House of Nguyễn Phúc

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House of Nguyễn Phúc
House of Nguyễn Phước
阮福族
Imperial House
Đại Nam Hoàng đế chi tỷ (大南皇帝之璽).svg
CountrySeal of Nguyễn Lords.svg Nam Hà / Đàng Trong
First flag of the Nguyen Dynasty.svg Nguyễn dynasty
Flag of Colonial Annam.svg French protectorates of Annam and Tonkin
Flag of the Empire of Vietnam (1945).svg Empire of Vietnam
Flag of South Vietnam.svg Domain of the Crown
Founded1558
FounderNguyễn Hoàng[a]
Current headGuy Georges Vĩnh San
Final rulerBảo Đại
Titles
Seal of Nguyễn Lords.svg Nguyễn lords
  • Lord of Đàng Trong (主塘中, Chúa Đàng Trong)[1]
  • Grand Mentor Duke of the State of Trừng (太傅澄國公, Thái phó Trừng quốc công)[2][3]
  • Grand guardian commandery duke (太保郡公, Thái bảo quận công)[2][3]
  • Nguyễn King[4]
  • Quốc vương (國王)[2][3]
Heirloom seal of the Nguyễn Dynasty.svg Nguyễn dynasty
Seal of Bảo Đại as Chief of State of Vietnam (1949–1954).svg State of Vietnam
Style(s)"His/Her Imperial Majesty"
TraditionsBuddhism, Confucianism and Catholicism
Estate(s)Imperial City of Huế
Deposition1945 (Abdication of Bảo Đại)[b]
Cadet branchesTôn Thất
House of Nguyễn Phúc
House of Nguyễn Phước
Vietnamese name
VietnameseNguyễn Phúc tộc / Nguyễn Phước tộc
Hán-Nôm阮福族

The House of Nguyễn Phúc, also known as the House of Nguyễn Phước, was a ruling family of Vietnam. It ruled from the city of Huế in central Vietnam beginning in 1600. As the Nguyễn Lords, they often fought with the Trịnh Lords, who were based in Hanoi. They were overthrown by the Tây Sơn brothers in 1776.

Under Emperor Gia Long, the family's rule was not only restored, but extended to the whole of Vietnam in 1802. Emperor Đồng Khánh agreed to French supervision in 1883. In 1887, Vietnam became part of the Indochinese Union, which was administered by a French governor general.

Bảo Đại, the last ruler of the dynasty, changed the name of the country from Annam back to Vietnam, a name that originated with Gia Long. He abdicated in fear for his life in 1945 after the Viet Minh attempted to assassinate one of his former prime ministers. The French returned following the surrender of Japan. Bảo Đại fled to Hong Kong, where he developed a reputation as a playboy.

French President Charles de Gaulle suggested that former Emperor Duy Tan return to Vietnam and reenter politics. Duy Tan, now a national hero, died when his return flight crashed in 1945. In 1949, the French re-installed Bảo Đại and created the State of Vietnam with him as chief of state (國長, Quốc trưởng). The French also oversaw the creation of the Domain of the Crown where he was still officially considered to be the emperor. This territory existed until 1955. Bảo Đại died in 1997 in Paris, France.

History[edit]

As a ruling house[edit]

The House of Nguyễn Phúc (Nguyen Gia Mieu) had historically been founded in the 14th century in Gia Mieu village, Thanh Hoa Province, before they came to rule southern Vietnam from 1558 to 1777, then became the ruling dynasty of the entire Vietnam. Traditionally, the family traces themselves to Nguyễn Bặc (?–979), the first duke of Dai Viet. Princes and male descendants of Gia Long are called Hoàng Thân, while male lineal descendants of previous Nguyen lords are named Tôn Thất. Grandsons of the emperor were Hoàng tôn. Daughters of the emperor were called Hoàng nữ, and always earned the title công chúa (princess).

