazine; the Post intended to report that President Wilson had been "entertaining" his future-wife Mrs. Galt, but instead wrote that he had been "entering" Mrs. Galt.
When John McLean died in 1916, he put the newspaper in trust, having little faith that his playboy son Edward "Ned" McLean could manage his inheritance. Ned went to court and broke the trust, but, under his management, the newspaper slumped toward ruin. He bled the paper for his lavish lifestyle, and used it to promote political agendas.
During the Red Summer of 1919 the Post supported the white mobs and even ran a front-page story which advertised the location at which white servicemen were planning to meet to carry out attacks on black Washingtonians.
In 1929, financier Eugene Meyer (who had run the War Finance Corp. since World War I) secretly made an offer of $5 million for the Post, but he was rebuffed by Ned McLean. On June 1, 1933, Meyer bought the paper at a bankruptcy auction for $825,000 three weeks after stepping down as Chairman of the Federal Reserve. He had bid anonymously, and was prepared to go up to $2 million, far higher than the other bidders. These included William Randolph Hearst, who had long hoped to shut down the ailing Post to benefit his own Washington newspaper presence.
The Post's health and reputation were restored under Meyer's ownership. In 1946, he was succeeded as publisher by his son-in-law, Philip Graham. Meyer eventually gained the last laugh over Hearst, who had owned the old Washington Times and the Herald before their 1939 merger that formed the Times-Herald. This was in turn bought by and merged into the Post in 1954. The combined paper was officially named The Washington Post and Times-Herald until 1973, although the Times-Herald portion of the nameplate became less and less prominent over time. The merger left the Post with two remaining local competitors, the Washington Star (Evening Star) and The Washington Daily News which merged in 1972, forming the Washington Star-News.
After Phil Graham's death in 1963, control of The Washington Post Company passed to his wife Katharine Graham (1917–2001), who was also Eugene Meyer's daughter. Few women had run prominent national newspapers in the United States. Katharine Graham described her own anxiety and lack of confidence as she stepped into a leadership role in her autobiography. She served as publisher from 1969 to 1979.
Graham took The Washington Post Company public on June 15, 1971, in the midst of the Pentagon Papers controversy. A total of 1,294,000 shares were offered to the public at $26 per share. By the end of Graham's tenure as CEO in 1991, the stock was worth $888 per share, not counting the effect of an intermediate 4:1 stock split.
During this time, Graham also oversaw the Post company's diversification purchase of the for-profit education and training company Kaplan, Inc. for $40 million in 1984. Twenty years later, Kaplan had surpassed the Post newspaper as the company's leading contributor to income, and by 2010 Kaplan accounted for more than 60% of the entire company revenue stream.
Executive editor Ben Bradlee put the newspaper's reputation and resources behind reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, who, in a long series of articles, chipped away at the story behind the 1972 burglary of Democratic National Committee offices in the Watergate complex in Washington. The Post's dogged coverage of the story, the outcome of which ultimately played a major role in the resignation of President Richard Nixon, won the newspaper a Pulitzer Prize in 1973.
In 1972, the "Book World" section was introduced with Pulitzer Prize-winning critic William McPherson as its first editor. It featured Pulitzer Prize-winning critics such as Jonathan Yardley and Michael Dirda, the latter of whom established his career as a critic at the Post. In 2009, after 37 years, with great reader outcries and protest, The Washington Post Book World as a standalone insert was discontinued, the last issue being Sunday, February 15, 2009, along with a general reorganization of the paper, such as placing the Sunday editorials on the back page of the main front section rather than the "Outlook" section and distributing some other locally oriented "op-ed" letters and commentaries in other sections. However, book reviews are still published in the Outlook section on Sundays and in the Style section the rest of the week, as well as online.
In 1995, the domain name washingtonpost.com was purchased. That same year, a failed effort to create an online news repository called Digital Ink launched. The following year it was shut down and the first website was launched in June 1996.
Jeff Bezos era (2013–present)
In 2013, Jeff Bezos purchased the paper for US$250 million. The newspaper is now owned by Nash Holdings LLC, a company controlled by Bezos. The sale also included other local publications, websites, and real estate. After the sale, the Washington Post Co. became Graham Holdings Company
Bezos said he has a vision that recreates "the 'daily ritual' of reading the Post as a bundle, not merely a series of individual stories..." He has been described as a "hands-off owner," holding teleconference calls with executive editor Martin Baron every two weeks. Bezos appointed Fred Ryan (founder and CEO of Politico) to serve as publisher and chief executive officer. This signaled Bezos’ intent to shift the Post to a more digital focus with a national and global readership.
In 2014, the Post announced it was moving from 1150 15th Street to a leased space three blocks away at One Franklin Square on K Street. In recent years, the Post launched an online personal finance section, as well as a blog and a podcast with a retro theme. The Washington Post won the 2020 Webby Award for News & Politics in the category Social. The Washington Post won the 2020 Webby People's Voice Award for News & Politics in the category Web.
When financier Eugene Meyer bought the bankrupt Post in 1933, he assured the public he wouldn't be beholden to any party. But as a leading Republican (it was his old friend Herbert Hoover who had made him Federal Reserve Chairman in 1930), his opposition to FDR's New Deal colored the paper's editorial stance as well as its news coverage. This included editorializing "news" stories written by Meyer under a pseudonym. His wife Agnes Ernst Meyer was a journalist from the other end of the spectrum politically. The Post ran many of her pieces including tributes to her personal friends John Dewey and Saul Alinsky.
