【我面试的时候就是给了一篇短诗And My Heart Soars的前两段，讲重音和连读】
The beauty of
The softness of the air,
The fragrance of the grass,
Speaks to me.
The summit of the mountain,
The thunder of the sky,
The rhythm of the sea,
Speaks to me.
1. 重音- Stress
在非强调的句子中，实词（ notional word）一般都重读，虚词（ function word）不重读。
实词- nouns, verbs,adjectives and adverbials
2. 连读- Liaison
Liaison is a phenomenon in which people read words together because of pronunciation when talking in English.
（1）In the adjacent words, the end of the previous word is a consonant, and when the beginning of the latter word is a vowel, consonants and vowels can be read together.
There's an elephant in the garden.
Put it on, please.
Not at all.
（2）End-of-word vowels can be read in conjunction with the first vowel
I have waited for you three hours.
We all agree with the plan.
（3）half vowel /j/ /w/. the end of the previous word is
a consonant, and when the beginning of the latter word is a half vowel
Thank~you. Nice to
（4）在两个相连的单词中，前者出现以/p/、/b/、/k/、/g/、/t/、/d/结尾，后者出现以/p/、/b/、/k/、/g/、/t/、/d/、/m/、/n/、 /l/、 /s/起首时，前一个辅音失去爆破，即只做口型而不发音，后一个辅音正常发音。 
I hope to find a good job.
There is no Liaison between the groups.意群
Is~it a hat or a cat? Hat or之间不连读
3. 语调- Intonation 主要是升调Rising tone和降调Falling tone
General question一般疑问句 【is he making a kite?】
An imperative sentence祈使句 that represents a request 【permit me to lead the way. sir】
Ask other to repeat what they say 【Pardon?】
List items or count numbers in declarative sentence
(2) Falling tone
Special question特殊疑问句 【Where…?】
Declarative sentence 陈述句【I like swimming】
An imperative sentence祈使句 that represents an order【Ben, open the door】
Exclamatory sentence感叹句【what a lovely day】
Parallel sentence并列句 and but or【I like spring and summer】
选择疑问句，前升后降Select question, rise before and then drop
4.爆破 失去爆破 不完全爆破Plosive， Loss of Plosion， Incomplete plosive
爆破音 p,b,t,d,k,g 摩擦音frictive /f/ /v/ /s/ /z/ /θ/ /ð/ /ʃ/
/ʒ/ /r/ /h/ 破擦音 affricative /tʃ/ /dʒ/
1. 爆+爆 第一个失去爆破，后一个完全爆破
When any two
of the six plosives are adjacent to each other, the first plosive loses its
burst, pauses a little, and quickly moves to the second completely detonated plosive.
The big bus from the factory is full of people.
This is an old picture of a big car.
2. 爆+摩 后面完全爆破The front is the plosive, followed by the
fricative sound, the front plosive sounds a slight explosion, and the behind
fricative sound is completely blown up
I can’t sing.
爆+破 /tʃ/ /dʒ/
4. 爆+鼻 nasal sound m n Incomplete plosive
Goo(d) morning, sir. Certain hidden
5. 爆+边音 lateral l Incomplete plosive
At last, good luck, friendly,
语调 inntonations 升降调
1: Warming up
Show some tongue twisters on the screen and ask students to
read and practice them. They can make competitions with their desk mates.
Can you can a can as a canner can can a can?
Whether the weather be fine or whether the weather be not.
Listen to the tape and later I will invite some students to tell us what he/she
has heard from the tape and how many people they can find during the listening.
Teacher read the same material as the listening without rising tone and falling
should compare these two listening and talk about the difference between the
teacher’s reading and the tape.
Guide students to find out the rising tone and falling tone in this
Show the new knowledge:
(1) General question---rising tone Would you…? May I…? Are
(2) Special question---falling tone What…? Where…? How…?
(3) Declarative sentence---falling tone I can…? Go ahead
please. See you ….
Read the conversation loudly and use the correct tone in 3minutes.
Practice this conversation with their partner in five minutes.
Invite some of them to perform this dialogue in front of the class.
Write more sentences in groups in the table. They just have 3 minutes; the
group which finishes fast in both quantity and quality can get some small gifts
(post card, book marks).
5: Summary & Homework
Summarize with students together that we’ve learnt a pronunciation lesson about
rising and falling tones.
(1) Listen to the tape and read the rest of the context with correct answer.
a movie which they like best and write some rising and falling tones sentences
on their note book (at least ten).
class. Welcome back to school after three day holiday of the Labor’s Day. Where
did you go on vacation? Jack? You went to Sichuan to see pandas? They must be
very lovely. Peter？You went to visit your grandparents? Oh,
they are very lonely when you are not with them. So you went to see them. Very
good grandson. Because family is important. So during the
holiday Li Lan also went to accompany her grandpa. Let’s see what interesting
things happened to them.