Their succession practically is according to the law of primogeniture, but sometimes conflicted. The first succession conflict arose in 1816 when Gia Long was designing for an heir. His first prince Nguyễn Phúc Cảnh died in 1802. As a result, two rival factions emerged, one support Nguyễn Phúc Mỹ Đường, the eldest son of Prince Cảnh, as the crown prince, while other support Prince Đảm (later Minh Mang).[5] The second conflict was the 1847 succession when two young princes Nguyễn Phúc Hồng Bảo and Hồng Nhậm were dragged by the ill-failing emperor Thieu Tri as a potential heir. At first, Thieu Tri apparently chose Prince Hồng Bảo because he was older, but after hearing advice from two regents Trương Đăng Quế and Nguyễn Tri Phương, he revised the heir at last minute and choose Hồng Nhậm as the crown prince.[6]

Abolition of the monarchy[edit]

The abdication of Bảo Đại took place on 25 August 1945 and marked the end of the 143-year reign of the Nguyễn dynasty over Vietnam ending the Vietnamese monarchy.[7][8] Bảo Đại abdicated in response to the August Revolution a ceremony handing power over to the newly established Democratic Republic of Vietnam which was established during the end of World War II as Vietnam had been occupied by French and later Japanese imperialists.[9][10][11]

After the Việt Minh sent a telegram to the Imperial City of Huế demanding the abdication of Emperor Bảo Đại, he announced that he would abdicate and officially abdicated on 25 August.[12] After a representative of the Việt Minh convinced Bảo Đại to hold a public abdication ceremony he did so on 30 August 1945. The passing of the ceremonial seal and sword had been seen as symbolically "passing the Mandate of Heaven over to the government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam".[4] Following his abdication Emperor Bảo Đại became "citizen Vĩnh Thụy" (公民永瑞, công dân Vĩnh Thụy) and would become an advisor to the new Democratic Republic of Vietnam government in Hanoi.[13][4]

French attempts to re-establish the Nguyễn dynasty[edit]

In order to combat the influence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and the Việt Minh the French were forced to grant more autonomy to the Vietnamese and French President Vincent Auriol arranged for the former Emperor Bảo Đại to return to Vietnam and lead a new autonomous Vietnamese state in what the French called the "Bảo Đại solution" (Giải pháp Bảo Đại). On 24 April 1949 Bảo Đại would return from France back to Vietnam.[10] Nearly two months later, on 14 June 1949 Bảo Đại issued an ordinance giving him the position of "Chief of State of the State of Vietnam" (Quốc trưởng Quốc gia Việt Nam), in his memoirs he claimed that he did this to receive better recognition on an international level.[10] Furthermore, in his memoirs he emphasised that his proper title was "Emperor, Chief of State" (Hoàng đế, Quốc trưởng).[10] The position was supposed to only be temporary until Vietnam would have an elected constitutional parliament.[10]

In 1950 Bảo Đại was given the "Domain of the Crown" which included ethnic minority lands within Vietnam that were directly placed under his rule where he remained to be the "Emperor".[14][15] It was officially established on 15 April 1950 and dissolved on 11 March 1955.[16]

During his time as Chief of State he was often absent from most events in Vietnam and would frequently spend his time in Europe or in his domain, specifically in the resort towns of Đà Lạt, Nha Trang, and Buôn Ma Thuột, rather than attending to his responsibilities as the head of the government.[17]

Bảo Đại was ousted as the Chief of State of the State of Vietnam during a rigged election in 1955.[18][19]

After 1955[edit]

The personal coat of arms of the Bảo Đại Emperor which appeared on the cover of his autobiographical memoires Le dragon d'Annam, Bao Daï (1980).