Eugene Meyer became head of the World Bank in 1946, and he named his son-in-law Phil Graham to succeed him as Post publisher. The post-war years saw the developing friendship of Phil and Kay Graham with the Kennedys, the Bradlees and the rest of the "Georgetown Set" (many Harvard alumni) that would color the Post's political orientation. Kay Graham's most memorable Georgetown soirée guest list included British diplomat/communist spy Donald Maclean.
The Post is credited with coining the term "McCarthyism" in a 1950 editorial cartoon by Herbert Block. Depicting buckets of tar, it made fun of Sen. Joseph McCarthy's "tarring" tactics, i.e., smear campaigns and character assassination against those targeted by his accusations. Sen. McCarthy was attempting to do for the Senate what the House Un-American Activities Committee had been doing for years—investigating Soviet espionage in America. The HUAC made Richard Nixon nationally known for his role in the Hiss/Chambers case that exposed communist spying in the State Department. The committee had evolved from the McCormack-Dickstein Committee of the 1930s.
Phil Graham's friendship with JFK remained strong until their untimely deaths in 1963. FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover reportedly told the new President Lyndon B. Johnson, "I don't have much influence with the Post because I frankly don't read it. I view it like the Daily Worker."
Ben Bradlee became the editor-in-chief in 1968, and Kay Graham officially became the publisher in 1969, paving the way for the aggressive reporting of the Pentagon Papers and Watergate scandals. The Post strengthened public opposition to the Vietnam War in 1971 when it published the Pentagon Papers. In the mid-1970s, some conservatives referred to the Post as "Pravda on the Potomac" because of its perceived left-wing bias in both reporting and editorials. Since then, the appellation has been used by both liberal and conservative critics of the newspaper.
In the PBS documentary Buying the War, journalist Bill Moyers said in the year prior to the Iraq War there were 27 editorials supporting the Bush administration's ambitions to invade the country. National security correspondent Walter Pincus reported that he had been ordered to cease his reports that were critical of the administration. According to author and journalist Greg Mitchell: "By the Post's own admission, in the months before the war, it ran more than 140 stories on its front page promoting the war, while contrary information got lost".
On March 26, 2007, Chris Matthews said on his television program, "Well, The Washington Post is not the liberal newspaper it was, Congressman, let me tell you. I have been reading it for years and it is a neocon newspaper". It has regularly published a mixture of op-ed columnists, with some of them left-leaning (including E. J. Dionne, Dana Milbank, Greg Sargent, and Eugene Robinson), and some of them right-leaning (including George Will, Marc Thiessen, Michael Gerson and Charles Krauthammer).
In a study published on April 18, 2007, by Yale professors Alan Gerber, Dean Karlan, and Daniel Bergan, citizens were given a subscription to either the conservative-leaning Washington Times or the liberal-leaning Washington Post to see the effect that media has on voting patterns. Gerber had estimated based on his work that the Post slanted as much to the left as the Times did to the right. Gerber found those who were given a free subscription of the Post were 7.9–11.4% more likely to vote for the Democratic candidate for governor than those assigned to the control group, depending on the adjustment for the date on which individual participants were surveyed and the survey interviewer; however, people who received the Times were also more likely than controls to vote for the Democrat, with an effect approximately 60% as large as that estimated for the Post. The study authors said that sampling error might have played a role in the effect of the conservative-leaning Times, as might the fact that the Democratic candidate took more conservative-leaning positions than is typical for his party, and "the month prior to the post-election survey was a difficult period for President Bush, one in which his overall approval rating fell by approximately 4 percentage points nationwide. It appears that heightened exposure to both papers’ news coverage, despite opposing ideological slants, moved public opinion away from Republicans."
In November 2007, the newspaper was criticized by independent journalist Robert Parry for reporting on anti-Obama chain e-mails without sufficiently emphasizing to its readers the false nature of the anonymous claims. In 2009, Parry criticized the newspaper for its allegedly unfair reporting on liberal politicians, including Vice President Al Gore and President Barack Obama.
Responding to criticism of the newspaper's coverage during the run-up to the 2008 presidential election, former Post ombudsman Deborah Howell wrote: "The opinion pages have strong conservative voices; the editorial board includes centrists and conservatives; and there were editorials critical of Obama. Yet opinion was still weighted toward Obama." According to a 2009 Oxford University Press book by Richard Davis on the impact of blogs on American politics, liberal bloggers link to The Washington Post and The New York Times more often than other major newspapers; however, conservative bloggers also link predominantly to liberal newspapers.
In mid-September 2016, Matthew Ingram of Forbes joined Glenn Greenwald of The Intercept, and Trevor Trimm of The Guardian in criticizing The Washington Post for "demanding that [former National Security Agency contractor Edward] Snowden ... stand trial on espionage charges".
Since 2011, the Post has been running a column called "The Fact Checker" that the Post describes as a "truth squad." The Fact Checker received a $250,000 grant from Google News Initiative/YouTube to expand production of video fact checks.
