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Children's literature

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Contents
Articles
Overview
Children's literature Children's literature timeline Children's literature canon Children's literature criticism 1 1 12 13 14 17 17 29 35 35 49 49 50 59 69 87 89 91 100 100 112 119 124 128 139 145 145 158 165 168

Types of children's literature
Fairy tale Picture book Chapter book Young-adult fiction

Early Works
Orbis Pictus Brothers Grimm Hans Christian Andersen The Pilgrim's Progress A Little Pretty Pocket-Book The Governess, or The Little Female Academy Lessons for Children

19th Century Works
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There Little Women The Adventures of Tom Sawyer Adventures of Huckleberry Finn The Jungle Book

1900-1960 Works
The Wonderful Wizard of Oz The Tale of Peter Rabbit The Call of the Wild The Wind in the Willows

Peter and Wendy Winnie-the-Pooh Little House in the Big Woods The Hobbit The Little Prince Pippi Longstocking The Chronicles of Narnia The Cat in the Hat

175 184 192 196 210 222 228 246 252 252 258 262 269 274 277 297 309 318 318 338 342

Modern Works
James and the Giant Peach Where the Wild Things Are Charlie and the Chocolate Factory A Wizard of Earthsea Are You There God? It's Me, Margaret. Harry Potter A Series of Unfortunate Events Percy Jackson

Other Works
List of fairy tales List of children's classic books List of children's literature authors

References
Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 360 373

Article Licenses
License 376

1

Overview
Children's literature
Children's literature as such probably started in the 17th century; it is generally believed that before then books were written mainly for adults. Additionally, most printed works were hard to come by due to their cost and were mostly available for purchase only by upper class society. Scholarship on children's literature includes professional organizations, dedicated publications, and university courses.

Four children reading Dr. Seuss' How the Grinch Stole Christmas!

Defining children's literature
There is some debate on what constitutes children's literature. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child defines a child as "a human being below the age of 18 years unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier".[1] Books written by children Some books written for children, such as The Young Visiters by Daisy Ashford (aged nine) or the juvenilia of Jane Austen, written to amuse brothers and sisters, are also written by children. Anne Frank wrote a novel and many short stories in addition to her diary (which is not described as children's literature). Barbara Newhall Follett wrote four books, beginning with a novel called The House Without Windows at the age of nine; when the manuscript was destroyed in a fire, she rewrote it from memory. In 1937 two schoolchildren, Pamela Whitlock and Katharine Hull sent their manuscript of The Far-Distant Oxus to Arthur Ransome, who persuaded his publisher Jonathan Cape to produce it, characterising it as "the best children's book of 1937". In Daisy Ashford as a child 1941 The Swish of the Curtain written by Pamela Brown was published while Pamela Brown herself was still only 17 years old. Dorothy Straight's How the World Began and S.E. Hinton's The Outsiders are more recent examples of books written by children. Books written for children

Children's literature Children's literature is usually understood to comprise books intentionally written for children to read. Nancy Anderson, associate professor in the College of Education at the University of South Florida in Tampa,[2] defines children's literature as all books written for children, "excluding works such as comic books, joke books, cartoon books, and nonfiction works that are not intended to be read from front to back, such as dictionaries, encyclopedias, and other reference material".[3] Some of this work is also very popular among adults. J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter series was originally written and marketed for children, but it was so popular among children and adults that The New York Times created a separate bestseller list. Another work dating back to the Victorian Era is Charles Dicken's "A Christmas Carol". Both children and adults continue to enjoy this story and the lessons it teaches. Often no consensus is reached whether a given work is best categorized as adult or children's literature, and many books are marketed for both adults and children. Books chosen for children The most restrictive definition of children's literature are those books various authorities determine are "appropriate" for children, such as teachers, reviewers, scholars, parents, publishers, librarians, retailers, and the various book-award committees. Parents wishing to protect their children from the unhappier aspects of life often find the traditional fairy tales, nursery rhymes and other voyages of discovery problematic, because often the first thing a story does is remove the adult influence, leaving the central character to learn to cope on his or her own: prominent examples of this include Snow White, Hansel and Gretel, Bambi and A Series of Unfortunate Events. Many see such isolation of child characters from supporting adults as necessary preparation for the transition to adulthood. The school story became a common device for this, beginning with Tom Brown's Schooldays (1857) by Thomas Hughes and F.W. Farrar's Eric, or, Little by Little, although the framework had been explored as early as 1749 by Sarah Fielding in The Governess, or The Little Female Academy. Life begins for Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn in the Mark Twain stories (1876 and 1885) once Aunt Polly's ineffectual tutelage is shaken off. In the classic British novels Tom's Midnight Garden (Philippa Pearce, 1958) and Jessamy (Barbara Sleigh, 1967), for example, the responsibility is enhanced by isolating the child not just spatially, but in time, through the use of time slip. Arthur Ransome used the device of children acting for themselves extensively in his Swallows and Amazons series (1930–48) and included poignant discussion of it (the "duffer" question in Swallows and Amazons and Swallowdale). Books chosen by children

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Children's literature

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The broadest definition of children's literature applies to books that are actually selected and read by children. Children choose many books, such as comics, which some would not consider to be literature at all in the traditional sense; they also choose literary classics and recognized great works by modern writers, and often enjoy stories which speak on multiple levels. In the opinion of novelist Orson Scott Card, "one can make a good case for the idea that children are often the guardians of the truly great literature of the world, for in their love of story and unconcern for stylistic fads and literary tricks, children unerringly gravitate toward truth and power."[4] Someone who enjoyed Alice's Adventures in Wonderland as a child may come back to the text as an adult and see the darker themes that were lost on them as younger readers. In addition, many classic books that were originally intended for adults are now commonly thought of as works for children. Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn was originally intended for an adult audience.[5] Today it is widely read as a part of children's school curriculum in the United States.
Huckleberry Finn

Types of children's literature
Children's literature can be divided in many ways. Children's literature by genres A literary genre is a category of literary composition. Genres may be determined by technique, tone, content, or length. Nancy Anderson, associate professor in the College of Education at the University of South Florida in Tampa,[2] has delineated six major categories of children's literature, with some significant subgenres:[6] 1. Picture books, including board books, concept books (teaching an alphabet or counting), pattern books, and wordless books 2. Traditional literature: there are ten characteristics of traditional literature: (1) unknown authorship, (2) conventional introductions and conclusions, (3) vague settings, (4) stereotyped characters, (5) anthropomorphism, (6) cause and effect, (7) happy ending for the hero, (8) magic accepted as normal, (9) brief stories with simple and direct plots, and (10) repetition of action and verbal patterns.[7] The bulk of traditional Literature consists of folktales, which conveys the legends, customs, superstitions, and beliefs of people in past times. This large genre can be further broken down into subgenres: myths, fables, ballads, folk music, legends, and fairy tales.[8] 3. Fiction, including the sub-genres of fantasy and realistic fiction (both contemporary and historical). This genre would also include the school story, a genre unique to children's literature in which the boarding school is a common setting. 4. Non-fiction 5. Biography, including autobiography 6. Poetry and verse. Children's literature by age category Children's literature is an age category opposite adult literature, but it is sub-divided further due to the divergent interests of children age 0–18. • Picture books appropriate for pre-readers ages 0–5. Caldecott Medal winners often (but not always) fall within this category. • Early Reader Books appropriate for children age 5–7. These books are often designed to help a child build his or her reading skills.

Children's literature • Chapter book appropriate for children ages 7–11. • Short chapter books, appropriate for children ages 7–9. • Longer chapter books, appropriate for children ages 9–12. Newbery Medal winners often (but not always) fall within this category. • Young-adult fiction appropriate for children age 13–18. The criteria for these divisions are vague, and books near a borderline may be classified either way. Books for younger children tend to be written in very simple language, use large print, and have many illustrations. Books for older children use increasingly complex language, normal print, and fewer, if any, illustrations. Series Book series are common in all literary genres, and children's literature is no exception. Sometimes the success of a book for children prompts the author to continue the story in a sequel or to launch a series, such as L. Frank Baum's Wizard of Oz. Enid Blyton and R. L. Stine have specialized in open-ended series. Sometimes a series will outlive its author; when Baum died, his publisher hired Ruth Plumly Thompson to write more Oz books. The Nancy Drew series and others were written by several authors using the same pen name.

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Illustrations
Children's books are often illustrated, sometimes lavishly, in a way that is rarely used for adult literature except in the illustrated novel genre popular especially in Japan, Korea and France. Generally, the artwork plays a greater role in books intended for the youngest readers (especially pre-literate children). Children's picture books can be a cognitively accessible source of high quality art for young children. Many authors work with a preferred artist who illustrates their words; others create books together, and some illustrators write their own books. Even after children attain sufficient levels of literacy to enjoy the story without illustrations, they continue to appreciate the occasional drawings found in chapter books. Folklore is the oldest of stories including nursery rhymes, folktales, myths, epics, legends, fables, songs, and ballads that have been passed down by storytellers for hundreds, even thousands, of years to enlighten and entertain generations of listeners, young and old. (Literature and the Child, 7th edition, Lee Galda, Bernice E. Cullian, and Lawrence R. Sipe, p. 175).
"The Journey": illustration by Elizabeth Shippen Green for a series of poems by Josephine Preston Peabody, entitled "The Little Past", which relate experiences of childhood from a child's perspective.

History

It is difficult to trace the history of literature specifically for children to a precise starting point. Literature mainly for readers and listeners up to about age 12 is detailed below. Literature for older children includes Tom Sawyer, Anne of Green Gables, the Hardy Boys mysteries, The Jinx Ship and its sea story sequels, the Nancy Drew mysteries, The Hobbit and the Lord of the Rings trilogy, Lassie Come Home, The Black Stallion and its sequels, the Harry Potter fantasy series, and the His Dark Materials fantasy trilogy. 15th Century

"[9] Popular examples of this growing branch included Thomas Day's The History of Sandford and Merton (1783-9) . but children have been fascinated by these stories for centuries. His stories include Little Red Riding Hood. Thomas Malory's Morte d'Arthur (1486) and the tales of Robin Hood (c. Puss in Boots. Sleeping Beauty. The Snow Queen (1845) and others. Also in 1865. because the friend needs the prize more.[11] One of many didactic An English writer popular in the first half of the nineteenth century was Maria Elizabeth Budden. Mary Mapes Dodge published Hans Brinker. usually French or Italian. mainly in the fantasy genre. 1450) were not written with children in mind.and Maria and Richard Lovell Edgeworth's Practical Education: The History of Harry and Lucy (1780). Charles Perrault (1628–1703) laid the foundations of the fairy tale in France. 17th Century In 1658 Jan Ámos Komenský published the illustrated informational book Orbis Pictus in Bohemia. The Ugly Duckling (1844).J. Rapunzel. and Cinderella. He sold it with a ball for boys or a pincushion for girls. Harvey Darton. "a clear but subordinate branch of English literature. and Hansel and Gretel (1812). The Tale of the Fisherman and the Fish (1833). books written specifically for the use of children outside of school had become. literature marketed for children had been intended to instruct the young. The Tale of the Dead Princess (1833). the story of a Dutch boy who seeks a speed skating prize--silver skates--in a boy's race. or the Silver Skates. 18th Century In 1744 John Newbery published A Little Pretty Pocket-Book in England. The tale plays with logic in ways that have given the story lasting popularity to adults as well as children. It is considered to be the first picture book published specifically for children.Children's literature Some stories which became popular among children were written in the 15th Century. though there was a rich oral tradition of storytelling for children and adults. Hans lets a friend win. The Emperor's New Clothes (1837). and its narrative course and structure has been enormously influential. which urged children to teach themselves. It is considered a landmark for the beginning of pleasure reading marketed specifically to children. Also during this time. Wilhelm (left) and Jakob Grimm (right) from an 1855 Between 1835 and 1848 Hans Christian Andersen (1805–1875) of painting by Elisabeth Jerichau-Baumann Denmark published his beloved fairy tales: The Little Mermaid (1836). according to F. such as Snow White. Previously. Recent research suggests that many such tales were based ultimately on written materials. 5 In 1865 Lewis Carroll (1832–1898) published Alice's Adventures in Wonderland in England. His fairy tales have been translated into over 150 languages and continue to be published in millions of copies all over the world and inspired many other works. During Andersen's lifetime he was feted by royalty and acclaimed for having brought joy to children across Europe. . The Tale of the Golden Cockerel (1834). It is considered to be one of the most characteristic examples of the genre of literary nonsense. From 1830 to 1834 Russian poet Alexander Pushkin published his Russian folklore-based fairy tales in verse: The Tale of the Priest and of His Workman Balda (1830).[10] 19th Century In the early 19th century the brothers Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm wrote down and preserved tales told by oral tradition in Germany.which embodies many of the educational and philosophical tenets espoused by Jean-Jacques Rousseau . The Tale of Tsar Saltan (1831).[12] "The emperor's new clothes" and "ugly duckling" are expressions that have passed into the English language. But by the time William Blake's Songs of Innocence was published in 1789.

6 . It has been constantly in print since. 20th Century In 1902 Beatrix Potter published The Tale of Peter Rabbit. In 1899 Helen Bannerman published Little Black Sambo. The subtitle declared that it is a book "for children and those who love children". a collection of stories about a boy who lives in the jungle with animals. In 1898 Albert Bigelow Paine wrote the first of his three Hollow Tree books. a mischievous and disobedient young rabbit. that has been made into a series of animated and live-action film adaptations. foods. In 1883 Robert Louis Stevenson wrote the classic pirate adventure novel Treasure Island. as one of the most famous phrases from the book says. Other authors continued the series for decades. McGregor. namely. where he spent his time in the River Thames doing much as the animal characters in his book do. suffer the consequences of their abuse--melting into butter and being eaten on pancakes. In 1883 Carlo Collodi wrote his puppet story. a collection of stories narrated by the fictional storyteller Uncle Remus and featuring Br'er Rabbit and other animals speaking African-American dialect. It is one of the best-known stories in American culture and has been translated into 40 languages. and its influence on popular perception of pirates is vast. and also a wry commentary on the ambiguity of morality—as seen in Long John Silver. videos and other products made available. it is an adventure tale known for its atmosphere. "simply messing about in boats" for his son. In 1881 Joel Chandler Harris (1845–1908) published Uncle Remus. clothing. as he ventures into the garden of Mr. The Hollow Tree and Deep Woods Book. dishes. Potter was one of the first to be responsible for such merchandise when she patented a Peter Rabbit doll in 1903. Frank Baum (1856–1919) published The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.Children's literature In 1880 Johanna Spyri (1827–1901) published Heidi (1880) in Switzerland. He moved to the country. that follows Peter Rabbit. Traditionally considered a coming-of-age story. In 1894 Rudyard Kipling published The Jungle Book. This was followed in 1901 by the Hollow Tree Snowed-in Book and in 1915 by Hollow Tree Days and Nights. at the end of the story. It is one of the most frequently dramatised of all novels. In 1900 L. the story of a boy abused by four tigers who. In 1908 Kenneth Grahame wrote The Wind in the Willows from his retired position as secretary of the Bank of England. The Adventures of Pinocchio as a first Italian fantasy novel for the children of Italy. character and action. Its success led Baum to write thirteen sequels. The book has generated considerable merchandise over the decades since its release with toys.

the French edition of the first of seven Babar the elephant stories. S. the story of a barnyard spider and her animal friends. Virginia. and has been adapted several times. Seuss book. The Chronicles of Narnia has sold over 120 million copies in 41 languages. In 1920 Hugh Lofting wrote The Story of Dr. the series borrows characters and ideas from Greek and Roman mythology. In 1945 Marguerite Henry published Misty of Chincoteague. magically refuses to grow up and spends his never-ending childhood in the small island called Neverland. followed in 1928. the book is the story of an undersized anthropomorphic switch engine that successfully accepts a challenging job turned down by bigger. Peter and Wendy In 1931 Jean de Brunhoff published Histoire de Babar. Though based on a real pony named Misty who was born and raised on Chincoteague. White published Charlotte's Web. Travers wrote Mary Poppins. . writing under the pen name Dr. The books were also adapted into a long running. the story of a gentle Spanish bull who refused to accept his appointed role as a bull ring combatant. Doolittle books. Milne wrote Winnie-the-Pooh. wrote Stuart Little. semi-anthropomorphic mouse who sailed a tiny boat and drove a tiny car. the first of a long series of books about a magical nanny and the children she shepherded. for radio. Seuss. Written by Arnold Munk under the pen name Watty Piper and adapted from earlier stories by other authors dating back to 1906. Little House on the Prairie. more Pooh stories. wrote the first and best known of his Dr. In 1926 A.Children's literature 7 In 1911 J. pony who is tamed and domesticated on nearby Chincoteague Island. chapter stories about an adorable bumbling teddy bear. A few years later. Doolittle. complete or in part. The House at Pooh Corner. White (co-author of Strunk and White's The Elements of Style). his best friend Piglet. The books have remained continuously in print since their initial publication and are considered classics of American children's literature. and cinema. as well as from traditional British and Irish fairy tales. the story alters Misty's birth island and domestic heritage. the story of a wild Assateague Island. popular American television series. In 1930 The Little Engine That Could was published. stage. English versions titled The Story of Babar were published in Britain and the United States in 1933. one of the most famous characters in children's literature. Also in 1957. the first of ten Dr. In 1933 Laura Ingalls Wilder (1867–1957) published the first installment of the Little House on the Prairie series in the United States based on her childhood in a Western-pioneering family. How the Grinch Stole Christmas. television. B. was published. A. In 1934 Pamela L. In 1957 Theodore Seuss Geisel. Several sequels followed. main-line engines: hauling a load of toys over a mountain to children on the other side. the next best known Dr. the story of an intelligent. In 1950 C. in 1952. Lewis (1898–1963) published the first of installment of his Chronicles of Narnia series in the UK. Seuss books: The Cat in the Hat. The last Mary Poppins book was published in 1989. They remain widely read. In 1936 Munro Leaf wrote The Story of Ferdinand. In addition to numerous traditional Christian themes. and other animal characters.M Barrie (1860–1937) published Peter and Wendy where Peter Pan. In 1945 E. Several of them were named Newbery Honor books.

a period. and (3) education (Wolf.. The main characters are Harry Potter.. The focus of the 1999 Trejo Foster Institute for Hispanic Library Education was Library Services for Youth of Hispanic Heritage. Hermione Granger and Ronald Weasley. Research from a Library & Information Science Perspective: The field of Library and Information Science has a long history of conducting research related to children's literature. two mice who. In 1990 Joanne (J. all leading up to an epic battle between good and evil. The highly regarded research journals that publish literary studies in children's Dutch writer Anne de Vries literature include Children's Literature Association Quarterly. children's literature scholars from literature departments in universities (English. Charlie wins a prize--the chocolate factory! In 1964 Louise Fitzhugh wrote Harriet the Spy. At the end of the story. (2) library and information science. German. and International Research in Children's Literature. ) concern. children's out-of-school reading or parents' use of children's books. for example. There has historically been little overlap between the topics studied or the methodologies used to conduct research in each of these fields. along with the lazy cat Sampson. a genre. the story of an 11 year old girl who gets into trouble by spying on her neighbors. but recently more attention has been paid to how scholars from across disciplines might collaborate. Children's Literature. Research from a Literary Perspective: Typically. the first of a series of twelve Church Mouse books extending until 2000.Children's literature In 1964 Roald Dahl wrote Charlie and the Chocolate Factory.K.g. She ultimately becomes editor of the school newspaper.) or topical (e. The main characters are Arthur and Humphrey.g. operate in England's Anglican Church of Saint John. The results of this type research are typically published as books or articles in scholarly journals. The Lion and the Unicorn. study home settings. departments) conduct literary analyses of books. a thematic (e. titles from the series spent six weeks at number one and helped the Penguin Group post record profits in a tough economy. These studies are considered literary criticism analyses and may focus on an author.g.) Rowling wrote The Harry Potter Series. et al.. 21st Century In 2001. Spanish. Children's Literature in Education. etc. in which capacity she makes amends for earlier remarks that alienated people. 2011). In 1972 Graham Oakley wrote The Church Mouse. Eoin Colfer (born 1965) published the first installment of his Artemis Fowl series in Ireland. as well as how each field of study contributes unique information and theories to scholarship related to children's literature. and friends. language departments). classmates. in which 3 characters embark on new adventures across 7 books. however. In 2008. ). or a literary device (e. . Some educational researchers. the story of Charlie Bucket's adventures inside Willy Wonka's chocolate factory.[13] 8 Scholarship Scholarship in children's literature written in or translated into English is primarily conducted in three different disciplinary fields: (1) literary studies (English departments.. [14] Research from an Education Perspective: Most educational researchers studying children's literature explore issues related to the use of children's literature in classroom settings.

Children's literature Educational Application Children's literature has long been used by good teachers to augment classroom instruction providing a meaning-centered application for one of education's richest resources . • The Philippines: The Carlos Palanca Memorial Award for Literature for Short Story for Children in English and Filipino Language (Maikling Kathang Pambata) since 1989 and Children's Poetry in English and Filipino Language since 2009. National Centre for Research in Children's Literature. Other notable awards are the National Book Award for Young People's Literature and the Orbis Pictus Award for excellence in the writing of nonfiction for children. . Printz Award for writing for teens. the other components of a story may be introduced. These include the Blue Spruce (grades K-2) Silver Birch Express (grades 3–4). using a children's literature is an effective means to introduce the parts of a story to students (characters. IBBY Canada offers a number of annual awards. By grade 5. setting. • Online: the Cybils Awards. When introducing fiction to young readers. Theodor Seuss Geisel Award for beginning readers. The major awards are given by the Philippine Board on Books for Young People. • United States: the major awards are given by the American Library Association Association for Library Service to Children. 9 Awards Some noted awards for children's literature are: • Australia: the Children's Book Council of Australia runs a number of annual CBCA book awards • Canada: the Governor General's Literary Award for Children's Literature and Illustration (English and French). students are able to grasp more complicated concepts. and the Manitoba Young Readers Choice Awards. the Library Association Youth Libraries Group. the Willow Awards in Saskatchewan. are the first major series of book awards given by children's and young adult book bloggers. Programs in other provinces include The Red Cedar and Stellar Awards in B. • Internationally: the Hans Christian Andersen Award. • United Kingdom and Commonwealth: the Carnegie Medal for writing and the Kate Greenaway Medal for illustration. and conclusion. Culture. the Nestlé Smarties Book Prize. Sibert Medal for informational. The Pilar Perez Medallion for Young Adult Literature (2001 and 2002). The Gawad Komisyon para sa Kuwentong Pambata (Commission Award for Children's Literature in Filipino) and the National Book Award (given by the Manila Critics' Circle) for Outstanding Production in Children's Books and Young Adult Literature.. Silver Birch (grades 5–6) Red Maple (grades 7–8) and White Pine (High School) in Ontario. plot.children's literature. For our youngest students. They include the PBBY-Salanga Writer's Prize for excellence in writing and the PBBY-Alcala Illustrator's Prize for excellence in illustration. The Ceres Alabado Award for Outstanding Contribution in Children's Literature. the Gintong Aklat Award (Golden Book Award). Caldecott Medal for illustration. and the Belpre Medal for work by a Latino writer.C. or Children's and Young Adult Bloggers' Literary Awards. such as theme. and the Guardian Award. Michael L. introduction. the teacher may elect to start out with only characters. A number of the provinces' school boards and library associations also run popular "children's choice" awards where candidate books are read and championed by individual schools and classrooms. and conclusion). on a basis level of understanding. Coretta Scott King Award for work by an African-American writer. introduction. the Astrid Lindgren Memorial Award and the Ilustrarte Bienale for children's book illustration (Barreiro. the International Research Society for Children's Literature. Batchelder Award for works in translation. Scholarly associations & centers: the Children's Literature Association. As the students become more proficient. Media (CIRCL). Golden Kite Award in various categories from the SCBWI. IBBY Canada and Centre for International Research in Childhood: Literature. Portugal). They include the Newbery Medal for writing. theme. the Society of Children's Book Writers and Illustrators the Irish Society for the Study of Children's Literature. Laura Ingalls Wilder Medal for impact over time.

Karin (1996). [5] Liukkonen. pub. Retrieved 2009-03-03. Retrieved 2009-03-03. booktrade. Orson Scott (November 5. com/ books?id=z7Q9AAAAIAAJ& pg=PA1& dq=books+ written+ specifically+ for+ the+ use+ of+ children+ outside+ of+ school+ had+ become& ei=1menS_jiOJPyzATkqvXbCA& cd=1#v=onepage& q=books written specifically for the use of children outside of school had become& f=false) [11] See Ruth Bottigheimer: Fairy tales. History Today. "Mark Twain" (http:/ / www. [3] Anderson 2006. Uncle Orson Reviews Everything. Jefferson. International Companion Encyclopedia of Children's Literature. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. com/ osc/ reviews/ everything/ 2001-11-05. Children's Literature: New Approaches.. Peter (1996). • Chapleau. Phaidon (1975) ISBN 0-7148-1636-1 [13] "Penguin Group Announces Record 2008 Profits" (http:/ / www. ISBN 1403917388. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0415088569.: McFarland. New Voices in Children's Literature Criticism. pp. 31 December 2003. org/ en/ convention/ Convention_Rights_Child. London: Routledge. . (http:/ / www. Charlotte (2001). • Lesnik-Oberstein. Book Trade Announcements. php/ showarticle/ 20011) (Press release).Children's literature 10 Notes [1] “Convention on the Rights of the Child” (http:/ / www. Barbara Froling. 1984). "Hogwarts" (http:/ / www. Peter (ed. google. 2000. • Lesnik-Oberstein. [9] Leader. Sebastien (2004). Retrieved 2009-03-03. Theory. Basingstoke: Palgrave. Library services to youth of Hispanic heritage. ISBN 0415088569.C. p. hatrack. Reading Blake's Songs. htm). and Kathleen de la Peña McCook. hakani. . • Rose. New York: McGraw-Hill. Monday 2 March 2009. pp. • Wolf. Criticism. 2001). Lichfield: Pied Piper Publishing. ISBN 9780415965064. Nancy (2006). Shelby (2010). Elementary Children's Literature. Children's Literature in the Elementary School. p. International Companion Encyclopedia of Children's Literature. Toggle expanding/contracting information section Harvard (18th ed. Petri (2008). Hatrack River Enterprises Inc. fi/ mtwain. ISBN 0812214358. 89. EdD" (http:/ / www.3 (http:/ / books. Hans Christian Andersen: the story of his life and work 1805–75. "Defining Children's Literature and Childhood". info/ index. Boston: Pearson Education. 17–31. Zachary. 7th ed. Karin (1994). Cambridge: Routledge.) References • Anderson. ISBN 9780954638443. google. ISBN 0205452299. pdf) The Policy Press. London: Routledge. kirjasto. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights [2] "Biography of Nancy A. Jacqueline (1993. Karin (2004). • Lesnik-Oberstein. [8] Anderson 2006. • Hunt. Retrieved 3 March 2011.1 (http:/ / books. com/ ). com/ books?id=z7Q9AAAAIAAJ& pg=PA1& dq=books+ written+ specifically+ for+ the+ use+ of+ children+ outside+ of+ school+ had+ become& ei=1menS_jiOJPyzATkqvXbCA& cd=1#v=onepage& q=books written specifically for the use of children outside of school had become& f=false) [10] Leader. Oxford: Blackwell. p. Reading Blake's Songs. orig. N. nancyaanderson. Anderson. ISBN 0072322284. [14] Immroth. . Retrieved 2009-03-03. ISBN 0198119984. p. Peter (1991). 2. 84–85. Handbook of Research in Children's and Young Adult Literature. [6] Anderson 2006 [7] Anderson 2006. ISBN 0631162313. com/ ruth-bottigheimer/ fairy-tales-old-wives-and-printing-presses) [12] Elias Bredsdorff. sci. historytoday. Subscription required.). Children's Literature: Criticism and the Fictional Child. old wives and printing presses. . [4] Card. In Hunt. • Hunt. . Zachary. The Case of Peter Pan or the Impossibility of Children's Fiction. and Children's Literature. shtml). • Huck.

com:The) The Society of Children's Book Writers and Illustrators (http://www. 4 vls.]: Oxford Univ.childrensliteraturenetwork.co.org/catalog/world/results?subject=Children) at Project Gutenberg ( more (http://www. 2006.org) • Children's Literature Research Collections (http://special.php?CISOROOT=/HistChldBks) provides online access to children's books from the 20th and 19th centuries.edu/clrc/).childrenslibrary.org. Sutherland Sub branch – literacy in children and young adults of the Sutherland Shire (http://www. Press.arnenixoncenter. Oxford [etc.umn.com). • Small World Books – children's literature from around the world (http://www.nz) • Arne Nixon Center for the Study of Children's Literature (http://www.edu/ cdm4/collection. at the University of Minnesota • Baldwin Digital Library of Children's Literature (http://www.gutenberg.org) Popular Children's Book for Teaching Chinese (http://www.edu/UFDC/UFDC. External links • International Children's Digital Library (http://www.litland.com Review of Children's Literature against character education guidelines (http://www. a Wikia-hosted wiki about children's literature.mandyandpandy.org/) Repository of 2.goethe.org) Children's Literature Network (http://www.aspx?c=juv) • Children's Books Wiki (http://childrensbooks.org) The academic discipline of Children Literature of ZJNU in China (http://www.cbcasutherland.itsasmallworld.com) CBI Clubhouse. ed.uflib.gutenberg.bsu.ufl.lib. Informational Site for Children's Book Writers (http://www.cn/) Children's Book Council of Australia (CBCA).htm) • • • • • • • International Board on Books for Young People (http://www. by Jack Zipes.au/) • Litland.ibby.scbwi.com) • The Ball State University Digital Media Repository Historic Children's Book collection (http://libx. .org/catalog/world/results?locc=PZ)) • German Children and Young Adult Literature Portal.Children's literature 11 Further reading • The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature. • Children's eTexts (http://www.chchc.de/kue/lit/prj/kju/ enindex.827 children's books in 48 languages viewable over the Internet.wikia.cbiclubhouse. Goethe-Institut (http://www.

• The Jungle Book (1894) by Rudyard Kipling. the first true school story. the Witch and the Wardrobe (1950) by C. • The Lion. • To Kill a Mockingbird (1962) by Harper Lee: Pulitzer for book market to children. also seminal work on race. Tolkien. K. in print for over a century. • Maggie Goes on a Diet (2011) by Paul Kramer: Insperational book for children who are over weight. Lewis. written for early readers.and early nineteenth-century writing for children. • Five on a Treasure Island is published in 1942 by Enid Blyton. Hans Christian Andersen and Andrew Lang.Children's literature timeline 12 Children's literature timeline Timeline of turning points in children's literature • Orbis Pictus (1658) by John Amos Comenius: Earliest picturebook specifically for children. • The Pilgrim's Progress from This World to That Which Is to Come by John Bunyan (1678): many later children's fantasies were modeled on this Christian allegory. and Joyful Deaths of several Young Children (1672) by James Janeway: One of the first books specifically written for children which shaped much eighteenth. and sequels.e. and stiring controversy before being released. though several of the classic tales are gruesome and were not originally collected for children.R. pro-slavery) bias. • The Lord of the Rings (1954–1955) by J. • Lessons for Children (1778-9) by Anna Laetitia Barbauld: The first series of age-adapted reading primers for children printed with large text and wide margins. Worldwide popularity caused resurgence of interest in children's literature. Holy and Exemplary Lives. . • A Little Pretty Pocket-Book (1744) by John Newbery: Earliest marketing tie-in and storybook marketed as pleasure reading in English • The Governess. Being An Exact Account of the Conversion. Cozans (1853): First known children's novel to feature racial (i. one of the bestselling books of all time and one of the most widely translated works of literature. S. • Tom Brown's Schooldays (1857) by Thomas Hughes. • Fairy tale collections are one of the earliest forms of published fiction that have never lost their charm for children.R. Seuss: First high quality limited-vocabulary book. Famous collectors and retellers of Fairy Tales include Charles Perrault. Rowling. • Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (1997) by J. worldwide publishing phenomenon. • Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865) by Lewis Carroll: Early surrealism and extensive criticism of didacticism. • Struwwelpeter (1845) by Heinrich Hoffmann (published in English as Slovenly Peter): One of the earliest examples of grotesque humor as well as of modern picturebook design. • Little Eva: The Flower of the South by Philip J. • A Token for Children. • Swallows and Amazons (1930) by Arthur Ransome. the brothers Grimm. • The Cat in the Hat (1957) by Dr. started trend of outdoor holiday adventures. or The Little Female Academy (1749) by Sarah Fielding: Often described as the first novel for children.

Early Twentieth Century • The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1900) by L. Milne. • The Chronicles Of Narnia (1949–1954) by C. selected. Lewis • The Cat in the Hat (1957) by Dr. S. • The Wind in the Willows (1908) by Kenneth Grahame • Anne of Green Gables (1908) by Lucy Maud Montgomery • Peter and Wendy (1911) by J. • The Call of the Wild (1903) by Jack London: Inspired by the high adventure of the Yukon gold rush. • The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876) by Mark Twain. Barrie (better known as Peter Pan) • Winnie-the-Pooh (1926) and The House at Pooh Corner (1928) by A. Treasure Island (1883) by Robert Louis Stevenson. M. One of the earliest fantasy books where children go to another world. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884) by Mark Twain. in which the majority of books are written. R. English: The Little Prince) by Antoine de Saint-Exupéry • Pippi Longstocking (1944) by Astrid Lindgren. published in a miniature format. Important Children's Books Nineteenth Century • Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865) and its sequel Through the Looking-Glass (1871) by Lewis Carroll: early surrealism and children's novels as pleasurable and non-didactic. • The Tale of Peter Rabbit (1902) by Beatrix Potter. The first in her series of 23 animal stories. R. A. the validity of defining a canon of worthy or renowned works in children's literature is hotly debated.Children's literature canon 13 Children's literature canon As with adult literature. Tolkien: an early example of the modern lighthearted quest fantasy • Le Petit Prince (1943. • Little Women (1868) by Louisa May Alcott. published. • • • • The Adventures of Pinocchio (1883) by Carlo Collodi. the children's literature canon is extremely powerful in influencing the books actually read. Seuss: First high quality limited-vocabulary book. Due to the didactic nature of much children's publishing. Nevertheless. • Little House in the Big Woods (1932) and sequels by Laura Ingalls Wilder • The Hobbit or There and Back Again (1937) by J. Frank Baum. • Max and Moritz (1865) by Wilhelm Busch. and taught by adults but consumed by children [1] . later expanded into a series of books which were tremendously popular in America during the first half of the twentieth century. The Jungle Book (1894) by Rudyard Kipling: a collection of several stories. written for early readers . many books have had enormous impact on publishing history and are still in print today.

Other critics (for instance. including Orientalism (Nodelman 1992). and Roderick McGillis (1996)) take this idea a step further and argue that children are often "colonized" by adults. Rowling References [1] Nodelman. John Stephens (1992). Perry Nodelman (1992). • Are You There. children's literature criticism became involved with wider work in literary theory and cultural studies. Construction of the child Many children's literature critics now point out that children are not one group. a few critics. and so on. The critics often disagreed about what books they think children would like. Some academics consider young adult literature to be included under the rubric of 'children's literature.K. Approaches Child focused Early children's literature critics aimed to learn how children read literature specifically (rather than the mechanics of reading itself) so that they could recommend "good books" for children. librarians and other educationalists. However.' Nearly every school of theoretical thought has been applied to children's literature. Perry (1992). Children's literature criticism The term children's literature criticism includes both generalist discussions of the relationship between children's literature and literary theory and literary analyses of a specific works of children's literature. ethnicity. and which books are therefore "good" for them. Lesnik-Oberstein. the later books explored the role of gender in fantasy and power. but differ according to gender. Margaret (1970) by Judy Blume. Feminist children's literature critics such as Lissa Paul (1987) therefore try to work out how boys and girls read differently. the discipline has expanded to include other modes of analysis. These early critics were often teachers. Children's Literature Association Quarterly 17: 29–35. and sequels broke ground for epic fantasy in several ways: the first book had a non-white hero.Children's literature canon 14 Since 1960 • • • • • James and the Giant Peach (1961) by Roald Dahl The Phantom Tollbooth (1961) by Norton Juster Where the Wild Things Are (1963) by Maurice Sendak Charlie and the Chocolate Factory (1964) by Roald Dahl A Wizard of Earthsea (1968) by Ursula K. God? It's Me. for instance. post-structuralism (Rose. because adults speak on behalf of children instead of letting children express themselves. Colonialism. 1994) and many others. Though many critics are still child-centric. and Children's Literature". these critics too can not agree on what then are "true" children expressing themselves. and the quest structure isn't good vs. Peter Hunt (1991). most commonly reader response (Chambers 1980) and new criticism. approached puberty more openly than children's books had in the past. evil but balance. notably . feminist theory (Paul 1987). • Harry Potter (1997) by J. see historical overviews by Hunt (1991) and McGillis (1997)). However. Finally. and why. religious background. 1984. postmodernism (Stevenson 1994). including children's literature critics. Le Guin. and about which books will be "good" for children and why. other schools have been applied in controversial and influential ways. structuralism (Neumeyer 1977). As children's literature criticism started developing as an academic discipline (roughly in the past thirty years or so. "The Other: Orientalism.

ISBN 0-8203-1271-1.). Childhood. see Jenkins.Children's literature criticism Jacqueline Rose (1984) and Karin Lesnik-Oberstein (1994 and 2004) take this discussion even further. Aidan (1980). and that in the case of an identity such as "childhood" it is created by "adults" in the light of their own perceptions of themselves. Metuchen: Scarecrow. London: Palgrave. Colonialism. Criticism. • Nodelman. Perry (1996). • Lesnik-Oberstein.Parpola P. while Rose explores the identifying characteristics of the genre. This post-structuralist approach is similar to that argued by critics in gender studies such as Judith Butler and is widely accepted and used in sociological and anthropological studies of childhood (Jenks 1996. 2nd ed.Carpelan. Peter (1991). For more analysis of children's culture in general. "The Other: Orientalism. The Signal Approach to Children's Books. Perry (1992). • Nodelman. 2005. Children's Literature: Criticism and the Fictional Child. ISBN 0-415-08856-9. pp. The Nimble Reader: Literary Theory and Children's Literature. "A Structural Approach to the Study of Literature for Children". Allison James and Alan Prout (1997). • Neumeyer. • Mackey. Signal 53: 186–201. • Hunt. Chris (1996). The Case of Peter Rabbit: Changing Conditions of Literature for Children. ISBN 0-8013-1576-X. Nodelman (1990) looks at the synthesis of text and illustration in picturebooks. Margaret (1998). New York: New York UP. For literature in particular as cultural artifact. Theory. "adulthood" defines "childhood" in relation to differences and similarities it perceives to itself. Perry. Theorizing Childhood. International Companion Encyclopedia of Children's Literature. • Nodelman. . References • Chambers. Georgia Press. In C. Oxford: Clarendon Press. • Paul. is a product consumed like other aspects of children's culture: video games. see Mackey. Jenks. James and Prout 1997). Children's Literature: New Approaches. Karin (1994).Koskikallio (ed. That is. • McGillis. Karin (2004). New York: Longman. examining the text as text without focus on audience. Stephens and McCallum (1998) discuss the intertextuality of children's literature. New York: Twayne Publishers. and Children's Literature". ISBN 0-631-16231-3. Peter (1977). television. Roderick (1996). "The Reader in the Book". Ga: U. Henry (1998). Retrieved October 26. Peter (1996). Oxford: Blackwell. Lissa (1987). Cultural studies focus Culture studies scholars investigate children's literature as an aspect of culture. Athens. "Bibliography of Children's Literature Criticism" [1].1 15 Textual focus Many scholars approach children's literature from the perspective of literary studies. arguing that identities are created and not "inherent". "Enigma Variations: What Feminist Theory Knows about Children's Literature". London: Routledge. London: Routledge. The Children's Culture Reader. The Pleasures of Children's Literature. Children's literature. and Children's Literature. A. Words About Pictures: The Narrative Art of Children's Picture Books. Chris. Children's Literature Association Quarterly 17: 29–35. • Lesnik-Oberstein. • Hunt. • Jenks. Elementary English 44: 883–887. and the like. • Nodelman. in this light. • Jenkins. New York and London: Garland. Perry (1990). Oxford: Blackwells. • Jenks. 250–275.

John (1992). It Won't Tell You Anything': Postmodernism. The Case of Peter Pan or the Impossibility of Children's Fiction. org/ [4] http:/ / www. ac. • Stephens. Deborah (1994). Retelling Stories. childlitassn. • Stevenson. uk/ [5] http:/ / www. ac. ca/ ~nodelman/ resources/ allbib. uwinnipeg. rdg. ac. ncrcl. New York: Garland. Jacqueline (1992 (originally published 1984)). • Stephens. 16 External links • • • • Centre for International Research in Childhood: Literature. "'If You Read This Last Sentence. Self-Referentiality. London: Longman. uk/ news. Framing Culture: Traditional Story and Metanarratives in Children's Literature. and The Stinky Cheese Man". Culture. htm [2] http:/ / www. Signal 19: 32–34. Media (CIRCL) [2] Children's Literature Association [3] National Centre for Research in Children's Literature [4] The International Research Society for Children's Literature [5] References [1] http:/ / io. uk/ circl/ [3] http:/ / www. John and Robyn McCallum (1998).Children's literature criticism • Rose. irscl. htm . Language and Ideology in Children's Fiction. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

are still written today.17 Types of children's literature Fairy tale A fairy tale is a type of short story that typically features folkloric characters. In cultures where demons and witches are perceived as real. but no school has been definitively established for the meaning of the tales. in multiple cultures around the world. and events. The older fairy tales were intended for an audience of adults. In less technical contexts. such as fairies. as in "fairy tale ending" (a happy ending)[2] or "fairy tale romance" (though not all fairy tales end happily). as well as children. they take place once upon a time rather than in actual times. Many of today's fairy tales have evolved from centuries-old stories that have appeared. a "fairy tale" or "fairy story" can also mean any far-fetched story or tall tale.[4] Fairy tales. Colloquially. people.[3] 1865 illustration of Tom Thumb and the Giant Fairy tales are found in oral and in literary form. the evidence of literary works at least indicates that fairy tales have existed for thousands of years. Folklorists have classified fairy tales in various ways. dwarves. However. The history of the fairy tale is particularly difficult to trace because only the literary forms can survive. The Aarne-Thompson classification system and the morphological analysis of Vladimir Propp are among the most notable. although not perhaps recognized as a genre. unlike legends and epics. . trolls. and usually magic or enchantments. the Brothers Grimm titled their collection Children's and Household Tales. with variations. Still. including beast fables. Other folklorists have interpreted the tales' significance. The stories may nonetheless be distinguished from other folk narratives such as legends (which generally involve belief in the veracity of the events described)[1] and explicitly moral tales. and works derived from fairy tales. the name "fairy tale" was first ascribed to them by Madame d'Aulnoy in the late 17th century. the term is also used to describe something blessed with unusual happiness. where the narrative is perceived both by teller and hearers as being grounded in historical truth. elves. only a small number of the stories refer to fairies. However. goblins. and the link with children has only grown stronger with time. giants or gnomes. but they were associated with children as early as the writings of the précieuses. they usually do not contain more than superficial references to religion and actual places. fairy tales may merge into legends.

youngest sons and gallant princes. and not only other magical species but many other marvels.[12] However. In this never-never land.[14] From a psychological point of view. defining fairy tales as stories about the adventures of men in Faërie.[17] In terms of aesthetic values. but that in itself has been criticized."[16] The characters and motifs of fairy tales are simple and archetypal: princesses and goose-girls.[13] Davidson and Chaudri identify "transformation" as the key feature of the genre.[5] One universally agreed-upon matter is that fairy tales do not require fairies. elves. talking animals and the presence of magic seem to be more common to the fairy tale than fairies themselves. the mere presence of animals that talk does not make a tale a fairy tale. dragons. the land of fairies... what is a fairytale? I should reply. I think Undine the most beautiful. Propp used all Russian folktales classified as a folk lore Aarne-Thompson 300-749 – in a cataloguing system that made such a distinction – to gain a clear set of tales. Jean Chiriac argued for the necessity of the fantastic in these narratives. fairytale princes and princesses.[18] . in his Morphology of the Folktale. criticized the common distinction between "fairy tales" and "animal tales" on the grounds that many tales contained both fantastic elements and animals. as the analysis does not lend itself easily to tales that do not involve a quest. which Andrew Lang included in The Lilac Fairy Book. a practice given weight by the definition of Thompson in his 1977 edition of The Folktale: "a tale of some length involving a succession of motifs or episodes. J.g. dwarves. first used in her collection in 1697. Vladimir Propp. It moves in an unreal world without definite locality or definite creatures and is filled with the marvelous. and furthermore. (The term itself comes from the translation of Madame D'Aulnoy's conte de fées. or birds. citing as an example The Monkey's Heart. of all fairytales I know.Fairy tale 18 Definition Although the fairy tale is a distinct genre within the larger category of folktale. The Fantastic Imagination) ” As Stith Thompson points out. giants. giants) should be taken as a differentiator. (George MacDonald. elves. the definition that marks a work as a fairy tale is a source of considerable dispute. because of the economy and concision of the tales. succeed to kingdoms and marry princesses. R..[10] However.[9] From The Facetious Nights of Straparola by Giovanni Francesco Straparola “ Were I asked.[11] In his essay "On Fairy-Stories". fairy godmothers and other magical helpers. and prohibitions and breaking of prohibitions. glass mountains. goblins. the same plot elements are found in non-fairy tale works. to select works for his analysis.)[6] Common parlance conflates fairy tales with beast fables and other folktales. and scholars differ on the degree to which the presence of fairies and/or similarly mythical beings (e.[11] Steven Swann Jones identified the presence of magic as the feature by which fairy tales can be distinguished from other sorts of folktales. R. often talking horses. especially when the animal is clearly a mask on a human face. ogres. as in fables. humble heroes kill adversaries. and trolls. Tolkien agreed with the exclusion of "fairies" from the definition. Read Undine: that is a fairytale . the same essay excludes tales that are often considered fairy tales. or foxes.[15] Some folklorists prefer to use the German term Märchen or "wonder tale"[14] to refer to the genre. trolls. wicked stepmothers and false heroes. Italo Calvino cited the fairy tale as a prime example of "quickness" in literature.[7] Nevertheless.[8] His own analysis identified fairy tales by their plot elements.

Tolkien's "On Fairy-Stories" includes discussions of world-building and is considered a vital part of fantasy criticism. uncontaminated by literary versions.[25] Many 18th-century folklorists attempted to recover the "pure" folktale. motifs. Although fantasy. in the late 17th century. stories we would now call fairy tales were not marked out as a separate genre. or Kunstmärchen.[23] The Brothers Grimm were among the first to try to preserve the features of oral tales. Frank [21] Baum's The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. from Panchatantra to the Pentamerone.[27] . particularly the sub-genre of fairytale fantasy. Oral story-tellers have been known to read literary fairy tales to increase their own stock of stories and treatments. These are the literary fairy tales.[24] Literary fairy tales and oral fairy tales freely exchanged plots. The fairy tale emerged as an unquestioned genre in the works of the Brothers Grimm. and each literary fairy tale draws on folk traditions.[26] This makes it impossible to trace forms of transmission of a fairy tale.[22] the genres are now regarded as distinct.[19] In this evolution. or fairy tale. including Tolkien's The Hobbit.Fairy tale 19 History of the genre Originally. many works that would now be classified as fantasy were termed "fairy tales". and L. if only in parody. Yet while oral fairy tales likely existed for thousands of years before the literary forms. The first significant person to record fairy tales was Charles Perrault who recorded stories such as Sleeping Beauty and Cinderella in his book of Mother Goose fairy tales. A picture by Gustave Doré of Mother Goose reading written (literary) fairy tales Folk and literary The fairy tale. The German term "Märchen" literally translates as "tale" – not any specific type of tale. who recorded various tales from different cultures and revised many of Perrault's. there is no pure folktale. draws heavily on fairy tale motifs.[6] The oldest forms. show considerable reworking from the oral form. Yet the stories printed under the Grimm name have been considerably reworked to fit the written form. Roots of the genre come from different oral stories passed down in European cultures. George Orwell's Animal Farm. and elements with one another and with the tales of foreign lands. the name was coined when the précieuses took up writing literary stories.[20] Before the definition of the genre of fantasy. told orally. Indeed. Many writers have written in the form of the fairy tale. is a sub-class of the folktale. Madame d'Aulnoy invented the term conte de fée.

[36] Simultaneously. 1300 BC (ex. The Brothers Grimm rejected several tales for their collection. and many later collections. 1766). Basile's and Perrault's collections contain the oldest known forms of various fairy tales.[30] and among the tales told in that time were the ones of La Fontaine and the Contes of Charles Perrault (1697).[38] The first collectors to attempt to preserve not only the plot and characters of the tale.[30] but it is unknown to what extent these reflect the actual folk tales even of their own time. as in The Golden Ass. but also the style in which they were told. which ensured their sales and the later popularity of their work.[29] and fairy tales appear. and the tale of Briar Rose. The Tale of Two Brothers). was included only because Jacob Grimm convinced his brother that the figure of Brynhildr. in many of William Shakespeare plays". collecting German fairy tales.Fairy tale 20 History The oral tradition of the fairy tale came long before the written page.[32] King Lear can be considered a literary variant of fairy tales such as Water and Salt and Cap O' Rushes. Taoist philosophers such as Liezi and Zhuangzi recounted fairy tales in their philosophical works. who fixed the forms of Sleeping Beauty and Cinderella. 1634–6).[30] or the Panchatantra (India 3rd century BCE). Ivan Bilibin's illustration of the Russian fairy tale about Vasilisa the Beautiful Jack Zipes writes in When Dreams Came True. and they concluded they were thereby French and not German tales.[30] which are all fairy tales. from much earlier Norse mythology.[37] Although Straparola's.[33] The tale itself resurfaced in Western literature in the 16th and 17th centuries. Tales were told or enacted dramatically. which includes Cupid and Psyche (Roman. this meant although their first edition (1812 & 1815)[30] remains a treasure for folklorists. in written literature throughout literate cultures.[34] Carlo Gozzi made use of many fairy tale motifs among his Commedia dell'Arte scenarios.. Edmund Spenser's The Faerie Queene. c. proved that the sleeping princess was authentically Germanic folklore.[39] Such literary forms did not merely draw from the folktale. and .. and handed down from generation to generation. an oral version of Bluebeard was thus rejected. but also influenced folktales in turn. clearly related to Perrault's Sleeping Beauty. and the Neapolitan tales of Giambattista Basile (Naples. with The Facetious Nights of Straparola by Giovanni Francesco Straparola (Italy. included many fairy tales in his collection. now and again. and Bel and the Dragon. on the stylistic evidence.[31] The fairy tale itself became popular among the précieuses of upper-class France (1690–1710). in China. The stylistic evidence indicates that these.[30] such as Vikram and the Vampire. were the Brothers Grimm. Because of this. "There are fairy tale elements in Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales. all the writers rewrote the tales for literary effect. Besides such collections and individual tales. in China. Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio (published posthumously. Pu Songling. 1550 and 1553). they rewrote the tales in later editions to make them more acceptable. the first famous Western fairy tales are those of Aesop (6th century BC) in ancient Greece. older than the Arabian Nights collection of magical tales (compiled circa 1500 AD). 100–200 AD).[28] The oldest known written fairy tales stem from ancient Egypt. though told orally to them by Germans.[31] In the broader definition of the genre.[30] which contains many fairy tales in its inset tales.[40] . because the tales derived from Perrault. ironically. the history of their development is necessarily obscure. reworked folk tales into literary forms.[23] What they do show is that the fairy tale has ancient roots. rather than written down.[35] including among them one based on The Love For Three Oranges (1761).

and uneducated peasants. Andersen's work sometimes drew on old folktales. finding similar tales in Africa. such as The Light Princess. Many researchers hold this to be caused by the spread of such tales.[30] the Norwegians Peter Christen Asbjørnsen and Jørgen Moe (first published in 1845). but those collected by ethnographers. the simpler riddle might argue greater antiquity. The Riddle. One is that a single point of origin generated any given tale. illiterate.[30] the Romanian Petre Ispirescu (first published in 1874).[26] Ethnographers collected fairy tales over the world. but more often deployed fairytale motifs and plots in new tales. as in The Princess and the Goblin or Lilith. the style in which they are told. as people repeat tales they have heard in foreign lands.[30] and Jeremiah Curtin. characters. the English Joseph Jacobs (first published in 1890). the close agreement between the opening of Grimms' version of Little Red Riding Hood and Perrault's tale points to an influence – although Grimms' version adds a different ending (perhaps derived from The Wolf and the Seven Young Kids).[54] Fairy tales also tend to take on the color of their location.[42] Sometimes they regarded fairy tales as a form of fossil. although the oral nature makes it impossible to trace the route except by inference.[41] The rural. writers such as Hans Christian Andersen and George MacDonald continued the tradition of literary fairy tales. an American who collected Irish tales (first published in 1890). were the folk and would tell pure folk tales. and the depiction of character and local color. Japanese Fairy Tales (1908). and motifs are found spread across many different cultures. the other is that such fairy tales stem from common human experience and therefore can appear separately in many different origins. Andrew Lang was able to draw on not only the written tales of Europe and Asia.[51] Folklorists of the "Finnish" (or historical-geographical) school attempted to place fairy tales to their origin. the Americas. Among those influenced were the Russian Alexander Afanasyev (first published in 1866). but in The Riddle.[53] Similarly.[43] However. which can not always be clear.[55] . through the choice of motifs. the remnants of a once-perfect tale. to the neglect of cross-cultural influence. if suitably isolated. as the Grimms' tale appears to be the only independent German variant. as when considering the influence of Perrault's tales on those collected by the Brothers Grimm. comparing the Scottish tale The Ridere of Riddles with the version collected by the Brothers Grimm. leading people to tell inauthentic tales. with inconclusive results.[49] Fairy tales with very similar plots. Little Briar-Rose appears to stem from Perrault's Sleeping Beauty.[48] 21 Cross-cultural transmission Two theories of origins have attempted to explain the common elements in fairy tales found spread over continents. as when Yei Theodora Ozaki created a collection.[44] The work of the Brothers Grimm influenced other collectors. and in works of the genre that would become fantasy. further research has concluded that fairy tales never had a fixed form.[47] MacDonald incorporated fairytale motifs both in new literary fairy tales.Fairy tale This consideration of whether to keep Sleeping Beauty reflected a belief common among folklorists of the 19th century: that the folk tradition preserved fairy tales in forms from pre-history except when "contaminated" by such literary forms. and Australia.[46] Simultaneously. which then spread over the centuries. in a spirit of romantic nationalism. that the fairy tales of a country were particularly representative of it. especially within a limited area and time.[45] They also encouraged other collectors of fairy tales.[52] Sometimes influence. which might point to an ancient custom. Joseph Jacobs.[50] Folklorists have attempted to determine the origin by internal evidence. after encouragement from Lang. to fill his "coloured" fairy books series. is clearer. and regardless of literary influence. the tellers constantly altered them for their own purposes. noted that in The Ridere of Riddles one hero ends up polygamously married. both inspiring them to collect tales and leading them to similarly believe.

Hansel and Gretel. enhances the child's ability to visualize a spoken narrative. but in subsequent editions carelessly revealed that it was easier to pull up the prince than the witch. . including Madame d'Aulnoy. Little Red Riding Hood. Jeanne-Marie Le Prince de Beaumont redacted a version of Beauty and the Beast for children.[64] The moralizing strain in the Victorian era altered the classical tales to teach lessons. following the oral tradition. in many respects.[56] Literary fairy tales appeared in works intended for adults. R. Rudolf Steiner's work on human development claims that at age six to seven. The précieuses. as when George Cruikshank rewrote Cinderella in 1854 to contain temperance themes. Detail showing fairy-tale scenes: Snow White. because it weakened their usefulness to both children and adults as ways of symbolically resolving issues. in the first edition.[70] In Waldorf schools. it is a matter of grave importance that fairy tales should be respected.[67] The adaptation of fairy tales for children continues. thus letting the witch deduce that she was pregnant. and it is her tale that is best known today. as well as to remember the story as heard. His acquaintance Charles Dickens protested. The archetypes and magical nature of fairy tales appeals strongly to children of these ages.[62] On the other hand.[69] Jack Zipes has spent many years working to make the older traditional tales accessible to modern readers and their children. violence – particularly when punishing villains – was increased. who regarded the cruelty of older fairy tales as indicative of psychological conflicts. a novel of that time. has the countess exclaim that she loves fairy tales as if she were still a child. The Brothers Grimm concentrated mostly on eliminating sexual references. Tolkien noted that The Juniper Tree often had its cannibalistic stew cut out in a version intended for children. strongly criticized this expurgation. would tell to children. but regarded their source as the tales that servants. later. depicting a countess's suitor offering to tell such a tale.Fairy tale 22 Association with children Originally. the mind of a child is best taught through storytelling. fairy tales are used in the first grade as a central part of the curriculum. In the modern era. R.[63] Other. revealed the prince's visits by asking why her clothing had grown tight.[57] Indeed. J.[61] Rapunzel. of all other times."[65] [66] Psychoanalysts such as Bruno Bettelheim. fairy tales were altered so that they could be read to children. The nature of fairy tales. revisions cut out violence. intended their works for adults. adults were the audience of a fairy tale just as often as children. Walt Disney's influential Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was largely (although certainly not solely) intended for the children's market.[59] The Brothers Grimm titled their collection Children's and Household Tales and rewrote their tales after complaints that they were not suitable for children. but in the 19th and 20th centuries the fairy tale became associated with children's literature. "In an utilitarian age. or other women of lower class.[60] Cutlery for children.[68] The anime Magical Princess Minky Momo draws on the fairy tale Momotarō.[58] Among the late précieuses.

Bruce Holland Rogers. Robin McKinley. One use of the genre occurred in a military technology journal named Defense AT&L. which retells a number of fairy tales from a female point of view. James Thurber.Fairy tale 23 Contemporary tales Literary In contemporary literature.[75] such as in the film series Shrek. records exist of this in commedia dell'arte. as when Robin McKinley retold Donkeyskin as the novel Deerskin. Espido Freire. [78] Jean Ingelow. Cameron Dokey. like other fantasies. indeed. Isaac Bashevis Singer. Other notable figures who have employed fairy tales include Oscar Wilde. and many others. Jane Yolen. Sara Coleridge. make use of novelistic writing conventions of prose. even within the works of a single author: George MacDonald's Lilith and Phantastes are regarded as fantasies. Terri Windling. Robert Bly.[73] this can include using the psychological dramas implicit in the story. with emphasis on the abusive treatment the father of the tale dealt to his daughter.[71] Some authors seek to recreate a sense of the fantastic in a contemporary discourse. or setting. John Bauer's illustration of trolls and a princess from a collection of Swedish fairy tales Other authors may have specific motives. a picture book aimed at children in which a princess rescues a prince. such as The Stinky Cheese Man by Jon Scieszka and The ASBO Fairy Tales by Chris Pilbeam. the story uses a fairy named Garble to represent breakdowns in communication between operators and technology developers. A. with the use of special effects and animation. but the distinction is commonly made. Rikki Ducornet. implying critique of older narratives. while his "The Light Princess". Margaret Atwood.[68] Disney's influence helped establish this genre as a children's genre. or even whole plots. [78] Kathryn Davis. Donna Jo Napoli. as opposed to the pain and suffering – and sometimes unhappy endings – of many folk fairy tales. especially in children's literature. Annette Marie Hyder. such as examining the human condition from the simple framework a fairytale provides. fairy tales are retold with a twist simply for comic effect.[74] . The most notable distinction is that fairytale fantasies. characterization.[81] The advent of cinema has meant that such stories could be presented in a more plausible manner. Robert Coover. and "The Wise Woman" are commonly called fairy tales. and has been blamed for simplification of fairy tales ending in situations where everything goes right. Gail Carson Levine.[72] Some writers use fairy tale forms for modern issues. Italo Calvino.[80] and later in pantomime.[79] Film Fairy tales have been enacted dramatically. Byatt. Tanith Lee.[77] Ward's article was heavily influenced by George MacDonald.[74] Sometimes. S. the Disney movie Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs in 1937 was a ground-breaking film for fairy tales and. such as multicultural or feminist reevaluations of predominantly Eurocentric masculine-dominated fairy tales. Written by Maj. "The Golden Key". Dan Ward (USAF). and the characters are aware of their role in the story. which published an article as a fairytale titled Optimizing Bi-Modal Signal/Noise Ratios. many authors have used the form of fairy tales for various reasons. fantasy in general. Kelly Link. and Angela Carter's The Bloody Chamber. Examples of narrative reversal rejecting this figure include The Paperbag Princess by Robert Munsch. It may be hard to lay down the rule between fairy tales and fantasies that use fairy tale motifs. Jasper Fforde. A common comic motif is a world where all the fairy tales take place. Donald Barthelme. Kate Bernheimer.[76] The figure of the damsel in distress has been particularly attacked by many feminist critics. Katie Farris.

[88] Suspiria. and Aschenputtel. she is refused permission to go to the ball by her grandfather. illustration by Warwick Goble For instance. identifying features are picked out to decide which tales are grouped together. and Tattercoats. Notable examples are Jean Cocteau's Beauty and the Beast[85] and The Company of Wolves.[87] Pan's Labyrinth. tales like Cinderella – in which a persecuted heroine. starring Marcello Mastroianni before he became a superstar. while in Cap O' Rushes. Brown and Trembling. Allerleirauh. Beauty and the Beast. The Story of Tam and Cam. Much therefore depends on what features are regarded as decisive. and Vladimir Propp's Morphology of the Folk Tale. Katie Woodencloak.Fairy tale Many filmed fairy tales have been made primarily for children. A more modern cinematic fairy tale would be Luchino Visconti’s Le Notti Bianche. Ye Xian. and in Fair. The Wonderful Birch. Catskin. based on an Angela Carter's retelling of Little Red Riding Hood. Brown and Trembling and Finette Cendron by her sisters and other female figures. Princess Mononoke. the persecuted heroine. the heroine is persecuted by her stepmother and refused permission to go to the ball or other event. Cap O' Rushes. Revolutionary Girl Utena.[82] Others have used the conventions of fairy tales to create new stories with sentiments more relevant to contemporary life. and in Tattercoats. and Allerleirauh. the heroine is driven from home by her father's persecutions. as in Labyrinth. and must take work in a kitchen elsewhere. and these are grouped as 510A. Other works have retold familiar fairy tales in a darker. Catskin. the first Soviet film to use Russian folk tales in a big-budget feature. Fables and MÄR all make use of standard fairy tale elements to various extents but are more accurately categorised as fairytale fantasy due to the definite locations and characters which a longer narrative requires. more horrific or psychological variant aimed primarily at adults. But in Katie Woodencloak.[84] and Happily N'Ever After. Some such tales are The Wonderful Birch. Fair. Common.[83] My Neighbor Totoro. from Disney's later works to Aleksandr Rou's retelling of Vasilissa the Beautiful. The Sandman. In comics and animated TV series. with the help of the fairy godmother or similar magical helper. Princess Tutu. yet it takes place in post-World War II Italy. Ye Xian. she is driven from home by her stepmother's persecutions and must take service in a kitchen elsewhere. the films of Michel Ocelot. Finette Cendron. Further analysis of the tales shows that in Cinderella. Aschenputtel.[86] Likewise. It involves many of the romantic conventions of fairy tales. and Spike[89] create new stories in this genre from fairy tale and folklore motifs. attends an event (or three) in which she wins the love of a prince and is identified as his true bride – are classified as type 510. 24 Motifs Any comparison of fairy tales quickly discovers that many fairy tales have features in common with each other. Given these features common with both . Two of the most influential classifications are those of Antti Aarne. and these are grouped as 510B. and it ends realistically. The Story of Tam and Cam. as revised by Stith Thompson into the Aarne-Thompson classification system. Aarne-Thompson This system groups fairy and folk tales according to their overall plot.

[94] In The Golden Bird. Other fairy tales. to the extent that the folklorist describes The Black Bull of Norroway as the same story as Beauty and the Beast.[95] In The Red Ettin. indeed. is.[93] One such element is the donor who gives the hero magical assistance. the role is split into the mother – who offers the hero the whole of a journey cake with her curse or half with her blessing – and when he takes the half. giving him the means to defeat them. and the stars all give the heroine a magical gift. because they are tricked. Rapunzel is type 310 (The Maiden in the Tower). a fairy who gives him advice. the Father Frost acts as a donor in the Russian fairy priest advised the hero to stay in small places at night. in The Boy Who Drew Cats. in Cinderella. the moon. while The Canary Prince.[97] This analysis has been criticized for ignoring tone. the brother resists drinking from enchanted streams twice. Analogies have been drawn between this and the analysis of myths into the Hero's journey. in Mr Simigdáli. so that it is the third that enchants him. in Brother and Sister. helps him find the object of his quest. Characters who are not always the donor can act like the donor. the talking fox tests the hero by warning him against entering an inn and. mood. Katie Woodencloak is classified as 510A because the villain is the stepmother.[98] .[90] 25 Morphology Vladimir Propp specifically studied a collection of Russian fairy tales. but it opens with a child being demanded in return for stolen food. but his analysis has been found useful for the tales of other countries. so that it would appear three times. a Buddhist monk gives the brothers magical bottles to protect against the fox spirit. such as The Story of the Youth Who Went Forth to Learn What Fear Was. Cinderella the dresses she needs to attend the ball. as their mothers' spirits do in Bawang Putih Bawang Merah and The Wonderful Birch. The roles can be more complicated. as when. which opens with a jealous stepmother. after he succeeds. which protects tale Father Frost. the fairy godmother gives giving her riches. This system has its weaknesses in the difficulty of having no way to classify subportions of a tale as motifs.[92] he analyzed the tales for the function each character and action fulfilled and concluded that a tale was composed of thirty-one elements and eight character types. but Puddocky is not a Maiden in the Tower tale. when they appeared they did so in an invariant order – except that each individual element might be negated twice. often after testing him. anything that differentiates one fairy tale from another. characters and. do not feature the donor. and because the motifs used were not clearly distinct.Fairy tale types of 510.[91] Having criticized Aarne-Thompson type analysis for ignoring what motifs did in stories. While the elements were not all required for all tales. the sun. and Tattercoats as 510B because the grandfather fills the father's role. in Schippeitaro. This can be useful as a shorthand but can also erase the coloring and details of a story. the villain goblins also give the heroine gifts. as does Puddocky.[96] In Kallo and the Goblins. in The Fox Sister. the evil cats betray their secret to the hero. testing the heroine before him from an evil spirit. It also lends itself to emphasis on the common elements.

2. 3rd century BCE) Popular Tales of the West Highlands (Scotland.[102] Other folklorists have interpreted tales as historical documents. On Pygmies.[101] In variants of Bluebeard. by an egg's breaking. but interpretations of specific variants have claimed that the precise object is integral to the tale. but no mode of interpretation has ever established itself definitively. and other psychological analysis. 1634–1636) by Giambattista Basile Charles Perrault (France. and the new stepmothers competed with the children of the first marriage for resources. 1831) by Joseph Ritson Giovanni Francesco Straparola (Italy. 1875–1962) World Tales (United Kingdom. 1886–1988) Kunio Yanagita (Japan. all were solar myths. their husbands remarried.[100] Specific analyses have often been criticized for lending great importance to motifs that are not. E. without affecting the tale. 1956) by Italo Calvino Joseph Jacobs (1854–1916) Legende sau basmele românilor (Romania. Jungian. 1862) by John Francis Campbell Ruth Manning-Sanders (Wales. this mode of interpretation is rather less popular now. and The Frog King.[99] Many have also been subjected to Freudian.[104] Compilations See also: Collections of fairy tales Authors and works: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Mixed Up Fairy Tales Book of British Fairy Tales (United Kingdom. including Hansel and Gretel. One mythological interpretation claimed that many fairy tales. 1965) by E. Sleeping Beauty. used Grimms' tales to explain ancient customs. 1984) by Alan Garner Fairy Tales (USA. 1874) by Petre Ispirescu Madame d'Aulnoy (France. On Fairies (England. the wife's curiosity is betrayed by a blood-stained key. where the tale has been told and retold in many variations. Many German folklorists. 1855–1863) by Alexander Afanasyev Pentamerone (Italy.[103] Other folklorists have explained the figure of the wicked stepmother historically: many women did die in childbirth. 1979) by Idries Shah . believing the tales to have been preserved from ancient times. or by the singing of a rose she wore. 1650–1705) Norwegian Folktales (Norway. integral to the tale.Fairy tale 26 Interpretations Many fairy tales have been interpreted for their (purported) significance. 1805–1875) Italian Folktales (Italy. 1845–1870) by Peter Christen Asbjørnsen and Jørgen Moe Narodnye russkie skazki (Russia. 16th century) Grimm's Fairy Tales (Germany. Now First Collected: To which are prefixed two dissertations: 1. this has often stemmed from treating one instance of a fairy tale as the definitive text. 1628–1703) Panchatantra (India. 1812–1857) Hans Christian Andersen (Denmark. Cummings Fairy Tales. in fact.

surlalunefairytales. [21] Brian Attebery. "Introduction". 1995. ISBN 0-19-515169-0. [42] Degh. The Three donars . endicott-studio. The Brown Fairy Book. The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm. com/ rdrm/ forconte. Routledge. ISBN 0-465-04125-6 Gray. . p. p. com/ rdrm/ forital. 1894. 26–27. "Preface" (http:/ / www. [13] The Fairy Tale: The Magic Mirror of the Imagination. p 55. 38–42. The Fairy Tale: The Magic Mirror of Imagination. ed. [27] Linda Degh. The Fantasy Tradition in American Literature. pp. White as Ricotta. p.v. "Hans Christian Andersen. p. "Introduction" p. xx. pp. Greenwood Village CO. Touch Magic. New York. [8] Propp. [48] Grant and Clute. The Raven. McGlathery. [22] Philip Martin. xii. The Fantasy Tradition in American Literature. ISBN 0-253-35665-2. net/ andrewlang/ brown. p. 5. xviii. 66–67. Folktales from Greece: A Treasury of Delights. and the Dove: The Religious Meaning of the Grimms' Magic Fairy Tales. p. telegraph. Little Red Riding Hood Uncloaked. [49] Orenstein. "Preface" (http:/ / www. Byatt. ISBN 0-415-92151-1. [5] Heidi Anne Heiner. html)" [6] Terri Windling. [41] Zipes. [28] Jack Zipes. [43] Iona and Peter Opie. The Brothers Grimm and Folktale. ISBN 0-253-35665-2. [32] Zipes. com/ books/ japan/ freemanmitford/ preface. pp. [34] Swann Jones. with Melpomeni Kanatsouli. 35. ISBN 978-0871161956. html)" [52] Calvino. 77–78. ISBN 1-56308-908-4. Mythology & Legend. 15. ed. The Classic Fairy Tales p. "On Fairy-Stories" . R. Anna Chaudhri.Fairy tale 27 Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] Thompson. ISBN 0-15-645489-0. 40. When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition. Manna. p. p.co. London: David Nutt. com/ authors/ jacobs/ moreceltic/ ridere. 22. ISBN 0-8057-0950-9. Richard. Morphology of the Folk Tale. [38] Swann Jones. [45] Andrew Lang. pp. 12. com/ introduction/ timeline. [24] Brian Attebery. [18] Italo Calvino. [35] Terri Windling. 604. R. freudfile. p. [33] Soula Mitakidou and Anthony L. p. ISBN 0-393-05848-4." (http:/ / www. Italian Folktales. The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm. When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition. 1977 (Thompson: 8). pp. endicott-studio. ISBN 0-393-97636-X. [50] Zipes. p. Twayne Publishers. When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition. html) [31] Moss Roberts. The Annotated Brothers Grimm. [14] A companion to the fairy tale. 38–39. [25] Zipes. Red as Wine: The Magic Lore of Italy (http:/ / www. Japanese Fairy Tales.ISBN 0-252-01549-5. [29] John Grant and John Clute. 858. [40] G. xviii. p. html [16] Stith Thompson. 38–42. [19] Jack Zipes. 5. pp. Chinese Fairy Tales & Fantasies. "Fairytale. html) [47] Grant and Clute. 846. Six Memoes for the Next Millennium. p. p. html) Telegraph. "Fairy Tale Timeline" (http:/ / www. ISBN 0-312-19869-8. "Fairy tales have ancient origin. Italian Folktales. The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm." p. [30] Heidi Anne Heiner. 19. 5 September 2009. 1977 [11] J. p. [20] Zipes. "What Did the Grimm Brothers Give To and Take From the Folk?" p. 38. 36–37. 8.uk. ISBN 0-394-73994-9. More Celtic Fairy Tales. Libraries Unlimited. [17] A. 17. "Fairy Tale" Merriam-Webster definition of "fairy tale" (http:/ / m-w. [10] Stith Thompson. 9. 845. p. p. 2. When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition. html) [7] Vladimir Propp. By Hilda Ellis Davidson. 77. Boydell & Brewer 2006. 10–11." pp. [39] Swann Jones. Funk & Wagnalls Standard Dictionary of Folklore. Stith. 100. ISBN 0-674-81040-6. html)" [36] Italo Calvino. " Notes and References (http:/ / www. The Folktale. 2002. S. p. James M. [37] Zipes. org/ psychoanalysis/ fairy_tales. [51] Joseph Jacobs. p. Berkeley Los Angeles London. pp. ISBN 0-292-78376-0. p. 83. 73. Tolkien. 39. [26] Zipes. p. surlalunefairytales. " What Is a Fairy Tale? (http:/ / www. [9] Steven Swann Jones. [44] Jane Yolen. com/ dictionary/ fairy tale) Catherine Orenstein. [15] http:/ / www. surlalunefairytales. The Tolkien Reader. p. Ronald Murphy. Maria Tatar. [12] Tolkien. The Owl. xi-xii. 15. The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm. "Les Contes de Fées: The Literary Fairy Tales of France" (http:/ / www. mythfolklore. htm) [46] Yei Theodora Ozaki.. pp. ISBN 0-87483-591-7. ISBN 978-0192115591. The Writer's Guide of Fantasy Literature: From Dragon's Liar to Hero's Quest. [23] Swann Jones. 1972 s. The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm. The Folktale. com/ introduction/ ftdefinition." p. co. University of California Press. "George MacDonald. 331. p. 2002. p. surlalunefairytales. uk/ science/ science-news/ 6142964/ Fairy-tales-have-ancient-origin. The Encyclopedia of Fantasy. 738.

p. [74] Helen Pilinovsky. pp. James M. p. 32. p. p. "Baba Yaga in Film" (http:/ / www. 81–82. [97] Christopher Vogler. html) [86] Terri Windling. p. 0-689-10846-X. 962. McGlathery. p. p. 1967. html) [99] Tatar. com/ index. p. [70] wolf. [82] James Graham. com/ rdrm/ rrPathNeedles. 18. endicott-studio. 2008-06-13. p. The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm. "Donkeyskin. archive. [89] "Festival Highlights: 2008 Edinburgh International Film Festival" (http:/ / www. 333. [66] http:/ / www. [95] Propp. University of Chicago Press. Italian Folktales. Oxford University Press. html). p. com/ sfw/ interviews/ sfw14471. Review of Labyrinth (http:/ / www. 915. The Brothers Grimm: From Enchanted Forests to the Modern World. [81] Grant and Clute. html) on July 7. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. [61] Tatar. pp. p. Deerskin. scifi. p. Penguin. pp. [58] Seifert. ISBN 0-312-29380-1. The Fairies in English Tradition and Literature. When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition and so on!. Eric James The Art of Storytelling Show Interview Jack Zipes – Are Fairy tales still useful to Children? (http:/ / www. 195. pp. xlii-xliv. p. "The Marvelous in Context: The Place of the Contes de Fées in Late Seventeenth Century France". html) [75] Briggs. [98] Vladimir Propp's Theories (http:/ / www. "Commedia Dell'Arte". [69] Patrick Drazen. com/ 2008/ 06/ 29/ jack-zipes-fairy-tales/ ) [71] Zipes. ed. "Cinema". 251–52. 43–44. [78] Children's Literature: An Illustrated History edited by Peter Hunt. htm) [84] Drazen. "Beauty and the Beast" (http:/ / www. [57] Lewis Seifert. [64] Tolkien. asp?layout=festivals& jump=features& id=3168& articleid=VR1117987482). 20. Retrieved 2010-04-28. When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition. scifi. [56] Zipes. [91] Propp. . [101] Alan Dundes. Ian (2006-12-25). ISBN 0-252-01549-5. p. [76] Zipes. 38. 28 . com/ rdrm/ forbewty. The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales. html) [83] Richard Scheib. 74. 19. "Fairytale. 46. [100] Bettleheim Bruno (1991). 18–19. Jack Zipes. Jack Zipes. [68] Grant and Clute. p. 966–67. p. ISBN 978-0140137279. M. ISBN 0-19-212320-3 [79] Diana Waggoner. Ward. 80–81. 2007." p. pp. ISBN 0-691-06722-8. Retrieved 2007-07-14. When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition. 2nd edition. 1995. London. "Guillermo del Toro and Ivana Baquero escape from a civil war into the fairytale land of Pan's Labyrinth" (http:/ / web. [88] Spelling. [55] Calvino. 181–182. dau. endicott-studio. Variety. Morphology of the Folk Tale. pp.Fairy tale [53] Harry Velten. "Commedia Dell'Arte".. The Brothers Grimm and Folktale. Optimizing Bi-Modal Signal to Noise Ratios: A Fairy Tale (http:/ / www. pdf)PDF (304 KB). Allerleirauh: The Reality of the Fairy Tale" (http:/ / www. html [67] Jack Zipes. The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales. The Hills of Faraway: A Guide to Fantasy. The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales. pp. 47. The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales. [73] Martin. html) [87] Drazen. p. [80] Grant and Clute. 24–25. 52. p. co. edu/ Courses/ FR0133/ Fairytale_Generator/ propp. mil/ pubs/ dam/ 09_10_2005/ ward_so05. The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales. [94] Propp. moria. p. pp. p. [59] Zipes. [77] D. com/ rdrm/ fordnky. artofstorytellingshow. brown. Defense AT&L. The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales. 39. ed. pp. 31. [60] Maria Tatar. The Brothers Grimm: From Enchanted Forests to the Modern World. 196. [90] Tolkien. org/ web/ 20070707173614/ http:/ / www. "Interpreting Little Red Riding Hood Psychoanalytically". p. endicott-studio. ISBN 1-880656-72-8. 8–9. [72] Grant and Clute. [96] Propp. [92] Propp. 264. [54] Velten.. 30. The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm. variety. [102] Tatar. [62] Tatar. Science Fiction Weekly. 41. Sept/Oct 2005. [65] K. p. 913. The Writer's Journey: Mythic Structure for Writers. "The Influences of Charles Perrault's Contes de ma Mère L'oie on German Folklore". . 1.. nz/ fantasy/ labyrinth. com/ sfw/ interviews/ sfw14471. org/ authors/ dickens/ pva/ pva239. [93] Propp. p. endicott-studio. 745. p. Briggs. Anime Explosion!: The What? Why? & Wow! of Japanese Animation. ISBN 0-941188-70-1. [63] Byatt. 219. "The Path of Needles or Pins: Little Red Riding Hood" (http:/ / www. pp. pp. com/ crossroads/ crBabaYagaF. ed. [85] Terri Windling. xxi. victorianweb. 22–23. 48.

com/articles/onceupon. p. Vito.cabinet-des-fees. p. Peter Rabbit with his family.An Online Journal of Fairy Tale Fiction • Fables (http://www. From the mid-1960s several children's literature awards include a category for picture books.org/en/) . Dr. "Fairy Tale Timeline" (http://www.D. • Once Upon A Time: Historical and Illustrated Fairy Tales. The Brothers Grimm: From Enchanted Forests to the Modern World.com/introduction/timeline. University of Colorado Boulder (http://libcudl. Seuss' The Cat In The Hat. "Il fairy tale nella tradizione narrativa irlandese.ciffciaff. 48.colorado. Special Collections. 1902 .Two of the earliest books with something like the format picture books still retain now were Heinrich Hoffmann's Struwwelpeter from 1845 and Beatrix Potter's The Tale of Peter Rabbit from 1902. 29 References • Antti Aarne and Stith Thompson: The Types of the Folktale: A Classification and Bibliography (Helsinki.folkstory.lefavole. from The Tale of Peter Rabbit by Beatrix Potter.com/) .com/introduction/ earliesttales.surlalunefairytales. and Maurice Sendak's Where the Wild Things Are. acrylics. "The Quest for the Earliest Fairy Tales: Searching for the Earliest Versions of European Fairy Tales with Commentary on English Translations" (http://www.org/en) . 1961) • Thompson. Ph. [104] Marina Warner.How Fairy Tales Shape Our Lives. The images in picture books use a range of media such as oil paints. From the Beast to the Blonde: On Fairy Tales And Their Tellers. The Caldecott Medal (established 1938) and Kate Greenaway Medal (established 1955) are awarded annually for illustrations in children's literature. Stith. Bari 2008. Some of the best-known picture books are Robert McCloskey's Make Way for Ducklings. Un itinerario storico e culturale". 213.Collection and guide to fables and Fairy Tales for children • Once Upon a Time (http://www. The Folktale. • Heidi Anne Heiner. most often aimed at young children.surlalunefairytales.html) • Heidi Anne Heiner. by Jonathan Young. watercolor and pencil.Multilanguage fairy tales collection Picture book A picture book combines visual and verbal narratives in a book format.html) .edu:8180/luna/servlet/UCBOULDERCB1~53~53) • CiffCiaff (http://www.html) • Carrassi.Fairy tale [103] Zipes. ISBN 0-374-15901-7. External links • Cabinet des Fees (http://www.

and while some may have very basic language especially designed to help children develop their reading skills. . but beginning in the middle of the century. picture books tend to have two functions in the lives of children: they are first read to young children by adults. Picture books also cover a wide variety of themes and are also published with content aimed at older children or even adults. "In the best picturebooks. Board books are picture books published on a hard cardboard. Once an editor in a publishing house has accepted a manuscript for a text from an author. It is something of a children's encyclopedia and is illustrated by woodcuts.[2] A Little Pretty Pocket-Book from 1744 by John Newbery was the earliest illustrated storybook marketed as pleasure reading in English. For this reason.[3] The German children's book Struwwelpeter (literally "Shaggy-Peter") from 1845 by Heinrich Hoffmann was one of the earliest examples of modern picturebook design. toy books. Zelinsky is one example of a bestseller pop-up picture book. The Wheels on the Bus by Paul O. Board books are often intended for small children to use and play with. Andrew Lang's twelve Fairy Books published between 1889 and 1910 were illustrated by among others Henry J. illustrated by John Tenniel in 1866 was one of the first highly successful entertainment books for children. Early picture books Orbis Pictus from 1658 by John Amos Comenius was the earliest illustrated book specifically for children."[1] Picture books are most often aimed at young children.[4] Vilhelm Pedersen. Often the author and illustrator are two different people. Ivan Bilibin and John Bauer. More broadly books using similar techniques are known as movable books. nursery rhymes. George Cruikshank. Tibet: Through the Red Box by Peter Sis is one example of a picture book aimed at an adult audience. most are written with vocabulary a child can understand but not necessarily read. alphabet books and early readers. like those by the Brothers Grimm or Hans Christian Andersen A reprint of the 1658 illustrated Orbis Pictus were sparsely illustrated. the editor selects an illustrator. Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. Cardboard is used for the cover as well as the pages. and is intended to be more durable. Collections of Fairy tales from early nineteenth century. and then children read them themselves once they begin to learn to read. the illustrations are as much a part of the experience with the book as the written text.Picture book 30 Characteristics Any book that pairs a narrative format with pictures can be categorized as a picture book. collections were published with images by illustrators like Gustave Doré. Ford and Lancelot Speed. A child with an illustrated book of Three Billy Goats Gruff There are several subgenres among picture books including concept books. Pop-up books employ paper engineering to make parts of the page pop up or stand up when pages are opened.

illustrated stories for children appeared in magazines like Ladies Home Journal. Peter Rabbit was Potter's first of many The Tale of. The Tale of Benjamin Bunny.. Howard Pyle. W. like Rose O'Neill. and Kate Greenaway whose association with colour printer and wood engraver Edmund Evans produced books of great quality. including The Tale of Squirrel Nutkin. These had a larger proportion of pictures to words than earlier books. Swedish author Elsa Beskow wrote and illustrated some 40 children's stories and picture books between 1897–1952. 1866 Beatrix Potter's The Tale of Peter Rabbit was published in 1902 to immediate success. Little Black Sambo was part of a series of small-format books called The Dumpy Books for Children. Ford and Lancelot Speed. Generally. Helen Bannerman's Little Black Sambo was published in 1899.[6] In the late 19th and early 20th century a small number of American and British artists made their living illustrating children's books. Woman's Home Companion intended for mothers to read to their Cover of Babes in the Wood. illustration by John Tenniel. these illustrated books had eight to twelve pages of illustrated pictures or plates accompanying a classic children's storybook. and many of their pictures were in color. often with uncredited illustrations. Cosmopolitan. Arthur Rackham. . In the US. Edmund Dulac. Some cheap periodicals appealing to the juvenile reader started to illustrated by Randolph Caldecott appear in the early 20th century. or Charles Robinson. Willy Pogany.[5] The best of these were illustrated by the triumvirate of English illustrators Randolph Caldecott. and went through numerous printings and versions during the first decade of the 20th century. and The Tale of Jemima Puddle-Duck..Picture book 31 Toy books were introduced in the latter half of the 19th century. The Tale of Tom Kitten. Alice from Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. Cicely Mary Barker.. Andrew Lang's twelve Fairy Books published between 1889 and 1910 were illustrated by among others Henry J. Heath Robinson. published by British publisher Grant Richards between 1897 and 1904. children. to name but a few which were published in the years leading up to 1910. Good Housekeeping. small paperbound books with art dominating the text. Walter Crane.