In 1957, during his visit to the Alsace region, Bảo Đại met Christiane Bloch-Carcenac with whom he had an affair for several years. The relationship with Bloch-Carcenac resulted in the birth of his last child, Patrick-Edward Bloch-Carcenac, who still lives in Alsace in France.[20][21]

In 1972, Bảo Đại issued a public statement from exile, appealing to the Vietnamese people for national reconciliation, stating, "The time has come to put an end to the fratricidal war and to recover at last peace and accord". At times, Bảo Đại maintained residence in southern France, and in particular, in Monaco, where he sailed often on his private yacht, one of the largest in Monte Carlo harbour. He still reportedly held great influence among local political figures in the Quảng Trị and Thừa Thiên provinces of Huế. The Communist government of North Vietnam sent representatives to France hoping that Bảo Đại would become a member of a coalition government which might reunite Vietnam, in the hope of attracting his supporters in the regions wherein he still held influence.[citation needed]

As a result of these meetings, Bảo Đại publicly spoke out against the presence of American troops in South Vietnam, and he criticised President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu's regime in South Vietnam. He called for all political factions to create a free, neutral, peace-loving government which would resolve the tense situation that had taken form in the country.

In 1982, Bảo Đại, his wife Monique, and other members of the former imperial family of Vietnam visited the United States. His agenda was to oversee and bless Buddhist and Caodaiist religious ceremonies, in the Californian and Texan Vietnamese-American communities.

Throughout Bảo Đại's life in both Vietnam and in France, he remained unpopular among the Vietnamese populace as he was considered a political puppet for the French colonialist regime, for lacking any form of political power, and for his cooperation with the French and for his pro-French ideals. The former emperor clarified, however, that his reign was always a constant battle and a balance between preserving the monarchy and the integrity of the nation versus fealty to the French authorities. Ultimately, power devolved away from his person and into ideological camps and in the face of Diem's underestimated influences on factions within the empire.[22] Bảo Đại died in a military hospital in Paris, France, on 30 July 1997. He was interred in the Cimetière de Passy. Following Bảo Đại's death Bảo Long inherited the position of head of the House of Nguyễn Phúc. He remained out of politics and lived quietly in Paris.[23]

Bảo Long allegedly sold the sword that was handed over in the 1945 abdication ceremony.[10] Although the Vietnamese Constitutional Monarchist League (headed by rival claimant Nguyễn Phúc Bửu Chánh) wish to restore the Nguyễn dynasty to the throne under a constitutional monarchy, as in Cambodia and Thailand, Bảo Long did not support their political aspirations.[24]

On 28 July 2007, following the death of Bảo Long, the new head of the House of Nguyễn Phúc became Nguyễn Phúc Bảo Thăng.[25]

Titles[edit]

First appointed to govern over the region south of the Gianh River by the Emperor of the Later Lê Dynasty, the first ancestor of the Nguyễn lords in this region appointed who was given a title of nobility was Nguyễn Kim, who was granted the title of the Duke of the State of Trừng (澄國公, Trừng quốc công).[2][3] The highest title of nobility in Vietnam was that of Quốc Vương (國王), which Liam Kelley translates as "Prince" or "Prince of state",[c] immediately below it was the title of "Duke" (公, công) with titles like "Commandery duke" (郡公, quận công), "Duke of state" (國公, quốc công), etc.[3] Prefixes, like "Grand mentor" (太傅, thái phó) and "Grand guardian" (太保, thái bảo) were sometimes added to these somewhat general terms to create gradations between the varying ranks of nobility.[3]

Lord Nguyễn Hoàng received the noble title of "Grand Mentor Duke of the State of Trừng" (太傅澄國公, Thái phó Trừng quốc công) by the Emperor of the Later Lê dynasty, later Lord Nguyễn Phúc Nguyên (the son of Nguyễn Hoàng) would receive the upgraded title "Grand guardian commandery duke" (太保郡公, Thái bảo quận công).[3]

Later titles were granted by the Nguyễn lords to themselves, however, they would continue to recognise both the titles of the imperial court of the Later Lê dynasty and their nominal submission to it.[3] According to the Đại Nam thực lục, in 1744 an official from Đàng Trong named Nguyễn Đăng Thịnh requested for his lord Nguyễn Phúc Khoát to "rectify his position", but in reality Nguyễn Đăng Thịnh asked him proclaim himself to be an Emperor justifying it by stating that he already controlled more land than the Shang dynasty did when it was founded.[26][2] In response Nguyễn Phúc Khoát granted himself the title of Quốc Vương in 1744, the same title which the Trịnh lords held since 1599.[2][3] An important distinction between the rival Nguyễn and Trịnh clans is that the Trịnh were granted the title of Vương by the Emperor while the Nguyễn never officially held a title higher than "duke" in the eyes of the Lê court.[2]