Katharine Graham wrote in her autobiography Personal History that the newspaper long had a policy of not making endorsements for political candidates. However, since at least 2000, the newspaper has occasionally endorsed Republican politicians, such as Maryland Governor Robert Ehrlich. In 2006, it repeated its historic endorsements of every Republican incumbent for Congress in Northern Virginia. There have also been times when the Post has specifically chosen not to endorse any candidate, such as in the 1988 presidential election when it refused to endorse then-Governor Michael Dukakis or then-Vice President George H. W. Bush. On October 17, 2008, the Post endorsed Barack Obama for President of the United States. On October 25, 2012, the newspaper endorsed the Obama's re-election. The Post has endorsed Democrats for president during at least nine different presidential elections. The paper has never endorsed a Republican for president. On October 21, 2014, the newspaper endorsed 44 Democratic candidates versus 3 Republican candidates for the 2014 elections in the District of Columbia, Maryland and Virginia. On October 13, 2016, it endorsed Hillary Clinton for that year's presidential election. On September 28, 2020, it endorsed Joe Biden for 2020 United States presidential election.
Criticism and controversies
"Jimmy's World" fabrication
In September 1980, a Sunday feature story appeared on the front page of the Post titled "Jimmy's World" in which reporter Janet Cooke wrote a profile of the life of an eight-year-old heroin addict. Although some within the Post doubted the story's veracity, the paper's editors defended it, and assistant managing editor Bob Woodward submitted the story to the Pulitzer Prize Board at Columbia University for consideration. Cooke was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Feature Writing on April 13, 1981. The story was then found to be a complete fabrication, and the Pulitzer was returned.
Private "salon" solicitation
In July 2009, in the midst of an intense debate over health care reform, The Politico reported that a health-care lobbyist had received an "astonishing" offer of access to the Post's "health-care reporting and editorial staff." Post publisher Katharine Weymouth had planned a series of exclusive dinner parties or "salons" at her private residence, to which she had invited prominent lobbyists, trade group members, politicians, and business people. Participants were to be charged $25,000 to sponsor a single salon, and $250,000 for 11 sessions, with the events being closed to the public and to the non-Post press. Politico's revelation gained a somewhat mixed response in Washington, as it gave the impression that the parties' sole purpose was to allow insiders to purchase face time with Post staff.
Almost immediately following the disclosure, Weymouth canceled the salons, saying, "This should never have happened." White House counsel Gregory B. Craig reminded officials that under federal ethics rules, they need advance approval for such events. Post Executive Editor Marcus Brauchli, who was named on the flier as one of the salon's "Hosts and Discussion Leaders," said he was "appalled" by the plan, adding, "It suggests that access to Washington Post journalists was available for purchase."
China Daily advertising supplements
Dating back to 2011, The Washington Post began to include "China Watch" advertising supplements provided by China Daily, an English language newspaper owned by the Publicity Department of the Communist Party of China, on the print and online editions. Although the header to the online "China Watch" section included the text "A Paid Supplement to The Washington Post," James Fallows of The Atlantic suggested that the notice was not clear enough for most readers to see. Distributed to the Post and multiple newspapers around the world, the "China Watch" advertising supplements range from four to eight pages and appear at least monthly. According to a 2018 report by The Guardian, "China Watch" uses "a didactic, old-school approach to propaganda."
In 2020, a report by Freedom House, "Beijing's Global Megaphone," was also critical of the Post and other newspapers for distributing "China Watch". In the same year, thirty-five Republican members of the U.S. Congress wrote a letter to the U.S. Department of Justice in February 2020 calling for an investigation of potential FARA violations by China Daily. The letter named an article that appeared in the Post, "Education Flaws Linked to Hong Kong Unrest," as an example of "articles [that] serve as cover for China’s atrocities, including...its support for the crackdown in Hong Kong." According to The Guardian, the Post had already stopped running "China Watch" in 2019.
Headline and article controversies
In June 2020, the Post was criticized for publishing a 3,000 word article about a person wearing blackface in a private party two years earlier despite the person not being of public notability, leading to her being fired.
In June 2018, over 400 employees of The Washington Post signed an open letter to the owner Jeff Bezos demanding "fair wages; fair benefits for retirement, family leave and health care; and a fair amount of job security." The open letter was accompanied by video testimonials from employees, who alleged "shocking pay practices" despite record growth in subscriptions at the newspaper, with salaries only rising an average of $10 per week, less than half the rate of inflation. The petition followed on a year of unsuccessful negotiations between The Washington Post Guild and upper management over pay and benefit increases.
Lawsuit by Covington Catholic High School student
In 2019, Covington Catholic High School student Nick Sandmann filed a defamation lawsuit against the Post, alleging that it libeled him in seven articles regarding the January 2019 Lincoln Memorial confrontation between Covington students and the Indigenous Peoples March. In October 2019, a federal judge dismissed the case, ruling that 30 of the 33 statements in the Post that Sandmann alleged were libelous were not, but allowed Sandmann to file an amended complaint. After Sandmann's lawyers amended the complaint, the suit was reopened on October 28, 2019. The judge stood by his earlier decision that 30 of the Post's 33 statements targeted by the complaint were not libelous, but agreed that a further review was required for three statements that "state that (Sandmann) 'blocked' Nathan Phillips and 'would not allow him to retreat'". On July 24, 2020, The Washington Post settled the lawsuit with Nick Sandmann. The amount of the settlement has not been made public.
Controversial op-eds and columns
Several Washington Post op-eds and columns have prompted criticism, including a number of comments on race by columnist Richard Cohen over the years, and a controversial 2014 column on campus sexual assault by George Will. The Post''s decision to run an op-ed by Mohammed Ali al-Houthi, a leader in Yemen's Houthi movement, was criticized by some activists on the basis that it provided a platform to an "anti-Western and antisemitic group supported by Iran."