Johnny Gruelle wrote and illustrated Raggedy Ann and in 1920 followed up with Raggedy Andy Stories. And to Think That I Saw It on Mulberry Street. Flack authored another book in 1933. In 1955 the first book was published in the Miffy series by Dutch author and illustrator Dick Bruna. today known as a Caldecott Honor book. Richard Scarry.[7] Many of the books were bestsellers[8] including The Poky Little Puppy. illustrated by Lois Lenski. The Elson Basic Reader was published in 1930 and introduced the public to Dick and Jane. and Garth Williams.Picture book 32 Early to mid 20th century L. Thomas Handforth won the second Caldecott Medal in 1939. and All About Little Red Hen. Tibor Gergely. and then The ABC Bunny in 1933. In 1947 Goodnight Moon written by Margaret Wise Brown and illustrated by Clement Hurd was published. The Poky Little Puppy. then in 1932. which garnered her a second Newbery runner-up award. Ferdinand was the first picture book to crossover Babar by Jean de Brunhoff. illustrated by Robert Lawson. Several of the illustrators for the Little Golden Books later became staples within the picture book industry. and Seuss followed . high quality children's books. published his first book for children. In 1918. The Kewpies and Dottie Darling. Corinne Malvern. written by Helen Dean Fish. followed in 1931 by Angus And The Cats. In 1937. Ludwig Bemelmans' Madeline was published in 1939 and was selected as a Caldecott Medal runner-up. In 1954 it was illustrated anew by George and Doris Hauman. Jean de Brunhoff's first Babar book. and Eloise. The Little Red Hen. Gustaf Tenggren. In 1942. Eddie Elephant. Cupples & Leon published a series of 15 All About books. Frank Baum from 1900 In 1931. which he also wrote. The latter. In 1913. had all been published. All About Mother Goose. Curious George. The eighth book in the series. Other Gruelle books included Beloved Belinda. Wanda Gág's Millions of Cats was published in 1928 and became the first picture book to receive a Newbery Medal runner-up award. and Baum created a number of other successful Oz-oriented books in the period from 1904 to 1920. is the top selling children's book of all time. well illustrated. for Mei Li. along with several others. Tootle. emulating the form and size of the Beatrix Potter books. More books in the Kewpie series followed: The Kewpies Their Book in 1912 and The Kewpie Primer 1916. such picture book classics as Make Way for Ducklings. It spawned an entire line of books and related paraphernalia and coined the refrain "I think I can! I think I can!". Snippy and Snappy in 1931. It was immediately successful. In 1930. Seuss (Theodor Seuss Geisel. The Little House. Title page from The Wonderful Wizard of Oz by L. Scuffy the Tugboat. illustrated by Kurt Wiese. Walt Disney produced an animated feature film along with 1931 corresponding merchandising materials. The Story about Ping. All About The Three Bears. from into pop culture. Eloise Wilkin. Angus Lost. In 1910. was illustrated by Johnny Gruelle. In 1930 The Little Engine That Could was published. The Story Of Babar was published in France.) at the time a successful graphic artist and humorist. By 1955. Munro Leaf's The Story of Ferdinand was published. All About Peter Rabbit. In 1938 to Dorothy Lathrop was awarded the first Caldecott Medal for her illustrations in Animals of the Bible. a series of inexpensive. In 1936. Simon & Schuster began publishing the Little Golden Books. Marjorie Flack authored and illustrated Angus and the Ducks. followed by The Travels of Babar then Babar The King. Dr. Frank Baum's The Wonderful Wizard of Oz was published in 1900. Wanda Gág followed with The Funny Thing in 1929. American illustrator and author Rose O'Neill's first children’s book was published. and Friendly Fairies. Feodor Rojankovsky.

D. Dr. there was a degree of separation between illustrated educational books and illustrated picture books. Other books in the series were Sam and the Firefly (1958).[11] Fujikawa is recognized for being the earliest mainstream illustrator of picture books to include children of many races in her work. Julius. Syd Hoff wrote and illustrated four "I Can Read" books: Danny and the Dinosaur. and Helen Palmer Geisel (Seuss' wife). but several Moomin picture books were also published between 1952 and 1980. and. It has been translated into several languages. Men series of 40-some books by English author and illustrated Roger Hargreaves started in 1971. Sammy The Seal. The Beginner Books dominated the children's picture book market of the 1960s.S. Everyone Poops was first published in Japan in 1977. then crafted a story based upon two randomly selected words—cat and hat. Little Bear was the first of the series. Seuss rigidly limited himself to a small set of words from an elementary school vocabulary list. Hop on Pop (1963). Her most popular books. By 2008 it had sold over 19 million copies worldwide. Where The Wild Things Are by American writer and illustrator Maurice Sendak was published. followed by The King's Stilts in 1939. It was made into an Oscar nominated animated cartoon that has been shown every year since on British television.[12] [13] [14] Most of the Moomin books by Finnish author Tove Jansson were novels. Japanese author and illustrator Mitsumasa Anno has published a number of picture books beginning in 1968 with Mysterious Pictures. Babies and Baby Animals.[9] In 1963. His Best Word Book Ever from 1963 has sold 4 million copies. Written by Else Holmelund Minarik and illustrated by a then relatively unknown Maurice Sendak. The Cat in the Hat Comes Back. a comic strip and a series of video games. called Beginner Books.[10] American illustrator and author Gyo Fujikawa created more than 50 books between 1963 and 1990. P. Roy McKie. Green Eggs and Ham (1960). and Oliver. have sold over 1. In total Scarry wrote and illustrated more than 250 books and more than 100 million of his books have been sold worldwide. and Horton Hatches the Egg in 1940. The Snowman by Raymond Briggs was published in Britain in 1978 and was entirely wordless. They feature the shapeshifting pink blob Barbapapa and his numerous colorful children. a live-action feature film adaptation directed by Spike Jonze.7 million copies in the U. Since 1989 over 20 books have been created in the Elmer the Patchwork Elephant series by the British author David McKee. The second book in the series was nearly as popular. and Fox in Socks (1965). the two collaborated on three other "I Can Read" books over the next three years. Eastman. Up until the mid-1950s. 33 Mid to late 20th century In 1949 American writer and illustrator Richard Scarry began his career working on the Little Golden Books series. They have been translated in 40 languages and adapted into a children's TV series. Go! (1961). written and illustrated by the prolific children's author Tarō Gomi. Are You My Mother? (1960). Creators in the Beginner Book series were Stan and Jan Berenstain. That changed with The Cat in the Hat in 1957. Australian author Margaret Wild has written more than 40 books since 1984 and won several awards. The books were translated into many languages and the franchise also spawned a TV series. In 1987 the first book was published in the Where's Wally? (known as Where's Waldo? in the United States and Canada) series by the British illustrator Martin Handford. From 1958 to 1960. Because of the success of The Cat In The Hat an independent publishing company was formed. Dog. From 1947 to 1956 Seuss had twelve children's picture books published. all published by Random House. like Who Will Comfort Toffle? (1960) and The Dangerous Journey (1977). Go. a 1980 opera. In his "Journey" books a tiny character travels through depictions of the culture of various countries. .Picture book up with The 500 Hats of Bartholomew Cubbins in 1938. It has been adapted into other media several times. The Mr. Seuss created The Cat in the Hat in reaction to a Life magazine article by John Hersey in lamenting the unrealistic children in school primers books. The Barbapapa series of books by Annette Tison and Talus Taylor was published in France in the 1970s. Her work has been translated into 17 languages and published in 22 countries. in 2009. Between 1957 and 1960 Harper & Brothers published a series of sixteen "I Can Read" books. including an animated short in 1973. published in 1958.

The Boston Globe-Horn Book Award. • Hunt. Barbara Cooney. (2010). Linda & Stan. first presented in 1967. (http:/ / ala. Publishers Weekly [11] Publishers Weekly (http:/ / www. Ingri and Edgar Parin d'Aulaire.com/books?id=XqaTzQBVDCAC&pg=PA465&dq="edmund+evans"#v=onepage&q="edmund evans"&f=false). The Kate Greenaway Medal was established in the United Kingdom in 1955 in honour of the children's illustrator. ISBN 0-203-16812-7. to the most distinguished beginning reader book. 1: Today's Golden Era Of Picturebooks. includes a category for picture books. com/ gst/ fullpage. publishersweekly. a Children's Illustrator Forging the Way. New York Times obituary of Richard Scarry (http:/ / query. 221 Whalley. p. Roger Duvoisin. 156 Hunt. Peter. [12] Gyo Fujikawa. Flying Moose Books. Matthew (February 4. penguingroup. html). publishersweekly. It is awarded by Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals (CILIP). Retrieved 2010-03-01. New York: Dover.New York. 668 Hunt. Seuss. "Children's Picturebook Price Guide". International Companion Encyclopedia of Children's Literature (http://books. aspx) URL accessed 23 April 2007. Hunt." References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] Kiefer. Tasha Tudor. named after Dr. Robert McCloskey. The Illustrator and the book in England from 1790 to 1914 (http://books. ISBN 978-0-07-337856-5 • Ray. Retrieved 2010-02-28. 674 according to a 2001 list of bestselling children's hardback books compiled by Publishers Weekly. [14] Ask Art:Gyo Fujikawa. The Caldecott Medal was established as a sister award to the ALA's Newbery Medal. com/ static/ html/ aboutus/ youngreaders/ grosset. During the mid-forties to early-fifties honorees included Marcia Brown. html) URL accessed 23 April 2007. in "literary and artistic achievements to engage children in reading. and Leonard Weisgard. Berta and Elmer Hader. p. nytimes. p. ISBN 0977939405 . [13] Penguin Group Diversity. (http:/ / us. Seuss. html?res=9D04E0D91030F930A35756C0A962958260) [10] Thornton. Four of the top eight books on the Publishers Weekly list are Little Golden Books. p. which was awarded to a children's books "for the most distinguished American children's book published the previous year" and presented annually beginning in 1922. Source • Kiefer. Sept. Chap. The Danish Hans Christian Andersen Award for Illustration has been awarded since 1966. Sheila Ray (1996). cfm) URL accessed 21 July 2009. The award is presented to both the author and illustrator. 2006. ISBN 0-486-26955-8. Gordon Norton (1991). askart. Charlotte Huck's Children's Literature. (http:/ / www. London: Routledge. com/ article/ CA6528120. Andrea Wyman. Versed. Robert Lawson. McGraw-Hill. p.Picture book 34 Awards In 1938. Leo Politi. html). Retrieved 23 April 2007.google. com/books?id=HsTU8eWtej8C&pg=PA154&lpg=PA154&dq=edmund+evans+printer#v=onepage& q=edmund evans printer&f=false). Maurice Sendak. org/ ala/ aboutala/ offices/ diversity/ versed/ versedbackissues/ september2005a/ fujikawa. the American Library Association (ALA) began presenting annually the Caldecott Medal to the most distinguished children's book illustration published in the year. 2008) "Wild Things All Over" (http:/ / www. Since 1965 the Deutscher Jugendliteraturpreis (German Youth literature prize) includes a category for picture books. com/ article/ CA186995. Kate Greenaway. Dr. google. The medal is given annually to an outstanding work of illustration in children's literature. 217 Hunt. com/ AskART/ F/ gyo_fujikawa/ gyo_fujikawa. 2005. Barbara Z. • Zielinski. the ALA started awarding the Geisel Award. In 2006. Dr.

juvenile novel.[3] The Young Adult Library Services (YALSA) of the American Library Association (ALA) defines a young adult as "someone between the ages of twelve and eighteen". chapter books contain plentiful illustrations. The New York Times. The vast majority of YA stories portray an adolescent as the protagonist. Ihsan. com/ childrens_fiction_genre. which appeal more readily to younger readers. etc. a chapter book tells the story primarily through prose.[1] [2] Unlike picture books for younger readers. Young-adult fiction Young-adult fiction or young adult literature (often abbreviated as YA). The New York Times Best Seller list of Children's Chapter Books has included books with intended audience age ranges from 6 to 14 and up. [3] Taylor.[4] Writing styles of YA stories range widely. theme.[3] This may reflect a straightforward interpretation of "chapter books" as those books directed at children that are long enough to include chapters. rather than an adult or a child It is generally agreed that Young Adult Literature is literature written for adolescent readers. and in some cases published by adolescent writers. is fiction written for.edu/pictbks/) at Miami University Chapter book A chapter book is a story book intended for intermediate readers. findmeanauthor. "Chapter Books Lead Young Readers from Pictures to Novels".Picture book 35 External links • Children's Picture Book Database (http://www. Boston Globe. including the I Can Read! series and the Magic School Bus series. Young adult novels have also been defined as texts written for the ages of twelve and up. htm [2] Loer. com/ best-sellers-books/ 2011-01-02/ chapter-books/ list. html). Themes in YA stories often focus on the challenges of youth. though this definition is still somewhat controversial. The name refers to the fact that the stories are usually divided into short chapters. published for. Chapter books are usually works of fiction of moderate length and complexity. However. Stephanie (2001-04-29). Although YA literature shares the fundamental elements of character. . and character. which provide children with opportunities to stop and resume reading if their attention spans are not long enough to finish the book in one sitting. refer to the works in the YA category. the terms young-adult novel. and style common to other genres of fiction. roughly ages 14 to 21. rather than pictures. The subject matter and story lines are typically consistent with the age and experience of the main character. theme and style are often subordinated to the more tangible basic narrative elements such as plot.[1] [2] also juvenile fiction. .lib. Another suggestion for the definition is that Young Adult Literature is any text being read by adolescents. Unlike books for older readers. from the richness of literary style to the clarity and speed of the unobtrusive and even free verse.muohio. Authors and readers of young adult (YA) novels often define the genre as "literature written for ages ranging from ten years up to the age of twenty" (Cole). nytimes. "Hardcover" (http:/ / www. Accordingly. so much so that the entire age category is sometimes referred to as problem novels or coming of age novels. or marketed to adolescents and young adults. setting. References [1] http:/ / www. plot. some publishers such as Scholastic Corporation and Harper Collins include the phrase "chapter book" in series titles aimed specifically at younger readers. but beyond that YA stories span the entire spectrum of fiction genres. setting. young-adult book. generally age 7-10.

I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. and Lord of the Flies (1954). published in 1967 by S. who in 1802 described "young adulthood" as lasting from ages 14 to 21. the fab five are: I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings by Maya Angelou. as the initiator of the adolescent literature genre. nineteenth-century publishers did not specifically market to young readers. . 1967 was the year when a multitude of YA books began to be seen. these two were written with an adult audience in mind. Waverley (1814). and that it opened up a whole new eye to what types of texts adolescent readers read. Hinton's The Outsiders. The Guardian of Education. This book focused on a group of teens not yet represented and instead of having the nostalgic tone that was typical in young adult books written by adults. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876).E. R. shortly before the advent of modern publishing for the teen romance market. Some claim that the first real young adult novel was The Catcher in the Rye by J. the stormy sixties became the era "when the 'under 30' generation became a subject of popular concern. Maya Angelou's novel. establishing terms of reference for young adult literature that remain in use today. To Kill a Mockingbird. and adolescent culture did not exist in a modern sense. The Count of Monte Cristo (1844). darker side of young adult life because it was written by a young adult. especially after the publication of S. popular genre. Tom Brown's Schooldays (1857). Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884). p. Tolkien. it displayed a truer. two novels drew the attention of adolescent readers: The Catcher in the Rye (1951). Kidnapped (1886). along with many others. This book sparked talk about what adolescents face. by Robert Louis Stevenson. and that adolescents can produce books that they can relate to. Heidi. 6) including The Swiss Family Robinson (1812). Salinger. The Friends by Rosa Guy.[3] However. Trimmer introduced the terms "Books for Children" (for those under fourteen) and "Books for Young Persons" (for those between fourteen and twenty-one). Unlike more-recent fiction classified as YA. was published. For this reason others adopt The Outsiders. and that research on adolescence began to emerge. "For the record.[5] The modern classification of young-adult fiction originated during the 1950s and 1960s. it was said that "this was the first time when it became clear that the young were a separate generation" (Cart 43).Young-adult fiction 36 History of young-adult fiction Sarah Trimmer The first recognition of young adults as a distinct group was by Sarah Trimmer. D. but multiple novels that fit into the YA category had been published long before. Hinton who at the time was only a teenager. As the decades moved on. Alice in Wonderland (1865). Following this novel. R. A few other novels that were published around the turn of the century include Treasure Island. In the 1970s. Oliver Twist (1838). what has become to be known as the "fab five" were published. and Black Beauty by Anna Sewell. by J. Great Expectations (1860). Bless the Beasts and Children by Glendon Swarthout. In 1937 The Hobbit. In the nineteenth century there are several early examples that appealed to young readers (Garland 1998. and Toni Morrison's. by Johanna Spyri. It would also be the decade when literature for adolescents could be said to have come into its own" (Cart 43). and Betty Smith's A Tree Grows in Brooklyn (1943) also is a beloved by adolescents today. The Jungle Book (1894) and Moonfleet (1898). other classic texts such as Harper Lee's. Mid-Century In the 1950s. and Deathwatch by Robb White" (Cart 77). The Bluest Eye all entered the genre of Young Adult Literature as well. E. The Beginning Beginning in the 1920s.[3] In her self-founded children's literature periodical. The Bell Jar by Sylvia Plath. and ever since YA lit has grown into a thriving.

• Tim Bowler (born 1953): English author. drug use. beauty. and movies are now produced more often that portray popular young adult texts with adolescent protagonists. and murder. in turn. sexuality. identity. p. Margaret. bookstores have begun dedicating entire sections of their bookshelves to "teen" and "young adult" novels and texts. suicide. • Judy Blume (born 1938): American author. Fever 1793. and came into its own with the better written. His novels include Love Lessons and Denial. His novels include River Boy and Frozen Fire. Catalyst.[3] In the 1980s: "the 1980s contained a large amount of Young Adult publications which pushed the threshold of topics that adolescents faced such as rape. In the 1990s. Examples of other novels that predate the young-adult classification. parental death. As the genre continues to become more popular. drinking. it seemed as though the era of Young Adult Literature was going to lose steam but "due in part to an increase in the number of teenagers in the 1990s the field matured. Also in the 1980s. . • Laurie Halse Anderson: American author of both fiction and non-fiction. Marketing Teens have also become more and more marketable to text publications. but that are now frequently presented alongside YA novels are (Garland 1998. and more varied young adult books published during the last two decades" (Tomlinson and Lynch-Brown 5). and Wintergirls. Twisted. and authors continue to publish texts that adolescents can relate to.C. Anderson is a Margret A. and even teen pregnancy" (Lubar). Also in the 1990s. Edwards Award [6] recipient. Andrews (1923–1986): American author of several popular gothic horror family sagas for teenagers. Some of her more well known novels include Speak. booksellers and libraries.Young-adult fiction 37 70's and 80's As publishers began to focus on the emerging adolescent market. began creating YA sections distinct from either children's literature or novels written for adults. 6): • • • • • • • • Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm (1903) Anne of Green Gables (1908) The Secret Garden (1909) The Yearling (1938) My Friend Flicka (1941) Johnny Tremain (1943) The Outsiders (1967) The Pigman (1968) Notable authors • V. Prom. more serious. • David Belbin (born 1958): English author. blossomed. "Abarat" was written for a young adult audience and is considered one of his most important works. • Clive Barker Although not usually a young adult writer. examples include Flowers in the Attic and Melody. wrote teen classics Are You There God? It's Me. "teenagers seemed to want to read about something closer to their daily lives-romance novels were revived" (Cart 99). The 1970s to the mid-1980s have been described as the golden age of young-adult fiction—when challenging novels began speaking directly to the interests of the identified adolescent market. Young Adult Literature will continue to be read and supported by adolescent and adult readers alike. Young Adult Literature pushed adolescent issues even further by including topics such as. and Forever.

• Eoin Colfer (born 1965): Irish author noted for the Artemis Fowl series. • Ellen Hopkins (born 1955): American New York Times Bestselling author. and several other novels in verse • Anthony Horowitz (born 1956): British author. • Brian Jacques (1939-2011): British author of the successful and critically acclaimed Redwall series. Anthony Horowitz is writing the best selling Alex Rider series. such as The Princess Diaries series. C. also awarded a 2007 Michael L. • Sarah Dessen (born 1970): American author of such popular young-adult fare as The Truth About Forever and That Summer. • Suzanne Collins (born 1964): American author of the popular The Hunger Games trilogy which includes The Hunger Games. wrote Young Bond series. • Lurlene McDaniel (born 1948): American author. and Tex. 38 . • Rae Bridgman: Canadian author known for her fantasy-adventure series The MiddleGate Books. • Cornelia Funke (born 1958): German author. Printz Award Honor for An Abundance of Katherines and the 2009 Edgar Award for Best Young Adult Novel for Paper Towns. Hinton (born 1950): American author. wrote Jimmy Coates series. which debuted in 2001. • Susan Cooper (born 1935): British author. • Charlie Higson (born 1958): British author.E. 95 million copies of his Chronicles of Narnia series have been published worldwide since The Lion.Young-adult fiction • Malorie Blackman (born 1962): British author of the award winning Noughts & Crosses Trilogy and Boys Don't Cry. Born in Melbourne. including The Serpent's Spell. wrote The Outsiders. • Isobelle Carmody (born 1958): Wrote the award-winning. • Megan McCafferty (born 1973): American author of the New York Times Bestselling Jessica Darling series. Obernewtyn Chronicles. An Abundance of Katherines. Cast and her daughter Kristin Cast: American writers of the House of Night series of vampire-based fantasy novels. • Gordon Korman • C. • John Green (born 1977): The American Michael L. Nobel Prize for Literature laureate best known for his novel Lord of the Flies. This Is Now. Catching Fire and Mockingjay. and Paper Towns. • S. • P. Rumble Fish. • Kate Cann: Young adult trilogies and "Holiday" stand-alones. Amber Ambrosia and Fish & Sphinx • Meg Cabot (born 1967): American author of many popular books and series. S. • Maureen Johnson (born 1973): American author of 13 Little Blue Envelopes and the Suite Scarlett series. Susan Cooper wrote the popular The Dark is Rising series. Cornelia Funke wrote the successful Inkheart trilogy. • William Golding (1911–1993): British author. • Joe Craig (born 1980): British author. That Was Then. • Lisi Harrison: author of bestselling series The Clique and The Alphas • Robert A. Printz Award winning author of Looking for Alaska. whose novels include Tunnel in the Sky and Citizen of the Galaxy. Lewis (1898–1963): British author. His novels include Little Brother and For the Win. penned a series of novels dealing with terminal illness that were enormously popular during the 1980s and 1990s. they are often compared and are close friends. wrote "Crank" series. Heinlein (1907–1988): American science fiction writer. Australia as was Garth Nix. • Cory Doctorow (born 1971): Canadian author. the Witch and the Wardrobe debuted in 1950.

• Kathryn Reiss (born 1957): American Author. Dreadful Sorry. 39 . Rowling (born 1965): British author. A Bundle of Trouble.E. wrote Hatchet and many other young-adult novels. and the new spin-off series. • L. • Philip Pullman (born 1946): British author. writes romance along with contemporary issue fiction. series.D. J. Living Dead Girl. Sweet Miss Honeywell's Revenge. Garth Nix wrote the Keys to the Kingdom and Old Kingdom series.K. He also wrote So Yesterday and Peeps as well as the Midnighters trilogy. • Paul Zindel (1936–2003): This Pulitzer-Prize winning American author wrote over 40 young adult novels.Young-adult fiction • Stephenie Meyer (born 1973): American creator of the popular vampire romance franchise Twilight. Sample titles: Time Windows. such as Something Upstairs and The True Confessions of Charlotte Doyle. Philip Pullman wrote the successful and controversial His Dark Materials trilogy. • Garth Nix (born 1963): Australian author. • Cecily von Ziegesar (born 1970): American author of the popular teen novels Gossip Girl. • Mark Walden (born 197?): British author. and Uglies and Peeps got the 2006 American Library Association best book for young adults award. So Yesterday won an award for American Library Association 2005 best book for young adults. her books have been sold in more than 400 million copies worldwide and are translated into more than 63 languages.J. Paint by Magic. award-winning YA novels. PaperQuake. • Rick Riordan (born 1964): American author. the best-selling The Kane Chronicles. as well as American Girl mysteries for younger readers. • Francine Pascal (born 1938): American creator of the popular Sweet Valley Twins and Sweet Valley High franchises. Scorpions and many other books. Rowling is an award winning young-adult author today and arguably the most successful. • Jerry Spinelli (born 1941): Very prolific American author of young adult fare such as Stargirl and Eggs. Blackthorn Winter. Wrote many romantic fantasy stories. Being the author of the extremely successful and critically well received Harry Potter series. known for his writing about Harlem including Fallen Angels. Smith (author) (born 1965)an American author of young-adult literature.V. The Unwritten Rule. Two of her book series have turned into television series. She is also the first billionaire-author (in terms of US-dollars). • Jonathan Stroud (born 1970): British author.[7] • Robert Muchamore (born 1972): British author. K. • Walter Dean Myers (born 1937) : American author. wrote the award winning Percy Jackson and the Olympians series. including The Grounding of Group 6 currently being made into a movie. and As I Wake. • Edward Irving Wortis (pen name Avi. • Julian F(rancis) Thompson (born 1927): American author of nineteen popular. Kathryn Reiss is an award winning author of time travel and suspense novels for young-adults. wrote the bestselling H.I. born 1937): American author of critically acclaimed young adult historical fiction. • J. wrote the best-selling Bartimaeus Trilogy amongst other books. known for writing the hugely successful CHERUB series. His books have sold over 10 million copies and have been translated into languages all over the globe. • Scott Westerfeld (born 1963): Scott has written books such as the Uglies series which contains the best selling books Uglies Pretties Specials and Extras. • Elizabeth Scott (born 1972) : American author. including The Pigman. Salinger (1919–2010): American author of the young adult classic The Catcher in the Rye. • Gary Paulsen (born 1939): American author. and The Heroes of Olympus • J. Monster. Henderson's Boys.

Reading about issues that adolescents can relate to allows them to identify with a particular character. popularity. concern over grades/school. she discovers seventeen common traits of young adult novels. but elements that relate directly to real situations adolescents face. widespread appeal. but the genre also contains other various types of non-fiction such as biographies. peer pressure and ensuing experimentations. younger siblings. money. journal entries/diaries. tension versus shock effect. remarriage. situations. getting into trouble. Some of these themes include: identity. drug abuse. Young Adult Literature explores themes important and crucial to adolescence such as relationships to authority figures. the focus is centered around a young lead character and the reader experiences emotions. suicide. familial struggles. divorce. These characteristics encompass: “multi-themed story. death. interest in the opposite sex. original idea. the problem novel tends to be the most popular among young readers. 12). accurate facts and details. puberty. and letters. sexuality. effective/clear writing style. Overall. relationships within families.[10] Characteristics Young adult literature contains specific characteristics that are present throughout the genre. and job/working. depression. problems with parents. science fiction. These include: “friendship. empathetic characters. memorable characters. money. Themes Young Adult Literature uses a wide array of themes in order to appeal to a wide variety of adolescent readers. grandparents. and poetry. and the like through this character and is able to see how these problems/situations are resolved.Young-adult fiction 40 Genre Young Adult Literature has become a genre which covers various text types including: novels. Young Adult Literature needs to contain specific elements that will not only interest adolescent readers. no unlikely coincidences. race. Primarily. Memoirs are also popular forms of Young Adult Literature. those issues and characters are treated in a way that does not invalidate. memorable voice. there are certain experiences and certain kinds of people that are common to adolescents. and numerous others.[9] It also needs to play a significant role in how we approach this group and the books we offer them to read” (Lesesne 14). and (4)Is written for an audience of young adults" (Blasingame 11). The genre itself has been challenged due its seemingly mature content by critics of Young Adult Literature. bullying. and creates a sense of security when experiencing something that is going on within their lives. sociocultural. or devalue them. minimize. (2) Is framed in language that young readers can understand.[8] “The culture that surrounds and absorbs young adults plays a huge role in their lives. Although many genres exist in young adult literature. short stories. Other characteristics of Young Adult Literature include: "(1) Characters and issues young readers can identify with. autobiographies. neighborhood. Much of the literature published consists of young adult fiction which in itself contains several different types of text. Some issues that are talked about in young adult literature are things such as friendship. authentic dialogue. issues of diversity as it relates to gender. Reading about it may help a young person validate his or her own experience and make some kind of meaning out of it" (Blasingame. alcohol abuse. and contain believable. graphic novels. . single parents. race. Problem novel refers to young adult novels in the realistic fiction category that “addresses personal and social issues across socioeconomic boundaries and within both traditional and nontraditional family structures” (Cole 98). and/or socioeconomic status. "Whether you call them archetypes or stereotypes. (3) Emphasizes plot above everything else. but "other converted critics have embraced Young Adult so dearly that they have scoured the canon for any classics they could adopt into the YA family" (Stephens 2007). love. In a paper written by April Dawn Wells. divorce. sense of humor. intriguing openings and memorable closings” (Cole 61-65).

Another reason that Young Adult Literature has been incorporated into classrooms is to be paired with classic texts that are traditionally read in classrooms. Although it's clear that young adult literature is more accessible. struggling readers use reluctance as a coping mechanism. and popular culture (Bucher. Young Adult Literature has been integrated into classrooms in order to increase student interest in reading. television. the problems of struggling readers are only aggravated. • The content should consider existing global concerns such as cultural. Using YA Lit alongside a canonical piece of text can increase a students comprehension of the common themes the various texts have. The language and plots of young adult literature are similar to what students are accustomed to finding in reality. The following are criteria that researchers have come up with to evaluate the effectiveness of young adult literature in the classroom (Bucher and Manning. Sarah K. Young Adult Literature has been used to open up the door of reading literature to these readers as well: "When voluntary reading declines. reading and thinking levels. By allowing adolescents to read good young adult literature. • The content should deal with contemporary issues and experiences with characters adolescents can relate. Authors who write young adult literature have an adolescent’s age and interests in mind. educators are able to encourage independent reading. 64-66). Based on the Jungian theory of archetypes. The classics shouldn't be reserved for exceptional students. and make reading a classic text more enjoyable: "Young adult literature can spark interest in the classics and vice versa. Situational Archetypes in Literature The classic canon in high school literature classes can often be too overwhelming and far removed from everyday life of the adolescence. sex. illness and death. and gender diversity. Herz and Donald Gallo suggest using archetypes from traditional literature to “build bridges” to the classics through young adult literature. (Cole 513). and Young Adult Literature shouldn't be reserved for at-risk readers. in turn. Recognizing archetypes in literature will help students build the foundation for making connection among various works of literature. Manning. Research shows that not only adolescent males have been labeled as reluctant readers. help adolescents develop the skills necessary to succeed" (Bucher and Manning). that doesn't warrant denying the classics to struggling readers. Research has been performed on what type of impact the introduction YA Lit has on students. • The subject matter should reflect age and development by addressing their interest levels. Herz and Gallo suggest before or after studying a traditional classic or contemporary novel it is a good time to introduce the concept of archetypes in literature. YA Literature. is an appropriate literature for every adolescent male who needs compelling material that speaks to him" (Gill). because of its range of authors and story types. 9-10). environmental and political issues as it relates to adolescents. 328-332). peer pressure with regards to drugs. • Subjects can relate to dealing with parents and adults. Archetypes also help students become more conscious of an author’s style and to think about and recognize the way in which a particular writer develops a character or story (Herz and Gallo. consider a literary archetype as a character type or theme which recurs frequently in literature (Herz and Gallo. movies. Students can begin to grasp and identify the archetypal images and patterns that appear in new forms. and required by many schools curricula. and the complications of addiction and pregnancy. social. . particularly adolescent males and struggling readers: "Researchers have shown that introducing YA Literature to males improves their reading ability.Young-adult fiction 41 Usage in Education Research suggests young adult literature can be advantageous to reluctant student readers by addressing their needs. which will. Young Adult Literature offers teachers an effective way to introduce the study of archetypes in literature by grouping a variety of titles around archetypal situations and characters. 66).

. The Test or Trial. and ironic”. Annihilation.Young-adult fiction 42 Using Classic Situational Archetypes in the Classroom A partial list of classic situational literary archetypes as comprised by Herz and Gallo in two separate editions of their book. Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller. The main character is expelled because of undesirable actions on his or her part. Total Oblivion. The protagonist takes journey. The Young Adult Novels are paired with Classic Novels based on situational archetypes. Ironman by Chris Crutcher. Tiger Eyes by Judy Blume. the character’s spirit survives the fight and through a development of self awareness the main character is reborn. either physically or emotionally. the main character accepts that life is “absurd. Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare. Absurdity. The Giver by Lois Lowry / Catch 22 by Joseph Heller and Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut Jr. The protagonist deals with parental conflict by rejecting or bonding with parents. The Crazy Horse Electric Game by Chris Crutcher / The Odyssey by Homer and Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck.(Herz and Gallo. and The Runner by Cynthia Voigt / Ordinary People by Judith Guest. The main character experiences growth and change. he or she experiences a transformation. ridiculous.. Through pain and suffering. and Driver's Ed by Caroline Cooney / The Red Badge of Courage by Stephen Crane and The Color Purple by Alice Walker. Parental Conflicts and Relationships. The Joy Luck Club by Amy Tan. and brings meaning in their life. Dancing on Dark Waters by Alden Carter. From Hinton to Hamlet: Building Bridges between Young Adult Literature and the Classics. Midnight Hour Encores by Bruce Brooks. Birth/Death/Rebirth: Presents the main character in a conflict. and The Glass Menagerie by Tennessee Williams. Permanent Connections by Sue Ellen Bridgers. 66-70). Breathing Underwater by Alex Flinn / Hamlet by William Shakespeare The Fall: Expulsion from Eden. Speak by Laurie Halse Anderson / The Scarlet Letter by Nathanial Hawthorne The Journey. In order to exist in an unbearable world. The True Confessions by Charlotte Doyle by Avi.

authors and publishers have repeatedly pushed the boundaries of what was previously considered acceptable regarding human sexuality. The main character leaves his or her community to go on an adventure. and Remembering The Good Times by Richard Peck / To Kill A Mocking Bird by Harper Lee and The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck. The Hero. Staying Fat for Sarah Byrnes by Chris Crutcher and Make Lemonade by Virginia Euwer Wolff / A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens and Cyrano de Bergerac by Edmond Rostand. R. D. suicide) • Melvin Burgess's Junk (1996) (US title: Smack (heroin addiction. drinking. squatting) • Rob Thomas's Rats Saw God (1996) (drugs. • Shelley Stoehr's Crosses (1991) (self-mutilation) • Chris Crutcher's Staying Fat for Sarah Byrnes (1993) (religion. peer pressure. The Chocolate War and The Bumblebee Flies Anyway by Robert Cormier / Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare and Antigone by Sophocles. The Sacrificial Redeemer. the main character maintains a strong sense of morality. The protagonist is willing to die for a belief. My Hamburger (1969) (a teen's first sexual encounter and abortion) Judy Blume's Forever (1975) (a teen's first sexual encounter and contraception) Nancy Garden's Annie on My Mind (1982) (two high-school girls who fall in love) Julian F. sex) . Such novels and their content are sometimes referred to as "edgy. performing actions that bring honor to the community. Other suggestions for classical/young adult text pairings using YA publications (List generated by Joan Kaywell.Young-adult fiction 43 The Wise Old Woman or Man. abortion. young-adult fiction has portrayed teens confronting situations and social issues that have pushed the edge of then-acceptable content." In particular. pranks. Examples include: • • • • • Paul Zindel's The Pigman (1968) (teen smoking. Anderson / Exploring the Future Dracula by Bram Stoker / Twilight by Stephenie Meyer / Vampires The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne / Sandpiper by Ellen Wittlinger / Sexual Behavior Alienation Catcher in the Rye by J. as cited in Cole 515-516): Classical Text / Young Adult Text / Common Themes / Topics To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee / Monster by Walter Dean Myers / Trial: Guilty before Innocent Lord of the Flies by William Golding / The Clique by Lisi Harrison [11] / Use and Abuse of Power The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain / The Watsons Go To Birmingham 1963 by Christopher Paul Curtis / Prejudice Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury / Feed by M. T. peer pressure) Paul Zindel's My Darling. Phoenix Rising by Karen Hesse. sexual encounters among the teens and assassin/teen romantic relationship). Salinger / America by E. Jacob I have Loved by Katherine Paterson. This figure protects or assists the main character in facing challenges. child abuse. Memoirs of a Bookbat by Kathryn Lasky. Thompson's [12] The Grounding of Group 6 (1983) (comedic satiric thriller: parents send their children to boarding school to be murdered. teenage prostitution. Frank / Mental Illness Rebellion Edgy content From its very beginning.

Young-adult fiction • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • David Belbin's Love Lessons (1998) (teacher/student sexual affair) Linda Glovach's Beauty Queen (1998) (teenage exotic dancing and heroin addiction) Laurie Halse Anderson's Speak (1999) (rape) Stephen Chbosky's The Perks of Being a Wallflower (1999) (suicide. 300) The Writer's Digest Grammar Desk Reference is a little more forceful on the subject: "The most complicated business conducted by hyphens is uniting words into adjectival compounds that . crime. 3rd 2002). young-adult) Recognition of the noun young adult and its punctuation as an adjectival modifier are inconsistent. it is never incorrect to hyphenate adjectival compounds before a noun. the use of a hyphen varies widely. while others do not (Webster's International. For example.82-7. author). with no hyphen. Some dictionaries recognize young adult as a noun (Random House. hyphenation usually makes for easier reading. depression. accepting their sexuality. Critics of such content argue that the novels encourage destructive or immoral behavior. gangs. mentally. homelessness. smoking.86: "When such compounds precede a noun. drug addiction. young adult is treated as an open compound noun. 2nd 1987). drugs. When recognized (as by Random House). race relations. suicide) David-Matthew Barnes's Mesmerized (2010) (gay teen love. With the exception of proper nouns (such as United States) and compounds formed by an adverb ending in ly plus an adjective. sexuality. and physically abusive relationships) Alex Sanchez's Rainbow Boys (2001) (high school boys exploring gay sex. it clearly addresses the issue in "Compounds and Hyphenation. abuse. oral sex) Steve Berman's Vintage: A Ghost Story (2007) (depressed gay boy who deals with suicide and loneliness) An Na's The Fold (2008) (plastic surgery. teen pregnancy) 44 YA novels currently in print include content about peer pressure. Although the Chicago Manual of Style falls short of declaring the omission of the hyphen as grammatically incorrect. an Internet search (of the Web or of news articles) using the key words young adult fiction shows widespread inconsistency in hyphenation. violence) Greg Neri Surf Mules (2009) (drug trafficking) Lucy Christopher Stolen (2010) (kidnapping) Joanne Hichens's Stained (2009) (sexual abuse. teenage sexuality. drug use. p. however. Others argue that fictional portrayal of teens successfully addressing difficult situations and confronting social issues helps readers deal with real-life challenges. suicide. drugs. divorce. post-natal depression. the other in the present day concerning a possible gay relationship between teenage boys) KL Going's Fat Kid Rules The World (2003) (obesity. mentally. 15th Edition 2003." sections 7. incest."(Chicago Manual of Style. oral sex. oral sex. rape. one concerning a homosexual relationship during the First World War. drug abuse. illness. and female/male rape. Debate continues regarding the amount and nature of violence and profanity appropriate in young-adult fiction. Hyphens (young adult vs. hate crime) and Swimming to Chicago (2011) (gay teen love. lesbianism) Elizabeth Scott's Living Dead Girl (2008) (kidnapping. novel. and running away) Alex Flinn's Breathing Underwater (2001) (emotionally. and physically abusive relationships. social alienation) Alice Hoffman's Green Angel (2003) (self-mutilation) Angela Johnson's The First Part Last (2003) (teen fatherhood) Jonathan Trigell's Boy A (2004) (rehabilitation. and abusive relationships) Sarah Dessen's Dreamland (2000) (emotionally. and falling in love) Patricia McCormick's Cut (2001) (self-mutilation) Linda Newbery's The Shell House (2002) (a split narrative. When the noun young adult is placed before another noun (such as fiction. media) Julie Anne Peters' Luna (2004) (transsexuality) John Green's Looking for Alaska (2005) (Under age drinking. violence. teen pregnancy.

mystery fiction. Printz Award is an award for a book that exemplifies literary excellence in young adult literature. Because the sources do not declare the absence of a hyphen as grammatically incorrect. widespread inconsistencies in the punctuation of young adult are likely to continue. pp.[16] • The Alex Awards are given annually to ten books written for adults that have special appeal to young adults. as in young-adult fiction. light novels. society. The first William C. In recent years. Some novels originally marketed to adults have been identified as being of interest and value to adolescents and. techno-thrillers. YA fiction has been increasingly treated as an object of serious study by children's literature critics. Many writers neglect to hyphenate such compounds. Morris YA Debut Award first awarded in 2009. fiction targeted to readers age 10 to 12 is referred to as middle-grade fiction. and adult literature have historically been flexible and loosely defined.[14] • The William C. It is named for a Topeka. A growing number of young-adult-fiction awards recognize outstanding works of fiction for adolescents. But when the noun young adult precedes another noun. The annual award is administered by YALSA and sponsored by School Library Journal magazine. and mark outstanding adolescent literature writing. YA literature. even subcategories such as cyberpunk. as well as a specific body of his or her work. splatterpunk. This line is often policed by adults who feel strongly about the border. honors a debut book published by a first-time author writing for teens and celebrating impressive new voices in young adult literature. each clearly expresses a preference for hyphenating compound modifiers. and so on. vice versa. Edwards Award was established in 1988. and the result is ramshackle sentences that often frustrate the reader. for significant and lasting contribution to young adult literature. Morris award was given to Elizabeth C.[17] . Awards Various young-adult-fiction awards are presented annually. New formats such as ebooks make it easier for teens to access these online. young-adult novel. Kansas school librarian who was a long-time active member of the Young Adult Library Services Association. honors an author. 274–275) The Wikipedia Manual of Style also addresses the issue of hyphens for compound adjectives." (Writer's Digest Grammar Desk Reference 2005. and adult fiction The distinctions between children's literature.[13] At the lower end of the YA age spectrum. young adult is a noun (without a hyphen) as defined by Random House. YA. and in the world. and contemporary Christian fiction. • The Michael L. romance novels. Bunce for A Curse Dark as Gold. The Alex Awards were first given annually beginning in 1998 and became an official ALA award in 2002. in the case of several books such as the Harry Potter novels.Young-adult fiction precede nouns. either out of ignorance or as conscious choice of style. it becomes a compound modifier and warrants a hyphen. Although none of the sources cited above list young adult as an example. however. Trends The category of YA fiction continues to expand into new genres: graphic novels. It recognizes an author's work in helping adolescents become aware of themselves and addressing questions about their role and importance in relationships. manga. With that in mind.[15] • The Margaret A. The winning titles are selected from the previous year's publishing. fantasy. Boundaries between children's. young-adult author. 45 Literature Whether any particular work of fiction qualifies as literature can be disputed.

Print.. Only Connect: readings on children's literature (2nd ed. Alleen Pace (April 1994). 387–396. NJ: Pearson Education. Cart. Co-administered with Association for Library Service to Children. Ohio: Writer's Digest Books. Sarah K. Bucher. Stephens. M. pp. CT: Greenwood.. • John Grossman (2003). New York: Harper Collins. Gallo. This Is Now". "The Problem Novel". Pam B.:Defining the Genre" 2007. Sarah K. • Nilsen. Upper Saddle River. Katherine Toth.. ed.. David. and M. (1987). "Young Adult Literature for Young Adult Males" 2009. School Library Journal 40 (4): 62–70. 2006. Webster's Third New International Dictionary. ISBN 1-58297-335-0. Evaluation.. • Stuart Berg Flexner. Lee.[18] • YALSA Award for Excellence in Nonfiction for Young Adults [19] honors the best nonfiction book published for young adults (ages 12–18) during a November 1 – October 31 publishing year. Cole. Boston: Pearson Education. The Alan Review Spring 2003. 15th Edition. 12 May 2009. Julia (1996). contemporary problem novels". 1996. managing editor. • Garland. ISBN 0-89879-857-4.). Print. [24] . Print. Random House. 2009. 1996. 12 May 2009. Lynch-Brown. Westport.Web. Print. pp. • Lutz and Stevenson (2005). James.. "Young Adult: A Book by Any Other Name. 2003. University of Chicago Press..com Pearson Bucher. From Hinton to Hamlet: Building Bridges between Young Adult Literature and the Classics. In Shiela Egoff. The Alan Review Fall Thomlinson. 2007. Web. Print. Web. and Appreciation. Maine: Stenhouse Publishers. Lesesne. ISBN 0-226-10403-6. "The History of Young Adult Novels" [23]. 12 May 2009. Print. Leonore Crary Hauck. Young Adult Literature: In the 21st Century. Herz. ISBN 0-87779-206-2. OH: Writer's Digest Books... "The Hyphen". Print. editor in chief . Sherry (1998). International Companion Encyclopedia of Children's Literature. Teri S. Lee. "Young Adult Literature and the School Curriculum" Allyn Bacon Prentice Hall. Cincinnati.. The Alan Review Winter 1999. Westport. Gill. romances. Grades 4-12. • Egoff. Cincinnati. K. 2007. Manning. CT: Greenwood. 2005. Random House Dictionary. available in English in the United States. Web. Chicago Manual of Style. New York: McGraw Hill. 274–275. ed. 5–11. 356–369.[20] 46 Notes Blasingame. . Gallo. Lubar. 2nd edition. From Hinton to Hamlet: Building Bridges between Young Adult Literature and the Classics. Michael. Merriam-Webster. ISBN 0-394-50050-4. "Teenage Fiction: Realism. From Romance to Realism: 50 Years of Growth and Change in Young Adult Literature. Writing for Young Adults. 12 May Herz. Ontario: Oxford University Press. pp. in chief Philip Babcock Gove (2002). London: Routledge. and Donald R. Jonathan. Making the Match: The Right Book for the Right Reader at the Right Time. In Peter Hunt. Inc. [21] education. Print. New York: Scholastic. [22] . Manning. Carl M. Sam D. Sheila (1980). • ed. The Writer's Digest Grammar Desk Reference. pp. Books That Don't Bore 'Em: Young Adult Books That Speak to This Generation. Carol. "That Was Then . and Donald R. 2006. • Eccleshare. Essentials of Young Adult Literature.Young-adult fiction • Odyssey Award honors the producer of the best audiobook produced for children and/or young adults. Young Adult Literature: Exploration.

155 [4] Lamb.[28] • Diana Tixier Herald. 2010. Edwards Award (http:/ / www. 47 Other publications • Authors and Artists for Young Adults. [2] Cruz. 2006. [10] http:/ / ils. sponsored by the New York Public Library [26] • More Outstanding Books for the College Bound [27]. Matthew. • Frances FitzGerald. Entertainment Weekly. by Cat Yampbell. . 28 Sept. pdf). 2009. April Dawn " Themes Found in Young Adult Literature: A Comparison Study Between 1980 and 2000 (http:/ / www. 24 [5] FitzGerald 2004. Accessed August 14. Web. "Stephenie Meyer's young adult romance novel Twilight has sold some 17 million copies. The Johns Hopkins University Press.1033923. 2. ala.org. net/ [12] http:/ / julianthompson. The Lion and the Unicorn. (2003) Teen Genreflecting. Web. 2009. net/ [13] muse.. org/ yalsa/ odyssey)." ala. [19] http:/ / www. September 2004. professional organization for librarians serving teens in either public libraries or school library/media centers." ala. 62-70 • Grenby. 2010. dramatists. [9] " Qualities of Young Adult Literature (http:/ / www. Education. com/ reference/ article/ qualities-young-adult-literature/ )." University of North Carolina. [18] " Odyssey Award (http:/ / www. Web. 28 Sept. Web. "Vampires Turn Gentler With Eye Toward Teen Girls" (http:/ / abcnews. [15] William C. . 2006. 02 Oct. unc." education. p. filmmakers. 2007. 02 Oct. Literature for Today's Young Adults. com/ Entertainment/ wireStory?id=8297240). 2010. ISBN 0-673-15165-4. html). 2nd ed. [3] Grenby. 2006. org/ yalsa/ edwards). Inc. American Library Association. p. org/ ala/ mgrps/ divs/ yalsa/ booklistsawards/ margaretaedwards/ margaretedwards. Entries typically are six to twelve pages in length. architects. Jill. 2007. 2006. com/ blog/ 860000286/ post/ 1610023361. 62 [6] http:/ / www.jhu. 2010. American Library Association. Publishers Weekly. edu/ MSpapers/ 2861. "The Narrowing Gulf between YA and Adult" (http:/ / www. Rose (2008-03-17). 2010. 02 Oct. and fans of shy 17-year-old Bella Swan and outsider vampire Edward Cullen helped the movie bring in $383 million at global box offices. html). 29:3. • ALA Best Books for Young Adults[25] by YALSA. 2010. jhu. American Library Association.org. [16] " Margaret A. ala.” The Guardian of Education.com. American Library Association. ils. ala. 2010. 02 Oct. painters.00. "Conservative Woman". cfm). • Books for the Teen Age. "Teen Playas" (http:/ / www. Web. Donelson.org. flynn. pp348–372. 2010. p. Retrieved 2008-09-24. edu/ MSpapers/ 2861. Printz Award (http:/ / www. Scott. ala. Nancy. annual book list selected by teens for teens. American Library Association. Foresman and Company. serial publication (Gale.org. Apr 2003. Web. org/ yalsa/ printz). cfm [7] Serjeant.Young-adult fiction • Kenneth L. Wesport. pdf [11] http:/ / lisiharrison. by YALSA (Young Adult Library Services Association). org/ ala/ mgrps/ divs/ yalsa/ booklistsawards/ alexawards/ alexawards. ew. cfm [20] " YALSA Award for Excellence in Nonfiction for Young Adults (http:/ / www. ISBN 1843710110 References [1] Fox. . 2002. August 10. poets. Web. (1980). Conn. 02 Oct." ala. Morris YA Debut Award (http:/ / www. cfm). publishersweekly.: Libraries Unlimited. Recent volumes include a sidebar recommending similar books/works the reader might like also. com/ ew/ article/ 0. Sep 2005." ala. American Library Association. "The Influence of Anxiety" in Harper's. Cincinnati: Writer's Digest Books. go. and photographers which appeal to teenagers.edu: Children's Literature Association Quarterly (http:/ / muse. cartoonists. html) [14] " Michael L. ABC News.org. org/ ala/ mgrps/ divs/ yalsa/ booklistsawards/ nonfiction/ nonfiction. [17] " Alex Awards (http:/ / www. Crafting Stories for Children. • Judging a Book by Its Cover:  Publishing Trends in Young Adult Literature [29]. edu/ journals/ childrens_literature_association_quarterly/ v033/ 33. Web. org/ yalsa/ morris). Bristol: Thoemmes Press. Gilbert (2005-03-07). a division of ALA. education. ala. ala.. edited by Holly Koelling. “Introduction. at p350-351. 02 Oct." [8] Wells." ala. ala. have a black & white photo of the author/artist and other illustrations. Retrieved 2008-09-24." ala. org/ ala/ mgrps/ divs/ yalsa/ booklistsawards/ nonfiction/ nonfiction. 2006. 1989+) with bio-bibliographies of novelists. unc. Alleen Pace Nilsen.org. Children's Module. ala.com.

The Orlando Sentinel.msnbc. 30 Oct 2007. 3yampbell.com/books/306531_teenlit08.com) by Robert Gould.Young-adult fiction [21] http:/ / www. html 48 External links • In defense of mean-girl books (http://www.org/templates/story/story. • " Racy Reading. vt." by Tanya Lee Stone. ala. alastore.nytimes.npr. org/ bta1. cfm). • Best Books For Young Adults . a modern-day fairy tale for young adults.roanoke.com/entertainment/wb/xp-136866) by Erinn Hutkin. html [23] http:/ / www. php?storyId=12093236&sc=emaf) Michel Martin interviews ALA President Loriene Roy. • NPR: Multicultural Books Offer Diverse Reading Experience (http://www.com/VO/YA2/ VOYA200602AuthorTalk. Feb 2006. • " Now and Forever: The Power of Sex in Young Adult Literature (http://pdfs.macleans. org/ ala/ yalsa/ yalsa.ca/culture/media/article. bestbooksforyoungadults. The New York Public Library.html).wdbj7. • "Who Says Teens Don't Read?" (http://www. • " Young Adult Fiction: Wild Things (http://www. html)".voya.bitpartmedia. (http:/ / www. Gossip Girl Series is Latest Installment in Provocative Teen Fiction. jsp?content=20071015_110183_110183). lib.A growing resource of some amazing books (http://www. Seattle Post Intelligencer. [27] http:/ / www. htm) [29] http:/ / muse.com/id/8962686/)". ala.asp?S=6474837). 7 Mar 2007. edu/ ejournals/ ALAN/ winter99/ gill. The New York Times. 15 Oct 2007. by Janet Shamlian.com/Global/story. org/ SiteSolution. "Resources for Teens" (http:/ / teenlink. edu/ journals/ lion_and_the_unicorn/ v029/ 29. 3rd ed.msn. . org/ SiteSolution. com/ reference/ article/ young-adult-literature-school-curriculum/ [22] http:/ / scholar. 19 Jul 2007. taf?_sn=catalog2& _pn=product_detail& _op=2339) [26] The New York Public Library.htm). com/ p/ articles/ mi_qa4063/ is_200710/ ai_n21137330/ [25] Best Books for Young Adults. VOYA. davidlubar. by Lianne George. • A Change in the Weather (http://talistay. taf?_sn=catalog2& _pn=product_detail& _op=1855 [28] YALSA: The Young Adult Library Services Association (http:/ / www.com/2006/03/12/books/review/12wolf.southcoasttoday." by Linda Shrieves. Macleans. • " Teens and their Literature are Rocking the Marketplace (http://www. 6 Aug 2005.com/daily/08-05/08-06-05/b01li276. nypl. • " New Trend in Teen Fiction: Racy Reads. and It's As Popular As It Is Controversial (http://www. Retrieved 2010-09-13. Parents Alarmed that Books are More 'Sex and the City' than Nancy Drew (http://www. 15 Aug 2005. • "Teens Reading More Challenging Books" (http://www. education.com) . com/ yahist. htm [24] http:/ / findarticles. alastore." by Naomi Wolf. Roanoake Times. jhu. 12 Mar 2006. ala. NBC News.seattlepi.pdf). WDBJ-7. 5 May 2007.

49 Early Works Orbis Pictus Orbis Pictus. The first quadrilingual edition (in Latin. The first Czech translation was published in the 1685 quadrilingual edition (together with Latin. or Orbis Sensualium Pictus (The Visible World in Pictures) is a textbook for children written by Czech educator Comenius and published in 1658. The first English edition was published in 1659. with upgraded both pictures and text content. published in Pressburg (Bratislava). The book has 150 chapters and covers a wide range of subjects: • inanimate nature • botanics • zoology • religion • humans and their activities A late 18th-century reprint of Orbis Pictus. In the years 1670–1780. by the Breuer publishing house in Levoča. It was a precursor of both audio-visual techniques and the lexical approach in language learning. German and Hungarian). new editions were published in various languages. History Originally published in Latin and German in 1658 in Nuremberg. which are described in the accompanying text.[1] Contents The book is divided into chapters illustrated by woodcuts. Italian and French) was published in 1666.[2] Plaque commemorating the publication of Orbis Pictus in Levoča . Orbis Pictus had a long-lasting influence on children's education. the book soon spread to schools in Germany and other countries. German. It is something of a children's encyclopedia and is considered to be the first picture book intended for children.

1785 – September 20. "Rapunzel". "Sleeping Beauty" (Dornröschen).[2] They can be counted along with Karl Lachmann and Georg Friedrich Benecke as founding fathers of Germanic philology and German studies. (1991). 1863) and Wilhelm Grimm (February 24. Jacob Grimm (January 4. The Art of Writing for Children. "Hansel and Gretel" (Hänsel und Gretel). teflideas. Late in life they undertook the compilation of the first German dictionary: Wilhelm died in December 1859. linguists. cultural researchers. modern "Disney versions" of those tales. .translation by Charles Hoole Published 1777 online at Google Book Search [4] • Online Orbis Sensualium Pictus in Latin and English Audio [5] References [1] Epstein. C and E. Some collections of the stories had already been written by Charles Perrault in the late 1600s. and was working on Frucht (fruit) when he collapsed at his desk. com/ Brothers Grimm The Brothers Grimm (German: Die Brüder Grimm or Die Gebrüder Grimm). Archon Books. google. completing the letters A.[1] Jacob also did academic work in philology. German Legal Antiquities (Deutsche Rechtsaltertümer) in 1828. and authors who collected folklore and published several collections of it as Grimm's Fairy Tales. The first collection of fairy tales Children's and Household Tales (Kinder-und Hausmärchen) was published in 1812 and it contained more than 200 fairy tales. related to how the sounds in words shift over time (Grimm's law). p. grexlat. html [4] http:/ / books. were German academics. with somewhat unexpected versions. Jacob survived his brother by nearly four years. com/ books?vid=OCLC27390661& id=pxkaVd0-bpgC& pg=RA3-PA1& lpg=RA3-PA1& dq=inauthor:Comenius& as_brr=1 [5] http:/ / comenius. he was also a lawyer whose legal work. ISBN 0-208-02297-X. 1786 – December 16. In the original published forms. [2] "Learning from Comenius .Orbis Pictus 50 External links • Online Orbis Pictus in Latin [3] • orbis sensualium pictus . in contrast to the lighter. B. made him a valuable source of testimony about the origin and meaning of much legal historical idiom usage and symbolism. having completed the letter D. Connie C. and "Snow White" (Schneewittchen). . com/ 2011/ 05/ 14/ learning-comenius/ ). and their work popularized such stories as "Cinderella" (Aschenputtel). the Grimm's fairy tales were dark and violent.the pedagogical underpinnings of the Orbis Pictus" (http:/ / www. 1859). which became very popular. 2. "Rumpelstiltskin" (Rumpelstilzchen). posterous. [3] http:/ / www. Wilhelm (left) and Jacob Grimm (right) from an 1855 painting by Elisabeth Jerichau-Baumann 1000 Deutsche Mark (1992) They are among the best-known story tellers of European folk tales. "The Frog Prince" (Der Froschkönig). com/ biblio/ comenius/ index.

put the work into a literary form that would appeal to children and the masses. the idealized 'orality' of their style was much closer to reality than the literary retellings previously thought necessary.[3] They were among a family of nine children. which mirrors the collectors' family structure of one girl and several brothers overcoming opposition. who awakened an interest in the past. They had collected the stories from peasants and villagers. and Dorothea Grimm. Jacob did more of the research."[6] Others argue that "scholars and psychiatrists have thrown a camouflaging net over the stories with their relentless. When the eldest brother. In 1816 . Jacob. while Wilhelm. they were essentially a by-product of the linguistic research.[4] Two years later. née Zimmer. In 1812 the brothers published their first volume of fairy tales. was 11 years old. their father. leaving their mother to struggle to support them in reduced circumstances. In 1808. less sturdy in stature and intellect. question of 'What does it mean?'"[7] Another possible environmental influence can be discerned in the selection of stories such as The Twelve Brothers. The Grimm family lived near the magistrate's house between 1790 and 1796 while the father was employed by the Prince of Hessen.[4] Their early childhood was spent in the countryside. Philip Wilhelm.see Note a below) and Wilhelm Carl Grimm[a] were born on 4 January 1785 and 24 February 1786 respectively. Germany near Frankfurt in Hessen. and though it has been shown that Sculpture of brothers Grimm in Hanau they did not always practice what they preached. they were also aided by their close friend August von Haxthausen. Tales of Children and the Home. originally from Hanau. a former neighbor and the daughter of an apothecary. the sons of Philipp Wilhelm Grimm. In their collaboration.[8] Kassel and educational career Both brothers Jacob and Wilhelm were educated at the Friedrichs-Gymnasium in Kassel and later both studied law at the University of Marburg. albeit fascinating. without embellishments. They were in their early twenties when they began the linguistic and philological studies that would culminate in both Grimm's law and their collected editions of fairy and folk tales. Berlin. the children's grandfather also died. Graves of the Brothers Grimm in the St Matthäus Kirchhof Cemetery in Schöneberg.[5] "They urged fidelity to the spoken text.Brothers Grimm 51 Life Origin and early life Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm (also Carl . Though their collections of tales became immensely popular. They were also interested in folklore and primitive literature. Jacob Grimm was appointed court librarian to the King of Westphalia. six of whom survived infancy. a jurist and bailiff with offices at Schlüchtern and Steinau. which was the brothers' primary goal. There they were inspired by their professor Friedrich von Savigny. died and the family moved into a cramped urban residence. in the Wolfgang section of Hanau.

outside Ernest's realm. Wilhelm a professor in 1835. at the home of their brother Ludwig. They were fired from their university posts and three were deported. His brother William was also a librarian in Göttingen and a year later. devising a theory that became Berlin memorial plaque. The German Grammar In time. including Jacob Grimm. In 1837. the reactionary son of King George III. based on immense amounts of data. 1834.[11] (retrieved 28-03-2011) Between then and 1837. where Wilhelm was also employed. the German Dictionary. Potsdamer Straße 5. Jacob Grimm finalized a work he began in 1811. Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm began their joint work on the German dictionary.[10] German Dictionary Jacob and Wilhelm were ignored in the appointment of a chief librarian place in Kassel. However.Brothers Grimm 52 Jacob became a librarian in Kassel. Subsequently. (Reineke) Fox". They spent time in writing a definitive dictionary.[9] Jacob was named professor and head librarian in 1830. In 1825. Brüder Grimm. in protesting against the abrogation of the liberal constitution of the Kingdom of Hanover by King Ernest Augustus I. A year later. Volume 3: 1854) was published. Wilhelm was often compromised by disease. Jacob published two more volumes of "German Grammar". In his teaching. This edition had an inspiring effect on many fairy tales and legends collectors. 2: 1844. Berlin-Tiergarten. where they had also a common household. The third edition of the Children's and Household Tales was written in 1837 by Wilhelm alone. "Reinhart German Dictionary. In 1838. The two brothers then dealt with animal fables and in the same Title page of the first volume of the year. the Brothers Grimm joined five of their colleague professors at the University of Göttingen. and the first coherent documentation of its vernacular versions. the first volume of Jacob Grimm's "German Mythology" (Vol. which was the first publication of this traditional animal epic. in 1830 the two brothers moved away from Kassel to Göttingen.[11] (retrieved 28-03-2011) . Around 1832. the first volume being published in 1854. This work had enormous influence on the research of myths. the brothers became interested in older languages and their relation to German. in 1835 he published his work on "German Mythology". they moved together to Göttingen. Alte known as Grimm's law. in German: Deutsches Wörterbuch. The work was carried on by future generations. where both secured positions at the University of Göttingen. In 1830.[11] Jacob then got a job as a librarian and professor of German Classical Studies. (Jacob never married and lived most of his life in his brother's home). who with Wilhelm settled in Kassel. Jacob began to specialize in the history and structure of the Germanic languages. Between 1816 and 1818. they published two volumes of German legends and a volume of early literary history. Germany Wilhelm Grimm married Henriette Dorothea (Dortchen) Wild. the next year brought an invitation to Berlin from the King of Prussia. later known as the Göttingen Seven. in this work Jacob examined pre-Christian beliefs and superstitions. Associate Professor.

which was a tradition they wanted to save[21] . meaning they would strip away the similarities and try to rediscover the core of the story[14] . these were published in 1816 and 1818.[23] The brothers arranged the regional legends thematically for each folktale creature.[1] Marie Hassenpflug. edited to become more ‘homey and cute’ to appeal to children. First part A second edition of the Children's and Household Tales followed in 1819–22. By 1810 the Grimms produced a manuscript collection of several dozen tales. which together make up the first edition of the collection.[22] First page of Grimm's Children's and Household Tales. It is possible that these informants could have been familiar with Charles Perrault’s tales because certain Grimm works are similar to those of Perrault's[18] . such as dwarfs. the brothers used a technique of “contamination”.[20] Front cover of the Grimms Fairy Tales Book In 1812.Brothers Grimm 53 Grimms Tales The Brothers Grimm began collecting folk tales[12] around 1806. The seventh edition . etc.und Hausmärchen (Children's and Household Tales). recounting tales they had heard from their servants. giants. For example. Five more editions were issued during the Grimms' lifetimes. these oral tales were heavily edited and many of the tales had its roots in written sources[13] . the Brothers published a collection of 86 German fairy tales in a volume titled Kinder. Wilhelm said that their stories came from the oral tradition of tales. However. monsters. who were devout Christians.[23] These legends were not as popular as the fairytales. an educated woman of the French Huguenot ancestry. over time. They wrote a two-volume work titled Deutsche Sagen.[22] The legends are organized in the chronological order of historical events to which they were related. not in any historical order. was just one of the women who shared her stories. They then adapted it [17] .[19] Aside from the added Christian elements. The brothers were bound to come across the same story more than once. gender role models emerged and. Several of the informants were of Huguenot ancestry and told tales that were French in origin.[24] in which stories were added or subtracted. it was Dortchen Wild’s family and their nursery maid who told the brothers some of the more famous tales. Some scholars have theorized that certain elements of the stories were "purified" for the brothers. such as “Hansel and Gretel” and “Sleeping Beauty”[16] . 1805–08. in response to a wave of awakened interest in German folklore that followed the publication of Ludwig Achim von Arnim and Clemens Brentano's folksong collection Des Knaben Wunderhorn ("The Youth's Magic Horn"). which they had recorded by inviting storytellers to their home and transcribing what they heard. containing 156 stories. expanded to 170 tales. many of their informants were middle-class or aristocratic. Some of the Grimm tales were referred to as this[15] . Buchmärchen (‘book tales’) is a term used to imply a mix of written and oral work. They published a second volume of 70 fairy tales in 1814 ("1815" on the title page). Although they were said to have collected tales from peasants. In this volume. When they did. which included 585 German legends.

some of the Grimms' best known fairy tales have been adapted by Walt Disney Animation Studios as animated feature films and other media: Snow White[31] [32] (1937). but by the end of their lifetime. The major unifying factor for the German people of the time was a common language.[34] Directed by Henry Levin. film and television From the 1930s to the present. equipped with scholarly notes. They changed "fee" (fairy) to an enchantress or wise woman. Books. containing a selection of 50 stories expressly designed for children (as opposed to the more formal Large Edition (German: Große Ausgabe). Part of what motivated the Brothers in their writings and in their lives was the desire to help create a German identity. Arnim and Brentano edited and adapted the folksongs of Des Knaben Wunderhorn. the Grimms took a basic and essential step toward modern folklore studies.to medium-size German states. Sleeping Beauty (1959). the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation had recently dissolved.[25] The tales were also criticized for being insufficiently German.)[27] These editions. A live action adaptation of "Snow White". that was first observed by the Danish philologist Rasmus Christian Rask. It went on to win the 1963 Oscar for costume design and was nominated in several other categories. Russ Tamblyn. including a German collection by Johann Karl August Musäus published in 1782–87.[26] (It has long been recognized that some of these later-added stories were derived from printed rather than oral sources. The Princess and the Frog (2009) which is an adaptation of "The Frog Prince. There were others. however. The earlier collections. leading to the work of folklorists like Peter and Iona Opie[28] and others.[30] Jacob is recognized for enunciating Grimm's law. The Brothers also published the Small Edition (German: Kleine Ausgabe). Many of the changes were made in light of unfavorable reviews. The Brothers Grimm were the first workers in this genre to present their stories as faithful renditions of the kind of direct folkloric materials that underlay the sophistication of an adapter such as Perrault. every prince to a king's son." Tangled (2010) as an adaptation of "Rapunzel". tentatively titled Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. Hansel and Gretel is no exception having had numerous opera. the director of I Am Legend.Brothers Grimm of 1857 contained 211 tales. Ten printings of the "small edition" were issued between 1825 and 1858. In doing so. and television adaptations. in the early 19th century Brentano collected folktales in much the same way as the Grimms. many of which had been newly created by Napoleon as client states. The Grimms were not the first to publish collections of folktales. movies. only sections from the letter 'A' to part of the letter 'F' were completed. It was extensive. at the helm. the movie intertwined a fictionalised version of the Grimm brothers' lives as young men with fantasy productions of some of their fairy tales (directed by George Pal).[29] The early researchers did their work before academic practices for such collections had been codified. is in development at the Disney Studios. with a cast including Barbara Eden. made little pretence to strict fidelity to sources. Less well known to the general public outside of Germany is the Brothers' work on a German dictionary. In its place was a confederacy of 39 small. the time in which the Brothers Grimm lived.[33] Henry Levin and George Pal released the 1962's United States movie The Wonderful World of the Brothers Grimm. despite the title. were intended as serious works of folklore. and the modern nation of Germany did not exist. with Francis Lawrence. The Grimms' method was common in their historical era. this not only influenced the tales the brothers included. having 33 volumes and weighing 84 kg (185 lbs). every princess to a king's daughter. 54 Linguistics In the very early 19th century. Grimm's law was the first non-trivial systematic sound change to be discovered. Yvette Mimieux and other high-profile stars of the time. the Deutsches Wörterbuch. Work began in 1838. but their language. the Germanic Sound Shift. . The work was not considered complete until 1960. particularly those that objected that not all the tales were suitable for children. It is still considered the standard reference for German etymology.

The author Michael Buckley began a popular young reader's series (geared for age 7–12) titled The Sisters Grimm in 2005. Created by David Greenwalt and Jim Kouf and to be directed by Marc Buckland. much more than the academic nature of their lives. As the Empyrical Tales continues. the Grande Dame of France. Actor Peter Lohmeyer took on the role of Chief Detective Jan Fabel. Sleeping Beauty and Rumpelstiltskin. publishes in 2005 a book named The Book of Lost Things. 2011) adapt several of the characters and stories into the fantasy world of Empyrean. The Grimme Prize-nominated German TV crime thriller. It was originally broadcast in Japan as "Gurimu Meisaku Gekijou". Chief Detective Jan Fabel has to hunt down the Fairytale Killer. an Irish writer. as the press soon calls him.[35] Many of these characters are among those collected by the Grimm brothers. In 2010. 55 . Mark Miller's Empyrical Tales series is strongly influenced by these works. The brothers brought all of the characters to New York to escape prosecution. by Craig Russell. including Little Red Riding Hood. which was written by Daniel Martin Eckhart. Also in 2005 The Brothers Grimm. Kate Burton. Russell Hornsby and Silas Weir Mitchell. A serial killer stalks Hamburg and uses themes of Brothers Grimm fairytales. later books will include references to other folklore and mythology from around the world. The book The Grimm Legacy was published in 2010 by Polly Shulman. In 1998. a collection of Grimm's Fairy Tales re-imagined as gay erotica. it is his first non-mystery novel. Lethe Press published A Twist of Grimm by William Holden in 2010. resembles the contents of the sagas from the brothers' collections. the novel was adapted for German television. In this version. are the direct descendants of the Brothers Grimm. aired in the United States.[37] [38] This book includes many darker adaptions of the Grimm's tales.: wolfs spoor). about a girl who starts working at a mysterious museum which holds items from Grimm fairy tales. was published in 2006. and encountering various characters from the tales that made them famous. a horror comic book that presents classic fairy tales. the Brothers Grimm aren't innocent fairy tale collectors. She proceeds to tell the story of "Danielle De Barbarac".Brothers Grimm A made-for-TV musical called Once Upon a Brothers Grimm was released in 1977. the elderly killer challenges the detectives with a series of Brothers Grimm fairytale riddles. which includes characters from fables as the main characters. The sisters solve mysteries inside the town the characters are trapped in. Comic book writer Bill Willingham created in 2002 the comic book Fables. NBC Universal greenlit pilot entitled in 2010 Grimm starring Bitsie Tulloch. John Conolly. who questions their version of the Cinderella story. The Fourth Queen (Comfort Publishing. They discover the family secret in which the fairy tales told in their ancestor's stories are not fictional. to pose his victims and to write riddles about the next one. sisters. In the film directed by Manuel Siebenmann. starring Heath Ledger as Jacob Grimm and Matt Damon as Wilhelm Grimm in the title roles. It starred Dean Jones as Jacob and Paul Sand as Wilhelm. the Grimm Brothers visit an elderly woman. 2009) and The Lost Queen (Comfort Publishing. used elements of Brothers Grimm fairytales. The stories serve both as an homage and as a new fairytale. in the movie Ever After. directed by Urs Egger and written by Daniel Martin Eckhart under the title Wolfsfährte (engl. in which the two characters. block. the German title of Craig Russell's novel. a film directed by Terry Gilliam based roughly on the Grimm brothers and their tales. but instead are documentations of fairy-tale encounters. In the late 1980s and early 1990s Nickelodeon aired a cartoon series called "Grimm's Fairy Tale Classics" as a part of its daytime Nick Jr. titled A Murderous Fairytale (Ein mörderisches Märchen) was produced in 2001. Grimm is described as a dark but fantastical cop drama about a world in which characters inspired by Grimm’s Fairy Tales exist. Snow White. The basic plot presented the brothers traveling and getting lost in a forest. The crime novel Brother Grimm.[36] Zenescope Entertainment began in 2005 releasing a monthly on-going comic series titled Grimm's Fairy Tales. The Brothers Grimm reply that there was no way for them to verify the authenticity of their story as there were so many different versions. albeit with modern twists or expanded plots.

ca/views/ENTRY. The Brothers Grimm & Their Critics: Folktales the Quest for Meaning. Edited by Jack Zipes. not authors of the tales. Edited by Jack Zipes. 69–70 [2] Seul.   The New German Biography records their names as "Grimm.Alister & Hauke 1998. Laura Gonzenbach. ." Allerleirauh. Legal Tribune ONLINE." The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Folktales and Fairy Tales. p. Donald R. for example. .yorku.ezproxy. Oxford University Press 2006.com. but this disregards the fact that they were collectors. Jacob Ludwig Carl"[39] and "Grimm. 1857.oxfordreference. McGlathery. 25 October 2011 <http://www. 494.com.com.[40] The German Biographical Archive records Wilhelm's name as "Grimm. Oxford University Press 2006. All were of two volumes. Edited by Jack Zipes. 'Women Who Run with the Wolves. p. [12] James M. Web. Greenwood Group.ca/views/ENTRY.library. Clarion Books.html?subview=Main&entry=t204. Web. [4] Michaelis-Jena 1970. 2003. p. <http://books. 37 [9] "Jakob Ludwig Karl Grimm". 25 October 2011 <http://www.ca/books?id=-sj5cJz0_OsC&pg=PA578&lpg=PA578&dq=Rhymes+and+Reasons+in+the+Grimms'+Kinder-+und+Hausm%C3%A4rchen&s [18] Vanessa Joosen "Grimm" The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature. Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of Literature.[40] References [1] Zipes 1998.html?subview=Main&entry=t204. 9 [5] It has been argued that this is the reason behind the brothers' tendency to idealize and excuse fathers.. KG). 579. "Jacob Grimm zum Geburtstag: Von der Poesie im Recht" (http:/ / www. 1843. Oxford University Press 2006.html?subview=Main&entry=t204. leaving a predominance of female villains in the tales—the infamous wicked stepmothers. 2nd e. 2008.library. Gale Group. National Geographic. fourth edition. Greenwood Group.de. Jürgen (2011-01-04). Champaigne. Wilhelm Karl".e1320> [19] Clarissa Pinkola Estes. Merriam-Webster. 8 vols. Springfield. Retrieved 2011-03-28. p. "Literary Fairy Tales.yorku. Donald. "Literary Fairy Tales. 2008. de/ texte/ seiten/ ebiogrimm. lto. de/ de/ html/ nachrichten/ 2267/ Von-der-Poesie-im-Recht/ ) (in German). html?1)." The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Folktales and Fairy Tales. Jacob und Wilhelm. 25 October 2011 <http://www.library. pp. seventh edition. p 15 ISBN 0-345-40987-6 [20] Vanessa Joosen "Grimm" The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature.e1320> [17] Haase. except for the three-volume second edition. Clever Maids: The Secret History of the Grimm Fairy Tales. Oxford University Press 2006. Athens. sixth edition. York University.ezproxy. Ohio: Ohio University Press. Web. org/ nid/ 20004900235) (in German)." The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Folktales and Fairy Tales.google. Retrieved 2011-03-29. 25 October 2011 <http://www. xii. ed. Edited by Jack Zipes. MA. 2005. Zeno. pp.[42] The National Union Catalog Pre-1956 Imprints also gives Wilhelm's name as "Grimm. Wilhelm Karl". Retrieved 4 February 2007 [11] "Grimm. 25 October 2011 <http://www.ezproxy. Major Authors and Illustrators for Children and Young Adults. One Legacy. Hettinga. 2001. <http://books.oxfordreference. pp. York University. ed. Beautiful Angiola: The Great Treasury of Sicilian . 579. 15–17 [26] Tatar 1987. The Brothers Grimm: Two Lives. [3] "Geschichte der Grimms" (http:/ / www. Spiegel Online. zeno.ca/books?id=-sj5cJz0_OsC&pg=PA578&lpg=PA578&dq=Rhymes+and+Reasons+in+the+Grimms'+Kinder-+und+Hausm%C3%A4rchen&s [16] Vanessa Joosen "Grimm" The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature.yorku.library.com. htm) at DieBruederGrimm. Oxford University Press 2006. York University. p. ed. 1992 [24] Two volumes of the second edition were published in 1819. the evil stepmother and stepsisters in "Cinderella". "Literary Fairy Tales. grimm01.com. Retrieved 2011-04-06. 216–219 [6] Simpson & Roud 2000 [7] Thomas O'Neill.google. 1988 [13] Haase. The third edition appeared in 1837.ezproxy.ca/views/ENTRY. 84 [23] Kamenstsky. p. Donald.yorku. Basic Books.ca/views/ENTRY. 1850. in the 1857 collection derives from Carl Nehrlich's 1798 novel Schilly.org (Contumax GmbH & Co. [10] Die Brueder Grimm Timeline (http:/ / www. New York. 2008. Valerie Paradiz. . Greenwood Group. 154 [25] Tatar 1987.html?subview=Main&entry=t204.e1320> [21] Vanessa Joosen "Grimm" The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature. New York. fifth edition. University of Illinois Press. York University.oxfordreference.oxfordreference. diebruedergrimm. 2002. ed. Donald.Brothers Grimm 56 Notes a. Edited by Jack Zipes.google. Wilhelm Carl". <http://books.ca/views/ENTRY. The Brothers Grimm and Folktale..ezproxy.html?subview=Main&entry=t204. 1995.ca/books?id=-sj5cJz0_OsC&pg=PA578&lpg=PA578&dq=Rhymes+and+Reasons+in+the+Grimms'+Kinder-+und+Hausm%C3%A4rchen&s [14] Vanessa Joosen "Grimm" The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature. with a third volume in 1822.e1320> [15] Haase. December 1999 [8] Tatar 2004. p.library.yorku. 1840. Biographie" (http:/ / www.oxfordreference.[40] The General German Biography gives the names as "Grimm: Jacob (Ludwig Karl)"[41] and "Grimm: Wilhelm (Karl)".e1320> [22] Michaelis-Jena 1970. York University. de/ geschichte/ index. 31 [27] Kathleen Kuiper. 579. Christa. One example: the tale "All Fur.