Heads of the house[edit]

The generational numbers below are from the clan's genealogical table.[27] On several occasions, emperors were deposed by the French colonial authorities and replaced with representatives of alternative royal lines. The "I" line is viewed as the most legitimate line. The Dục Đức line goes 15.I, 16.I, 17.I, and 18.I, while the Đồng Khánh line goes 15.II, 16.II, 17.II, 18.II, and 18.III.

Heads of the House of Nguyễn Phúc
Gen. Lived Reign Given name Era name Notes
1 1525–1545 Nguyễn Kim
Nguyễn Lords
2 1558–1613 1558 - 1613 Nguyễn Hoàng
3 1563 – 1635 1613 - 1635 Nguyễn Phúc Nguyên First to use the name "Nguyễn Phúc"
4 1601 – 1648 1635 - 1648 Nguyễn Phúc Lan
5 1620 – 1687 1648 - 1687 Nguyễn Phúc Tần
6 1650–1691 1687 - 1691 Nguyễn Phúc Thái
7 1675 – 1725 1691–1725 Nguyễn Phúc Chu
8 1696–1738 1725–1738 Nguyễn Phúc Trú
9 1714 – 1765 1738–1765 Nguyễn Phúc Khoát
10 1754–1777 1765–1777 Nguyễn Phúc Thuần
Emperors of Vietnam
11 1762 – 1820 1802 - 1820 Nguyễn Phúc Ánh Gia Long Son of Nguyễn Phúc Luân.
12 1791 – 1841 1820 – 1839 Nguyễn Phúc Đảm Minh Mạng Son of Gia Long.
13 1807 – 1847 1841 – 1847 Nguyễn Phúc Miên Tông Thiệu Trị Son of Minh Mạng.
14.I 1829 – 1883 1847 – 1883 Nguyễn Phúc Thi Tự Đức Son of Thiệu Trị.
15.I 1852 – 1883 20–23 July 1883 Nguyễn Phúc Ưng Lịch Dục Đức Son of Nguyễn Phúc Hồng Y, grandson of Thiệu Trị.
14.II 1847 – 1883 30 July 1883 – 29 November 1883 Nguyễn Phúc Hồng Dật Hiệp Hòa Son of Thiệu Trị.
15.III 1869 – 1884 1883–1884 Nguyễn Phúc Ưng Đăng Kiến Phúc A nephew of Tự Đức who was adopted as a son.
15.IV 1872 – 1943 1884 - 1885 Nguyễn Phúc Ưng Lịch Hàm Nghi Son of Nguyễn Phúc Hồng Cai, grandson of Thiệu Trị.
15.II 1864 – 1889 1885 - 1889 Nguyễn Phúc Ưng Kỷ Đồng Khánh A nephew of Tự Đức who was adopted as a son.
16.I 1879 – 1954 1889 – 1907 Nguyễn Phúc Ưng Lịch Thành Thái Son of Dục Đức. Deposed by the French in favor of his son, Duy Tân.
17.I 1900 – 1945 1907 - 1916 Nguyễn Phúc Hoàng Duy Tân Son of Thành Thái
16.II 1885 - 1925 1916 - 1925 Nguyễn Phúc Bửu Đảo Khải Định Son of Đồng Khánh. He reigned after Duy Tân was deposed by the French, so his succession and generational order are not the same.
17.II 1913 – 1997 1926 - 1945 Nguyễn Phúc Vĩnh Thụy Bảo Đại Son of Khải Định. Emperor of Annam from 1926 to 1945, Emperor of Vietnam in 1945, and chief of state of South Vietnam from 1949 to 1955.
Heads of the house since 1997
18.II 1934 – 2007 Nguyễn Phúc Bảo Long Crown prince and eldest son of Bao Dai.
18.III 1944 – 2017 Nguyễn Phúc Bảo Thăng Brother of Bảo Long
18.I b. 1933 Nguyễn Phúc Bảo Ngọc (Georges Vinh San) Eldest son of Duy Tân