Criticism by elected officials
President Donald Trump has repeatedly railed against the Washington Post on his Twitter account, having "tweeted or retweeted criticism of the paper, tying it to Amazon more than 20 times since his campaign for president" by August 2018. In addition to often attacking the paper itself, Trump has used Twitter to blast various Post journalists and columnists.
During the 2020 Democratic Party presidential primaries, Senator Bernie Sanders repeatedly criticized the Washington Post, saying that its coverage of his campaign was slanted against him and attributing this to Jeff Bezos' purchase of the newspaper. Sanders' criticism was echoed by the leftist magazine Jacobin and the progressive journalist watchdog Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting. Washington Post executive editor Marty Baron responded by saying that Sanders' criticism was "baseless and conspiratorial".
The Washington Post launched its website (WashingtonPost.com) in June 1996.
Executive officers and editors (past and present)
- Stilson Hutchins (1877–1889)
- Frank Hatton and Beriah Wilkins (1889–1905)
- John R. McLean (1905–1916)
- Edward (Ned) McLean (1916–1933)
- Eugene Meyer (1933–1948)
- Graham Family (1948–2013)
- Nash Holdings (Jeff Bezos) (2013–present)
- Stilson Hutchins (1877–1889)
- Beriah Wilkins (1889–1905)
- John R. McLean (1905–1916)
- Edward (Ned) McLean (1916–1933)
- Eugene Meyer (1933–1946)
- Philip L. Graham (1946–1961)
- John W. Sweeterman (1961–1968)
- Katharine Graham (1969–1979)
- Donald E. Graham (1979–2000)
- Boisfeuillet Jones Jr. (2000–2008)
- Katharine Weymouth (2008–2014)
- Frederick J. Ryan Jr. (2014–present)
- James Russell Wiggins (1955–1968)
- Ben Bradlee (1968–1991)
- Leonard Downie Jr. (1991–2008)
- Marcus Brauchli (2008–2012)
- Martin Baron (2012–present)
- Dan Balz, correspondent
- Robert Costa, reporter
- Karoun Demirjian, reporter
- David A. Fahrenthold, reporter
- Shane Harris, reporter
- David Ignatius, opinion writer
- Carol D. Leonnig
- Ruth Marcus, deputy editorial page editor
- David Nakamura, reporter
- Ashley Parker
- Kathleen Parker, opinion writer
- Catherine Rampell, opinion writer
- Eugene Robinson, opinion writer
- Jennifer Rubin, opinion writer
- Philip Rucker
- Dayna Smith, photojournalist
- David Weigel
- George F. Will, opinion writer
- All the President's Men, a 1974 book by Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward about the Watergate scandal
- All the President's Men, a 1976 film based on Bernstein's and Woodward's book
- List of prizes won by The Washington Post
- The Post, a 2017 film based on the publication of the Pentagon Papers
- The Washington Star (1852–1981)
- The Washington Times (1982–present)
- Somaiya, Ravi (September 2, 2014). "Publisher of The Washington Post Will Resign". The New York Times. Retrieved June 12, 2015.
- Clabaugh, Jeff (October 1, 2013). "Jeff Bezos Completes Washington Post Acquisition". Washington Business Journal. American City Business Journals. Retrieved October 1, 2013.
- Washington Post Staff (January 1, 2016). "Leadership of The Washington Post". Washington Post. Retrieved February 12, 2018.
- Paul Farhi (July 28, 2020). "Krissah Thompson named The Washington Post's first managing editor for diversity and inclusion". Washington Post. Retrieved July 30, 2020.
- Ember, Sydney (April 2, 2018). "To Trump, It's the 'Amazon Washington Post.' To Its Editor, That's Baloney". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331.
- Achenbach, Joel (December 10, 2015). "Hello, new Washington Post, home to tiny offices but big new ambitions". Retrieved December 14, 2015.
- Michaela Riva Gaaserud (February 11, 2014). Moon Virginia & Maryland: Including Washington DC. Avalon Publishing. pp. 556–. ISBN 978-1-61238-517-4.
- "District of Columbia's Top 10 Newspapers by Circulation". Agility PR Solutions. October 16, 2015. Retrieved March 24, 2020.
- "Washington Post".
- Watson, Amy. "Media companies with the most Pulitzer awards in the U.S. 2018". Statista. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
- "Walter Reed and Beyond". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 25, 2010.
- Irwin, Neil; Mui, Ylan Q. (August 5, 2013). "Washington Post Sale: Details of Bezos Deal". The Washington Post. Washington, D.C. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved October 1, 2013.
Notably, Bezos — through a new holding company called Nash Holdings LLC— will be buying only the Post newspaper and closely held related ventures.
- "The Real Reason Jeff Bezos Bought The Washington Post". Fast Company. August 6, 2013. Retrieved March 28, 2018.
- "Washington Post – Daily Newspaper in Washington DC, USA with Local News and Events". Mondo Times. Retrieved March 31, 2012.
- "Post's National Weekly Edition to Close". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 2, 2011.
- "The Washington Post's Circulation and Reach". Washington Post Media. Archived from the original on November 20, 2008. Retrieved March 2, 2009.
- "Washington Post Foreign Bureaus". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 20, 2015.
- "Washington Post to close three regional bureaux". BBC News. November 25, 2009. Retrieved November 25, 2009.
- "Washington Post Bureaus". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on February 3, 2009. Retrieved November 25, 2009.