345 [28] Peter and Iona Opie. com/ vault/ archives/ movies/ snow/ snow. Ruth (1970). 678–688. Jack (1998). Bosley (1962-08-08). ISBN 9780743298902. info/ gnd/ 118542257). ISBN 0710064497 • Simpson. [34] Crowther. Deutsches Biographisches Archiv and The National Union Catalog Pre-1956 Imprints. 2–7 [30] Grimm Brothers' Home Page (http:/ / www. nytimes. one of the most consistently compelling comic-book runs has been writer Bill Willingham’s “Fables." [36] Brand. London. eds (1998). edu/ ~dash/ grimm. google. London. Routledge.” an intricate tapestry that weaves together familiar characters from fables.” which collects the first 10 issues of the dark refugee epic that chronicles the very unexpected modern-day adventures of Bigby (aka. 2003. Spielfilm. Retrieved 2011-04-06. the Big Bad Wolf). many others. Jacqueline.de (Think-Media GmbH). 9. 1974. Rootledge. ISBN 0415141664 • Michaelis-Jena. citing Neue Deutsche Biographie. moviefone. Mowgli. Geppetto. pp. ISBN 3-261-02674-X . Jacob (Ludwig Karl). de/ books?id=GSRhnPVpNyQC& lpg=PP1& dq=The Book of Lost Things& pg=PP1#v=onepage& q& f=false). pp. Norton & Co. Retrieved 2011-04-06. "The Wonderful World of the Brothers Grimm (1962)" (http:/ / movies. wikipedia. One Fairy Story too Many. 57 (German) [42] Wilhelm Scherer (1879) “Grimm. com/ 2011/ 02/ 08/ new-snow-white-movie/ ). "Upcoming 'Snow White' Movies: Here's What We Know About Them" (http:/ / blog. University of Pittsburgh. The Brothers Grimm: From Enchanted Forests to the Modern World. ed (1978). Jack (1988). go. It’s a great time to revisit the Vertigo series – or discover for the first time – with the recently released hardcover “Fables: The Deluxe Edition. The New York Times (The New York Times Company). ISBN 0-691-06722-8 • Tatar. Retrieved 2011-03-23. ISBN 019210019X • Tatar. "Grimmige Gebrüder Grimm" (http:/ / www. de/ news/ 6213/ grimmige-gebrueder-grimm-inszeniert-terry-gilliam-in-prag. pp. Retrieved 2011-03-21. [33] Hall. com/ title/ tt0029583/ ). Oxford University Press. "Over the last decade. html) [32] "Schneewittchen und die sieben Zwerge (1937)" (http:/ / www. Wikipedia. . Jack Horner. Geoff (2010-01-17). Roud. Los Angeles Times. ISBN 0-415-92151-1 • Zipes. The Brothers Grimm. Retrieved 2011-03-22. Contemporary Jungian Analysis. The Brothers Grimm. com/ movie/ review?res=9A01E6DC103CE63ABC4053DFBE668389679EDE). latimes. Maria (1987). [40] Deutsche National Bibliothek (http:/ / d-nb.” In Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie. . "‘Fables’ writer Bill Willingham finds a happy ending despite ‘that damned Shrek’" (http:/ / herocomplex. "Screen: 'Wonderful World of the Brothers Grimm':George Pal Production at Loew's Cinerama Laurence Harvey Heads a Cast of Stars" [35] Boucher. citing Neue Deutsche Biographie. Snow White. Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot. (German) Further reading • Alister. org/ wiki/ John_Connolly_(author)). fairy tables. children’s rhymes and folklore. The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales. ISBN 0-393-05848-4 • Zipes. literature. Peter (2011-02-08). Jack (2002). Book One.” which takes his franchise into the prose novel sector with a tale of Peter Piper and his brother Max. is the most famous of their many works in the field [29] Ellis. com/ 2010/ 01/ 17/ fables-writer-bill-willingham-finds-a-happy-ending-despite-that-damned-shrek-1/ ). The 53-year-old Virginia native has also recently published “Peter and Max: A Fables Novel. Ian. "Matt Damon und Heath Ledger in bayerischen Lederhosen – in Terry Gilliams Version der Gebrüder Grimm" [37] "John Conolly" (http:/ / en. [41] Wilhelm Scherer (1879) “Grimm. Wilhelm (Karl). imdb. . . spielfilm. Rechtshistorische Reihe (German Edition). 690–695. ISBN 0416019110 • Zipes. html) (in German). The Annotated Brothers Grimm. Retrieved 2011-03-29. ISBN 978-0312293802 • Stratmann. The Book of Lost Things (http:/ / books.Brothers Grimm Folk and Fairy Tales. html). London: Routledge. . A Dictionary of English Folklore. info/ gnd/ 118542265). . Maria (2004). W. 9. Palgrave MacMillan. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition. The Classic Fairy Tales. Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot. Old King Cole and many. John (2007-10-16). Sira (2003-11-14). p. Hauke. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2011-03-21. . Retrieved 28 February 2007 [31] Disney Archives – Retrieved 2011-03-21 (http:/ / disney. Rolf. [39] Deutsche National Bibliothek (http:/ / d-nb. Christopher. Moviefone (AOL). Hamburg: Lang.” In Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie. Steve (2000). Routledge Kegan and Paul. pitt. Princeton University Press. [38] The Book of Lost Things Conolly.W.

translated by Margaret Hunt (http://www. Translated by Margaret Hunt.Brothers Grimm 58 External links • Brothers Grimm (http://www.com/name/nmhttp://www. folktales.com/authors/ grimms.co.org/etext/5314) at Project Gutenberg.com/fairy_tales/Grimm_fairy_tales.org/ fairy-tales-by-the-brothers-grimm/) . Household Tales.pitt. Germany (http://www.org/etext/2591) at Project Gutenberg • Grimm's household tales (http://www.com/ The fairy-tales of the brothers Grimm (http://www.uk/iplayer/console/b00h8t18/In_Our_Time_Brothers_Grimm)) • Brothers Grimm (http://www.grimmstories.surlalunefairytales.html) Audiobooks • Recording of 63 Fairy Tales by the Brothers Grimm at LibriVox.com/title/tt0355295//) at the Internet Movie Database • The Museum of the Brothers Grimm in Kassel.com/ jakob-and-wilhelm-grimm-fairy-tales-mp3-audiobook.com) • Grimm's fairy tales Stories for children.html) • Brothers Grimm.html) • Grimmstories.org (http://librivox. fairy tales and fables from around the world (http:// worldoftales. • Brothers Grimm – Fairy Tales (http://www.uk/programmes/b00h8t18) on In Our Time at the BBC.imdb.Multilanguage website • Grimm's Fairy Tales (http://www.gutenberg.slapastory.imdb.gutenberg.All the fairy-tales of the brothers Grimm .classicistranieri.ciffciaff.de) • Brothers Grimm's Stories (http://www.org/en/content/fairy-tales-brothers-grimm) .bbc.grimms.html) • The fairy-tales of the brothers Grimm (http://www.bbc. ( listen now (http://www.com/user/profile/username/Brothers+Grimm) • Grimm Brothers' Home Page (http://www.co.edu/~dash/grimm.

Denmark Died Occupation Novelist. 1875 (aged 70) Copenhagen. short story writer. referred to using the initials H. and animated films. They have inspired motion pictures. fairy tale writer. C." "The Snow Queen. plays. and was feted by royalty. 1875) was a Danish author. and poet noted for his children's stories." During his lifetime he was acclaimed for having delighted children worldwide. 1805 Odense. fairy tales writer Nationality Danish Genres Children's literature. April 2. ballets. His poetry and stories have been translated into more than 150 languages. travelogue Signature Hans Christian Andersen (Danish pronunciation: [ˈhanˀs ˈkʁæsdjan ˈɑnɐsn̩]." "Thumbelina. 1805 – August 4." "The Little Match Girl." "The Little Mermaid. Andersen (Danish pronunciation: [ˈhɔːˀ ˈseːˀ ˈɑnɐsn̩]) in Denmark and the rest of Scandinavia. Denmark August 4.Hans Christian Andersen 59 Hans Christian Andersen Hans Christian Andersen Born April 2. These include "The Steadfast Tin Soldier." and "The Ugly Duckling.[1] .

Andersen's first novel. Jonas Collin. Taking the suggestion seriously.[4] He later said his years in school were the darkest and most bitter of his life. immediately felt a great affection for him. Andersen's father considered himself related to nobility. Switzerland. King Frederick VI took a personal interest in him as a youth and paid for a part of his education. The family apparently was affiliated with Danish royalty. Hans Christian was forced to support himself. later.[5] ) In October. Having an excellent soprano voice. he moved to Copenhagen to seek employment as an actor. he was told. He spent an evening in the Italian seaside village of Sestri Levante the same year. becoming an instant success. 1834. Copenhagen. he also attended school at Elsinore until 1827.Hans Christian Andersen 60 Biography Childhood Hans Christian Andersen was born in the town of Odense. sent him to a grammar school in Slagelse.[3] Andersen had already published his first story. "Agnete and the Merman". He was an only child. in 1822. causing him to enter a state of depression. A colleague at the theatre told him that he considered Andersen a poet. but through employment or trade. enabling him to set out on the first of many journeys through Europe. Whatever the reason. At 14. 1805. He also published a comedy and a collection of poems that season. a memorial plaque was unveiled on May 8. speculation persists that Andersen may have been an illegitimate son of the royal family. He worked as a weaver's apprentice and. There he was abused in order "to improve his character". but investigations prove these stories unfounded. in 1833 he received a small traveling grant from the King. During these traveling years. for a tailor. he lived at his schoolmaster's home. The Bay of Fables. He later said the faculty had discouraged him from writing in general. At Jura. near Le Locle. Andersen enjoyed considerable success with a short story titled "A Journey on Foot from Holmen's Canal to the East Point of Amager". following a chance encounter with Andersen. covering all his expenses. he was accepted into the Royal Danish Theatre. (An annual festival celebrates his visit. a gift by Peter Schannong. Though not a keen student. Today. Denmark. he began to focus on writing. inspiring the name. 1935. April 2. His paternal grandmother had told his father that their family had in the past belonged to a higher social class. on Tuesday. but his voice soon changed. who. was published at the beginning of 1835. Andersen's childhood home in Odense Early works In 1829. "Hans" and "Christian" are traditional Danish names. Andersen's ancestry remains indeterminate. Though he made little progress writing and publishing immediately thereafter.[2] According to writer Rolf Dorset. "The Improvisatore". Hans Christian Andersen lived in an apartment at number 20. At one school. he wrote the story. The Ghost at Palnatoke's Grave. he arrived in Rome. Nyhavn. There.[6] .

In the 1840s Andersen's attention returned to the stage. but always developed the genre to suit his own purposes.Hans Christian Andersen 61 Fairy tales It was during 1835 that Andersen published the first installment of his immortal Fairy Tales (Danish: Eventyr).) In his travelogues. Andersen lived in 67. a second series began in 1838 and a third in 1845. At the same time. Between 1845 and 1864. the way the three sister nations have gradually grown together" as part of a Scandinavian national anthem. and it was at one Painting of Andersen. the Danes and the Norwegians. where a memorial plaque is placed. Each of his travelogues combines documentary and descriptive accounts of the sights he saw with more philosophical excurses on topics such as being an author. however with no great success at all. More stories.T. Andersen took heed of some of the contemporary conventions about travel writing. Some of the travelogues. Andersen paid his first visit to Britain and enjoyed a triumphal social success during the summer. who were his fellows in the mid 1820s while living in Copenhagen. Andersen enjoyed more success with two novels: O. The Countess of Blessington invited him to her parties where intellectual and famous people could meet.[7] Composer Otto Lindblad set the poem to music and the composition was published in January 1840. Copenhagen. Andersen published several other long travelogues: Shadow Pictures of a Journey to the Harz. although his native Denmark still showed some resistance to his pretensions. Its popularity peaked in 1845. His true genius was however proved in the miscellany the Picture-Book without Pictures (1840). immortality. 1836. Nyhavn. in the Summer of 1831 (A Poet's Bazaar (560). and they sold poorly. etc. Andersen became inspired by Scandinavism and committed himself to writing a poem to convey his feeling of relatedness between the Swedes. C. Jeg er en Skandinav After a visit to Sweden in 1837. A keen traveler.[7] Andersen designed the poem to capture "the beauty of the Nordic spirit. by Christian Albrecht Jensen . completing the first volume. Andersen was now celebrated throughout Europe. a volume of travel sketches. after which it was seldom sung. The quality of these stories was not immediately recognized. and the nature of fiction in the literary travel report.[7] Paper chimney sweep cut by Andersen Travelogues In 1851. even contain fairy-tales. he published to wide acclaim In Sweden. H.[6] Meetings with Dickens In June 1847. In Spain. (1836) and Only a Fiddler. The fame of his fairy tales had grown steadily. and A Visit to Portugal in 1866 (The latter describes his visit with his Portuguese friends Jorge and Jose O'Neill. were published in 1836 and 1837. Swiss Saxony.[7] It was in July 1839 during a visit to the island of Funen that Andersen first wrote the text of his poem Jeg er en Skandinav (I am a Scandinavian). etc. such as In Sweden.

Andersen visited Britain again. Andersen would become attracted to nonreciprocating men. Andersen fell out of his bed and was severely hurt.. she saw him as a brother."[18] His body was interred in the Assistens Kirkegård in the Nørrebro area of Copenhagen. Other disappointments in love included Sophie Ørsted. who only preferred women. the young hereditary duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. but he lived until August 4. and became the inspiration for her nickname. sculptor A. he had consulted a composer about the music for his funeral. his private journal records his refusal to have sexual relations." Likewise. he was an internationally renowned and treasured artist. steps were already underway to erect the large statue in his honor. which was completed and is prominently placed in Rosenborg Garden ("Kongens Have". the youngest daughter of his benefactor Jonas Collin. near Copenhagen. A small pouch containing a long letter from Riborg was found on Andersen's chest when he died.[16] did not result in any relationships. In recent times some literary studies have speculated about the homoerotic camouflage in Andersen's works. "We had come to the veranda.[9] [10] Andersen often fell in love with unattainable women and many of his stories are interpreted as references to his sexual grief. Before his death. He wrote in his diary..[18] Shortly before his death. the daughter of the physicist Hans Christian Ørsted.[11] At one point he wrote in his diary: "Almighty God. so make the beat keep time with little steps.. 1875. wrote in his own memoir: "I found myself unable to respond to this love. thee only have I. For example. The femininity of my nature and our friendship must remain a mystery. dying of insidious causes in a house called Rolighed (literally: calmness). thou steerest my fate."[13] Just as with his interest in women.Hans Christian Andersen party that he met Charles Dickens for the first time. I was so happy to see and speak to England's now living writer. He received a stipend from the Danish Government as a "national treasure". "The Nightingale". saying: "Most of the people who will walk after me will be children. Saabye. I must give myself up to thee! Give me a livelihood! Give me a bride! My blood wants love. Andersen wrote to Edvard Collin:[14] "I languish for you as for a pretty Calabrian wench."[8] Ten years later. Andersen was often shy around women and had extreme difficulty in proposing to Lind. my sentiments for you are those of a woman." Collin. The Hanfstaengl portrait of Andersen dated July 1860 At the time of his death. the infatuations of the author for the Danish dancer Harald Scharff[15] and Carl Alexander. the home of his close friends Moritz Melchior. God bless and protect my brother is the sincere wish of his affectionate sister.[1] . a banker. Jenny. was a written expression of his passion for Lind. Andersen gave Lind a letter of proposal. He stayed at Dickens' home for five weeks.[8] 62 Love life In Andersen's early life. 1880) in Copenhagen. Her feelings towards him were not the same. and his wife. When Lind was boarding a train to take her to an opera concert. writing to him in 1844 "farewell. and this caused the author much suffering. primarily to visit Dickens. He never fully recovered.. as my heart does!"[12] A girl named Riborg Voigt was the unrequited love of Andersen's youth. One of his stories.V. the "Swedish Nightingale". and Louise Collin.[17] Death In the spring of 1872. They shook hands and walked to the veranda which was of much joy to Andersen. whom I love the most. The most famous of these was the opera soprano Jenny Lind.

Japan has a children's theme park named after Hans Christian Andersen. Shanghai Gujin Investment general manager Zhai Shiqiang was quoted by the AFP news agency as saying. and "The Princess and the Pea" remain popular and are widely read. April 2. Poland is the Puppet & Actor Theatre of Hans Christian Andersen. Slovakia features a statue of Hans Christian Andersen in memory of his visit in 1841. "The Little Mermaid". Chicago's Lincoln Park and in Solvang. Multi-media games as well as all kinds of cultural contests related to the fairy tales are available to visitors.[24] . California. "The Snow Queen". "The Emperor's New Clothes" and "The Ugly Duckling" have both passed into the English language as well-known expressions. Andersen's birthday. placed in honor of Hans Christian Andersen. Denmark. "The Emperor's New Clothes".[22] Hans Christian Andersen and "The Ugly Duckling" in Central Park.C. Andersen Boulevard in Copenhagen Postage stamp. "The Little Match Girl". The Library of Congress Rare Book and Special Collections Division holds a unique collection of Andersen materials bequeathed by the Danish-American actor Jean Hersholt.[19] Of particular note is an original scrapbook Andersen prepared for the young Jonas Drewsen.Hans Christian Andersen 63 Legacy In the English-speaking world. New York In the city of Lublin. hardworking person who was not afraid of poverty". In the Copenhagen harbor there is a statue of The Little Mermaid. is celebrated as International Children's Book Day. The year 2005 was the bicentenary of Andersen's birth and his life and work was celebrated around the world. "The Ugly Duckling". The statue of Hans Christian Andersen in H. New York. stories such as "Thumbelina". statues of Hans Christian Andersen may be found in Central Park. "The Steadfast Tin Soldier". 1935 In the United States.[23] A $13-million theme park based on Andersen's tales and life opened in Shanghai at the end of 2006.[21] The city of Funabashi. He was chosen as the star of the park because he is a "nice.[20] The city of Bratislava.

respectively). • The Girl Who Trod on a Loaf by Kathryn Davis: a contemporary novel about fairy tales and opera . German. The first representation in Moscow in 1997. op. • Sam the Lovesick Snowman at the Center for Puppetry Arts: a contemporary puppet show by Jon Ludwig inspired by The Snow Man. 1 Act: 2 Epigraphs. and "The Snow Queen" ("Снежная Королева (Sniezhenaya Koroleva)" 1948) by Eugene Schwartz: reworked and adapted to the contemporary reality plays by one of Russia's most famous playwrights. 22 (1915–1917). On music of Sergei Prokofiev: The Ugly Duckling. Three-part Children's Choir And the Piano. (Vocal score language: Russian. English. 38 Theatrical Pictures. For Mezzo-Soprano (Soprano).[49] • The Ugly Duckling ("Гадкий утенок") (Children's opera) . 18 (1914) And Visions Fugitives. The opera version (Free transcription) Written by Lev Konov (Лев Конов) (1996). Length: Approximately 28 minutes.Hans Christian Andersen 64 Famous fairy tales Some of his most famous fairy tales include: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Angel (1843) University of Southern Denmark [25] (Danish) The Bell (1845) University of Southern Denmark [26] (Danish) The Emperor's New Clothes (1837) University of Southern Denmark [27] The Galoshes of Fortune (1838) "Lykkens Kalosker" [28] The Fir Tree (1844) University of Southern Denmark [29] (Danish) The Happy Family (1847) The Ice Maiden (1861) "Iisjomfruen" [30] It's Quite True! (1852) University of Southern Denmark [31] (Danish) The Little Match Girl (1848) University of Southern Denmark [32] The Little Mermaid (1836) University of Southern Denmark [33] (Danish) Little Tuck (1847) University of Southern Denmark [34] (Danish) The Nightingale (1844) University of Southern Denmark [35] (Danish) The Old House (1847) University of Southern Denmark [36] (Danish) Sandman (1841) University of Southern Denmark [37] (Danish) The Princess and the Pea (1835. "The Shadow" ("Тень (Ten)" 1940).Opera-Parable By Hans Christian Andersen. also known as The Real Princess) University of Southern Denmark [38] (Danish) Several Things (1837) University of Southern Denmark [38] (Danish) The Red Shoes (1845) University of Southern Denmark [39] (Danish) The Shadow (1847) University of Southern Denmark [40] (Danish) The Shepherdess and the Chimney Sweep (1845) The Snow Queen (1844) University of Southern Denmark [41] (Danish) The Steadfast Tin Soldier (1838) University of Southern Denmark [42] (Danish) The Story of a Mother (1847) University of Southern Denmark [43] (Danish) The Swineherd (1841) University of Southern Denmark [44] (Danish) Thumbelina (1835) University of Southern Denmark [45] (Danish) The Tinderbox (1835) University of Southern Denmark [46] (Danish) The Ugly Duckling (1844) University of Southern Denmark [47] (Danish) The Wild Swans (1838) University of Southern Denmark [48] (Danish) Influence Contemporary literary and artistic works inspired by Andersen's stories include: • "The Naked King" ("Голый Король (Goliy Korol)" 1937). op. French). Schwartz's versions of "The Shadow" and "The Snow Queen" were later made into movies (1971 and 1966.

Little Match Girl". a short story by Gregory Frost (based on The Tinder Box. published in Realms of Fantasy magazine. • The Little Match Girl (2006 short) With the DVD Release of The Little Mermaid (Walt Disney Pictures)Based on the original story.a choral work composed in 2007 by David Lang. (film. • The Little Mermaid for actress. ((Lille Claus og store Claus) by Jacques Prévert. a short story by Jane Gardam (based on The Little Mermaid. White Raven) • "Steadfast". film by Jean Renoir (1928)[50] • "The Andersen Project" by Robert Lepage: Freely inspired from two stories by Andersen (The Dryad and The Shadow). Golden Tears) • Le Petit Claus et le Grand Claus. a short story by Patricia A. narrator. a short story by Naomi Kritzer (based on The Snow Queen. • The Little Match Girl Passion . published in Ruby Slippers. Blood Red) • "You. orchestra by Richard Mills • "La petite marchande d'allumettes". published in Silver Birch. French. published in Black Swan. published in The Armless Maiden) • "The Steadfast Tin Soldier". White Raven) • "The Sea Hag". a young adult novel that continues the tale of "The Wild Swans" with the story of Ardwin. French title : Le Roi et l'Oiseau (the king and the bird). • The Ghost. • "The Pangs of Love". Golden Tears) • "Match Girl". the brother whose arm remained a wing • The Snow Queen by Eileen Kernaghan: a gentle Young Adult fantasy novel that brings out the tale's subtle pagan and shamanic elements • "The Snow Queen". a short story by Anne Bishop (published in Ruby Slippers. (film. two pianos and chamber ensemble/orchestra. 1964). set in early Ireland. Ivory Bones) • "Sparks". a short story by Susan Palwick (based on The Princess and the Pea. an episode in the third series of the British TV show Hustle is based on the theft of an Andersen manuscript from an old English manor house. a short story by Melissa Lee Shaw (based on The Little Mermaid. It won the 2008 Pulitzer Prize in Music.Hans Christian Andersen • The Snow Queen by Joan Vinge: an award-winning novel that reworks the Snow Queen's themes into epic science fiction • The Nightingale by Kara Dalkey: a lyrical adult fantasy novel set in the courts of old Japan • The Wild Swans by Peg Kerr: a novel that brings Andersen's fairy tale to colonial and modern America • Daughter of the Forest by Juliet Marillier: a romantic fantasy novel. McKillip (published in Snow White. thematically linked to "The Wild Swans" • Birdwing by Rafe Martin. a short story by Nancy Kress (based on The Steadfast Tin Soldier. 1980). a short story by Kara Dalkey (based on The Emperor's New Clothes. a short story by Joan Vinge (published in Women of Wonder) • "In the Witch's Garden". published in Close Company: Stories of Mothers and Daughters) • "The Shepherdess and the Chimney Sweep". • "The Little Mermaid (1989 movie) (Walt Disney Pictures) Based on the original story.[51] • Ponyo got its inspiration from the Little Mermaid. Blood Moon) • "The Real Princess". • "The Chrysanthemum Robe". 65 . and his brother Pierre Prévert. by Paul Grimault and Jacques Prévert. published in Black Swan. a short story by Nancy Holder (based on The Little Mermaid) • "The Last Poems About the Snow Queen". a short story by Joyce Carol Oates (published in Black Heart. a poem cycle by Sandra Gilbert (published in Blood Pressure) • The Little Mermaid (2005) for children's chorus. French TV 1964. October 2002 issue) • "I Hear the Mermaids Singing".

Robert (2006-01-18). php/ cultural/ hans-christian-andersen-281. com/ info.S. Retrieved 2010-04-02. [11] Hans Christian Andersen (http:/ / www. pdf) (PDF). dk/ charles-dickens-1857. Andersens skolegang og livet i Slagelse" (http:/ / www. . Göttingen 1995 [18] Bryant. [16] Pritchard. Retrieved 2010-04-02.00. [20] "Billedbog til Jonas Drewsen. Andersen og Charles Dickens 1857" (http:/ / www.C. Odense 1991. Retrieved 2011-06-16.C. uk/ books/ features/ article8437. northern. Hcandersen-homepage. kb. The Guardian.). html?date=1862-00-00). a novel by Richard Montanari focuses on a serial killer who murders people in accordance with Hans Christian Andersen stories. p. Heinrich Detering: Intellectual amphibia. hcandersen-homepage. "The Life of Hans Christian Andersen. Retrieved 2010-04-02. jp/ html/ sight_tokatsu_en. 2007.6000.Garfield. Hcandersen-homepage. . . The Steadfast Tin Soldier.Hans Christian Andersen • A Designer's Paradise. 2001. edu/ hastingw/ hcandersen. • "Striking Twelve". ." The story was published in Fables Magazine in October 2003. and Little Ida's Flowers. Patricia (2004-06-21). p. Andersens skolegang i Helsingør Latinskole" (http:/ / www. pl). htm). • "Until My Dancing Days are Done". Heinrich Detering: Das offene Geheimnis. 29. an episode in the fourth series of the British TV show Hustle bases a confidence trick around the story of The Emperor's New Clothes • Broken Angels (Merciless in the U. [13] "H. htm) [12] "The Tales of Hans Christian Andersen" (http:/ / scandinavian.1689053. The Red Shoes. co.gov.dk. Retrieved 2010-04-02. Hans Christian Andersen Center. dk/ liv/ tidstavle/ vis_e. ed Frederick Crawford6. com/ content/ press/ press_information/ hans_christian_andersen/ in_the_footsteps_of_andersen).pl. guardian. htm). co. html). Stories included are The Nightingale. 2009-04-15. dk/ jenny_lind. 2009) Retrieved November 2. Visitcopenhagen. Johan. Thumbelina. com/ publications/ anderson_2004IASD.dk. htm). 2009. . uk/ departments/ classics/ story/ 0. Mitchell that gave a modern gothic twist to "The Red Shoes. Frankfurt/M.C. Retrieved 2010-04-02. htm). Chiba Prefectional Government. in: Otmar Werner (ed. Sestri Levante (http:/ / andersenfestival. html). Hans Christian Andersen: the story of his life and work 1805-75. Retrieved 2010-04-02. html). and in April 2004 was voted the 2003 Reader's Choice Award by the magazine's readers. [5] Andersen Festival. .Childhood and Education (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2010-04-02. chiba-tour.C. sdu. Danishnet. db) (April 15. 1989. teatrandersena. andersen.dk. Claudia (2005-03-27). [10] Recorded using "special Greek symbols". dk/ elib/ noder/ hcamusik/ skandinav/ index_en. gov/ cgi-bin/ ampage?collId=rbc3& fileName=rbc0001_2008gen51371page. ich hätte Ihr ganzes Ich". dk/ skolegang_helsingoer. Hcandersen-homepage. a Staged Concert/Musical by the New York band. [9] Lepage. The Independent. I am a Scandinavian. [8] "H. • "Prisoners" by Regina Spektor references Hans Christian Anderson.dk. it) [6] "Official Tourism Site of Copenhagen" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2006-07-20. Phaidon (1975) ISBN 0-7148-1636-1 [2] Hans Christian Andersen . Retrieved 2006-07-19." (http:/ / www. The Tinderbox. 20 songs composed by Frederik Magle based on fairy tales by Hans Christian Andersen (1994). dk/ skolegang_slagelse.): Arbeiten zur Skandinavistik. . Teatrandersena. . . htm). Retrieved 2006-07-22. html). loc. [7] Hans Christian Andersen and Music. hcandersen-homepage. [23] "Theatre Site" (http:/ / www. . independent. hcandersen-homepage. 1891 [15] de Mylius. wisc. patriciagarfield. Scandinavian. [21] Picture on Wikimedia Commons [22] "Chiba Sightseeing Spots" (http:/ / www. (http:/ / www. a short story by Angela D. . . "His dark materials" (http:/ / enjoyment. 2001-12-30. Mark: Private Lives. hcandersen-homepage. Retrieved 2006-07-23. The Little Match Girl. Day By Day" (http:/ / www. Hcandersen-homepage. 66 References [1] Elias Bredsdorff. Anne Lisbeth. [14] Hans Christian Andersen's correspondence. The Snow Man. gov/ rr/ rarebook/ coll/ 114. What The Moon Saw.wisc. Loc. danishnet. visitcopenhagen." (http:/ / lcweb2.12 [19] "Jean Hersholt Collections. about a grumpy guy reading "The Little Match Girl" on New Year's Eve. Groove Lily. [4] "H. Little Claus and Big Claus. . Retrieved January 12. "Bedtime stories" (http:/ / books. . Retrieved 2010-04-02.com. ece). [3] "H.edu. • "The Song Is A Fairy-tale". loc. London. html). edu/ mellor/ hca_summer/ glossary/ bachelor. "The Dreams of Hans Christian Andersen" (http:/ / www. Andersen homepage (Danish)" (http:/ / www. [17] Heinrich Detering: "Ich wünschte.

bbc. andersen. html?vid=154 [31] http:/ / www. html [46] http:/ / www. ISBN 0-226-91747-9. 1998 ISBN 0-943595-71-1 • Terry. html [40] http:/ / www. Retrieved 2010-04-02. html [43] http:/ / www. 2007-07-28. html [41] http:/ / www. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ TheWildSwans_e. dk/ vaerk/ register/ info_e. org/ perform/ snowman.. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ TheUglyDuckling_e. andersen. sdu. 2006. archive. com/ music. org/ web/ 20071120140213/ http:/ / www. Jens (2005) [2003]. • Zipes.C. html [36] http:/ / www. sdu. andersen. BBC News. Retrieved 2010-04-02. Swan of Denmark: The Story of Hans Christian Andersen. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ TheLittleMatchGirl_e. html [32] http:/ / www. sdu. html [38] http:/ / www. ISBN 0-670-03377-4. andersen. andersen.Andersen. sdu. com/ title/ tt0019267/ ) at the Internet Movie Database [51] "Lior Navok's ''The Little Mermaid''" (http:/ / web. xsql?ff_id=22& id=2264& hist=fmL& nnoc=adl_pub [29] http:/ / www. Journey in Blue. Woodstock. sdu. . • Andersen. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ TheEmperorsNewClothes_e. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ TheStoryOfAMother_e. andersen. shtml). sdu. Jack (2005). London 2006. August 11. 2008. sdu. stm). sdu. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ LittleTuck_e. ISBN 0-415-97433-X. ISBN 0-396-07722-6. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ ItsQuiteTrue. Jackie Wullschlager. New York and London: Routledge. Hans Christian Andersen: The Misunderstood Storyteller. html [48] http:/ / www. andersen. and London: Overlook Duckworth. html [47] http:/ / www. andersen. Walter (1979). [25] http:/ / www. historical. [50] La petite marchande d'allumettes (1928) (http:/ / www. html [44] http:/ / www. uk/ 2/ hi/ asia-pacific/ 4782955. The King's Ballet Master. Hans Christian (2005) [2004]. sdu. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ Thumbelina_e. com/ music. andersen. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ TheSwineherd_e. adl. imdb. . andersen. Tiina Nunnally. sdu. Hans Christian Andersen: A New Life. andersen. New York. ed.com. Hans Christian Andersen: The Life of a Storyteller. Mead & Company. Fairy Tales. andersen. html [33] http:/ / www. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ TheBell_e. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ TheAngel_e. html [45] http:/ / www. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ TheTinderBox_e. Heinemann. • Wullschlager. andersen. liornavok. andersen. Jackie (2002) [2000]. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ TheLittleMermaid_e. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ TheFirTree_e. sdu. • Stig Dalager. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ OleLukoie_e.) My Dear Boy: Gay Love Letters through the Centuries. sdu. html [42] http:/ / www. Puppet. html [26] http:/ / www. sdu. andersen. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ TheRedShoes_e. html [35] http:/ / www. html [28] http:/ / www. andersen. ISBN 9781-58567-7375. Tiina Nunnally. asp?name=The+ Little+ Mermaid+ -+ for+ chamber+ ensemble+ / + orchestra& id=75). sdu. Peter Owen.Hans Christian Andersen [24] China to open Andersen theme park (http:/ / news. San Francisco. andersen. html [49] "Jon Ludwig's ''Sam the Lovesick Snowman''" (http:/ / puppet. Toronto 2006. Rictor (ed. sdu. html [37] http:/ / www. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ TheShadow_e. Liornavok. andersen. dk/ adl_pub/ vaerker/ cv/ e_vaerk/ e_vaerk. html [39] http:/ / www. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ TheOldHouse_e. McArthur & Co. html [27] http:/ / www. sdu. 2007. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. biographical novel about H. . sdu. 67 Further reading • Andersen. sdu.org. asp?name=The+ Little+ Mermaid+ -+ for+ chamber+ ensemble+ / + orchestra& id=75) on November 20. Retrieved July 2. New York: Dodd. sdu. sdu. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ TheSnowQueen_e. co. andersen. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ TheNightingale_e. • Ruth Manning-Sanders. 1949 • Norton. html [30] http:/ / www. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ ThePrincessOnThePea_e. sdu. New York: Viking. sdu. html [34] http:/ / www. andersen. andersen. andersen. sdu. andersen. Leyland Publications. liornavok. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ TheSteadfastTinSoldier_e.

dk/themes/hc_andersen_uk/ uk_hc_andersen_main_frame.asp?sprog=engelsk) and portraits (http://www.dk/andersen/portraet/billedstart. • Works by or about Hans Christian Andersen (http://worldcat.dk/andersen/rejser/index.Hans Christian Andersen 68 External links • Works by Hans Christian Andersen on Open Library at the Internet Archive • Works by Hans Christian Andersen (http://www.html) . Scanned. .php?query=creator:Hans Christian Andersen -contributor:gutenberg AND mediatype:texts) at Internet Archive.org/identities/lccn-n97-16738) in libraries (WorldCat catalog) • And the cobbler's son became a princely author (http://www.odense.asp?sprog=engelsk).asp).archive.asp?sprog=engelsk) .dk/andersen/nyhavn/nyhavnuk.contains many Andersen's stories in Danish and English • The Hans Christian Andersen Museum in Odense has a large digital collection of Hans Christian Andersen papercuts (http://www.dk/andersen/tegning/billedstart.museum.odense.omsd.odense.htm) has descriptions of Hans Christian Andersen's Medals and Decorations.org/search.odense. • The Orders and Medals Society of Denmark (http://www. • The Hans Christian Andersen Center (http://www.com/2005/04/04/arts/04hans.museum.html) Details of Andersen's life and the celebrations.dk/andersen/klip/billedstart.nytimes.museum. museum.odense.museum.dk/index_e.andersen. drawings (http:// www.aspx?lang=uk) across Europe and explore his Nyhavn study (http://www. color illustrated first editions.You can follow his travels (http:// www.sdu.

The first part was completed in 1677 and entered into the stationers' register on December 22. appeared in 1679. published in successive years from 1678 to 1685 and in 1688.[5] After the first edition of the first part in 1678. It is regarded as one of the most significant works of religious English literature. an expanded edition.[4] The English text comprises 108.[3] but more recent scholars like Roger Sharrock believe that it was begun during Bunyan's initial. Early Bunyan scholars like John Brown believed The Pilgrim's Progress was begun in Bunyan's second shorter imprisonment for six months in 1675. Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners. published in 1684 and 1686. 1677.260 words and is divided into two parts. and there were two editions of the second part. more lengthy imprisonment from 1660-1672 right after he had written his spiritual autobiography.[1] has been translated into more than 200 languages.[2] Bunyan began his work while in the Bedfordshire county gaol for violations of the Conventicle Act. each reading as a continuous narrative with no chapter divisions.The Pilgrim's Progress 69 The Pilgrim's Progress The Pilgrim's Progress Author(s) Country Language Genre(s) John Bunyan England English Religious allegory Publication date 1678 Media type Pages ISBN Print 191 pp NA The Pilgrim's Progress from This World to That Which Is to Come is a Christian allegory written by John Bunyan and published in February. 1678. which prohibited the holding of religious services outside the auspices of the established Church of England. It was licensed and entered in the "Term Catalogue" on February 18. 1678. The Second Part appeared in 1684. There were eleven editions of the first part in John Bunyan's lifetime. with additions written after Bunyan was freed. . and has never been out of print. which is looked upon as the date of first publication.

Good-will is shown to be Jesus himself. It is there that Pliable abandons Christian after getting himself out. and children to save himself: he cannot persuade them to accompany him. . supposedly with the help of a Mr. Pliable's journey with Christian is cut short when the two of them fall into the Slough of Despond. where the "straps" that bound Christian's burden to him break. rather than through Christ. Since Christian cannot see the "Wicket Gate" in the distance. (the Bible). which Christian does. which Christian thinks he sees. to the "Celestial City" ("that which is to come": Heaven) atop Mt. He meets Evangelist as he is walking out in the fields. he is greeted by three shining ones.The Pilgrim's Progress 70 Plot First Part Christian. Evangelist meets the wayward Christian as he stops before Mount Sinai on the way to Legality's home. which he believed came from his reading "the book in his hand". but Christian refuses. and Christian is directed onto it by the gatekeeper Good Will. On his way to the Wicket Gate. the cross of Calvary and the open sepulcher of Christ). but Pliable is persuaded to go with Christian. At the Wicket Gate begins the "straight and narrow" King's Highway. which would cause him to sink into Tophet (hell). Evangelist directs him to go to a "shining light". an everyman character. who give him the greeting of peace. his wife. Zion. new garments. Obstinate and Pliable go after Christian to bring him back. which centers itself in his journey from his hometown. Good Will directs him forward to "the place of deliverance. the "City of Destruction" ("this world"). Christian is pulled out by Help."[4] [8] Christian makes his way from there to the House of the Interpreter. Roger Sharrock denotes them "emblems. and it rolls away into the open sepulchre. It hangs over the road and threatens to crush any who would pass it. Worldly Wiseman into seeking deliverance from his burden through the Law. Christian is weighed down by a great burden. is the protagonist of the allegory. hoping to take advantage of the paradise that Christian claims lies at the end of his journey.[7] To Christian's query about relief from his burden."[4] [9] Burdened Christian flees from home From the House of the Interpreter. who has heard his cries. where he is shown pictures and tableaux that portray or dramatize aspects of the Christian faith and life. Evangelist shows Christian that he had sinned by turning out of his way. Legality and his son Civility in the village of Morality. This event happens relatively early in the narrative: the immediate need of Christian at the beginning of the story being quickly remedied. Christian is diverted by Mr. Christian finally reaches the "place of deliverance" (allegorically. After Christian is relieved of his burden. the knowledge of his sin. who directs him to the "Wicket Gate" for deliverance. In the Second Part. and a scroll as a passport into the Celestial City — these are allegorical figures indicative of Christian Baptism. allegorically by way of the Wicket Gate. Obstinate returns disgusted.[6] Christian leaves his home. but he assures him that he will be welcomed at the Wicket Gate if he should turn around and go there. This burden. is so unbearable that Christian must seek deliverance. After struggling to the other side of the bog.

writes in a prefatory essay: . in the Second Part. The Delectable Mountains form the next stage of Christian and Hopeful's journey. After getting over the River of Death on the ferry boat of Vain Hope without overcoming the hazards of wading across it. a resident of Vanity. though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death. In the morning they are captured by Giant Despair. Christiana. I will fear no evil: for thou art with me. Bunyan. Christian has a rough time of it. Using the key. They visit the same stopping places that Christian visited. where a rainstorm forces them to spend the night. Alexander M. called Promise.The Pilgrim's Progress Atop the Hill of Difficulty. Faithful is put on trial. Christian spends three days here. On the way." As night falls Christian enters the Valley of the Shadow of Death. also a former resident of the City of Destruction. Christian and Hopeful meet up with him twice and try to persuade him to journey to the Celestial City in the right way. spoken possibly by his friend Faithful: Yea. Hopeful. Along a rough stretch of road. and they are welcomed into the Celestial City. (Psalms 23:4. The giant wants them to commit suicide.[11] "And with that Apollyon spread his dragon wings and sped away. As at the House of the Interpreter pilgrims are shown sights that strengthen their faith and warn them against sinning. 71 Second Part The Second Part of The Pilgrim's Progress presents the pilgrimage of Christian's wife. who is a pilgrim's guide to the Celestial City. He kills four giants and participates in the slaying of a monster that terrorizes the city of Vanity. The hero of the story is Greatheart. who believes that he will be allowed into the Celestial City through his own good deeds rather than as a gift of God's grace. Ignorance appears before the gates of Celestial City without a passport. with the addition of Gaius' Inn between the Valley of the Shadow of Death and Vanity Fair. beaten and starved. but they endure the ordeal until Christian realizes that a key he has. who accompanies him to Vanity Fair. will open all the doors and gates of Doubting Castle. where both are arrested and detained because of their disdain for the wares and business of the fair. the servant of the Interpreter. who takes them to his Doubting Castle. and the maiden.) As he leaves this valley the sun rises on a new day. they escape. Just outside the Valley of the Shadow of Death he meets Faithful. When he is in the middle of the valley amidst the gloom and terror he hears the words of the Twenty-third Psalm. where they ready themselves to cross the River of Death on foot to Mount Zion and the Celestial City. 4:12). illustrates the idea that women as well as men can be brave pilgrims. where the shepherds show them some of the wonders of the place also known as "Immanuel's Land". but they take a longer time in order to accommodate marriage and childbirth for the four sons and their wives. and leaves clothed with armour (Eph. By using heroines. Mercy. which serves as a telescope. This battle lasts "over half a day" until Christian manages to wound Apollyon with his two-edged sword (a reference to the Bible. Ignorance persists in his own way that leads to his being cast into hell. their sons. Christian makes his first stop for the night at the House Beautiful. The passage of years in this second pilgrimage better allegorizes the journey of the Christian life. which is an allegory of the local Christian congregation. Christian and Hopeful make it through the dangerous Enchanted Ground into the Land of Beulah. The Lord of the Celestial City orders shining ones to take Ignorance to one of the byways to hell and throw him in. thy rod and thy staff they comfort me. where they are imprisoned. and executed as a martyr. Heb. This device is given to Mercy in the second part at her request. On Mount Clear they are able to see the Celestial City through the shepherd's "perspective glass". Christian and Hopeful meet a lad named Ignorance. takes Faithful's place to be Christian's companion for the rest of the way.[10] which stands him in good stead in his battle against Apollyon in the Valley of Humiliation. Christian and Hopeful leave the highway to travel on the easier By-Path Meadow. professor of English at Yale University. 6:11-18). but Hopeful helps him over. which he would have acquired had he gone into the King's Highway through the Wicket Gate. Witherspoon.

but remain for the support of the church in that place.. he is encouraged to accompany the party by Greatheart: But brother . I have it in commission. to comfort the feeble-minded.[12] This is exemplified by the frailness of the pilgrims of the Second Part in contrast to those of the First: women. we will not enter into doubtful disputations before you.[4] When the pilgrims end up in the Land of Beulah. which appeared in 1684. The four sons of Christian and their families do not cross. we will wait for you..The Pilgrim's Progress Part II. children. we will be made all things to you. the most influential religious book ever written in the English language. we will lend you our help. without doubt. they cross over the River of Death by appointment. is much more than a mere sequel to or repetition of the earlier volume. The two parts of The Pilgrim's Progress in reality constitute a whole. It clarifies and reinforces and justifies the story of Part I. As a matter of importance to Christians of Bunyan's persuasion reflected in the narrative of The Pilgrim's Progress. and the whole is. the incidents and accidents of everyday life are more numerous. the joys of the pilgrimage tend to outweigh the hardships. both opinionative and practical. and to the faith and hope of Part I is added in abundant measure that greatest of virtues. and children. and physically and mentally challenged individuals. The beam of Bunyan's spotlight is broadened to include Christian's family and other men. we will deny ourselves of some things. for your sake. You must needs go along with us. and to support the weak. When Christiana's party leaves Gaius's Inn and Mr. 72 . the last words of the pilgrims as they cross over the river are recorded. charity. women. Feeble-mind lingers in order to be left behind. rather than you shall be left behind.

• Beelzebub. First Part • CHRISTIAN. He also appears in the Second Part. Legality and then move to the City of Morality. who persuades Christian go out of his way to be helped by a Mr. the religious man who puts Christian on the path to the Celestial City. the messengers and servants of "the Lord of the Hill". He also shows Christian a book. one of the two residents of the City of Destruction. Engraving from a 1778 edition printed in England. a resident of a place called Carnal Policy. who goes with Christian until both of them fall into the Slough of Despond. whose name was Graceless at some time before. God. one of two travellers on the King's Highway. in order to bring him back. opened by Goodwill. He is also the Lord of Vanity Fair. the other of the two. who has erected a fort near the Wicket Gate from which he and his companions can shoot arrows at those about to enter the Wicket Gate. • Obstinate. They are obviously the holy angels. In the Second Part we find that this character is none other than Jesus Christ Himself. • Formalist. WORLDLY WISEMAN. but . the protagonist in the First Part. • Help. who do not come in by the Wicket Gate. Christian's rescuer from the Slough of Despond. who run after Christian when he first sets out. Christian calls him "captain" of the fiend Apollyon. literally "Lord of the Flies". whose journey to the Celestial City is the plot of the story. the keeper of the Wicket Gate through which one enters the "straight and narrow way" (also referred to as "the King's Highway") to the Celestial City.[4] Christian enters the Wicket Gate. is one of the devil's companion archdevils.The Pilgrim's Progress 73 Characters Main characters are in capital letters. • GOODWILL. the one who has his House along the way as a rest stop for travellers to check in to see pictures and dioramas to teach them the right way to live the Christian life. • MR. • EVANGELIST. Pliable escapes from the slough and returns home. • THE INTERPRETER. which readers assume to be the Bible. He has been identified as the Holy Spirit. • Pliable. • Shining Ones.

but has no evident works as a result of true salvation. "the old man" (representing carnality) who tries to persuade Faithful to leave his journey and come live with his 3 daughters: the Lust of the flesh. He takes one of the two bypaths that avoid the Hill Difficulty. His battle with Christian takes place in the Valley of Humiliation. He takes the other of the two bypaths and is also lost. Christian's friend from the City of Destruction. at least from the hill and sepulcre up to the Hill Difficulty. who lived on Prating Row. who tries to force Christian to return to his domain and service. • Discretion. Timorous of the Second Part. another of the House Beautiful maidens. one of two who try to persuade Christian to go back for fear of the chained lions near the House Beautiful. She appears in the Second Part. • Wanton. He and his companion Hypocrisy come from the land of Vainglory. • Envy. a temptress who tries to get Faithful to leave his journey to the Celestial City. • FAITHFUL. He is a relative of Mrs. • Charity. the Lust of the eyes. He talks fervently of religion. • Superstition. • APOLLYON. "Pagan" is dead. indicating the then diminished power and influence of the Roman Catholic pope. and "Pope" is alive but decrepit. who decides to allow Christian to stay there. indicating the end of pagan persecution with Antiquity. Christian meets him just after getting through the Valley of the Shadow of Death. the judge who tries Faithful in Vanity Fair. another of the House Beautiful maidens. literally "Destroyer". the companion of Formalist. violent avenger (representing the Law. who is also going on pilgrimage. • Timorous. She appears in the Second Part. He takes darts from his body to throw at his opponents. She appears in the Second Part. His companion is Mistrust. • Piety. • Prudence. the second witness against Faithful. 74 "Beelzebub and them that are with him shoot arrows" • Watchful. the first witness against Faithful. • Talkative. just below the House Beautiful. allegories of Roman Catholicism and paganism as persecutors of Protestant Christians. the severe. the lord of the City of Destruction and one of the devil's companion archdevils. another of the House Beautiful maidens. which knows no mercy) who tries to kill Faithful for his momentary weakness in wanting to go with Adam the First out of the way. • Giants "Pope" and "Pagan". He appears as a dragon-like creature with scales and bats' wings. but is lost. one of the beautiful maids of the house . a hypocrite known to Christian from the City of Destruction.The Pilgrim's Progress climb over the wall that encloses it. the porter of the House Beautiful. • Adam the First. He also appears in the Second Part and receives "a gold angel" coin from Christiana for his kindness and service to her and her companions. "Watchful" is also the name of one of the Delectable Mountains' shepherds. • Lord Hate-good. She may be the popular resident of the City of Destruction. • Hypocrisy. who hosted a house party for friends of Mrs. Madam Wanton. • Moses. and the Pride of life. Timorous. .

Vain-Hope. which he does not have. who takes Faithful's place as Christian's fellow traveler. He gets a ferryman. relative of the Timorous of the First Part. another of the Delectable Mountains shepherds. Jesus Christ is for him only an example not a Savior. a guest narrator who meets Bunyan himself in his new dream and recounts the events of the Second Part up to the arrival at the Wicket Gate. She is slain by OLD HONEST in the Second Part.. who marries MERCY. • Giantess Diffidence. then. • The Flatterer. HOPEFUL did not. IGNORANCE was told by CHRISTIAN and HOPEFUL that he should have entered the highway through the Wicket Gate. a hypocritical pilgrim who perishes in the Hill Lucre silver mine with three of his friends. • MATTHEW. • Mr. Gaius's daughter. Mnason's daughter. where Christians are imprisoned and murdered. biblically the same as "faith". Timorous. Mr. IGNORANCE. Mr. who goes the opposite way on the "King's Highway" because he boasts that he knows that God and the Celestial City do not exist. CHRISTIANA's neighbour. the owner of Doubting Castle. second son. • MERCY. • CHRISTIANA. he is asked for a "certificate" needed for entry. 75 Second Part • Mr. .. Despair's wife. third son. when they fail to look at the road map given them by the Shepherds of the Delectable Mountains. • SAMUEL. The other factor is Vanity Fair's location right on the straight and narrow way. the third witness against Faithful. in contrast to HOPEFUL. He is slain by GREAT-HEART in the Second Part. that connected to the "King's Highway" by means of a crooked lane. By-Ends. fourth and youngest son. a mocker of CHRISTIAN and HOPEFUL. wife of CHRISTIAN. and another rises out of his ashes to be a companion with Christian in his pilgrimage". Mnason's daughter. who beckons to pilgrims at the Hill Lucre to come and join in the supposed silver mining going on in it. The character HOPEFUL poses an inconsistency in that there is a necessity imposed on the pilgrims that they enter the "King's Highway" by the Wicket Gate. orders that he be bound and cast into hell. HOPEFUL assumes FAITHFUL'S place by God's design. • JAMES. who joins the "King's Highway" by way of the "crooked lane" that comes from his native country. • JOSEPH. Sagacity. called "Conceit. • Atheist. who leads her four sons and neighbour MERCY on pilgrimage. When he gets to the gates of the Celestial City. of him we read: ".The Pilgrim's Progress • Pick-Thank. • HOPEFUL. • Mrs. one died to bear testimony to the truth. • GIANT DESPAIR. a deceiver who leads Christian and Hopeful out of their way. • Knowledge. who marries Grace. In the case of By-Ends and his companions. came from the Country of Conceit. Christian and Hopeful try to set him right. one of the shepherds of the Delectable Mountains. • Experience. Theologically and allegorically it would follow in that "faith" is trust in God as far as things present are concerned. who goes with her on pilgrimage and marries MATTHEW." He follows Christian and Hopeful and on two occasions talks with them. "a brisk young lad". however. to ferry him across the River of Death rather than cross it on foot as one is supposed to do. A "by-end" is a pursuit that is achieved indirectly. another of the Delectable Mountains shepherds. who comes with MERCY to see CHRISTIANA before she sets out on pilgrimage. it is pursuing financial gain through religion. • IGNORANCE. who marries Phoebe. is trust in God as far as things of the future are concerned. • Demas. the resident of Vanity Fair. another of the Delectable Mountains shepherds. He believes that he will be received into the Celestial City because of his doing good works in accordance with God's will. HOPEFUL would follow FAITHFUL. but they fail. • Watchful. CHRISTIAN and CHRISTIANA's eldest son. • Sincere. The King. who marries Martha. a deceiver. and "hope".

Mnason's daughter. • Humble-Mind. • Mr. Timorous. • MR. who marries JAMES. which is caused by eating the apples of Beelzebub. a welcome companion to GREAT-HEART. his daughter. to whom he gives one of his crutches. He is also known as Bloody-man. who answers the door of the house when Christiana and her companions arrive. • Mr. • Innocent. whom she and MERCY actually encounter when they leave the Wicket Gate. a resident of The City of Destruction and friend of Mrs. Gaius's daughter. Stand-Fast. two evil characters CHRISTIANA sees in her dream. Bat's-Eyes. • Ill-favoured Ones. Timorous. the physician called to the House Beautiful to cure Matthew of his illness. one of the maidens of the House Beautiful. a resident of The City of Destruction and friend of Mrs. The lodging fee for his inn is paid by the Good Samaritan. a giant that GREAT-HEART kills as the pilgrims leave the Valley of the Shadow of Death. a resident of The City of Destruction and friend of Mrs. She changes the subject from Christiana to gossip about being at a bawdy party at Madam Wanton's home. and gives his daughters Grace and Martha in marriage to SAMUEL and JOSEPH respectively. who puts up the pilgrims for a time. 76 . She is the adulterous woman mentioned in the Biblical Book of Proverbs. Light-Mind. He is Mr. who makes her appearance in the Second Part. Feeble-Mind's uncle. Fearing. with his sword in his hand. and who conducts them to the garden bath. a pilgrim whom GREAT-HEART had "conducted" to the Celestial City in an earlier pilgrimage. who marries JOSEPH. VALIANT-FOR-TRUTH. a resident of The City of Destruction and friend of Mrs. who "backs the [chained] lions" near the House Beautiful. • OLD HONEST. and consume pilgrims. Noted for his timidness. a suitor of MERCY's. Feeble-Mind. Inconsiderate. murder. the guide and body-guard sent by the INTERPRETER with CHRISTIANA and her companions from his house to their journey's end. an innkeeper with whom the pilgrims stay for some years after they leave the Valley of the Shadow of Death. Since she has a bat's eyes. • Mrs. who gives up courting her when he finds out that she makes clothing only to give away to the poor. • Mrs. Mnason's daughter. • Mr. • Madame Bubble. • Martha. a pilgrim that joins them. He gives his daughter Phebe to JAMES in marriage. • Much-Afraid. • Mrs. • Mr. • Giant Grim. Mnason. a giant that enlists the help of evil-doers on the King's Highway to abduct. She wonders if Christiana will actually go on pilgrimage.The Pilgrim's Progress • Mrs. • Grace. a pilgrim found while praying for deliverance from Madame Bubble. and becomes the companion of Mr. • Giant Maul. a pilgrim who meets CHRISTIANA's train of pilgrims at Gaius's door. He proves to be one of the main protagonists in the Second Part. a rescued prisoner from Doubting Castle. Skill. a resident of the town of Vanity. GREAT-HEART. slain by GREAT-HEART. • Phoebe. she would be blind or nearly blind. a pilgrim they find all bloody. • Mr. Timorous. Great-Heart. • Mr. • Giant Slay-Good. who marries SAMUEL. Ready-to-Halt. after leaving the Delectable Mountains. • Mr. • Mr. She characterizes Christiana's departure "a good riddance" as an inconsiderate person would. Brisk. a young serving maid of the INTERPRETER. a witch whose enchantments made the Enchanted Ground enchanted. Despondency. • Gaius. who joins Christiana's company of pilgrims. which signifies Christian baptism. Timorous. so her characterization of Christiana as blind in her desire to go on pilgrimage is hypocritical. Feeble-mind. Know-Nothing. rescued from Slay-Good by Mr. • Mr.

a fold-out map from an edition printed in England in 1778 . a frightening mountain near the Village of Morality that threatens all who would go there. It flows through a meadow. • The Pillar of Salt. • Plain Ease. green all year long and filled with lush fruit trees. Christian's home. 10). • Hill Lucre. a type of spiritual museum to guide the pilgrims to the Celestial City. Christian falling into it. the home of Giant Despair and his wife. it is flanked by two treacherous byways "Danger" and "Destruction. a treacherous valley with a quick sand bog on one side and a deep chasm/ditch on the other side of the King's Highway going through it (cf. sinks further under the weight of his sins (his burden) and his sense of their guilt. Pilgrims are required to enter the way by way of the Wicket Gate. • The Delectable Mountains. It is inhabited by sheep and their shepherds." There are three choices: CHRISTIAN takes "Difficulty" (the right way). • Cross and Sepulchre." Lush country from whose heights one can see many delights and curiosities. only one key could open its doors and gates. • River of God or River of the Water of Life. • Mount Sinai. both the hill and the road up is called "Difficulty". • Gaius's inn. It apparently sits atop the Hill Difficulty. and Formalist and Hypocrisy take the two other ways. It is where Christian meets Apollyon in the place known as "Forgetful Green. a city through which the King's Highway passes and the yearlong fair that is held there. In the First Part. the key Promise. • Valley of Humiliation. a rest stop in the Second Part • Vanity and Vanity Fair. • By-Path Meadow. Jesus Christ. and Bunyan takes its name from a gate of the Jerusalem temple (Acts 3:2. The pilgrim's note that its location near the Hill Lucre is a fitting warning to those who are tempted by Demas to go into the Lucre silver mine. in his "state of humiliation. going down into which is said to be extremely slippery by the House Beautiful's damsel Prudence. In the Second Part the Good Shepherd is found there to whom Christiana's grandchildren are entrusted. • Doubting Castle.The Pilgrim's Progress 77 Places in The Pilgrim's Progress • City of Destruction. From the House Beautiful one can see forward to the Delectable Mountains. the entry point of the straight and narrow way to the Celestial City." • Valley of the Shadow of Death. the miry swamp on the way to the Wicket Gate. and from Mount Clear one can see the A map of the places Pilgrim travels through on his progress. • House of the Interpreter. representative of the world (cf. the place leading to the grounds of Doubting Castle. emblematic of Calvary and the tomb of Christ. a palace that serves as a rest stop for pilgrims to the Celestial City. the valley on the other side of the Hill Difficulty. which prove to be fatal dead ends. one of the hazards of the journey to the Celestial City. who was turned into a pillar of salt when Sodom and Gomorrah were destroyed. a pleasant area traversed by the pilgrims. • Wicket Gate. It represents the Christian congregation. • Hill Difficulty. location of a reputed silver mine that proves to be the place where By-Ends and his companions are lost. known as "Immanuel's Land." This valley had been a delight to the "Lord of the Hill". a place of solace for the pilgrims. which was Lot's wife. Psalm 23:4). • House Beautiful. Isaiah 19:18) • Slough of Despond.

The plain (across which Christian fled) is Bedford Plain. 6. The Land of Beulah.The Pilgrim's Progress Celestial City. marking the boundary of the Duke of Bedford's estate. The Celestial City. The "Hill Difficulty" is Ampthill Hill. the steepest hill in the county. [with] a cross .[14] identifies seven locations that appear in the allegory. "Mount Sinai". to London. 8. The "Wicket Gate" is the wooden gate at the entrance to the Elstow parish church. an area through which the King's Highway passes that has air that makes pilgrims want to stop to sleep.[17] 5. dense and dismal woods reminiscent of the byways "Danger" and "Destruction".e."[16] is the red. which was closed in 2008. one never wakes up.[15] 3. which is fifteen miles wide with the town of Bedford in the middle and the river Ouse meandering through the northern half. beside the Ridgmont to Woburn road. Dunstable and St Albans. cliffs just north of Ridgmont (i. Bunyan would often preach in a wood by the River Ouse just outside the village. which supplied London Brick's works in Stewartby. 2. A sandy range of hills stretches across Bedfordshire from Woburn through Ampthill to Potton. These hills are characterized by dark. 4. Presumably. The wall "Salvation" that fenced in the King's Highway coming after the House of the Interpreter[18] is the red brick wall. the road was built on the "twenty thousand cart loads" of fill mentioned in The Pilgrim's Progress. If one goes to sleep in this place. The "Slough of Despond" (a major obstacle for Christian and Pliable: "a very miry slough") is the large deposits of gray clay. the high hill on the way to the village of Morality.. 78 • • • • Geographical and topographical features behind the fictional places Scholars have pointed out that Bunyan may have been influenced in the creation of places in The Pilgrim's Progress by his own surrounding environment. a lush garden area just this side of the River of Death. the "Desired Country" of pilgrims. The shepherds of the Delectable Mountains warn pilgrims about this. Other connections are suggested in books not directly associated with either John Bunyan or The Pilgrim's Progress. the dreadful river that surrounds Mount Zion. The River of Death. The castle from which arrows were shot at those who would enter the Wicket Gate is the stand-alone tower. the alternatives to the way "Difficulty" that goes up the hill. the remnant of an abbey that stood beside the church. At least twenty-one natural or man-made geographical or topographical features from The Pilgrim's Progress have been identified—places and structures John Bunyan regularly would have seen in his travels on foot or horseback. In the same sequence as these subjects appear in The Pilgrim's Progress. where Bunyan was mentored by the pastor John Gifford. Vera Brittain in her thoroughly researched biography of Bunyan. and a sepulchre"[18] is the village cross and well that stands by the church at opposite ends of the sloping main street of Stevington. on the main road that runs less than a mile behind his Elstow cottage.[19] . On either side of the Bedford to Ampthill road these deposits match Bunyan's description exactly. 7. The Enchanted Ground. on the main Bedford road. heaven. through Ampthill. God. did hang so much over. the dwelling place of the "Lord of the Hill". sandy. whose side "that was next the way side. "Rouge Mont"). the geographical realities are as follows: 1. a small village five miles west of Bedford. The "place somewhat ascending . It is situated on Mount Zion. 9. deeper or shallower depending on the faith of the one traversing it. Albert Foster[13] describes the natural features of Bedfordshire that apparently turn up in The Pilgrim's Progress.. The entire journey from The City of Destruction to the Celestial City may have been based on Bunyan's own usual journey from Bedford.. The "House of the Interpreter" is the rectory of St John's church in the south end of Bedford. over four miles long..

Henry. It fits John Bunyan's account of the fair's antiquity and its vast variety of goods sold.[25] It is surmised that Bunyan visited the notable Stourbridge Fair. in keeping with Bunyan's route to London. It might also be the valley of river Flit. The "River of the Water of Life"."[30] Reminiscent of the possibility of seeing the Celestial City from Mount Clear. with trees along each bank[27] is the river Ouse east of Bedford. The "Valley of the Shadow of Death" is Millbrook gorge to the west of Ampthill. where John Bunyan as a boy would fish with his sister Margaret. one thousand feet wide at high tide. 14. with glorious beech trees. built in the early 15th century and often visited by King Henry VIII as a hunting lodge. 12. 21. were much too modest to match the description in The Pilgrim's Progress.[23] Other suggested markets or fairs. The "very deep river"[33] is the River Thames. on the east side.[22] The tradesman's entrance was on the south side looking out over the town of Ampthill and towards the Chilterns. 17. such as Bedford.[24] Sermons were preached each Sunday during Stourbridge Fair in an area called the "Dodderey.. The "Celestial City" is London. center of John Bunyan's world—most of his neighbours never travelled that far. eight miles west of Bedford near Stevington. gleaming. In the 1670s. The pleasant arbour on the way up the Hill Difficulty is a small "lay-by". Amphill Castle was used for the "house arrest" of Queen Catherine of Aragon and her retinue in 1535-36 before she was taken to Kimbolton. it was a popular picnic site during the first half of the twentieth century when many families could not travel far afield. the model of "The Delectable Mountains". 15. after the Great Fire of 1666. The "very narrow passage" to the "Palace Beautiful"[21] is an entrance cut into the high bank by the roadside to the east at the top of Ampthill Hill. part way up Ampthill Hill. 79 ." John Bunyan preached often in Toft. and there is a place known as "Bunyan's Barn" in Toft. The "pillar of salt". stretching fifty miles from the Thames to Dunstable Downs. so Bunyan would have seen its towers in the 1650s and known of the empty castle plateau in the 1670s[28] Giant Despair was killed and Doubting Castle was demolished in the second part of The Pilgrim's Progress.[29] 18. the river would be to the north of the city. The "Delectable Mountains" are the Chiltern Hills that can be seen from the second floor of Houghton House. built in 1621 but a ruin since 1800.[31] on a clear day one can see London's buildings from Dunstable Downs near Whipsnade Zoo. 13. because of the dramatic view over the Bedford plain.[34] In the last decade of Bunyan's life (1678–1688) some of his best Christian friends lived in London. London sported a new. "Vanity Fair" is Stourbridge Fair. "Doubting Castle" is Ampthill Castle. Elstow or Ampthill. corpulent and dour. just four miles west of Cambridge. 19. may have been considered by Bunyan to be a model for Giant Despair. have beautiful blue flowers and butterflies. shows a cyclist resting there. which had pretty villages. It is located on small island in the river Ouse just north of Turvey bridge. "Chalk hills. 16. The house faced north. however.[32] 20. Lot's wife. The castle was dismantled soon after 1660. and. held in Cambridge during late August and early September. including a Lord Mayor.[26] is a weather-beaten statue that looks much like person-sized salt pillar. market gardens.The Pilgrim's Progress 10. flowing through Flitton and Flitwick south of Ampthill. The "Palace Beautiful" is Houghton (formerly Ampthill) House. and estates containing beautiful parks and gardens): "woods of Islington to the green hills of Hampstead & Highgate". city center with forty churches. A photo. The "Land of Beulah" is Middlesex county north and west of London. taken in 1908.[20] 11.

"One has one's own Slough of Despond to trudge through. ashes. I did not think To shew to all the World my Pen and Ink In such a mode. and the "Enchanted Ground". and the child knows nothing more amusing. . dwelt in old times. and it shows the influence of John Foxe's Acts and Monuments. it was reprinted in colonial America. his foes ("Apollyon" and "Giant Despair"). Context in Christendom The explicit Protestant theology of The Pilgrim's Progress made it much more popular than its predecessors. . Pope and Pagan. I did it mine own self to gratifie. even of Pilgrims that had gone this way formerly: And while I was musing what should be the reason. but I have learnt . that at the end of this Valley lay blood. It was published over the years of the Popish Plot (1678–1681) and ten years before the Glorious Revolution of 1688.H Spurgeon was influenced by The Pilgrim's Progress and is said to have read the book over 100 times. and the helpful stopping places he visits (the "House of the Interpreter". Because of its explicit English Protestant theology The Pilgrim's Progress shares the then popular English antipathy toward the Roman Catholic Church. lay there.[35] Pilgrim's Progresss is listed as one of Mr Tulliver's books in George Elliot's "The Mill on the Floss". were cruelly put to death. For example. Christian's hazards — whether originally from Bunyan or borrowed by him from the Bible — the "Slough of Despond". Bunyan's allegory stands out above his predecessors because of his simple and effective. I espied a little before me a Cave." Three years after its publication (1681). Samuel Johnson said that "this is the great merit of the book. blood ashes. But by this place Christian went without much danger. Because of the widespread longtime popularity of "The Pilgrim's Progress". Bunyan's plain style breathes life into the abstractions of the anthropomorphized temptations and abstractions that Christian encounters and with whom he converses on his course to Heaven." Famous Christian preacher C. where two Giants. no not I. by whose Power and Tyranny the Men whose bones. whereat I somewhat wondered. and mangled bodies of men. the "Hill Difficulty". bones. &c. and was widely read in the Puritan colonies. from the Lyke-Wake Dirge forward. "Valley of the Shadow of Death". I only thought to make I knew not what: nor did I undertake Thereby to please my Neighbour. "Doubting Castle".The Pilgrim's Progress 80 Cultural Influence The allegory of this book has antecedents in a large number of Christian devotional works that speak of the soul's path to Heaven." The frontispiece and title-page from an edition printed in England in 1778 John Bunyan himself wrote a popular hymn that encourages a hearer to become a pilgrim-like Christian: All Who Would Valiant Be. and the "Land of Beulah") have become commonly used phrases proverbial in English. Bunyan presents a decrepit and harmless giant to confront Christian at the end of the Valley of the Shadow of Death that is explicitly named "Pope": Now I saw in my Dream. He confesses his own naïveté in the verse prologue to the book: ". his temptations (the wares of "Vanity Fair" and the pleasantness of "By-Path Meadow"). steeped in Biblical texts and cadences. prose style. the "House Beautiful". that the most cultivated man cannot find anything to praise more highly. the "Delectable Mountains".

though he be yet alive.[37] In the Second Part while Christiana and her group of pilgrims led by Greatheart stay for some time in Vanity. declared that the book was his favorite reading.[41] African version of Pilgrim's Progress from 1902 . the city is terrorized by a seven-headed beast[38] which is driven away by Greatheart and other stalwarts.The Pilgrim's Progress since. the quasi-Christian leader of the Taiping Rebellion. and also of the many shrewd brushes that he met with in his younger dayes. grinning at Pilgrims as they go by. with some others. that Pagan has been dead many a day. have taken a dislike thereat.[39] In his endnotes W. Bunyan gave an extended account of the rise and (shortly expected) fall of Antichrist. and his Ruine (1692). Bunyan adds the editorial comment: But as in other fairs. grown so crazy and stiff in his joynts. Of Antichrist. In a posthumously published treatise. Hong Xiuquan.[36] When Christian and Faithful travel through Vanity Fair. that he can now do little more than sit in his Caves mouth. so the Ware of Rome and her Merchandize is greatly promoted in this fair: Only our English Nation."[40] 81 Foreign language versions Beginning in the 1850s. some one Commodity is as the chief of all the fair. because he cannot come at them. the Church of Rome. illustrated versions of The Pilgrim's Progress in Chinese were printed in Hong Kong. Shanghai and Fuzhou and widely distributed by Protestant missionaries. and biting his nails. he is by reason of age.R. Owens notes about the woman that governs the beast: "This woman was believed by Protestants to represent Antichrist. and as for the other.

The Pilgrim's Progress 82 The "Third Part" The Third Part of the Pilgrim's Progress was written by an anonymous author. The journey is considerably faster. and performed a compelling rock opera version of the work in the early 1990s. see The Pilgrim's Progress (opera). was newly recorded by Hyperion Records in 1990. music and lyrics by Kenneth Wright. E. References in literature Charles Dickens' Oliver Twist (1838) is subtitled 'The Parish Boy's Progress'. It was also the basis of a condensed radio adaptation starring John Gielgud. originally presented in 1942. in 2004 and 2008. John Buchan was an admirer of Bunyan. In Twain's later work Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. from sleep in the palace of Carnal-Security premiered in 1951. In 2007 Cuban based duet Quidam Pilgrim released a musical setting of the book under the name of "Pilgrim" combining elements of alternative rock. The first act focused on Christian's journey. lasting approximately 2½ hours. as a member of the earliest version of this group. Mark Twain gave his 1869 travelogue. with additional text. it was published with Bunyan's authentic two parts. Huckleberry Finn mentions The Pilgrim's Progress as he describes the works of literature in the Grangerfords' library. beginning in 1693. Christian. having become wayward on his journey during his visit in Vanity Fair. and pilgrims may now travel under steam power. The Enormous Room. This radio version. in a performance conducted by Matthew Best. however. the alternate title The New Pilgrims' Progress. hero of Part Three. "The Celestial Railroad". Twain uses this to satirize the Protestant southern aristocracy. A musical based on the book was presented at the LifeHouse Theater in Redlands. Twin brothers Keith and Kurt Landaas also composed. these were performed on Cuban national television on several occasions receiving a positive audience response. Celtic. including. a short story by Nathaniel Hawthorne. and their teenage son Matthew. and featured Richard Pasco and Ursula Howells. The Innocents Abroad. English composer Ernest Austin set the whole story as a huge narrative tone poem for solo organ. with book. which also takes its title from one of Bunyan's characters. recorded. stepping down an alleyway and found himself in London in the 1670s. The songs were written in English and Latin. new age and Cuban folk music. It again starred Gielgud... E. as background music. Alan Moore in his League of Extraordinary Gentlemen enlists The Pilgrim's Progress protagonist. the second on that of Christiana. awakens The book was the basis of an opera by Ralph Vaughan Williams. with optional 6-part choir and narrator. Prospero's Men. several excerpts from Vaughan Williams's orchestral works. but somewhat more questionable. music and lyrics by Wayne Scott. Progressive thinkers have replaced the footpath by a railroad. California. and unable to return to his homeland. Musical settings Tender-Conscience. recreates Christian's journey in Hawthorne's time. In 1847 William Makepeace Thackeray entitled his work Vanity Fair: A Novel without a Hero with the Vanity Fair of Pilgrim's Progress in mind.[42] This third part presented the pilgrimage of Tender-Conscience and his companions. also including one track in Spanish. some parts of . Mr Standfast. and Pilgrim's Progress features significantly in his third Richard Hannay novel. It continued to be republished with Bunyan's work until 1852. Cummings also makes numerous references to it in his prose work. This group disbanded in 1690 after Prospero vanished into the Blazing World.

C. in which a character named John follows a vision to escape from The Landlord. S. Vonnegut's parallel to The Pilgrim's Progress is deliberate and evident in Billy's surname. by Kurt Vonnegut. First published in 1942 by Methuen. and tries to follow the good example of Bunyan's Christian. including Jane Eyre. Lewis wrote a book inspired by The Pilgrim's Progress called The Pilgrim's Regress. The character of Billy Pilgrim in Slaughterhouse-5: The Children's Crusade. In Louisa May Alcott's Little Women. within the context of the League stories. is a clear homage to a similar journey to enlightenment experienced by Christian.[43] Shirley.[44] and Villette. Christopher Nicholson's character Tom Page in The Elephant Keeper identifies Pilgrim's Progress as being one of two books he has read. particular with the ending of Jane Eyre. the other being Gulliver's Travels.[45] Her alterations to the quest-narrative have led to much critical interest. 83 . It is an allegory of C. Charlotte Brontë refers to Pilgrim's Progress in most of her novels. is explicitly modeled on The Pilgrim's Progress. Henry Williamson's The Patriot's Progress references the title of The Pilgrim's Progress and the symbolic nature of John Bunyan's work. The protagonist of the semi-autobiographical novel is John Bullock. Lois McMasters Bujold quotes Pilgrim's Progress in her short story "Borders of Infinity" set in her science fiction Vorkosigan Saga.[46] A classic science fiction fan novelette.The Pilgrim's Progress the text seem to imply that Christian resigned from Prospero's league before its disbanding and that Christian traveled to the Blazing World before Prospero himself. although Billy's journey leads him to an existential acceptance of life and of a fatalist human condition. whose protagonist Jo reads it at the outset of the novel. The book is briefly referenced in the David Foster Wallace novel Infinite Jest. in fanzines and as a monograph. Lewis' own journey from a religious childhood to a pagan adulthood in which he rediscovers his Christian God. it has been repeatedly reprinted over the decades since its first appearance in 1954: in professional publications. the Celestial City Christian seeks and the Blazing World may in fact be one and the same. The apparent implication is that. Sarah Orne Jewett's novel The Country of the Pointed Firs describes the progressing of carriages towards a family reunion as a "Pilgrim's Progress". and often made Christian allusions to sacrifice and redemption in a world of social injustice. the quintessential English soldier during World War I. S. The Enchanted Duplicator by Walt Willis and Bob Shaw. a less friendly version of The Owner in Pilgrim's Regress. Steinbeck's novel was itself an allegorical spiritual journey by Tom Joad through America during the Great Depression. when it is compared to the Eschaton vademecum that is written by Hal Incandenza. John Steinbeck's novel The Grapes of Wrath mentions The Pilgrim's Progress as one of an (anonymous) character's favorite books. Enid Blyton wrote The Land of Far Beyond as a children's version of Pilgrim's Progress.