Now listen to the dialogue and tell me.// It’s
over. What happened to them? Iris? Iris said grandpa can’t find his glasses and
asked Li Lan to help him. Is she right? Yes, nicely done! Sit down please. And
did they find it in the end? No? Why? Oliver. Because grandpa couldn’t hear Li
Lan clearly and misunderstood her question. Is he right? Yes, excellent!
You all got the meaning of this dialogue
clearly. While listening, do you find that some words are stressed and others
are not? Yes? But what kinds of words can be stressed and what kinds are not?
You can’t say it exactly? Ok, let’s listen again and this time, pay attention
to what kinds of words did they stress.
The tape is over. Did you find it? Cindy, you
said you find that words like “come, need, help, finding, glasses.
Grandpa..fine..” are stressed. Good, you listened very carefully. Can you find
what the property are they? They are
nouns, and? Yes, nouns, verbs,
adjectives. Right. sit down please. Apart from these three kinds of words, adverbials also needs to be stressed.
But we don’t have an adverbial in the dialogue. But still remember that. Then
almost the rest words are not stressed. Ok sit down. Oh I see Sara put up her
hand. Sara please. You ask why the sentence “I SAID, WHERE DID YOU PUT THEM?”
are all stressed? Good, you listened very carefully. The rules we conclude just
now are general rules. But when someone
really wants to stress on something he intends to let others pay attention.
These words can also be stressed. Because grandpa can’t hear clearly. Li
Lan stressed every word in a loud voice. Clear about all the rules now?
Ok, now let’s read after the tape and pay
attention to the stress. // Now work with your deskmate, have a dialogue and
correct each other’s pronunciation and stress. Five minutes for you to practice
and then I would like some pairs to come to the front to have a role play.//
Time is up! Which pairs want to show us? David and Rita please. So David played
as grandpa and Rita as Li Lan. You can start! // They finished. Is there
anything they should pay attention? Betty? You said the every word in the
sentence “Where did you put them?” should be fully stressed. Yes. Good sit down
please. But they performed very well. They are really like grandpa and
granddaughter, right? Excellent performance. Thank you, go back to your seat.
watch a video clip here. Are you familiar with it? I see all of you are
nodding. So the name of it is… yes, Friends. Now 4-5students form a group
and watch it again, you are supposed to find out as many stressed words as
possible. Finished? Group one, how many stressed words do you find? 5? Ok, what
are they? They are… Christmas, present, dinner, give, seat. Very good! Are there
more? Group 3! You also find deer, beautiful… right! nicely done! Group 4, any
supplements? ….Class, now we can clearly see that group 4 gives all the right
answers. Let’s applaud for them! Other
groups are also very good. Now we have a performance. Each member in every
group could act as one person in the video and you have a role play. Pay attention to all those words that are
stressed. Ok? Now which group would like to have a try? Group 2, come here. You
can start. They have finished. What do you think of their performance? They act
very lively and all the stressed words are correctly pronounced. Very good.
Ok, class. What we have learned today. Who can
help me to summarize. Look at the blackboard. Elaine, please. You said that we
have learned the tone and stress. So when do we use rising tone? Yes, when the
sentence is a general question. And when do we use falling tone? When the
sentence is declarative or special question. Well done. Sit down please. Let’s
leave the other rules to Woody. Woody, so when do we stress? Yes, when the words are nouns, verbs,
adjectives and adverbials. Anything else? Yes, we can also emphasize on any
word we want the have a stress on them. Brilliant! I can see that you all
master the rules. And during the practicing I see that you have become more
confident when you read.
After class, you can find any dialogue you are
interested in and read it out with tone and stress. Ok? Good. Let’s call it a
day. See you next time.
That’s all for my presentation. Thank you.
例如 清晰型： letter lesson low
The tip of the tongue against the upper teeth popped out
at the same time, vocal cord vibration sound made by such as clear type: letter
Vague type Ball
The tip of the tongue against the upper gum, make the air
flow through the sides of the tongue, so called tongue side tone.
清晰//出现在元音前面如 letter, little, light 等。发音时舌前向硬腭抬 起。
light jelly lemon
for lunch leg of lamb a glass of lemonade yellow jelly
Mum, is lunch ready? I’m hungry. B: OK, lunch is ready.
A: What’s for lunch, Mum? B:
We’ll have lamb and potato salad.