- O'Connell, Jonathan (November 27, 2013). "Washington Post headquarters to sell to Carr Properties for $159 million". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 14, 2015.
- O'Connell, Jonathan (May 23, 2014). "Washington Post signs lease for new headquarters". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 14, 2015.
- Shan Wang (February 2, 2018). "Here's how Arc's cautious quest to become the go-to publishing system for news organizations is going". Nieman Lab, Harvard University.
- "Washington Post website, General Information, History, Early History (1877–1933)".
- "'The Post' as an Absorbent" (April 16, 1878). The Washington Post and Union. April 16, 1878. p. 2.
- "Masthead". The Washington Post and Union. April 15, 1878. p. 1.
- "Masthead". The Washington Post. April 30, 1878. p. 1.
- "1889". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on March 12, 2006.
- "John Philip Sousa Collection". University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Archived from the original on May 31, 2009.
- Fisher, Marc (December 10, 2015). "Goodbye, old Washington Post, home of the newspaper the Grahams built". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 24, 2017.
- "Clifford K. Berryman Political Cartoon Collection". www.archives.gov. Retrieved August 12, 2015.
- Rabbe, Will (June 8, 2013). "The Washington Post's Famous 1915 Typo". MSNBC.
- Freund, Charles Paul (July 2001). "D.C. Jewels: The closing of a historic shop is a triumph of meaning over means". Reason. Retrieved November 5, 2009.
...Mrs. Edith Galt, who became the second wife of Woodrow Wilson ... She also figures in the most famous newspaper typo in D.C. history. The Washington Post ... Intending to report that Wilson had been entertaining Mrs. Galt in a loge at the National, early editions instead printed that he was seen entering her there.
- Weingarten, Gene (July 11, 2006). "Chatological Humor* (Updated 7.14.06)". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 5, 2009.
The Post said that the President spent the afternoon "entertaining" Mrs. Galt, but they dropped the "tain" in one edition. Wilson LOVED it.
- Carol Felsenthal (1993). Power, Privilege and the Post: The Katharine Graham Story. Seven Stories Press. p. 53. ISBN 978-1-60980-290-5. Retrieved September 9, 2018.
- Higgins, Abigail. "Red Summer of 1919: How Black WWI Vets Fought Back Against Racist Mobs". www.history.com. History. Retrieved December 23, 2019.
- Eustace Clarence Mullins (2013). Study of The Federal Reserve. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-62793-114-4.
- Carol Felsenthal (1993). Power, Privilege and the Post: The Katharine Graham Story. Seven Stories Press. p. 51. ISBN 978-1-60980-290-5. Retrieved September 9, 2018.
- Chalmers McGeagh Roberts (1977). "Headed for Disaster – Ned McLean I". The Washington Post: The First 100 Years. Houghton Mifflin. p. 190. ISBN 978-0-395-25854-5. Retrieved September 9, 2018.
- Carol Felsenthal (1993). Power, Privilege and the Post: The Katharine Graham Story. Seven Stories Press. p. 51. ISBN 978-1-60980-290-5. Retrieved September 9, 2018.
- Chalmers McGeagh Roberts (1977). The Washington Post: The First 100 Years. Houghton Mifflin. p. 194. ISBN 978-0-395-25854-5. Retrieved September 10, 2018.
- Chalmers McGeagh Roberts (1977). The Washington Post: The First 100 Years. Houghton Mifflin. p. 190. ISBN 978-0-395-25854-5. Retrieved September 10, 2018.
- Roberts, Chalmers M. (June 1, 1983). "Eugene Meyer Bought Post 50 Years Ago". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 20, 2017.
- "Washington Times-Herald Sold by Tribune Company (March 18, 1954)". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 23, 2017.[dead link]
- Times, B. Drummond Ayres Jr, Special To The New York (July 24, 1981). "Washington Star is to Shut Down After 128 Years". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- "Here's the 1960s Headquarters of the Washington Daily News". Curbed DC. July 11, 2014. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- "Donald E. Graham Is Named Publisher of Washington Post". Washington Post. January 10, 1979. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved March 20, 2018.
- "Washington Post Offering Due Today at $26 a Share" (PDF). The New York Times. June 15, 1971. Retrieved February 13, 2018.
- "Our Company". Graham Holdings. Retrieved February 13, 2018.[permanent dead link]
- Telford, Dana; Gostick, Adrian Robert (2005). Integrity Works: Strategies for Becoming a Trusted, Respected and Admired Leader (First ed.). Gibbs Smith. p. 81. ISBN 1-58685-054-7. Retrieved February 13, 2018.
- The trials of Kaplan Higher Ed and the education of The Washington Post Co., Washington Post, Steven Mufson and Jia Lynn Yang, April 9, 2011.
- Nice Guy, Finishing Last: How Don Graham Fumbled the Washington Post Co., Forbes, Jeff Bercovici, February 8, 2012.
- "Pulitzers Go to Washington Post, Frankel, 'Championship Season'". The New York Times. May 8, 1973.
- Arana-Ward (then-deputy editor of "Book World"), Marie (June 1, 1997). "Views From Publisher's Row". The Washington Post.
- John Gaines. "Where Have All the Magazines Gone?". Library Point. Archived from the original on October 11, 2016. Retrieved March 14, 2016.
- Letter from the editor, The Washington Post, Sunday, February 15, 2009; Page BW02
- Franklin, Ben A. (February 29, 1976). "'Chastened' Unions Lick Their Wounds as Last Holdouts in 20‐Week Washington Post Strike Return to Work". The New York Times. Retrieved November 26, 2018.