In 2008. In 1979. in which Liam Neeson played the role of the Pilgrim [49] and other smaller roles like the crucified Christ. Saman.[50] and Peter Thomas played Worldly Wiseman. edited by James Wharey and Roger Sharrock.Pilgrim's Progress: Journey to Heaven. television.. edited with an introduction by Roger Sharrock. but the 1978 has been released on both VHS and DVD. British music band Kula Shaker released an album called Pilgrim's Progress on June 28. after the cinematic. the adaptation Pilgrim's Progress: Journey to Heaven received one nomination for best feature length independent film and one nomination for best music score. In 1993. you bend your ear to the Worldly Wiseman. thy name is Pliable. Adventures in Odyssey (produced by Focus on the Family). The novel is frequently alluded to in the video game Deus Ex: Invisible War. ISBN 0-14-043004-0 • Pocket Books. was only released for the PC. Henry Altemus. a significant character. Owens. Oxford. Philadelphia. was produced. to continue the archaic analogy. another 8 hour audio dramatization. In 1985 Yorkshire Television produced a 129-minute 9-part serial presentation of The Pilgrim's Progress with animated stills by Alan Parry and narrated by Paul Copley entitled Dangerous Journey. video games. taken from both the novel and Proverbs 21:16 .". in 1912. This production was followed several years later by Christiana: Pilgrim's Progress Part II. OrionsGate. Samples and more information may be found at http:/ / www. and music The novel was made into a film. 1987. another film version was made by Ken Anderson. Maurice O'Callaghan played the Evangelist. If the player makes the choice to side with the Templar faction at the end of the game. Editions • James Clarke & Co Ltd. directed and narrated by Scott Cawthon. 1960. Orion's Gate. a version by Danny Carrales. 509. London. 2010. 1965. org. 1891 . ISBN 0-7188-2164-5 • Oxford at the Clarendon Press. 511 and 513 Cherry Street. Director Todd Fietkau is making a version of Pilgrim's Progress. a producer of Biblical/Spiritual audio dramas produced The Pilgrim's Progress as a 6 hour audio dramatization. 1957 • Altemus Edition. "Young enemy.R.[52] A 2006 computer animation version was made. the popular Christian radio drama. Pilgrim's Progress. At the 2009 San Antonio Independent Christian Film Festival. featured a two-part story. 507. The family film The Wylds was inspired by The Pilgrim's Progress. providing a critical edition of all 13 editions of both parts from the author's lifetime. This version was edited down to 35 minutes and re-released with new music in 1978. the player's actions towards the Templar faction are not entirely unlike the struggle of Christian throughout the Pilgrim's Progress.. the quote appears. New York. 2003. utilizes its allegories to create purpose in his speech. titled "Pilgrim's Progress: Revisited. In 1989. ISBN 0-19-811802-3 • Oxford World's Classics edition. [47] In 1950 an hour-long animated version was made by Baptista Films.The Pilgrim's Progress 84 The Pilgrim's Progress in films. As of 2007 the original version is difficult to find."He that wandereth out of the way of understanding." In 2003 the game Heaven Bound was released by Emerald Studios.[48] English band Procol Harum released a song titled "Pilgrim's Progress" on their album A Salty Dog in 1969. ISBN 978-0-19-280361-0 • Penguin Books. edited by W. based on the novel. shall remain in the congregation of the dead. The 3D adventure-style game." Curiously. [51] A sequel Christiana followed later.

L.as retold by James Pappas.. James Blanton Wharey and Roger Sharrock. the most influential religious book ever written in the English language" (Alexander M.. John Bunyan's Dream Story. John Bunyan: His Life. xxi].. [a newly illustrated edition of the retelling by Mary Godolphin] • The New Amplified Pilgrim's Progress (both book and dramatized audio) . 10. this date would customarily indicate the time of publication. Cross. 1939. revised edition 1928) [4] John Bunyan. Ltd. 1913. the book has never been out of print. [3] John Brown. 1993. Oxford World's Classics.. (Harmondsworth: Penguins Books. 326-27. Moore http://www. Owens. • John Bunyan's Dream Story: the Pilgrim's Progress retold for children and adapted to school reading by James Baldwin. Thomas (ISBN : [53]) .3. The story taken from the work by John Bunyan. 1993.. • Little Pilgrim's Progress-Helen L. 1869. ed.pilgrimstory. Illinois. Large samples of the text are available at http://www. 59. or only slightly precede it" [John Bunyan. (New York: Pocket Books. 221. 2003). Familiar Talks on English Literature: A Manual (Chicago.R. Eerdmans Publishing Company. Edited by Jesse Lyman Hurlbut. 1960). Philadelphia: The John C.com (c)2011 # ISBN 1461032717 # ISBN 978-1461032717 150 pages.. Oxford World's Classics.Dry Ice Publishing. cf. Inc.C.. • "The Land of Far-Beyond" by Enid Blyton. "For two hundred years or more no other English book was so generally known and read" (James Baldwin in his foreword.R. also John Bunyan. W. Philadelphia: J. The Pilgrim's Progress. Times and Work.. 1965).com/title/tt1000768/ • The Pilgrim's Progress by John Bunyan Every Child Can Read. The Pilgrim's Progress." Cf. 1909. The Pilgrim's Progress. 18 February 1678. Abby Sage Richardson. 1092 sub loco. Thomas Nelson. James Baldwin. Retellings • "The Aussie Pilgrim's Progress" by Kel Richards. Methuen.as retold by James H. Drawings by Robert Lawson. and has been translated into over two hundred languages. 1957). 1983). 1866. Second Edition. 2006 • "The Pilgrim's Progress" A graphic novel by Stephen T. 2005. • The Pilgrim's Progress .B.orionsgate. 1992. Schmidt & illustrated by Barry Moser Published by William B.Moody Publishers. ed. (1885. Lippincott Co. 1942. a ministry of Moody Bible Institute. Published by Orion's Gate (1999). The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. 375. while keeping the story line intact. [6] 2 Peter 1:19: "a lamp shining in a dark place" [7] Go to section 1. A. [2] John Bunyan. eds. without doubt. Chicago. 1971.. also F..imdb.A 21st Century Re-telling of the John Bunyan Classic . (Oxford: Clarendon Press. ed.1 Mr. 6). vi.. Ballarat: Strand Publishing. • John Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress as retold by Gary D. 2003). The book was licensed and entered in the Term Catalogue for the following Hilary Term. New York: Sheldon and Company. John Bunyan. The Pilgrim's Progress. A slightly expanded and highly dramatized version of John Bunyan's original. New York: American Book Co. • Pilgrim's Progress (graphic novel by Marvel Comics). (Oxford: Oxford University Press. London: George Routledge and Sons. McClurg and Co. [5] "The copy for the first edition of the First Part of The Pilgrim's Progress was entered in the Stationers' Register on 22 December 1677 . Sagacity leaves the author .. 1913).org • "Quest for Celestia: A Reimagining of The Pilgrim's Progress" by Steven James. (New York: American Book Company. Owens. Inc. 1892). (Oxford: Oxford University Press. Notes [1] "The two parts of The Pilgrim's Progress in reality constitute a whole. and the whole is.2. Copyright 1994. Grand Rapids. • Pilgrim's Progress in Today's English . xiii: ". Winston Co.. 94. • The Pilgrim's Progress in Words of One Syllable by Mary Godolphin..The Pilgrim's Progress 85 Abridged editions • The Children's Pilgrim's Progress.. Taylor simplifies the vocabulary and concepts for younger readers. The Pilgrim's Progress. Published by Moody Press. Witherspoon in his introduction. edited with an introduction by Roger Sharrock. (Oxford: Oxford University Press. Michigan. • Pilgrim's Progress retold and shortened for modern readers by Mary Godolphin (1884). 2008 directed by Danny Carrales http://www.. xiii. It has been published in innumerable editions. W.

a short Latin verse. Oxford World's Classics (Oxford: University Press. vol. W. ccel. . (Oxford: University Press. html?term=Bunyan. WW Norton: 2001. Works..R. The Pilgrim's Progress. [25] Vera Brittain. [27] John Bunyan.. 299. John) [43] Brontë. 6. 262-264. ed. London: The Novel. 2003). The Pilgrim's Progress. 1997). Owens. [10] "the whole armour (panoply) of God" [11] "the whole armour (panoply) of God" [12] John Bunyan. 1970) [31] John Bunyan. [28] A. htm [36] John Bunyan. The Pilgrim's Progress.J. The Pilgrim's Progress. (London: Rich & Cowan. org/ Spurgeon. amazon. 318: "See Misc. com/ bhess/ christian_film_history. 2003). W. W. 2 sub loco. (Oxford: University Press.. 375. 258-59. Owens. (London: Batsford. Foster. Inc. W. 20.". org/ mysticalmovieguide/ mmlist. Bunyan's Country: Studies in the Topography of Pilgrim's Progress. Hadfield.. Virtue. Charlotte. W. W. 1985). [22] A. Owens. Dunn. The Pilgrim's Progress. [40] John Bunyan. 44.. astralresearch. ed. 1996." [41] Jonathan D. 2003). Owens.R.R. (Oxford: University Press. 1952) [35] http:/ / www. Charlotte. Jane Eyre. God's Chinese Son. astralresearch. p. cf. The Pilgrim's Progress. 37. com/ dp/ 080246520X/ 978-0802465207 86 . ed. ed. ed. seegod. (London: H. 1949) [26] John Bunyan. Ampthill in old picture postcards. [39] John Bunyan.. ed. ed. The Pilgrim's Progress. 236.uk/Jbrittain. Owens. (Oxford: University Press. xiii. Owens. Spence. p. Owens. 2003). and a poem explaining the allegory. pl?exact=Pilgrim:27s%20Progress& year=1979& findwhere=allsyn& index=1 [52] Heaven Bound Game for PC (http:/ / www. ed. Rutherfurd. 2003). p. org/ mysticalmovieguide/ mmlist. 2003).. (London: Methuen & Co. W. 1910). [34] H. Richard J. cf. Oxford University Press: 2008. (Zaltbommel. ed. ed. W. [24] John Bunyan.R. html#_ftn2) [49] http:/ / www. The Pilgrim's Progress. Charlotte. W. South and O. Owens. Sharrock. Dunn. Oxford World's Classics (Oxford: University Press.. (Oxford: University Press. Villette. 501 [47] http:/ / www. 385. and consisted of an allegorical picture at the top with underneath it a device or motto. Ampthill Towers. W. 1911) [14] Vera Brittain. 1989). The Pilgrim's Progress. A Book for Boys and Girls (1688) . The Pilgrim's Progress. 119. (London: Rich & Cowan. [32] E. [45] Brontë.co. (Zaltbommel. Netherlands: European Library. Owens. 491-503. 107. The Pilgrim's Progress.R. [46] Beaty. [21] John Bunyan. Netherlands: European Library. 2003). [13] Albert J. com/ 2008/ 07/ heaven-bound. 2003). ceganmo. [30] J. The Pilgrim's Progress..R. Bunyan himself wrote an emblem book. ed. Morton. [44] Brontë. avgeeks. W. 1989) [23] E. (Oxford: University Press.spartacus. (London: Michael Joseph. 147. imdb. Oxford World's Classics (Oxford: University Press.R..R. html#_ftn2) [53] http:/ / www. Ed. (Oxford: University Press.R. The Shell Guide to England. [33] John Bunyan.. org/ mysticalmovieguide/ mmlist. Owens. 85-86. 17 [16] John Bunyan.The Pilgrim's Progress [8] A marginal note indicates. "There is no deliverance from the guilt and burden of sin. [17] See article on John Bunyan [18] John Bunyan. WW Norton: 2001. [19] John Bunyan. 2003). Shirley. In the Steps of John Bunyan. Owens. org/ ccel/ schaff/ encyc02. "St. [20] A. (Oxford: University Press. The Pilgrim's Progress. [37] John Bunyan.R. (Oxford: University Press. Richard J. ed. Owens. [9] "Many of the pictures in the House of the Interpreter seem to be derived from emblem books or to be created in the manner and spirit of the emblem. 86. vi. p. 2003).htm] [15] John Bunyan. Foster. W. W. [38] Revelation 17:1-18.. pl?exact=Pilgrim:27s%20Progress& year=1979& findwhere=allsyn& index=1 [50] http:/ / www. John's Way and the Wayward Reader". Underwood. Ed. Owens. (London: Thomas Nelson. 41-42. (New York: Crown Publishers. Jerome. 45. 2003). Oxford World's Classics (Oxford: University Press.R. Oxford University Press: 2008. Owens. 2003). In Search of London. 105.V. 1949)[http/::www. Usually each emblem occupied a page.. 2003).R. (New York: Pocket Books. Ed. ed. but by the death and blood of Christ". 1957). Owens. Ampthill in Old Picture Cards. 301. Underwood. p..R. Jane Eyre. The Pilgrim's Progress. 66. ed. p. Prospect of Cambridge. (Oxford: University Press. 421-504. 48.. com/ title/ tt0234464/ [48] A Brief History of Christian Films: 1918-2002 (http:/ / www.. (http:/ / www.schoolnet.. Brontë. W.. page 59..R. 280-282 [42] New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia. W. Cook. astralresearch. The Pilgrim's Progress. [29] John Bunyan... 2003). Charlotte. ed. In the Steps of John Bunyan. Sharrock. Tim Dolin. The Pilgrim's Progress. 2003). pl?exact=Pilgrim:27s%20Progress& year=1979& findwhere=allsyn& index=1 [51] http:/ / www. (Oxford: University Press.R.

htm) Bunyan Ministries.org/browse/ sermonsinseries.org/b/bunyan) at the Christian Classics Ethereal Library.ca/~dgay/Bunyan.Bunyan/) Anthology of English Literature (http://www.uk/ moothall) International John Bunyan Society (http://www.html) Bunyan Meeting Church Bedford (http://www.bedfordmuseum. Complete works online (http://www.php) Glimpses of Christian History (http://www.johnbunyan.html) (condensed and illustrated) Pilgrim's Progress (http://librivox.org/issue4/michael_schmidt/job.com/bunyanjohn.pair.org/johnbunyan/) Online Bunyan Archive.org/commentary_pp.verselink.John.bedfordmuseum.shtml) Books by Bunyan (http://swordbooks.ualberta.org/GLIMPSEF/Glimpses/glmps086.wholesomewords.gov.aspx) Sword of the Lord Publishers A Little Pretty Pocket-Book .org/topics/stories.org/eightlit/bunyan/bunyanbio.sermonsfortoday.org/biography/bbunyan.php?series=Series on Bunyan's Characters) Commentary on Pilgrim's Progress (http://www.htm) John Bunyan Museum Bedford (http://www. Acacia John Bunyan Online Library (http://acacia.luminarium.bunyanministries.org/johnbunyanmuseum/church.ccel.htm) International Literary Quarterly (http://www.gutenberg.org) John Bunyan Online (http://www.htm) (PDF format) Biography of Bunyan (http://www.org) Large Bunyan Resource site Works by John Bunyan (http://www.The Pilgrim's Progress 87 External links • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Pilgrim's Progress (actual text) Pilgrim's Progress (http://www.org/johnbunyanmuseum/bunyan_home.htm) Moot Hall Elstow – Museum specialising in 17th C life and John Bunyan (http://www.org/the-pilgrims-progress-by-john-bunyan/) (audio version) Audio studies on the characters in Pilgrim's Progress (http://www.bunyanministries.arts.com/Acacia.chinstitute.mountzion.org (http://www.bedford.org/author/John_Bunyan) at Project Gutenberg Writings of Bunyan (http://www.interlitq.

nra-rounders.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=rbc3&fileName=rbc0001_2003juv05880page. which involves hitting a small hard leather cased ball with a round wooden or metal bat and then running around 4 bases in order to score" [2] .history.History of the Game (http:/ / web. uk/ dyncat. org/ web/ 20071112065508/ http:/ / www. db) at the Library of Congress • Article (http://www.cfm) from History. intended for the Amusement of Little Master Tommy and Pretty Miss Polly with Two Letters from Jack the Giant Killer is the title of a 1744 children's book by British publisher John Newbery. The book was very popular. showing the first reference to baseball References [1] Lloyd.[1] The book was very popular in England. J & Mitchinson. depending on which gender the child is. the book came with either a ball or a pincushion. cfm?catid=17177) in an Archive. It is a striking and fielding team game. A woodcut from A Pretty Little Pocketbook. Faber & Faber." This is the first known instance of the word baseball in print. (1744) England. [2] National Rounders Association . and earned Newbery much fame.[1] Of Baseball's English origin.org snapshot from 2007 External links • Digital edition (http://lcweb2.A Little Pretty Pocket-Book 88 A Little Pretty Pocket-Book. It is generally considered the first children's book. archive.org/history/teaching/enewsletter/volume2/june04/pocketbook. J: "The Book of General Ignorance". 2006. To market the book to the children of the day.loc. "The game of Rounders has been played in England since Tudor Times.org . with the earliest reference being in 1744 in "A Little Pretty Pocketbook" where it is called Baseball. Eventually the Newbery Medal was named after him. and was then later published in Colonial America in 1762. and consists of simple rhymes for each of the letters of the alphabet. The book includes a woodcut of stoolball and a rhyme entitled "Base-Ball. co.

and only a small Hole to creep out at.The Governess.[1] and a significant work of children's literature of the 18th century. says the Jack-Daw.—Certainly. I thought that was the way to begin. being without Houses. Before you begin the following Sheets. I knew that must . and not to be apt to fansy yourselves too wise to be taught. One Thing quite necessary to make any Instructions that come either from your Governors. had the Art of building a Nest. or The Little Female Academy (published 1749) by Sarah Fielding is the first full-length novel written for children. the Form of which was with a covering over Head. Sherwood's 1820 revised edition of The Governess. the author says: My young Readers. "You must lay two Sticks across.—The Pye then says. and you will be like the Birds in the following Fable: "The Mag-pye alone.—The rest of the Birds. that the true Use of Books is to make you wiser and better.[2] Title page from the first edition of Fielding's The Governess In her preface. and if you can once fix this Truth in your Minds. Moss. of any Use to you.—A Day is appointed. namely. is to attend with Desire of Learning. thus.—Then lay a Feather. For this Spirit will keep you ignorant as long as you live. or The Little Female Academy The Governess."—"Aye. says the Crow. desired the Pye to teach them how to build one. or a Bit of Frontispiece to Mrs. and they all meet. or The Little Female Academy 89 The Governess. or your Books. to consider with me. of all the Birds. what is the true Use of Reading. you will then have both Profit and Pleasure from what you read. I beg you will stop a Moment at this Preface.

and therefore. Straws. to keep himself in his beloved Darkness. you do not. 375 pages. Oxford and New York. • Wilner. Bibliography • Bree. The Governess or. 1749. Deborah. Oxford University Press. H.—Aye. fit yourselves down contented to be ignorant. The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature. Children's Literature Association Quarterly 19. Judith. • Bundan. by a fansied Humility.gutenberg. Sarah.. Peterborough: Broadview Editions. or. "Education and Ideology in Sarah Fielding's The Governess. or The Little Female Academy follow. 90 The Reason these foolish Birds never knew how to build more than half a Nest. that must necessarily follow. who had rather please themselves with the Vanity of fansying they are already wise. Oxford University Press. they would boast of knowing more already than he could teach them: And this same Fate will certainly attend all those.—Then place more Sticks. was." . 1996. and M.1 (1994): 8-14. Studies in Eighteenth-Century Culture 24 (1995): 307-27. Boston: Twayne. The Little Female Academy. 1968. Women's Writing 1. without doubt. "The Little Female Academy and The Governess". and say that you are incapable of understanding it at all.1 (1985): 30-33. than take Pains to become so. that instead of trying to learn what the Pye told them. or The Little Female Academy (http://www. Feathers and Moss. The Governess. London. [2] Carpenter. But take care. for Laziness. and therefore often makes Use of the Power he has. any one could tell how to do that. cries the Starling. by confessing your Ignorance. of drawing a Film over his Eyes. 2005.3 (1994): 325-39. This is being as contemptible as the Owl who hates the Light of the Sun. and think. • Suzuki. External links • The Governess. Arlene Fish. • Fielding. • Downs-Miers. Mika. and sooner than take any Pains. "Girls Must Be Seen and Heard: Domestic Surveillance in Sarah Fielding's The Governess". run into an Error of the other Extreme. Ed.org/browse/authors/f#a747) at Project Gutenberg . ISBN 1551114127. The Little Female Academy. Grey). Notes [1] Fielding.. Children's Literature Association Quarterly 10. Linda. in such a manner as this. Sarah Fielding. to make full Amends for your Folly. 1984. that instead of being really humble in your own Hearts. Candace Ward. "For Betty and the Little Female Academy: A Book of Their Own". Sarah (with an introduction and bibliography by Jill E.The Governess. Prichard.

to name a few of the most illustrious. However. Lessons itself was reprinted for over a century. part I (1778). it has only been analyzed in depth since the 1990s.[2] After its initial publication. Published in 1778 and 1779. Jane Taylor. . explores his relationship to nature. largely due to the low esteem awarded Barbauld. Lessons for Children of three. In perhaps the first demonstration of experiential pedagogy in Anglo-American children's Title page for an 1801 edition of Lessons for Children. Barbauld's Lessons has rarely been studied by scholars. in this she was part of a tradition of female writing that emphasized the interconnectedness of society. were inspired to become children's authors because of Lessons and their works dominated children's literature for several generations. to animals. Lessons had a significant effect on the development of children's literature in Britain and the United States. children's literature scholar Mitzi Myers has reconstructed the probable publication dates from Barbauld's letters and the books' earliest reviews as follows: Lessons for Children of two to three (1778). For the first time. to people. In fact. her nephew Charles. structure. Publication. Charles. as the events correlate with his age and growth. which depicts a mother and her son discussing the natural world. and pedagogical theory Publication and structure Lessons depicts a mother teaching her son.[1] Although there are no surviving first edition copies of the works. Presumably. Lessons for Children of three. the books initiated a revolution in children's literature in the Anglo-American world. and Lessons for Children of three to four (1779). and finally to God. Based on the educational theories of John Locke. the hero of the texts.Lessons for Children 91 Lessons for Children Lessons for Children is a series of four age-adapted reading primers written by the prominent 18th-century British poet and essayist Anna Laetitia Barbauld. part II (1778). and Ellenor Fenn. One of the primary morals of Barbauld's lessons is that individuals are part of a community. part I literature. Barbauld's books emphasize learning through the senses. Maria Edgeworth. many of the events were inspired by Barbauld's experiences of teaching her own adopted son. the series was often published as a single volume. Barbauld's books use a conversational style. because of the disrepute that educational writings fell into. the needs of the child reader were seriously considered: the typographically simple texts progress in difficulty as the child learns. and others by contemporary male Romantic writers. Sarah Trimmer. Trimmer.

and wrapt in shades Forgets his wonted journey thro' the east. and there are some white snow-drops peeking up their little heads. piecemeal before introducing her first story": the narrator explains the idea of "sequentiality" to Charles. for I am not so bright as to dazzle your eyes. before ever telling him a story. I let even the little glow-worms shine. and beholds a stranger there Of high descent. poor little tired boy."[8] A page from Barbauld's Lessons for Children.[10] The fourth volume in particular fosters poetic thinking and as McCarthy points out. the first part for children of three (1779 Dublin edition). I am very beautiful and white like silver. she was more than likely the "originator" of this practice. You may look at me always. as well as the use of good-quality paper and large spaces between words. I am mild and gentle. The stars shine all round me. and I never scorch you. and Charles's frock is white. Paper is white. part 2.[6] The first part of Lessons includes simple statements such as: "Ink is black. Sarah Trimmer noted these innovations. I shine to give you light in the night when the sun is set. And wooes him to be wise. nor wooes in vain: This dead of midnight is the noon of thought. and more than mortal rank. and I look like a large pearl amongst a great many small sparkling diamonds. but I am larger and brighter than the stars. therefore Barbauld's books helped to create a distinct aesthetic for the middle-class children's book. When you are asleep I shine through your curtains with my gentle beams. beginning with words of one syllable and progressing to multi-syllabic words. demonstrating wide spacing and large type Barbauld also "departs from previous reading primers by introducing elements of story.[4] While making reading easier. "A Summer Evening's Meditation" A tongue in every star that talks with man. and implicitly to the reader. Pedagogical theory Barbauld's Lessons emphasizes the value of all kinds of language and literacy. and the mezereon tree is in blossom.[3] In her history of children's literature in The Guardian of Education (1802–1806). (Fair transitory creature of a day!) Has clos'd his golden eye. and "almost certainly [its] popularizer"."[7] The second part increases in difficulty: "February is very cold too. but the days are longer. I will not disturb you. which are quite dark by day. and there is a yellow crocus coming up. according to Barbauld scholar William McCarthy. At this still hours the self-collected soul Turns inward. when the sun.[5] Barbauld's texts were designed for the developing reader. not only do readers learn how to read but they also acquire the ability to understand metaphors and analogies. or narrative. (lines [13] 49–60) . [12] and I say Sleep on. and papa's shoes are black. And wisdom mounts her zenith with the stars. its passages on the moon mimic Barbauld's poem "A Summer Evening's Meditation":[11] Lessons for Children The Moon says My name is Moon. a spark of fire divine. so that children could easily read them. these production changes also made the books too expensive for the children of the poor. the days of the week are explained before Charles's trip to France. Which must burn on for ages.Lessons for Children 92 Barbauld demanded that her books be printed in large type with wide margins.[9] For example. An embryo GOD.

a conversational style that emphasized linguistic communication. Barbauld and the women writers she influenced produced the first graded texts and the first body of literature designed for an age-specific readership. and different minerals by bringing him to them rather than simply describing them and having him recite those descriptions. the calendar.. educational theorists and practitioners were thinking in terms of developmental psychology. which he had outlined in Some Thoughts. Through these activities. a primer popular for decades and the source for the New England Primer.[16] He also inquires about all of them. the mother teaches Charles about the world around him and he explores it. Benjamin Harris's Protestant Tutor. The typographical layout of Barbauld's predecessors contrasts with her wide margins and large letters in Lessons for Children. geography. [and] astronomy".[14] Lessons starts out monopolized by the mother's voice but slowly. which did not encourage experiential learning. the money system. political economy. which typically employed rote learning and memorization.[10] This style was an implicit critique of late 18th-century pedagogy. the times of the day. geology. numbers.[19] . meteorology. too. Barbauld's Lessons also illustrates mother and child engaging in quotidian activities and taking nature walks.[15] The mother shows Charles the seasons. As a result. Charles learns the principles of "botany. zoology. This. over the course of the volumes.[17] Building on Locke's theory of the association of ideas. Barbauld's pedagogy was fundamentally based on John Locke's Some Thoughts Concerning Education (1693).[18] For the first time. Charles's voice is increasingly heard as he gains confidence in his own ability to read and speak. making the learning process dynamic. philosopher David Hartley had developed an associationist psychology that greatly influenced writers such as Barbauld (who had read Joseph Priestley's redaction of it). was a challenge to the pedagogical orthodoxy of the day.. the most influential pedagogical treatise in 18th-century Britain.Lessons for Children 93 Barbauld also developed a particular style that would dominate British and American children's literature for a generation: an "informal dialogue between parent and child". agriculture. change of state in chemistry .

As McCarthy puts it. Then that is the reason why you are better than Puss—because you can talk and read. to make the claim that it is secular.[20] One of the series' overall aims is to demonstrate that Charles is superior to the animals he encounters—because he can speak and reason. she describes "a fondly sentimentalized state of childishness rooted in material and emotional dependency on adults" and she argues that the "new good child seldom made important. and the conviction that by so doing he will be led to contemplate the traditional God". inculcates an ethics. which were both written for Charles. physically represented by Charles' slow movement from his mother's lap in the opening scene of first book. Barbauld's Lessons is not. In short.[27] Anna Laetitia Barbauld (1743–1825) . In what Mary Jackson has called the "new child" of the 18th century.[22] Charles learns to care for his fellow human beings through his exposure to animals.[21] Andrew O'Malley writes in his survey of 18th-century children's literature. and Puss can drink milk. Harvey Darton. "it also initiates the child [reader] into the elements of society's symbol-systems and conceptual structures. Can Puss read? No. real decisions without parental approval . and appropriate sensibility. "every human being needs other human beings in order to live. refined virtue. it does not emphasize the solitary self or the individual. they "have the same ideal. such as Sarah Robbins. J. which you cannot do. to his detachment from her side in the final book. But can Puss talk? No. and she can run as fast as you. is a progression from restraint to liberation. Romantic in the traditional sense. in this interpretation.[25] One important theme in Lessons is restriction of the child. particularly in contrast to Hymns. therefore.."[26] Other scholars. and encourages him to develop a certain kind of sensibility". he is better than they are.[23] Lessons was probably meant to be paired with Barbauld's Hymns in Prose for Children (1781). to a stool next to her in the opening of the subsequent volume. in another wholly rejected by him: the belief that a child should steadily contemplate Nature. As F.. part 2 begins: Do you know why you are better than Puss? Puss can play as well as you. a theme which has been interpreted both positively and negatively by critics. and lie upon the carpet. the new good child was a paragon of dutiful submissiveness.Lessons for Children 94 Themes Further information: Rousseau on Education Lessons not only teaches literacy. "from helping poor animals [Charles] eventually makes a seamless transition to performing small acts of charity for the poor children he encounters". explains.[24] However. and faster too. Lessons for Children. and she can catch mice. a great deal. some modern scholars have pointed to the lack of overt religious references in Lessons. have maintained that Barbauld presents images of constraint only in order to offer images of liberation later in the series: education for Barbauld. of Three Years Old. Humans are communal entities". an early scholar of children's literature. in one aspect held by Rousseau. and she can climb trees better.

the famous 18th-century novelist Frances Burney described her and her books: Maria Edgeworth. to the great information as well as utility of parents. But many more have written those as well. the most famous of which is "Twinkle. but it grew too long and was published separately. Evenings at Home. As Betsy Rodgers. Little Star".[36] . including the bestselling Cobwebs to Catch Flies (1784). Trimmer's. After meeting Barbauld. Sarah Trimmer and Hannah More were galvanized to write for poor children and to organize a large-scale Sunday School movement. not only did they influence the poetry of William Wordsworth and William Blake. Richard Lovell Edgeworth began one of the first systematic studies of childhood development which would culminate not only in an educational treatise co-authored with Maria Edgeworth entitled Practical Education (1798). had an unprecedented impact. because of Barbauld.[4] Ann and Jane Taylor began writing children's poetry. though this for the world is probably her very secondary merit. and particularly songs. pirated. Hymns in Prose for Children.Lessons for Children 95 Reception and legacy Lessons for Children and Barbauld's other popular children's book. ages eight to twelve. Barbauld and her brother. that have been yet written for dear little children.[28] they were also used to teach several generations of schoolchildren both in Britain and the United States. wrote a second series of books.. but also in a large body of children's stories by Maria. her many pretty poems. Thomas Day originally began his important The History of Sandford and Merton (1783–89) for Edgeworth's collection.[33] In fact.[30] Poet Elizabeth Barrett Browning could still recite the beginning of Lessons at age thirty-nine. Twinkle. beginning with The Parent's Assistant (1798).[32] Barbauld herself believed that her writing was noble and she encouraged others to follow in her footsteps. Ellenor Fenn wrote and designed a series of readers and games for middle-class children. her biographer. particularly the notion of the mother as the educator of the nation. which has since been so well cultivated. Lessons was reprinted. translated. it helped found a female tradition of educational writing. next to Mrs. particularly Blake's Songs of Innocence and Experience (1789–94). Barbauld's texts were used to perpetuate the ideal of Republican motherhood in 19th-century America.[31] Writers of all stamps immediately recognized the revolutionary nature of Barbauld's books. according to Myers. explains: "she gave prestige to the writing of juvenile literature.[34] In the second half of the 1790s. she inspired others to write on a similar high standard". the physician John Aikin. aimed at more advanced readers. and not a few better. the authoress of the most useful books. one of the most important children's writers to benefit from Barbauld's innovations .[35] While not as influential.. these were also popular and remained in print for decades. being generally esteemed. and imitated up until the 20th century.[29] British children's author and critic Charlotte Yonge wrote in 1869 that the books had taught "three-quarters of the gentry of the last three generations" to read. for children's books she began the new walk. and by not lowering her standard of writing for children.

those Blights & Blasts of all that is Human in man & child. I mean the cursed Barbauld Crew.[41] As Myers points out. The most damning and lasting criticism. for example. for you can speak. and that is a dog.. has been hailed as an educational innovator. while all the time he suspected himself to be no bigger than a child. usually deplored for their pernicious effect on the emergent cultural construction of Romantic childhood.[42] and Barbauld's children's works are usually consigned to "the backwaters of children's literature surveys. that a Horse is an animal.'[38] Barbauld had published a successful book of poetry in 1773 which Johnson greatly admired. it seems. Trimmer's nonsense lay in piles about. see there! you are much better than a cat or a dog. and literature that have long since been institutionalized in historical account and classroom practice: the privileging of an imaginative canon and its separation from all the cultural knowledge that had previously been thought of as literature. if instead of being fed with Tales and old wives fables in childhood. and chronicle small beer. he viewed her switch to children's literature as a descent.' She tells the children 'This is a cat. Barbauld has most often been described through the unsympathetic words of her detractors.―: Is there no possibility of averting this sore evil? Think what you would have been now. [emphasis Lamb's][39] This quote was used by writers and scholars to condemn Barbauld and other educational writers for a century. relegated to the lower levels. indeed. the binary opposition of scientific. even the two-tiered structure of most modern English departments.[42] The male Romantics did not Title page from Sarah Trimmer's An Easy Introduction to the Knowledge of Nature (1780). so that all her employment now is.. or in the margins of commentary on male high Romanticism. [Barbauld] was an instance of early cultivation. & billy is better than a Horse. The politician Charles James Fox and the writer and critic Samuel Johnson ridiculed Barbauld's children's books and believed that she was wasting her poetic talents. 'To suckle fools. & such like: instead of that beautiful Interest which made the child a man. a minor inspiration for Blake or Wordsworth perhaps". and too little performed.Lessons for Children 96 While Day. taught most often by women and the untenured. Science has succeeded to Poetry no less in the little walks of Children than with Men. teaching.[37] In his Life of Johnson (1791). As Myers argues: [Lamb] expresses in embryonic form ways of thinking about children. you had been crammed with Geography & Natural History? Damn them. Knowledge insignificant & vapid as Mrs. Mrs. must come to a child in the shape of knowledge. Too much is expected from precocity. came from the Romantic essayist Charles Lamb in a letter to the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge: Mrs. B's books convey. however. James Boswell recorded Johnson's thoughts: Endeavouring to make children prematurely wise is useless labour . when he has learnt. with four legs and a tail. imaginative insights. "the writing woman as teacher has not captured the imagination of feminist scholars". but in what did it terminate? In marrying a little Presbyterian parson. empiricist ways of knowing and intuitive. who keeps an infant boarding-school.[40] It is only in the 1990s and 2000s that Barbauld and other female educational writers are beginning to be acknowledged in the history of children's literature and. which acknowledges Barbauld's influence in its [4] preface . in the history of literature itself... Barbauld['s] stuff has banished all the old classics of the nursery . B's and Mrs. & his empty noddle must be turned with conceit of his own powers. with male-dominated imaginative literature on the upper-deck and practical reading and writing instruction.

Anna Letitia Barbauld: Selected Poetry and Prose. [17] Pickering. 88. [32] Qtd. O'Malley. Lessons for Children. 129 and Robbins. see also. see also Richardson. [13] Barbauld. [5] Robbins. 270–71. Eds. [35] Richardson. Richardson. 139. 147. it is evening. 85–86. 12. [37] Rodgers. 258. 95. 137. [28] McCarthy. 93. 57. see also Jackson. 129–30. [10] Myers. 133. [22] O'Malley 57. 99. Robbins. 88–89. in Myers. [25] McCarthy. [31] McCarthy. [11] McCarthy. 85. [9] McCarthy. see also Robbins. [14] McCarthy. has noted the resonances between Lessons and T. Part I. of Three Years Old. [2] Myers. 57 and Pickering. 266–67. 146. their works embodied a "nostalgia for lost youth and [a] pervasive valorization of instinctive juvenile wisdom" not shared by many female writers at this time. 103. 146. [44] It is like a great black giant stalking after me . "Teaching Mothers". [4] Pickering.. 140–42. 4–6. See . "Teaching Mothers". Peterborough: Broadview Literary Texts (2002). 72. 282. 128. 261. 152. 17. Lessons for Children. "Teaching Mothers". 270–71. [30] Pickering. [12] Barbauld. 71. 142. [27] Robbins. "Teaching Mothers". "Teaching Mothers". [15] Myers. McCarthy. Robbins. [6] O'Malley. (lines 53–54) [44] 97 Notes [1] McCarthy. n..[43] Serious scholarship is just beginning to investigate the complexities of Barbauld's Lessons. 100. [16] McCarthy. [21] Barbauld. 131. Eliot's The Wasteland that have yet to be explored: Lessons for Children Come. 261. [24] Darton. 97. [40] Myers. [20] McCarthy.Lessons for Children explore didactic genres that illustrated educational progress. in Myers. Second Part of Lessons for Children of Three Years Old. 266. 147. "Teachings Mothers". [29] Robbins. "A Summer Evening's Meditation". how tall my shadow is. in Myers. Anna Laetitia. 261. 164. [7] Barbauld. "Re-making Barbauld's Primers". The Wasteland (Come in under the shadow of this red rock). see also Myers. And I will show you something different from either Your shadow at morning striding behind you Or your shadow at evening rising to meet you. Lessons for Children from Three to Four Years Old. [8] Barbauld. Robbins. [18] Richardson. [36] Myers.. 128. 105–07. [33] Rodgers. 130. [23] McCarthy. Darton. see also Richardson. 158. 92. Jackson. as Myers explains. [34] Myers. [39] Qtd. O'Malley. 134–36. for example. 29–30. 140. William McCarthy and Elizabeth Kraft. "Teaching Mothers". 139. S. 260. 97. [38] Qtd. from Two to Three Years Old. [19] Myers. let us go home. [3] McCarthy. [26] Jackson. 264. .. 57. rather. 142.

86. Anna Laetitia. Eighteenth Century Collections Online. 3rd ed. • Robbins. Children's Literature Association Quarterly 21. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky (1999). Barbauld's Primer for the Textual Construction of Middle-Class Domestic Pedagogy". ISBN 0-87049-290-X. . 1994. ISBN 0-8032-7570-6. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. 1995. Eds. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. 266. Jackson. 1780–1832. Lessons for Children. Children's Books in England: Five Centuries of Social Life. Betsy. Georgian Chronicle: Mrs. London: Methuen. Jr. 1982. Anna Laetitia. F. 262.Lessons for Children [41] McCarthy. "Of Mice and Mothers: Mrs. Literature. [44] Qtd. Mitzi. 2003. and Romanticism: Reading as Social Practice. The Lion and the Unicorn 17. • Myers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Second Part of Lessons for Children of Three Years Old. 1981. • Barbauld. ISBN 0-521-60709-4. Education. Secondary sources • Darton. Behrendt. Princeton University Library Chronicle 60. [42] Myers. "A 'High-Minded Christian Lady': The Posthumous Reception of Anna Letitia Barbauld". 98 Bibliography Primary sources • Barbauld. of Three Years Old. New York: Routledge. London: Printed for J. William. John Locke and Children's Books in Eighteenth-Century England. 183–85. "Mother of All Discourses: Anna Barbauld's Lessons for Children". 1788. Johnson. • Richardson. • Jackson.. Eds. Harriet Kramer Linkin and Stephen C. • Robbins. ISBN 0-415-94299-3. Eighteenth Century Collections Online. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. London: Printed for J. Samuel F. ISBN 978-0-8229-5544-3 • O'Malley. Engines of Instruction.2 (Winter 1999): 196–219. Sarah. [43] Myers. from Two to Three Years Old. Barbauld and Her Family. • McCarthy. "Re-making Barbauld's Primers: A Case Study in the Americanization of British Literary Pedagogy". and Magic: Children's Literature in England from Its Beginnings to 1839. 1958. Louise Wetherbee Phelps and Janet Emig. Eighteenth Century Collections Online. 1779. Mischief. in McCarthy. Revised by Brian Alderson. 1779.4 (1996–97): 158–69. Johnson. Anna Laetitia. Dublin: Printed and sold by R. Alan. • Pickering. Romanticism and Women Poets: Opening the Doors of Reception. 1787. The Making of the Modern Child: Children's Literature and Childhood in the Late Eighteenth Century. Andrew. Barbauld's 'New Walk' and Gendered Codes in Children's Literature". William. Jackson. J. Lessons for Children. Feminine Principles and Women's Experience in American Composition and Rhetoric. 1993): 135–51. Anna Laetitia. • Rodgers. Eighteenth Century Collections Online. Mary V. Part I. Dublin: Printed and sold by R. • Barbauld. 1989.2 (Dec. Sarah "Lessons for Children and Teaching Mothers: Mrs. Lessons for Children from Three to Four Years Old. ISBN 0-521-24020-4. • Barbauld. Harvey. Knoxville: The University of Tennessee Press.

Cumming. .com/ books?id=jsMqAAAAYAAJ).uk/AnaServer?hockliffe+87209+hoccview. Lessons for children from three to four years old (http://books.Lessons for Children 99 External links • Lessons for Children (http://www.ac.dmu. Missing pages 1–10. J. Anna Letitia (1814).anv) at the Hockliffe Collection • Barbauld.google.cts.

The tale plays with logic.[2] [3] and its narrative course and structure have been enormously influential. giving the story lasting popularity with adults as well as children.[3] especially in the fantasy genre.100 19th Century Works Alice's Adventures in Wonderland Alice's Adventures in Wonderland Title page of the original edition (1865) Author(s) Illustrator Country Language Genre(s) Publisher Lewis Carroll John Tenniel United Kingdom English Fiction Macmillan Publication date 26 November 1865 Followed by Through the Looking-Glass Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (commonly shortened to Alice in Wonderland) is an 1865 novel written by English author Charles Lutwidge Dodgson under the pseudonym Lewis Carroll.[2] It is considered to be one of the best examples of the literary nonsense genre.[1] It tells of a girl named Alice who falls down a rabbit hole into a fantasy world (Wonderland) populated by peculiar. anthropomorphic creatures. .

Chapter 4 – The Rabbit Sends a Little Bill: The White Rabbit appears again in search of the Duchess's gloves and fan. After shrinking down again due to a fan she had picked up. She breaks off two pieces from the mushroom. The mouse gives them a very dry lecture on William the Conqueror. unwittingly. the caterpillar tells Alice that one side of the mushroom will make her taller and the other side will make her shorter. the contents of which cause her to shrink too small to reach the key which she has left on the table. Outside. which turn into little cakes. Chapter 2 – The Pool of Tears: Alice is unhappy and cries as her tears flood the hallway. after a perplexing conversation with the frog. the baby turns into a pig. One side makes her shrink smaller than ever. but through which she sees an attractive garden. clothed White Rabbit with a pocket watch run past. Chapter 5 – Advice from a Caterpillar: Alice comes upon a mushroom and sitting on it is a blue Caterpillar smoking a hookah. Alice eventually frightens all the animals away. The White Rabbit Chapter 3 – The Caucus Race and a Long Tale: The sea of tears becomes crowded with other animals and birds that have been swept away. The Duchess's Cook is throwing dishes and making a soup that has too much pepper. Mistaking her for his maidservant. where a pigeon mistakes her for a serpent. Before crawling away. The Cheshire Cat appears in a tree. who is swimming as well. Alice hears the voices of animals that have gathered to gawk at her giant arm. Mary Ann. Alice brings herself back to her usual height. and a sleeping Dormouse who remains asleep for most of the chapter. A Dodo decides that the best thing to dry them off would be a Caucus-Race. by talking about her cat. She finds a small key to a door too small for her to fit through. which causes Alice. He disappears but his grin remains behind to float on its own in the air prompting Alice to remark that she has often seen a cat without a grin but never a grin without a cat. Chapter 6 – Pig and Pepper: A Fish-Footman has an invitation for the Duchess of the house. The Cheshire Cat directing her to the March Hare's house. Chapter 7 – A Mad Tea-Party: Alice becomes a guest at a "mad" tea party along with the March Hare. She then discovers a bottle on a table labelled "DRINK ME". Alice eats them. The Caterpillar questions Alice and she admits to her current identity crisis. which consists of everyone running in a circle with no clear winner. when she notices a talking. compounded by her inability to remember a poem. Bill the Lizard. while another causes her neck to grow high into the trees. Alice is given the baby by the Duchess and to her surprise. Alice observes this transaction and. but once she gets inside she starts growing. and they reduce her again in size. The crowd hurls pebbles at her. to climb on the roof and go down the chimney. A cake with "EAT ME" on it causes her to grow to such a tremendous size her head hits the ceiling.Alice's Adventures in Wonderland 101 Synopsis Chapter 1 – Down the Rabbit Hole: Alice is feeling bored while sitting on the riverbank with her sister. the Duchess and her baby (but not the cook or her grinning Cheshire Cat) to sneeze violently. With some effort. She stumbles upon a small estate and uses the mushroom to reach a more appropriate height. The other characters give Alice many riddles . The horrified Rabbit orders his gardener. which he delivers to a Frog-Footman. She follows it down a rabbit hole when suddenly she falls a long way to a curious hall with many locked doors of all sizes. She tries to make small talk with him in elementary French (thinking he may be a French mouse) but her opening gambit "Ou est ma chatte?" offends the mouse. Alice swims through her own tears and meets a Mouse. Alice and the other animals convene on the bank and the question among them is how to get dry again. lets herself into the house. the Hatter. he orders Alice to go into the house and retrieve them.

During the proceedings. introduces her trademark phrase "Off with his head!" which she utters at the slightest dissatisfaction with a subject. The Hatter reveals that they have tea all day because Time has punished him by eternally standing still at 6 pm (tea time). witnesses at the trial include the Hatter. even though he has no sorrow. The dormouse scolds Alice and tells her she has no right to grow at such a rapid pace and take up all the air. citing Rule 42 ("All persons more than a mile high to leave the court"). Live flamingos are used as mallets and hedgehogs as balls and Alice once again meets the Cheshire Cat. The Queen of Hearts then orders the Cat to be beheaded. Alice then meets the King and Queen. The Queen of Hearts dismisses her on the threat of execution and she introduces Alice to the Gryphon. Chapter 9 – The Mock Turtle's Story: The Duchess is brought to the croquet ground at Alice's request. Alice finds that she is steadily growing larger. Chapter 11 – Who Stole the Tarts?: Alice attends a trial whereby the Knave of Hearts is accused of stealing the Queen's tarts. He tries to tell his story about how he used to be a real turtle in school. A procession of more cards. which The Gryphon interrupts so they can play a game. but Alice disputes their judgement and refuses to leave. She accidentally knocks over the jury box with the animals inside them and the King orders the animals be placed back into their seats before the trial continues. The Queen. Alice scoffs and calls the dormouse's accusation ridiculous because everyone grows and she can't help it. only to have her executioner complain that this is impossible since the head is all that can be seen of him. a figure difficult to please. including the famous 'Why is a raven like a writing desk?'. . The King and Queen order Alice to be gone. the White Rabbit is the court's trumpeter. just as they start to swarm over her. The Mock Turtle is very sad. Alice is invited (or some might say ordered) to play a game of croquet with the Queen and the rest of her subjects but the game quickly descends into chaos. and the judge is the King of Hearts.Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and stories. Alice's sister wakes her up for tea. The jury is composed of various animals. The Mock Turtle sings them "Beautiful Soup" during which the Gryphon drags Alice away for an impending trial. who takes her to the Mock Turtle. Meanwhile. Chapter 10 – Lobster Quadrille: The Mock Turtle and the Gryphon dance to the Lobster Quadrille. Chapter 8 – The Queen's Croquet Ground: Alice leaves the tea party and enters the garden where she comes upon three living playing cards painting the white roses on a rose tree red because the Queen of Hearts hates white roses. the Queen is prompted to release the Duchess from prison to resolve the matter. including Bill the Lizard. Because the cat belongs to the Duchess. 102 Alice trying to play croquet with a Flamingo. She ruminates on finding morals in everything around her. while Alice recites (rather incorrectly) "'Tis the Voice of the Lobster". calling them out as just a pack of cards. and the Duchess's cook. brushing what turns out to be some leaves and not a shower of playing cards from Alice's face. kings and queens and even the White Rabbit enters the garden. The Queen shouts her familiar "Off with her head!" but Alice is unafraid. who displeases and frustrates the King through his indirect answers to the questioning. Alice becomes insulted and tired of being bombarded with riddles and she leaves claiming that it was the stupidest tea party that she had ever been to. She argues with the King and Queen of Hearts over the ridiculous proceedings. eventually refusing to hold her tongue. Alice leaves her sister on the bank to imagine all the curious happenings for herself. Chapter 12 – Alice's Evidence: Alice is then called up as a witness.

[8] The Dormouse tells a story about three little sisters named Elsie. and the Eaglet to Edith Liddell (Alice Liddell's sisters). (1923) Character allusions In The Annotated Alice Martin Gardner provides background information for the characters. for one. wearing a paper hat. sketching. Stretching. This is a reference to the art critic John Ruskin. These are the Liddell sisters: Elsie is L. learn well.[4] Bill the Lizard may be a play on the name of British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli. The Duck refers to Canon Duckworth. who came once a week to the Liddell house to teach the children drawing. and painting in oils. and Lacie is an anagram of Alice. a furniture dealer known in Oxford for his unorthodox inventions. and Tillie. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Alice The White Rabbit The Mouse The Dodo The Lory The Eaglet The Duck Pat Bill the Lizard The Caterpillar The Duchess The Cheshire Cat The March Hare The Hatter The Dormouse The Queen of Hearts The Knave of Hearts The King of Hearts The Gryphon The Mock Turtle Jessie Willcox Smith's illustration of Alice surrounded by the characters of Wonderland. Tenniel apparently drew the Hatter to resemble Carter. (Lorina Charlotte). in fact.Alice's Adventures in Wonderland 103 Characters Further information: List of minor characters in the Alice series The following is a list of prominent characters in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. on a suggestion of Carroll's. who came once a week to teach "Drawling. and Fainting in Coils". he sometimes pronounced his last name as Dodo-Dodgson). Alice Liddell herself is there.[6] The illustrations of the Lion and the Unicorn also bear a striking resemblance to Tenniel's Punch illustrations of Gladstone and Disraeli.[9] The Mock Turtle speaks of a Drawling-master. "an old conger eel". while Carroll is caricatured as the Dodo (because Dodgson stuttered when he spoke.[5] One of Tenniel's illustrations in Through the Looking-Glass depicts the character referred to as the "Man in White Paper" (whom Alice meets as a fellow passenger riding on the train with her). Tillie is Edith (her family nickname is Matilda). Alice Liddell.[7] The Hatter is most likely a reference to Theophilus Carter. Lacie. The members of the boating party that first heard Carroll's tale show up in Chapter 3 ("A Caucus-Race and a Long Tale").C. (The children did.)[10] . the Lory to Lorina Liddell. produced a number of skilled watercolours. as a caricature of Disraeli.

Beautiful Star"."—a parody of David Bates' "Speak Gently" • "Twinkle. on 4 July 1862. born 1853) ("Tertia" in the prefatory verse). born 1849) ("Prima" in the book's prefatory verse). with illustrations by Dodgson himself. He began writing the manuscript of the story the next day. The girls and Dodgson took another boat trip a month later when he elaborated the plot to the story of Alice.[13] The journey began at Folly Bridge near Oxford and ended five miles away in the village of Godstow..[14] First page from Alice's Adventures Under Ground.Alice's Adventures in Wonderland The Mock Turtle also sings "Beautiful Soup". telling him that the story had been well liked by children.. born 1852) ("Secunda" in the prefatory verse).. Beautiful Star" • "The Queen of Hearts"—an actual nursery rhyme • "They told me you had been to her. Alice and Edith Liddell for Lewis Carroll in the Liddell home during the same summer in which he first told the story of Alice's Adventures Under Ground. dedicating it as "A Christmas Gift to a Dear Child in Memory of a Summer's .[14] On 26 November 1864 he gave Alice the handwritten manuscript of Alice's Adventures Under Ground. He added his own illustrations but approached John Tenniel to illustrate the book for publication. During the trip the Reverend Dodgson told the girls a story that featured a bored little girl named Alice who goes looking for an adventure. (the Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University and Dean of Christ Church) : Lorina Charlotte Liddell (aged 13. which was performed as a trio by Lorina. "Against Idleness And Mischief" • "The Mouse's Tale"—an example of concrete poetry • "You Are Old.. Edith Mary Liddell (aged 8.[12] up the Isis with the three young daughters of Henry Liddell. Sayles's "Star of the Evening.. "Speak roughly to your little boy."—the prefatory verse. and then had the book examined by other children—particularly the MacDonald children."—the White Rabbit's evidence Background Alice was published in 1865. Alice Pleasance Liddell (aged 10. Little Bat"—a parody of Jane Taylor's "Twinkle Twinkle Little Star" • "The Lobster Quadrille"—a parody of Mary Botham Howitt's "The Spider and the Fly" • "'Tis the Voice of the Lobster"—a parody of Isaac Watts' "The Sluggard" • "Beautiful Soup"—a parody of James M. three years after the Reverend Charles Lutwidge Dodgson and the Reverend Robinson Duckworth rowed in a boat. and in November he began working on the manuscript in earnest. The girls loved it. Twinkle. the facsimile edition published by To add the finishing touches he researched natural history for the Macmillan in 1886 animals presented in the book. an original poem by Carroll that recalls the rowing expedition on which he first told the story of Alice's adventures underground • "How Doth the Little Crocodile"—a parody of Isaac Watts' nursery rhyme..[11] 104 Poems and songs Carroll wrote multiple poems and songs for Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. although that earliest version no longer exists. and Alice Liddell asked Dodgson to write it down for her. Father William"—a parody of Robert Southey's "The Old Man's Comforts and How He Gained Them" • The Duchess's lullaby. including: • "All in the golden afternoon. This is a parody of a song called "Star of the Evening.

• In chapter 7. "The Pool of Tears". like a candle. • In chapter 2. separated conceptually from its physical object. as seen in Ripon Cathedral. speculate there was an earlier version that was destroyed later by Dodgson when he printed a more elaborate copy by hand. may have provided inspiration for the tale. "Down the Rabbit-Hole". Continuing this sequence. • The Cheshire cat fades until it disappears entirely.[16] But before Alice received her copy. originally seemingly dependent on the cat..[15] Some. "Why. the March Hare. the Hatter.g. This general concept of abstraction occurs widely in many fields of science. perhaps "going out altogether. 4 x 6 = 13 in base 21 notation.". one may easily consider the concept of 'apple'. Deep abstraction of concepts. and four times seven is—oh dear! I shall never get to twenty at that rate!" This explores the representation of numbers using different bases and positional numeral systems: 4 x 5 = 12 in base 18 notation. the "Rabbit Hole. it has been suggested[19] [20] that there are many references and mathematical concepts in both this story and also in Through the Looking-Glass. in logic and mathematics. you might just as well say that 'I see what I eat' is the same thing as 'I eat what I see'!"). and four times six is thirteen. and the Dormouse give several examples in which the semantic value of a sentence A is not the same value of the converse of A (for example. instead of considering two or three apples. and the beginnings of mathematical logic. leaving only its wide grin. was taking over mathematics at the time Dodgson was writing. • Also in chapter 7. "Advice from a Caterpillar". situations and buildings in Oxford and at Christ Church. for both little girls and serpents eat eggs. Mathematician Keith Devlin asserted in the journal of The Mathematical Association of America that Dodgson wrote Alice in Wonderland in its final form as a scathing satire on new modern mathematics that were emerging in the mid-19th century. and 4 x 7 could be 14 in base 24 notation.[21] . and so on. the result will continue to be less than 20 in the corresponding base notation. A far more sophisticated jump is to consider the concepts of 'two' and 'three' by themselves. 1D. but never a grin without a cat. Dodgson's delineation of the relationship between cat and grin can be taken to represent the very concept of mathematics and number itself. e. Alice tries to perform multiplication but produces some odd results: "Let me see: four times five is twelve. Alice waxes philosophic concerning what final size she will end up as. abstract algebra.500-word original to 27. such as non-Euclidean geometry. going up three bases each time. A carving of a griffon and rabbit. This is an observation of addition on the ring of integers modulo N. "A Mad Tea-Party".500 words. suspended in the air.) • In chapter 5. just like a grin. leading Alice to marvel and note that she has seen a cat without a grin. (After 19 the product would be 1A. in the midst of shrinking. 105 Writing style and themes Symbolism Most of the book's adventures may have been based on and influenced by people. including Martin Gardner. examples include: • In chapter 1.[17] most notably adding the episodes about the Cheshire Cat and the Mad Tea-Party. where Carroll's father was a canon. Dodgson was already preparing it for publication and expanding the 15. the Pigeon asserts that little girls are some kind of serpent. 1C. an example in mathematics of employing this reasoning would be in the substitution of variables. then 1B. For example.Alice's Adventures in Wonderland Day". upon which the concepts of 'two' and 'three' may seem to depend.[18] Since Carroll was a mathematician at Christ Church. this pondering reflects the concept of a limit. Alice ponders what it means when the changing of seats around the circular table places them back at the beginning. this is discussing an inverse relationship." which symbolized the actual stairs in the back of the main hall in Christ Church.

Reception When it was released Alice in Wonderland received little attention. Generally it received poor reviews with reviewers giving more credit to Tenniel's illustrations than to Carroll’s story.[15] John Tenniel's illustrations of Alice do not portray the real Alice Liddell. including those of 1907 by Charles Pears and the full series of colour plates and line-drawings by Harry Rountree published in the (inter-War) Children's Press (Glasgow) edition. mure (ablative) is absent from Alice's recitation.but never jam to-day. who had dark hair and a short fringe." This is a reference to the rule in Latin that the word iam or jam meaning now in the sense of already or at that time cannot be used to describe now in the present.[15] John Tenniel provided 42 wood engraved illustrations for the published version of the book. The first print run was destroyed at his request because he was dissatisfied with the quality. muris (genitive). which little English girls studying French would easily guess. Alice initially addresses the mouse as "O Mouse".[22] In the second chapter. while white roses were the symbol for their rival House of York. It is most likely that these are references to French lessons—a common feature of a Victorian middle-class girl's upbringing. Alice posits that the mouse may be Italian and speaks Italian to it. and the Queen tells her: "You couldn't have it if you did want it. This scene is an allusion to the Wars of the Roses. Pat's "Digging for apples" could be a cross-language pun. For example. In Henri Bué's French translation. based on her memory of the noun declensions "in her brother's Latin Grammar. jam tomorrow and jam yesterday. At the release of Through the Looking-Glass.[19] that Dodgson had an interest in the French language. because they had accidentally planted a white-rose tree that the Queen of Hearts hates. She therefore chooses to speak the first sentence of her French lesson-book to it: "Où est ma chatte?" ("Where is my cat?"). as pomme de terre (literally. "apple of the earth") means potato and pomme means apple. The sixth case. The book was reprinted and published in 1866. the White Queen offers to hire Alice as her lady's maid and to pay her "Twopence a week.[24] . murem (accusative)." Alice says that she doesn't want any jam today. choosing to make references and puns about it in the story. In Through the Looking-Glass and What Alice Found There. Alice has provided a challenge for other illustrators. in a traditional order established by medieval grammarians: mus (nominative). the book failed to be named in an 1888 poll of the most popular children’s stories. In the eighth chapter. in the second chapter Alice posits that the mouse may be French. Red roses symbolized the English House of Lancaster.Alice's Adventures in Wonderland It has been suggested by several people. muri (dative). The rule is. and jam every other day. (O) mus (vocative). 'A mouse — of a mouse — to a mouse — a mouse — O mouse!'" These words correspond to the first five of Latin's six cases. Jam is therefore never available today. including Martin Gardner and Selwyn Goodacre. three cards are painting the roses on a rose tree red.[23] 106 Illustrations The manuscript was illustrated by Dodgson himself who added 37 illustrations—printed in a facsimile edition in 1887. the first Alice tale gained in popularity and by the end of the 19th century Sir Walter Besant wrote that Alice in Wonderland "was a book of that extremely rare kind which will belong to all the generations to come until the language becomes obsolete". which is nunc in Latin.

Cover of the 1898 edition • 1890: Carroll publishes The Nursery "Alice". • 1906: First translation into Finnish by Anni Swan (Liisan seikkailut ihmemaailmassa). • 1886: Carroll publishes a facsimile of the earlier Alice's Adventures Under Ground manuscript. The first print run of 2. The book is commonly referred to by the abbreviated title Alice in Wonderland. • 1872: Le Avventure di Alice nel Paese delle Meraviglie [31] is published in Italian translation by Teodorico Pietrocòla Rossetti. The entire print run sold out quickly. the original edition was sold with Dodgson's permission to the New York publishing house of Appleton. .000 was held back because Tenniel objected to the print quality. L. • 1905: Mrs J.[26] There have now been over a hundred editions of the book. • 1865: First US edition. Gorham publishes Alice's Adventures in Wonderland retold in words of one syllable in a series of such books published by A. except for the publisher's name at the foot of the spine. film and television adaptations of the story produced over the years. leading to another book Through the Looking-Glass and What Alice Found There. Dodgson's tale was published as Alice's Adventures in Wonderland by "Lewis Carroll" with illustrations by John Tenniel. As it turned out. Alice's Adventures in Wonderland has been translated into at least 97 languages.Alice's Adventures in Wonderland 107 Publication history In 1865. but carrying an 1866 date. aimed at young readers. an alternative title popularized by the numerous stage.[27] • 1869: Alice's Abenteuer im Wunderland [28] is published in German translation by Antonie Zimmermann.[25] A new edition. and talks with her about her reflection in a mirror. C. was quickly printed. • 1870: Alice's Äfventyr i Sagolandet [30] is published in Swedish translation by Emily Nonnen. The title page of the Appleton Alice was an insert cancelling the original Macmillan title page of 1865. a special edition "to be read by Children aged from Nought to Five". and bearing the New York publisher's imprint and the date 1866. and What Alice Found There.[32] • 1916: Publication of the first edition of the Windermere Series. beloved by children and adults alike. released in December of the same year. • 1871: Dodgson meets another Alice during his time in London. Burt Company. Alice Raikes. Publication timeline The following list is a timeline of major publication events related to Alice's Adventures in Wonderland: • 1865: First UK edition (the suppressed edition). Alice was a publishing sensation. • 1907: Copyright on AAIW expires in UK. Among its first avid readers were Queen Victoria and the young Oscar Wilde. which sells even better. The binding for the Appleton Alice was virtually identical to the 1866 Macmillan Alice. • 1869: Aventures d'Alice au pays des merveilles [29] is published in French translation by Henri Bué. The book has never been out of print. and so AAIW enters the public domain. as well as countless adaptations in other media. especially theatre and film. Some printings of this title contain both Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and its sequel Through the Looking-Glass. Illustrated by Milo Winter. Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. At least 8 new editions are published in that year alone.

UK • Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1910 film). The following list is of direct adaptations of Adventures in Wonderland (sometimes merging it with Through the Looking-Glass). 2010' a Syfy adaptation . starring Vivian Pickles directed by George More O'Ferrall. directed by Cecil Hepworth and Percy Stow. animation directed by Lou Bunin Alice in Wonderland (1951 film).[34] • 2008: Folio Alice's Adventures Under Ground facsimile edition (limited to 3. Later editions expand on these annotations.000. becoming the most expensive children's book (or 19th-century work of literature) ever sold. talkie. directed by W. PBS Great Performances presentation of a 1982 stage play which was in turn a revival of the 1932 LeGalienne/Schaefer production Alice (1988 film) by Jan Švankmajer Stop motion and live action Alice in the trailer for Disney's animated version • Adventures in Wonderland. BBC television play directed by Jonathan Miller. McLeod. silent film.Alice's Adventures in Wonderland • 1928: The manuscript of Alice's Adventures Under Ground that Carroll wrote and illustrated and that he had given to Alice Liddell was sold at Sotheby's on April 3. not other sequels or works otherwise inspired by the works (such as Tim Burton's 2010 film Alice in Wonderland): • Alice in Wonderland (1903 film). UK Alice in Wonderland (1949 film). • 1961: The Folio Society publication with 42 illustrations by John Tenniel. directed by Edwin Stanton Porter • Alice in Wonderland (1915 film). one of only six surviving copies of the 1865 first edition. on BBC. a world record for the sale of a manuscript at the time. and includes full texts of the Victorian era poems parodied in them. • 1998: Lewis Carroll's own copy of Alice. US • • • • • • • • • Alice in Wonderland (1937 TV program). 1991 to 1995 Disney television series • Alice. is sold at an auction for US$1. US Alice in Wonderland (1955 TV program). boxed with The Original Alice pamphlet). Young • Alice in Wonderland (1931 film). live-action/stop motion film. incorporating the text of both Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass. silent film. W. directed by George More O'Ferrall Alice (1946 TV program). UK "Alice in Wonderland" (1983 television film). It sold to Philip Rosenbach for ₤15.[33] • 1960: American writer Martin Gardner publishes a special edition. a live television adaptation of the 1932 Broadway version of the novel. up to that time.54 million to an anonymous American buyer. It has extensive annotations explaining the hidden allusions in the books.750 copies. Walt Disney Animation Studios. silent film. co-written by Eva LeGallienne and directed by George Schaefer for the Hallmark Hall of Fame Alice in Wonderland (or What's a Nice Kid Like You Doing in a Place Like This?).400. • 2009: Children’s book collector and former American football player Pat McInally reportedly sold Alice Liddell’s own copy at auction for $115. traditional animation. 1966 animated Hanna-Barbera TV movie. directed by Bud Pollard • Alice in Wonderland (1933 film). The Annotated Alice.[35] 108 Adaptations Cinema and television The book has inspired numerous film and television adaptations. directed by Norman Z. with Janet Waldo as Alice Alice in Wonderland (1966 television film).

and traditional English pantomimes. Germany. uk/ books?id=pRY6V95WsoMC& pg=PA1).Alice's Adventures in Wonderland 109 Comic books The book has also inspired numerous comic book adaptations: • • • • Walt Disney's Alice in Wonderland (Dell Comics. Performed on a bare stage with the actors in modern dress. Although the original production in Hamburg. Papp and Swados had previously produced a version of it at the New York Shakespeare Festival. Works influenced Alice and the rest of Wonderland continue to inspire or influence many other works of art to this day. Michael Jeter. lyrics. and an adult Alice Liddell. Similarly. the play is a loose adaptation. for example. written by Matthew Fleming and music and lyrics by Ben J. a murder mystery set in Wonderland. As the book and its sequel are Carroll's most widely recognized works. a young Alice Liddell. google. to frame the story. many also named Alice in homage. they have also inspired numerous live performances. Based on both Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass. the White Queen. a popular Black light theatre in Prague performs "Aspects of Alice". this production has been revived in New York in 1947 and 1982. This goth-toned rock musical premiered in 2006 at the New Theatre Royal in Portsmouth. ISBN 978-0-415-07652-4 José de Creeft. and Humpty Dumpty. An example of the latter is The Eighth Square. Over the years. England. 1984) Glenn Diddit's Alice's Adventures In Wonderland (CreateSpace. 2009) Live performance With the immediate popularity of the book. 1959 . which played in 1886 at the Prince of Wales Theatre in London. written and directed by Petr Kratochvíl. including plays. with song styles ranging the globe. Actress Eva Le Gallienne famously adapted both Alice books for the stage in 1932. with Tom Waits and Kathleen Brennan writing the music. ballets. The cast also included Debbie Allen. One of the most well-known American productions was Joseph Papp's 1980 staging of Alice in Concert at the Public Theater in New York City. Tom Waits released the songs as the album Alice in 2002. New York. and music. Jean-Jacques (1994) Philosophy of nonsense: the intuitions of Victorian nonsense literature Routledge. Macpherson. Saville Clark (book) and Walter Slaughter (music). Alice has proven immensely popular and inspired similar heroines in literature and pop culture. These works range from fairly faithful adaptations to those that use the story as a basis for new works. many notable people in the performing arts have been involved in Alice productions. Statue of Alice in Central Park. page 1 and following (http:/ / books. but rather explores Alice's journey into adulthood while incorporating allusions to the history of Czech Republic. This adaptation is not faithful to the books. One early example is Alice in Wonderland. it did not take long for live performances to begin. the 1992 operatic production Alice used both Alice books as its inspiration. 1965) Walt Disney's Alice in Wonderland (Whitman. co. and Mark Linn-Baker. Elizabeth Swados wrote the book. The character of the plucky. 1951) Walt Disney's Alice in Wonderland (Gold Key Comics. yet proper. received only a small audience. The TA Fantastika. References [1] BBC's Greatest English Books list [2] Lecercle. Paul Schmidt wrote the play. a musical play by H. It also employs scenes with Charles Dodgson. sometimes indirectly via the Disney movie. Meryl Streep played Alice. operas.

The New York Times: p. 363.storymuseum. ISBN 978-0-902620-25-4.000 in USA http:/ / news. ISBN 978-0-253-33037-6 [4] Gardner.co. p. html [30] http:/ / www. 69–70. while the other five are held in private hands. The Complete. www. 98 [11] The diary of Lewis Carroll. Retrieved 2009-12-01. . [6] Gardner. evertype. New York: St. [35] Real Alice in Wonderland book sells for $115. Macmillan. com/ books/ alice-underground. evertype. 11. p. 11 December 1998. google. ISBN 978-1-904808-39-8. 226 [8] Gardner. such as the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center. 2010. 27 [5] Brooker. net/ explain/ alice8xx. uk/ ripon/ tourist-information). Alice's Adventures: Lewis Carroll in Popular Culture. 117 [16] (Gardner. html [31] http:/ / www. org. Nicholas (1999). p. nytimes. com/ 1998/ 12/ 11/ nyregion/ auction-record-for-an-original-alice. ISBN 978-0-19-955829-2. . com/ books/ alice-de. of Ovenden. Graham (1972). Gabriele (1996) "Chapter 2: Nonsense and Metacommunication: Alice in Wonderland" The mirror and the killer-queen: otherness in literary language Indiana University Press. [34] "Auction Record for an Original 'Alice'" (http:/ / www. alice-in-wonderland. . Alice's Adventures under Ground (http:/ / evertype. 68 [25] Only 23 copies of this first printing are known to have survived. 69 [9] Gardner. co. 102. More Annotated Alice. storymuseum. New York: Continuum. Martin's Press. Retrieved April 15. Retrieved 2010-04-24. the-office. [26] Bandersnatch: The Newsletter of The Lewis Carroll Society. evertype. p. "Algebra in Wonderland" (http:/ / www. New York: Random House. [13] The Background & History of Alice In Wonderland (http:/ / www. p. Mathematical Association of America.uk. Fully Illustrated Works. htm). html). . Lewis (1995). p. . . p. html). [21] Devlin. com/ bedtime-story/ alice-background.Alice's Adventures in Wonderland [3] Schwab. New York: Gramercy Books. Issue 149 (January 2011). Retrieved 29 January 2007. [28] http:/ / www. 172 [7] Gardner. html [32] Page 11 of Introduction. Bedtime-Story Classics. Melanie (2010-03-06). 18 are owned by major archives or libraries. p. com/ 2010/ 03/ 07/ opinion/ 07bayley. Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass (http:/ / books. pp. The New York Times. Michael (2009) "Foreword". evertype. com/ books/ alice-fr. Retrieved 2010-09-04. A Gentle Madness: Bibliophiles. B30. com/ books/ alice-it. uk/ the-story-museum/ familyevents/ alice/ the-real-alice). by John Davies. Hello-Yorkshire. Will (2004). Indiana. Oxford University Press. [14] Carpenter. [19] Gardner. ISBN 978-0-8264-1433-5. 1965) [17] Everson. maa. 75 [10] Gardner. Martin (1990). stm 110 . [33] Basbanes. html). Evertype. [24] Carpenter (1988). 57 [15] Ray. ISBN 978-0-8050-6176-5.org. com/ ?id=V-g1dR6en90C& pg=PA264& lpg=PA264& dq="Digging+ for+ apples"+ alice+ in+ wonderland+ potatoes#v=onepage& q& f=false).uk. p. Bibliomanes. p. p. bbc. [22] Lewis Carroll (2009). Retrieved 2010-03-13. co. [18] "Ripon Tourist Information" (http:/ / www. hello-yorkshire. in Lewis Carroll (2009). 1 August 1862 entry [12] "Story Museum – The real Alice" (http:/ / www.net. ISBN 978-0-517-10027-1. [23] "Other explanations | Lenny's Alice in Wonderland site" (http:/ / www. html [29] http:/ / www. . html). [27] Carroll. nytimes. com/ books/ alice-sv. html). Devlin's Angle. Keith (March 2010). Alice-in-wonderland. The Illustrators of Alice. [20] Bayley. 49–102. ISBN 978-0-394-58571-0. uk/ 2/ hi/ uk_news/ england/ oxfordshire/ 8416127. org/ devlin/ devlin_03_10. p. pp. "The Hidden Math Behind Alice in Wonderland" (http:/ / www. Bloomington. and the Eternal Passion for Books.

Gutmann.org/ebooks/19002). HTML • Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (http://www. New York and London: W.gutenberg.tate. The Annotated Alice: the definitive edition.archive. • Gardner.google.adelaide. Jackson. (abridged) 1920 New York publication.com/alice/) (1907) • Scans of Illustrations by Attwell.org.org.life.org/ebooks/11).com/image/3326160/in-gallery/40212/ the-real-alice-in-wonderland) – slideshow by Life magazine • British Library: Original manuscript and drawings by Lewis Carroll (requires Flash) (http://www.indiana. Humphrey (1985).cs.org/refbib/Carroll__Alice_1st. lewiscarroll. Hudson. • Carpe Diem: Theatrical version of Alice in Wonderland (http://www. Gordon Norton (1991). Martin (2000). Norton & Company.php?do=details& mid=7) • The Real Alice In Wonderland (http://www. and illustrations by Carroll • GASL.gasl.carpediem.bugtown.shtm) • Alice in Wonderland Tate Exhibition Shop: (http://www.uk/liverpool/exhibitions/ aliceinwonderland/default. • Ray. External links • University of Adelaide: Text with illustrations by Tenniel (http://ebooks.org/ebooks/19033).org: First editions of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass. ISBN 978-0-486-26955-9.org/web/20080822020326/http://www. Houghton Mifflin.edu: Text only (http://www.au/c/carroll/lewis/ alice/) • Images of the illustrated editions (https://sites. The Illustrator and the book in England from 1790 to 1914 (http://books. • Audiorecording of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland on the LibriVox website.uk/shop/do/Alice-Wonderland/range/ 2945) • DocOzone: Illustrations by Arthur Rackham (http://www.bl.uk/ onlinegallery/ttp/ttpbooks. Kirk and Rackham (http://www. W. 1866/1872.html) • Alice in Wonderland Tate Liverpool Exhibition: (http://www.pdf) With 92 Illustrations by Tenniel.gutenberg.im/media. (http://www. Secret Gardens: The Golden Age of Children's Literature.com/ ~dnn/alice/) • Project Gutenberg: • Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (http://www. HTML with facsimiles of original manuscript pages.tate.edu.org/illus.Alice's Adventures in Wonderland 111 Sources • Carpenter.google.com/site/lewiscarrollillustratedalice/) of Alice in Wonderland from 1899 to the present.gutenberg.html) • Indiana.html) • LCSNA: List of illustrators of Alice on the web (http://web. com/?id=HsTU8eWtej8C&pg=PA154&lpg=PA154&dq=edmund+evans+printer#v=onepage&q=edmund evans printer&f=false).archive. ISBN 978-0-395-35293-9.exit109.org/ details/alice_in_wonderland_librivox) . New York: Dover.edu/metastuff/wonder/wonderdir. ISBN 978-0-393-04847-6. plain text • Alice's Adventures Under Ground (http://www. and What Alice Found There (http://www.

and What Alice Found There (1871) is a work of literature by Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson). on 4 November (the day before Guy Fawkes Night). including opposites. and so on.[2] uses frequent changes in time and spatial directions as a plot device. and What Alice Found There 112 Through the Looking-Glass.[1] uses frequent changes in size as a plot device. In it. . the second opens indoors on a snowy. and draws on the imagery of chess. It is the sequel to Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865). there are many mirror themes. The themes and settings of Through the Looking-Glass make it a kind of mirror image of Wonderland: the first book begins outdoors. time running backwards. wintry night exactly six months later. in the warm month of May (4 May). and What Alice Found There Through the Looking-Glass First edition cover of Through the Looking-Glass Author(s) Illustrator Country Language Genre(s) Publisher Lewis Carroll John Tenniel United Kingdom English Children's fiction Macmillan Publication date 1871 Media type Pages ISBN Preceded by Print (hardback) 224 pp NA Alice's Adventures in Wonderland Through the Looking-Glass.Through the Looking-Glass. and draws on the imagery of playing cards.

and in any direction. but at the very moment of the crossing. she pokes at the wall-hung mirror behind the fireplace and discovers. for a change.Through the Looking-Glass. "Jabberwocky". In this reflected version of her own house. "All the king's horses and all the king's men" come to Humpty Dumpty's assistance. and offers to make Alice a queen if she can move all the way to the eighth rank/row in a chess match. the Queen transforms into a talking Sheep in a small shop. that she is able to step through it to an alternative world. provides his own translation of the strange terms in "Jabberwocky" (in the process. whom she knows from the famous nursery rhyme. The Red Queen reveals to Alice that the entire countryside is laid out in squares like a gigantic chessboard. Alice entering the Looking Glass. who is very absent-minded but boasts of (and demonstrates) her ability to remember future events before they have happened. acting on the rule that pawns can advance two spaces on their first move. (Unknown to Alice. who impresses Alice with her ability to run at breathtaking speeds—a reference to the chess rule that queens are able to move up to seven spaces at once. She also observes that the chess pieces have come to life. the Tweedles draw Alice's attention to the Red King—loudly snoring away under a nearby tree—and maliciously provoke her with idle philosophical banter that she exists only as an imaginary figure in the Red King's dreams (thereby implying that she will cease to exist the instant he wakes up). Upon leaving the house (where it had been a cold.e. Illustration by Sir John Tenniel whose reversed printing she can read only by holding it up to the mirror. only to be frightened away by an enormous crow. Alice's cat in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland—when she ponders what the world is like on the other side of a mirror's reflection. naturally. who. After reciting the long poem "The Walrus and the Carpenter". these are standard terms in the jargon of rowing—and thus the Queen/Sheep. she finds a book with looking-glass poetry. who again proceed to act out a nursery rhyme by fighting each other. Alice is placed in the second rank as one of the White Queen's pawns. Alice meets the Red Queen (now human-sized). they perceive Alice as being a "flower that can move about. by John Tenniel Alice next meets the White Queen. She then meets the fat twin brothers Tweedledum and Tweedledee. Alice and the White Queen advance into the chessboard's fifth rank by crossing over a brook together. the brothers begin acting out their nursery-rhyme by suiting up for battle. "Hare" and "Hatter"—these names are the only hint given as to their . though they remain small enough for her to pick up. where the Sheep annoys her with (seemingly) nonsensical shouting about "crabs" and "feathers". Alice immediately encounters Humpty Dumpty. Red King snoring. besides celebrating his unbirthday. as the nursery rhyme about them predicts. to her surprise. Climbing up on the fireplace mantel. In this chapter. and begins her journey across the chessboard by boarding a train that literally jumps over the third row and directly into the fourth rank. the March Hare and Hatter of the first book make a brief re-appearance in the guise of "Anglo-Saxon messengers" called "Haigha" and "Hatta" (i." Elsewhere in the garden. snowy night). and are accompanied by the White King along with the Lion and the Unicorn. Finally. is speaking in a perfectly logical and meaningful way!) After crossing yet another brook into the sixth rank. and What Alice Found There 113 Plot summary Alice is playing with a white kitten (whom she calls "Snowdrop") and a black kitten (whom she calls "Kitty")—the offspring of Dinah. she enters a sunny spring garden where the flowers have the power of human speech. introducing Alice and the reader to the concept of portmanteau words) before his inevitable fall. Alice soon finds herself struggling to handle the oars of a small rowboat. making them the most "agile" of the pieces.

and What Alice Found There identities other than John Tenniel's illustrations). whom she deduces to have been the Red Queen all along. (By thus "capturing" the Red Queen. and may contain several references to Carroll's favourite number. The sequence of moves (white and red) is not always followed. Alice arrives and seats herself at her own party which quickly turns to a chaotic uproar (much like the ending of the first book) in which Alice finally grabs the Red Queen.) Alice suddenly awakes in her armchair to find herself holding the black kitten. and may also be interpreted as a self-deprecating joke about Lewis Carroll's own physical awkwardness and stammering in real life. Escorting her through the forest towards the final brook-crossing. Alice unknowingly puts the Red King—who has remained stationary throughout the book—into checkmate. and Alice's crossing of them signifies advancing of her piece one square. and is allowed to wake up. and begins shaking her violently with all her might. Most main characters in the story are represented by a chess piece. since the brook-crossings do not always correspond to the beginning and ends of chapters. with the crossing of each brook usually signifying a notable change in the scene and action of the story: the brooks represent the divisions Lewis Carroll's diagram of the story as a chess game between squares on the chessboard. One final poem is inserted by the author as a sort of epilogue which suggests that life itself is but a dream. The most extensive treatment of the chess motif in Carroll's novel is provided in Glen Downey's The Truth About Pawn Promotion: The Development of the Chess Motif in Victorian Fiction. that everything may have.[6] and flirting with numerology and esotericism. The story ends with Alice recalling the speculation of the Tweedle brothers. with the white kitten having been the White Queen. most editions of the book visually represent the crossings by breaking the text with several lines of asterisks ( * * * ). Alice reaches the seventh rank by crossing another brook into the forested territory of the Red Knight. Bidding farewell to the White Knight. been a dream of the Red King and that Alice might herself be no more than a figment of his imagination. The looking-glass world is divided into sections by brooks or streams. Although the chess problem is generally regarded as a nonsense composition because of the story's 'faulty link with chess'. Upon leaving the Lion and Unicorn to their fight.[7] .Through the Looking-Glass. this book is based on a game of chess. and repeatedly falls off his horse—his clumsiness is a reference to the "eccentric" L-shaped movements of chess knights. 42. played on a giant chessboard with fields for squares. She soon finds herself in the company of both the White and Red Queens who relentlessly confound Alice by using word play to thwart her attempts at logical discussion. the Knight recites a long poem of his own composition. in fact. Furthermore. who is intent on capturing the "white pawn" Alice until the White Knight comes to her rescue.[3] the French researchers Christophe LeRoy and Sylvain Ravot have argued[4] that it contains a 'hidden code' presented to for the reader by Carroll. with Alice herself being a pawn. The theory and its implications have been criticised[5] for lack of solid evidence. They then invite one another to a party that will be hosted by the newly crowned Alice (of which Alice herself had no prior knowledge). The code is related to Carroll's relationship with Alice Liddell. misrepresenting historical facts about Carroll and Alice Lidell. Alice steps across the last brook and is automatically crowned a queen (the crown materialising abruptly on her head). 114 Theme of chess Whereas the first book has the deck of cards as a theme. believing her to be responsible for all the day's nonsense.

the Caterpillar in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland also refers to Alice as an "old friend". the song is A-sitting On a Gate.. Dinah." • White Queen's riddle • "A boat beneath a sunny sky" is the first line of a titleless acrostic poem at the end of the book—the beginning letters of each line. and I can’t see my way to a picture... The contents were subsequently published in Martin Gardner's The Annotated Alice: The Definitive Edition. when put together. The Walrus and the Carpenter The Wasp in a wig Lewis Carroll decided to suppress a scene involving what was described as "a wasp in a wig" (possibly a play on the commonplace expression "bee in the bonnet"). also makes a return – this time with her two kittens..[8] For many years no one had any idea what this missing section was or whether it had survived. Alice's sister is mentioned. However. Stuart Dodgson Collingwood. a document purporting to be the galley proofs of the missing section was sold at Sotheby's. • "To the Looking-Glass world it was Alice that said. dated 1 June 1870. but its other names and callings are placed above... in part. however. I can’t help thinking – with all submission – that there is your opportunity. Alice does not recognise them as such.... John Tenniel. The bid was won by John Fleming.I am bound to say that the 'wasp' chapter doesn't interest me in the least. there are puns and quips about two non-existing characters. At the end of the book they are associated with the Red Queen and the White Queen respectively in the looking glass world. and is also available as a hardback book The Wasp in a Wig: A Suppressed Episode . Oxford. much like Hatta and Haigha. the catalogue description read. Alice's cat.. though it was never introduced in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.Through the Looking-Glass. Tenniel wrote: .[9] . that one of the reasons for this suppression was due to the suggestion of his illustrator.. Kitty (the black one) and Snowdrop (the white one). 1898.". Paradoxically. It has been suggested in a biography by Carroll's nephew. In a letter to Carroll. If you want to shorten the book.700. and are pictured (by Sir John Tenniel. not by Carroll) to resemble their Wonderland counterparts. spell Alice Pleasance Liddell. In both Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through The Looking-Glass. Nobody and Somebody. that "The proofs were bought at the sale of the author's ." • "Haddocks' Eyes" / The Aged Aged Man / Ways and Means / A-sitting On a Gate.. so could be another counterpart. In 1974. Though she does not appear. and What Alice Found There 115 Returning characters The characters of Hatta and Haigha (pronounced as the English would have said "hatter" and "hare") make an appearance. the Hatter and the March Hare. The winning bid was £1.. the gnat calls Alice an old friend.. personal effects . a Manhattan book dealer.. Poems and songs • Prelude ("Child of the pure unclouded brow") • "Jabberwocky" (seen in the mirror-house) (Jabberwocky (full poem) including readings) • "Tweedledum and Tweedledee" • "The Lion and the Unicorn" • "The Walrus and the Carpenter" (The Walrus and the Carpenter (full poem)) • "Humpty Dumpty" • "In Winter when the fields are white.

and Judi Rolin in the role of Alice. This production restored the lost "Wasp in a Wig" episode. live action and animated versions. Alice Through the Looking Glass. with Kate Beckinsale playing the role of Alice.[10] 116 Main characters • • • • • • • • Alice Bandersnatch Hatta (The Hatter) Humpty Dumpty The Jabberwock Jubjub Bird Red King • • • • • • • Red Queen The Sheep Tweedledum and Tweedledee The Walrus and the Carpenter The Lion and the Unicorn White King White Knight White Queen Haigha (March Hare) • For all other characters see: List of minor characters in Through the Looking Glass Adaptations The book has been adapted several times. with Janet Waldo as the voice of Alice (Mr. The Jabberwock.[13] [14] a Christmas 2007 multimedia stage adaptation at The Tobacco Factory directed and conceived by Andy Burden. Japanese companies Toei and Banpresto announced that a collaborative animation project based on Through the Looking-Glass tenatively titled Kyōsō Giga (京騒戯画)[19] was in production.Through the Looking-Glass.[18] In March 2011. Norman Shelley and Carleton Hobbs. as illustrated by John Tenniel for Lewis Carroll's Through the Looking Glass.[12] Musical versions include the 1966 TV musical with songs by Moose Charlap. T was the voice of the Jabberwock)[17] and the 1998 Channel 4 TV movie. or been included at the end of. written by Hattie Naylor. If included in the book. Stand alone versions The adaptations include live and TV musicals. including the poem "Jabberwocky". Alice Through a Looking Glass. with actors Tony Church. chapter 8 – the chapter featuring the encounter with the White Knight.[16] an animated TV movie in 1987. with Sarah Sutton playing Alice. and What Alice Found There The rediscovered section describes Alice's encounter with a wasp wearing a yellow wig. The proofs have yet to receive any physical examination to establish age and authenticity. though some doubting voices have been raised. Television versions include the 1974 BBC TV movie.[15] a 1982 38-minute Soviet cutout-animated film made by Kievnauchfilm studio and directed by Yefrem Pruzhanskiy. it would have followed. . and Margaretta Scott as the narrator. music and lyrics by Paul Dodgson and a 2008 opera Through the Looking Glass by Alan John. in combination with Alice in Wonderland and as a stand alone film or television special. and includes a full previously unpublished poem. The discovery is generally accepted as genuine.[11] A dramatized version directed by Douglas Cleverdon and starring Jane Asher was recorded in the late-1950s by Argo Records. in 1928. One of the earliest adaptations was a silent movie directed by Walter Lang.