A: Marvelous! I love salad.
含糊/l/出现在辅音前或词尾如：belt, small, apple, table 等。发音时， 舌前下陷，舌后上抬，舌面引成凹槽。含糊/l/发音响亮和元音一样可 以延长。
salt tall table
small table a beautiful bicycle a tall gentleman Paul’s uncle
例句： A：Look at the bicycle in the shop, Dad. It’s
beautiful. B: But you’re too small to ride a bicycle.
A: I’m not small. This kind of bicycle is for children like me. B:
OK, let’s go in and buy one.
Pronunciation of diphthong
First, I will show you some cards. Do you know
what is this in English? …deer…now read after me.. tear.. beer..
Ok. We have learned three words. From these
words, can you find sth in common?
…all contain the sound ie..
Now, who can pronounce the sound? 三个人 。。but you should change the shape of you
mouth. Pay attention to my lip.. excellent. Now the whole class read after me
You all have done a good job. Now let’s do some
exercise of sound discrimination. Listen to me carefully and circle the words
which contain the sound ie from each of the following pairs. Peer pear, tare
tear, deer dare, mere mare.
Today we have leanred the sound, remember the
right way to pronounce this sound…your homework is to practice..
Students know the rules of _____________________.
Students can understand the passage through_______.
Students can use the rule ______freely in daily conversation.
Students’ listening and speaking skills will be improved.
Step 1 Warming-up
Teacher raises a question about “_____________"（与所给材料主题相关）
Step 2 Presentation
1. Ask students to listen to the tape and find the main idea.
2. Listen again and find _________.（语音现象）
3. Let the students conclude the rule of _______.
4. Teacher explains the rule.
Step 3 Practice
Ask the students to read the passage again.
Work with deskmate to have a practice and have a role play.
Step 4 Consolidation
1. Teacher prepares a video clip of a comedy beforehand.
2. Then 4-5 students work as a group, watch and listen to find out as many _____（反应语音现象的词汇或句子） words as possible. The group who finds out the most will be praised.
3. At last, each group will be asked to perform the conversation they just watched and imitate the stress.
Step 5 Summary and Homework
1. Students summarize and the teacher supplements.
2. Students are required to listen to a piece of news and find out all the _______（今天所学的语音现象）.
Fu Mingxia first stood on the top of the 10-metre diving platform at the age of nine. At 12 years old she won a Guinness Record when she bacame the youngest female to win the womens world title for platform diving at the World Championships in Australia.
- Knowledge aims
Students are able to understand the content of the passage.
Students can know some basic information of liaison.
2. Ability aim
Students can use different basic reading strategies like analyzing, grasping details correctly in their reading process.
After this lesson, students can use the target knowledge into their daily life.
3. Emotional aim
Students will be more willing to get involved in class activities and boost their interest in learning English.
二、Key and difficult point
- Key Point: master the rules of liaison.
2. Difficult Point: use the target knowledge to their daily life correctly.
Greeting:talk about weather
Sing a song “hand in hand”, and ask students “when you hear this song, which event comes to your mind?”
Ask students to open the book and the teacher reads the passage and ask students the main idea of the passage.
Read this article for students, and read the first sentence for them twice.Then ask them to discuss the differences between these two times and write down the sentence on the blackboard.
a. Fu Mingxia first stood on top of the 10-metre diving platform at the age of nine.
b. At 12 years old she won a Guinness Record when....
Invite students to share their ideas then make a conclusion of liaison, structure: consonant+vowel
Ask students read the article again then invite ss come to the front and read for others.
Four of a group, show students Shelley’s poem, ode to the west wind. Give them 5 minutes to practise this poem,then invite some students read the poem for us ,choose the best one.
Ask a student to conclude the content of the lesson and summarize with the whole class.
Try to surf on the Internet and find more rules of liaison.
高中语文——语法课 人教版 必修一 Unit 4 Earthquake
Attributive Clause (the usage of that &which)
1. Knowledge aims
Students will understand the usage of attributive clause and master the relative
pronoun that and which.
2. Ability aims
After practicing with the grammatical structure, students would be able to know the
usage of that and which, and then make use of it in speaking and writing.
3. Emotional aims
By cooperating with their partners, students will be able to improve their collaborative
二、Key and difficult point
- Teaching key point：Students could use attributive clause to describe things in real life.
2. Teaching difficult point：Cooperative spirit in dealing with others.
1. Leading in
Talk about the hometown with students, and then give two sentences.
a. Beijing is a beautiful city.
b. Beijing has a long history.
Let students guess how we can combine these two sentences together.
a. Use which/that to make a link and explain the structure of the sentence and clause.
b. That can refers to people and things, but which can only refers to things.