Symbols[edit]

Imperial standards[edit]

Flag Duration Use Name/Description
Flag of Central Vietnam (1885-1890).svg 1885–1890 Flag of emperor Đồng Khánh Đại Nam Đế Kỳ[28] (Personal standard of the Emperor of Đại Nam). Đại Nam (大南, great south) was the official name of Vietnam at this time.
Standard of the Nguyen Dynasty (1890 - 1920).svg 1890–1920 Flag of emperors Thành Thái, Duy Tân and Khải Định A red field with a single yellow stripe. Referred to as the Long tinh or Dragon Star Flag.[28]
First flag of the Nguyen Dynasty.svg 1920–1945 Flag of emperors Khải Định and Bảo Đại A yellow field with a single red stripe. Referred to as the Long tinh or Dragon Star Flag.[28]
Second flag of the Nguyen Dynasty.svg May 8 – August 30, 1945 Flag of emperor Bảo Đại A yellow field with a single red stripe. Referred to as the Long tinh or Dragon Star Flag.[28]

Personal standards of emperors[edit]

Flag Duration Use Name/Description
Imperial Standard of Nguyen Dynasty1.svg 1922–1945 Personal standard of emperors Khải Định and Bảo Đại.[28] Flag ratio: 2:3.
Fanion du Roi (Cờ Nhà Vua) - Hymnes et pavillons d'Indochine (1941).svg 1941?–1945 Royal fanion (Cờ Nhà Vua) of the Nguyễn dynasty.[28][29][30] The "flag of yellow and dragon" (黃龍旗, Hoàng-long kì) or the "Son of Heaven flag" (天子旗, Thiên-tử kì). Flag ratio is 1:2.
Imperial Standard of Annam - Hymnes et pavillons d'Indochine (1941).png 1941?–1945 Imperial standard of the Nguyễn dynasty.[28][29] Flag ratio: 1:2.
Flag of Bao Dai (1948-1955).svg 1948–1955 Personal standard of State Chief Bảo Đại.[28] Flag ratio: 2:3. Influences: Nguyen Imperial Pennon (m3).png

Coats of arms[edit]

Heirloom seals[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Nguyễn Kim is technically the founder of Nguyễn lords but he never claimed himself as a Nguyễn Lord, hence he is not considered as the first Nguyễn Lord.
  2. ^ Bảo Đại was fully removed from Vietnamese politics following a referendum in 1955.
  3. ^ As for the offspring of the Emperor, who were "actual princes", different terms were used in the Vietnamese system such as "Hoàng tử" (皇子) or less commonly "Thân vương" (親王), these terms are often translated into the English language as "Princes of the blood."

References[edit]