" [3] See Lewis Carroll and chess (http:/ / lewiscarrollsociety.[27] The 2009 Syfy TV mini-series Alice contains elements from Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass. uk/ pages/ lewiscarroll/ randrchess. Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. Tweedledee and Tweedledum. imdb. Alice was played by Natalie Gregory. [6] See: Leach. "A Mad Tea-Party". produced by Irwin Allen. 1977) [10] see lengthy discussion about the 'absence' of investigation on the Lewis Carroll Discussion List (http:/ / groups. Philadelphia and is currently in an open-ended run in Chicago. htm) on the Lewis Carroll Society Website [4] See their web-site Lewis CARROLL's chess game (http:/ / www. and is felt by many to be the most faithful adaptation to the original novel. London 1999. MacMillan & Co. com/ index_english.[26] The 1999 made-for-TV Hallmark/NBC film Alice in Wonderland. Martin (2000). ISBN 0393048470. . with Tina Majorino as Alice. and the Chess theme including the snoring Red King and White Knight. Alice reveals that the date is "the fourth" and that the month is "May.[25] There is also a version of the show touring in the United States. “The Unreal Alice” [7] http:/ / www. including W. It featured most of the elements from Through the Looking Glass as well. nlc-bnc. [9] (Clarkson Potter.[22] The 2010 movie Alice in Wonderland by Tim Burton contains elements of both Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass. W. with additional supporting cast by Mark Linn-Baker and Betty Aberlin. in the fifth chapter. com/ columns/ lewis-carrolls-chess-problem/ ). and pursues her through the second half of the musical.[29] The 1936 Mickey Mouse short film "Thru the Mirror" has Mickey travel through his mirror and into a bizarre world. and What Alice Found There 117 With Alice in Wonderland Adaptations combined with Alice in Wonderland include the 1933 live-action movie Alice in Wonderland. starring a huge all-star cast and Charlotte Henry in the role of Alice.[21] Another adaptation. produced and written by Elizabeth Swados. chessvibes.[28] Other The 1977 film Jabberwocky expands the story of the poem "Jabberwocky". The 1959 film Donald in Mathmagic Land includes a segment with Donald Duck dressed as Alice meeting the Red Queen on a chessboard. 5 November. C. pdf [8] Gardner. Norton & Company. yahoo. The Walrus and the Carpenter. performed on a bare stage. echecs-histoire-litterature. and a Leon Schlesinger Productions animated version of The Walrus and the Carpenter. Fields as Humpty Dumpty. Notes [1] In Chapter 7.[23] Combined stage productions include the 1980 version. including the poems "Jabberwocky" and "The Walrus and the Carpenter".Through the Looking-Glass. she affirms that her age is "seven and a half exactly. a clear reference to the traditional bonfires on Guy Fawkes Night. Retrieved 12 September 2009. and Dudley Moore played the Dormouse. ca/ obj/ s4/ f2/ dsk2/ tape15/ PQDD_0006/ NQ34258. Fiona Fullerton played Alice. Chicago-based Lookingglass Theater Company debuted an acrobatic interpretation of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass with Lookingglass Alice. Meryl Streep played the role of Alice. p.[24] Lookingglass Alice was performed in New York City. In this adaptation. Peter Sellers played the March Hare. the Jabberwock materialises into reality after Alice reads Jabberwocky. merged elements from Through the Looking Glass including the talking flowers. was produced by Joseph Shaftel Productions (distributed by Fox-Rank productions) in 1972.. Michael Crawford played the White Rabbit. covered both books. with the exception of the omitted scene with the Cheshire Cat (Roy Kinnear) replaced by Tweedledum and Tweedledee (in a scene which remains faithful to their respective scene from Alice Through the Looking Glass). html) dedicated to the problem and its possible meaning [5] Moll. The 1985 two-part TV musical Alice in Wonderland. The Annotated Alice. W. com/ title/ tt0018640/ ) at the Internet Movie Database . com/ group/ lewiscarroll/ ) [11] Alice Through a Looking Glass (1928) (http:/ / www. 283. Alice in Concert (aka Alice at the Palace). In 2007. Karoline In the Shadow of the Dreamchild. Alice speaks of the snow outside and the "bonfire" that "the boys" are building for a celebration "to-morrow". org. "Lewis Carroll’s chess problem" (http:/ / www.[20] The 1951 animated Disney movie Alice in Wonderland also featured several elements from Through the Looking-Glass. Arne (13 July 2008)." [2] In the first chapter.

jus. imdb. Martin (1990). plaintext (http://www.uio. Retrieved 2011-11-05.pdf)). p. New York: Random House. Martin (1960). [13] http:/ / www. com).no/sisu/through_the_looking_glass. html [14] Alice Through the Looking Glass (1966) (http:/ / www. portrait (http://www.html). Fantasy Literature: A Core Collection and Reference Guide. Kenneth J.R. Retrieved 2009-11-15. Zahorski and Robert H.org. The Annotated Alice. com/ title/ tt164993/ ) at the Internet Movie Database [28] Alice (2009) (http:/ / www. imdb. XML. org/ content/ node/ 2043).uio. Bowker Co. tiscali. pp. opendocument ODF (http://www.archive. Potter. imdb. org/ content/ node/ 766 [25] "Lookingglass Alice Video Preview" (http:/ / lookingglasstheatre.lewis_carroll/landscape.com" (http:/ / www. Kyousogiga.sabian.html) ( html (http://www.org/through-the-looking-glass-by-lewis-carroll/) Free audio book at LibriVox • HTML version with commentary of Sabian religion (http://www.no/sisu/through_the_looking_glass. concordance (http://www. New York: R. com/ title/ tt1461312/ ) at the Internet Movie Database [29] Jabberwocky (1977) (http:/ / www.no/sisu/through_the_looking_glass. More Annotated Alice.no/sisu/through_the_looking_glass.com. animator. Lookingglasstheatre.jus.no/ sisu/through_the_looking_glass.uio.Through the Looking-Glass. com/ title/ tt0023753/ ) at the Internet Movie Database [21] Alice in Wonderland (1951) (http:/ / www.no/sisu/through_the_looking_glass. imdb. .no/sisu/through_the_looking_glass.jus. 180–181. lookingglasstheatre. com/ title/ tt0043274/ ) at the Internet Movie Database [22] Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1972) (http:/ / www. com/ title/ tt1014759/ ) at the Internet Movie Database [24] http:/ / www. htm). 61.html) • Through the looking-glass.lewis_carroll/toc. and What Alice Found There [12] "Alice in Wonderland: Wired for Sound" (http:/ / myweb. imdb.org/alice. com/ a-alice66.. imdb. ISBN 0-394-58571-2.jus. and what Alice found there ([c1917 (http://www. imdb.uio.lewis_carroll/opendocument. com/ title/ tt0167758/ ) at the Internet Movie Database [19] "Kyousogiga. jus.txt). kiddiematinee.odt). imdb. .lewis_carroll/sisu_manifest. com/ title/ tt0071116/ ) at the Internet Movie Database [16] http:/ / www.lewis_carroll/plain. Marshall B.. ru/ db/ ?ver=eng& p=show_film& fid=3482 [17] Alice Through the Looking Glass (1987) (http:/ / www.uio. com/ title/ tt0060088/ ) at the Internet Movie Database [15] Alice Through the Looking Glass (1974) (http:/ / www. • Gardner.jus. imdb.org/etext/12) at Project Gutenberg • Through the Looking-Glass (http://librivox.alice-in-wonderland.lewis_carroll/portrait.google. com/ title/ tt0068190/ ) at the Internet Movie Database [23] Alice in Wonderland (2010) (http:/ / www. com/ title/ tt0088693/ ) at the Internet Movie Database [27] Alice in Wonderland (1999) (http:/ / www. ISBN 0-8352-1431-1. New York: Clarkson N.uio. Boyer (1979).lewis_carroll/concordance. imdb.html) ) SiSU .com/site/ lewiscarrollillustratedalice/) On-line texts • Through the Looking-Glass (http://www. imdb. pdf ( landscape (http://www.pdf). Retrieved 2011-11-05.uio. co. [26] Alice in Wonderland (1985) (http:/ / www.htm) • Text of A Wasp in a Wig (http://www. 363.jus. External links • A catalogue of illustrated editions of the Alice books from 1899 to 2009 (https://sites. .gutenberg. [20] Alice in Wonderland (1933) (http:/ / www. • Gardner. imdb. com/ title/ tt0101294/ ) at the Internet Movie Database [18] Alice Through the Looking Glass (1998) (http:/ / www. kyousogiga. com/ title/ tt0076221/ ) at the Internet Movie Database 118 References • Tymn.net/alice4. p.org/details/ throughlookinggl00carr7)) scanned – read online or download] • Multiple Formats (http://www. uk/ tauspace/ sound_only2.

and barely tolerates her cranky old Aunt March. which is extremely difficult for her."[3] By June. Jo has to stay at home and try to reconcile herself to a nineteenth-century woman's place in the domestic sphere. hot-tempered. however. also featuring the March sisters. and Amy March – and is loosely based on the author's childhood experiences with her three sisters. Instead. Little Men (1871) and Jo's Boys (1886). and jolly. She's clumsy. Background Louisa May Alcott's father Bronson Alcott approached publisher Thomas Niles about a book he wanted to publish. She was not interested at first and instead asked to have her short stories collected."[3] Characters Josephine "Jo" March Bhaer Jo March starts out as a tomboyish."[1] She later recalled she did not think she could write a successful book for girls and did not enjoy writing one. He pressed her to do the girls' book first. Beth. The novel follows the lives of four sisters – Meg. from the early 1870s Author(s) Country Language Genre(s) Publisher Publication date Louisa May Alcott United States English Coming of Age Roberts Brothers 1868 (1st volume) 1869 (2nd volume) Print Little Men Media type Followed by Little Women is a novel by American author Louisa May Alcott (1832–1888). suggested she write a book about girls which would have widespread appeal. fifteen-year-old girl. partner of Roberts. March has referred to her as . I said I'd try. burns her dress while warming herself at the fire. she sent the first dozen chapters to Niles and both thought they were dull. Niles's niece Lillie Almy. She loves activity and can't bear to be left on the sidelines. who has volunteered as a chaplain. "they are the best critics. she wrote in her journal: "Niles. Massachusetts.Their talk soon turned to Louisa. prompting the composition of the book's second volume titled Good Wives. so I should definitely be satisfied. Alcott wrote. The publication of the book as a single volume first occurred in 1880 and was titled Little Women.[4] The completed manuscript was shown to several girls. asked me to write a girl's book. Niles. Her behavior is often most unladylike – she swears (mildly). The book was written and set in the Alcott family home. Orchard House. "although I don't enjoy this sort of things.[2] "I plod away". an admirer of her book Hospital Sketches. The first volume Little Women was an immediate commercial and critical success. It was published in two volumes in 1868 and 1869. she wrote in her diary. who agreed it was "splendid". spills things on her only gloves. blunt. In May 1868. She's so boyish that Mr. it drives her crazy that she can't go and fight in the Civil War alongside her father. which was successful as well. Jo.Little Women 119 Little Women Little Women Two-volume Roberts Brothers printing. opinionated. reported that she enjoyed them. Alcott followed Little Women with two sequels. in Concord.

Her relationship with Jo is sometimes strained. completely absorbed in a good book. Finally. the family began to realize that Beth will not live much longer. Amy's sketches. March is plotting to match her with Laurie only to gain his family's wealth). father's books.especially Jo. a wealthy local family. and whenever she's not doing chores or washing the poodle. in a corner of the attic. because marriage might break up her family and separate her from the sisters she adores. As her sisters begin to leave the nest. brown hair. filled with all the things she loved best. However. plenty of soft. her desire to make her way in the world and her distaste for staying at home are altered forever. and "Demi" and "Daisy" live a happy life. she can behave in a vain and spoiled way. even though it changes the relationships one already has. mispronouncing them or using them incorrectly. Jo hates the idea of romance. Beth is still trying to make it better for those who will be left behind. never to pick it up again. as all she wants is to remain at home with her parents. she gives the attention of her death to Jo. the Kings' eldest son is disinherited for bad behavior. she also figures out how to balance her ambitious nature with the constraints placed on nineteenth-century women. whom she marries. Elizabeth "Beth" March Beth is described as even-tempered and has always been very close to Jo. she is the oldest sister. reserved and worldly" which sometimes causes her trouble. Amy finds Jo's unfinished novel and throws it all in the fireplace grate. it's not going to involve getting married. except in sleep. and her best friend Laurie sometimes calls her "my dear fellow. Jo is being set up for a meaningful journey of self-discovery and surprises.Little Women his "son Jo" in the past. But soon. She does not find romance in the places that readers expect. She also realizes that romantic love has its place. both reading and writing it. In her final illness. She imitates Dickens and Shakespeare and Scott. just as Jo protects Beth. and white hands. Their most significant argument occurs when Jo will not allow Amy to accompany Jo and Laurie to the theater. the literary Jo particularly dislikes when Amy uses big words. In revenge. She composes plays for her sisters to perform and writes stories that she eventually gets published. her dreams and dislikes are turned topsy-turvy. Meg bears twin children. Meg is employed as a governess for the Kings. her kittens. Because of the genteel social standing of her family. and later she visits her friend Annie Moffat and discovers that her family believes Mrs. Amy March Laurence The youngest sister—age twelve when the story begins—Amy is interested in art. Laurie's tutor. She is described by the author as a 'regular snow-maiden' with curly golden hair and blue eyes. She is never idle. although she's not sure what that might be – perhaps writing a great novel. cleaning Polly's cage. and her beloved dolls. In her last year. John Brooke. Jo hopes to do something great when she grows up. sewing towels (for Aunt Josephine March) she curls up in her room.[5] She is dissatisfied with the shape of her nose which she attempts to fix with a clothespin. who rarely leaves her side. a sweet mouth. Beth puts down her sewing needle. As Jo discovers her feminine side." Jo also loves literature. Meg is allowed into society. saying that it grew "so heavy". or outside. She is considered the beauty of the March household (written as very pretty. the entire family nurses her . but she did find it. 'pale and slender' and 'always carrying herself' like a very proper young lady. Meg learns that true worth does not lie with money. Whatever it is. Often "petted" because she is the youngest. plump and fair. Beth wonders what will become of her. with large eyes. after a few disappointing experiences (first. Meg also guards Amy from Jo when the two quarrel. piano. and throws tantrums when she is unhappy. Meg runs the household when her mother is absent. 120 Margaret "Meg" March Brooke At sixteen. When Beth's health eventually begins a rapid decline. Margaret "Daisy" and John Brooke "Demi" (short for Demi-John). She falls in love with Mr. of which she is rather vain) and she is well-mannered. By the end of the novel. burning years of . They separate a room for her. She is "cool.

Robert "Father" March: Formerly wealthy. Hannah Mullet: The March family maid. There he meets up with Amy March and the two eventually fall for each other. Mr. and their general disregard for the more superficial aspects of society's ways. Under Jo's horrified stare. Uncle and Aunt Carrol: Sister and brother-in-law of Mr. and as an orphan. convincing Meg to affiance herself with the young man. Laurence. She refuses. Amy is sent to stay with Aunt March as a safety precaution. In Europe. curly black hair. She is of Irish descent and very dear to the family. When Aunt March overhears Meg rejecting John's declaration of love. they marry. he falls in love with Meg. and often at odds with his high-spirited grandson. Amy is invited to accompany Uncle and Aunt Carrol and cousin Flo on a European trip. Laurie lives with his overprotective grandfather. and shortly after Beth dies. he serves as a colonel in the Union Army and is wounded in December 1862. She confesses to Jo (after the argument with Amy) that her temper is as volatile as Jo's own. Aunt Josephine March: Mr. tender friendship with Beth. March's aunt. and he gives Beth his daughter's piano. Somewhat temperamental and prone to being judgmental. Eventually Meg admits her feelings to Brooke. she disapproves of the family's poverty. Brooke serves in the Union Army for a year and is invalided home after being wounded. Amy falls through the ice. Amy gives birth to daughter Elizabeth (Beth or Bess). He protects the March sisters while their parents are away. Jo's anger dissolves and the two become more close. Laurence persuades Laurie to go abroad with him to Europe. because she believes herself to be lacking in talent. usually through experiments. When Laurie leaves for college. Although she enjoys travelling. She is treated more like a member of the family than a servant. He develops a special. Laurie falls in love with Jo and after her return from New York City. Later. a rich widow. Lonely in his mansion. Brooke becomes the proverbial 'last straw'. 121 Additional characters Margaret "Marmee" March: The girls' mother and head of household while her husband is away at war. and out of pity. it is implied that he helped friends who could not repay a debt. resulting in the family's poverty. When Beth is ill with scarlet fever. he finds comfort in becoming a benefactor to the Marches. March to Washington D. shortly before their return home to America. she threatens Meg with disinheritance on the basis that Brooke is only interested in Meg's future prospects. Realizing she might have lost her sister. he offers to marry her. Theodore "Laurie" Laurence: A rich young man who is a neighbor to the March family. and is rescued by Laurie's prompt intervention. He was a friend to Mrs March's father. with black eyes. Amy gives up her art. March. their charitable work. as Amy's natural grace and docility are more to her taste.C. Aunt March grows fond of her. but that she has learned to control it. Mr. but she arrives at the lake too late to hear Laurie's warning about rotten ice. Her vociferous disapproval of Meg's impending engagement to the impoverished Mr. and small hands and feet. when her husband is ill. He is described as attractive and charming. and they are engaged. When Laurie and Jo go skating. James Laurence: A wealthy neighbor to the Marches and Laurie's grandfather. John Brooke: During his employment with the Laurences as a tutor to Laurie. Amy meets up with Laurie. He accompanies Mrs. John Brooke. In the second book. who reminds him of his deceased granddaughter.Little Women work. Laurence as an assistant. A scholar and a minister. Both died young. she boxes Amy's ears and tells her. Laurie is preparing to enter at Harvard and is being tutored by Mr. She engages in charitable works and attempts to guide her girls' morals and to shape their characters. "I'll never forgive you! Never!" Amy's attempt to apologize to Jo are unsuccessful. and admires their charitable works. They later marry while still in Europe. . Brooke marries Meg a few years later when the war has ended and she has turned twenty. Laurie's father had eloped with an Italian pianist and was disowned. brown skin. Amy tags along after them. they defy Aunt March (who ends up accepting the marriage). after seeing the works of artists such as Michelangelo and Raphael. Mr. Brooke continues his employment with Mr. Laurie was sent to live with his grandfather. When Jo discovers this.

Kirke's parlor. Alcott "anticipated realism by twenty or thirty years. Miss Norton: A worldly tenant living in Mrs. Tina: The small daughter of Mrs.000 copies sold out quickly and more printings were soon ordered but the company had trouble keeping up with demand. The Gardiners: Wealthy friends of Meg's. and their own sons. firewood. She occasionally takes Jo under her wing and entertains her. They are not described any further in the book. Mrs. Kirke: A friend of Mrs March's who runs a boarding house in New York. They announced: "The great literary hit of the season is undoubtedly Miss Alcott's Little Women. Jackson recently argued that Alcott's use of realism belongs to the American Protestant pedagogical tradition that includes a range of religious literary traditions with which Alcott was familiar. Kirke's boarding house and works as a language master. "is one of the really human things in human literature. in part. K. Kirke's boarding house. Three of the children die of scarlet fever and Beth contracts it while caring for them. encouraging her to become a serious writer instead of writing "sensation" stories for weekly tabloids."[7] Gregory S. The Gardiners are portrayed as goodhearted but vapid. The two eventually marry."[3] Alcott delivered the manuscript for the second part on New Year's Day 1869. only three months after publication of part one. 122 Publication history The first volume of Little Women was published by Roberts Brothers in 1868. comprises Book I's plot structure. seeing some of his students in Mrs.[6] Response G. Kirke's French washerwoman: she is a favorite of Professor Bhaer's. Rob and Teddy. blankets and other comforts. The nineteenth-century images he produces of devotional guides for children provides an interesting background for the game of "playing pilgrim" that. The Kings: A wealthy family who employs Meg as a governess." and that Fritz's proposal to Jo. She employs Jo as governess to her two girls. Franz and Emil Hoffmann: Mr.[8] . Professor Friedrich "Fritz" Bhaer: A poor German immigrant who was a famous professor in Berlin but now lives in Mrs. the orders for which continue to flow in upon us to such an extent as to make it impossible to answer them with promptness. The first printing of 2. Chesterton noted that in Little Women. Bhaer's two nephews whom he looks after following the death of his sister. raise Fritz's two orphaned nephews. Franz and Emil. Marmee and the girls help them by bringing food. Franz is two years older than Emil.Little Women The Hummels: A poor German family consisting of a widowed mother and seven children. and her acceptance. He and Jo become friendly and he subtly critiques Jo's writing.

K. R. Jo. Norton & Company. [4] Matteson. 1974: 36. Jackson. 2009: 125-156. 5. New York: R. Norton & Company. W. 2007: 335–336. W.html) for Little Women at Web English Teacher . [7] G. [6] Matteson. New York: W. R. ISBN 13: 978-0-226-39004-8. Bowker Company. Charles A. New York: W. Eden's Outcasts: The Story of Louisa May Alcott and Her Father. ISBN 978-0-393-33359-6. Irving to Irving: Author-Publisher Relations 1800–1974. .Little Women 123 References [1] Madison. New York: R. "The Word and Its Witness: The Spiritualization of American Realism. [8] Gregory S. [5] Louisa May Alcott (1880). Charles A. [3] Madison. John. 1974: 37. Bowker Company. Little women: or. 2007: 335–. W. 2007: 345. com/ books?id=_TDZogFTvDUC& printsec=frontcover& source=gbs_navlinks_s#v=onepage& q& f=false). google. ISBN 978-0-393-33359-6.com/alcott. Meg.webenglishteacher. Eden's Outcasts: The Story of Louisa May Alcott and Her Father. Irving to Irving: Author-Publisher Relations 1800–1974. Retrieved 2010-05-31. External links • Little Women (http://www. p. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-33359-6. ISBN 0-8352-0772-2. John." Chicago: Chicago The University of the Frankfort Christian Academy. John Wilson and Son Cambridge." in A Handful of Authors. [2] Matteson. "Louisa Alcott. New York: W. Beth and Amy (http:/ / books. Eden's Outcasts: The Story of Louisa May Alcott and Her Father. John. Chesterton.org/etext/514) at Project Gutenberg • Lesson plans (http://www. ISBN 0-8352-0772-2.gutenberg.

The story is set in the Town of "St. However. he loses much of his glory when. it is only necessary to make the thing difficult to attain. After playing hooky from school on Friday and dirtying his clothes in a fight. Picaresque. Tom is made to whitewash the fence as punishment on Saturday. At first. in response to a question to show off his knowledge. Satire. he incorrectly answers that the first two disciples were David and . Missouri. He trades the treasures he got by tricking his friends for whitewashing for tickets given out in Sunday school for memorizing Bible verses. Folk. Plot In the 1840s an imaginative and mischievous boy named Tom Sawyer lives with his Aunt Polly and his half-brother. However. where Mark Twain lived. Sid. he soon cleverly persuades his friends to trade him small treasures for the privilege of doing his work. in the Mississippi River town of St. inspired by Hannibal. Later. Petersburg. Missouri. Tom is disappointed by having to forfeit his day off. which can be used to claim a Bible as a prize. he realizes that in order to make a man or a boy covet a thing.The Adventures of Tom Sawyer 124 The Adventures of Tom Sawyer The Adventures of Tom Sawyer Front piece of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer Author(s) Cover artist Country Language Genre(s) Publisher Publication date Media type Pages ISBN OCLC Number Dewey Decimal Mark Twain aka Samuel Clemens created by Mark Twain United States English Bildungsroman. He received enough tickets to be given the Bible. Petersburg".T88 Ad 2001 Preceded by Followed by The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today A Tramp Abroad The Adventures of Tom Sawyer by Mark Twain is an 1876 novel about a young boy growing up along the Mississippi River. Children's Novel American Publishing Company 1876 [1] Print (Hardback & Paperback) 1111pp NA 47052486 Fic] 22 [2] LC Classification PZ7.

Muff Potter. That same night. Tom takes Huck to the cave and they find the box of gold. trapped inside. overcome by guilt. Petersburg. From their hiding spot. starring Jackie Coogan as Tom • A 1936 Soviet Union version. Summer arrives. Becky kisses Tom. Back in school. they become suspicious that someone is sharing their hiding place and carry the gold off instead of reburying it. Peering through holes in the floor. When they see Tom and Huck's tools. the proceeds of which are invested for them. Potter is wrongfully arrested. Tom finds a way out. and Tom. Tom and Becky get lost in the cave. Tom. and Tom and Huck go hunting for buried treasure in a haunted house. Tom falls in love with Becky Thatcher. Soon. a new girl in town.[3] [4] 125 Adaptations and influences Film • Tom Sawyer (1930 film). He follows and overhears their plans to attack the Widow Douglas. and Becky's father. Their return is met with great rejoicing. Tom and Huck run away and swear a blood oath not to tell anyone what they have seen. plan to bury some stolen treasure of their own. directed by John Cromwell. Muff Potter's trial begins. Huck sees Injun Joe and his partner making off with a box. Huck. the son of the town drunk. It starred Tommy Kelly as Tom and was directed by Norman Taurog. just as the searchers are giving up. directed by Lazar Frenkel and Gleb Zatvornitsky • In 1938 The Adventures of Tom Sawyer was filmed in Technicolor by the Selznick Studio. A week later. Tom gets himself back in Becky's favor after he nobly accepts the blame for a book that she has ripped. and. looking for a way out of the cave. The horror of the situation increases when Tom. . and persuades her to get "engaged" by kissing him. and Tom's friend Joe Harper run away to an island to become pirates. they witness the murder of young Dr. Tom promises him that if he returns to the widow. Scared. the boys become aware that the community is sounding the river for their bodies. and they become the envy and admiration of all their friends. Tom accompanies Huckleberry Finn. Tom goes on a picnic to McDougal's Cave with Becky and their classmates. for the crime. Tom sneaks back home one night to observe the commotion. when Huck attempts to escape civilized life. but Injun Joe flees the courtroom through a window. watching for an opportunity to nab the gold. Judge Thatcher. Huck agrees. starves to death. Potter is acquitted. Tom and Becky run out of food and candles and begin to weaken. an unkempt man. a kind resident of St. and their absence is not discovered until the following morning. After venturing upstairs they hear a noise below. Tom is struck by the idea of appearing at his funeral and surprising everyone. He persuades Joe and Huck to do the same. they see Injun Joe enter the house disguised as a deaf and mute Spaniard. By an amazing coincidence. who is using the cave as a hideout. but to no avail. Most notable was the cave sequence designed by William Cameron Menzies. While frolicking around and enjoying their new found freedom. Injun Joe and his partner find a buried box of gold themselves. At the graveyard. Injun Joe frames his companion. but their romance collapses when she learns that Tom has been "engaged" previously — to a girl named Amy Lawrence. The men of the town begin to search for them. The town celebrates. Tom and Huck wriggle with delight at the prospect of digging it up.The Adventures of Tom Sawyer Goliath. By running to fetch help. a hapless drunk. Huck begins to shadow Injun Joe every night. Eventually. Huck forestalls the violence and becomes an anonymous hero. Meanwhile. Shortly after being shunned by Becky. The Widow Douglas adopts Huck. and Tom's anxiety and guilt begin to grow. Robinson by the Native-American "half-breed" Injun Joe. happens upon Injun Joe. testifies against Injun Joe. to the graveyard at night to try out a "cure" for warts with a dead cat. locks up the cave. Injun Joe. After a brief moment of remorse at the suffering of his loved ones. He and his companion. he can join Tom's robber band. Reluctantly.

14. Boyd's musical version (re-titled Tom Sawyer) was presented professionally at Theatre Royal Stratford East in London. Literature Don Borchert's The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and The Undead is a retelling of the story set in an alternate universe with a zombie outbreak. directed by Wolfgang Liebeneiner. The choreographer was William Whitener. A musical adaption. a 1981 Soviet Union version directed by Stanislav Govorukhin. England. including country singers Rhett Akins (as Tom). artistic director of the Kansas City Ballet. a musical adaptation of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. music and lyrics by Tom Boyd. with book. aired in the United States on HBO • The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn (Приключения Тома Сойера и Гекльберри Финна). The Hartford Stage presented a theatrical adaptation entitled Mark Twain's The Adventures of Tom Sawyer [5] as part of a centennial observation of Mark Twain's passing. Waylon Jennings and Hank Williams Jr. • A TV movie version sponsored by Dr Pepper was released that same year. In 1960. . Another musical adaptation is Mississippi Melody. • Huckleberry Finn and His Friends (1979 TV series) • The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (anime) (1980). It starred Buddy Ebsen as Muff Potter and was filmed in Upper Canada Village. • A 1984 Canadian claymation version produced by Hal Roach studios • Tom and Huck (1995). was presented by the students at the Guildhall School of Music and Drama. part of the World Masterpiece Theater. England. starring Roland Demongeot as Tom and Marc Di Napoli as Huck • The New Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1968) was a half-hour live-action/animated series produced by Hanna-Barbera Productions • A 1969 Mexican film called Las Aventuras de Juliancito • Tom Sawyer (1973 film). 2011 at the Kauffman Center for the Performing Arts in Kansas City. a musical by Jack Hylton. The score was by Broadway composer Maury Yeston. In April 2010. Mo.The Adventures of Tom Sawyer • A 1968 French/German made-for-television miniseries. German Film directed by Hermine Huntgeburth 126 Theatrical In 1956 'We're From Missouri'. Lee Ann Womack. Gloucestershire. entitled "A Tail in Twain". as well as Betty White as Aunt Polly • Tom Sawyer appears as a United States Secret Service agent in the 2003 movie The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen • Tom Sawyer (2011). starring Jonathan Taylor Thomas as Tom and Brad Renfro as Huck Finn • A 1995 episode for the PBS television series Wishbone. • A 2000 animated adaptation. a Japanese anime TV series by Nippon Animation. featuring the characters as anthropomorphic animals with an all-star voice cast. Ballet "Tom Sawyer: A Ballet in Three Acts" received its world premiere Oct.Tom Boyd's musical of TOM SAWYER was produced again in April and June 2010 in Cirencester. and in 1961 toured provincial theatres in England. Mark Wills (as Huck Finn).

[4] "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. . 2011-09-29. html).The Adventures of Tom Sawyer 127 Internet On November 30. php). sparknotes.html) ."Mark Twain.org/tom-sawyer-by-mark-twain) • Twain. html External links • The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. Music A song called Tom Sawyer is featured on the Canadian rock band Rush's eighth studio album Moving Pictures.virginia. [2] http:/ / worldcat.php) (PDF available) • Free audio book at LibriVox (http://librivox.org/etext/74) • The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (http://www. 2011 to celebrate Twain’s 176th birthday. • The Adventures of Tom Sawyer with embedded audio (http://publicliterature. Retrieved 2011-10-10.edu/books/pages/1693002. com/ lit/ tomsawyer/ summary. 1900's.shmoop. 2010. Mark. University of California Press.ucpress. References [1] Facsimile of the original 1st edition.gutenberg. org/ files/ shows/ mark_twains_the_adventures_of_tom_sawyer/ ts_portal/ index. SparkNotes. University of Virginia Library.com/tom-sawyer/) guide for students and teachers • First edition illustrations by True Williams (http://djelibeibi. Classic [5] http:/ / hartfordstage.unex. the Google doodle was a scene from The Adventures of Tom Sawyer.edu/toc/modeng/public/ Twa2Tom. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (http://etext. 135th Anniversary Edition (http://www. 1835-1910.org/books/tom_sawyer/xaa. • Project Gutenberg ebook in various formats (http://www. org/ oclc/ 47052486 [3] "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer: Plot Overview" (http:/ / www.Free eBook in HTML format at the Electronic Text Center.es/libros/Williams/) .

Kemble TAYLOR United Kingdom / United States English 27 Satirical novel Chatto & Windus / Charles L. The book is noted for its colorful description of people and places along the Mississippi River. Webster And Company. is in fact anti-racist. Commonly named among the Great American Novels. and the tenor of the book. W. the work is among the first in major American literature to be written in the vernacular. It is told in the first person by Huckleberry "Huck" Finn. despite strong arguments that the protagonist. characterized by local color regionalism. Perennially popular with readers. first published in England in December 1884 and in the United States in February 1885. Satirizing a Southern antebellum society that had ceased to exist about twenty years before the work was published. It is a sequel to The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. It was criticized upon release because of its coarse language and became even more controversial in the 20th century because of its perceived use of racial stereotypes and because of its frequent use of the racial slur "nigger". The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is an often scathing look at entrenched attitudes.[3] [4] . Publication date 1884 UK & Canada [1] 1885 United States Media type Pages ISBN OCLC Number Preceded by Followed by Print (hardcover) 366 NAA 29489461 [2] Life on the Mississippi A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is a novel by Mark Twain. Detective). The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn has also been the continued object of study by serious literary critics since its publication. particularly racism.Adventures of Huckleberry Finn 128 Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Adventures of Huckleberry Finn 1st edition book cover Author(s) Illustrator Cover artist Country Language Series Genre(s) Publisher Mark Twain E. a friend of Tom Sawyer and narrator of two other Twain novels (Tom Sawyer Abroad and Tom Sawyer.

The sabotage was discovered while the book was at press and the offending plate was replaced. Beginning with a few pages he had removed from the earlier novel. In 1991. opened the Mark Twain Room in its Central Library to showcase the treasure. Essayist and critic Spencer Neve asserts that this absence represents the "never fulfilled anticipations" of Huck's adventures—while Tom's adventures were completed (at least at the time) by the end of his novel. 1884. without you have read a book by the name of 'The Adventures of Tom Sawyer'.[8] A later version was the first typewritten manuscript delivered to a printer. Upon completion. "You do not know about me". A new plate was made to correct the illustration and repair the existing copies. He initially wrote. the novel's title closely paralleled its predecessor's: Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (Tom Sawyer's Comrade). Twain began work on a manuscript he originally titled Huckleberry Finn's Autobiography. Huck's narrative ends with his declared intention to head West.[8] Adventures of Huckleberry Finn was eventually published on December 10. 1885. Twain revised the opening line of Huck Finn three times.Adventures of Huckleberry Finn 129 Publication history Twain initially conceived of the work as a sequel to The Adventures of Tom Sawyer that would follow Huckleberry Finn through adulthood.[9] In 1885.[6] Mark Twain composed the story in pen on notepaper between 1876 and 1883. He appeared to have lost interest in the manuscript while it was in progress. believing the other half to have been lost by the printer. and set it aside for several years. "You will not know about me". which he changed to. in the United States. before settling on the final version. James Fraser Gluck. Twain returned to his work on the novel. the missing half turned up in a steamer trunk owned by descendants of Gluck. Thirty thousand copies of the book had been printed before the obscenity was discovered. The Library successfully proved possession and. made a last-minute addition to the printing plate of Kemble’s picture of old Silas Phelps. For example.[7] The revisions also show how Twain reworked his material to strengthen the characters of Huck and Jim. Twain sent half of the pages.[11] . approached Twain to donate the manuscript to the Library. in 1994.[10] versions with the so-called "curved fly" are valuable collectors items. who supervised the authentication of the manuscript for Sotheby's books and manuscripts department in New York in 1991. Twain worked on the manuscript off and on for the next several years. Paul Needham.[9] The illustration on page 283 became a point of issue after an engraver. stated. ultimately abandoning his original plan of following Huck's development into adulthood. "You don't know about me. "What you see is [Clemens'] attempt to move away from pure literary writing to dialect writing". After making a trip down the Mississippi. but that ain't no matter". Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn does not have the definite article "the" as a part of its proper title. the corrected plate being slightly altered in the area of Silas Phelps’ trousers fly. and on February 18. in Canada and England. In the mischievous tradition of graffiti he drew in a line outlining the bulge against inside of pants of a male sex organ. the Buffalo Public Library's curator. whose identity was never discovered.[5] Mark Twain Unlike The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. as well as his sensitivity to the then-current debate over literacy and voting.

Later. The Floating House and Huck as a Girl While living quite comfortably in the wilderness along the Mississippi. Thomas 'Tom' Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn. have each come into a considerable sum of money as a result of their earlier adventures (The Adventures of Tom Sawyer). Her suspicions are confirmed after she puts Huck through a series of tests. but finds civilized life confining. as depicted by E. and sets off down the Mississippi River. who is accused of killing Huck. Huck is conflicted over whether to tell someone about Jim's running away. an abusive parent and drunkard. thinking she won't recognize him. Huck happily encounters Miss Watson's slave Jim on an island called Jackson's Island. As they talk. Huck and Jim take up in a cavern on a hill on Jackson's Island to wait out a storm. but allows him to run off. Huck begins to know more about Jim's past and his difficult life. W. Entering one room. who plot to carry out adventurous crimes. she tells Huck there is a $300 reward for Jim. Huck has been placed under the guardianship of the Widow Douglas. Huck begins to change his opinion about people. sometime between 1835 (when the first steamboat sailed down the Mississippi[12] ) and 1845. helping Huck escape at night from the house. Huck escapes from the cabin. who. where he meets Jim. wood. and life in general. Jim finds a man lying dead on the floor. Huck appreciates their efforts. past Miss Watson's slave. They meet up with Tom Sawyer's self-proclaimed gang. Missouri. are attempting to civilize him. As these talks continue. In the beginning of the story. At first. they find an entire house floating down the river and enter it to grab what they can. slavery. together with her sister. Huck dresses as a girl and goes into town. elaborately fakes his own death. Although Huck is successful in preventing his Pap from acquiring his fortune. Two young boys. after he overheard Miss Watson acknowledging that she intended to sell Jim downriver. When they can. but as they travel together and talk in depth. He enters the house of a woman new to the area. One night. Pap forcibly gains custody of Huck and the two move to the backwoods where Huck is kept locked inside his father's cabin. This continues throughout the rest of the novel. so he can buy his family's freedom. and other items. Jim. they find a raft they will eventually use to travel down the Mississippi. Jim refuses to let Huck see the man's face. Illinois and then to Ohio. Life is changed by the sudden appearance of Huck's shiftless father "Pap". Kemble in the original 1884 edition of the book. Miss Watson. and the two load up the raft and leave the island. shot in the back while apparently trying to ransack the house.Adventures of Huckleberry Finn 130 Plot summary Life in St. Huckleberry Finn. Petersburg The story begins in fictional Langlem. on the shores of the Mississippi River. a free state. they scrounge around the river looking for food. where conditions for slaves were even harsher. To find out the latest news in the area. and Huck learns that he has also run away. Tom Sawyer appears briefly. Jim is trying to make his way to Cairo. . He returns to the island and tells Jim of the manhunt. She first becomes suspicious when he threads a needle incorrectly. because he would bring a price of $800. Equally dissatisfied with life with his father. She cleverly tricks him into revealing he is a boy.

One man in town is certain that they are a fraud and confronts them on the matter. Somebody in the crowd. cries out that Sherburn should be lynched. and together with Huck and Jim. despite the church's preachings on brotherly love.) The townspeople devise a test. saying. The only lynching to be done here. Upon seeing Buck's corpse. later reuniting with Jim and the raft and together fleeing farther south on the Mississippi River. a man of about thirty. Boggs continues and Colonel Sherburn kills him. the two grifters test the next town. has his arm in a sling and cannot currently write. introduces himself as a son of an English duke (the Duke of Bridgewater) and his father's rightful successor. a recently deceased man of property. although Grangerfords elsewhere survive to carry on the feud. when he is in danger of being discovered. The older one. a drunk called Boggs arrives in town and makes a nuisance of himself by going around threatening a southern gentleman by the name of Colonel Sherburn. the Duke. The Duke and the King then join Jim and Huck on the raft. In the resulting conflict. Both families bring guns to continue the feud. Using an absurd English accent. The King boldly states his intention to continue to liquidate Wilks' estate. which is buried the next morning without Huck knowing whether the money has been found or not. At one o'clock. who join Huck and Jim on the raft. so he tries to thwart the grifters' plans by stealing back the inheritance money. by men wearing masks. the Shepherdsons. who is standing on his porch carrying a loaded rifle. (The deaf-mute brother. a preacher just arrived from England. the son of Louis XVI and rightful King of France. a prosperous local family. committing a series of confidence schemes on the way south. but the crowd refuse to support him. about seventy. out of fear. says Sherburn. The Duke and the King Further down the river. Huck is given shelter by the Grangerfords. which requires digging up the coffin to check. Sophia Grangerford. Sherburn comes out and warns Boggs that he can continue threatening him up until exactly one o'clock. However. However. separating the two. Afterwards. By the third night of "The Royal Nonesuch". . he has to hide it in Wilks' coffin. but the Duke and the King have already skipped town. To allow for Jim's presence. and decide to impersonate two brothers of Peter Wilks. a boy about his age. the King manages to convince nearly all the townspeople that he is one of the brothers. then trumps the Duke's claim by alleging that he is actually the Lost Dauphin. they continue down the river. the townspeople are ready to take their revenge. not worth anywhere near the 50 cents the townsmen were charged to see it. by making a defiant speech telling them about the essential cowardice of "Southern justice". whom Sherburn later identifies as Buck Harkness.Adventures of Huckleberry Finn 131 The Grangerfords and the Shepherdsons Huck and Jim's raft is swamped by a passing steamship. On the afternoon of the first performance. Once they are far enough away. He causes them to back down. The arrival of two new men who seem to be the real brothers throws everything into confusion when none of their signatures match the one on record. and later they paint him up entirely in blue and call him the "Sick Arab". Jim and Huck rescue two cunning grifters. where they are met by Sherburn. and learns that the Grangerfords are engaged in a 30-year blood feud against another family. who is said to do the correspondence. The vendetta comes to a head when Buck's sister. suggests to the King that they should cut and run. they print fake bills for an escaped slave. "Hain't we got all the fools in town on our side? And ain't that a big enough majority in any town?" Huck likes Wilks' daughters. Huck does describe how he narrowly avoids his own death in the gunfight. On one occasion they arrive in a town and advertise a three-night engagement of a play which they call "The Royal Nonesuch". Huck is too devastated to write about everything that happened. He continually misprounounces the duke's title as "Bilgewater" in conversation. while the Duke pretends to be a deaf-mute to match accounts of the other brother. He becomes friends with Buck Grangerford. The play turns out to be only a couple of minutes of hysterical cavorting. will be in the dark. elopes with Harney Shepherdson. who treat him with kindness and courtesy. They all head up to Colonel Sherburn's gate. all the Grangerford males from this branch of the family are shot and killed. The Grangerfords and Shepherdsons go to church. The younger of the two swindlers.

events quickly resolve themselves. a rope ladder sent in Jim's food.. and beat him. risking recapture. Jim is being held at the plantation of Silas and Sally Phelps. During the resulting pursuit. Huck resolves to free Jim. Huck declares that he is quite glad to be done writing his story. Accepting that "All right. and while he is unable to consciously refute those values even in his thoughts. and goes on to describe the novel as ". lynchings. hidden tunnels. and other elements from popular novels. he betrays him to a passing skiff. Petersburg.Twain took aim squarely against racial prejudice. Huck rejects the advice of his "conscience". In the final narrative. Outraged by this betrayal. pretending to be his younger half-brother Sid. Huck is mistaken for Tom. I'll go to hell!". involving secret messages. Mark Twain in his lecture notes proposes that "a sound heart is a surer guide than an ill-trained conscience". and anxious for freedom". Conclusion After Jim's recapture. and the generally accepted belief that blacks were sub-human. Jim tells Huck that Huck's father has been dead for some time (he was the dead man they found in the floating house) and that Huck may return safely to St. deeply loving.. When Huck escapes – which anyone would agree was the right thing to do – he then immediately encounters Jim "illegally" doing the same thing. the King takes advantage of Huck's temporary absence to sell his interest in the "escaped" slave Jim for forty dollars.[3] [4] Throughout the story. the Duke and the King are able to escape in the confusion. He plays along. When Huck intercepts Tom on the road and tells him everything. rising segregation.[14] However. so this time the townspeople are ready for them. He wrote during the post-Civil War period when there was an intense white reaction against blacks. He "made it clear that Jim was good.a book of mine where a sound heart and a deformed conscience come into collision and conscience suffers defeat". hoping to find Jim's location and free him. Jim has also told the household about the two grifters and the new plan for "The Royal Nonesuch". then. Huck has long known Jim was "white on the inside". Jim remains with him rather than completing his escape. citing the use of the word "nigger" and Jim's Sambo-like character. which continues to tell him that in helping Jim escape to freedom. since he had thought he had escaped them. Tom develops an elaborate plan to free him. others have criticized the novel as racist. Tom's Aunt Polly arrives and reveals Huck's and Tom's true identities. The Duke and King are captured by the townspeople. he makes a moral choice based on his own valuation of Jim's friendship and human worth.[15] To highlight the hypocrisy required to condone slavery within an ostensibly moral system. They manage to rejoin Huck and Jim on the raft to Huck's utter despair. Tom is shot in the leg. Tom decides to join Huck's scheme. Twain has Huck's father enslave him. Major themes Twain wrote a novel that embodies the search for freedom. a decision in direct opposition to the things he has been taught. he is stealing Miss Watson's property. Although the doctor admires Jim's decency. [16] . but Tom chose not to reveal Jim's freedom so he could come up with an elaborate plan to rescue Jim. Since Tom is expected for a visit. Rather than simply sneaking Jim out of the shed where he is being held.[13] including a note to the Phelps warning them of a gang planning to steal their runaway slave. and are tarred and feathered and ridden out of town on a rail. Huck intends to flee west to Indian Territory. human.Adventures of Huckleberry Finn When the money is found in Wilks' coffin. 132 Jim's escape After the four fugitives have drifted far enough from the town. and despite Sally's plans to adopt and "sivilize" him. Tom announces that Jim is a free man: Miss Watson died two months earlier and freed Jim in her will. Huck is in moral conflict with the received values of the society in which he lives. isolate him. Tom's aunt and uncle. and Jim is captured while sleeping and returned to the Phelps family.

who not only permitted but compelled me to read an unexpurgated Bible through before I was 15 years old.) Writer Louisa May Alcott criticized the book’s publication as well. The rest is just cheating. The mind that becomes soiled in youth can never again be washed clean. He cautioned. Many Twain scholars have argued that the book. and therefore resorted to minstrel . and hailed it as "the best book we've had". he thinks it contains but thinks Huck is a ghost little humor. including Leslie Fiedler.[18] According to Professor Stephen Railton of the University of Virginia.[18] The early criticism focused on what was perceived as the book's crudeness. New York’s Brooklyn Public Library also banned the book due to bad word choice and Huck having “not only itched but scratched” within the novel.[20] Many subsequent critics. "If you must read it you must stop where the Nigger Jim is stolen from the boys. but the novel was controversial from the outset. "All modern American literature comes from" Huck Finn. claiming the book "devolves into little more than minstrel-show satire and broad comedy" after Jim is detained. Kemble. the whole book being more suited to the slums than to intelligent. in a letter Huck writes to Mrs. coarse. the Concord library has condemned Huck as 'trash and only suitable for the slums. while he In this scene illustrated by E. by humanizing Jim and exposing the fallacies of the racist assumptions of slavery. it continued to be used by twentieth century critics. characterizing it as rough. I know this by my own experience. dealing with a series of experiences not elevating. W. which was considered obscene. That is the real end. None can do that and ever draw a clean sweet breath again on this side of the grave. in Chapter XXXI.[17] Upon issue of the American edition in 1885 a number of libraries banned it from their stacks. and that of a very coarse type. "Apparently. but they are not used as a name. respectable people. & to this day I cherish an unappeased bitterness against the unfaithful guardians of my young life.[24] Controversy Much modern scholarship of Huckleberry Finn has focused on its treatment of race. One incident was recounted in the newspaper. Twain replied: I am greatly troubled by what you say. in which Tom Sawyer leads Huck through elaborate machinations to rescue Jim.[21] Hemingway declared.[19] When asked by a Brooklyn librarian about the situation. Ernest Hemingway among them.' This will sell us another twenty-five thousand copies for sure!" Soon after. & it always distressed me when I find that boys and girls have been allowed access to them. especially in its depiction of Jim. saying that if Twain "[could not] think of something better to tell our pure-minded lads and lasses he had best stop writing for them". however. the Boston Transcript: The Concord (Mass. have deprecated the final chapters.) Public Library committee has decided to exclude Mark Twain's latest book from the library. One member of the committee says that. Twain was unable to fully rise above the stereotypes of black people that white readers of his era expected and enjoyed.[23] Pulitzer Prize winner Ron Powers states in his Twain biography (Mark Twain: A Life) that "Huckleberry Finn endures as a consensus masterpiece despite these final chapters".[25] Others have argued that the book falls short on this score. and inelegant. and Russell Baker.[18] Twain later remarked to his editor. Jim does not wish to call it immoral. is an attack on racism. Watson."[22] (The words "nigger" and "Jim" appear side-by-side once in the novel.Adventures of Huckleberry Finn 133 Reception The publication of Adventures of Huckleberry Finn resulted in generally friendly reviews. I wrote 'Tom Sawyer' & 'Huck Finn' for adults exclusively. Norman Mailer. The library and the other members of the committee entertain similar views. After "nigger Jim" appears in Albert Bigelow Paine's 1912 Clemens biography. He regards it as the veriest trash. in 1905.

If the publication sparks good debate about how language impacts learning or about the nature of censorship or the way in which racial slurs exercise their baneful influence. public school system—this questioning of the word “nigger” is illustrated by a school administrator of Virginia in 1982 calling the novel the "most grotesque example of racism I’ve ever seen in my life". he states that all "novels that use the ‘N-word’ repeatedly need to go". and because the word "nigger" is frequently used in the novel. and that by removing these books from the reading lists. and ban the book based on the feelings of the Mohamed family.[28] There have been several more recent cases involving protests for the banning of the novel. replaced the word "nigger" with "slave" (although being incorrectly addressed to a freed man) and did not use the term "Injun". many have questioned the appropriateness of teaching the book in the U. though not from any public libraries.[26] In one instance. asking for the novel to be removed from the English curriculum. The book's description includes this statement "Thanks to editor Richard Grayson. Beatrice Clark. the adventures of Huckleberry Finn are now neither offensive nor uncool. give sensitivity training to all the teachers. John Foley. 'Why would a child like Huck use such reprehensible language?'". According to him. The teacher. Huckleberry Finn was the fifth most-frequently-challenged book in the United States during the 1990s. then our mission in publishing this new edition of Twain’s works will be more emphatically fulfilled. and ended up confirming rather than challenging late-19th century racist stereotypes. student."[35] Another scholar. but difficult due to the offensive language within the novel with many students becoming uncomfortable at "just hear[ing] the N-word". The two curriculum committees that considered her request eventually decided to keep the novel on the 11th grade curriculum. though officials apologized for the teacher’s blunt actions and tone.[30] In 2009 a Washington state high school teacher called for the removal of the novel from a school curriculum. Texas. Thomas Wortham. He states that teaching the novel is not only unnecessary. the school board said it would try to find better ways in which to present the novel and its controversial content to students. “Does it offend you? It hurts. the controversy caused a drastically altered interpretation of the text: In 1955. criticized the changes. who said the change was made to better express Twain's ideas in the 21st century. Mohamed’s mother wanted the book banned.[29] In 2007 Ibrahim Mohamed.[19] Because of this controversy over whether Huckleberry Finn is racist or anti-racist.[33] Gribben said he hoped the edition would be more friendly for use in classrooms."[37] 134 . Washington. In response. Clark filed a request with the school district in response to the required reading of the book. requested the word “nigger” be changed to “the N-word”.S.[31] In an opinion column that Foley wrote in the Seattle Post Intelligencer.[32] A 2011 edition of the book.[34] According to publisher Suzanne La Rosa "At NewSouth. published by NewSouth Books. In 2003 high school student Calista Phair and her grandmother. though they suspended it until a panel had time to review the novel and set a specific teaching procedure for the novel and its controversial topics. we saw the value in an edition that would help the works find new readers.[27] According to the American Library Association. they would be following this change. doesn’t it?” The exercise that was being done was to put the word into proper context for students.Adventures of Huckleberry Finn show-style comedy to provide humor at Jim's expense. in Renton. proposed banning the book from classroom learning in the Renton School District. CBS tried to avoid controversial material in a televised version of the book. He views this change as “common sense”. saying the new edition "doesn't challenge children to ask. A group called “The Coalition to Stop the N-Word” requested the school board send a written apology to the family. a North Richland Hills. The initiative to update the book was led by Mark Twain scholar Alan Gribben. Despite the apology. by deleting all mention of slavery and having a white actor play Jim. because of the word "nigger". with Obama’s election into office as a sign that Americans “are ready for a change”. called for replacing The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn with a more modern novel.[36] Responses to this include the publishing of The Hipster Huckleberry Finn which is an edition with the word "nigger" replaced with the word "hipster". the teacher responded by asking him. rather than have the work banned outright from classroom reading lists due to its language.

Vance • Huckleberry Finn Monogatari. a 1985 television movie which was filmed in Maysville. directed by John Cromwell. Brad Renfro. a 1985 ABC movie of the week with Drew Barrymore as Con Sawyer • The Adventures of Huck Finn. a 1979 television series starring Ian Tracey • The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn(1981)(TV) Kurt Ida as Huckleberry Finn • Rascals and Robbers: The Secret Adventures of Tom Sawyer and Huck Finn (1982) (TV) Anthony Michael Hall as Huck Finn • Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. starring Jack Pickford as Tom. a 1975 ABC movie of the week with Ron Howard as Huck Finn • Huckleberry Finn. a 1968 animated television series for children • Hopelessly Lost. directed by William Desmond Taylor. starring Mickey Rooney as Huck [Tom Sawyer and Becky Thatcher were absent from this feature] • The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Junior Durkin as Huck and Mitzi Green as Becky[39] • The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (February 1938) by Selznick International Pictures. a 1976 Japanese anime with 26 episodes • Huckleberry Finn and His Friends. and Rachael Leigh Cook • Tomato Sawyer and Huckleberry Larry's Big River Rescue. Kentucky. starring Tommy Kelly as Tom. Detective (December 1938) by Paramount Pictures. starring Billy Cook as Tom and Donald O'Connor as Huck [Becky Thatcher was absent from this feature] • The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1939) by MGM. • The Adventures of Con Sawyer and Hucklemary Finn. a 1974 musical film • Huckleberry Finn. Joey Stinson. a VeggieTales parody of Huckleberry Finn created by Big Idea Productions with Larry the Cucumber as the titular character. starring Jack Pickford as Tom. a 1993 film starring Elijah Wood and Courtney B. directed by Norman Taurog. Robert Gordon as Huck and Clara Horton as Becky • Huck and Tom (1918 silent) by Famous Players-Lasky. directed by Norman Taurog. a 1995 Disney film starring Jonathan Taylor Thomas. starring Jackie Coogan as Tom. directed by Louis King. starring Jackie Coogan as Tom. (2008) • See also: Film adaptations as listed in the Internet Movie Database [41] . starring Lewis Sargent as Huck. a 1972 Soviet film • Huckleberry Finn. Robert Gordon as Huck and Clara Horton as Becky • Huckleberry Finn (1920 silent) by Famous Players-Lasky. Jackie Moran as Huck and Ann Gillis as Becky • Tom Sawyer. directed by William Desmond Taylor. starring Eddie Hodges and Archie Moore • The New Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.Adventures of Huckleberry Finn 135 Adaptations Film • Tom Sawyer (1917 silent) by Famous Players-Lasky. directed by Richard Thorpe. Gordon Griffith as Tom and Thelma Salter as Becky[38] • Tom Sawyer (1930) by Paramount Pictures. a 1994 Japanese anime with 26 episodes • Tom and Huck. a 1954 film starring Thomas Mitchell and John Carradine produced by CBS ([40]) • The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn a 1960 film directed by Michael Curtiz. Junior Durkin as Huck and Mitzi Green as Becky • Huckleberry Finn (1931) by Paramount Pictures. directed by William Desmond Taylor.

introduction and annotations by Michael Patrick Hearn. Tenney and Thadious M. W. by Jon Clinch. html?res=9D0CE6D9103FF937A25751C0A967958260). "Huckleberry Finn. Time Magazine. ca/ books?id=b-DTQwA4lDEC& pg=PA190& lpg=PA190& dq=benvenuto+ chelleeny& source=web& ots=_gofpI_335& sig=bXuZjSvs1Ejq3HR7SzC0m4n9ZPE& hl=en) [14] Leonard. http:/ / worldcat. p. 191. sparknotes. ISBN 0-271-02092-X. 2010. Rita. August 29. Ernest Hemingway: A Reconsideration. baumanrarebooks. Morality and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. org/ oclc/ 29489461 Lester. google. 212. Bauman Rare Books. 193 [16] http:/ / www. 1991 http:/ / query. 238. com/ ?id=fdrBtpSSCisC& pg=RA1-PA116& lpg=RA1-PA116& dq=hemingway+ "huckleberry+ finn"+ "green+ hills"). by Nancy Rawles. Mark Twain & Huck Finn. 2008. The Annotated Huckleberry Finn. James S. . Philip (December 1. Including the Curved Fly. Retrieved February 10. Julius. html [17] Mailer. google. xxix.00. xiv–xvii. March 17. [19] "Banned Books" (http:/ / 205. 1991). comprising five songs from Kurt Weill's unfinished musical. mvn. [10] Blair. Doyno (1991). James S. by Ferde Grofe: the second movement is a lighthearted whimsical piece entitled "Huck Finn" • Huckleberry Finn EP (2009). html). com/ 1984/ 12/ 09/ books/ mailer-huck. Norman (December 9. 2. Stuart Hutchinson. Thomas A. Minstrel Shackles and Nineteenth Century "Liberality" in Huckleberry Finn. asp [13] Victor A. Writing Huck Finn: Mark Twain's creative process. • My Jim (2005). Satire or Evasion?: Black Perspectives on Huckleberry Finn (http:/ / books. Rita (February 14. 2001). usace. Satire or Evasion?: Black Perspectives on Huckleberry Finn (http:/ / books. pp. W. p. .. nytimes.28804. [20] The 'n'-word gone from Huck Finn – what would Mark Twain say? (http:/ / www. Is Found" (http:/ / query.' in Twain's Hand. New York Times. Davis (December 1992). ISBN tk. ISBN 978-0-8223-1174-4.1842832_1842838_1844945. with All First-state Points. [9] ""All Modern Literature Comes from One Book by Mark Twain": Rare First Edition. mil/ PAO/ history/ MISSRNAV/ steamboat. [6] Young. The New York Times. • Finn: A Novel (2007). Retrieved November 8. Tenney and Thadious M. Twain. pp. ISBN 0-393-02039-8. pp. [15] Mark Twain: Critical Assessments.. a novel which continues Huck's adventures after he "lights out for the Territory" at the end of Twain's novel. "Introduction". University of California Press. Retrieved February 10. "First Half of 'Huck Finn. csmonitor. 1966). . html). University of Pennsylvania Press. 1984). Retrieved January 24. Ed. . Antiques: How Huck Finn was rescued. Time Magazine. 224. Mark (October 1. The New York Times. by Duke Special References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Facsimile of the 1st US edition. Donnarae. • The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1973). com/ gst/ fullpage. Fredrick and MacCann. 181/ time/ specials/ packages/ article/ 0.Adventures of Huckleberry Finn 136 Stage • Big River. Duke University Press. Pap Finn. One of the First Copies to Be Printed" (http:/ / www. google. Norton & Company. com/ Books/ chapter-and-verse/ 2011/ 0105/ The-n-word-gone-from-Huck-Finn-what-would-Mark-Twain-say) . 2008. by Greg Matthews. music and lyrics by John Braden Literature • The Further Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1983). a 1975 Off Broadway musical. . nytimes. Woodard. Antioch Review (Antioch University) 54 (3): 363–4. Penn State Press. [18] Leonard. "Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (book reviews)". Thomas A. html?res=9D0CE7D81E3DF934A25750C0A967958260 [12] http:/ / www. [7] Reif. a simplified version by Robert James Dixson. Duke University Press. Routledge 1993. 2008. com/ gst/ fullpage. army. (http:/ / books. a novel narrated largely by Sadie. a 1985 Broadway musical with lyrics and music by Roger Miller • Downriver. aspx). Music • Mississippi Suite (1926). com/ ?id=fdrBtpSSCisC& pg=RA1-PA116& lpg=RA1-PA116& dq=hemingway+ "huckleberry+ finn"+ "green+ hills"). 2011. nytimes. First Issue of Huckleberry Finn in Original Publisher's Full Sheep Binding. [11] Reif. com/ rare-books/ twain-mark/ adventures-of-huckleberry-finn/ 63515. 1996). Walter (1960). com/ lit/ huckfinn/ themes. Alive at 100" (http:/ / www. ISBN 978-0-8223-1174-4. a novel about Huck's father. William (June 1. [8] Baker. Jim's enslaved wife. Davis (December 1992). . 188.

"Mark Twain vs.org). Cross-browser compatible HTML edition • "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn" (http://www. ." [28] ALA | 100 Most Frequently Challenged Books of 1990–1999 (http:/ / www. Retrieved January 5. 2005). AmericanHeritage. Tom Sawyer: The bold deconstruction of a national icon" (http:/ / www. Retrieved April 9. 2007. 476–7. Retrieved September 21.com/ classicnotes/titles/huckfinn/).com." [24] Powers.id-20. . 125th Anniversary Edition (http://www. Retrieved November 8. seattlepi. Gillespie (February 2006). 2009. SeattlePI. . • Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (http://www. cfm) [29] Roberts. "New Edition of 'Huckleberry Finn' Will Eliminate Offensive Words" (http:/ / www. imdb. pp. January 19. 2011. . html [41] http:/ / www. americanheritage. . Retrieved January 8. . SeattlePI. 2010. [26] Stephen Railton. Retrieved January 8. americanheritage. 2010. Lighting out for the Territory: Reflections on Mark Twain and American Culture (New York: Oxford University Press. Seattle PI. Laurie (November 1.edu/books/pages/9353001. 2003).org/details/adventureshuckle00twaiiala). "If Mr. com/ pages/ 2011/ 01/ 04/ a-word-about-the-newsouth-edition-of-mark-twains-tom-sawyer-and-huckleberry-finn/ ). [22] Hemingway. [34] Memmot. php).com.com. "Jim and Mark Twain: What Do Dey Stan' For?" Virginia Quarterly Review 63 (1987). NPR. Retrieved November 8. 2008. Retrieved September 21. dallasnews. "Huckleberry Finn N-word lesson draws controversy" (http:/ / www. ew/ . com/ title/ tt0011313/ ) [39] IMDB. John (January 5. UPI.com.com. ala.com. "One Hundred Years of HUCK FINN" (http:/ / www. com/ opinion/ 394832_nword06. . [36] "New editions of Mark Twain novels to remove racial slurs" (http:/ / www. 2009).archive. Mark Twain: A Life. movierevie. imdb. Retrieved November 8. Huckleberry Finn (1920) (http:/ / www.com/lit/huckfinn/). 1997). [27] Brown. huck. 22. 2007. shtml). . com/ news/ show/ 36203. org/ blogs/ thetwo-way/ 2011/ 01/ 04/ 132652272/ new-edition-of-huckleberry-finn-will-eliminate-offensive-words?ft=1& f=1001). . Ron (September 13. Green Hills of Africa. 2011). Retrieved November 8. upi. Retrieved September 19. • "Huckleberry Finn" (http://www. Clemens cannot think of something better to tell our pure-minded lads and lasses he had best stop writing for them. GradeSaver. com/ articles/ magazine/ ah/ 1984/ 4/ 1984_4_81. php). com/ title/ tt0021981/ ) [40] http:/ / www. html). Retrieved November 8. [35] "A word about the NewSouth edition of Mark Twain’s Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn" (http:/ / www. npr. [30] Fox. PBS. com. AmericanHeritage. com/ sharedcontent/ dws/ news/ localnews/ stories/ 110107dnmethuckfinn. [32] Foley.pbs. 1c65c58d9. au/ entertainment/ new-editions-of-mark-twain-novels-to-remove-racial-slurs/ story-e6frf96f-1225981589323). American Heritage Magazine. ws/ movies/ 890030/ The-Adventures-of-Huckleberry-Finn. Huckleberry Finn (1931) (http:/ / www. "'Huck Finn' a masterpiece – or an insult" (http:/ / www. 2010. com/ articles/ magazine/ ah/ 1984/ 4/ 1984_4_81. Digitized copy of the first American edition from Internet Archive (1885).gutenberg. NPR. "most grotesque example of racism I’ve ever seen in my life. teacher calls for 'Huck Finn' ban" (http:/ / www. 2011. University of California Press. 2008. com/ Top_News/ 2009/ 01/ 19/ Wash-teacher-calls-for-Huck-Finn-ban/ UPI-39901232395760/ ). American Heritage Magazine. villagevoice. com/ 2011/ SHOWBIZ/ 01/ 04/ new. shtml).sparknotes. Robert. [37] "Hipster Huckleberry Finn Solves Censorship Debate By Replacing "N-Word" With "H-Word"" (http:/ / blogs. finn. 2010. New York: Scribners. Shelley Fisher Fishin. • "Adventures of Huckleberry Finn" (http://adventuresofhuckleberryfinn. SparkNotes.org/etext/76) at Project Gutenberg • Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Gregory (November 26. imdb. "One Hundred Years of HUCK FINN" (http:/ / www. [33] . Retrieved February 10. CliffsNotes. 2007. http:/ / edition. com/ find?s=all& q=huckleberry+ finn 137 External links • Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (http://www. 2007). [31] "Wash.gradesaver.com/WileyCDA/LitNote/Huckleberry-Finn. Seattle PI. Free Press. 2011. com/ local/ 149979_huck26. html). heraldsun. 2010. . SeattlePI. cnn. 2010. .cliffsnotes. Retrieved September 21.ucpress. [25] For example. html). [23] Brown.Adventures of Huckleberry Finn [21] Nick. Retrieved February 7.html). com/ runninscared/ 2011/ 01/ hipster_huckleb. html). Robert. [38] IMDB. newsouthbooks. Seattle PI. html). 2010. reason. Retrieved November 8. Ernest (1935). 2011. "Guest Columnist: Time to update schools' reading lists" (http:/ / www. . seattlepi. pp. • "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Study Guide and Lesson Plan" (http://www. Mark (January 4. United Press International.org. • "Huck Finn in Context:A Teaching Guide" (http://www. 2010. org/ ala/ issuesadvocacy/ banned/ frequentlychallenged/ challengedbydecade/ index.org.org/wgbh/cultureshock/teachers/huck/index.

Harper's Magazine 292 (1748): 61–.harpers. Jane (January 1996).Adventures of Huckleberry Finn • "Special Collections: Mark Twain Room (Houses original manuscript of Huckleberry Finn)" (http://www. Libraries of Buffalo & Erie County. 138 . • Smiley.org/libraries/collections/index. Retrieved September 21.org/archive/1996/01/0007861) (PDF). buffalolib.asp?sec=twain). Huck: Second thoughts on Mark Twain’s "masterpiece". 2007. "Say It Ain’t So." (http:// www.

[1] The tales in the book (and also those in The Second Jungle Book which followed in 1895. This use of the book's universe was approved by Kipling after a direct petition of Robert Baden-Powell. the story of a heroic mongoose. and "Toomai of the Elephants".The Jungle Book 139 The Jungle Book The Jungle Book Embossed cover from the original edition of The Jungle Book based on art by John Lockwood Kipling Author(s) Illustrator Country Language Series Genre(s) Publisher Publication date Media type ISBN Preceded by Followed by Rudyard Kipling John Lockwood Kipling (Rudyard's father) United Kingdom English The Jungle Books Children's book Macmillan Publishers 1894 Print (hardback & paperback) NA "In the Rukh" The Second Jungle Book The Jungle Book (1894) is a collection of stories by British Nobel laureate Rudyard Kipling. he went back to India and worked there for about six-and-half years. lay down rules for the safety of individuals. The Jungle Book. each of the stories is preceded by a piece of verse. and succeeded by another."[2] Other readers have interpreted the work as allegories of the politics and society of the time. After about ten years in England. The most famous of the other stories are probably "Rikki-Tikki-Tavi". some by Rudyard's father. and which includes five further stories about Mowgli) are fables. Kipling was born in India and spent the first six years of his childhood there. These stories were written when Kipling lived in Vermont. the tale of a young elephant-handler. a junior element of the Scouting movement. who had originally asked for the author's permission for the use of the Memory Game from Kim in his scheme to develop the morale and fitness of working-class youths in . Kipling put in them nearly everything he knew or "heard or dreamed about the Indian jungle. founder of the Scouting movement.[3] The best-known of them are the three stories revolving around the adventures of an abandoned "man cub" Mowgli who is raised by wolves in the Indian jungle. The original publications contain illustrations. The verses of The Law of the Jungle. As with much of Kipling's work. families and communities. because of its moral tone. came to be used as a motivational book by the Cub Scouts. using animals in an anthropomorphic manner to give moral lessons. for example. The stories were first published in magazines in 1893–4. John Lockwood Kipling.

10. a rare white-furred Northern fur seal. where they will not be hunted by humans. 12. having passed into the public domain. is told that he will never be a full-fledged elephant-handler until he has seen the elephants dance. and Shere Khan still wants to kill him. searches for a new home for his people. "Rikki-Tikki-Tavi": Rikki-Tikki the mongoose defends a human family living in India against a pair of cobras. "Kaa's Hunting": This story takes place before Mowgli fights Shere Khan. 8. Akela. "Lukannon" 9. 1. 14. This story has also been published as a short book. including Bonnie Dundee.The Jungle Book cities. a ten-year old boy who helps to tend working elephants. When Mowgli is abducted by monkeys. "Darzee's Chant" 11. "The White Seal": Kotick. the name being traditionally adopted by the leader of each Cub Scout pack. Maxims of Baloo. has become a senior figure in the movement. 4. "Parade-Song of the Camp Animals" parodies several well-known songs and poems. "Mowgli's Song" 7. "Ochen scoochnie" (said by Kotick) = "I am very lonesome" = Очень скучный (correctly means "very boring"). "Her Majesty's Servants" (originally titled "Servants of the Queen"): On the night before a military parade a British soldier eavesdrops on a conversation between the camp animals. is on-line at Project Gutenberg's official website and elsewhere.e. The "animal language" words and names in this story are a phonetic spelling of Russian spoken with an Aleut accent.) "bachelor male seal" (холощик) from холостой = "unmarried". "Toomai of the Elephants": Toomai. "Hunting-Song of the Seeonee Pack" 3. This story has also been published as a short book. for example "Stareek!" (= Старик!) = "old man!". But he has trouble adjusting to human life. "Tiger! Tiger!": Mowgli returns to the human village and is adopted by Messua and her husband who believe him to be their long-lost son Nathoo. "Mowgli's Brothers": A boy is raised by wolves in the Indian Jungle with the help of Baloo the bear and Bagheera the black panther. "Road Song of the Bandar-Log" 5. "Shiv and the Grasshopper" 13. the head wolf in The Jungle Book. 140 Chapters The complete book. Characters In alphabetical order: • • • • • • Akela – An Indian Wolf Bagheera – A melanistic (black) panther Baloo— A Sloth Bear Bandar-log – A tribe of monkeys Chil – A kite (renamed "Rann" in US editions) Chuchundra – A Muskrat • Darzee – A tailorbird • Father Wolf – The Father Wolf who raised Mowgli as his own cub • Grey brother – One of Mother and Father Wolf's cubs . Baloo and Bagheera set out to rescue him with the aid of Chil the Kite and Kaa the python. 6. and then has to fight the tiger Shere Khan. The story's title is taken from the poem "The Tyger" by William Blake. holluschick (plural -i. This story has also been published as a short book in its own right: Night-Song in the Jungle 2.

• The DC Comics Elseworlds' story. and there have also been several comic book adaptations. though their characterisation remains true to Kipling's stories. Bagheera is a fierce African woman warrior and Kaa is a former army sniper. These strips were collected in the 2007 one-shot Marvel Illustrated: The Jungle Book. and Shere Khan all make appearances. 1). Bagheera. as well as the Edgar Rice Burroughs' Tarzan stories. Written by Crisse and drawn by Marc N'Guessan and Guy Michel. Akela. the young jungle boy Nag – A male Black cobra Nagaina – A female King cobra. The infant Superman. is shot dead by Snow White. and is captured along with his friends. Shere Kahn. . The character is later given the civilized name of 'Clark' by Lois Lane. Nag's mate Raksha – The Mother wolf who raised Mowgli as her own cub Rikki-Tikki-Tavi – An Indian Mongoose Sea Catch – A Northern fur seal and Kotick's father Sea Cow – A Steller's Sea Cow Sea Vitch – A Walrus Shere Khan— A Royal Bengal Tiger Tabaqui – An Indian Jackal 141 Adaptations The book's text has often been abridged or adapted for younger readers. is based loosely on the Jungle Book stories. Comics • A comic book series Petit d'homme ("Man Cub") was published in Belgium between 1996 and 2003. for instance. and used for profit by Lex Luthor. it resets the stories in a post-apocalyptic world in which Mowgli's friends are humans rather than animals: Baloo is an elderly doctor. "Superman: The Feral Man of Steel".The Jungle Book • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Hathi – An Indian Elephant Ikki – An Asiatic Brush-tailed Porcupine (mentioned only) Kaa – Indian Python Karait – Common Krait Kotick – A White Seal Mang – A Bat Mor – An Indian Peafowl Mowgli – Main character. as well as children's literature. like Mowgli. Bagheera and Shere Khan. The series amalgamates characters from fairy tales and folklore. published by Vertigo Comics. features the Jungle Book's Mowgli. who is also eventually slain. • Marvel Comics published several Jungle Book adaptations by Mary Jo Duffy and Gil Kane in the pages of Marvel Fanfare (vol. and takes the name K'l'l.[4] • Bill Willingham's Eisner Award-winning comic book series Fables. Willingham and artist Mark Buckingham also make oblique references to the 1967 Disney animation in dialogue and artwork. whilst Mowgli is employed as a spy by Big Bad Wolf. is raised by wolves.