- ghostsofdc (December 30, 2019). "When Did the Washington Post Launch a Website? | Ghosts of DC". Retrieved December 31, 2019.
- Fahri, Paul (October 1, 2013). "The Washington Post Closes Sale to Amazon Founder Jeff Bezos". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286.
- Farhi, Paul (August 5, 2013). "Washington Post To Be Sold to Jeff Bezos, the Founder of Amazon". The Washington Post. Washington, D.C.: The Washington Post Company. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved August 5, 2013.
- Shay, Kevin James (October 1, 2013). "Bezos completes purchase of Gazettes, Post". The Maryland Gazette. Archived from the original on March 13, 2014. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- "Form 8-K. THE WASHINGTON POST COMPANY. Commission File Number 1-6714. Exhibit 2.1: Letter Agreement". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. August 5, 2013. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- Harwell, Drew (June 12, 2015). "Gazette Papers in Montgomery, Prince George's to Close". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 13, 2015.
- Debbi Wilgoren (November 18, 2013). "Washington Post Co. renamed Graham Holdings Company to mark sale of newspaper". Washington Post. Retrieved January 3, 2014.
- "Jeff Bezos's Ownership of the Washington Post, Explained for Donald Trump". Washingtonian. December 7, 2015. Retrieved November 4, 2020.
- Vega, Nicolas (August 26, 2020). "Jeff Bezos is world's first-ever $200 billion man". New York Post. Retrieved November 4, 2020.
- Farhi, Paul; Timberg, Craig (September 28, 2013). "Jeff Bezos to His Future Washington Post Journalists: Put the Readers First". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved September 4, 2013.
- Stewart, James B. (May 19, 2017). "Washington Post, Breaking News, Is Also Breaking New Ground". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 20, 2017.
- Bond, Shannon (September 2, 2014). "Jeff Bezos picks Fred Ryan of Politico to run Washington Post". FT. Financial Times. Retrieved September 17, 2016.
- O'Connell, Jonathan (September 4, 2015). "Inside the wild ride that landed The Washington Post on K Street". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 5, 2015.
- Barr, Jeremy. "Washington Post launches personal finance section". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 25, 2014.
- "The Washington Post launches Retropolis: A History Blog". Washington Post.
- "The Washington Post to launch Retropod podcast". Washington Post.
- Kastrenakes, Jacob (May 20, 2020). "Here are all the winners of the 2020 Webby Awards". The Verge. Retrieved May 22, 2020.
- Chalmers McGeagh Roberts (1977). The Washington Post: The First 100 Years. Houghton Mifflin. p. 198. ISBN 978-0-395-25854-5.
- Tom Kelly (1983). The Imperial Post: The Meyers, the Grahams, and the Paper that Rules Washington. Morrow. pp. 63–64. ISBN 978-0-688-01919-8.
- Ernest Lamb (April 8, 1934). "New Deal a Mistake, Says Glass, Holding U.S. Will Regret It: Senator, in Interview, Tells 'Unvarnished Truth'". Eugene Meyer. The Washington Post. pp. 1, 4.
- Ernest Lamb (October 8, 1936). "Council Fought Security Act, Records Show: Statements by Wagner and Winant Are Refuted by Hearing Transcript". Eugene Meyer. The Washington Post. pp. 1, 12.
- Agnes Ernst Meyer (December 10, 1939). "In Defense of Dr. Dewey". The Washington Post. p. B8.
- Carol Felsenthal (1993). Power, Privilege and the Post: The Katharine Graham Story. Seven Stories Press. pp. 19, 127. ISBN 978-1-60980-290-5.
- Agnes Ernst Meyer (1945). Orderly Revolution. The Washington Post.
- Sanford D. Horwitt (1989). Let Them Call Me Rebel: Saul Alinsky, His Life and Legacy. Knopf. p. 195. ISBN 978-0-394-57243-7.
- Gregg Herken (October 22, 2014). "The Georgetown Set". Politico. Retrieved September 20, 2018.
- Roland Philipps (2018). A Spy Named Orphan: The Enigma of Donald Maclean. W. W. Norton. p. 134. ISBN 978-0-393-60858-8.
- Katharine Graham (1997). Personal History. A.A. Knopf. p. 156. ISBN 978-0-394-58585-7.
- Chalmers McGeagh Roberts (1977). The Washington Post: The First 100 Years. Houghton Mifflin. p. 280. ISBN 978-0-395-25854-5.
- Peter Duffy (October 6, 2014). "The Congressman Who Spied for Russia: The Strange Case of Samuel Dickstein". Politico. Retrieved September 20, 2018.
- Chalmers McGeagh Roberts (1977). The Washington Post: The First 100 Years. Houghton Mifflin. p. 363. ISBN 978-0-395-25854-5. Retrieved September 9, 2018.
- Michael R. Beschloss (1997). Taking Charge: The Johnson White House Tapes, 1963–1964. Simon & Schuster. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-684-80407-1.
- Taylor Branch (1997). Pillar of Fire: America in the King Years 1963–65. Simon & Schuster. p. 180. ISBN 978-1-4165-5870-5.
- "Pentagon Papers". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- Bruce Bartlett (March 13, 2007), "Partisan Press Parity". The Washington Times.
- James Kirchick (February 17, 2009), "Pravda on the Potomac". The New Republic.