Students will be given three wrong sentences. Each one has one mistake in it. Let students work in pairs and correct it.
Present pictures to let student describe using attributive clause.
I can see so many flowers_____________.
This is the Eiffel Tower_________.
Students should work in group, and then make their own riddles. They can describe one person in our class, and then other groups can guess who they are talking about.Each group should present one riddle at least.
Students will summarize what they have learnt today, and teacher will do the supplements.
Use attributive clause to talk about the New Year which is in the corner.
Attributive Clause (the usage of that &which)
Good afternoon, dear teachers. I’m No.3 candidates, applying for senior high school English teacher. It’s my great honor to stand here and meet you all. Today, my topic is attributive clause---the usage of that and which. Now, I will begin my presentation.
Good afternoon, class. How are guys today? I am pretty good. Thank you for asking. Well, do you like Beijing? Yes, you all like it. Beijing is my hometown. Is Beijing a beautiful city? Yes, sure. Beijing is a beautiful city. Ok, do you know what Beijing famous is for? Peter please! The Forbidden City! I agree. And we have a long history, agree? So, Beijing has a long history. Ok, we have two sentences on the blackboard now.Can you guess how to combine them together?
Can you find the same part in these two sentences? Lily! Yes, it is Beijing.Now, I give you two words. They can be used at the second sentence, and replace Beijing. So, what do we get now? Ruby? Beijing is a beautiful city. Which/that has a long history. Very good! Then combine them together. Then we get the sentence “Beijing is a beautiful city which/that has a long history.” Now, we can see, the subordinate clause is“which/that has a long history” and it is used to describe “city” . It is called the attributive clause.
Let’s look at the difference between that and which. Please look at these two sentences on the ppt. The character Lin Daiyu (that) I like very much is disliked by others. Lijiang (which/that) I am going to visit is very beautiful. What do ‘that’ and ‘which’ refer to? Anna? ‘That’ refers to Lin Daiyu.
How about which? Elsa? ‘Which’ refers Lijiang. Excellent！But why I didn’t write which in the first sentence? Oh, you have no idea. Ok, It is because ‘that’ can refers to people and things, but which can only refer to things.
OK, I think you have already known how to combine the two sentences together. Then, please look at our PPT, we have four sentences on it. Can you try to combine them in 2 minutes? Remember the steps we learnt. Ok, He is the man. I saw him yesterday. who can give us your answer?
Sophia? Sophia said that “He is the man which I saw yesterday.” Is she right? no? Sophia, think it over. Yes, it’s “He is the man that I saw yesterday.”Because it is used to describe a person, so we can’t use “which”. Right?
Next. I have lost my bag. I like my bag very much. What’s your answer? Stone? Stone said “I have lost my bag that I like very much. “I can’t agree more. But do we have different ideas to the sentence? Our monitor,please! Yes, you said which. Bravo!
Here is two pictures. Let’s see what we can see in the picture. Yes, we can see so many beautiful flowers. And below the picture, there’s a half sentence, “ I can see so many flowers_____________. Now who can finish it? Iris? You said that “I can see so many flowers which are very beautiful.” Is she right? Yes, very good! Sit down please. And look at the second picture. What can you see? Yes, we can see Eiffel Tower. Where is the Eiffel Tower? Yes, it’s in Paris. Below the picture is a half sentence“This is the Eiffel Tower_________.” Who can fill it for me? Peter please.
Peter said that “This is the Eiffel Tower which is located in Paris.” Is he right? Yes. Any other idea? Rita said that we could use “that” to connect the sentence. Very good.
Ok, guys, I think you know how to use the word that or which to combine two sentences. Now, let’s play a guessing game. Four students in a group and make you own riddle. You can select the person or things in our classroom and make your own sentence. Other group will guess what you are talking about. Time is up, Everybody! Are you ready? Ok, group 4,please. Oh, you just said, he is a boy that is on duty today. Who knows the answer? Group 5, it’s Peter! Right! How about group 2? What’s your riddle? You said, she is a beautiful young lady that teaches us English! Oh, the riddle is so easy! It’s me! Am I right?
Excellent, class. Do you remember what we learnt today? Can you tell us? Alan? Hmm…you said we learnt attributive clause and that and which to connect sentences. I hope you can remember our structure of the attributive clause. In the process of learning always remember that unity is strength. If you can’t understand something. Just turn to your classmates for help.
Our homework is very easy. In a few days, there will be the National holiday, can you write a short passage using attributive clause to describe it? Ok, class is over!
That’s all for my presentation. Thank you for listening.