Interestingly. Mr. and one of the few adaptations which has Bagheera as a female panther. an upcoming adaptation that will begin production in September 2007 and continue for two years. • Jungle Book (1942) – directed by Zoltán Korda. Many of Kipling's stories are adapted into the series. • The Second Jungle Book: Mowgli and Baloo (1997) – starring Jamie Williams as Mowgli. It also features stories from The Second Jungle Book. Rikki-Tikki-Tavi and The White Seal stick to the original storylines more closely than most adaptations. but with Gaiman's dark twist. "Rikki-Tikki-Tavi" has also been released in 1965 as a cartoon ([7]) and in 1976 as a feature film. • There was a Japanese anime television series called Jungle Book Shonen Mowgli broadcast in 1989. • The anime was also dubbed in Arabic under the title "‫( " ﻓﺘﻰ ﺍﻷﺩﻏﺎﻝ‬Fatā al Adghāl: Boy Of The Jungle) and became a hit with Arab viewers in the 1990s. loosely based on the story and film. Finally at the series' conclusion. starring Sabu Dastagir. It's also very close to the book's storyline. but many elements are combined and changed to suit more modern sensibilities. there is an Indian family in the series which includes Rikki-Tikki-Tavi as a pet mongoose. published as Adventures of Mowgli in the USA). but still keeps strong ties with his animal friends. was extremely popular. though it took great liberties with the plot. • In 1967. The Indian version featured original music by Vishal Bharadwaj (with words by noted lyricist Gulzar and Nana Patekar doing the voice over for Sher Khan). characters and the pronunciation of the characters' names. . It has many scenes that can be directly linked back to Kipling. but instead of being threatened with death. the wolf pack alpha eventually steps aside. • The Japanese anime was dubbed in Hindi and telecast as Jungle Book by Doordarshan in India during the early 1990s. which featured several anthropomorphic characters loosely based on those from the film in a comic aviation-industry setting. which made it quite popular among television viewers of that time. In the 1960s there was a television series of the same name. It follows a baby boy who is found and brought up by the dead in a cemetery. These characterizations were further used in the 1990 animated series TaleSpin. in keeping with Soviet ideology. The former made its way into the hearts of viewers and is even now sometimes aired by TV stations of the Former Soviet Union countries as a classic of Soviet animation. another animated adaptation was released in the Soviet Union called Mowgli (Russian: Маугли. such as Red Dog and a simplified version of The King's Ankus.[6] Animation Disney's 1967 animated film version.[5] Live-action film • "Toomai of the Elephants" was filmed as Elephant Boy (1937). also known as the 'heroic' version of the story. Its adaptation represents a compromise between the original stories and the Walt Disney version. • Rudyard Kipling's The Jungle Book (1994) – starring Jason Scott Lee as Mowgli. • The Jungle Book: Mowgli's Story (1998) – starring Brandon Baker as Mowgli. starring Sabu Dastagir as Mowgli. and combined into a single 96-minute feature film in 1973. inspired by the Mowgli stories. For instance.The Jungle Book 142 Books Neil Gaiman's The Graveyard Book is inspired by The Jungle Book. Five animated shorts of about 20 minutes each were released between 1967 and 1971. Mowgli leaves the jungle for human civilization. Akela. • Chuck Jones's made for-TV cartoons Mowgli's Brothers. Gaiman has spoken in some detail about this on his website. • The Jungle Book. he stays on as the new leader's advisor. the Colonial English family in Rikki-Tikki-Tavi has been replaced with an Indian family. Also.

and dozens of community and collegiate theaters. Bhaskara (1967) Rudyard Kipling's India. Music Australian composer Percy Grainger. and stresses the benefits of community and compassion.The Jungle Book 143 Stage • A Hungarian musical was composed by László Dés. February 13. doollee. Brigham Young University. • A new adaptation written by Leonard Joseph Dunham was premiered by the Hunger Artists Theatre Company in Fullerton. Wellingborough is performing a brand new musical version of the much loved story for the 2009 Christmas season.[8] • In 2006 the Orlando Shakespeare Theater commissioned a unique adaptation for their Theater For Young Audiences series. K. lyrics by Péter Geszti and Pál Békés. California. • The Castle Theatre. It won the prize of the Hungarian Theatre Critics as the musical of the year in 1996. Media – Variety (http:/ / www. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press [2] The Long Recessional: the Imperial Life of Rudyard Kipling. English version 1981. The Jungle story is extended about the jungle of civilization. com/ search/ label/ The Graveyard Book?updated-max=2008-02-14T15:32:00-06:00& max-results=1) [6] BBC. html?categoryid=13& cs=1) [7] http:/ / animator. ru/ db/ ?ver=eng& p=show_film& fid=2178 [8] Stuart Paterson – complete guide to the Playwright and Plays (http:/ / www. David Gilmour.[9] • Art rock adaptation The Third Jungle Book from Progres 2. Odense. com/ PlaywrightsP/ paterson-stuart. com/ ) . 2003 ISBN 0-7126-6518-8 [3] Hjejle. Denmark: Odense Universitetsforlag. It was choreographed by the company with artistic direction by Lili Fuller. Emily Iscoff-Daigian and Adam North.TYAscripts. hungerartists.com • A dance adaptation by the Boom Kat Dance Company premiered on 2 May 2008 at Miles Playhouse in Santa Monica. • Stuart Paterson wrote a stage adaptation in 2004. It has since been produced by Imagination Stage in MD. The musical was first performed in 1996 in Budapest and is still running today in many Hungarian theatres. 87–114. Pathe team for 'Jungle Book' – Entertainment News. Britisk Indien og Mowglihistorieine'. edited by Ole Fddbek and Niels Thomson.6 (1994) [5] Neil Gaiman's Journal. [4] Superman Annual No. Pennsylvania Shakespeare Festival. Pimlico. com/ article/ VR1117970122. It is published by www. neilgaiman. Marissa Goodhill. Film News. California. variety. With Book and Lyrics by April-Dawn Gladu and Music and Lyrics by Daniel Levy. on 12 September 2008. this version explores the joy and pain felt by his two mothers. The music is distinctly Indian in nature with two of the seven songs sung in Hindi. html#62440) [9] Hunger Artists – Show Archives (http:/ / www. Feitskrifi til Kristof Glamann. first produced by the Birmingham Old Rep in 2004 and published in 2007 by Nick Hern Books. which was published in 1958. 2008 (http:/ / journal. References [1] Rao. Benedicte 1983 'Kipling. pp. an avid Kipling reader wrote a Jungle Book cycle. the human Messua and Raksha the wolf.

gutenberg. . • The Jungle Book (http://www.org/etext/236) at Project Gutenberg • Boom Kat Dance (http://www.The Jungle Book 144 External links • The Jungle Book Collection (http://www.boomkatdance.com/): a website describing the dance adaptation of The Jungle Book by Boom Kat Dance Company.eu/): a website demonstrating the variety of merchandise related to the book and film versions of The Jungle Book.jb-c.

Frank Baum W.145 1900-1960 Works The Wonderful Wizard of Oz The Wonderful Wizard of Oz Original title page.000 copies. In January 1901. Hill Company. Hill Company in Chicago on May 17.[2] it has since been reprinted numerous times. it is one of the best-known stories in American popular culture and has been widely translated.. Maud Gage Baum. Hill Company Publication date 17 May 1900 Media type Pages ISBN OCLC Number Followed by Print (hardback & paperback). W. after being swept away from her Kansas farm home in a storm. The story chronicles the adventures of a young girl named Dorothy Gale in the Land of Oz. led to Baum's writing thirteen more Oz books. however. 1900. the majority of . Denslow. and the success of the popular 1902 Broadway musical which Baum adapted from his original story. The original book has been in the public domain in the US since 1956. completed printing the first edition. 21 leaves of plates (first edition hardcover) N/A 9506808 [1] The Marvelous Land of Oz The Wonderful Wizard of Oz is a children's novel written by L. My Wife".000 copies were sold through 1900. Baum dedicated the book "to my good friend & comrade. most often under the name The Wizard of Oz. which probably totaled around 35. Historians. Author(s) Illustrator Country Language Series Genre(s) Publisher L. Audiobook 259 p. W. economists and literary scholars have examined and developed possible political interpretations of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. George M. Frank Baum and illustrated by W. Denslow United States English The Oz Books Fantasy Children's novel George M. Records indicate that 21. the publisher. Its initial success. Originally published by the George M. Thanks in part to the 1939 MGM movie. which is the name of both the 1902 stage play and the 1939 film version.

George M. His mother-in-law believed that Baum was idealistic and wrote in a letter that he was "a perfect baby". a man who was able to give a decent reason as to why black birds cooked in a pie could afterwards get out and sing. However. In spite of this favorable conjecture. Baum traveled through different states and worked at various jobs to support his acting career.The Wonderful Wizard of Oz the reading public simply takes the story at face value.[5] When he was 15 years old.000 copies and was sold in advance of the publication date of September 1. Though his father initially opposed his dream. By October 1900. Hill did not initially predict the book would be phenomenally successful. complementing her husband. she urged him to put to paper the many tales he had related to his sons for many years. 146 Background Born on May 15. As a child. the novel's first edition had a printing of 10. committed to making The Wizard of Oz into a play to publicize the novel. Lyman Frank Baum was the seventh child of Cynthia Stanton and Benjamin Ward Baum. the sales of his novel grew to 3 million copies in print. the Baum country property on the outskirts of Syracuse.[3] Raised in Rose Lawn.000 copies. Harry called his father the "swellest man I knew".[11] . Hamlin. Publication Published by George M. Baum married Maud Gage. a practical woman. in 1956.[5] 1900 first edition cover. New York. He agreed to publish the book only when the manager of the Grand Opera House.[7] [8] In 1882. Fred R. an affluent oil baron. Baum had a sheltered upbringing. in a frame house in Chittenango. Hill Company. daughter of suffragist Matilda Joslyn Gage. Baum and Denslow agreed to have the Indiannapolis-based Bobbs-Merrill Company resume publishing the novel. an imaginative dreamer. he was extremely bashful and was diagnosed with a deficient heart.[9] In a letter to his brother Harry. he later capitulated. Chicago. the first edition had already sold out and the second edition of 15. 1856.[13] Less than two decades later. She was consistent and wary of their finances.[11] Baum's son Harry Neal told the Chicago Tribune in 1944 that he told his children "whimsical stories before they became material for his books". over one million copies of the book had been printed. 1900. Back cover. predicted a sale of about 250.[6] When he was 18 years old. served as a foil to Baum. Maud Gage. Hill.000 copies was nearly depleted. Baum wrote that the book's publisher. Hill. Baum spent much time around local theaters and hoped to pursue acting. a younger brother produced The Rose Lawn Home Journal.[12] By 1938.[10] After Hill's publishing company became bankrupt in 1901. New York.[4] [5] Baum spent considerable time playing with his imaginary friends and reading books. George M. he and Harry.

courage. from the W. and then her Winkie soldiers to attack them. To her shock. Dorothy in anger grabs a bucket of water and throws it on the Wicked Witch. As the friends travel across the Winkie Country. Together. The Winkies rejoice at being freed of the witch's tyranny. is caught up in a tornado and deposited in a field in Munchkin Country. Kalidahs. the Cowardly Lion sees a ball of fire. Then. this causes the Witch to melt away. She has a little black dog Toto. The Good Witch of the North comes with the Munchkins to greet Dorothy and gives Dorothy the silver shoes (believed to have magical properties) that the Wicked Witch had been wearing when she was killed. which he agrees to do after helping Dorothy return to Kansas. and the Cowardly Lion. a river. and they help to reassemble the Scarecrow and the Tin Woodman. Because of their faith in the Wizard's power. and the King of the Winged Monkeys tells how he and the other monkeys were bound by an enchantment to the cap by the sorceress Gayelette. and the Cowardly Lion with a head full of bran. Toto accidentally tips over a screen in a corner of the throne room. the Cowardly Lion and Toto. To Dorothy. Denslow illustration of the first edition (1900). gray prairies. Dorothy frees the Scarecrow from the pole he is hanging on.The Wonderful Wizard of Oz 147 Plot summary Dorothy is an orphan raised by her Uncle Henry and Aunt Em in the bleak landscape of a Kansas farm. All are convinced by Dorothy that the Wizard can help them too. who is her sole source of happiness on the dry. and a potion of "courage". Dorothy uses the Golden Cap to summon the Winged Monkeys to carry her and her companions back to the Emerald City. the Good Witch of the North tells Dorothy that she will have to go to the "Emerald City" or "City of Emeralds" and ask the Wizard of Oz to help her. the Witch summons the Winged Monkeys to capture Dorothy. When each traveler meets with the Wizard. When the travelers arrive at the Emerald City. restores the movements of the rusted Tin Woodman with an oil can. the Scarecrow sees a beautiful woman. The Scarecrow wants to get a brain. revealing the Wizard to be an ordinary old man who had journeyed to Oz from Omaha long ago in a hot air balloon. he appears each time as someone or something different. the Wizard is a giant head. The Winkies love the Tin Woodman. with Dorothy and Toto inside. bees. the Tin Woodman. they are asked to use green spectacles by the Guardian of the Gates. and to destroy the Scarecrow and the Tin Woodman. When Dorothy and her friends meet the Wizard of Oz again. the Wicked Witch sends wolves. The falling house kills the evil ruler of the Munchkins. The Wizard agrees to help each of them. On her way down the yellow brick road. and needles ("a lot of bran-new brains"). crows. the Tin Woodman sees a ravenous beast. respectively. pins. and encourages them and the Cowardly Lion to journey with her and Toto to the Emerald City. W. he tries to put them off. they overcome obstacles on the way including narrow pieces of the yellow brick road. these otherwise useless items provide a focus for their desires. the Tin Woodman a heart. the eastern quadrant of the Land of Oz. the Wicked Witch of the East. using the power of the Golden Cap. The Wicked Witch melts. but only if one of them kills the Wicked Witch of the West who rules over the Winkie Country. and the Deadly Poppies. When the Wicked Witch gains one of Dorothy's silver shoes by trickery. The Wizard provides the Scarecrow. The Wizard has been longing to return to his home and be in a circus again ever since. In order to help Dorothy and Toto get home. the Wizard realizes that he will have to take them home with him in a new . but they manage to get past them all. One day the farmhouse. a silk heart stuffed with sawdust. In order to return to Kansas. and they ask him to become their ruler.

Jack Haley. In September 1900. who also co-held the copyright. by virtue of his brains. may be able to send Dorothy and Toto home. to rule in his stead. The Cowardly Lion kills a giant spider. the Cowardly Lion.[17] Themes Baum explores the theme of self-contradiction in The Wizard of Oz. W. who is terrorizing the animals in a forest. The forms of the Scarecrow. mechanical toys. The Silver Shoes she wears can take her anywhere she wishes to go. but their self-doubts keep them .[18] The Scarecrow.[16] The typeface was the newly designed Monotype Old Style. the readers would be unable to picture precisely the figures of Dorothy. The Grand Rapids Herald wrote that Denslow's illustrations are "quite as much of the story as in the writing". the Tin Woodman to the Winkie Country. contradictory natures. Carl L. Dorothy and Toto have returned to Kansas to a joyful family reunion. through Glinda's use of the Golden Cap.The Wonderful Wizard of Oz balloon. and the Cowardly Lion to the forest. the Good Witch of the South. When she opens her eyes. and Bert Lahr. and wishes to return home. though he comes up with clever solutions to several problems that they encounter on their journey. Ray Bolger. The Cowardly Lion believes that he has no courage even though he is consistently brave through their journey. Dorothy turns to the Winged Monkeys to carry her and Toto home. and soap were also designed using their figures. the Scarecrow. starring Judy Garland. The editorial opined that had it not been for Denslow's pictures. Then she will give the Golden Cap to the king of the Winged Monkeys. and tread carefully through the China Country. and he agrees to return there to rule them after Dorothy returns to Kansas—the Hungry Tiger. and several color plate illustrations. with illustrations on every page. He created characters who—like humans—have complex. leaving the Wizard to rise and float away alone. and before she can make it back to the balloon. Bankston. Toto. and it is revealed by Glinda that Dorothy had the power to go home all along.[14] A new edition of the book appeared in 1944. to their respective kingdoms: the Scarecrow to the Emerald City. but they cannot cross the desert surrounding Oz. the Wizard. the Wise Witch. At Glinda's palace. the Tin Woodman. caring. subsequently wasting her second wish. which mimicked both the typography and the illustration design of Oz. 148 Illustration and design The book was illustrated by Baum's friend and collaborator W. and Dorothy were made into rubber and metal sculptures. with illustrations by Evelyn Copelman. all of whom will be returned. the Tin Woodman. so they will never be under its spell again. Denslow's illustrations were so well-known that merchants of many products obtained permission to use them to promote their wares. Denslow. in the official books). The Tin Woodman believes that he lacks a heart. The Silver Shoes are dropped in the desert during Dorothy's flight and never seen again (at least. The Scarecrow believes that he has no brains. Revealing himself to the people of the Emerald City one last time. and the other characters. which he and Dorothy fashion from green silk. Costume jewelry. backgrounds in different colors. dodge the Hammer-Heads. and the Cowardly Lion journey to Glinda's palace in the Quadling Country. almost losing Toto in the process. The design was lavish for the time. Having bid her friends farewell one final time. they more closely resemble the characters as seen in the famous 1939 film version of Baum's book. Dorothy uses her third wish to fly over the Hammer-Heads' mountain. They. the biggest of the tigers ruling in his stead as before. the ropes break. the travelers are greeted warmly. III of Salem Press noted that "These three characters embody the classical human virtues of intelligence. most notably Eva Katherine Gibson's Zauberlinda. the Wizard appoints the Scarecrow.[15] The distinctive look led to imitators at the time. Dorothy taps her heels three times. Together they escape the Fighting Trees. and courage. Dorothy chases Toto after he runs after a kitten in the crowd. Although it was claimed that the new illustrations were based on Denslow's originals. She tearfully embraces her friends. but is moved to tears when misfortune befalls the various creatures they meet. the Tin Woodman. and the Cowardly Lion all lack self-confidence. The Soldier with the Green Whiskers advises that Glinda.

[22] . These bricks were found in Peekskill. Baum scholars often reference the 1893 Chicago World's Fair (the "White Town") as an inspiration for the Emerald City. from the first edition.The Wonderful Wizard of Oz from being reduced to mere symbols of these qualities.[19] Baum was also influenced by Carroll's belief that children's books should have many pictures and be pleasurable reads."[18] By the end of novel. Carroll rejected the Victorian-era ideology that children's books should be saturated with morals.[5] Baum said that the name "OZ" came from his file cabinet labeled "O-Z". and had written several of the Oz books there. New York where Baum attended the Peekskill Military Academy. the characters attain self-fulfillment when they have met their objectives.[14] Although Baum found their plots incoherent. California.[19] Local legend has it that Oz. a child with whom the child readers could identify.[20] In a 1903 interview with Publishers Weekly. Baum was a frequent guest at the hotel. the Wizard places an amalgamation of bran. was inspired by a prominent castle-like building in the community of Castle Park near Holland. and a drink to the Cowardly Lion to inspire bravery. Other legends allude that the inspiration came from the Hotel Del Coronado near San Diego. which he was deliberately revising in his "American fairy tales" to include the wonder without the horrors. he identified their source of popularity as Alice herself. Building on Carroll's style of numerous images accompanying the text. The yellow brick road was derived from a road at that time paved by yellow bricks. also known as The Emerald City.[18] 149 Sources of images and ideas Baum acknowledged the influence of the Brothers Grimm and Hans Christian Andersen. pins. Alice in Wonderland Another influence lay in Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. gives a silk heart to the Tin Woodman to inspire love. To convince the characters they have the qualities they desire. Baum amalgamated the conventional features of a fairy tale (witches and wizards) with the well-known things in his readers' lives (scarecrows and cornfields). instead believing that children should be allowed to be children. and needles in the Scarecrow's head to inspire intellect. this influenced his choice of a protagonist. A September 1900 review in the Grand Rapids Herald called The Wonderful Wizard of Oz a "veritable Alice in Wonderland brought up to the present day of standard of juvenile literature".[21] Dorothy meets the Cowardly Lion. Michigan where Baum summered.

which ultimately became the Tin Woodman. From a washboiler he made a body. Rockefeller was the nemesis of Baum's father.[24] John D. died. Baum moved his family from South Dakota to Chicago. Scholar Evan I. and his neighbors looked up to him. 1898.[32] The witches in the novel were influenced by witch-hunting research gathered by Baum's mother-in-law. the West. The Munchkins Dorothy encounters at the beginning of the novel represent farmers. Bossed around by his wife Matilda.The Wonderful Wizard of Oz 150 Personal life Many of the characters. When the baby.[30] To assuage her distress. The infant became gravely sick and died on November 11. The stories of barbarous acts against accused witches scared Baum. In 1891. a former salesman of china. from bolted stovepipes he made arms and legs. Likewise. Baum's creation is similar to the actual frontier save for the fact that the West was still undeveloped at the time.[23] According to his son Harry. the Wizard made the people in the Emerald City wear green goggles so that they would believe their city was built from emeralds. In many respects. the medical condition alopecia caused him to lose every strand of hair on his head. wrote in chapter 20 about china that had sprung to life. When Rockefeller was 54 years old. Baum created "an extension of the American frontier in Oz". Dorothy Louise Gage. Chicago was getting ready for the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893. At that time.[25] In the early 1880s.[31] Uncle Henry was modeled after Henry Gage. instead of being a wonderland. whom Maud adored as the daughter she never had. when Baum's play Matches was being performed. as do the Winkies she later meets. Schwartz posited that Rockefeller inspired one of the Wizard of Oz's numerous faces. Schwartz posited that this may have inspired the Scarecrow's severest terror: "There is only one thing in the world I am afraid of. it would fall apart before his eyes. Baum integrated his tormentor into the novel as the Scarecrow. Because he wished to make something captivating for the window displays. After discovering that the myths about the West's incalculable riches were baseless. Baum scholar Evan I. Moments before the scarecrow's "ragged hay fingers" nearly gripped his neck. In one scene in the novel. Matilda. though. A lighted match. a "flicker from a kerosene lantern sparked the rafters". As a child. making people fearful of speaking to him. and rarely spoke". However. He flourished in business. of "congestion of the brain" at exactly five months. props.[29] Baum's wife frequently visited her niece. the Wizard is seen as a "tyrannical.[28] During Baum's short stay in Aberdeen. Baum then placed a funnel hat on the figure. Similarly."[26] In 1890. she was devastated and needed to consume medicine.[33] . Decades later as an adult. and ideas in the novel were drawn from Baum's experiences. the Tin Woodman was born from Baum's attraction to window displays. he used an eclectic assortment of scraps to craft a striking figure. Uncle Henry was a "passive but hard-working man" who "looked stern and solemn. Two key events in the novel involve wicked witches who both meet their death through metaphorical means.[27] The story was about a farmer who gave green goggles to his horses. Henry rarely dissented with her. and from the bottom of a saucepan he made a face. Frank made his protagonist of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz a female named Dorothy. he wrote a witty story in his "Our Landlady" column in Aberdeen's The Saturday Pioneer. causing the Baum opera house to be consumed by flames. an oil baron who declined to purchase Standard Oil shares in exchange for selling his own oil refinery.[28] Baum. Baum frequently had nightmares of a scarecrow pursuing him across a field. hairless head". his wife Maud's father. the dissemination of myths about the plentiful West continued. while Baum lived in Aberdeen which was experiencing a drought. causing them to believe that the wood chips they were eating were pieces of grass. Scholar Laura Barrett stated that Chicago was "considerably more akin to Oz than to Kansas". turned into a wasteland because of a drought and a depression.

[37] Cultural impact The Wizard of Oz has been an inspiration for many fantasy novels and films. the The Wizard of the Emerald City series.[39] [40] Bradley A. and the effects of oppression and fascism". a prominent leader of the silverite movement.S. represent the wealthy railroad and oil barons of the American West and the financial and banking interests of the eastern U. disagreed that the novel is a monetary allegory. which was frequently compared to the Free Silver movement in Baum's time. with lyrics about a visit there. to speak to the Wizard. a revisionist look at the land and characters of Oz. to a bimetallic monetary standard since this would have devalued the dollar and made investments less valuable. as Ellie and her dog Totoshka travel throughout the Magic Land. In 1967. Oz's political center. which became progressively distanced from the Baum version. Hansen. at times being modified in local variations. the Tin Woodman was replaced with a snake. who represents a worker dehumanized by industrialization. she must reach the Emerald City. She learns that to return home. "The Wizard of Oz: Parable on Populism". initially intended to make it into a film. Composer and lyricist Stephen Schwartz convinced . respectively.[34] In his 1964 American Quarterly article. The Populist party sought to build a coalition of southern and midwestern tenant farmers and northern industrial workers.[42] Universal Pictures. set to the melody of Beethoven's "An die Freude". representing the President of the United States. and a cowardly lion. society's pressures to conform. a woodman made of tin. a translation by Alexander Melentyevich Volkov produced five books. a high school teacher. "Oz" is the abbreviated form of ounce. the novel focuses on Elphaba. a standard measure of gold. Dighe wrote that for sixty years after the book's publication. The Seekers recorded "Emerald City". much the way the characters in Oz accepted the Wizard's impressive tricks as real magic". a professor of economics at the University of Mary Washington. who represents William Jennings Bryan. in some abridged Indian editions. In 1995.[35] The Yellow Brick Road represents the gold standard and the Silver Shoes which enable Dorothy to travel more comfortably symbolizes the Populist Party's desire to construct a bimetallic standard of both gold and silver in place of the gold standard. who represents a farmer. It has been translated or adapted into well over fifty languages. Workers and poor farmers supported the move away from the gold standard as this would have lessened their crushing debt burdens. He argued that the numerous intersections between both the individuals and happenings in the novel and those in the 1896 presidential election are the central evidence upon which proponents of the allegory depend. the Wicked Witch of the West and the Wicked Witch of the East.S. Historian Ranjit S. Hansen concluded that "the true lesson of The Wizard of Oz may be that economists have been too willing to accept as a truth an elegant story with little empirical support. These groups are represented in the book by the Good Witches of the North and South. The Independent characterized the novel as an "an adult read reflecting on the nature of being an outcast.[35] Littlefield posited that the book contained an allegory of the late 19th-century bimetallism debate regarding monetary policy. Littlefield's thesis achieved some popular interest and elaboration[38] but is not taken seriously by literary historians. Gregory Maguire published Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West. its fame has greatly increased mainly because of the many network telecasts of the 1939 film version of the book. which bought the novel's rights. Dorothy is swept from her farm to Oz by a cyclone. Both these groups opposed Populist efforts to move the U.The Wonderful Wizard of Oz 151 The Gold Standard representation of the story Baum did not offer any conclusive proof that he intended his novel to be a political allegory.[35] While journeying to the Emerald City. "virtually nobody" had such an interpretation until Henry Littlefield. the future Wicked Witch of the West. For instance.[36] At the beginning of the novel. However.[37] The villains of the story. she encounters a scarecrow. Instead of depicting Dorothy. Further stating that research has shown that neither Baum's works nor his life history indicate that he supported Populism.[41] In Russia.

The book has a bright and joyous atmosphere. the parents were allowed to have their children leave the classroom. "I do not want my children seduced into godless supernaturalism". a now-classic of popular culture shown annually on American television from 1959 to 1991. 1900 [44] The Wonderful Wizard of Oz received positive critical reviews upon release.[48] One parent said. lessened during the prior 100 years. Fisher noted. kindness. According to Ruth Berman of Science Fiction Studies. The judge ruled that when the novel was being discussed in class.[45] It has repeatedly come under fire over the years.. seven Fundamentalist Christians families in Tennessee opposed the novel's inclusion in the public school syllabus and filed a lawsuit. and it premiered on Broadway in October 2003. however.[49] Other reasons included the novel's teaching that females are equal to males and that animals are personified and can speak. and does not dwell upon killing and deeds of violence. The drawing as well as the introduced color work vies with the texts drawn.. Professor Russel B.[44] In the first 50 years after The Wizard of Oz's publication in 1900. then maybe the time is ripe for "reassess[ing] a good many other things besides the Detroit library's approved list of children's books". the director of Detroit's libraries banned The Wizard of Oz for having "no value" for children of today. In a September 1900 review. The review also praised the illustrations for being a pleasant complement to the text. In 1957.[46] In 1986.[47] [48] They based their opposition to the novel on its depicting benevolent witches and promoting the belief that integral human attributes were "individually developed rather than God given".[51] . impoverished prose" and dismissed the central character from the movie adaptation of the book as "the girl-woman of Hollywood". for supporting "negativism". and unselfishness make the world a better place—seems of no value today".[43] 152 Critical response “ This last story of The Wizard is ingeniously woven out of commonplace material. . It is of course an extravaganza. and it continues to resonate". Leonard Everett Fisher of The Horn Book Magazine wrote in 2000 that Oz has "a timeless message from a less complex era. and the result has been a book that rises far above the average children's book of today.[50] Providing a twenty-first century perspective about the novel.The Wonderful Wizard of Oz the company to make the novel into a musical instead.[47] On a more secular note. to whom it will be read by mothers or those having charge of the entertaining of children. and it will indeed be strange if there be a normal child who will not enjoy the story. The lack of interest stemmed from the scholars' misgivings about fantasy. ” The New York Times. writing that it would appeal to child readers and to younger children who could not read yet. and one of the most familiar and pleading requests of children is to be told another story.[42] Many of these draw more directly on the 1939 MGM Technicolor film version of the novel. as well as to their belief that lengthy series had little literary merit. and for bringing children's minds to a "cowardly level". September 8. The challenge of valuing oneself during impending adversity has not. to flavor it with zest. the lists of suggested reading published for juvenile readers never contained Baum's work. and shown several times a year every year beginning in 1999. The New York Times praised the novel. There seems to be an inborn love of stories in child minds. feminist author Margery Hourihan has described the book as a "banal and mechanistic story which is written in flat. it received little critical analysis from scholars of children's literature. high as is the present standard. Nye of Michigan State University countered that "if the message of the Oz books—love. Enough stirring adventure enters into it. Schwartz wrote Wicked's music and lyrics. but will surely be found to appeal strongly to child readers as well as to the younger children.

more resembles the beginning of the 1939 MGM movie than Baum's first edition. so Baum. Whereas W. Bill Delaney of Salem Press praised Baum for giving children the opportunity to discover magic in the mundane things in their everyday lives.[52] By its centennial. The children refused to accept this story. while hundreds of thousands had been published in eight foreign languages. explaining that he grudgingly wrote the sequel to address the popular demand. W.[54] The 2002 Sterling Publishing edition of the novel was illustrated by Michael Foreman with bright watercolors. and stark". He further commended Baum for teaching "millions of children to love reading during their crucial formative years".[53] Robert Sabuda created a pop-up book to commemorate the book's centennial.[52] Sequels Baum wrote The Wizard of Oz without any thought of a sequel. his first book. The Chicago Tribune's Russell MacFall wrote that Baum explained the purpose of his novels in a note he penned to his sister. she critiqued Foreman's depiction of a normal Dorothy as a "disappointment". sharp-edged. even ugly" and her friends as frightened. "To please a child is a sweet and a lovely thing that warms one's heart and brings its own reward. the adaptations bear only a slight semblance to the original edition. In some cases. In her generally favorable review. including the winged monkeys' adorned with "Red Baron-style googles". Reviewer Heide Piehler of School Library Journal applauded Foreman for his "skillful command of color and light to emphasize the story's sense of adventure and enchantment". Andrew Karp of Utopian Studies critiqued the illustrations as being "stunningly detailed" but "somber.[7] By 1956.[22] An original Oz book was published every Christmas between 1913 and 1942.[55] Baum also wrote sequels in 1907. 1908. requesting that he craft another story about Oz. in 1913 and every year thereafter until his death in May 1919. the University Press of Kansas published a new edition titled The Kansas Centennial Edition. Piehler also admired the "subtle humorous details". Baum scholar Michael Patrick Hearn called the book a "fond tribute" to W.[22] 153 Editions Baum's novel has been adapted and retold numerous times. After he died in 1919. he wrote that he could not continue writing sequels because Ozland had lost contact with the rest of the world.[11] . In 1904. Illustrated by Michael McCurdy. dumpy. wrote an Oz book.W. The Marvelous Land of Oz. After reading the novel. five million copies of the Oz books had been published in the English language. Karp concluded that the centennial edition. In his 1911 The Emerald City of Oz. Mary Louise Brewster. Baum's publishers delegated the creation of more sequels to Ruth Plumly Thompson who wrote 21. Tamil and Serbo-Croatian. Sabuda used Denslow's first edition illustrations as "color linoleum cuts" and improved upon them by portraying the features that Denslow failed to capture. the novel had been translated into 22 languages such as Swahili. Baum wrote thirteen sequels to the novel. he wrote and published the first sequel.The Wonderful Wizard of Oz In a 2002 review. He wrote. thousands of children wrote letters to him. Denslow and an "inventive interpretation" of Baum's novel. McCurdy's depicted Dorothy as "plain."[11] The exceptional success of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz resulted in the creation of many sequels. Denslow's illustrations in the first edition portrayed Dorothy and her friends as exuding warmth. the black-and-white pictures spanned 24 full pages. in a copy of Mother Goose in Prose (1897). and 1909. because it is considerably dismal.[7] To celebrate the centennial of the book's publication.

[10] The play version of The Wizard of Oz debuted on June 16. Russell (1956-05-13). Baum. Bruce (2000). Baum wrote The Maid of Arran. Salem Press. [9] "Notes and News" (http:/ / www. unofficial sequels. Frank Baum. "To Montgomery and Stone. [6] Rogers 2002. "As a piece of fantasy. "The Amazing Author of Oz". newsbank. Following the lapse of the original copyright. webcitation. [12] Sweet. Anna Laughlin starred as Dorothy. pdf) on 2010-11-28. webcitation. org/ 5wD5RJlqr). webcitation. Baum assembled it by hand and presented it to his sister. pdf) on 2011-02-02. which debuted on the day he turned 26. Retrieved . newsbank. Chicago Tribune. 9 [17] Starrett.[56] The story has been translated into other languages (at least once without permission). . pp. Archived from the original (http:/ / query. Retrieved 2011-02-02. 1900-10-27. special effects. L. .Katharine M. webcitation. 1902. . p. including a profitable Broadway musical and three silent films. Whose Oz Books Have Gladdened Millions. The book's copyright was registered on August 1. org/ 5uZdEcbos). 1900-09-16. at Hamlin's Grand Opera House.webshots. 1 [4] Rogers 2002. in the play. some of which have been controversial in their treatment of Baum's characters. "The Best Loved Books" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-02-13. webcitation. The music was written by Paul Tietjens and the costumes were modeled after Denslow's drawings. p. Ink (1986-05-24). org/ 5uZYJbv6d). google. Judy Garland as Dorothy discovering that she and Toto are no longer in Kansas Notes and references Notes [1] http:/ / worldcat."" (http:/ / www. com/ img-ctha/ clip/ 1944/ 02/ 20/ 19440220C007270011300008. 3 [5] Mendelsohn. [3] Rogers 2002. [14] "New Fairy Stories: "The Wonderful Wizard of Oz" by Authors of "Father Goose. newsbank. Frank Baum. p. Woodman and Stone immediately became stars. July 5–20. com/ newspapers?id=QtwRAAAAIBAJ& sjid=Tu8DAAAAIBAJ& pg=3435. org/ 5uZbon29E). "He created 'The Wizard': L. The New York Times. The Tribune awards the honors of pioneers in original comedy. com/ cache/ ean/ fullsize/ pl_002022011_2025_31199_120." [11] MacFall. com/ img-ctha/ clip/ 1954/ 05/ 02/ 19540502C007270011100006. Archived from the original (http:/ / image2.The Wonderful Wizard of Oz 154 Adaptations The Wizard of Oz has been adapted to other media numerous times. Oney Fred (1944-02-20). full distribution followed in September. most famously in the MGM's 1939 film starring Judy Garland. Baum initially took jobs as a newspaper reporter and a dry goods salesman. Louis F. pdf) on 2010-11-28. with the Chicago Tribune printing pictures of the two in their costumes and stating. He was the leading role. [15] Home-and-garden. and Fred Stone was the Scarecrow.6178650& dq=as-a-piece-of-fantasy-baum's-life-was-a-working-model). The public saw the book for the first time at a book fair at the Palmer House in Chicago. which was his sole success. ISSN 00377333. Retrieved 2010-11-28. Michael (1991). com/ photo/ 2677091800103160599EMDfBX) [16] Bloom 1994. . org/ oclc/ 9506808 [2] On May 17. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. Rogers. . Chicago Tribune. 1900 the first copy of the book came off the press. Dave Woodman was the Tin Woodman. the characters have been adapted and reused in spin-offs. [8] To support himself. com/ mem/ archive-free/ pdf?res=9B03E2DF143FE433A25754C2A9669D946197D6CF) on 2010-12-03. The 1939 film was considered innovative because of its songs. nytimes. Mary Louise Baum Brewster. 73–94. Chicago Tribune. Baum's life was a working model" (http:/ / news. p. com/ img-ctha/ clip/ 1956/ 05/ 13/ 19560513C007270011100013. Smithsonian (Smithsonian Institution) 31 (3): 112. [13] Verdon. and reinterpretations. Was Born 100 Years Ago Tuesday" (http:/ / www. . org/ 5ui5qtmRE). the book had inspired a number of now-less-well-known stage and screen adaptations. Prior to this version. Grand Rapids Herald. Archived from the original (http:/ / image2. 4 [7] Watson. The Spokesman-Review. Archived from the original (http:/ / imgcache. newsbank. It was revised to suit adult preferences and was crafted as a "musical extravaganza".com (http:/ / home-and-garden. Later becoming a playwright. Retrieved 2010-12-03. "Tells How Dad Wrote 'Wizard of Oz' Stories" (http:/ / www. pdf) on 2010-11-28. Vincent (1954-05-02). Retrieved 2010-11-28. and adapted into comics several times. Archived from the original (http:/ / image2. an Irish melodrama. webshots. and revolutionary use of the new Technicolor.

. 97–98 [34] Dighe 2002. III (03 2000). 273 [22] Delaney. p. 155 Footnotes . webcitation. 255 [38] Setting the Standards on the Road to Oz. OCLC 800451. Dead Man (http:/ / www. Leonard Everett (2000). ISSN 00185078. pdf) on 2010-11-28. 154–155 [30] Taylor. money. David (2009-09-23). "The Wonderful Wizard of Oz". p. 43 [25] Schwartz 2009. Parker. 87–89 [26] Schwartz 2009. . p. "L. Frank Baum's Books Alive" (http:/ / www. Michael Patrick (2000). p. [23] Gourley 1999. 2003. The Numismatist. pp. Indiana Memorial Union. p. Retrieved 2010-11-28. Starrett (1957-05-12). x [35] Dighe 2002. 39–40 [32] Schwartz 2009. Archived from the original (http:/ / salempress. 50 [37] Hansen 2002. p. html). "Future Classics: The Wonderful Wizard of Oz". 105 [48] Culver 1988. Retrieved 2010-11-26. nytimes. turnmeondeadman. [54] Hearn. [55] Littlefield 1964. p. Michael Patrick (1973). 75 [27] Culver 1988. Margaret. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (http:/ / www. html) on 2011-02-26. The New York Times: pp. [42] Christie. org/ 5uZe6bJb8).The Wonderful Wizard of Oz 2010-11-28. Frank Baum and the Hotel del Coronado (http:/ / infodome. cfm& ContentID=13804) [39] David B. pp 1042–1050 (http:/ / www. pp. [43] To See The Wizard: Oz on Stage and Film (http:/ / www. [52] Piehler. [18] Bankston. org/ AM/ Template. ISSN 1045991X." Journal of the Georgia Association of Historians. p. The Annotated Wizard of Oz. com/ img-ctha/ clip/ 1957/ 05/ 12/ 19570512C007270011100005. Archived from the original (http:/ / jacksonville. OCLC 36582073. p. Library of Congress. Richard (July 2000) (Speech). [47] Abrams 2010. Moran & Sceurman 2005. "The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (Book Review)" (http:/ / findarticles. Carl L. Associated Press. Nicola (2006-08-17). ISSN 03628930. org/ 5wmaaAAsD). . . loc. "The Wonderful Wizard of Oz: A Commemorative Pop-up Review". July 1991. Hearn. "'Wizard of Oz' goes hi-def for 70th anniversary" (http:/ / www. gov/ exhibits/ oz/ ozsect2. com/ entertainment/ movies/ 2009-09-23/ story/ wizard_of_oz_goes_hi_def_for_70th_birthday) on 2011-02-13. webcitation. p. edu/ about/ depts/ spcollections/ exhibits/ 0906/ index. Deconstructing the Hero. net/ OZ/ Responses. Retrieved 2011-02-13. [40] Responses to Littlefield – The Wizard of Oz – Turn Me On. "The Rise and Fall of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz as a Parable on Populism. newsbank. p. Potter. 15 (1994). 261 [29] Barrett 2006. cfm?Section=Online_Numismatist& Template=/ CM/ ContentDisplay. . The Independent. [44] "Books and Authors" (http:/ / www. p. Heide (12 2005). ISBN 0-415-14186-9. webcitation. L. [51] Fisher. pp.N. 301 [50] Houihan. Archived from the original (http:/ / image2. 102 [28] Hansen 2002. org/ 5uWPkwlMh) (PDF). htm) on 2010-11-25. p. pp. Salem Press. 95 [33] Schwartz 2009. php) [41] Rutter. [20] The Writer's Muse: L. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2010-11-25. 97 [49] Nathanson 1992. Bill (03 2002). 504 [46] Vincent. 2 [36] Littlefield 1964. co. webcitation. sdsu. [19] Baum. [45] Berman 2003. The Horn Book Magazine (Library Journals) 76 (5): 547. shtml) [21] Schwartz 2009. Indiana University. com/ mem/ archive-free/ pdf?res=9D00E2D9153FE433A2575BC0A96F9C946197D6CF) on 2010-11-26. ISSN 00185078. 1900-09-08. com/ p/ articles/ mi_7051/ is_1_11/ ai_n28818970/ ). p. p. Frank. webcitation. . "Wicked: tales of the witches of Oz" (http:/ / www. org/ 5uWBcUewP). 49–63. p. Chicago Tribune. BR12–13. p. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. The Florida Times-Union. Andrew (2000). Mitch Sanders. ISBN 0-517-500868. Bloomington. Retrieved 2011-02-23. 47–48 [56] Twiddy. pp. New York: C. 7 [24] Carpenter & Shirley 1992. Utopian Studies (Penn State University Press) 11 (1): 142. Archived from the original (http:/ / query. 208 [31] Wagman-Geller 2008. 209. [53] Karp. Indiana. 38. pp. p. com/ store/ samples/ classics_of_science_fiction_and_fantasy_literature/ classics_of_science_fiction_and_fantasy_literature_the_wonderful_wizard_of_oz. The Horn Book Magazine (Library Journals) 76 (6): 739. Salem Press. org/ 5wSqKNxSj). Retrieved 2011-02-26. independent. uk/ arts-entertainment/ theatre-dance/ features/ wicked--tales-of-the-witches-of-oz-412263. School Library Journal (Reed Business Information) 51 (12): 100.

Dick (1977). University of Kansas Press ISBN 0-7006-0832-X 156 . (1994).com/piglet/Populism. • Nathanson. • Culver." American Literary History 4 (1992) 607–28. Media Wizards: A Behind-the-Scene Look at Media Manipulations (http://books. Ranjit S. • Culver. Stuart (1988). Brookfield. CT: Twenty-First Century Books.2307/2710826. 16 (1994): 49–63 (http://www. "Growing Up in Oz. • Greene. Colleen and Mark Scott (2008). The Oz Scrapbook. and the New American Fairy Tale" (http://findarticles. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press • Gardner. "The Wizardry of Oz" (http://www. • Dighe. "The Wizard of Oz: Parable on Populism" (http://www. The Wizard of Oz and Who He Was. Michael O.webcitation. "Responses to Littlefield" (2004). Albany: State University of New York Press. New York: Infobase Publishing.com/p/articles/mi_qa3708/is_200604/ai_n17178497/). org/pss/1183440).com/books?id=mYo2b4EnuuMC). Archived from the original (http://www. Science Fiction Studies (DePauw University) 30 (3): 504–509. doi:10. (1997) Oz and Beyond: The Fantasy World of L. (2002). ISBN 0761309675. Chicago: Reilly & Lee Co. Frank Baum.org/5uXx2zUQ5). Retrieved 2010-11-27. • Berman. Jean (1992). Nye. Frank Baum: Royal Historian of Oz.com/books?id=l71A056Q1dEC). online (http://www. ISBN 1604135018. ISSN 00311294. Frank Baum (http://books. ISBN 0791407098. David L. Zimmer. Ruth (11 2003). Martin. "The Fable of the Allegory: The Wizard of Oz in Economics" (http://www. • Carpenter. "What Manikins Want: The Wonderful Wizard of Oz and The Art of Decorating Dry Goods Windows" (http://www. "From Wonderland to Wasteland: The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. Joe Gans: A Biography of the First African American World Boxing Champion.htm) • Riley. • Parker. Todd. Angelica Shirley.htm) on 2010-11-27. Over the Rainbow: The Wizard of Oz as a Secular Myth of America (http://books.halcyon. Greene (1988). Kyle (2010). ISBN 0-393-04992-2 • Littlefield.org/ 5uPB7UNa7). Shirley. Norton & Co.) The Historian's Wizard of Oz: Reading L. MacFall. Papers on Language & Literature (Southern Illinois University) 42 (2): 150–180.amphigory. David B. • Hearn. Paul (1991). Michael Patrick (ed). ISBN 978-1-930764-03-3 • Hansen.turnmeondeadman.google. Minneapolis: Lerner Publishing Group.com/books?id=58jMRXmuHjkC).depauw. ISBN 0822596172.org/stable/2928378). google. 133–139. Bibliographia Oziana: A Concise Bibliographical Checklist. Stuart. (ed. (2000. (1964). html) • Gourley. google. Journal of Economic Education (Taylor & Francis) 33 (3): 254–264. American Quarterly (Johns Hopkins University Press) 16 (1): 47–58. Martin. • Barrett. The Great Gatsby. doi:10. Archived from the original (http://www.1080/00220480209595190." Journal of the Georgia Association of Historians. W. • Baum. Frank Joslyn. The International Wizard of Oz Club. To Please a Child. • Aycock. Peter E and Douglas G. L. • Hanff. L.edu/sfs/ review_essays/parret91. Classic Fantasy Writers (http://books.htm) on 2010-11-21. (1994) "The Rise and Fall of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz as a 'Parable on Populism'. 1973) The Annotated Wizard of Oz. New York: Chelsea House Publishers. McFarland & Co.com/books?id=Pym5AAAAIAAJ).jstor.jstor. Russel B. • Bloom. Catherine (1999).com/oz.google. Henry M. W. Retrieved 2011-03-07. Representations (University of California Press) (21): 97–116. (1961). Random House.. Dennis. Russell P. ISBN 0791022048. Bradley A. Harold (1994).The Wonderful Wizard of Oz Bibliography • Abrams. Frank Baum's Classic as a Political and Monetary Allegory (2002) • Gardner. Laura (2006).webcitation.net/OZ/Responses.

" Journal of Political Economy 98 (1990): 739–60 online at JSTOR • Rogers. (2009). (2005). Frank Baum's "The Wonderful Wizard of Oz" on Stage and Screen to 1939 (2000). • Sherman. • The Baum Bugle: A Journal of Oz (http://ozclub. • Rockoff. wsj.gov/cgi-bin/ ampage?collId=rbc3&fileName=rbc0001_2006gen32405page.org/) published by The International Wizard of Oz Club. • Online version of the 1900 first edition on the Library of Congress website.com/article/SB114729872294849429. New York: Sterling Publishing. "Following the Yellow Brick Road: How the United States Adopted the Gold Standard" Economic Perspectives. Frank Baum and the Oz Series. Frank Baum's novel. Volume: 26. • Taylor. illustrated endpapers. Evan I. All Things Oz (2003) • Swartz. ISBN 0786417927 • Sunshine. google. Plate detached.librivox.cfm?abstract_id=377760) • Wagman-Geller. Frank Baum: Creator of Oz. New York: Penguin Books.: McFarland & Co. • Schwartz.com/books?id=E2HUcQ66NrcC). ISBN 0399534628.ssrn. full text and audio. music videos. Miller in the Wall Street Journal (http://online. Troy. provides frequent critical and historical information about L.db&recNum=0) The Oz books Previous book: N/A The Wonderful Wizard of Oz 1900 Next book: The Marvelous Land of Oz . • The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1900 illustrated copy) (http://www. Jefferson. Frank Baum's The Wonderful Wizard of Oz and historical memory in American politics. Oz Before the Rainbow: L. ISBN 076075943X. New York: St.org/books/wizard_of_oz/xaa. Publisher's green and red illustrated cloth over boards.halcyon. 171–203. Public Domain – Charles E. 2.html) • The Wonderful Wizard of Oz Audio Book (http://www. 2002.com/books?id=SjYHYOtQiwIC). television. Weird Illinois: Your Travel Guide to Illinois' Local Legends and Best Kept Secrets (http://books. radio. Martin's Press." Journal of American Studies (August 1997) vol. (http://lcweb2. • Ziaukas. (2002).org) project. 31.com/piglet/books8-Ziaukas. Tim. an unabridged dramatic audio performance at Wired for Books.google. "The 'Wizard of Oz' as a Monetary Allegory. Fall 1998 (http://www. Hugh. Frank Baum discovered the Great American story (http://books.org/oz/).com/ books?id=H7OKVbW-A84C). Fraser A.org/details/ wonderfulwizardo00baumiala).htm) 157 External links • The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (http://www." by John J.archive. its sequels and their adaptations for stage. Sceurman. Mark Evan. Mark (2005). comic books. L. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.com/sol3/papers.gutenberg. (http://books. ISBN 031230174X.com/PM. Young Research Library. no.archive. Weird. Finding Oz: how L. "100 Years of Oz: Baum's 'Wizard of Oz' as Gilded Age Public Relations" in Public Relations Quarterly.google. Gretchen. movies. N. • Velde.loc. Katharine M. (http://www. Once Again to Zelda: The Stories Behind Literature's Most Intriguing Dedications (http://books. The Wizard of Oz catalog: L. Issue: 2.org/etext/55) at Project Gutenberg • "Down the Yellow Brick Road of Overinterpretation. Marlene (2008). commercials and more. Frank Baum (http://wiredforbooks.php).questia. Linda. Francois R. • The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (http://publicliterature. • The Wonderful Wizard of Oz by L. UCLA.com/books?id=gE4P1bhDCB4C).C.google.The Wonderful Wizard of Oz • Ritter. "Silver slippers and a golden cap: L. Mark.qst?a=o&d=5000776148) also online here (http://papers. Moran. ISBN 0547055102.org/details/wizard_of_oz) a Librivox (http:// www.

He escapes and returns home to his mother who puts him to bed after dosing him with camomile tea. young white male.The Tale of Peter Rabbit 158 The Tale of Peter Rabbit The Tale of Peter Rabbit First edition cover Author(s) Illustrator Country Language Genre(s) Publisher Beatrix Potter Beatrix Potter England English Children's literature Frederick Warne & Co. in 1893. Publication date October 1902 Media type OCLC Number Followed by Print (Hardcover) 12533701 [1] The Tale of Squirrel Nutkin The Tale of Peter Rabbit is a children's book written and illustrated by Beatrix Potter that follows mischievous and disobedient young Peter Rabbit as he is chased about the garden of Mr. foods. Peter Rabbit appeared as a character in a 1971 ballet film. By making the hero of the tale a disobedient and rebellious little rabbit. Potter was one of the first to be responsible for such merchandise when she patented a Peter Rabbit doll in 1903 and followed it almost immediately with a Peter Rabbit board game. clothing. and the tale has been adapted to an animated television series. in 1902.[3] The book has generated considerable merchandise over the decades since its release for both children and adults with toys. The tale was written for five-year-old Noel Moore. resourceful. and multiple reprints were issued in the years immediately following its debut. . dishes. It was revised and privately printed by Potter in 1901 after several publishers' rejections but was printed in a trade edition by Frederick Warne & Co. The book was a success. son of Potter's former governess Annie Carter Moore. videos and other products made available. McGregor. It has been translated into 36 languages[2] and with 45 million copies sold it is one of the best-selling books of all time. Potter subverted her era's definition of the good child and the literary hero genre which typically followed the adventures of a brave.

and his mother are anthropomorphic rabbits who dress in human clothing and generally walk upright on their hind legs. his sisters Flopsy. McGregor uses them to dress a scarecrow. Mopsy. a Potter family friend and sometime poet. Peter sneaks into the garden. in 1900. he gorges on vegetables until he gets sick. the first 250 copies of her privately printed The Tale of Peter Rabbit "was ready for distribution to family and friends". Potter sent illustrated story letters to the children of her former governess.. added intrigue. Potter embraced the suggestion. set Potter's tale into "rather dreadful didactic verse and submitted it. others a longer one. Annie Moore. Potter titled the The Tale of Peter Rabbit and Mr. McGregor: it was there that their father met his untimely end and became the ingredient of a pie." which had been among the original rejecters. realizing the commercial potential of Potter's stories. Rabbit is shopping and the girls are collecting blackberries.. though they live in a rabbit hole under a fir-tree. Rabbit dosing Peter with camomile tea".The Tale of Peter Rabbit 159 Plot Peter Rabbit. on 16 December 1901. McGregor.. and gave a greater sense of the passage of time. Composition Through the 1890s. while Mrs. But most wanted coloured illustrations which by 1900 were both popular and affordable". She puts him to bed with a dose of camomile tea while his sisters (who have been good little bunnies) enjoy bread and milk and blackberries for supper. These changes slowed the narrative down. and painted a coloured frontispiece showing Mrs. including Frederick Warne & Co. After several close encounters with Mr. McGregor. but "her manuscript was returned .. McGregor's Garden and sent it to publishers. When Peter loses his jacket and his shoes. Moore. and.[7] She decided to publish the book herself. Peter returns to McGregor's garden to retrieve his lost clothes. suggested they be made into books.[6] The several rejections proved frustrating to Potter who knew exactly how her book should look (she had adopted the format and style of Helen Bannerman's Little Black Sambo) "and how much it should cost".[5] Publication history Private publication As Lear explains. In a 1904 sequel. There. Mr. and. along with Potter's illustrations and half her revised manuscript..[9] Warne editors declined Rawnsley's version "but asked to see the complete Potter manuscript" – their interest stimulated by the opportunity The Tale of Peter Rabbit offered the Cover of the 1901 privately published edition . Mother Rabbit has forbidden her children to enter the garden of Mr. who nearly a decade earlier had shown some interest in her artwork. Peter escapes the garden and returns to his mother exhausted and ill.[8] First commercial edition In 1901. The Tale of Benjamin Bunny. Some publishers wanted a shorter book. selected a letter written on 4 September 1893 to five-year-old Noel that featured a tale about a rabbit named Peter. Potter had owned a pet rabbit called Peter Piper.[4] Potter biographer Linda Lear explains: "The original letter was too short to make a proper book so [Potter] added some text and made new black-and-white illustrations. and. Then she copied it out into a stiff-covered exercise book. Canon Hardwicke Rawnsley. to Frederick Warne & Co.and made it more suspenseful. . and Cottontail. and is then chased about by Mr. However. as Lear explains... borrowing her complete correspondence (which had been carefully preserved by the Moore children).

making minor adjustments to the prose and correcting punctuation.[13] Potter arrived at an agreement with Warne for an initial publication of 5. the first 8. who was impressed with to Potter's work. Lear writes that "Even before the publication of the tale in early October 1902. By the year's end there were 28. with the celebrated creator of Sherlock Holmes. and she made adjustments to the proofs when she received them. Potter replied that rabbit-brown and green were not good subjects for colouration. and marked which ones might best be eliminated".[15] 160 American copyright Warne's New York office "failed to register the copyright for The Tale of Peter Rabbit in the United States" and unlicensed copies of the book "(from which Potter would receive no royalties) began to appear in the spring of 1903.000 copies were sold out.[16] . When the first private printing of 250 copies was sold out. and a year after the first commercial publication there were 56.The Tale of Peter Rabbit publisher to compete with the success of Helen Bannerman's wildly popular Little Black Sambo and other small format children's books then on the market..000 commercial copies.[14] Negotiations dragged on into the following year with a contract finally signed in June 1902.[12] She noted in an inscription in one copy that her beloved pet rabbit Peter had died. The blocks for the illustrations and text were sent to printer Edmund Evans for engraving. She sent Warne several "several colour illustrations.[10] Potter initially resisted the idea of colour illustrations but then realized her stubborn stance was a mistake. [to Potter] only became evident over time".[11] Meanwhile..[10] Warne wanted colour illustrations throughout the 'bunny book' (as the firm referred to the tale) and suggested cutting the illustrations "from forty-two to thirty-two . but the necessity of protecting her intellectual property hit home after the successful 1903 publication of The Tale of Squirrel Nutkin when her father returned from the Burlington Arcade in Mayfair at Christmas 1903 with a toy squirrel labelled Nutkin.. along with a copy of her privately printed edition" which Warne then handed to their eminent children's book illustrator L. acquiring a copy for his children.. When Warne inquired about the lack of colour illustrations in the book. By the middle of 1903 there was a fifth edition sporting coloured endpapers .000 copies of The Tale of Peter Rabbit in print.470 copies in print. another 200 were prepared. Warne declined the book but opened the possibility for future publication. Leslie Brooke for his professional opinion.[13] Potter was closely involved in the publication process of the trade edition of the tale – redrawing when necessary. There was nothing anyone could do stop them". his recommendation coincided with a sudden surge in the small picture-book market. Fortuitously. The enormous financial loss . Arthur Conan Doyle.. Potter continued to distribute her privately printed edition to family and friends.. a sixth printing was produced within the month".

toy theatres. the illustrations of which showed him in his distinctive blue jacket. a computer program. and Internet sites". Ramon Ross explains Peter Rabbit is a story created for reading. in discussing the difference between stories that lend themselves well to telling and stories that lend themselves well to reading. The New Adventures of Peter Rabbit.[19] Pirating of The Tale of Peter Rabbit has flourished over the decades with products only loosely associated with the original.The Tale of Peter Rabbit 161 Merchandising Potter asserted her tales would one day be nursery classics. the crisp writing"—lends itself well to a young audience. He goes on to write that the writing style—"the economy of words. modern technology had made available "videos."[22] She describes the tale as a "perfect marriage of word and image" and "a triumph of fantasy and fact". In 1916. and a form of fable with anatomically correct illustrations drawn by a scientifically minded artist. intermixed with lulls in the action. an American accent and a fourth sister Hopsy". as described by Margaret Mackey writing in The case of Peter Rabbit: changing conditions of literature for children.[18] Considerable variants on the original format and version of The Tale of Peter Rabbit as well as spin-off merchandise have been made available over the decades. Another video "retelling of the tale casts Peter as a Christian preacher singing songs about God and Jesus". American Louise A. He believes Potter created a good mix of suspense and tension. writes Potter biographer Ruth MacDonald. "Peter is given buck teeth.[23] .[20] In an animated movie by Golden Films. because her portrayal speaks to some universal understanding of rabbity behaviour. audio cassette.[21] Lear writes that Potter "had in fact created a new form of animal fable in: one in which anthropomorphic animals behave as real animals with true animal instincts". She continues: "Warne and their collaborators and competitors have produced a large collection of activity books and a monthly educational magazine". and lift-the-flap books". and part of the "longevity of her books comes from strategy". A plethora of other Peter Rabbit related merchandise exists as well. By 1998. and nursery wallpaper. and "toy shops in the United States and Britain have whole sections of store specially signposted and earmarked exclusively for Potter-related toys and merchandise". Variant versions include "pop-ups. between 1903 and 1905 these included a Peter Rabbit stuffed toy. a CD-ROMs.[19] Critical commentaries Writing in Storyteller: The Classic that Heralded America's Storytelling Revival. an unpublished board game... Field cashed in on the popularity by writing books such as Peter Rabbit Goes to School or Peter Rabbit and His Ma.[17] She was the first to exploit the commercial possibilities of her characters and tales. She further states Peter Rabbit's nature is familiar to rabbit enthusiasts "and endorsed by those who are not .

once his goal is achieved. in the illustration of Peter standing by the locked door.[25] Mr.[24] In the verbal narrative and the illustration for the moment when Mr. Walt Disney became interested in making an animated film based on The Tale of Peter Rabbit. For example. the verbal narrative presents the murderous intent of Mr. emotionally driven. disobedience.[30] In 1971. Peter Rabbit was heavily referenced in a biopic about Beatrix Potter entitled Miss Potter. Here. verbal narrative and illustration work in harmony rather than in disharmony. and Mr.The Tale of Peter Rabbit 162 Carole Scott writes in Beatrix Potter's Peter Rabbit that the reader cannot help but identify with rebellious little Peter and his plight as all the illustrations are presented from his low-to-the-ground view. and. unpredictable nature against the constrictions of civilized living. McGregor is distanced from the reader by always being depicted on the far side of Peter. the tale was adapted to animation for the BBC anthology series. and assertion of their wild. Scott explains: "This identification dramatically instills fear and tension in the reader. The illustration depicts an unclothed Peter standing upright against the door. in 1992. Beatrix Potter refused to give the rights to Disney because of marketing issues. . his emotions. most feature Peter in close-up and within touching distance. returns home to grateful welcome and rewards. Without his clothes. shortly after the success of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. the verbal narrative describes the scene without the flippancy evident in the moment of the sieve.[27] Peter is quite unlike the traditional hero because "he is small. McGregor as a matter-of-fact.[26] Scott writes that Potter subverts not only her age’s expectations of what it takes to be a good child but subverts the hero genre with its young. objective. sometimes with contradictory effects. and. Peter is only a small. one foot upon the other with a tear running from his eye. wild animal but his tears. “Peter began to cry” is offered without irony or attitude. In 2006. for example. easily frightened. McGregor attempts to trap Peter under a garden sieve. and his human posture intensifies the reader’s identification with him. thus drawing the reader closer to Peter’s emotions and plight. rational.[28] She suggests Potter’s tale has encouraged many generations of children to “self-indulgence.”[29] Adaptations In 1938. Peter Rabbit appeared as a character in the ballet film The Tales of Beatrix Potter. McGregor tries to trap Peter under a garden sieve Scott writes that Potter is inconsistent in the use of "contradictory effects in the word-picture interaction". However. resourceful white male who leaves the civilized world to brave obstacles and opponents in the wilderness. everyday occurrence while the illustration presents the desperate moment from the terrified view of a small animal about to die – a view that is reinforced by the birds that take flight to the left and the right. The World of Peter Rabbit and Friends. and interacts with the frequently distanced voice of the verbal narrative". transgression of social boundaries and ethics. and a not very rational animal". The inability to overcome obstacles is presented in the verbal narrative with objective matter-of-factness and the statement.

Beatrix Potter's Peter Rabbit: A Children's Classic at 100.co.): Dorling Kindersley. p. ISBN 0-8153-3094-4 • Ross. 147 [12] Lear 2007. 172–5 [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] Mackey 1998. p. Prnewswire. Writers. p. 143 [7] Lear 2007. 150 [13] Lear 2007. p. Ramon Royal (1996). ISBN 978-0-312-36934-7 • Mackey. 164 [17] MacDonald 1986. Lanham. p.co. London: Routledge. p. ISBN 0-7894-8538-9 • Lear. 33 [3] Worker's Press [4] Mackey 2002. 35 [5] Lear 2007. 143–144 [8] Lear 2007. ISBN 0-19-820677-1 • Worker's Press acknowledge Frederick Warne's intellectual property rights (http://www. Beatrix Potter: A Life in Nature. p. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 148 [15] Lear 2007. 22–23 Mackey 2002. p.uk/ cgi/news/release?id=105175). 153 Lear 2007. Camilla (2002). 210 Lear 2007.prnewswire. ISBN 0-8108-4197-5 • Mackey.uk. ISBN 978-0874834512 • Waller. p. p. pp. MD: The Scarecrow Press. August House.. 149 [14] Lear 2007. pp. 29 World Press Page. 154–155 Mackey 2002. 152 [16] Lear 2007. 145–146 [10] Lear 2007. p. New York: St. Margaret (2002). p. xxi–xxii Hallinan 2002. London (et al. 28 Mackey 2002.Walt Disney | Beatrix Potter Was A Savvy Business Woman Works cited • Hallinan. and Reputations. p. p. 145 [9] Lear 2007. 128 [18] Lear 2008. 26 Mackey 2002. pp. p. p. 142 [6] Lear 2007. The Ultimate Peter Rabbit: A Visual Guide to the World of Beatrix Potter. Inc. pp. p.Walt Disney World Florida. Storyteller: The Classic That Heralded America's Storytelling Revival. Margaret (1998). 146 [11] Lear 2007. p. p. pp. org/ oclc/ 12533701 [2] Mackey 2002. pp. 22 Mackey 2002. 2003-07-10. Linda (2007). p. 83 Ross 1996. pp. The Case of Peter Rabbit. 28–29 Mackey 2002. retrieved 2009-08-31 . Readers.The Tale of Peter Rabbit 163 References Footnotes [1] http:/ / worldcat. Martin's Press. Philip (2006).

com/us/index.edu/peterrabbit/pageflip.gutenberg.uiowa.org/etext/14838) at Project Gutenberg • The Tale of Peter Rabbit Audio Book (http://www.gutenberg.html) at The University of Iowa Libraries (Flash) • World of Peter Rabbit (http://www.org/etext/12702) at Project Gutenberg • The Tale of Peter Rabbit Digital Book (http://digital.peterrabbit.asp): A website maintained by Potter's first publisher Frederick Warne & Co.The Tale of Peter Rabbit 164 External links • The Tale of Peter Rabbit (http://www. .lib.

[2] Because the protagonist is a dog. in which sled dogs fetched generous prices. The plot concerns a previously domesticated dog named Buck. it is sometimes classified as a juvenile novel. were a figment of London's imagination. Buck learns from his experiences and becomes a pack-dominating feral beast. Published in 1903. helping him to survive adversity as a ferocious animal. and it is generally considered his best. The Call of the Wild is London's most-read book. whose primordial instincts return after a series of events leads to his serving as a sled dog in the Yukon during the 19th-century Klondike Gold Rush. a group of Alaska Natives portrayed in Call of the Wild.The Call of the Wild 165 The Call of the Wild The Call of the wild First edition cover Author(s) Illustrator Cover artist Country Language Genre(s) Publisher Jack London Nolan Gadient Evan Adkins Canada English Adventure novel Macmillan Publication date 1903 Media type Pages ISBN OCLC Number Print (Hardback & Paperback) 179 NA 28228581 [1] The Call of the Wild is a novel by American writer Jack London.[3] . He learns lessons and relies on resurgent behaviors inherited from his wild predecessors. but it is dark in tone and contains numerous scenes of cruelty and violence. the masterpiece of his so-called "early period". The Yeehat.

Thornton recognizes him as a remarkable dog and is disgusted by the driver's treatment of him. They first overfeed the dogs. Charles. They struggle to control the sled and ignore warnings not to travel during the spring melt. looking to make a fortune http:/ / en. quarrelsome lead dog. Then Buck is shipped to Alaska and sold to a pair of French Canadians named François and Perrault (for $300).[4] [5] The stanza outlines one of the main motifs of the novel. he returns from a short hunt to find his beloved master and the others in the camp have been killed by a group of Yeehat Indians.[7] Eventually. They know nothing about sledding nor surviving in the Alaskan wilderness. Manuel. Buck comes to love him and grows devoted to him. the Judge's gardener's assistant. the ice gives way and the three fall into the river along with the neglected dogs and sled. that Buck. Buck saves Thornton when the man falls into a river.” The novel opens with the first quatrain of John Myers O'Hara's poem. Hal. He and the vicious. an experienced outdoorsman who notices that all of the sled dogs are in terrible shape from the ill treatment of their handlers. much to Hal's displeasure. Buck follows the wolf into the forest and answers the call of the wild.[9] . then when their food supply starts running out. but they refuse to listen and order Buck to move on. and after Spitz is defeated. org/ wiki/ Jack_Londonfinding gold. Buck is sold to a trio. Buck eventually kills the Indians to avenge Thornton. the trio leaves and tries to cross the river. a man makes a wager with Thornton over Buck's strength and devotion. they do not feed them at all. After some argument. As they journey on. Buck wins the bet by breaking a half-ton sled out of the frozen ground. One night. wikipedia. a powerful Saint Bernard-Scotch shepherd dog. Again from its brumal sleep Wakens the ferine strain. has reverted to innate instincts of wolf-like savagery due to his captors' brutality and their having thrust him into the harsh Northland environment where The Law of Club and Fang reigns supreme. but as Thornton warned. Chafing at custom’s chain. They train him as a sled dog. Thornton and his friends return to their camp and continue their search for gold. winning over a thousand dollars in gold dust.The Call of the Wild 166 Epigraph “Old longings nomadic leap. Thornton cuts Buck free from his traces and tells the trio he's keeping him. while Buck begins exploring the wilderness around them and begins socializing with a wolf from a local pack. starving. Plot Buck. After realizing his old life is a thing of the past. and a woman named Mercedes. Atavism.[6] [5] lives a comfortable life in the Santa Clara Valley with his owner. Buck eventually bests Spitz in a major fight. and sensing the danger ahead. Thornton warns the trio against crossing the river. Thornton then takes him on trips to pan for gold. Buck refuses and continues to lie unmoving in the snow. the other dogs close in.[8] As Thornton nurses Buck back to health. Judge Miller. Buck is then shipped to the "man in the red sweater" to be broken. During one such trip. Exhausted. they run into John Thornton. Spitz. Every year Buck comes to mourn for Thornton at the place where he died. steals Buck and sells him(for $1000) in order to pay a gambling debt. and he quickly learns how to survive the cold winter nights and the pack society by observing his teammates. develop a rivalry. killing him. After Buck is beaten by Hal. Buck then becomes the leader of the team. raised in the "sun-kissed" Santa Clara Valley. then pulling it 100 yards by himself. One day.

OCLC 44955471. Modern Library. p. Bibliography • London. • London. p. Chapter 5. Doctorow. who was also a mining investor. The Call of the Wild: Annotated and Illustrated (http://books. Another adaptation released 1997 called The Call of the Wild: Dog of the Yukon starring Rutger Hauer was narrated by Richard Dreyfuss and adapted by Graham Ludlow. There was also a Call of the Wild television series broadcast in 2000. introduction by E. Wikisource. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] http:/ / worldcat. ed. a family-oriented adaption feature-length film. Jack (1903). Chapter 6–Chapter 7. the sons of Judge Hiram Bond. google. xi. London 1903. London 1998. fruit packer and banker in Santa Clara. London 1903. The 1972 The Call of the Wild starred Charlton Heston and Mick Steele. London 1903.The Call of the Wild 167 Development Buck. org/ oclc/ 28228581 London 1998. Daniel Osborn. Dyer. 2009. White Fang & To Build a Fire. London 1998. The Call of the Wild. On June 12. Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. Chapter 1. Jack (1997). .com/books?id=xTT0b77KQtQC). the main character in the book. The TV special What a Nightmare. p. The Call of the Wild. The Bonds were Jack London's landlords in Dawson City during the autumn of 1897 and spring of 1898. The 1935 version starring Clark Gable and Loretta Young emphasized the human relationships over Buck's story. ISBN 978-0375752513. 4. 101. California. 3. the main year of the Klondike Gold Rush. p. London 1903. Vivendi Entertainment released "Call of the Wild in Digital Real-D 3D". London 1997. ISBN 9780585145129. Norman. Jack (1998). Film adaptations Several films based on the novel have been produced.L. is based on a Saint Bernard/Scots Shepherd sled dog which belonged to Marshall Latham Bond and his brother Louis Whitford Bond. A television film starring Rick Schroder was broadcast in 1993 that focused more on the character of John Thornton. Charlie Brown! has a plot similar to that of The Call of the Wild. • London. Chapter 1–Chapter 4.

The Wind in the Willows

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The Wind in the Willows
The Wind in the Willows

Cover of the first edition Author(s) Country Language Genre(s) Publisher Kenneth Grahame United Kingdom English Children's novel Methuen

Publication date 1908 Media type Pages ISBN Print (Hardcover) 302 pp NA

The Wind in the Willows is a classic of children's literature by Kenneth Grahame, first published in 1908. Alternately slow moving and fast paced, it focuses on four anthropomorphised animal characters in a pastoral version of England. The novel is notable for its mixture of mysticism, adventure, morality, and camaraderie and celebrated for its evocation of the nature of the Thames valley. In 1908 Grahame retired from his position as secretary of the Bank of England. He moved back to Cookham, Berkshire, where he had been brought up and spent his time by the River Thames doing much as the animal characters in his book do—namely, as one of the most famous phrases from the book says, "simply messing about in boats"—and wrote down the bed-time stories he had been telling his son Alistair. The Wind in the Willows was in its thirty-first printing when then-famous playwright, A. A. Milne, who loved it, adapted a part of it for stage as Toad of Toad Hall in 1929.

Plot summary
At the start of the book, it is spring time, the weather is fine, and good-natured Mole loses patience with his spring cleaning and flees his underground home, heading up to take in the air. He ends up at the river, which he has never seen before. Here he meets Ratty (a water rat), who spends all his days in and around the river. Rat takes Mole for a ride in his rowing boat. They get along well and the two of them spend many more days on the river, with Rat teaching Mole the ways of the river. One summer day shortly thereafter, Rat and Mole find themselves near Toad Hall and pay a visit to Toad. Toad is rich, jovial and friendly, but conceited, and tends to become obsessed with current fads, only to abandon them as quickly as he took them up. Having only recently given up boating, Toad's current craze is his horse-drawn caravan.

The Wind in the Willows In fact, he is about to go on a trip, and persuades the reluctant Rat and willing Mole to join him. A few days later, a passing motor car scares their horse, causing the caravan to crash. This marks the end of Toad's craze for caravan travel, to be replaced with an obsession for motor cars. Mole wants to meet Badger, who lives in the Wild Wood, but Rat knows that Badger does not appreciate visits, and so refuses to take him, suggesting that if Mole will wait, Badger himself will pay them a visit. Nevertheless, on a winter's day, Mole goes to the Wild Wood to explore, hoping to meet Badger. He gets lost in the woods, succumbs to fright and panic and hides among the roots of a sheltering tree. Rat goes in search of Mole, finding him as snow begins to fall in earnest. Attempting to find their way home, Rat and Mole quite literally stumble across Badger's home--Mole barks his shin upon the boot scraper on Badger's doorstep. Badger welcomes Rat and Mole to his large and very cosy home, and gives them food and dry clothes. Badger learns from his visitors that Toad has crashed six cars and has been hospitalised three times, and has had to spend a fortune on fines. Though nothing can be done at the moment (it being winter), they decide that once spring arrives they should do something to protect Toad from himself, since they are, after all, his friends. With the arrival of spring, Badger visits Mole and Rat to do something about Toad's self-destructive obsession. The three of them go to visit Toad, and Badger tries talking him out of his behaviour, to no avail. They decide to put Toad under house arrest, with themselves as the guards, until Toad changes his mind. Feigning illness, Toad bamboozles the Water Rat (who is on guard duty at the time) and escapes. He steals a car, drives it recklessly and is caught by the police. He is sent to prison on a twenty-year sentence. Though Badger and Mole are furious with Rat for his stupidity, they draw comfort from the fact that they need no longer waste their summer guarding Toad. However, Badger and Mole continue to live in Toad Hall in the hope that Toad may return. Meanwhile in prison, Toad gains the sympathy of the jailer's daughter who helps him to escape disguised as a washerwoman. Though free again, Toad is without money or possessions other than the clothes upon his back, and is being pursued by the police. Still disguised as a washerwoman, Toad comes across a horse-drawn barge. The barge's owner offers him a lift in exchange for Toad's services as a "washer woman". After botching the wash, Toad gets into a fight with the barge-woman, who tosses him in the canal. After making off with the barge horse, which he then sells to a gypsy, Toad flags down a passing car, which happens to be the very one which he stole earlier. The car owners, not recognizing Toad disguised as a washer woman, permit him to drive their car. Once behind the wheel, he is repossessed by his former passion and drives furiously, declaring his true identity to the outraged passengers who try to seize him. This leads to an accident, after which Toad flees once more. Pursued by police he runs accidentally into a river, which carries him by sheer chance to the house of the Water Rat. Toad now hears from Rat that Toad Hall has been taken over by weasels, stoats and ferrets from the Wild Wood, who have driven out its former custodians, Mole and Badger. Although upset at the loss of his house, Toad realises what good friends he has and how badly he has behaved. Badger then arrives and announces that he knows of a secret tunnel into Toad Hall through which the enemies may be attacked. Armed to the teeth, Rat, Mole and Toad enter via the tunnel and pounce upon the unsuspecting weasels who are holding a party in honour of their leader. Having driven away the intruders, Toad holds a banquet to mark his return, during which (for a change) he behaves both quietly and humbly. He makes up for his earlier wrongdoings by seeking out and compensating those he has wronged, and the four friends live out their lives happily ever after. In addition to the main narrative, the book contains several independent short-stories featuring Rat and Mole. These appear for the most part between the chapters chronicling Toad's adventures, and are often omitted from abridgements and dramatizations. The chapter Dulce Domum describes Mole's return to his home, accompanied by Rat, in which despite finding it in a terrible mess after his abortive spring clean he rediscovers, with Rat's help, a familiar comfort. The Piper at the Gates of Dawn tells how Mole and Rat go in search of Otter's missing son Portly, whom they find in the care of the god Pan. (Pan removes their memories of this meeting "lest the awful remembrance should remain and grow, and overshadow mirth and pleasure".) Finally in Wayfarers All Ratty shows a restless side to his character when he is sorely tempted to join a Sea Rat on his travelling adventures.

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Main characters
• Mole – A mild-mannered, home-loving animal, and the first character to be introduced. Fed up with spring cleaning in his secluded home, he ventures into the outside world. Originally overawed by the hustle and bustle of the riverbank, he eventually adapts. • Ratty – A relaxed and friendly water vole, he loves the river and takes Mole under his wing. He is implied to be occasionally mischievous, and can be stubborn when it comes to doing things outside of his riverside lifestyle. • Mr. Toad – The wealthiest character and owner of Toad Hall. Although good-natured, Toad is impulsive and conceited, eventually imprisoned for theft, dangerous driving and impertinence to the rural police. He is prone to obsessions and crazes, such as punting, houseboating, and horse-drawn caravans, each of which in turn he becomes bored with and drops. Several chapters of the book chronicle his escape from prison, disguised as a washer-woman. • Mr. Badger – A gruff, solitary figure who "simply hates society", yet is a good friend to Mole and Ratty. A friend of Toad's now-deceased father, he is often firm and serious with Toad, but at the same time generally patient and well-meaning towards him. He can be seen as a wise hermit, a good leader and gentleman, embodying common sense. He is also brave and a skilled fighter, and helps clear the Wild Wooders from Toad Hall. • Otter and Portly – A friend of Ratty and his son. • The Gaoler's Daughter – The only major human character; helps Toad escape from prison. • The Chief Weasel – The story's antagonist. He and his band of weasels, stoats, and ferrets from the Wild Wood plot to take over Toad Hall. • Inhabitants of the Wild Wood – Weasels, stoats, ferrets, foxes and others, who are described by Ratty thus: "all right in a way... but... well, you can't really trust them". • Pan – A god who makes a single, anomalous appearance in Chapter 7, The Piper at the Gates of Dawn. • The Wayfarer – A vagabond seafaring rat, who also makes a single appearance. Ratty briefly considers following his example, before Mole manages to persuade him otherwise. • Squirrels and rabbits, who are generally good (although rabbits are described as "a mixed lot").