- William Greider (March 6, 2003), "Washington Post Warriors", The Nation
- "Transcript: "Buying the War"". PBS. April 25, 2007. Retrieved December 13, 2009.
- "Eleven Years On: How 'The Washington Post' Helped Give Us the Iraq War". The Nation. March 12, 2014. Archived from the original on March 4, 2017.
- "Hardball with Chris Matthews for March 23". NBC News. March 26, 2007. Retrieved April 4, 2009.
- "Republicans' media bias claims boosted by the scarcity of right-leaning journalists". The Washington Times. Retrieved February 13, 2016.
- Gerber A, Karlan DS, Bergan D (April 18, 2007). "Does The Media Matter? A Field Experiment Measuring the Effect of Newspapers on Voting Behavior and Political Opinions" (PDF). Yale University. Yale University.
- Robert Parry (November 29, 2007). "WPost Buys into Anti-Obama Bigotry". Consortium News. Retrieved April 4, 2009.
- Robert Parry (March 19, 2009), "Framing Obama – by the WPost", Consortium News
- Howell, Deborah (November 16, 2008). "Remedying the Bias Perception". The Washington Post.
- Richard Davis (2009). Typing Politics: The Role of Blogs in American Politics. Oxford UP. p. 79. ISBN 9780199706136.
- Glenn Greenwald (September 18, 2016). "WashPost Makes History: First Paper to Call for Prosecution of Its Own Source (After Accepting Pulitzer)". The Intercept.
- Ingram, Matthew. "Here's Why The Washington Post Is Wrong About Edward Snowden".
- Disis, Jill. "Washington Post criticized for opposing Snowden pardon".
- Trimm, Trevor. "The Washington Post is wrong: Edward Snowden should be pardoned".
- Farhi, Paul (February 23, 2017). "The Washington Post's new slogan turns out to be an old saying". The Washington Post.
- Glenn Kessler (January 1, 2017), "About the Fact Checker", The Washington Post
- "Wrong Choice for Governor". The Washington Post. October 26, 2006. Retrieved April 4, 2009.
- "For Congress in Virginia". The Washington Post. October 30, 2006. Retrieved April 4, 2009.
- "Post Makes No Endorsement". The New York Times. Associated Press. November 2, 1988.
- "Barack Obama for President". The Washington Post. October 17, 2008. Retrieved April 4, 2009.
- "Washington Post Endorsement: Four More Years for President Obama". The Washington Post. October 25, 2012. Retrieved October 28, 2012.
- "Patrick Pexton: The Post's endorsements historically tend Democratic". Washington Post. Retrieved July 5, 2018.
- "The Washington Post's endorsements for the 2014 elections". The Washington Post.
- "Hillary Clinton for President". The Washington Post. October 13, 2016. Retrieved October 13, 2016.
- "Joe Biden for president". The Washington Post. September 28, 2020. Retrieved October 19, 2020.
- Janet Cooke (September 28, 1980). "Jimmy's World". The Washington Post. p. A1. Retrieved July 9, 2016.
- Mike Sager (Spring 2016), "The fabulist who changed journalism", Columbia Journalism Review
- Michael Calderone and Mike Allen (July 2, 2009), "WaPo cancels lobbyist event", Politico
- Richard Pérez-Peña (July 3, 2009), "Pay-for-Chat Plan Falls Flat at Washington Post", The New York Times, p. A1
- Gautham Nagesh (July 2, 2009) "WaPo Salons Sell Access to Lobbyists", The Atlantic
- Howard Kurtz (July 3, 2009), "Washington Post Publisher Cancels Planned Policy Dinners After Outcry", The Washington Post
- Fallows, James (February 3, 2011). "Official Chinese Propaganda: Now Online from the WaPo!". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on February 7, 2011.
- Lim, Louisa; Bergin, Julia (December 7, 2018). "Inside China's audacious global propaganda campaign". The Guardian. Retrieved March 21, 2020.
- Cook, Sarah. "Beijing's Global Megaphone". Freedom House. Retrieved March 21, 2020.
- Fifield, Anna (January 15, 2020). "China is waging a global propaganda war to silence critics abroad, report warns". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 21, 2020.
- Magnier, Mark (February 8, 2020). "US lawmakers push Justice Department to investigate China Daily, label the newspaper a foreign agent". South China Morning Post. Retrieved March 21, 2020.
- "Rubio Joins Cotton, Banks, Colleagues in Urging DOJ to Investigate China Daily". Office of U.S. Senator Marco Rubio. February 7, 2020. Retrieved March 21, 2020.
- Waterson, Jim; Jones, Dean Sterling (April 14, 2020). "Daily Telegraph stops publishing section paid for by China". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077.
- "The Washington Post's Halloween Costume Hit Job Is a New Low for Cancel Culture". Reason.com. June 18, 2020. Retrieved June 24, 2020.
- Barro, Josh; Nuzzi, Olivia (June 24, 2020). "Why Did the Washington Post Get This Woman Fired?". Intelligencer. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
- Isobel Asher Hamilton (June 15, 2018). "More than 400 Washington Post staffers wrote an open letter to Jeff Bezos calling out his 'shocking' pay practices". Business Insider. Retrieved June 18, 2018.
- Farhi, Paul (February 19, 2019). "The Washington Post sued by family of Covington Catholic teenager". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 19, 2019.
- Chamberlain, Samuel (February 19, 2019). "Covington student's legal team sues Washington Post". Fox News.