  1. ^ Albert Schroeder (1904). Chronologie des souverains de l'Annam par Albert Schroeder (in French). p. 24. Nguyễn 阮: Dits les seigneurs du Sud ou Chúa đàng trong 主唐冲.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Professor Liam C. Kelley (黎明愷, Lê Minh Khải) (8 May 2019). "HOW NGUYỄN PHÚC KHOÁT DECLINED TO BECOME EMPEROR". Le Minh Khai's SEAsian History Blog (and More!). Retrieved 29 August 2021.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Professor Liam C. Kelley (黎明愷, Lê Minh Khải) (27 April 2019). "PRINCES (NOT KINGS) IN ĐÀNG TRONG". Le Minh Khai's SEAsian History Blog (and More!). Retrieved 29 August 2021.
  4. ^ a b c Phạm Cao Phong (Gửi cho BBC từ Paris) (4 September 2015). "Bảo Đại trao kiếm giả cho 'cách mạng'? Mùa thu năm trước Bảo tàng Lịch sử Việt Nam mang chuông sang gióng ở thủ đô Pháp" (in Vietnamese). BBC News (British Broadcasting Corporation, Government of the United Kingdom). Retrieved 10 April 2021.
  5. ^ Smith (1974), p. 154.
  6. ^ Smith (1974), p. 155.
  7. ^ Tú Châu (17 August 2020). "Cách mạng tháng Tám và sự ra đời của Chính phủ Lâm thời qua một số tư liệu, tài liệu lưu trữ (tiếp theo) - 08:47 AM 17/08/2020 - Lượt xem: 603 - Bài viết trình bày đôi nét về cuộc Tổng khởi nghĩa giành chính quyền mùa thu Tháng Tám năm 1945, sự ra đời của Chính phủ Lâm thời nước Việt Nam Dân chủ Cộng hoà" (in Vietnamese). Trung tâm Lưu trữ quốc gia I (National Archives Nr. 1, Hanoi) - Cục Văn thư và Lưu trữ nhà nước (State Records And Archives Management Department Of Việt Nam). Retrieved 8 May 2021.
  8. ^ Ths. Phạm Kim Thanh (30 August 2019). "Nhà sử học, nhà báo Trần Huy Liệu (1901-1969) (Phần 2 và hết) - 30/08/2019 08:36 - Lượt xem: 1345 - Điểm: 0/5 (0 đánh giá) - * Người khởi thảo Quân lệnh số 1 của Ủy ban Khởi nghĩa; sau Cách mạng tháng Tám, là Trưởng phái đoàn của Chính phủ Lâm thời vào Huế tiếp nhận ấn kiếm của vua Bảo Đại" (in Vietnamese). BẢO TÀNG LỊCH SỬ QUỐC GIA (VIETNAM NATIONAL MUSEUM OF HISTORY). Retrieved 8 May 2021.
  9. ^ Việt Nam, Hội Khuyến học (17 November 2011). "Mặt trận Tổ quốc Việt Nam: Chặng đường 80 năm vẻ vang". Dân trí.
  10. ^ a b c d e f Tiến sĩ Luật Cù Huy Hà Vũ (Tác giả là một luật gia, học giả và nhà bất đồng chính kiến, cựu tù nhân chính trị Việt Nam). (2 September 2020). "Kỳ án ấn và kiếm tại lễ thoái vị của vua Bảo Đại (Kỳ 1)" (in Vietnamese). Voice of America (VOA) Tiếng Việt. Retrieved 5 April 2021.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  11. ^ Đất Việt. "Quốc ấn của vua Bảo Đại lưu lạc ở Pháp? - 31/03/2011 - 06:25 - Sau khi Hoàng hậu Nam Phương qua đời (1963), quốc ấn Hoàng đế Chi Bửu nằm trong tay Hoàng thái tử Bảo Long. Khoảng năm 1982, sau ngày Bảo Đại làm giấy hôn thú với bà Monique Baudot (người Pháp), ông nhận lại chiếc ấn từ con trai mình. Từ đó, không còn thấy ai nhắc gì tới chiếc ấn này nữa" (in Vietnamese). VietnamNet.vn. Retrieved 24 March 2021.
  12. ^ Nguyễn Văn Lục (27 December 2016). "Nhận định về ba vai trò của Bảo Đại: Vua, Cố vấn tối cao, và Quốc trưởng (p4)" (in Vietnamese). DCVOnline.net. Retrieved 8 May 2021.
  13. ^ David G. Marr Vietnam: State, War, Revolution, 1945–1946 p20 "The royal mandarinal hierarchies for education, administration, and justice were abolished, while Mr. Vĩnh Thụy (formerly Emperor Bảo Đại) was appointed advisor to the DRV provisional government."
  14. ^ Lê Đình Chi. Người Thượng Miền Nam Việt Nam. Gardena, California: Văn Mới, 2006. Pages: 401-449. (in Vietnamese).