Editions
The book was originally published as plain text, but many illustrated, comic and annotated versions have been published over the years. Notable illustrators include Paul Bransom (1913), Arthur Rackham (1940), Tasha Tudor (1966), Michael Hague (1980), Scott McKowen (2005), and Robert Ingpen (2007). • The most popular illustrations are probably by E. H. Shepard, originally published in 1931, and believed to be authorised as Grahame was pleased with the initial sketches, though he did not live to see the completed work.[1] • The Folio Society edition published in 2006 features 85 illustrations, 35 in colour, by Charles van Sandwyk. The Folio Society Centenary limited edition published in 2008. Vellum quarter binding blocked in 22-carat gold. New etching hand-printed, signed and numbered by the artist, and tipped onto a special limitation page of thick laid paper. 100 illustrations by Charles van Sandwyk, with 16 tipped-in colour plates. Presented in a cloth-bound solander box.

"The Piper at the Gates of Dawn", frontispiece to a 1913 edition by Paul Bransom

The Wind in the Willows • Michel Plessix created a Wind in the Willows comic book series, which helped to introduce the stories to France. They have been translated into English by Cinebook Ltd. • Patrick Benson re-illustrated the story in 1994 and it was published together with the William Horwood sequels The Willows in Winter, Toad Triumphant and The Willows and Beyond. It was published in 1994 by HarperCollins and published in the US in 1995 by St Martin's Press. • Inga Moore's abridged edition features text and illustrations paced so that a line of text, such as "oh my oh my," also serves as a caption. • Seth Lerer's The Wind in the Willows: An Annotated Edition was published in 2009 by Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674034471 • Annie Gauger and Brian Jacques released The Annotated Wind in the Willows in 2009, published by W. W. Norton, as part of the Norton Annotated Series. ISBN 978-0393057744

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Literary analysis
In The Enchanted Places, Milne's son Christopher (Christopher Robin Milne of Winnie-the-Pooh fame) says of The Wind in the Willows: A book that we all greatly loved and admired and read aloud or alone, over and over and over: The Wind in the Willows. This book is, in a way, two separate books put into one. There are, on the one hand, those chapters concerned with the adventures of Toad; and on the other hand there are those chapters that explore human emotions – the emotions of fear, nostalgia, awe, wanderlust. My mother was drawn to the second group, of which “The Piper at the Gates of Dawn” was her favourite, read to me again and again with always, towards the end, the catch in the voice and the long pause to find her handkerchief and blow her nose. My father, on his side, was so captivated by the first group that he turned these chapters into the children's play, Toad of Toad Hall. In this play one emotion only is allowed to creep in: nostalgia.

Adaptations
Stage
• Toad of Toad Hall by A. A. Milne, produced in 1929 • Wind in the Willows, a 1985 Tony-nominated Broadway musical by Jane Iredale, Roger McGough and William P. Perry, starring Nathan Lane • The Wind in the Willows by Alan Bennett (who also appeared as Mole) in 1991 • Mr. Toad's Mad Adventures by Vera Morris • Wind in the Willows (UK National Tour) by Ian Billings • The Wind in the Willows [2] Two stage adaptations - a full musical adaptation and a small-scale, shorter, stage play version - by David Gooderson. • The Wind in the Willows, a musical adaptation published by Dramatic Publishing with adaptation, music and new lyrics by Douglas Post

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Film and television
• The Adventures of Ichabod and Mr. Toad, a 1949 animated adaptation by Walt Disney, narrated by Basil Rathbone. One half of the animated feature was based on the unrelated short story, The Legend of Sleepy Hollow. • The Reluctant Dragon and Mr. Toad Show, a 1970 TV animated series produced by Rankin/Bass, based on both The Reluctant Dragon and The Wind in the Willows. • The Wind in the Willows, a 1983 animated film version with stop-motion puppets by Cosgrove Hall. • The Wind in the Willows, a TV series (1984–1990) following the stop-motion film, done in the same style. There was a host of famous names in the cast, including David Jason, Sir Michael Hordern, Peter Sallis and Ian Carmichael. • The Wind in the Willows, a 1987 animated musical film version for television, produced by Rankin/Bass. This version was very faithful to the book and featured a number of original songs, including the title, "Wind in the Willows," performed by folk singer Judy Collins. Voice actors included Eddie Bracken as Mole, Jose Ferrer as Badger, Roddy McDowell as Ratty, and Charles Nelson Reilly as Toad.[3] • The Wind in the Willows, a 1995 animated version with a cast led by Michael Palin and Alan Bennett as Ratty and Mole, Rik Mayall as Toad and Michael Gambon as Badger; followed by an adaptation of The Willows in Winter produced by the now defunct TVC (Television Cartoons) in London[4] . • The Wind in the Willows, a 1996 live-action film written, directed by and starring Terry Jones along with John Cleese, Eric Idle, and Michael Palin (all of whom were previous Monty Python members). The film also starred Steve Coogan as Mr. Mole and featured appearances by Stephen Fry, Bernard Hill, Nigel Planer and Julia Sawalha. • The Wind in the Willows, another live-action film in 2006 with Lee Ingleby as Mole, Mark Gatiss as Ratty, Matt Lucas as Toad, Bob Hoskins as Badger, and also featuring Imelda Staunton, Anna Maxwell Martin and Mary Walsh. • In 2003, Guillermo del Toro was working on an adaptation for Disney. It was to mix live action with CG animation, and the director explained why he had to leave the helm. "It was a beautiful book, and then I went to meet with the executives and they said, 'Could you give Toad a skateboard and make him say, 'radical dude' things,' and that's when I said, 'It's been a pleasure...'"[5] • In 2010, it was announced that Ray Griggs was developing a live-action/CGI blend adaptation of the story, scheduled to begin filming in late 2010 in New Zealand.[6]

Radio
The BBC has broadcast a number of radio productions of the story. Dramatisations include: • 8 episodes from 4 to 14 April 1955, BBC Home Service. With Richard Goolden, Frank Duncan, Olaf Pooley and Mary O'Farrell. • 8 episodes from 27 September to 15 November 1965, BBC Home Service. With Leonard Maguire, David Steuart and Douglas Murchie. • Single 90-minute play, dramatised by A.A.Milne under the name “Toad of Toad Hall”, on 21 April 1973, BBC Radio 4. With Derek Smith, Bernard Cribbins, Richard Goolden and Cyril Luckham. • 6 episodes from 28 April to 9 June 1983, BBC Schools Radio, Living Language series. With Paul Darrow as Badger. • 6 episodes, dramatised by John Scotney, from 13 February to 20 March 1994, BBC Radio 5. With Martin Jarvis, Timothy Bateson, Willie Rushton, George Baker and Dinsdale Landen. • Single 2-hour play, dramatised by Alan Bennett, on 27 August 1994, BBC Radio 4. Abridged readings include: • 10-part reading by Alan Bennett from 31 July to 11 August 1989, BBC Radio 4.

The Wind in the Willows • 12-part reading by Bernard Cribbins from 22 December 1983 to 6 January 1984, BBC channel unknown. Kenneth Williams also did a version of the book for radio. 2002 Paul Oakenfold produced a Trance Soundtrack for the story, aired on the Galaxy FM show Urban Soundtracks. These mixes blended classic stories with a mixture of dance and contemporary music.

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Sequels and alternative versions
In 1983 Dixon Scott published A Fresh Wind in the Willows, which not only predates Horwood's sequels (see below) by several years but also includes some of the same incidents, including a climax in which Toad steals a Bleriot monoplane. William Horwood created several sequels to The Wind in the Willows: The Willows in Winter, Toad Triumphant, The Willows and Beyond, and The Willows at Christmas. Jan Needle's Wild Wood was published in 1981 with illustrations by William Rushton (ISBN 0-233-97346-X). It is a re-telling of the story of The Wind in the Willows from the point of view of the working-class inhabitants of the Wild Wood. For them, money is short and employment hard to find. They have a very different perspective on the wealthy, easy, careless lifestyle of Toad and his friends.

Awards
• Mr. Toad was voted Number 38 among the 100 Best Characters in Fiction Since 1900 by Book magazine in their March/April 2002 issue.[7]

Inspiration
• Mapledurham House in Berkshire was an inspiration for Toad Hall.[8] • The village of Lerryn, Cornwall lays claim to being the setting for the book.[9] • Simon Winchester has suggested that the character of Ratty was based on Frederick Furnivall, a keen oarsman and acquaintance of Kenneth Grahame.[10] • Articles in The Scotsman [11] and Oban Times [12] have suggested The Wind in the Willows was inspired by the Crinan Canal because Grahame spent some of his childhood in Ardrishaig. • There is a theory that the idea for the story arose when its author saw a water vole beside the River Pang in Berkshire, southern England. A 29 hectare extension to the nature reserve at Moor Copse, near Tidmarsh Berkshire, was acquired in January 2007 by the Berks, Bucks and Oxon Wildlife Trust.[13]

In popular culture
• Mr. Toad's Wild Ride is the name of a ride at Disneyland Park (and former Magic Kingdom attraction), inspired by Toad's motorcar adventure. It is the only ride with an alternate Latin title, given as the inscription on Toad's Hall: 'Toadi Acceleratio Semper Absurda' ('Toad's Ever-Absurd Acceleration'). • The first album by psychedelic rock group Pink Floyd, The Piper at the Gates of Dawn (1967), was named by former member Syd Barrett after Chapter 7 of The Wind in the Willows. However, the songs on the album are not directly related to the contents of the book. The same chapter was the basis for the name and lyrics of "Piper at the Gates of Dawn", a song by Irish singer-song writer Van Morrison from his 1997 album The Healing Game. The song "The Wicker Man" by British heavy metal band Iron Maiden also includes the phrase. British extreme metal band Cradle of Filth released a special edition of their album Thornography, called Harder, Darker, Faster: Thornography Deluxe; on the song "Snake-Eyed and the Venomous," a pun is made in the lyrics "..all vipers at the gates of dawn" referring to Chapter 7 of the book. • Dutch composer Johan de Meij wrote a music piece for wind band in four movements named after and based upon The Wind in the Willows.

The Wind in the Willows • Bosworth Badger XVII, a character in Susan Wittig Albert's Cottage Tales of Beatrix Potter, is said to be a cousin of Kenneth Grahame's Badger. (This is proven by the mention in The Tale of Briar Bank of an opinion attributed to Bosworth's cousin quoted directly from The Wind in the Willows.) • The Piper at the Gates of Dawn is a piece for solo flute by Laurence Rosenthal

174

Footnotes
[1] This information was obtained from the E.H. Shepard illustrated edition, published by Charles Scribner's Sons in the USA. Please see the introduction of that edition for full details on how the illustrations were created. [2] http:/ / david-gooderson. co. uk/ stage-plays-for-children/ the-wind-in-the-willows. php [3] "The Wind in the Willows (1987) (TV)" (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0094326/ ). IMDB. . Retrieved 16 February 2009. [4] http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0192802 [5] "Rotten Tomatoes: del Toro on Why Wind in the Willows Went Away" (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes. com/ m/ mimic/ news/ 1740983/ exclusive_del_toro_on_why_wind_in_the_willows_went_away). Rotten Tomatoes. . Retrieved 9 May 2009. [6] McNary, Dave (10 June 2010). "New wind in the 'Willows' RG teams with Weta for live action version of classic tale" (http:/ / www. variety. com/ article/ VR1118020457. html?categoryid=13& cs=1& ref=bd_film). Variety. . Retrieved 27 June 2010. [7] NPR report (http:/ / www. npr. org/ programs/ totn/ features/ 2002/ mar/ 020319. characters. html) [8] Fodor's (http:/ / www. fodors. com/ world/ europe/ england/ thames valley with oxford/ entity_98277. html) [9] BBC Inside Out — The animals of Wind in the Willows (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ insideout/ southwest/ series7/ wind_in_willows. shtml) [10] Winchester, Simon. "The Meaning of Everything: the Story of the Oxford English Dictionary". Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003. [11] Wind whispered in the Scottish willows first, The Scotsman 16 April 2005 (http:/ / news. scotsman. com/ ViewArticle. aspx?articleid=2618637) [12] "Was Crinan the seed for Wind in the Willows?", Oban Times 11 January 2008 (http:/ / www. obantimes. co. uk/ ) [13] (Natural World, Spring 2007): "Ratty's Paradise joins eight new reserves" p10.

Further reading
• Grahame, K, The Annotated Wind in the Willows, edited with preface and notes by Annie Gauger and Brian Jacques, Norton, ISBN 978-0393057744. • Grahame, K, The Wind in the Willows: An Annotated Edition, edited by Seth Lerer. Belknap Press / Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0674034471.

External links
Sources • The Wind in the Willows (http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/27805) at Project Gutenberg illustrated by Paul Bransom (1913) • The Wind in the Willows (http://www.archive.org/search.php?query=title:The Wind in the Willows OR description:''The Wind in the Willows'' OR subject:''The Wind in the Willows'' AND mediatype:texts), scanned books from Internet Archive • The Wind in the Willows (http://www.archive.org/search.php?query=title:The Wind in the Willows AND mediatype:audio), audio versions from Internet Archive and LibriVox Other • Bodleian Library, Oxford, online display of original manuscript, books and drawings (http://www.ouls.ox.ac. uk/bodley/about/exhibitions/online/witw) • Pictures and song excerpts from the American stage production (http://www.windinthewillows.com)

the first time this form was used. The novel was first published in 1911 by Hodder & Stoughton in the United Kingdom and Charles Scribner's Sons in the United States. The novel follows the play closely. The play has since seen adaptation as a pantomime. and the pirate Captain Hook. In the U. the Lost Boys. It was later revived with such actresses as Marilyn Miller and Eva Le Gallienne. a mischievous little boy who can fly. published in 1911. The original book contains a frontispiece and 11 half-tone plates by artist F. and a 2003 live action production with state-of-the-art special effects. Bedford (whose illustrations are still in copyright in the EU). a 1953 animated Disney full-length feature. daughter of playwright Dion Boucicault. Barrie F. M. stage musical. A Broadway production was mounted in 1905 starring Maude Adams. including a 1924 silent film.S. the original version has also been supplanted in popularity by the 1954 musical version.S. D. The novel is now usually published under that title or simply Peter . This version was later illustrated by Mabel Lucie Attwell in 1921. and several films. 1911 U. edition Author(s) Illustrator Country Language Genre(s) Publisher J..Peter and Wendy 175 Peter and Wendy Peter and Wendy Title page. M. and his adventures on the island of Neverland with Wendy Darling and her brothers.. is the novelisation by J. with Barrie's permission. or. Barrie of his most famous play Peter Pan. which became popular on television. The play debuted in London on 27 December 1904 with Nina Boucicault. Both tell the story of Peter Pan. the Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up (1904). D. and published under the title Peter Pan and Wendy. in the title role. the fairy Tinker Bell. The play and novel were both inspired by Barrie's friendship with the Llewelyn Davies family. but includes a final chapter not part of the original play. The play is now rarely performed in its original form on stage in the United Kingdom. the Indian princess Tiger Lily. Bedford United Kingdom English Fantasy Hodder & Stoughton (UK) Charles Scribner's Sons (USA) Publication date 11 October 1911 (UK) & (USA) Media type Pages Print 267 pp. a television special. Frontispiece and 11 half-tone plates The Little White Bird • Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens Preceded by Peter and Wendy. The novel was first abridged by May Byron in 1915. whereas pantomime adaptations are frequently staged around Christmas.

while trying to escape.[3] Barrie then adapted the play into the 1911 novel Peter and Wendy (most often now published simply as Peter Pan). 176 Background Barrie created Peter Pan in stories he told to the sons of his friend Sylvia Llewelyn Davies. Llewelyn Davies' death from cancer came within a few years after the death of her husband. M. written for adults. The script of the play.[2] a fictionalised version of Barrie's relationship with the Llewelyn Davies children. would remain a boy for ever. the death was 'a catastrophe beyond belief.) Soon John and Michael adopt the ways of the Lost Boys. The character's name comes from two sources: Peter Llewelyn Davies. Barrie was named as co-guardian of the boys and unofficially adopted them. London. with illustrations by Arthur Rackham. was published in 1928. .Peter and Wendy Pan. Mary Darling's bedtime stories by the open window. Wendy Darling. Peter and the Lost Boys build a little house for Wendy to live in while she recuperates (a structure that. one of the boys. The character was next used in the very successful stage play Peter Pan. Wendy agrees. in answer to which Barrie reportedly suggested The Boy Who Couldn't Grow Up. listening in on Mrs. and one from which she never fully recovered. Frohman suggested changing it to Wouldn't. Barrie gave the copyright of the Peter Pan works to Great Ormond Street Hospital. or The Boy Who Hated Mothers. On returning to claim it.M. In 1906. If Margaret Ogilvy [Barrie's mother as the heroine of his 1896 novel of that title] drew a measure of comfort from the notion that David. Barrie drew inspiration. Mrs.[3] the play and the novel based on it contain the portion of the Peter Pan mythos that is best known. According to Andrew Birkin. Their magical flight to Neverland is followed by many adventures. It has also been suggested that the inspiration for the character was Barrie's elder brother David. Producer Charles Frohman disliked the title on the manuscript. Wendy succeeds in re-attaching his shadow to him. author of J. the mischievous Greek god of the woodlands. One night Peter is spotted and. Peter wakes Mary's daughter. In 1929. The original draft of the play was entitled simply Anon: A Play ('Anon' being a name Barrie used in reference to himself). children who were lost in Kensington Gardens. He invites her to Neverland to be a mother to his gang. a children's hospital in London. and her brothers John and Michael go along. The children are blown out of the air by a cannon and Wendy is nearly killed by the Lost Boy Tootles. or The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up that premiered in London on 27 December 1904.[5] Plot summary Although the character appeared previously in Barrie's book The Little White Bird.. and Peter learns that she knows lots of bedtime stories. the portion of The Little White Bird which featured Peter Pan was published as the book Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens. he loses his shadow. but have much in common. In both versions Peter makes night-time calls on Kensington. is called a Wendy House. which Barrie had continued to revise since its first performance.'[1] J. and Pan. whose death in a skating accident at the age of thirteen deeply affected their mother. with whom he had forged a special relationship. The two versions differ in some details of the story. Barrie and the Lost Boys. Barrie's working titles for it included The Great White Father[4] and Peter Pan.. in dying a boy. Barrie in 1901 The Peter Pan character first appeared in print in the 1902 novel The Little White Bird. the Lost Boys. to this day.

Peter and Wendy 177 Peter welcomes Wendy to his underground home. a bird allows him to use her nest as a boat. including the evil Captain Hook. In one of the play's most famous moments. stranded on a rock when the tide is rising. When the pirates investigate a noise in the cabin. he and Hook fall to the climactic battle. Then Peter takes control of the ship. Peter takes the Darlings on several adventures. She offers to adopt Peter as well. Peter and the Lost Boys save the princess Tiger Lily and become involved in a battle with the pirates. He kicks Hook into the jaws of the waiting crocodile. Unfortunately. Meanwhile. and Peter sails home. and Illustration by F. When he finally reveals himself. Peter says that he is like her faithful son. to try and bar the window so Wendy will think her mother has forgotten her. . but Peter refuses. Peter promises to return for Wendy every spring. Wendy begins to fall in love with Peter. the first truly dangerous one occurring at Mermaids' Lagoon. and he meets Mrs. he goes to drink his medicine. "You won't forget to come for me. Peter flies ahead. Wendy and the boys are captured by Captain Hook. He believes he will die. He does not realise that he is still ticking as he boards the ship. he bitterly leaves the window open and flies away. he learns from the fairy Tinker Bell that Wendy has been kidnapped – in an effort to please Wendy. where Hook cowers. While the pirates are searching for the croc. guarding his home from the next imminent pirate attack. and asks Peter what kind of feelings he has for her. Peter heads to the ship. Wendy decides that her place is at home. It is hinted that Mary Darling knew Peter when she was a girl. Peter turns to the audience watching the play and begs those who believe in fairies to clap their hands. Wendy then brings all the boys but Peter back to London. Peter defeats them. which Peter easily wins. who also tries to poison Peter's medicine while the boy is asleep. but he views death as "an awfully big adventure". Luckily. much to the joy of her heartsick mother. he encounters the ticking crocodile. which Hook considers "bad form". Peter decides to copy the tick. please don't forget". At this there is usually an explosion of handclapping from the audience. In the end. Peter is wounded when Hook claws him. and she immediately assumes the role of mother figure. and sails the seas back to London. mistaking him for the crocodile. D. at least as a child. and Hook dies with the satisfaction that Peter had kicked him off the ship. Bedford from the first edition unbeknownst to Peter. Tink tells him she could be saved if children believed in fairies. Peter sneaks into the cabin to steal the keys and frees the Lost Boys. the Indians are devoted to him. Tink does not have time to warn him of the poison. At Mermaids' Lagoon. who has agreed to adopt the Lost Boys. so any animals will recognise it and leave him unharmed. because she is left slightly changed when Peter leaves. and Tinker Bell is saved. When Peter awakes. On the way. Wendy recalls about her parents and then decides to take them back and return to England. causing her near death. Peter returns briefly. John and Michael. and instead drinks it herself. One day while telling stories to the Lost Boys and her brothers. Peter? Please. Darling. Because he has saved Tiger Lily. Before Wendy and her brothers arrive at their house. afraid they will "catch him and make him a man". The end of the play finds Wendy looking out through the window and saying into space. But when he learns of Mrs Darling's distress.

the only daughter and the heroine of the novel. while Peter also considers her to be his "mother". In this scene.[7] There is some evidence that the name Wendy may be related to the Welsh name Gwendolyn. 4-year-old daughter of poet William Ernest Henley. In the novel's last few sentences. and he can play the flute. it is safe to assume that she does have feelings toward him. Charles Scribner's Sons. • Wendy Darling – Wendy is the eldest. It was. He loves Wendy. Characters Peter Pan Peter Pan is the main character of the play and the novel. with a daughter of her own. it is not a romantic love – he thinks of her as his mother. adapted by Barrie as "Wendy" in writing the play. She grows up at the end of the novel. He is described in the novel as a young boy who still has all his first teeth. She loves the idea of homemaking and storytelling and wants to become a mother. included in productions of the play. at least as a child. Wendy is often referred to as the "mother" of the Lost Boys and. She bears a bit of (mutual) animosity toward Tiger Lily because of their similar affections toward Peter. her dreams consist of adventures in a little woodland house with her pet wolf. She does not seem to feel the same way about Tinker Bell. included as the final chapter of Peter and Wendy. Barrie attributes this to "the riddle of his existence". the name was not used as an independent first name.[10] but prior to its use in the Peter Pan stories. he takes on the "father" role. and that Peter now takes her daughter Margaret to Neverland. Peter is afraid of nothing except mothers. Barrie mentions that Jane has grown up. insinuating that they play a married couple at least in their games. "The Peter Pan Alphabet". The Darling Family According to Barrie's description of the Darlings' house. This epilogue is only occasionally used in presentations of the drama. But Wendy's daughter Jane agrees to come to Neverland as Peter's new mother. however. brown. Wendy Darling by Oliver Herford. he wears clothes made of hemp.Peter and Wendy 178 An Afterthought A few years after the premiere of the original production of Peter Pan. 1907 Several writers have stated that Barrie was the first to use the name Wendy in a published work. Peter returns for Wendy years later. and provided the premise for Disney's sequel to their animated adaptation of the story. but the fairy is constantly bad-mouthing her and even has attempted to have her killed. or black hair in different stories.[11] . Perhaps consequently. London. While it is not clear on whether or not she is in love with Peter. When Peter learns that Wendy has "betrayed" him by growing up. however. which is sometimes.[6] the family live in Bloomsbury. This epilogue originally was to end the 2003 film but was cut from the final version. She is portrayed with blonde. he is heartbroken. Margaret Henley. but Wendy is now grown. with a daughter (Jane) and a granddaughter (Margaret). New York. who pronounced the word "friend" as "Fweiendy".[8] [9] and it is also used as a diminutive variant of the eastern European name "Wanda". Barrie says this cycle will go on forever as long as children are "innocent and heartless". but usually not. He is the only boy able to fly without the help of fairy dust. but it made a poignant conclusion to the famous musical production starring Mary Martin. James Barrie wrote an additional scene entitled An Afterthought. and that the source of the name was Barrie's childhood friend.

He was named after Michael Llewelyn Davies. the same actor who plays Mr. but she refuses any suitors because she desires Peter over all. and Mrs. He cuts whistles from the branches of trees.. but Peter saves her. He's also the oldest and best looking Lost Boy. He grows up to become a judge. a Newfoundland. He also looks up to his father and dreams of running his firm one day when he is grown up. where he has no friends and spends his time shooting flamingos. 179 Lost Boys • Tootles – Tootles is the humblest Lost Boy because he often misses out on their violent adventures. he says he would love to give her one. • Slightly – Slightly is the most conceited because he believes he remembers the days before he was "lost". and Mrs. Although he is often stupid. Barrie based the character of Nana on his dog Luath [12]. She is given two musical numbers in this adaptation. dreaming of living in a wigwam where his friends visit at night.Peter and Wendy • John Darling – John is the middle child. probably the bravest Lost Boy. warlike savages who spoke with guttural voice tones. He says the only thing he remembers about his mother is she always wanted a cheque-book. and he eventually leads to Peter's almost-downfall. but he often argues with Michael. He is fascinated with pirates. the Davies boys' nurse. He is the only Lost Boy who "knows" his last name – he says his pinafore had the words "Slightly Soiled" written on the tag. the Indians of Neverland were portrayed in a nature that is now regarded as stereotypical. but at times they clash due to Peter's nature of showing off. Darling – George and Mary Darling are the children's loving parents. In this musical. he shoots her before meeting her for the first time because of Tinker Bell's trickery. The character of John was named after Jack Llewelyn Davies. because Peter Pan does not know what Twins are (he thinks that twins are two parts of the same person. she sees the Darling children fly off with Peter and begins to protest. he is always the first to defend Wendy. but he is really kind at heart. In Disney's version of the story. . • Liza is the maidservant of the Darling family. and he once thought of becoming "Redhanded Jack". He blows big breaths when he feels he is in trouble. a poor make-believer. while not entirely correct. is right in the sense that the Twins finish each other's sentences (at least. • Michael Darling – Michael is the youngest child. beautiful princess of the Piccaninny Tribe. Mary Darling is described as an intelligent. • Mr. he became "Cubby". In the stage version. • Curly – Curly is the most troublesome Lost Boy. which.[13] Barrie portrayed them as primitive.. but Michael sprinkles her with fairy dust and she ends up in Neverland. and dances to tunes he creates himself. He is approximately five years old. He looks up to John and Wendy. He gets along well with Wendy. Inhabitants of Neverland • Tiger Lily is the proud. • Nibs – Nibs is described as gay and debonair. He looks up to Peter Pan. • Nana – Nana is a Newfoundland dog who is employed as a nanny by the Darling family.if he knew what a cheque-book was. Ironically. She is jealous of Wendy and Tinker Bell. Nana does not speak or do anything beyond the physical capabilities of a large dog. In the book. in the movie adaption). Slightly is. except in the 1954 musical. • The Twins – First and Second Twin know little about themselves – they are not allowed to. apparently. Mr. He dreams of living in an inverted boat on the sands. George. as he still wears the pinafores young Edwardian boys wear. The character is played in stage productions by an actor in a dog costume. Darling was named after the eldest Llewellyn Davies boy. Mr. romantic lady.[13] She is apparently old enough to be married. Darling is a pompous. It is hinted that she knew Peter Pan before her children were born. Darling usually also plays Captain Hook. Tiger Lily is nearly killed by Captain Hook when she is seen boarding the Jolly Roger with a knife in her mouth. Darling was named after Mary Hodgson. blustering businessman who seeks to attract attention (from his co-workers to his wife and children). She appears only in the first act. but acts with apparent understanding of her responsibilities. She returns with the children at the end.

However. but Barrie's 1904 original. He attended Eton College before becoming a pirate and is obsessed with "good form".Peter and Wendy • Tinker Bell is Peter Pan's fiery. there are fairies on Neverland. Most "children's adaptations" of the play. In the part of the story where Peter Pan and the Lost Boys built a house for Wendy on Neverland. his conflicting feelings for Wendy. and the conclusion of the story indicates that this wish is unrealistic. the opening line. Starkey is one of two pirates who escaped Peter Pan's massacre – he swims ashore and becomes baby-sitter to the Piccaninny Tribe. • Captain James Hook is the vengeful pirate who lives to kill Peter Pan. • Gentleman Starkey was once an usher at a public school. She is described as a common fairy who mends pots and kettles and. and Tinker Bell (each representing different female archetypes). at other times she is helpful and kind to Peter (for whom she has romantic feelings). Peter Pan gives Starkey's hat to the Never Bird to use as a nest. omit any romantic themes between Wendy and Peter. J. In the stage version. He is captain of the ship Jolly Roger. because that's when the mermaids sing to attract potential victims. not so much because Peter cut off his right hand. by Peter's first annual return for Wendy. including the 1953 Disney film. all at least hint at the romantic elements. the same actor who plays Mr.M. grow up". except one. the word "orgy" generally referred to a large group of people consuming alcohol. • Mr. Any of the other boys obstructing the fairy path at night they would have mischiefed. Peter Pan stays up late that night to guard her from the pirates. Smee is one of only two pirates to survive Peter Pan's massacre. the boy has forgotten about Tinker Bell and suggests that she "is no more" for fairies do not live long. It is especially dangerous to go to Mermaid Lagoon at night. Hook meets his demise when a crocodile eats him. the 1954 Mary Martin musical. . but because the boy is "cocky" and drives the genteel pirate to "madness". The extremes in her personality are explained by the fact that a fairy's size prevents her from holding more than one feeling at a time. 180 Major themes The play's subtitle "The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up" underscores the primary theme: the conflict between the innocence of childhood and the responsibility of adulthood. published in 1911. Wendy's flirtatious desire to kiss Peter. and some unsteady fairies had to climb over him on their way home from an orgy. and there is an element of tragedy in the alternative. though she is sometimes ill-behaved and vindictive. "All children. but they just tweaked Peter's nose and passed on.[14] • Mermaids live in the Mermaid Lagoon. his 1911 novelisation of it. and the symbolism of his fight with Captain Hook (traditionally played by the same actor as Wendy's father). but then the story says: "After a time he fell asleep. There is a slight romantic aspect to the story. He then makes his living saying he was the only man James Hook ever feared. his desire for a mother figure. Smee is an Irish nonconformist pirate. all could possibly hint at a Freudian interpretation (see Oedipus Complex). Peter has literally chosen not to make the transition from one to the other. Darling also plays this character. Barrie states in the novel "Peter and Wendy" that the mermaids are only friendly to Peter." In the early 20th Century. jealous fairy. and that they will attempt to drown anyone else if they come close enough. which is sometimes played down or omitted completely. He is the boatswain of the Jolly Roger. and encourages the other children to do the same. He is Captain Hook's first mate. Tiger Lily. and the 1924 and 2003 feature films. • Fairies – In the novel Peter and Wendy. In Barrie's book.

Various characters from the story have appeared in other places. Following the success of his London production. Martin remains today as the actress now most associated with the role in the US. on 27 December 1904. Sandy Duncan. GOSH has exercised these rights internationally to support the work of the institution. stage musicals. including the authorised sequel novel Peter Pan in Scarlet. Darling (the children's father) and Captain Hook to be played (or voiced) by the same actor. The characters are in the public domain in some jurisdictions. featuring Wendy Darling and the heroines of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz and Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. a ballet. London. It also brings a poignant juxtaposition between Mr.[15] Zena Dare played Peter in the 1905-1906 production. and ancillary media and merchandise. The best known of these are the 1953 animated feature film produced by Disney featuring the voice of 15-year-old film actor Bobby Driscoll (one of the first male actors in the title role. There have been several additions to Peter Pan's story. the series of musical productions (and their televised presentations) starring Mary Martin. Copyright status The copyright status of the story of Peter Pan and its characters has been the subject of dispute. particularly as the original version began to enter the public domain in various jurisdictions. especially Tinker Bell as a mascot and character of Disney. which was traditionally played by women). and the high-profile sequel films Return to Never Land and Hook. and requested that the value of the gift should never be disclosed. this gift was confirmed in his will. such as a series of prequels by Dave Barry and Ridley Pearson. It is traditional in productions of Peter Pan for Mr. Barrie gave the copyright to the works featuring Peter Pan to Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH). An American musical version was produced in the 1950s starring Mary Martin which was later videotaped for television and rebroadcast several times. and Lost Girls. It was produced again in the US by the Civic Repertory Theater in November 1928 and December 1928. Darling's harmless bluster and Captain Hook's pompous vanity. . Although this was originally done simply to make full use of the actor (the characters appear in different sections of the story) with no thematic intent. some critics have perceived a similarity between the two characters as central figures in the lives of the children. Britain's leading children's hospital. Hogan starring Jeremy Sumpter. a sexually explicit graphic novel by Alan Moore and Melinda Gebbie. Adaptations The story of Peter Pan has been a popular one for adaptation into other media. In 1929. Some of these have been controversial. in which Eva LeGallienne directed and played the role of Peter Pan. and the 2003 live-action feature film produced by P. leading to unauthorised extensions to the mythos and uses of the characters. J. Charles Frohman also mounted a production in New York City in 1905.Peter and Wendy 181 Literary significance Productions The original stage production took place at the Duke of York's Theatre. The story and its characters have been used as the basis for a number of motion pictures (live action and animated). It starred Gerald du Maurier as Captain Hook and Mr Darling. television programs. The 1905 Broadway production starred Maude Adams who would play the role on and off again for more than a decade. and in the US was the actress most associated in the public's consciousness with the role for the next fifty years. and Nina Boucicault as Peter. and Cathy Rigby. and Pauline Chase took the role from the 1906–07 season until the 1914–15 season.

Meanwhile in 1988.S. (It would also be under copyright in Côte d'Ivoire.S. legislation effective in 1978 and again in 1998. A New Adventure for Peter Pan. commercial publication. broadcasting or inclusion in a cable programme service of the play 'Peter Pan' by Sir James Matthew Barrie. Great Ormond Street. also without permission or royalties. but in 2004 Disney published Dave Barry's and Ridley Pearson's Peter and the Starcatchers in the U. which means that the term of the country of origin applies if it's shorter than their local term. This includes the European Union (except Spain).Peter and Wendy 182 United Kingdom The UK copyright originally expired at the end of 1987 (50 years after Barrie's death). until 2023. entitling the hospital to royalties for any performance. or adaptation of the play. but was revived in 1995 through 31 December 2007 by a directive to harmonise copyright laws within the EU. publication.[18] Previously. which extended the copyright on the version of the play script published in 1928. a pornographic graphic novel featuring Wendy Darling. This is also true in Afghanistan and Ethiopia. However. as it does not grant the hospital creative control over the use of the material. and Honduras. a right to a royalty in respect of the public performance. Guatemala. The provisions of Schedule 6 have effect for conferring on trustees for the benefit of the Hospital for Sick Children. in the U. gave them copyright over "Peter Pan" in general. which do not have copyright laws of their own and are not signatories to any of the international copyright treaties. and cooperated with the hospital when its copyright claim was clear. the Copyright. published in 1911. or of any adaptation of that work. GOSH's claim of U. and asserted only that their copyright applied to the published version of the script and performances of it. the first of several sequels. Other jurisdictions The original versions of the play and novel are in the public domain in countries where the term of copyright is 70 years (or less) after the death of the creators. This is not a true perpetual copyright however. Somma sued GOSH to permit the U.S.[17] The hospital's web site later acknowledged that the copyright for the novel version of the story. however. in Colombia and Spain until 2018.S. J.. intellectual property rights". publication of her sequel After the Rain. where the term is 100 years after death. Designs and Patents Act 1988: 301.[19] Disney was a long-time licensee to the animation rights. notwithstanding that copyright in the work expired on 31 December 1987.[16] United States For some time.S. Australia. London. where copyright lasts 75 years after the author's death. The exact phrasing is in section 301 of. E.S. had expired in the United States. the work is still under copyright in several countries: until 2013 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. former Prime Minister James Callaghan sponsored a Parliamentary Bill granting a perpetual extension of some of the rights to the work. and Schedule 6 to. Top Shelf Productions published Lost Girls. The law also does not cover the Peter Pan section of The Little White Bird. nor the right to refuse permission to use it.) . without permission and without making royalty payments. Great Ormond Street Hospital claimed that U. where the applicable term is 80 years after death. Canada (where Somma's book was first published without incident). but these countries recognise the "rule of the shorter term". copyright had been contested by various parties. and most other countries (see list of countries' copyright length). GOSH and Somma settled out of court in March 2005. Their confidential settlement did not set any legal precedent. issuing a joint statement which characterised her novel – which she had argued was a commentary on the original work rather than a mere derivative of it – as "fair use" of the hospital's "U. which pre-dates the play and was not therefore an "adaptation" of it. In 2006. and in Mexico until 2038.

• Birkin. Peter Hollindale (Introduction and Notes). 47. J. [9] "Behind the Name: the Etymology and History of First Names: "Wendy"" (http:/ / www. 1987-12-31. Perigee.gutenberg. com/ name/ wendy). gosh. Barrie & the Lost Boys. 28 December 1904 [16] "Copyright.edu. J. Retrieved 2010-05-08.hmso. ISBN 0300098227. . xix. 132.org. 2003) [2] Barrie. ISBN 0399528946. Elizabeth Gidley (1977). (This is the novel. ISBN 0399528946. uk/ acts/ acts1988/ Ukpga_19880048_en_28.gov. (pp. com/ storypeterpan.archive. J. [17] Great Ormond Street Hospital. (1999). not the script of the play. stanford. 1928 [7] Barrie.) • People's memories of the Peter Pan statue (http://www. Retrieved 2010-05-08. 231. (ISBN 0-670-84180-3). p.victorianweb. [11] Withycombe. The Times. . p. org/ peterpan/ copyright/ publishing/ ). October 1991. Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens and Peter and Wendy. berkeley. Peter PanHodder & Stoughton. html).uk/hamlyn/peterpan/) • The Victorian Web: Frampton's Peter Pan statue (http://www. ISBN 0192839292. hmso. [3] Birkin. Teresa (2003). edu/ about/ cases/ emily_somma_v_gosh_peter_.org/literature/jmbarrie/ the-adventures-of-peter-pan/) (actually just "Peter Pan and Wendy" with the title changed) • Murray. Web. Viking Press. [6] Act I. 35–36) . Peter Pan: The Complete and Unabridged Text. Peter Pan copyright (http:/ / www. . org/ about-us/ peter-pan/ peter-pan-copyright/ ) . Peter Hollindale. Retrieved 2010-05-08. ed. [12] http:/ / neverpedia. Oxford Press. Peter Hollindale (Introduction and Notes). Andrew.uk. Teresa (2003). 105. p. Oxford Press.org.Publishing and Stage" (http:/ / www. [10] Norman.M. [14] Barrie. "An Awfully Big Adventure: John Crook's Incidental Music to Peter Pan". [4] Birkin.M. Yale University Press. Its-behind-you. shtml). James Matthew and Scott Gustafson (illustrator). ISBN 0198691246.Peter and Wendy 183 References [1] Birkin. . lib. gosh. p. Clarendon. (1999). A World of Baby Names.M. Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens and Peter and Wendy. legislation. Archived from the original (http:/ / cyberlaw. J. [19] "Stanford Center for Internet and Society" (http:/ / web. A World of Baby Names. no longer linked from the site's home page [18] "Copyright . p. edu/ about/ cases/ emily_somma_v_gosh_peter_.org/etext/16) at Project Gutenberg (Note: Project Gutenberg claims a copyright "to assist in the preservation of this edition in proper usage". Andrew (2003). Reviews. p. Lib. ISBN 0300098227. . J.com.".M. (1999). Andrew: J M Barrie & the Lost Boys (Yale University Press. J.M. It is only to be distributed in the United States). Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens and Peter and Wendy. Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names. 196.M. shtml) on 2006-10-27.html) • The Adventures of Peter Pan (electronic text) (http://www.berkeley. General references • Barrie. [5] "It's Behind You . The Gaiety (Spring 2005). org/ web/ 20061027134508/ http:/ / cyberlaw. GOSH. . html). Perigee.Peter Pan" (http:/ / www. its-behind-you. Retrieved 2010-05-08. [15] Duke Of York's Theatre.elook. Andrew (2003). ed. Retrieved 2010-05-08. "Peter Pan.147. ISBN 0192839292.an old page. Barrie & the Lost Boys. Oxford Press. ISBN 0192839292. • The original text of • Peter Pan and Wendy (http://www. pp. com/ pan/ Luath [13] "The Movies and Ethnic Representation: Native Americans" (http:/ / www. ed. pp. behindthename. Roderick. 130. archive. Yale University Press.org/sculpture/frampton/pp1. stanford. htm#sdiv6). 2007-12-31.liverpoolmuseums. Legislation. gov. [8] Norman. 293. edu/ MRC/ imagesnatives. Barrie and the Lost Boys. Designs and Patents Act 1988" (http:/ / www.

became the only Latin book ever to have been featured on the New York Times Best Seller List. including Alexander Lenard's Latin translation.Peter and Wendy 184 External links • Peter Pan and Wendy (http://www. is a fictional anthropomorphic bear created by A.archive. Milne.org/details/peterpanalphabet00herf) Winnie-the-Pooh Winnie-the-Pooh. . Kanga. also called Pooh Bear. The Pooh stories have been translated into many languages. Christopher Robin Milne. php?id=7047=) • Numerous photos from productions of Peter Pan (http://digitalgallery. Christopher Robin's toy bear is now on display at the Main Branch of the New York Public Library in New York. and this was followed by The House at Pooh Corner (1928). Pooh Bear has been voiced by actors Sterling Holloway. Clockwise from bottom left: Tigger. who was added in the Disney version. 1907 (http://www. The hyphens in the character's name were later dropped when The Walt Disney Company adapted the Pooh stories into a series of Disney features that became one of its most successful franchises.com/show. History Origin Milne named the character Winnie-the-Pooh after a teddy bear owned by his son. and Piglet. and.[1] In popular film adaptations. Milne also included a poem about the bear in the children’s verse book When We Were Very Young (1924) and many more in Now We Are Six (1927).org/nypldigital/dgkeysearchresult. Winnie ille Pu.[2] Original Winnie-the-Pooh stuffed toys. cfm?parent_id=1036660&word=) • The Peter Pan Alphabet. who was the basis for the character Christopher Robin. the other characters were made up for the stories.org/etext/16) at Project Gutenberg • List of productions of non-musical "Peter Pan" (Internet Broadway Database) (http://www. except for Owl and Rabbit. Roo was lost long ago. A. and Shun Yashiro and Sukekiyo Kameyama in Japanese. Yevgeny Leonov in Russian.nypl. Eeyore. Christopher's toys also lent their names to most of the other characters. All four volumes were illustrated by E. which was first published in 1958. Hal Smith and Jim Cummings in English.gutenberg. in 1960. Shepard.ibdb. Edward Bear ("Winnie-the-Pooh"). The first collection of stories about the character was the book Winnie-the-Pooh (1926). as well as the Gopher character. H.

crowning the view. "Winnie" was surreptitiously brought to England with her owner. chauffeur-driven Fiat and travel down every Saturday morning and back again every Monday afternoon. England. in the faraway distance. they stayed up straight in the air for more than a week. According to Christopher Milne. The bear cub was purchased from a hunter for $20 by Canadian Lieutenant Harry Colebourn in White River. and whenever a fly came and settled on his nose he had to blow it off. In 1925 Milne. his father had made it "the setting for two of his books. the fictional "Hundred Acre Wood" was in reality Five Hundred Acre Wood. Christopher added that. a Canadian black bear which he often saw at London Zoo." Most of his father's visits to the forest at this time were.Winnie-the-Pooh 185 Christopher Milne had named his toy bear after Winnie. Colebourn left Winnie at the London Zoo while he and his unit were in France..the four of us—he. while en route to England during the First World War.[3] Pooh the swan appears as a character in its own right in When We Were Very Young.H. Manitoba. Sussex. In the centre of this hilltop was a clump of pines. 1914 “ But his arms were so stiff .. and gained unofficial recognition as The Fort Garry Horse regimental mascot. while a clump of trees just north of Gill's Lap became Christopher Robin's The Enchanted Place because no-one had ever been able to count whether there were sixty-three or sixty-four trees in the circle." [4] From the front lawn the family had a view across a meadow to a line of alders that fringed the River Medway. Canada. beyond which the ground rose through more trees until finally "above them. For example. Ontario. family expeditions on foot "to make yet another attempt to count the pine trees on Gill's Lap or to search for the marsh gentian". gorse. as she had become a much loved attraction there. finishing the second little over three years after his arrival". he noted. allowing for a degree of artistic licence. Galleon's Leap was inspired by the prominent hilltop of Gill's Lap. It is traditional to play the game there using sticks gathered . while his father continued to live in London ". near Hartfield. Milne offers this explanation of why Winnie-the-Pooh is often called simply "Pooh": Harry Colebourn and Winnie. And I think — but I am not sure — that that is why he is always called Pooh. Shepard’s illustrations for the Winnie-the-Pooh books are directly inspired by the distinctive landscape of Ashdown Forest. He named the bear "Winnie" after his adopted hometown in Winnipeg. was a bare hilltop. Shepard's sketches of pine trees and other forest scenes are on display at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. with its high.. his wife. As Christopher Milne wrote in his autobiography: “Pooh’s forest and Ashdown Forest are identical”. ” Ashdown Forest: the setting for the stories The Winnie-the-Pooh stories are set in Ashdown Forest. and "Pooh". after the war she was officially donated to the zoo. inspired by Ashdown Forest.[6] The landscapes depicted in E. In the first chapter of Winnie-the-Pooh. And we would spend a whole glorious month there in the spring and two months in the summer. a Londoner.[5] Many locations in the stories can be linked to real places in and around the forest. close to Cotchford Farm. The game of Poohsticks was originally played by Christopher Milne on a footbridge across a tributary of the River Medway in Posingford Wood. open heathlands of heather. his son and his son's nanny—would pile into a large blue.. In many cases Shepard's illustrations can be matched to actual views. bracken and silver birch punctuated by hilltop clumps of pine trees. The forest is a large area of tranquil open heathland on the highest sandy ridges of the High Weald Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty situated 30 miles (50 km) south of London. a swan they had met while on holiday. bought a country home a mile to the north of the forest at Cotchford Farm.

including motion picture rights.Winnie-the-Pooh in nearby woodland. made his character début in a poem called "Teddy Bear" in Milne's book of children's verse When We Were Very Young (6 November 1924) although his true first appearance was within the 13 February 1924 edition of Punch magazine which contained the same poem along with other stories by Milne and Shepard.S. has developed. These have included theatrical featurettes. board game. Shepard had drawn Pooh with a shirt as early as the first Winnie-The-Pooh book. Disney has released numerous animated productions starring Winnie the Pooh and related characters. Milne's widow. It was illustrated by J. Milne's Winnie-the-Pooh Game in 1933. and at the very beginning it explained that Pooh was in fact Christopher Robin's Edward Bear. and direct-to-video films. Milne's characterisations. Stephen Slesinger purchased U. and Canadian merchandising. Parker Brothers also introduced A. as well as the theatrical feature-length films The Tigger Movie. Dutton in the United States. David Benedictus. and Disney. Red Shirt Pooh The first time Pooh and his friends appeared in colour was 1932. recording and other trade rights to the "Winnie-the-Pooh" works from Milne for a $1000 advance and 66% of Slesinger's income. Pooh's Heffalump Movie. as the bridge did not originally appear as the artist drew it. Shirley Slesinger Lasswell. continued developing the character herself. Methuen.[12] The same year. US radio broadcast (NBC). record. also licensed certain rights. An information board at the bridge describes how to play the game.[11] In 1961. 186 First publication There are three claimants. Disney After Slesinger's death in 1953. In 1961. she licensed rights to Walt Disney Productions in exchange for royalties in the first of two agreements between Stephen Slesinger. P. to Disney. creating the modern licensing industry. By November 1931. Christopher Robin's teddy bear. Disney acquired rights from Slesinger to produce articles of merchandise based on characters from its feature animation. The author. in England. A. who had simply been renamed by the boy. again with Pooh in his red shirt. when he was drawn by Slesinger in his now-familiar red shirt and featured on an RCA Victor picture record. Winnie-the-Pooh first appeared by name on 24 December 1925. A. Dowd. and Winnie the Pooh. which was subsequently coloured red in later coloured editions. but not changed. Piglet's Big Movie. in a Christmas story commissioned and published by the London newspaper The Evening News.[10] Slesinger marketed Pooh and his friends for more than 30 years. television series. The Evening News Christmas story reappeared as the first chapter of the book. The illustrations. Edward. depending on the precise question posed. creating the first Pooh doll. A.[9] Stephen Slesinger On 6 January 1930. H. and motion picture film.[8] Sequel An authorised sequel Return to the Hundred Acre Wood was published on 5 October 2009. Pooh was a $50 million-a-year business. his wife. Inc.[7] The first collection of Pooh stories appeared in the book Winnie-the-Pooh. animation. Since 1966. Agnes Brush created the first plush dolls with Pooh in his red shirt. H. are in the style of Shepard. Shepard of the bridge in the original books. by Mark Burgess. puzzle. television. When the footbridge required replacement in recent times the engineer designed a new structure based closely on the drawings by E. The book was published in October 1926 by the publisher of Milne's earlier children's work. In the 1940s. . and E. Daphne Milne.

[16] Slesinger appealed the termination. Judge Florence-Marie Cooper of the US District Court in California found in favour of Stephen Slesinger. Both parties have expressed satisfaction with the outcome. and on 26 September 2007.S.H. The House At Pooh Corner and The Winnie The Pooh Songbook. "Piglet Meets a Heffalump". Supreme Court refused to hear the case. Inc. Minnie Mouse. Clare Milne. Carol Channing recorded Winnie The Pooh. filed a lawsuit against Disney which alleged that Disney had breached their 1983 agreement by again failing to accurately report revenue from Winnie the Pooh sales.[21] [22] Adaptations Theatre • Winnie-the-Pooh at the Guild Theater | Sue Hastings Marionettes. Donald Duck. "Pooh and Piglet Go Hunting and Nearly Catch a Woozle") 1956 • More Winnie-the-Pooh (consisting of three tracks: "Eeyore Loses a Tail". 1986 Audio Selected Pooh stories read by Maurice Evans released on vinyl LP: • Winnie-the-Pooh (consisting of three tracks: "Introducing Winnie-the-Pooh and Christopher Robin". Inc. Stephen Slesinger.[18] After a series of legal hearings. In addition to the stylised Disney Pooh. On 26 June 2006. The size of Pooh stuffed toys ranges from Beanie and miniature to human-sized.[14] Though the Disney corporation was sanctioned by a judge for destroying forty boxes of evidential documents.[13] In 1991. copyrights for Stephen Slesinger. Pooh Goes Visiting and Gets Into a Tight Place". determined that the Slesinger family had granted all trademark and copyright rights to Disney.[19] On 19 February 2007 Disney lost a court case in Los Angeles which ruled their "misguided claims" to dispute the licensing agreements with Slesinger.) In the 1970s and 1980s. 1931 [23] • "Bother! The Brain of Pooh" | Peter Dennis. and Pluto combined. sustaining the ruling and ensuring the defeat of the suit.Winnie-the-Pooh 187 Merchandising revenue dispute Pooh videos. "Eeyore Has a Birthday".[15] the suit was later terminated by another judge when it was discovered that Slesinger's investigator had rummaged through Disney's garbage in order to retrieve the discarded evidence. Inc. soft toys.S. Disney markets Classic Pooh merchandise which more closely resembles E. a three-judge panel upheld the lawsuit dismissal.[17] After the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998. Disney was to retain approximately 98% of gross worldwide revenues while the remaining 2% was to be paid to Slesinger. These were released on vinyl LP and audio cassette by Caedmon Records. attempted to terminate any future U. although Disney must pay royalties for all future use of the characters.[20] but a federal ruling of 28 September 2009. as did the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. and other merchandise generate substantial annual revenues for Disney. with music by Don Heckman. Unabridged recordings read by Peter Dennis of the four Pooh books: • When We Were Very Young • Winnie-the-Pooh • Now We Are Six • The House at Pooh Corner . Inc. Shepard’s illustrations. Christopher Milne's daughter. the suit alleged that Disney had failed to pay required royalties on all commercial exploitation of the product name. In addition. Goofy. again from Judge Florence-Marie Cooper.. It is estimated that Winnie the Pooh features and merchandise generate as much revenue as Mickey Mouse. the U. were unjustified. Under this agreement.

1972) — based on chapters 4 and 6. the animators did not base their depictions of the characters on Shepard's illustrations. Jane Horrocks as Piglet. creating a different look. three Winnie-the-Pooh. and Tigger Too) 2000: The Tigger Movie 2003: Piglet's Big Movie 2005: Pooh's Heffalump Movie 2011: Winnie the Pooh Soviet adaptation In the Soviet Union. Geoffrey Palmer as Eeyore and Judi Dench as Kanga. (transcribed in Russian as "Vinni Pukh") (Russian language: Винни-Пух) stories were made into a celebrated trilogy[25] of short films by Soyuzmultfilm (directed by Fyodor Khitruk) from 1969 to 1972. They were performed by a cast that included Stephen Fry as Winnie-the-Pooh. Unlike the Disney adaptations. 1925[7] • Pooh made his US radio debut on 10 November 1932. Blustery Day.[24] Film Disney adaptation Theatrical featurettes • • • • 1966: Winnie the Pooh and the Honey Tree 1968: Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day 1974: Winnie the Pooh and Tigger Too 1981: Winnie the Pooh Discovers the Seasons • 1983: Winnie the Pooh and a Day for Eeyore Full-length theatrical features • • • • • 1977: The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh (trilogy of the Honey Tree. A postage stamp showing Piglet and Winnie-the-Pooh as they appear in the Russian adaptation Films use Boris Zakhoder's translation of the book. Pooh was voiced by Yevgeny Leonov.Winnie-the-Pooh In the 1990s. 1969) — based on chapter 1 • Винни-Пух идёт в гости (Winnie-the-Pooh Pays a Visit. 1971) — based on chapter 2 • Винни-Пух и день забот (Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day. . with music composed. The Russian adaptations make extensive use of Milne's original text.000 schools by The American School of the Air. directed and played by John Gould. when he was broadcast to 40. the stories were dramatised for audio by David Benedictus. 188 Radio • Winnie-the-Pooh was broadcast by Donald Calthrop over all BBC stations on Christmas Day. • Винни-Пух (Winnie-the-Pooh. the educational division of the Columbia Broadcasting System. and often bring out aspects of Milne's characters' personalities not used in the Disney adaptations.

Pooh himself is voiced by Franz Fazakas. it has crossed over into the real world: a World Championship Poohsticks race takes . Kant. made and operated by Bil And Cora Baird. which was originally recorded by the Nitty Gritty Dirt Band. Though it began as a game played by Pooh and his friends in the book The House at Pooh Corner and later in the films. Williams uses Winnie the Pooh as a backdrop to illustrate the works of philosophers including Descartes. included in Seasons of Giving 1999: A Valentine for You Direct-to-video shorts • 1990: Winnie the Pooh’s ABC of Me Direct-to-video features • • • • • • • • 1997: Pooh's Grand Adventure: The Search for Christopher Robin 1999: Seasons of Giving* 2002: A Very Merry Pooh Year* 2004: Springtime with Roo 2005: Pooh's Heffalump Halloween Movie 2007 Super Sleuth Christmas Movie 2009 Tigger. 1983–1986) The New Adventures of Winnie the Pooh (ABC." There is also a street named after him in Budapest (Micimackó utca).[26] Pooh and the Philosophers by John T. featuring on the album of the same name in 1991.[29] Loggins later rewrote the song as "Return to Pooh Corner". Legacy Winnie the Pooh has inspired multiple texts to explain complex philosophical ideas.Winnie-the-Pooh 189 Television A version of Winnie The Pooh. Magical World of Winnie the Pooh (Note: These are episodes from The New Adventures of Winnie the Pooh) Television shows • • • • Welcome to Pooh Corner (*) (Disney Channel. on NBC Television's The Shirley Temple Show. Pooh. competitors drop sticks into a stream from a bridge and then wait to see whose stick will cross the finish line first. 2001–2002) My Friends Tigger & Pooh (Disney Channel (Playhouse Disney). Winnie-the-Pooh is such a popular character in Poland that a Warsaw street is named after him. included in Pooh's Heffalump Halloween Movie 1998: A Winnie the Pooh Thanksgiving. was presented on 3 October 1960. Benjamin Hoff used Milne's characters in The Tao of Pooh and The Te of Piglet to explain Taoism. Plato and Nietzsche. 1988–1991) The Book of Pooh (*) (Disney Channel (Playhouse Disney). included in A Very Merry Pooh Year 1996: Boo to You Too! Winnie the Pooh. in which the animals were played by marionettes designed. Frederick Crews rewrote stories from Pooh's world in abstruse academic jargon in Postmodern Pooh and The Pooh Perplex to satirize the philosophical approaches. Also. in Italy.[28] In music. a pop band took their name from Winnie. In the "sport" of Poohsticks. and were titled Pooh. And A Musical Too 2010 Super Duper Super Sleuths *These features integrate stories from The New Adventures of Winnie the Pooh and/or holiday specials with new footage. "Ulica Kubusia Puchatka. Kenny Loggins wrote the song "House at Pooh Corner". Similarly.[27] Pooh has also left a legacy in popular culture. 2007–2010) (*): Puppet/live-action show Holiday TV specials • • • • 1991: Winnie the Pooh and Christmas Too.

1. html). Los Angeles Times.00. [23] "Hastings Marionettes: Will Open Holiday Season at Guild Theatre on Saturday". do?id=10193) Historica Minutes. Retrieved 2008-05-30. Edwin. Ann (2004). [3] "Winnie". Retrieved on 2011-02-12. sonderbooks. . com/ magazines/ fortune/ fortune_archive/ 2003/ 01/ 20/ 335653/ index.781W/ 3. Retrieved 2007-09-26. com/ 3. "Disney wins lawsuit ruling on Pooh rights" (http:/ / www. ." (http:/ / jcgi. html). Meg (29 September 2009). p. [17] James.Winnie-the-Pooh place in Oxfordshire each year. Valerie J (2007-07-20). . . The American Reporter.15935. org/ locations/ tid/ 36/ node/ 5557) The New York Public Library. [9] Kennedy. ru/ db/ ?ver=eng& p=show_film& fid=6758) [26] spiked-culture | Article | Pooh-poohing postmodernism (http:/ / www. [4] Willard. St.. Quoted from the Introduction. com/ 1984/ 11/ 18/ books/ winnie-ille-pu-nearly-xxv-years-later. [28] Google Maps (http:/ / maps. htm) USA Today [19] "Justices Refuse Winnie the Pooh Case. nytimes.19. htm). animator. "Shirley Slesinger Lasswell. google. "Pooh rights belong to Disney. Sussex: Sweethaws Press. [16] "Judge dismisses Winnie the Pooh lawsuit" (http:/ / www. html). ashdownforest.. [18] "Winnie the Pooh goes to court" (http:/ / www. 2007-02-17. 71. .2582327. Sonderbooks. Milne". Fortune: p. Retrieved 2009-10-05." ABC News. american-reporter. Retrieved 2008-05-15. London Evening News: p. [27] Sonderbooks Book Review of Pooh and the Philosophers (http:/ / www. html) The Albion Monitor. xi. net. story). by Christopher Milne. 15. story?coll=la-headlines-pe-california). songfacts. [5] Willard (1989). (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2007-08-14. "Pooh sequel returns Christopher Robin to Hundred Acre Wood" (http:/ / www. [10] "The Merchant of Child". Los Angeles times. guardian. 24 December 1925. fought Disney over Pooh royalties" (http:/ / www. disneycorner. Retrieved 2009-10-05. html) Fortune. com/ money/ media/ 2002-11-05-pooh_x. . [14] "The Pooh Files" (http:/ / www.404206. usatoday. Spiked-online. histori. com/ maps?f=q& hl=en& ll=47. The New Yorker. nypl. [7] "A Children's Story by A. Quoted from the Introduction. . latimes. The Historica Foundation of Canada. Nov.0. cnn. [21] James. The Los Angeles Times. [24] "His Master's Voice Speaks Again". php). (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2 January 2010. Retrieved on 2011-02-12. "The Literary Character in Business & Commerce". story?coll=la-headlines-business). [6] "Winnie-the-Pooh" (http:/ / www. New York Times (18 November 1984). 22 December 1931. The Guardian: p. ABC News. [15] Nelson. 1. judge rules" (http:/ / www. com/ Articles/ 00000006DB0F. [8] Thwaite. php?name=News& file=article& sid=82) The Disney Corner.com. spiked-online. co. Barbara (1989). [20] "Disney loses court battle in Winnie the Pooh copyright case" (http:/ / www.0. 28. monitor.3287132. Retrieved 2009-10-05. 84. Joe (4 October 2009). November 1931.4053283. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography: Alan Alexander Milne. [2] "The Adventures of the Real Winnie-the-Pooh. [22] Shea. 190 References [1] McDowell. com/ business/ la-fi-pooh26sep26. com/ modules. Playthings. A. xi. Meg (2007-09-26). com/ fortune/ print/ 0. [13] "The Curse of Pooh" (http:/ / money. The Forest – Ashdown in East Sussex. Ashdown Forest. htm) Fortune. "Winnie Ille Pu Nearly XXV Years Later" (http:/ / www.com (2004-04-20). htm). latimes. by Christopher Milne. p. net/ monitor/ 0201a/ pooh1. [11] McElway. [25] Russian animation in letters and figures | Films | «Winnie the Pooh» (http:/ / www. php?id=8486) . "The gordian knot of Pooh rights is finally untied in federal court" (http:/ / www. Claire (26 October 1936). uk/ books/ 2009/ oct/ 04/ winnie-pooh-hundred-acre-wood). com/ business/ la-fi-ct-disney29-2009sep29. New York Times: p. com/ Nonfiction/ poohandphilosophers. pathfinder. Retrieved on 2008-05-30. 138366& z=17) [29] House at Pooh Corner by Loggins and Messina Songfacts (http:/ / www. ca/ minutes/ minute. Maev (4 October 2009). org/ pooh/ winnie_the_pooh. latimes. au/ news/ stories/ 2007/ 02/ 17/ 1850319. com/ detail. [12] "The Curse of Pooh. abc. The Conservators of Ashdown Forest. 415006. Oxford: Oxford University Press. com/ news/ printedition/ california/ la-me-lasswell20jul20.

with A.asp?LinkID=mp09399) • The real locations (http://www. from the Ashdown Forest Conservators • Winnie-the-Pooh (http://www.ashdownforest. A. London (http:// www.npg.uk/live/search/person.php). Milne and Christopher Robin.org/branch/central/dlc/dch/pooh/) at the New York Public Library . at the National Portrait Gallery.org.Winnie-the-Pooh 191 External links • The original bear.org/pooh/winnie_the_pooh.nypl.

The family actually lived in the Big Woods twice. stopping for a while in Lake City. Wisconsin. Little House replica at the Little House Wayside Charles & Caroline Ingalls . The Little House series (also known as "Laura Years") is based on decades-old memories of Laura Ingalls Wilder's early childhood in the Big Woods near Pepin. Pa had the urge to move west. Other places the Ingalls’ lived in the Little House books have also been restored and preserved for visitors. so the family packed up and moved via covered wagon to Independence. in the late 19th century. craft demonstrations. Wilder’s actual birthplace is about seven miles (11 km) north of Pepin. Scholastic 1932 Print (Hardcover.[2] Pepin celebrates her life every September with traditional music.[3] Laura and Mary went to school for the first time in Pepin (not Walnut Grove). she had one sister. The school's name was Barry Corner School. When Laura was still a baby. Paperback) Farmer Boy Publisher Publication date Media type Followed by Little House in the Big Woods is a children's novel by Laura Ingalls Wilder and was published in 1932. and other events. In 1874. Minnesota. The family returned to the Little House in the Big Woods after a couple of years. Kansas. Laura’s sister. and is marked by a replica cabin along the Pepin County highway CC (formerly Wisconsin 183) at the Little House Wayside (near Lund). Mary Amelia Ingalls. near Pepin. Minnesota.Little House in the Big Woods 192 Little House in the Big Woods Little House in the Big Woods Little House in the Big Woods book cover. was born while they lived in the Kansas Territory. Historical background Laura Elizabeth Ingalls Wilder was born to Caroline Ingalls and Charles Ingalls on February 7.[1] At that time. a "Laura look-alike" contest. a spelling bee. illustrated by Garth Williams Author(s) Country Language Series Genre(s) Laura Ingalls Wilder United States English Little House Family Saga Western novel Harper & Brothers. Later. the family started their journey to Walnut Grove. 1867. Wisconsin. This book is the first of the series of books known as the Little House series. Carrie Ingalls. an experience that is not included in Little House in the Big Woods. and Laura saw her first Indians (Osage) and how they lived.

though fun is often made in the midst of it. Actually. because the harvest from the garden and fields must be brought in as well. and helps Ma and Pa when they butcher animals. and Laura receives a doll. so there are milk. Rose grew up to become an Laura & Almanzo Wilder author. and homesteaded for decades. drought. he was too tired from farm work to play during the summertime. the cow has a calf. enough to last the year. Laura remembered that sugaring off. Hard work is the rule.[5] A year of Almanzo’s childhood in rural New York is memorialized in her second book. Together they raised horses. he usually came home with a deer then smoked the meat for the coming winter.Little House in the Big Woods 193 In the book. Laura wrote over the years in the form of essays and articles for newspapers and magazines. death. Original cover as it appeared in 1932 Each season has its work. for the rest of her life. When Pa went into the woods to hunt. Hunting and gathering were important parts of providing for the family as well. The cousins come for Christmas that year. which she names Charlotte. Farmer Boy. They had one daughter. Everyday housework is also described in detail. Laura turns five years old. Laura gathers woodchips.[9] In the winter. At age 18 Laura married Almanzo Wilder. to biographer William Anderson. butter and cheese. and the dance that followed. They return home with buckets of syrup.[7] The well-known illustrations by Garth Williams appeared in the revised edition. serious illness. the publisher had Laura change her age in the book because it seemed unrealistic for a three-year-old to have specific memories such as she wrote about. That summer and fall. crop destruction). first published in 1953.[6] For Little House in the Big Woods. Laura and Mary always begged him to play his fiddle. According to a letter from her daughter. which the author makes attractive by the good things that result. Later that winter. Iowa. Rose Wilder Lane. Laura wrote out the manuscript by hand. This is all in preparation for the upcoming winter. the family goes to Grandma Ingalls’ and has a “sugaring off. to be consistent with her already established chronology. Since she skipped writing about 1876–1877 when the family lived near Burr Oak. she was only three. mostly articles related to homesteading. Laura also helps Ma preserve the meat. Fall is a very busy time. and store food for the winter. Rose.” when they harvest sap and make maple syrup. above). they enjoyed the comforts of their home and danced to Pa’s fiddle playing. This first volume does not contain the more mature (yet real) themes addressed in later books of the series (danger from Indians and wild animals. among other things. When Pa returned in the winter evenings. Her daughter Rose typed and helped edit it before it was published in 1932. which Almanzo loved. Not all work was farming.[4] This is also why Laura portrayed herself as 6–7 years old in Little House on the Prairie. and each of her books. Laura’s Pa trades labor with other farmers so that his own crops will be harvested faster when it is time. One day he noticed a bee tree and returned from hunting early to get the wash tub and milk pail to collect the honey. and lost a son in infancy. In the spring. the Ingalls again plant a garden and fields.[8] Story Little House in the Big Woods describes the homesteading skills Laura observed and began to practice during her fifth year (see comment on Laura’s age. her age progression in later books is seamless. .

• Anderson. 2006. ISBN 0060262745 • Wilder. The Little House Guidebook. The Laura Ingalls Wilder Songbook: Favorite Songs from the Little House Books.1–2 Anderson. Dear Laura: Letters From Children To Laura Ingalls Wilder. 1996. William. The Laura Ingalls Wilder Park and Museum. ISBN 0689839243 • Ward. The Little House Guidebook.41–45 Anderson. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. 2001. and cookbooks. 2004. ISBN 0060278420. Laura's Album. Laura Ingalls. 29 Anderson. Laura Ingalls Wilder: The Iowa Story. 11 Anderson. Prairie Girl. William. ISBN 0060289740 • Anderson. Prairie Girl: The Life of Laura Ingalls Wilder. pp. Laura's Album. Laura Ingalls. p. There are also Little House themed craft. pp. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.Little House in the Big Woods 194 Related books In addition to the Little House books.S. four series of books expand the Little House series to include five generations of Laura Ingalls Wilder's family. 72 Each Little House Book contains lyrics to folk or patriotic songs. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 096100889X • Anderson. pp. Laura's Album. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. 1996. William. 1998.2–7 Anderson. William. Beatrice. Laura Ingalls. p. New York: Rosen Publishing Group. Eugenia and Haufrecht. Herbert. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. The success of the Little House series has produced many related books including two series ("Little House Chapter Books" and "My First Little House Books") that present the original stories in condensed and simplified form for younger readers. Little House in the Big Woods. ISBN 0060264306 • Wilder. New York: HarperCollins Children's Books.36 Anderson. music. Laura Ingalls Wilder: Young Pioneer.53–54 Anderson. ISBN 0823957128 • Wilder. 1996. ISBN 0060724919 . ISBN 0064461777 • Garson. References • Anderson. p. ISBN 0060270365 • Gormley. New York: Aladdin Paperbacks. Laura's Album. p. 2001. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. Laura’s Album: a remembrance scrapbook of Laura Ingalls Wilder. Burr Oak. Laura Ingalls Wilder: Young Pioneer. Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] Gormley. 2001. Iowa. 1953. Meet Laura Ingalls Wilder. See The Laura Ingalls Wilder Songbook reference below for full lyrics and music. Laura Ingalls Wilder: The Iowa Story pp. A Little House Traveler: Writings from Laura Ingalls Wilder’s Journey Across America.

Little House in the Big Woods 195 External links • Photo of a replica log cabin about 7 miles north of Pepin.pioneergirl. publication history.com .com/~prgreetham/fgtrail/ BigWoods.html • Fact and fiction of Laura Ingalls Wilder from A to Z http://www.rockpicklepublishing. WI.com/websites/littlehouseinthebigwoods/ littlehouseinthebigwoods.html • Rock Pickle Publishing – a Historic Children’s Book website with reviews. photos of original covers. etc. http://www. http://www.btinternet.

Bilbo develops a new level of maturity. being nominated for the Carnegie Medal and awarded a prize from the New York Herald Tribune for best juvenile fiction. including those reflecting Tolkien's changing concept of the world into which Bilbo stumbled. R. R. or type of creature. R. romantic. or There and Back Again. Tolkien made retrospective accommodations for it in one chapter of The Hobbit.[2] The story is told in the form of an episodic quest. The author's scholarly knowledge of Anglo-Saxon literature and interest in fairy tales are also often noted as influences. rural surroundings into darker. including a video game that won the Golden Joystick Award. It was published on 21 September 1937 to wide critical acclaim. R. is a fantasy novel and children's book by J. Smaug. Tolkien's publishers requested a sequel. Bilbo's journey takes him from light-hearted.The Hobbit 196 The Hobbit The Hobbit. screen. or There and Back Again Cover of the 1937 first edition. deeper territory. of Tolkien's Wilderland. Due to the book's critical and financial success. better known by its abbreviated title The Hobbit. competence and wisdom. board games and video games. By accepting the disreputable. and most chapters introduce a specific creature. Tolkien J. Set in a time "Between the Dawn of Færie and the Dominion of Men". Tolkien J. and an . Its ongoing legacy encompasses many adaptations for stage. as instrumental in shaping the story. Tolkien United Kingdom English Children's literature Fantasy novel George Allen & Unwin (UK) 21 September 1937 Print (hardback) 310 pp (first edition) n/a The Lord of the Rings Publisher Publication date Media type Pages ISBN Followed by The Hobbit. R. Tolkien. R. a scenario of a war game that won an Origins Award. R.[1] The Hobbit follows the quest of home-loving hobbit Bilbo Baggins to win a share of the treasure guarded by the dragon. The work has never been out of print. As work on The Lord of the Rings progressed.[3] The story reaches its climax in the Battle of Five Armies. fey and adventurous side of his nature (the "Tookish" side) and applying his wits and common sense. Further editions followed with minor emendations. R. Some of these adaptations have received critical recognition of their own. The book remains popular and is recognized as a classic in children's literature. and those of other writers who fought in World War I. radio. Themes of personal growth and forms of heroism figure in the story. these themes lead critics to cite Tolkien's own experiences. Along with conflict. from a drawing by Tolkien Author(s) Illustrator Cover artist Country Language Genre(s) J. where many of the characters and creatures from earlier chapters re-emerge to engage in conflict. These few but significant changes were integrated into the second edition.

who engages him in a game of riddles for the path out of the tunnels.[4] men (humans). • Thorin Oakenshield. or Wargs. proud. such as the twelve other dwarves of the company. When the dwarves take possession of the mountain. Although Gandalf rescues them. stealing a great cup and learning of a weakness in Smaug's armour. relying on Gandalf and Bilbo to get him out of trouble. Elrond the sage. an itinerant wizard who introduces Bilbo to a company of thirteen dwarves. two types of elves: both puckish and more serious warrior types. During the journey he disappears on side errands dimly hinted at. they are caught by goblins and driven deep underground. When the music ends. Thorin refuses and. a respectable. immense and heroic eagles who also speak. improving his reputation with them. Thorin makes many mistakes in his leadership. Until he finds the magic ring. forest-dwelling giant spiders who can speak. Beorn. Lost in the goblin tunnels. sets out to destroy the town. . boulder-throwing giants. The company enter the black forest of Mirkwood without Gandalf. During his adventure. Gandalf unveils a map showing a secret door into the Mountain and proposes that the dumbfounded Bilbo serve as the expedition's "burglar". but Thorin is intransigent. who hope the dwarves will fulfil prophecies of Smaug's demise. the travellers are welcomed by the human inhabitants of Lake-town. but he proves himself a mighty warrior. which confers invisibility. pompous head of the company of dwarves and heir to the destroyed dwarven kingdom under the Lonely Mountain.The Hobbit animated picture nominated for a Hugo Award. who are allied with the goblins. He banishes Bilbo. Bilbo often refers to the contents of his larder at home and wishes he had more food. where Gandalf saves the company from trolls and leads them to Rivendell. he stumbles across a mysterious ring and then encounters Gollum. a strange creature inhabiting an underground lake. The enraged dragon. reinforces his position. and settlement of old claims on the treasure. Bilbo gets separated from the others as they flee the goblins. The goblins and Wargs give chase but the company are saved by eagles before resting in the house of Beorn. • Smaug. Passing over the Misty Mountains. Bilbo escapes and rejoins the dwarves. evil cave-dwelling goblins. the titular protagonist. With the help of the ring. In Mirkwood. Bilbo finds the Arkenstone. and steals it. • Gandalf. deducing that Lake-town has aided the intruder. Bilbo tries to ransom the Arkenstone to head off a war. only to appear again at key moments in the story. indignant. Gollum. who slays the Dragon. The plot involves a host of other characters of varying importance. A noble thrush who overheard Bilbo's report of Smaug's vulnerability reports it to Bard. an heirloom of Thorin's dynasty. a grim but honourable archer of Lake-town. or his demise. Bilbo first saves the dwarves from giant spiders and then from the dungeons of the Wood-elves. Bilbo scouts the dragon's lair. he is more baggage than help. where Elrond reveals more secrets from the map. evil wolves. reparations for Lake-town's destruction. a dragon who long ago pillaged the dwarven kingdom of Thorin's grandfather and sleeps upon the vast treasure. 197 Characters • Bilbo Baggins.[5] Plot Gandalf tricks Bilbo into hosting a party for Thorin and his band of twelve dwarves. man-eating trolls. The group travel into the wild. The dwarves ridicule the idea. a man who can assume bear form. and battle seems inevitable. The Wood-elves and Lake-men besiege the Mountain and request compensation for their aid. conservative hobbit. having summoned his kin from the mountains of the North. Nearing the Lonely Mountain. The expedition travel to the Mountain and find the secret door. joins despite himself. who sing of reclaiming the Lonely Mountain and its vast treasure from the dragon Smaug. and Bard the Bowman. but Bilbo.

Tolkien made Gollum more aggressive towards Bilbo and distraught at losing the ring.[17] Revisions In December 1937. 198 Concept and creation Background Further information: Hobbit (word) In the early 1930s Tolkien was pursuing an academic career at Oxford as Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon. The Hobbit has been translated into over forty languages. The original printing numbered 1. Allen & Unwin decided to incorporate the colour illustrations into their second printing.[8] In a 1955 letter to W. Ltd. but also lead to substantial changes to the character of Gollum. The Hobbit's publisher. "In a hole in the ground there lived a hobbit. The . but still returns home a very wealthy hobbit. believing that the public wanted "more about hobbits".[18] a course that would not only change the context of the original story. Tolkien recollects that he began work on The Hobbit one day early in the 1930s. His creative endeavours at this time also included letters from Father Christmas to his children—illustrated manuscripts that featured warring gnomes and goblins. S. asked Tolkien for a sequel. The novel has been reprinted frequently by many publishers. H. Lewis[9] and a student of Tolkien's named Elaine Griffiths. paper rationing brought on by wartime conditions and not ending until 1949 meant that the book was often unavailable in this period. Auden. in order to reflect the new concept of the ring and its corrupting abilities. Gollum willingly bets his magic ring on the outcome of the riddle-game. which he had been developing since 1917. Suddenly inspired. he wrote the words. a staff member of the publisher George Allen & Unwin. which would eventually become The Lord of the Rings. of London published the first edition of The Hobbit on 21 September 1937.[4] In the second edition edits.[14] Despite the book's popularity. who also designed the dust jacket. In response Tolkien provided drafts for The Silmarillion.The Hobbit Gandalf reappears to warn all of an approaching army of goblins and Wargs. Houghton Mifflin of Boston and New York reset type for an American edition.[16] In addition. men. having no want or need for more.[10] In 1936. and showed the book to Stanley Unwin. These works all saw posthumous publication. when Griffiths was visited in Oxford by Susan Dagnall.[12] Publication George Allen & Unwin. Stanley Unwin.[15] Subsequent editions in English were published in 1951. but only with the timely arrival of the eagles and Beorn do they win the climactic Battle of Five Armies. in which four of the illustrations would be colour plates. who then asked his 10-year-old son Rayner to review it. Rayner's favourable comments settled Allen & Unwin's decision to publish Tolkien's book. Thorin is fatally wounded and reconciles with Bilbo before he dies. Miss Dagnall was impressed by it. including C. some of them more than once. she is reported to have either lent Dagnall the book[10] or suggested she borrow it from Tolkien. He found a blank page. and a helpful polar bear—alongside the development of elven languages and an attendant mythology. and he and Bilbo part amicably. to be released early in 1938.[13] This first printing was illustrated with many black-and-white drawings by Tolkien. Bilbo accepts only a small portion of his share of the treasure. with a fellowship at Pembroke College. 1978 and 1995. 1966. but the editors rejected them. He had had two poems published in small collections: Goblin Feet[6] and The Cat and the Fiddle: A Nursery Rhyme Undone and its Scandalous Secret Unlocked.[18] Tolkien subsequently began work on 'The New Hobbit'. In the first edition of The Hobbit.[7] a reworking of the nursery rhyme Hey Diddle Diddle.[11] In any event. released at the end of 1937.500 copies and sold out by December due to enthusiastic reviews. The dwarves." By late 1932 he had finished the story and then lent the manuscript to several friends. and elves band together. when he was marking School Certificate papers.