- Knight, Cameron (October 28, 2019). "Judge to allow portion of Nick Sandmann lawsuit against Washington Post to continue". USA TODAY. Retrieved October 29, 2019.
- Re, Gregg (October 28, 2019). "Judge reopens Covington Catholic High student's defamation suit against Washington Post". Fox News. Retrieved October 29, 2019.
- Knight, Cameron (October 28, 2019). "Judge to allow portion of Nick Sandmann lawsuit against Washington Post to continue". USA TODAY. Retrieved October 29, 2019.
- "Nick Sandmann settles $250M lawsuit with the Washington Post". www.msn.com. Retrieved July 24, 2020.
- Andrew Beaujon, Richard Cohen Leaves the Washington Post, Washington Post (September 23, 2019): "In the years since he displayed a remarkable ability to survive at the paper despite ...frequently stepping in it with regard to race, like the time he wrote that 'People with conventional views must repress a gag reflex when considering the mayor-elect of New York — a white man married to a black woman and with two biracial children; or the time that he wrote sympathetically about the man who killed Trayvon Martin..."
- Maya K. Francis, Richard Cohen's Been Gag-Worthy on Race for Years, Philadelphia Magazine (November 13, 2013).
- Hadas Gold, George Will slammed for sexual assault column, Politico (June 10, 2014).
- Alyssa Rosenberg, George Will's distasteful conclusions about sexual assault, Washington Post (June 10, 2014).
- "'Washington Post' slammed for op-ed by antisemitic Houthi leader". Jerusalem Post. November 10, 2018.
- How Trump Reshaped the Presidency in Over 11,000 Tweets, New York Times (November 2, 2019).
- Domenico Montanaro, Bernie Sanders Again Attacks Amazon — This Time Pulling In 'The Washington Post', All Things Considered (August 13, 2019).
- Jasmine C. Lee & Kevin Quealy, The 598 People, Places and Things Donald Trump Has Insulted on Twitter: A Complete List, New York Times (last updated May 24, 2019).
- Katrina vanden Heuvel (August 20, 2019). "Bernie Sanders Has a Smart Critique of Corporate Media Bias".
- "Russia Is Said to Be Interfering to Aid Sanders in Democratic Primaries". The New York Times. February 21, 2020.
- Higginbotham, Tim (August 27, 2019). "The Washington Post's War on Bernie Continues." Jacobin. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
- "If You're Looking for Evidence of WaPo Media Bias Against Bernie Sanders, Here It Is". Common Dreams. Retrieved May 22, 2020.
- "Washington Post editor responds to Bernie Sanders: Your 'conspiracy theory' is wrong". CNN. Retrieved November 17, 2019.
- Beaujon, Andrew (November 13, 2012). "Marcus Brauchli steps down as Washington Post executive editor, Marty Baron to take over". Poynter Institute. Retrieved May 12, 2016.
- "Dan Balz". Washington Post. Retrieved December 28, 2017.
- "Robert Costa". Washington Post. Retrieved December 28, 2017.
- "Karoun Demirjian". Washington Post. Retrieved December 28, 2017.
- "David A. Fahrenthold". Washington Post. Retrieved December 28, 2017.
- "Shane Harris joins national desk as intelligence reporter". Washington Post. December 21, 2017. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved December 28, 2017.
- "David Ignatius". Washington Post. Retrieved December 28, 2017.
- "Carol D. Leonnig". Washington Post. Retrieved December 28, 2017.
- "Ruth Marcus". Washington Post. Retrieved December 28, 2017.
- "David Nakamura – Washington, D.C. Reporter covering the White House". Washington Post. Retrieved January 14, 2019.
- "Ashley Parker". Washington Post. Retrieved December 28, 2017.
- "Kathleen Parker". Washington Post. Retrieved December 28, 2017.
- "Catherine Rampell". Washington Post. Retrieved December 28, 2017.
- "Eugene Robinson". Washington Post. Retrieved December 28, 2017.
- "Jennifer Rubin". Washington Post. Retrieved December 28, 2017.
- "Philip Rucker". Washington Post. Retrieved December 28, 2017.
- "Dayna Smith". www.worldpressphoto.org. Retrieved May 3, 2020.
- "David Weigel". Washington Post. Retrieved December 28, 2017.
- "George F. Will". Washington Post. Retrieved December 28, 2017.
- Kelly, Tom. The imperial Post: The Meyers, the Grahams, and the paper that rules Washington (Morrow, 1983)
- Lewis, Norman P. "Morning Miracle. Inside the Washington Post: A Great Newspaper Fights for Its Life". Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly (2011) 88#1 pp: 219.
- Merrill, John C. and Harold A. Fisher. The world's great dailies: profiles of fifty newspapers (1980) pp 342–52
- Roberts, Chalmers McGeagh. In the shadow of power: the story of the Washington Post (Seven Locks Pr, 1989)
|Scholia has an organization profile for The Washington Post.|
- Official website (Mobile)
- Today's The Washington Post front page at the Newseum website
- The Washington Post Company history at Graham Holdings Company
- The Washington Post channel in Telegram
- Scott Sherman, May 2002, "Donald Graham's Washington Post" Columbia Journalism Review. September / October 2002.
- "War Reporters – Imperial Life in the Emerald City" at the Wayback Machine (archived January 2, 2007)
- Jaffe, Harry. "Post Watch: Family Dynasty Continues with Katharine II", Washingtonian, February 26, 2008.
- "Washington+Post", Core.ac.uk,
Open access research papers