  15. ^ UÔNG THÁI BIỂU (9 October 2020). "Hoàng đế mãn triều và "Hoàng triều Cương thổ"" (in Vietnamese). Nhân Dân (Communist Party of Vietnam). Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  16. ^ Anh Thái Phượng. Trăm núi ngàn sông: Tập I. Gretna, LA: Đường Việt Hải ngoại, 2003. Page: 99. (in Vietnamese).
  17. ^ Interview with Ngô Đình Luyến. WGBH Media Library and Archives. 31 January 1979.
  18. ^ Buttinger, Joseph (1967). Vietnam: A Dragon Embattled. Praeger Publishers.
  19. ^ Chapman, Jessica (September 2006). "Staging Democracy: South Vietnam's 1955 Referendum to Depose Bao Dai". Diplomatic History. 30 (4): 671–703. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7709.2006.00573.x.
  20. ^ oral communication (Patrick-Edward Bloch-Carcenac) and sections of the "Dernières Nouvelles d'Alsace" (D.N.A), n°. 264 of 10 nov. 1992 and from 7 August 2007.
  21. ^ "RENAISSANCE DE HUE – Site de maguy tran – pinterville" (in French). Archived from the original on 20 March 2015.
  22. ^ D. Fineman (1997). A Special Relationship: The United States and Military Government in Thailand, 1947–1958. University of Hawaii Press. p. 111. ISBN 9780824818180.
  23. ^ "Bao Long memorial". Archived from the original on 26 October 2009. Retrieved 2007-08-20.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  24. ^ Order of the Dragon of Annam.
  25. ^ Vietnamese crown prince passes away Archived January 26, 2008, at the Wayback Machine VietNamNet, 9 August 2007
  26. ^ Professor Liam C. Kelley (黎明愷, Lê Minh Khải) (5 May 2019). "NGUYỄN ĐĂNG THỊNH'S 1744 REQUEST THAT NGUYỄN PHÚC KHOÁT BECOME EMPEROR". Le Minh Khai's SEAsian History Blog (and More!). Retrieved 30 August 2021.
  27. ^ Vĩnh, Cao, Nguyễn Phúc tộc thế phả, Thuan Hoa Publishing House, 1995.
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h Picking up old royal standards in Vietnam, Archived October 6, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  29. ^ a b Unkown author(s) (1941). Hymnes et pavillons d'Indochine. Gallica (Bibliothèque nationale de France). (in French). Retrieved 9 March 2021.
  30. ^ Võ Hương-An. Từ điển nhà Nguyễn. San José, California, United States: Nhà xuất bản Nam Việt, 2012. Page 515 (in Vietnamese).
  31. ^ a b Đại Nam thực lục, Quote: "The year Can Thìn, 1st year of the reign of Minh Mang (1820), February, auspicious day, the emperor put the seal in his box and sealed it with his own hands". It was not until 1837 (22nd day of the 12th lunar month in the 18th year of Minh Mang) that the emperor, with great fanfare, opened the box and showed the seal to the court before sealing it in ink. red and store it in the Can Thanh Palace. The use of the seal Đại Việt quốc Nguyễn Chúa vĩnh trấn chi bảo was replaced by the jade one Đại Nam thụ thiên vĩnh mệnh truyền quốc tỷ 大南受天永命傳國璽 ("Eternal Mandate of Heaven, transmission of the legacy of the Empire”) sculpted in 1846 during the reign of Emperor Thiệu Trị (1841-1847)."
  32. ^ VietNamNet Bridge (10 February 2016). "No royal seal left in Hue today. VietNamNet Bridge – It is a great regret that none of more than 100 seals of the Nguyen emperors are in Hue City today". VietNam Breaking News. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
  33. ^ TS. Nguyễn Đình Chiến (24 January 2018). "Bảo vật Quốc gia: Ấn ngọc Đại Nam thụ thiên vĩnh mệnh truyền quốc tỷ" (in Vietnamese). BẢO TÀNG LỊCH SỬ QUỐC GIA (VIETNAM NATIONAL MUSEUM OF HISTORY). Retrieved 8 March 2021.

Sources[edit]

  • Smith, R. B. (1974). "Politics and Society in Viet-Nam during the Early Nguyen Period (1802-62)". The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 106 (2): 153–169. doi:10.1017/S0035869X00131995 – via JSTOR.