"Thief! Thief.[19] In The Lord of the Rings. C.[21] Tolkien began a new version in 1960. Anderson's commentary shows many of the sources Tolkien brought together in preparing the text.The Hobbit encounter ends with Gollum's curse.[27] Tolkien had used "gnome" in his earlier writing to refer to the second kindred of the High Elves—the Noldor (or "Deep Elves")—thinking "gnome". because of its common denotation of a garden gnome. and chronicles in detail the changes Tolkien made to the various published editions. published in 1951 in both the UK and the USA. for example. Micheal D. Tolkien took the opportunity to align the narrative even more closely to The Lord of the Rings and to cosmological developments from his still unpublished Quenta Silmarillion as it stood at that time.[29] Also printed here are a number of hard-to-find texts such as the 1923 version of Tolkien's poem "Iumonna Gold Galdre Bewunden". to High Elves of the West. including images by Tove Jansson. Drout and Hilary Wynn comment the work provides a solid foundation for further criticism. alongside commentary that shows relationships to Tolkien's scholarly and creative works. Jason Fisher."[31] 199 . published in Mythlore. John Rateliff provides the full text of the earliest and intermediary drafts of the book. implying it had lost much of its light-hearted tone and quick pace.[24] These small edits included. both contemporary and later. two editions of The Hobbit have been published with commentary on the creation. the text is illustrated by pictures from many of the translated editions. When he was sent galley proofs of a new edition. In The Annotated Hobbit Douglas Anderson provides the entire text of the published book. changing the phrase elves that are now called Gnomes from the first[25] and second[26] editions on page 63. The book keeps Rateliff's commentary separate from Tolkien's text. Rateliff also provides previously unpublished illustrations by Tolkien. published in two parts in 2007. derived from the 16th Century Paracelsus. was a good name for the wisest of the elves. whereas the revised version contains the "true" account. Tolkien abandoned the term.[30] With The History of the Hobbit. my kin in the third edition. we hates it. Rateliff also provides the abandoned 1960s retelling. Tolkien sent this revised version of the chapter "Riddles in the Dark" to Unwin as an example of the kinds of changes needed to bring the book into conformity with The Lord of the Rings. derived from the Greek gnosis (knowledge). we hates it forever!" This presages Gollum's portrayal in The Lord of the Rings. Tolkien was surprised to find the sample text had been incorporated. emendation and development of the text.[22] After an unauthorized paperback edition of The Lord of the Rings appeared from Ace Books in 1965. However. alongside commentary and illustrations. but he heard nothing back for years. the original version of the riddle game is explained as a "lie" made up by Bilbo under the harmful influence of the Ring. allowing the reader to read the original draft as a story. Alongside the annotations.[20] The revised text became the second edition.[23] This text became the 1966 third edition. attempting to fit the tone of The Hobbit better to its sequel.[28] Posthumous editions Since the author's death. Houghton Mifflin and Ballantine requested Tolkien to refresh the text of The Hobbit in order to renew US copyright. states in his review that the work is "an indispensable new starting point for the study of The Hobbit. Baggins! We hates it. He abandoned the new revision at chapter three after he received criticism that it "just wasn't The Hobbit".

the Mirkwood illustration. often pungent. of which Tolkien originally proposed five. The publisher accepted all of these as well. Tolkien supplied a second batch of illustrations. The illustrated scenes were: The Hill: Hobbiton across the Water.[36] The original jacket design contained several shades of several colours. comments:[32] “ In 1937 alone Tolkien wrote 26 letters to George Allen & Unwin..[37] Runes and the English letter values assigned to them by [33] Tolkien. The Elvenking's Gate. became the subject of many iterations and much correspondence. removed the red from the sun to end up with only black. and with a sketch of the Misty Mountains stamped along the upper edge. ” Even the maps. too. I doubt any author today. in his publishing memoir.[39] The additional illustrations proved so appealing that George Allen & Unwin adopted the colour plates as well for their second printing. "Th" runes. mindful of the cost. and the Front Gate. and signed with two "þ. giving the first edition ten black-and-white illustrations plus the two endpaper maps. Thror's map. The runic inscription around the edges of the illustration are a phonetic transliteration of English.. and with the moon-letters (Anglo-Saxon runes) on the reverse so they could be seen when held up to the light. the publishers thence asked Tolkien to design a dust jacket. Thus encouraged. Bilbo Woke Up with the Early Sun in His Eyes. Houghton Mifflin rewarded these hopes with the replacement of the frontispiece (The Hill: Hobbiton-across-the Water) in colour and the addition of new colour plates: Rivendell. All elements were the subject of considerable correspondence and fussing over by Tolkien. with an elongated dragon characteristic of Tolkien's style stamped along the lower edge. with Tolkien always writing disparagingly of his own ability to draw. Bilbo comes to the Huts of the Raft-elves and a Conversation with Smaug. the final design ended up as mostly the author's. The publishers. but Tolkien objected to several elements. The publisher's production staff designed a binding. and green ink on white stock. both printed in black and red on the paper's cream background. Through several iterations.The Hobbit 200 Illustration and design Tolkien's correspondence and publisher's records show that Tolkien was involved in the design and illustration of the entire book. were considered and debated. blue. however famous. but Tolkien's first tendered sketches so charmed the publisher's staff that they opted to include them without raising the book's price despite the extra cost. fluent.[15] In the end the cost. Tolkien proposed colour plates as well. giving the title of the book and details of the author and publisher. and the Map of the Wilderland. This project. Beorn's Hall.. which would be difficult to reproduce. which features a dwarvish curse written in Tolkien's invented script Tengwar.[35] Satisfied with his skills. He wished Thror's map to be tipped in (that is.[38] Once illustrations were approved for the book.. Mirkwood. His final design consisted of four colours. glued in after the book has been bound) at first mention in the text. The spine shows Anglo Saxon runes: two "þ" (Thráin and Thrór) and one "D" (Door). The front and back covers were mirror images of each other. The Mountain Path. detailed. The publisher would not relent on this. but Tolkien redrew it several times using fewer colours each time. All but one of the illustrations were a full page.[34] Originally Allen & Unwin planned to illustrate the book only with the endpaper maps. used in several of his original illustrations and designs for The Hobbit. Lake Town. would get such scrupulous attention. The Misty Mountains looking West from the Eyrie towards Goblin Gate. with exception of Bilbo Woke Up . resulted in the final design of two maps as endpapers. The Trolls. as well as the shading of the maps. and one. required a separate plate. Rayner Unwin. but infinitely polite and exasperatingly precise. so Tolkien pinned his hopes on the American edition to be published about six months later.

it is primarily identified as being children's literature. "The Children's Book Club" edition of 1942 includes the black-and-white pictures but no maps. who occasionally interrupts the narrative flow with asides (a device common to both children's and Anglo-Saxon literature). well-to-do Hobbit. alongside Jostein Gaarder's Sophie's World (1991) and J. so some definitions of high fantasy include works for children by authors such as L. The text emphasizes the relationship between time and narrative progress and it openly distinguishes "safe" from "dangerous" in its geography. both as decorative devices and as magical signs within the story. based on a structuralist analysis of Russian folklore. both of which influenced Tolkien and contain fantasy elements. in her Comparative Children's Literature. which are more often considered adult literature. Many fairy tale motifs.[47] Tolkien intended The Hobbit as a fairy story and wrote it in a tone suited to addressing children. especially the many translated editions.[49] The work is much longer than Tolkien's ideal proposed in his essay On Fairy Stories.[53] While The Hobbit is written in a simple. However. therefore. while often introducing the new and fantastic in an almost casual manner. but like Peter Pan and Wendy by J. food-obsessed. Many follow the original scheme at least loosely. such as the small. Rowling's Harry Potter series (1997–2007). particularly paperback. accepts readers into the fictional world.[44] While Tolkien claimed later to dislike the aspect of the narrative voice addressing the reader directly.[52] has his own linguistic style separate from those of the main characters. an anomaly. friendly language. but many others are illustrated by other artists.[52] Style Tolkien's prose is unpretentious and straightforward. middle-aged. This down-to-earth style.[42] 201 Genre The Hobbit takes cues from narrative models of children's literature.[38] Different editions have been illustrated in diverse ways. Both are key elements of works intended for children. are not illustrated except with the maps. K. has been cited as a major cause for the popularization of runes within "New Age" and esoteric literature. Frank Baum and Lloyd Alexander alongside the works of Gene Wolfe and Jonathan Swift.[51] The book is popularly called (and often marketed as) a fantasy novel. are to be found in the story. The two genres are not mutually exclusive. and the story is.The Hobbit with the Early Sun in His Eyes).[43] as is the "home-away-home" (or there and back again) plot structure typical of the Bildungsroman. each of its characters has a unique voice. Some cheaper editions. rather than cajoling or attempting to convince them of its reality. such as the repetition of similar events seen in the dwarves' arrival at Bilbo's and Beorn's homes. M.[45] the narrative voice contributes significantly to the success of the novel. Barrie and The Princess and the Goblin by George MacDonald. and folklore themes. The narrator. often read aloud. such as trolls turning to stone.[41] stemming from Tolkien's popularity with the elements of counter-culture in the 1970s. Bilbo Baggins is not the usual fairy tale protagonist – not the handsome eldest son or beautiful youngest daughter – but a plump. also found in later fantasy such as Richard Adams' Watership Down and Peter Beagle's The Last Unicorn.[54] .[50] The Hobbit conforms to Vladimir Propp's 31-motif model of folktales presented in his 1928 work Morphology of the Folk Tale.[48] Many of the initial reviews refer to the work as a fairy story.[46] Emer O'Sullivan. Sullivan credits the first publication of The Hobbit as an important step in the development of high fantasy. notes The Hobbit as one of a handful of children's books that is accepted into mainstream literature.[40] Tolkien's use of runes. taking as given the existence of his imaginary world and describing its details in a matter-of-fact way. as shown by its omniscient narrator and characters that pre-adolescent children can identify with. and morally ambiguous Bilbo. and further credits the 1960s paperback debuts of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings as essential to the creation of a mass market for fiction of this kind as well the fantasy genre's current status.

told in a light-hearted mood and interspersed with songs—may be following the model of The Icelandic Journals by Tolkien's literary idol William Morris. Tolkien also explores the motif of jewels that inspire intense greed which corrupts those that covet them in the . may be seen as a Bildungsroman rather than a traditional quest. with the author contrasting Bilbo's personal growth against the arrested development of the dwarves. However. sing: 202 “ Clap! Snap! the black crack! Grip. the frontispiece and the dust jacket) make use of Anglo-Saxon runes. and others threatening or dangerous. some helpful and friendly towards the protagonists. being interspersed with songs and humour. or Elvish blades) that benefits his society is seen to fit the mythic archetypes regarding initiation and male coming-of-age as described by Joseph Campbell.[59] Tolkien. grab! Pinch.[56] The general form—that of a journey into strange lands. However the general tone is kept light-hearted. For the most part of the book.[63] The overcoming of greed and selfishness has been seen as the central moral of the story. such as gold and jewels. Tolkien achieves balance of humour and danger through other means as well. disregarding all the promises and "at your services" he had previously bestowed. who. This journey of maturation.[66] In the end Bilbo gives up the precious stone and most of his share of the treasure in order to help those in greater need. Bilbo Baggins.[65] it is only by the Arkenstone's influence upon Thorin that greed. Thorin turns on the Hobbit as a traitor. however. when marching them into the underworld.The Hobbit The basic form of the story is that of a quest.[60] Critical analysis Themes The development and maturation of the protagonist. the underground path into the mountain. is central to the story. myth and languages. One example of the use of song to maintain tone is when Thorin and Company are kidnapped by goblins.[64] Whilst greed is a recurring theme in the novel. has been seen to be one of the major themes explored by the story.[58] Several of the author's illustrations (including the dwarven map. and its attendant vices "coveting" and "malignancy".[52] The names of Gandalf and all but one of the thirteen dwarves were taken directly from the poem Völuspá from the Poetic Edda. especially the relationship between the modern and ancient. come fully to the fore in the story and provide the moral crux of the tale. each chapter introduces a different denizen of the Wilderland.[62] Specific plot elements and features in The Hobbit that show similarities to Beowulf include Bilbo's title thief. Bilbo steals the Arkenstone—a most ancient relic of the dwarves—and attempts to ransom it to Thorin for peace. nab! And down down to Goblin-town You go. my lad! ” This onomatopœic singing undercuts the dangerous scene with a sense of humour.[61] The Jungian concept of individuation is also reflected through this theme of growing maturity and capability.[57] The novel draws on Tolkien's knowledge of northern European historical literature.[31] but their characters are unlike the typical war-carrion from Old Norse and Anglo-Saxon literature. is not simply skimming historical sources for effect: linguistic styles. with many of the episodes stemming from one or more of the characters' simple desire for food (be it trolls eating dwarves or dwarves eating Wood-elf fare) or a desire for beautiful objects. and Smaug's personality which leads to the destruction of Laketown. where Bilbo gains a clear sense of identity and confidence in the outside world.[56] Jane Chance compares the development and growth of Bilbo against other characters to the concepts of just Kingship versus sinful kingship derived from the Ancrene Wisse (which Tolkien had written on in 1929) and a Christian understanding of Beowulf.[3] The analogue of the "underworld" and the hero returning from it with a boon (such as the ring. as seen in the foolishness and Cockney dialect of the trolls and in the drunkenness of the elven captors. The names of the dwarf-friendly ravens are also derived from Old Norse for raven and rook.[55] told in episodes.

[71] Smaug the dragon and his golden hoard may be seen as a symbol of the traditional relationship between evil and metallurgy as collated in the depiction of Pandæmonium with its "Belched fire and rolling smoke" . These talking creatures include ravens. alongside the anthropomorphic goblins and elves. Tolkien.. In many ways the Smaug episode reflects and references the dragon of Beowulf. the world was alive with mythological beings. Tolkien's descriptions of the lair as accessed through a secret passage mirror those in Beowulf. and an action entirely determined by traditional narrative patterns. ". leading to an understanding of the deeper unity between the ancient and modern. while those of Bilbo come from modern nursery books.[73] Another influence from the Anglo-Saxon is the appearance of named blades of renown. Tolkien refines parts of Beowulf's plot that he appears to have found less than satisfactorily described. such as storms or purses.[60] Smaug is the main antagonist. It is the form of the riddle game..[67] The Hobbit employs themes of animism.[72] Likewise.. including a monstrous.[70] Tolkien is credited with being the first critic to expound on Beowulf as a literary work with value beyond merely historical.[71] Certain descriptions in The Hobbit seem to have been lifted straight out of Beowulf with some minor rewording. and his 1936 lecture Beowulf: the Monsters and the Critics is still required reading for students of Anglo-Saxon. have a heavy presence in defining the ancient world Bilbo stepped into. and there are connections between the words "Arkenstone" and "Silmaril" in Tolkien's invented etymologies.[74] This progression culminates in Bilbo stealing a cup from the dragon's hoard. It is in the use of his elf-blade that we see Bilbo finally taking his first independent heroic action. Tolkien brings his literary theories to bear in forming characters and their interactions. as well as living things like animals and plants—possess human-like intelligence."[70] As in plot and setting.. is a recurring theme in The Hobbit. The Beowulf poem contains several elements that Tolkien borrowed for The Hobbit. Themes found in early English literature. It is difficult to think of any other way of conducting the story at this point. As Tolkien wrote. Patrick Curry notes that animism is also found in Tolkien's other works.. By his naming the blade "Sting" we also see Bilbo's acceptance of the kinds of cultural and linguistic practices found in Beowulf. rather than the content of the riddles themselves. To them the whole of creation was "myth-woven and elf-patterned".'[69] 203 Interpretation The Hobbit can be seen as a creative exposition of Tolkien's theoretical and academic work.[68] Tolkien saw the idea of animism as closely linked to the emergence of human language and myth: ". claims the poem to be among his "most valued sources" in writing The Hobbit. animism is the idea that all things—including inanimate objects and natural events. Rateliff calls this the "Doctor Dolittle Theme" in The History of the Hobbit.The episode of the theft arose naturally (and almost inevitably) from the circumstances. and Tolkien uses the episode to put into practice some of the ground-breaking literary theories he had developed about the Anglo-Saxon poem and its portrayal of the dragon as having bestial intelligence rather than being of purely symbolic value. An important concept in anthropology and child development.. tone and sphere of interest. To them. such as when each dragon stretches out its neck to sniff for intruders. I fancy the author of Beowulf would say much the same.The first men to talk of 'trees and stars' saw things very differently. Gollum's riddles are taken from old historical sources. and cites the multitude of talking animals as indicative of this theme. which allows Gollum and Bilbo to engage each other. adorned in runes. familiar to both. intelligent dragon. He portrays Bilbo as a modern anachronism exploring an essentially antique world. signifying his entrance into the ancient world in which he found himself. John D.The Hobbit Silmarillion. such as details about the cup-thief and the dragon's intellect and personality. and mentions the "roots of mountains" and "feet of trees" in The Hobbit as a linguistic shifting in level from the inanimate to animate. rousing him to wrath—an incident directly mirroring Beowulf. This idea of a superficial contrast between characters' individual linguistic style. For example. spiders and the dragon Smaug. an accomplished Beowulf scholar. and specifically in the poem Beowulf. Bilbo is able to negotiate and interact within this antique world because language and tradition make connections between the two worlds.

Catholic World and The New York Post. using idioms such as "Don't let your imagination run away with you!" Just as Tolkien's literary theories have been seen to influence the tale. The Hobbit was met with almost unanimously favourable reviews from publications both in the UK and the USA. ” On first publication in October 1937.[83] John D. Smaug's speech is the most modern. Auden.[75] Of all the characters. writing in The Times reports: “ The truth is that in this book a number of good things.The Hobbit in Milton's Paradise Lost.[81] Auden was later to correspond with Tolkien. damaged landscapes. S. Phantastes. and received independently of the later work. it seems a very gloomy business. where the hero is plucked from his rural home and thrown into a far-off war where traditional types of heroism are shown to be futile. have come together: a fund of humour. and that it disregards the book's influence on these genres. C. the book has been recognized as "Most Important 20th-Century Novel (for Older Readers)" in the Children's Books of the Century poll in Books for Keeps." ” Lewis also compares the book to Alice in Wonderland in that both children and adults may find different things to enjoy in it. As Janet Croft notes.[76] The tale as such explores the theme of heroism. Countering a presentist interpretation are those who say this approach misses out on much of the original's value as a children's book and as a work of high fantasy in its own right. H. . friend of Tolkien (and later author of The Chronicles of Narnia between 1949–1964). The Hobbit was nominated for the Carnegie Medal and awarded a prize from the New York Herald Tribune for best juvenile fiction of the year (1938). and places it alongside Flatland. Rateliff[84] and C. critics such as Randell Helms picked up on the idea of The Hobbit as being a "prelude".[52] Commentators such as Paul Kocher. published. so have Tolkien's experiences. Instead of approaching The Hobbit as a children's book in its own right. and The Wind in the Willows. never before united. an understanding of children.[78] The Hobbit makes a warning against repeating the tragedies of World War I. relegating the story to a dry-run for the later work. Sullivan[52] encourage readers to treat the works separately. The Hobbit may be read as Tolkien's parable of World War I. including The Times.. W. Tolkien's literary reaction to war at this time differed from most post-war writers by eschewing irony as a method for distancing events and instead using mythology to mediate his experiences. He has studied trolls and dragons at first hand and describes them with that fidelity that is worth oceans of glib "originality.[80] W. Lewis.[77] Similarities to the works of other writers who faced the Great War are seen in The Hobbit.. and also in order to prevent the reader from having false expectations of tone and style dashed. and they became friends. in his review of the sequel The Fellowship of the Ring calls The Hobbit "one of the best children's stories of this century". The professor has the air of inventing nothing. both the area under the influence of Smaug before his demise and the setting for The Battle of the Five Armies later are described as barren. both because The Hobbit was conceived. and a happy fusion of the scholar's with the poet's grasp of mythology.[79] and Tolkien's attitude as a veteran may well be summed up by Bilbo's comment:[77] 204 “ Reception Victory after all. including portraying warfare as anti-pastoral: in "The Desolation of Smaug". More recently. I suppose! Well.[82] Publication of the sequel The Lord of the Rings altered many critics' reception of the work.

The Hobbit is promoted as "the original and still the best fantasy ever written.[87] As one of several books that has been recommended for 11–14 year old boys to encourage literacy in that demographic.[16] Adaptations In 1969 (over 30 years after first publication). following the paths of multiple characters. notably allegory. expecting them to be similar.[89] This tension can help introduce readers to 'readerly' and 'writerly' interpretations. while the material may contain themes more suited to adolescents.[94] In 1976 (three years after the author's death) United Artists sold the rights to Saul Zaentz Company.[92] By this interpretation.[85] Many of the thematic and stylistic differences arose because Tolkien wrote The Hobbit as a story for children. and the questing party returns home to find it in a deteriorated condition (having possessions auctioned off/the scouring of the Shire). its sequel The Lord of the Rings is often claimed to be its greatest legacy. Tolkien's concept of Middle-earth was to continually change and slowly evolve throughout his life and writings. they engage another group of elves (The Elf King's realm/Lothlórien).[91] a gender-conscious approach can help students establish notions of a "socially symbolic text" where meaning is generated by tendentious readings of a given work. Gandalf sends the protagonist into a quest eastward. While Bilbo may be seen as a literary symbol of 'small folk' of any gender. a descendant of kings is restored to his ancestral throne (Bard/Aragorn). find that they are not. Some differences are in minor details. which assigned them in 1998 to New Line Cinema.5% royalty after costs. who had subsequently grown up since its publication. filed suit against New Line Cinema in February 2008 seeking payment of profits and to be "entitled to cancel. Tolkien sold the film and merchandising rights to The Hobbit to United Artists under an agreement stipulating a lump sum payment of £10. they traverse a desolate region (Desolation of Smaug/the Dead Marshes). goblins are more often referred to as Orcs in The Lord of the Rings. Further. who trade as Tolkien Enterprises. The differences between the two stories can cause difficulties when readers. The Hobbit introduces literary concepts. they fight in a massive battle. the adventurers escape dangerous creatures underground (Goblin Town/Moria). including his son Christopher Tolkien. to tenets of New Criticism. in approaching literary works.[86] The Hobbit in education The style and themes of the book have been seen to help stretch precocious young readers' literacy skills. Tolkien wrote the later story in much less humorous tones and infused it with more complex moral and philosophical themes. offering readers modern teenage-oriented fiction may not exercise their advanced reading skills. preparing them to approach the works of Dickens and Shakespeare. such as sublimation. as the work has been seen to have allegorical aspects reflecting the life and times of the author. In 1997 Tolkien Enterprises licensed the film rights to Miramax. and has a more sophisticated plot structure. Since then all "authorized" adaptations have been signed-off by Tolkien Enterprises. it is ironic that the first authorized adaptation was a stage production in a girls' school. By contrast. payable to Allen & Unwin and the author. to young readers.[85] The Lord of the Rings contains several more supporting scenes. The plots share the same basic structure progressing in the same sequence: the stories begin at Bag End.[95] The heirs of Tolkien. the home of Bilbo Baggins..000[93] plus a 7.[90] Another approach to critique taken in the classroom has been to propose the insignificance of female characters in the story as sexist. for example.[78] Meanwhile the author himself rejected an allegorical reading of his work. Elrond offers a haven and advice. all future rights of .. and critical tools from Freudian analysis.The Hobbit 205 Legacy The Lord of the Rings While The Hobbit has been adapted and elaborated upon in many ways."[88] Several teaching guides and books of study notes have been published to help teachers and students gain the most from the book. and The Lord of the Rings for the same audience.

[105] The game won the Golden Joystick Award for Strategy Game of the Year in 1983[106] and was responsible for popularizing the phrase. estimated global sales of The Hobbit run between 35[68] and 100[108] million copies since 1937. both licensed and unlicensed. vol. pp. debuted as a television movie in the United States in 1977.. A Tolkien Compass. pp. The BBC Radio 4 series The Hobbit radio drama was an adaptation by Michael Kilgarriff. "Thorin sits down and starts singing about gold. "The Psychological Journey of Bilbo Baggins" (http:/ / books. a stage production by St. an animated version of the story produced by Rankin/Bass. com/ ?id=TqJ7gHrwjUEC& printsec=frontcover#PPA27. The first printing of the first English-language edition can sell for between £6. In 1978. 181 [10] Carpenter 1981. Spark Educational Publishing. ISBN 9780875483030.[99] A two-part live-action film version is planned to be co-produced by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and New Line Cinema. achieving a three-year sales peak rising from 33.. 366–367. to produce. an award-winning computer game developed in 1982 by Beam Software and published by Melbourne House with compatibility for most computers available at the time.M1). html).The Hobbit New Line. ranking it at the 3rd position in Nielsens' "Evergreen" book list.541 (2001). p. In the UK The Hobbit has not retreated from the top 5. (13 March 1938). p.[100] [101] Martin Freeman will be portraying Bilbo. . distribute.000 and £20. com/ 1938/ 03/ 13/ movies/ LOTR-HOBBIT.084 (2000) to 142. The New York Times.[98] The Hobbit..000. It starred Anthony Jackson as narrator.. Leeds. 120 [5] Sparknotes 101 Literature. co. October–November 1923 [8] Rateliff 2007. using the narrative to both structure and motivate gameplay. ansible.. uk/ sfx/ tolkien.[102] ME Games Ltd (formerly Middle-earth Play-by-Mail).[108] Notes [1] Eaton.771 (2002) and 61. films based on The Hobbit.229 (2003). The adaptation has been called "execrable"[17] and confusing for those not already familiar with the plot. Paul Daneman as Bilbo and Heron Carvic as Gandalf. . [2] Langford. [3] Matthews.[104] Likewise.[16] The Hobbit has since been adapted for other media many times. google. google. 2004. html)."[107] 206 Collectors' market While reliable figures are difficult to obtain. pp. Dorothy (1975). uses the Battle of Five Armies as an introductory scenario to the full game and includes characters and armies from the book. which has won several Origin Awards. p.000 books of Nielsen BookScan since 1995. co. and/or exploit future films based upon the Trilogy and/or the Films. xxx–xxxi [9] Carpenter 1977. Edinburgh. A copy of the novel was included in each game package in order to encourage players to engage the text. 294 . produced and directed by Peter Jackson. uk/ books?id=DlzwgasGc2oC) [6] Oxford Poetry (1915) Blackwells [7] Yorkshire Poetry. . 126. Retrieved 29 September 2007. ISBN 1411400267.. 2. "Lord of the Royalties" (http:/ / www. 19. (http:/ / books. have been based on the story. it can be seen that the game is not attempting to re-tell the story.[110] [111] although the price for a signed first edition has reached over £60. [4] Anderson 2003. but lost to Star Wars. Anne T.000 at auction. 27–40.[109] The enduring popularity of The Hobbit makes early printings of the book attractive collectors' items. The series was released on audio cassette in 1988 and on CD in 1997. when the index began. but rather sits along-side it. and/or. since ideas for gameplay could be found therein."[96] [97] The first authorized adaptation of The Hobbit appeared in March 1953. Open Court Publishing. no. One of the most successful was The Hobbit. SFX magazine. broadcast in eight parts (four total hours) from September to November 1968. David (2001). The film was also nominated for the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation. Romeo Muller won a Peabody Award for his teleplay for The Hobbit. Margaret's School. "A Delightfully Imaginative Journey" (http:/ / www. nytimes.[103] Several computer and video games.

W. p. ISBN 0-395-08254-4 [21] Anderson 2003. . C. p. Ralph W. pp. http:/ / books. 43. . 62. cliffsnotes.Hilary (2000). ISBN 087972241X. [51] Brush. ISBN 0873388240. (1966). Randel (1976). Tolkien: Author of the Century and a Look Back at Tolkien Criticism since 1982" (http:/ / teachingtolkien. [45] Carpenter 1977. Christopher (1983).. Nigel (2005). Anne (1986). ISBN 0415088569. p. London: The Children's Book Club. Routledge. Jack (2000). John (1983). ISBN 0198601158. cmu. ISBN 0415921503. 45–55. p. R. pp. p. 811–12 [23] Rateliff 2007. Clair. Mythlore (101/102). Gloriana. Journal of English Studies 4: 7–22. 602 [40] Tolkien. 14 [33] Anderson 2003. R. p. pp. Envoi. Magic and Meaning in Tolkien's World. Verlyn (2005). p. p. p. ISBN 0415305519. es/ servlet/ fichero_articulo?codigo=1975822& orden=74928) (PDF). The Lord of the Rings. 48 [38] Hammond 1993. R. 218 [25] Tolkien. 63. The Oxford Companion to Fairy Tales. 52. In Rose A. ISBN 0812035232. R. V. pp. [28] Tolkien. The Rune Primer: A Down-to-Earth Guide to the Runes. [37] Hammond 1993. Yates. [27] Tolkien. (1998). The Hobbit. edu/ books/ gloriana/ ). co. Kregel Publications. [44] Gamble. org/ McNelis/ Envoi/ ). Taylor & Francis. Walter de Gruyter. London: George Allen & Unwin. p. p. In Hunt. google. The Hobbit. com/ WileyCDA/ LitNote/ The-Hobbit-Critical-Essays-Major-Themes. p. Understanding the Lord of the Rings: The Best of Tolkien Criticism. Zimbardo and Neil D. unirioja. p. Runeninschriften Als Quelle Interdisziplinarer Forschung. 54 [39] Rateliff 2007. p. The Limitations of Scientific Truth (http:/ / books. [56] Helms. [43] Poveda. ISBN 0825422531. ISBN ISBN 0-618-42251-x. Book Notes: "The Hobbit". p. html). Kent State University Press. The Hobbit. (2004). 378–379 [34] Hammond 1993. Houghton Mifflin. J. 23 [18] Carpenter 1977. 193 [46] "The Hobbit Major Themes" (http:/ / www. p. R. [47] O'Sullivan. google. H. R. com/ ?id=baZPTTwk3woC& printsec=frontcover). [32] Anderson 2003. p. Retrieved 9 July 2008. 18 [35] Hammond 1993. Cliff Notes. [54] Pienciak. 20. Boston: Houghton Mifflin (published 1987). "The History of the Hobbit (review)" (http:/ / www. (1942). pp. ISBN 0-395-07122-4. Retrieved 9 July 2008. Emer (2005). "The Quest Hero". 525. 63. 215 [20] Tolkien. p. [29] An example. p. [48] Carpenter 1981. 309–310. . 43–44. 21 [36] Flieger. p. uk/ books?id=96t8LdsoVX4C: Sage. "High Fantasy". [42] Plowright. [52] Sullivan. International Companion Encyclopedia of Children's Literature. W. ISBN 0048232386. (1954). Rune-Net Press. p. 8 [14] Hammond 1993. Sullivan (1996). pp. houghtonmifflinbooks. Barron's Educational Series. id-171. "Tolkien's Cauldron: Northern Literature and The Lord of the Rings" (http:/ / shelf1. J. Sweyn (2006). Granada. p. Peter. Sally (2002). p. C. pp. Comparative Children's Literature. 781. Jaume Alberdo (2003–2004). [41] Elliot. The Hobbit. 184 [12] Carpenter 1977. R. 663–664. 36–39. "Review Essay: Tom Shippey's J. W. "Narrative Models in Tolkien's Stories of Middle-earth" (http:/ / dialnet. shtml) [30] Drout. com/ features/ lordoftheringstrilogy/ hobbit/ 2_5. Oxford University Press. 22 [16] Anderson 2003.pageNum-68. George Allen & Unwin.The Hobbit [11] Carpenter 1977. . London: George Allen & Unwin. [31] Fisher. [53] Timmerman. 67. p. . 192 [13] Hammond 1993. C. 195 [19] Carpenter 1977. mythsoc. 159 [49] Zipes. [50] St. 137. p. library. 765 [24] Anderson 2003. In Klaus Duwel. ISBN 3110154552. R. R. ISBN 0761940464. pp. (1937). 207 . Retrieved 9 July 2008. Michael D. Wynne. R.. Prologue. Other Worlds. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. R. 31–51.. (1951). org). [26] Tolkien. Jason (3 2008). [55] Auden. p. alongside other illustrations can be seen at: Houghton Mifflin (http:/ / www. 18–23 [15] Anderson 2003. The Fellowship of the Ring. 384–386 [17] Anderson 2003. J. . R. Isaaca. J. Retrieved 13 November 2010. 18–23 [22] Rateliff 2007. Interrupted Music: The Making of Tolkien's Mythology. J. Exploring Children's Literature: Teaching the Language and Reading of Fiction. ISBN 0958043515. ""Runes in English Literature" From Cynewulf to Tolkien"". Cliff Notes The Hobbit. 108. pp. Nikki. The History of Middle-earth: Vol 1 "The Book of Lost Tales 1". Carnegie Mellon. Popular Press. p. p. Myth. pp.

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Retrieved 5 July 2008. ISBN 0865548943. Espen. jhtml?xml=/ money/ 2007/ 11/ 20/ cmbook20. [101] "'The Hobbit' Gets Its Greenlight. "Glory Road: Epic Romance As An Allegory of 20th Century History. com/ in-depth/ feature/ 64194-the-12-books-you-must-stock-. thewrap. co. [91] Zipes. Jack David (1979). edu/ ynhti/ curriculum/ units/ 1987/ 2/ 87. com/ index. Anderson (1993). co. 239. ISBN 0750706619. John (28 May 2008). com/ nytimes/ docs/ ent/ tlknnewline21108cmp. [111] Toby Walne (21 November 2007). John D. nytimes. Tolkien: A Descriptive Bibliography. ." (http:/ / news. usatoday. worldofspectrum. Chris (5 1984). p. Differently Literate: boys. Victoria (29 July 2004). . html). Douglas A. [92] Millard. ME Games Ltd. Douglas A. New York: Ballantine Books. 26 November 2004. [95] Cieply. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Retrieved 5 July 2008. co. . New Line Cinema Corp. co. 02. Passey. yale. co. Retrieved 19 June 2011. "NBC's The Hobbit". J. uk/ articles/ ystop100_3. com/ movies/ column-post/ breaking-hobbit-gets-its-greenlight-21749?page=0. Retrieved 24 July 2008. Carnegie Mellon University. p.000 at auction" (http:/ / news. cmu.library. The Times Online (The Times). Retrieved 6 July 2008. Retrieved 3 May 2008. "Playing The Game" (http:/ / www. R. [108] "Tolkien's Hobbit fetches £60. ece). Retrieved 9 July 2008.uk.com. [97] "Tolkien Trust v. bbc. Perry C. Your Sinclair 1 (72): 22. uk/ tol/ business/ industry_sectors/ media/ article3354936. [110] "Hobbit fetches £6. UK.com. uk/ 1/ hi/ entertainment/ 3935561. Using Computers in English: A Practical Guide. [94] Harlow. stm). With Jackson Directing" (http:/ / www. co. New Castle. The World Through The Eyes Of J. Jake (18 December 2007). Humphrey (1977). 18 March 2008. . Gloriana. 44. bbc. . com/ 2008/ 02/ 16/ movies/ 16ring. "How Tolkien triumphed over the critics" (http:/ / news. Retrieved 24 July 2008. Clair. The Annotated Hobbit. (2007). London: HarperCollins. "Books you Must Stock" (http:/ / www. bbc. • Rateliff. Lawrence (1987). • St. p. html). co. UK. (12 1977). stm). Michael (16 February 2008). . BBC News. . R. 16 October 2010. cgi?mag=Crash/ Issue04/ Pages/ Crash0400043. stm). [104] Moore. [107] Campbell. jpg) (jpg). [109] Jenny Holden (31 July 2008). ISBN 0-395-31555-7. Tolkien. htm). • Hammond.edu/books/gloriana/). The Times. html). co. 22 October 2010. Elaine (1997). I Am in Fact a Hobbit: An Introduction to the Life and Works of J. uk/ 1/ hi/ england/ norfolk/ 4045667. New York Times. uk/ 1/ hi/ england/ 7302101. ISBN 0803239440.co. timesonline. findlaw. "Tolkien's family threatens to block new Hobbit film" (http:/ / business. 11 February 2008. BBC. [105] Aarseth. The History of the Hobbit. ece). "Quest Games as Post-Narrative Discourse" in "Narrative Across Media: The Languages of Storytelling". R. Joe R. Girls and the Schooling of Literacy. ISBN 0416361803. Retrieved 15 June 2008. Retrieved 5 October 2009. . ISBN 0-938768-42-5. Marie-Laure Ryan (2004). [93] Lindrea. Christopher (2003). T. Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute. ISBN 978-0-00-723555-1. org/ showmag. "How to make a killing from first editions" (http:/ / www. London: HarperCollins. Tolkien. 173. University of Nebraska Press. Stuart (12 1991). telegraph. bbc. • Carpenter. uk/ money/ main. [98] Bramlett. Matthew. BBC News. Daily Telegraph. R. [106] Uffindell. (2003). . Retrieved 24 July 2008. Tolkien" (http:/ / www. p. Humphrey (1981). Crash 1 (4): 43. . [99] Kask. 209 References • Anderson. R. [100] Coyle. Retrieved 6 June 2008. FindLaw. 164. x. Routledge. [96] Andrews. [103] "Home of Middle-earth Strategic Gaming" (http:/ / middleearthgames. The Letters of J. uk/ tol/ arts_and_entertainment/ film/ article3999008. 11. Wayne. timesonline. Amanda (13 February 2008). Retrieved 6 July 2008. htm). .. R. J. Romance and the American Dream 1987 Volume II. ISBN 0-00-713726-3. html). [102] "Martin Freeman to play Bilbo Baggins in The Hobbit" (http:/ / www. com/ life/ movies/ news/ 2007-12-18-hobbit_N. ISBN 0813190304.. html). UK. Breaking the Magic Spell: Radical Theories of Folk and Fairy Tales. "Top 100 Speccy Games" (http:/ / www. Delaware: Oak Knoll Press. Tolkien: A Biography. Phil (1986). Epic. USA Today. . University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0-04-928037-6. xml).The Hobbit [90] Elizabeth T. "Peter Jackson to produce The Hobbit" (http:/ / www. TheWrap. ysrnry. "‘The Rings’ Prompts a Long Legal Mire" (http:/ / www.000" (http:/ / news. . Routledge. . thebookseller. Retrieved 5 July 2009. uk/ news/ entertainment-arts-11604193). Daily Telegraph. Mercer University Press. Retrieved 16 October 2010. Dragon III (6/7): 23. p. "Hobbit movies meet dire foe in son of Tolkien" (http:/ / entertainment. . . R. . R.0). bbc. • Carpenter. "Tolkien's Cauldron: Northern Literature and The Lord of the Rings" (http://shelf1. 366.

Mort pour la France).tolkien.html) The Hobbit covers around the globe – gallery (http://www.S.hobbit. see B612 Foundation.skwishmi. editions of Tolkien books including The Hobbit (http://tolkien.S.S. see Little Prince. Paperback.S.A.com/translations/hobbits/index. U.co. is a novella and the most famous work of the French aristocrat writer.A. U. for the foundation.: English & French) [3] 1945 (France: French) Media type ISBN Hardcover.ca/Library.A.uk/) Collection of edition covers. Audio tape. English and 230+ other languages and dialects Reynal & Hitchcock (U. first published in 1943. Cuffe Irene Testot-Ferry Alan Wakeman [1] Richard Howard Antoine de Saint-Exupéry Antoine de Saint-Exupéry United States [2] (English & French) France (French) French.php) Guide to U. Filmstrip. Howard) 978-2-070-61275-8 (French. 1937–2007 (http://www.) Pilote de guerre (1942) Lettre à un otage (1944) Preceded by Followed by The Little Prince (French: ''Le Petit Prince'').. plus others 978-0-152-02398-0 (English. The Little Prince Author(s) Original title Translator Antoine de Saint-Exupéry Le Petit Prince (English editions) Katherine Woods T.tolkienlibrary. E-book. LP record.) [3] Gallimard (France) Illustrator Cover artist Country Language Publisher Publication date 1943 (U. CD Audiobook.[4] . For other uses.The Hobbit 210 External links • • • • • The official Harper-Collins Tolkien website (http://www. poet and pioneering aviator Antoine de Saint-Exupéry (1900–1944.net/php/hobbit.tolkienbooks.S.htm) Every UK edition of The Hobbit (http://www. France) 978-0-152-16415-7 (French.V.F. Asteroid B-612 redirects here.com/) The Little Prince This article is about the novella.

is introduced. The geographer recommends that he visit the Earth. After a few failed attempts at drawing a sheep. has three volcanoes (two active. Saint-Exupéry's novella has been adapted to various media over the decades. After he reconciles with his rose. and grows lonely. The story's essence is contained in the lines uttered by the fox to the little prince: On ne voit bien qu'avec le cœur.[7] and has sold more than 200 million copies worldwide.[12] An earlier memoir by the author recounted his aviation experiences in the Sahara desert.[7] [13] [14] 211 Viewpoint Though ostensibly a children's book. he decides to become a pilot. The sixth asteroid is inhabited by a geographer. The Prince spends his days caring for the asteroid. each of which is inhabited by a foolish adult. When the prince mentions the rose. For example. The Prince falls in love with the rose. ("One sees clearly only with the heart. for what you have tamed" and "It is the time you have devoted to your rose that makes your rose so important.")[15] Other key thematic messages are articulated by the fox. as a young boy. friendship. the narrator draws a box in his frustration. The asteroid is the size of a house. which eventually leads to a crash in the Sahara desert. What is essential is invisible to the eye. both wrote and illustrated the manuscript while exiled in the United States after the fall of France. The little prince's home asteroid. screen. the prince leaves to see what the rest of the universe is like. As such. who asks him to draw a sheep. The narrator attempts to explain what his first picture depicts by drawing another one clearly showing the elephant. . The Prince loses his trust in the rose after she lies to him.[9] [10] [11] Saint-Exupéry. He visits six other asteroids.[5] [6] It has been translated into more than 230 languages and dialects. the geographer explains that he does not record roses. The narrator believes this asteroid to be called B-612. The prince is shocked and hurt by this revelation. Saint-Exupéry tells of a fox meeting the young prince during his travels on Earth. who appears not to return his love due to her vain nature. including a tender tale of loneliness. the prince recognizes the drawing for what it is. Again to the narrator's surprise. disturbing the adults as a result. stage. such as: "You become responsible. To the narrator's surprise. or "planet". including audio recordings. forever. instead. claims that the box holds a sheep inside. In the midst of personal upheavals and failing health he produced almost half of the writings he would be remembered for.The Little Prince The novella is the most read and also the most translated book in the French language. However. love and loss. in the form of a young prince fallen to Earth. He is thought to have drawn on those same experiences for use as plot elements in The Little Prince. a laureate of France's highest literary awards and a reserve military pilot at the start of the Second World War. Not knowing how to draw a sheep. and one dormant) and a rose. the narrator shows him the picture of the elephant in the snake. In the desert. the narrator meets the little prince. L'essentiel est invisible pour les yeux. ballet and operatic works. he is discouraged from drawing when all adults who look at his picture see a hat. He had traveled there on a personal mission to convince its government to quickly enter the war against Nazi Germany. the prince is delighted with the result. calling them "ephemeral". and was voted the best book of the 20th century in France allowing it to maintain worldwide sales of over one million copies per year. The Little Prince makes several profound and idealistic observations about life and human nature. among various other objects. who asks the prince to describe his home." Plot The reader is introduced to the narrator who. drew a boa constrictor eating an elephant.[8] making it one of the best-selling books ever published. pulling out the baobab trees that are constantly trying to take root there.

saving people fifty-three minutes a week. in hopes of seeing the whole planet and finding people. The story ends with a portrait of the landscape where the prince and the narrator met and where the snake took the prince's life. The narrator. As the prince cries. he only sees a desolate landscape. Ukraine. realizing what will happen. The merchant tells the prince about his product.The Little Prince 212 On the Earth. . The narrator makes a plea that anyone encountering a strange child in that area who refuses to answer questions should contact the narrator immediately. He begins to feel that he is not a great prince at all. Eventually. When the prince calls out. but finds a well with the help of the prince. as it will make him sad. it is because his body is too heavy to take with him to his planet. because she is the one whom the prince loves. The prince allows the snake to bite him. the narrator tries to look for the prince. and he mistakes it for the voices of other humans. The prince tames the fox. The prince bids an emotional farewell to the narrator and states that if it looks as though he has died. The prince then meets a desert flower. The prince warns the narrator not to watch him leave. The fox also explains that. a fennec fox comes across him. The prince replies that he would use the time to walk and find fresh water. the narrator is dying of thirst. The next morning. He lies down in the grass and weeps. However. the prince meets a snake that claims to have the power to return him to his home planet. letting the wind blow them around and living hard lives. though the prince refuses this offer. The switchman tells the Prince how passengers constantly rush from one place to another aboard trains. One of several statuary tributes to The Little Prince. in a way. who tells him that there are only a handful of men on Earth and that they have no roots. and that this is why the prince now feels responsible for her. refuses to leave the prince's side. his echo answers him. a pill which eliminates thirst and is very popular. Back in the present. and falls without making a sound. The narrator later finds the prince discussing his return home with the snake. Only the children amongst them bother to look out of the windows. as his planet contains only three tiny volcanoes and a flower he now thinks of as common. this one in Dnipropetrovsk. but is unable to find his body. who explains to him that his rose really is unique and special. the prince has tamed the flower. The prince then comes across a railway switchman and a merchant. the prince comes upon a whole row of rosebushes. and becomes downcast because he thought that his rose was unique. The prince climbs the highest mountain he has ever seen. never satisfied with where they are and not knowing what they are after.

Canada in 1942.. Their maps were primitive and ambiguous. Friends and family would call him le Roi-Soleil (Sun King). Finally.[22] [23] the son of philosopher Charles De Koninck. A third possible inspiration for the little prince has been suggested as that of Land Morrow Lindbergh. they were so dehydrated that they stopped sweating altogether. Saint-Exupéry talks about being stranded in the desert beside a crashed aircraft. I'm all right. He had also met a precocious eight year old with curly blond hair while residing with a family in Quebec City. an ordeal he described in detail in his 1939 award-winning memoir Wind.[21] In the desert.. Sand and Stars (original French: Terre des hommes). which most likely inspired him to create the fox character in the book. and whom they met briefly during their stay on Long Island. close to the Nile Delta.[18] Their plane was a Caudron C-630 Simoun. 1935 at 02:45 a. along with his mechanic/navigator André Prévot. a single orange. and some wine. This account clearly draws on his own experience in the Sahara.The Little Prince 213 Inspiration In The Little Prince. due to his golden curly hair. Lost among the sand dunes with a few grapes. which were quickly followed by more vivid hallucinations. only to face rapid dehydration in the intense desert heat. By the second and third day. . Saint-Exupéry may have drawn inspiration for the little prince's appearance from himself as a youth. The literary device of presenting philosophical and social commentaries in the form of the impressions gained by a fictional extraterrestrial visitor to Earth had already been used by the philosopher and satirist Voltaire in his story Micromégas of 1752—a classic work in French literature which Saint-Exupéry was likely familiar with. he tells her of raising a fennec which he adored. crashed in the Sahara desert.[19] and the crash site is thought to have been near to the Wadi Natrun valley. the pair had only one day's worth of liquid. On December 30.Y. a Bedouin on a camel discovered them and administered a native rehydration treatment that saved Saint-Exupéry and Prévot's lives. In a letter written to his sister Didi from Cape Juby in 1928. Saint-Exupéry. Both survived the crash.[17] They were attempting to break the speed record for a Paris-to-Saigon flight and win a prize of 150. the young.m. I can't help it. It's my body" (from Airman's Odyssey).[24] [25] The little prince's reassurance to the Pilot that his dying body is only an empty shell resembles the last words of Antoine's younger brother François: "Don't worry. Saint-Exupéry had viewed a fennec (desert sand fox).000 francs. N. golden-haired son of the pioneering American aviator Charles Lindbergh and his wife Anne Morrow. They both began to see mirages. who lived not far away from the Saint-Exupérys. after 19 hours and 44 minutes in the air.[20] The Bevin House on Long Island.[18] The rose was inspired by his Salvadoran wife Consuelo de Saint Exupéry and the small home planet was inspired by her small home country El Salvador which is also known as "The Land of Volcanoes" due to having many of them. one of the locations where The Little Prince was written [16] during 1942. on the fourth day.

cigarettes and numerous reviews by friends and ex-patriots who dropped in to see on their famous countryman. with the manuscript being completed in October.[35] The author wrote and illustrated The Little Prince in New York City and Asharoken in mid-to-late 1942. who also modeled for a painting of the Little Prince lying on his stomach. with Saint-Exupéry first arriving by himself at the very end of December 1940.. N. After France's defeat in 1940 and its armistice with Germany.[27] [28] During his stay on Long Island. Thomas. he and his wife Consuelo fled occupied France and sojourned in North America. The result was a new home: the Bevin House. He started his work on the novella shortly after returning to the United States. Reynal & Hitchcock. moving his armchair and paint easel from the library towards the parlor one room at a time in order to follow the Sun's light. publisher.a haven for writing.all you need do is move your chair a few steps. the author-aviator joined the Free French Forces. and still later at a rented house on Beekman Place in New York City. The large white Second French Empire style mansion. "On your planet.[24] [29] [30] The couple also stayed in Quebec. the young. Saint-Exupéry soon found New York City's noise and sweltering summer heat too uncomfortable to work in. His meditative view of the sunsets at the Bevin House eventually became part of the gist of The Little Prince.. It allowed him to alternately work on his writings. a successful pioneering aviator prior to the war."[28] [12] [37] Only weeks after his novella was first published in April 1943. and noting his high stress levels and ill health. Saint-Exupéry. ." the story told. The Tale of the Rose. afforded the writer a multitude of work environments. hidden behind tall trees. and then on his sketches and watercolours for hours at a time. the best place I have ever had anywhere in my life". a 22 room mansion in Asharoken overlooking Long Island Sound. Included among the reviewers was Consuelo's Swiss writer paramour Denis de Rougemont.[26] then the Bevin House mansion in Asharoken. golden-haired son of the pioneering American aviator Charles Lindbergh and his wife Anne Morrow. so Consuelo was dispatched to find improved accommodations..Y.[28] [12] De Rougemont would later help Consuelo write her autobiography. Saint-Exupéry would meet Land Morrow Lindbergh.[31] [16] [36] Although the book was started in his Central Park South penthouse. Between January 1941 and April 1943 the Saint-Exupérys lived in two penthouse apartments on Central Park South.. Coke-Colas.. He devoted himself to the book on both extended daytime and midnight shifts... After returning to the United States from his Quebec speaking tour. The French wife of Eugene Reynal had closely observed Saint-Exupéry for several months.S. however as the weeks wore on and the author became invested in the project. Saint-Exupéry was pressed to work on a children's book by Elizabeth Reynal. His intention for the visit was to convince the United States to quickly enter the war against Germany and the Axis forces. The author-aviator initially complained "I wanted a hut [but it's] the Palace of Versailles". Long Island. He would remain immensely proud of The Little Prince. in which 43 or 44 daily sunsets would be discussed. As part of a 32 ship military convoy he voyaged to North Africa where he rejoined his old squadron to fight with the Allies. ". as well as write his own biography of Saint-Exupéry.The Little Prince 214 Novella's creation Upon the outbreak of World War II. Canada in May. initially flew with a reconnaissance squadron in the Armée de l'Air (French Air Force).[31] [32] [33] [34] The writer-aviator near Montreal. Canada for five weeks during the late spring of 1942.. fueled by helpings of scrambled eggs on English muffins. the son of philosopher Charles De Koninck whom the Saint-Exupéry's were residing with. and almost always kept a personal copy with him which he often read to others during the war. gin and tonics. the home would become ". feet and arms extended up in the air. thought that working on a children's story would help him. before Saint-Exupéry had received any of its royalties (he never would). 1942 during a speaking tour in support of France after its armistice with Germany. one of the wives of his U. where they met a precocious eight year old boy with blond curly hair.

[39] [40] An unrepentant life-long doodler. some three weeks before the liberation of Paris. arranged as an isosceles triangle. and which he likely knew would next reoccur in 2000. Manuscript The original autographed manuscript of The Little Prince. Two or three original Little Prince drawings were reported in 1967 in the collections of New York artist. Saint-Exupéry had for numerous years sketched little people on his napkins. sculptor and experimental filmmaker Joseph Cornell. an image which in the future would become the subject of many speculations as to its source.[12] 215 Illustrations All of the novella's simple but elegant watercolour illustrations were painted by Saint-Exupéry. lined notebooks and other scraps of paper. Several of his paintings were committed on the wrong side of the delicate onion skin paper that he used. angel's with wings. when asked why they did so. others were even recovered as crumpled balls from the floors in the cockpits of the P-38 Lightnings he later flew. Some appeared as doll-like figures.[28] As with some of his draft manuscripts. who thought of the figures as his alter-ego. and even a similar Keep On Truckin' figure later to be made famous by Robert Crumb. In addition to the manuscript. his medium of choice. as well as various drafts and trial drawings were acquired in 1968 by the Pierpont Morgan Library (now the The Morgan Library & Museum) in Manhattan.The Little Prince resuming his work as a reconnaissance pilot. the cover art Saint-Exupéry drew contained the planets Saturn and Jupiter. New York City. he occasionally gave away preliminary sketches to close friends and colleagues. letters to paramours and friends. precocious child with curly blond hair. engaged in a variety of tasks. Early little princes took on a multitude of appearances.[12] Saint-Exupéry eventually settled on the image of the young. replied that they were actually pursuing a "realistic ideal". plus the star Aldebaran. tablecloths. Saint-Exupéry was lost in action in a July 1944 spy mission from the moonscapes of Corsica to the continent in preparation for the Allied invasion of occupied France. a celestial configuration which occurred in the early 1940s.[6] The manuscript pages includes content that was struck-through and therefore not published as part of the first edition.[41] Saint-Exupéry possessed superior mathematical skills and was a master celestial navigator. Figures were frequently seen chasing butterflies. several watercolour illustrations by the author are also held by the museum. a vocation he had studied in the French Air Force. Saint-Exupéry. baby puffins.[38] One rare original Little Prince watercolour would be mysteriously sold at a second-hand book fair in Japan in 1994. . and subsequently authenticated in 2007. who had studied architecture as a young adult but who nevertheless could not be considered an artist—which he self-mockingly referred to in the novella's introduction. In 2001 Japanese researcher Yoshitsugu Kunugiyama speculated that the cover illustration Saint-Exupéry painted for Le Petit Prince deliberately depicted a stellar arrangement chosen to celebrate the author's own centennial of birth. According to Kunugiyama. They were not part of the first edition.

while others carry the book title that is a direct translation of The Little Prince.V. As of 2005 it has been translated into over 230 languages and dialects. Prior to France's liberation new printings of Saint-Exupéry's works were made available there only by means of covert print runs.[58] [59] • In film and television. were printed in Lyon. until after the end of the Second World War.[46] [47] Two illustrated editions of The Little Prince (lower left in French and upper right in English) in the Saint-Exupéry permanent exhibit at the French Air and Space Museum. an indigenous language of northern Argentina. was televised.[49] [50] In 2005. as Regulus vel Pueri Soli Sapiunt. Anthropologist Florence Tola commenting on the suitability of the work for Toban translation said there is "nothing strange [when] the Little Prince speaks with a snake or a fox and travels among the stars. composer Riccardo Cocciante produced a French-language musical Le Petit Prince.[57] • In the late 1970s.F. • Russian operatic composer Lev Knipper wrote a 3-part symphony in 1962–71. 1995)[45] • Richard Howard (ISBN 0-15-204804-9. [60] [61] [62] . it fits perfectly into the Toba mythology. As an example as of 2011 there are approximately 47 translated editions of The Little Prince in Korean. The Adventures of the Little Prince. each with their own style and focus.[42] [43] As of 2009. 1st ed. 1995) • Alan Wakeman (ISBN 1-86205-066-X. describing the German invasion of France.[56] Adaptations Saint-Exupéry's novella has been adapted to various media over the decades. as So Shiyaxauolec Nta'a. 1st ed. Paris. 1st ed.[54] [55] such as that of February 1943 when 1. or from a number of adapted sources.000 copies of an underground version of his best seller Pilote de guerre. together with director Stanley Donen. his skazka (‘tale’) entitled Malen′kiy prints (‘The Little Prince’).[53] The original French edition would not be published in Saint-Exupéry's homeland by his French publisher Gallimard. 1995) • Irene Testot-Ferry (ISBN 0-7567-5189-6. produced a film musical based on the story for Paramount Pictures in 1974. Le Petit Prince is often used as a beginner's book for French language students. and there are also about 50 different translated editions in Chinese (produced in both mainland China and in Taiwan).[3] as the blunt views within his eloquent writings were quickly banned by the Germans in occupied France. which was later revived in Hong Kong in 2007. Many of them are titled Prince From a Star. which was first performed in Moscow in 1978. a Japanese anime adaptation."[51] Linguists have compared the many translations and even editions of the same translation for style. the book was also translated into Toba. linguists can identify the source material for each as to whether it was derived from the original French manuscript or from its first English translation by Katherine Woods. nouns and other content in such translations. including the Congolese language Alur and Sardinian.[52] By studying the use of word phrasings.[48] The book is one of the few modern books to have been translated into Latin. as her original version contained some errors. 2000)[1] Each of these translators approaches the essence of the original. Le Bourget. Cuffe (ISBN 0-14-118562-7.The Little Prince 216 Translations Katherine Wood's classic English version of 1943 was later joined by other English translations. four such additional translations[44] have been published: • T. wordings and genealogy. It was the first book translated into this language since the New Testament of the Bible. including: • Richard Burton narrating a Grammy Award-winning recording in 1974. 1st ed. titles. composition. songwriters Lerner and Loewe. • In 2002.

a new video game. France. different worlds. and a small amphitheatre situated in the middle of the village for musicians and other performances.[65] • Another sequel titled The Return of the Little Prince was written by former actress Ysatis de Saint-Simone. The Little Prince and their philosophies. niece of Consuelo de Saint Exupery.The Little Prince • In 2011. entitled Le petit prince retrouvé[64] (The Little Prince Returns). and which displays many of his literary creations.[63] • As a character in an episode of Lost. Petite France. including: • As a symbol of environmental protection by the Toshiba Group. the Air and Space Museum of France established a special exhibit honoring Saint-Exupéry. in 2009 the giant Oca Art Exhibition Centre presented The Little Prince as part of The Year of France and The Little Prince. as visitors passed through theme areas of the dessert. and the village also offers overnight housing in some of the French-style homes. On the museum grounds there is a large Little Prince Park featuring the Consuelo Rose Garden. "Les nouvelles aventures du petit prince" (The New Adventures of the Little Prince). the prince has returned to find help against a tiger who threatens his sheep. the Lamplighter Square.[63] • As a 'virtual ambassador' in a campaign against smoking. The prince will be made more attuned to children of the 21st century and will include a 3D animated movie. Among them are various early editions of The Little Prince. an animated TV series in 52 parts. reached an agreement with the author's original French publisher and others on creating updated adaptations of the little prince's story. an art gallery. There are several sculptures of the story's characters. Japan. The ground floor of the exhibit area was laid out as a huge map of the . and 100 serial print story editions.[66] • In spring 2007. Prince into its architecture and monuments. stars and the cosmos. Paris. and which were recovered from the Mediterranean Sea in 2004. and in a Super Mario computer game. and a sculpture of the Little Prince. was written by Katherine Pardue and Elisabeth Mitchell.[63] 217 Sequels • In 1997. However the main part of the museum is its indoor exhibition. at the Museum of The Little Prince. because the sheep had eaten his rose.[63] The little prince has himself been adapted to a number of roles. examining Saint-Exupéry. are also on view. responsible for author's intellectual property and head of the Antoine de Saint-Exupéry Youth Foundation. Remnants of the Free French Air Force P-38 Lightning in which he disappeared. Featured are the history of The Little Prince. Japan there is the Museum of The Little Prince featuring outdoor squares and sculptures such as the B-612 Asteroid. the narrator is a shipwrecked man who encounters the little prince on a lone island. The displays covered over 10.[67] [68] • In San Paulo. It documents the search of a new flower for the little prince. Brazil. South Korea.000 square metres on four floors. Honours and legacy Museums and exhibits • In Le Bourget. • In Hakone. there is an imitation French village. A tribute to The Little Prince atop Asteroid B-612. • In Gyeonggi-do. Jean-Pierre Davidts wrote what could be considered a sequel to The Little Prince. In this version. which has adapted the story elements of The Little Hakone. Oliver d'Agay of the Saint-Exupéry–d'Agay Estate. employed by the Veolia Energy Services Group.

net/ sub_1945/ 1945gallimard-E. Other sources. a small asteroid moon. The designation was applied to Saint-Exupéry's estate in 1948. Additionally. org/ stable/ 387281). that is apparently a legalistic interpretation possibly designed to allow for an extra year of the novella's copyright protection period.[72] Other • Prior to its decommissioning in 2010. (1972) Le Petit Prince de Saint-Exupéry by George Borglum (review) (http:/ / www.. such as this one. Note: although Saint-Exupéry's French publisher (at the time of his death) lists Le Petit Prince as being published in 1946. 46. Amongst the law's provisions is an increase of 30 years in the copyright duration of creative works. No. • "Saint Ex". 20 September 2000. Saint-Exupéry and drawings from The Little Prince were on the 50 franc banknote. 2578 Saint-Exupéry. visible with a strong magnifying glass. lepetitprince. Accessed via Gale General OneFile. • An asteroid discovered in 1993 was named 46610 Bésixdouze.250 copies as occurring on 30 November 1945. Reynal & Hitchcock. is a reference to Antoine de Saint-Exupéry. Numismatics and philatelic • Before France adopted the euro as its currency.Gallimard (http:/ / www. • In 2003.[73] Some of the fastest jets in the world were flown with The Little Prince gazing over their pilots' shoulders. 1. The asteroid's number. Retrieved 26 October 2011.net website (2011) Le Petit Prince . • The B612 Foundation was created to track asteroids that might pose a threat to Earth. the artwork was by Swiss designer Roger Pfund. with Gallimard's first printing in November 1945. a song featured on the Widespread Panic album Dirty Side Down. 9 November 2011. The French Review. the GR I/33 (later renamed as the 1/33 Belfort Squadron).) will not fall out of copyright status for an extra 30 years in France. Gale Document Number: GALE|A65327245. with Saint-Exupéry's image on one side. . 244-245.[69] Among the anti-counterfeiting measures on the banknote was micro-printed text from Le Petit Prince. Saint-Exupéry. Le Petit Prince would not be published in France until after its liberation. crashed in a simulated Sahara dessert. html). Vol. B-612 was the name of the asteroid the little prince lived on.net website. becomes B612 in hexadecimal notation. depict the first Librairie Gallimard printing of 12. photos. jstor. poetry. New Strait Times. and named in honour of the little prince's home.. Retrieved 26 October 2011. 46610. which is French for "B six twelve". American Association of Teachers of French. also a fiercely patriotic military pilot. Also included was a full scale replica of his Caudron Simoun. Stowell C. Petit-Prince (discovered in 1998). etc. was named after the author of The Little Prince. and his literary works were banned there by the Nazis. one of the French Air Force squadrons Saint-Exupéry flew with. and that of the Little Prince on the obverse.[70] • In commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the writer's untimely death. [4] Mort pour la France (Died for France) is a French civil code designation applied by the French Government to fallen or gravely injured armed forces personnel.[71] Philatelic tributes have been printed in at least 24 other countries as of 2011.1945 . [2] The first English translation by Katherine Woods was published in the United States approximately one week prior to its first French printing by the same publisher. pp. October 1972. [3] LePetitePrince. thus most of Saint-Exupéry's literary and other creative works (sketches. a 100-franc commemorative coin was also released in 2000. 218 Astronomy • An asteroid discovered in 1975.[74] References Notes [1] New Strait Times (2000) "'Definitive' Translation of 'Le Petit Prince'". had wisely fled occupied France after the German invasion of WWII. and is based on Gallimard's explanation that the book was 'sold' only starting in 1946. adopted the image of the Little Prince as part of the squadron and tail insignia of its Dassault Mirage fighter jets. Israel issued a stamp honoring "Saint-Ex" and The Little Prince in 1994. lepetitprince.The Little Prince routes flown by the author and Aeropostale in South America and around the world. [5] Goding. drawings. was named in part after The Little Prince.

and the conversation. I Shot French Literary Hero Out Of The Sky (http:/ / news. involvement in the European conflict and favored a peace treaty with Germany. The New York Times. The Little Prince' Graphic Novel To Be Published in English (http:/ / www. Da Capo. [25] Hoffman. co. A Flight To Eternity (http:/ / mbbnet. uk/ arts-entertainment/ books/ the-little-prince-graphic-novel-to-be-published-in-english-2087327. html) (documentary research). while Saint-Ex was campaigning for an early American entry into the war. 10 September 2000. nytimes. as might be expected when one aviator-writer romantic is writing about another. for an hour. over-blog. Saint-Ex visited with Anne and Charles just once. 16 December 1998. edu/ doric/ eternity. Doric Column. at/ ) [11] Bell. nytimes. Retrieved 10 August 2009. [33] Chesterton. (French) [35] Schiff.258. Footlights: Celestial Traveler (http:/ / www. [12] Schiff. com/ dramas/ Articles/ 10/ feb/ 05-world-classic-for-all-ages-the-little-prince. nytimes. html). Visions of a Little Prince. Serial Number 7042. and Saint-Ex spoke no English. William. William H. [29] Hoffman. 17 March 2008. Un nommé Chesterton: Le blog des amis de Gilbert Keith Chesterton. Kathryn. Saint-Ex visited with Anne Lindbergh just once. for only an hour. The Statesman. Consuelo de.256–267. Retrieved 29 September 2011. Institutional Investor. 9 May 2000. p. com/ gst/ fullpage. "The Country Where the Stones Fly" (http:/ / habpro. The New York Times.  page 379 (http:/ / books. . Idéalisme et Idéologie Dons les Oeuvres Choisies de Saint Exupéry (thèse) (http:/ / nitescence. Retrieved online from General OneFile. pp. p. New York Times. The New York Times. [9] The Independent. A Prince Eternal (http:/ / query. com/ 1993/ 05/ 30/ books/ a-grounded-soul-saint-exupery-in-new-york. Retrieved 30 October 2006. Dynastie universitaire (http:/ / chesterton. ville. "'The Little Prince': Born in Asharoken" (http:/ / query. com/ 2000/ 05/ 09/ theater/ footlights. Valerie (10 September 2000).The Little Prince (subscription) [6] Van Gelder. New York. 23 September 2010. pdf)." [31] Schiff. html?res=9F07E3DE1E3FF930A35757C0A9639C8B63& pagewanted=all). 6 November 2011 (subscription). (2011) "Hotelier Saint-Exupery's Princely Instincts". [17] Schiff 1996. . friends-of. umn. . edu/ doric/ eternity.13. ca/ apropos/ portrait/ attraits/ epigraphes. Macmillan. A Flight To Eternity (http:/ / mbbnet. p. [15] Galembert. Charles didn't speak French. Retrieved 18 September 2011. Lawrence. Stacy. com/ books?visbn=0805079130& id=h-gk5R0OmI0C& pg=PA379& lpg=PA379& dq=Asharoken) of 529. 2003 [22] Schiff (1996). 3883493. com/ world/ 39I-shot-French-literary-hero. petit-prince. William. p. [24] Dunning (1989). Lindbergh was strongly opposing U. Stacy (1993/05/30). pp. html). [23] Brown (2004). [21] Saint-Exupéry. aspx). com/ visionslp/ id13. Retrieved 16 October 2011. ISBN 0805079130. Charles didn't speak French. The Independent. html?res=950DE3DA143DF931A25756C0A96F948260& sec=& spon=& pagewanted=2). net/ index. [18] Schiff. 378. Johnston Press Digital Publishing. Saint-Exupéry: A Biography. p. tripod. . 278. Note: according to Hoffman: "Anne Morrow Lindbergh's fascination with Saint-Ex was transparent in all she wrote about him. [19] The plane Saint-Exupéry was flying when he crashed in the Sahara was a Caudron C-630 Simoun. scotsman. [14] MTG editorial (2010-02-05). similar to Stalin's. Retrieved 2010-02-05. 29 Juin 2000. March 2011. Moreover. and met Charles. were somewhat muted. website. [8] Inman. Accessed 4 August 2009. html). Retrieved 16 October 2011. mumbaitheatreguide. quebec. [28] Cotsalas. who arrived home late. Idée. Valerie (2000) 'The Little Prince': Born in Asharoken (http:/ / www. html?pagewanted=all). "World Classic for all ages" (http:/ / www. google. Retrieved 2010-02-12. 1994. html?pagewanted=all& src=pm).263. "In the Footsteps of Saint-Exupery" (http:/ / query. The New York Times. [20] Schiff 1996.S. with the French registration F-ANRY. Hannibal. "A Grounded Soul: Saint-Exupery in New York" (http:/ / www. (French) [16] Cotsalas. nytimes. So the only encounter of the two legends was less than a rousing success. and Saint-Ex didn't speak or understand English. Site officiel de la Ville de Québec (http:/ / www. 1996. as might be expected when one aviator-writer romantic is writing about another. [7] Shattuck. "Cult of subtle satire" (http:/ / www. Université Paris IV. thestatesman. pp. Charles was not happy about his wife's vast esteem for the French adventurer. [30] According to Hoffman: "Anne Morrow Lindbergh's fascination with Saint-Ex was transparent in all she wrote about him. nytimes. com/ 2000/ 09/ 10/ nyregion/ the-little-prince-born-in-asharoken. Stacy (2006). . 219 . qc. php?option=com_content& view=article& id=317189:cult-of-subtle-satire& catid=44:8th-day& from_page=search). (French) [34] Ville de Québec. Saint-Exupéry: A Biography. Doric Column. jp). nytimes. com/ gst/ fullpage. independent. Susan. [10] Little Prince enthusiast website (http:/ / www. html?ref=owinstonlink). New York Times. com/ article-20143127. free. [13] Naina Dey (2010-01-14). com/ gst/ fullpage. 380. [32] Brown. umn." [26] Jennifer Dunning (12 May 1989). 16 December 1998. 3 April 2005. . The meeting between the two future P-38 war pilots was "less than a rousing success. passed through Anne's meager French. Laurent de Bodin de. html). Ironically. asp). [27] Schiff (1996). The Scotsman. Retrieved 29 September 2011. html?res=9E03E7D61739F933A2575AC0A9669C8B63& sec=& spon=& pagewanted=all). Retrieved 2011/10/22. fr/ maitrise.

Oxford University Press. elpetitprincep. . 1993. [37] Saint-Exupéry was 43 the year the fable was published. 2009. [41] Shimbun. google. 2008. patoche. Frederick. sfgate. Accessed August 4. kr/ enu/ SI/ SI_EN_3_1_1_1. "From Kubrick To Saint-Exupery. 15 December 1967. 2009." New York Times. html). or. Accessed December 13. [47] Translations of The Little Prince (http:/ / www. or. No. Whole Earth Review. bringyou. DTL& feed=rss. Seeing With The Heart (translator's notes) (http:/ / www.uk website on April 10. net/ sub_articles/ articlesframe-E. retrieved from AWakeman. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. p. php?artist=Pfund. Glen. Christopher (2007) "Read Your Own Adventure". com/ greatlit/ translations/ LittlePrince. April 14. Geoffrey. qc. [42] "List of errors in Woods' translation by 1995 translator Alan Wakeman" (http:/ / goodtranslationguide. Accessed August 4. com/ doc/ 1P1-41437363. Retrieved July 21. . ). htm). org/ recherche/ ecrivains/ davidts-jean-pierre-153/ [65] "Le Petit Prince retrouvé" (http:/ / www. "Quand. entertainment#ixzz0NB1aZgfn)" San Francisco Chronicle. Stacy (7 February 2006). cjvlang. but posthumous editions often quote '44 sunsets' in tribute. html). html). Testot-Ferry's. musicnationgroup. com/ artists. 2009. [39] Frey. Globe and Mail. htm). Daily Yomiuri.166. Le Petit Prince in Chinese. 2011. latimes. [62] Collins. com/ 1993-09-29/ news/ vw-40256_1_language-editions). . com/ books?visbn=0805079130& id=h-gk5R0OmI0C& pg=PA379& lpg=PA379). David (1967) The Enigmatic Collector of Utopia Parkway (http:/ / books. cgi?f=/ c/ a/ 2008/ 04/ 27/ PKLA105TEK. com/ littleprince/ lepetitprince_eng. [69] Roger Pfund (http:/ / www. and Vietnamese (http:/ / www. . April 06. 379. The Recording Academy. com/ GRAMMY_Awards/ Winners/ )" In Grammy. html). visitkorea. Accessed December 13. [63] Beaumont (2011). html). 2009 [51] Legrand. Christine. . 2011. [43] "Some mistakes in the translation by Katherine Woods" (http:/ / www.J. 6 April 2005. highbeam. php?title=Antoine_de_Saint-Exupéry).N–20. Yomiuri (2001) "A Star-tling Centenarian Theory". html). [67] " Beethoven Virus: Filming Locations (http:/ / asiaenglish. lepetitprince. retrieved September 16. Retrieved 23 October 2011. sdm. htm). co. Life Magazine. 4 April 2007. ISBN 978-0-8050-7913-5. [48] Edition in Sardinian (http:/ / www. "Loewe. [68] " Gyeonggi-do – Gapyeong-gun – Petite France (http:/ / www. com/ index. Alan. ISSN 0749-5056 [50] Live In Any Language It's a Bestseller (http:/ / articles. p.com. National Public Radio. [44] "List of the foreign editions of The Little Prince by Antoine de Saint Exupéry" (http:/ / www. p109. Simon (2000) Profile: French Pilot and Author Antoine de Saint-Exupery (broadcast transcription) (http:/ / www. 1985. 23 December 2000. pg. 2009. Retrieved from Gale OneFile on 9 November 2011. . litterature. [55] Schiff 1996. [59] " Le Petit Prince Spectacle Musical (http:/ / www." In Grove Music Online. 2009. to/ apologetics/ HolyGrail. kr/ ena/ CU/ CU_EN_8_5_1_52. 7 April. "Knipper. p. Accessed August 4. 63. [60] Block. 2009. Korea Tourism Organization (official site). April 27. " Little Prince' Opera Comes To Berkeley (http:/ / www. Yelena. com/ petitprince/ petitprinceengfr. "Study the Latin. Owl Books. html)" Music Nation Group. He originally wrote the story with 43 sunsets. google. html). [49] Hinke. . [53] Bathrobe.co. Japanese. 2011.net (2011) Articles of StEx: Brief Chronograph of Publications (http:/ / www. Korea Tourism Organization (official site). lepetitprince. [57] Dvoskina. 2011 [70] Scott. "Quand Le Petit Prince devient So Shiyaxauolec Nta'a" ("When The Little Prince Becomes So Shiyaxauolec Nta'a"). [61] Winn. with excerpts from Woods'. [66] Saint-Simone. September 29. [45] Wakeman. Bathrobe's Le Petit Prince website. Gale Document Number: GALE|A70253329.+ R. CBC Arts. html).1. com/ petitprince/ foxsecret/ heartseee. Oxford Music Online. [64] http:/ / www. org/ lepetitprince/ gallima. Dave Mills and Madison. [46] "Comparing translations: It is only with the heart that one can see rightly. p. cjvlang. Retrieved March 26. jsp?cid=815994)". Los Angeles Times. Oxford University Press. Accessed August 4. jsp)". awakeman. 2009." In Grove Music Online. 2005. html). Banknotes of France. 2011." (http:/ / www. retrieved September 16. Steven. visitkorea. Lev Konstantinovich. Accessed August 4. [54] Severson 2004. frenchbanknotes. com/ petitprince/ index. cjvlang. The 'Sheep Test' and Other Tests for Identifying If The Little Prince Was Translated From French or English (http:/ / www. Bathrobe's Le Petit Prince website. C. 2006. NPR Weekend Edition. ca/ books?id=cEoEAAAAMBAJ& pg=PA63#v=onepage& q& f=false). com/ cgi-bin/ article. Saint-Exupery (http:/ / books. [40] Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (2007) "Original Little Prince Drawing Found in Japan". 171. editoreric. and Howard's translation. Retrieved from Gale Document Number: 220 .net website. p. and 44 the year he died. ca/ centre/ bibliographies/ lj97/ nd/ n9717776. uk/ Sense/ Books/ seeingwiththeheart.The Little Prince [36] Schiff. [38] Bourdon. [58] " Grammy Award Winners (http:/ / www. I Pray You". "My Quest for the True Holy Grail (the Nanteos Cup) by Ysatis de Saint-Simone" (http:/ / www. Accessed August 4. 366 [56] Lepetitprince.30. Oxford Music Online. 10 February 2001: YOSH15078493. Ysatis de. grammy. p. Le Monde. N63. com/ petitprince/ petitprinceengfr. cjvlang. (French) [52] Bathrobe. 2009. eu/ Imatges i Titols Llengues/ Sardo.

Retrieved 14 September 2010. html?id=OarX1V7Mh6cC). com/ saint-ex/ stamps/ israel. ISBN 0313314845. (2006) Henry Holt.tripod. 2000 & 2003.html) Le Petit Prince series in Indic Languages (http://www. "In the Footsteps of Saint-Exupery" (http://query. External links • • • • • • The Little Prince excerpts and collection in 210 languages and dialects (http://www. ISBN 978-0-3133-1484-1. trussel. org/ templates/ story/ story. npr. html) . . 1994. Pg. Esther. Saint-Exupéry: A Biography (http://books. Retrieved 2011-08-20.co. [74] "Widespread Panic on World Cafe" (http:/ / www. "Antoine de Saint-Exupéry's Little Prince Poised For A Multimedia Return To Earth: The boy who lived on an asteroid whose tale was told in a classic French novella is being revived on TV. The Tale of the Rose: The Love Story Behind The Little Prince (http://books.uk/world/2010/aug/01/little-prince-return-multimedia).org/lepetitprince/gallima. ISBN 978-0-812967173.google. Marilyn S. Stacy.ca/books?id=2G4Q_GNpCUMC).freewebs.com/books/about/The_Tale_of_the_Rose. 221 Citations Bibliography • Beaumont.aspx) Enthusiast website: The Little Prince Quotations (http://www. (1996) Da Capo. php?storyId=129250913).petit-Prince.com/gst/fullpage. [72] Images of international stamps (government. Retrieved 27 September 2011.guardian. World Cafe Interview. translated by Allen.co. • Schiff. Retrieved 2011-10-15. • Dunning. "Masterpieces of French Literature: Greenwood Introduces Literary Masterpieces". Peter (1 August 2010).html) (documentary research). com/ saint-ex/ stamps/ saint-ex. Allen.htm) Study Guide (http://www.at/) List of different editions (http://www. Greenwood Publishing Group.sparknotes.com/lit/littleprince/) at SparkNotes The Museum of The Little Prince in Hakone (http://www. Retrieved 2011-08-20. ISBN 978-0-812967173. • Saint-Exupéry. • Brown. htm).nytimes. The Observer. ISBN 978-0-8050-7913-5 • Severson. "The Country Where the Stones Fly" (http://habpro.445. Retrieved 16 September 2011. [73] Schiff.jp/l-prince/en/w-map. Jennifer (12 May 1989). (1994) Pimlico. film and in print" (http://www.tbs. Consuelo de. Visions of a Little Prince.google.com/MSB/LE-PETIT-PRINCE_1. New York City: Random House Publishing Group. html?res=950DE3DA143DF931A25756C0A96F948260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=2). ISBN 978-0-6794-0310-4. 6 November 2011. htm). NPR. Hannibal (2004).The Little Prince GALE|A1661222035. [71] Images of the Israeli stamp and related issues (http:/ / www. 2004. Esther.com/shirtsleeves/quotes/littleprince.com/visionslp/id13. trussel.and private-issue) honoring Saint-Exupéry (http:/ / www.patoche.dkagencies. New York Times.

Nilsson. Pippi lives in a small Swedish village. The books have been translated into 64 languages. Mrs. and her horse ("Lilla gubben". that are so tightly wound that they stick out sideways from her head. The three have many adventures.[1] Pippi and her world Pippi claims her full name is Pippilotta Delicatessa Windowshade Mackrelmint Ephraim's Daughter Longstocking (Swedish: Pippilotta Viktualia Rullgardina Krusmynta Efraimsdotter Långstrump). Pippi does not want to grow up. Mr. She turns white around the nose whenever she gets angry. "little buddy". the house used for the film and series. Her fiery red hair is worn in kečkes. After an initial rejection from Bonnier Publishers in 1944. and adapted into multiple films and television series. sharing the house she styles "Villa Villekulla" with her monkey. . often disapproves of Pippi's manners and lack of education. being able to lift her horse one-handed without difficulty. in the books. however. but eventually comes to appreciate that Pippi would never put Tommy and Annika in danger.Pippi Longstocking 222 Pippi Longstocking Pippi Longstocking (Swedish Pippi Långstrump) is a fictional character in a series of children's books by Swedish author Astrid Lindgren. Two final stories were printed in 1979 and 2000. and that Pippi values her friendship with the pair above almost anything in her life. though this rarely happens. Nine-year-old Pippi is unconventional. an attitude likely to appeal to young readers. She befriends Villa Villekulla. Lindgren's manuscript was accepted for publication by the Swedish publisher Rabén and Sjögren. Pippi's two main possessions are a suitcase full of gold coins (which she used to buy her horse) and a large chest of drawers containing various small treasures. who requested a get-well story from her mother one day when she was home sick from school. She frequently mocks and dupes adults she encounters. Like Peter Pan. assertive. Inger Nilsson as Pippi Longstocking in the 1969 TV series depicted in this German stamp. located on Gotland the two children living next door: Tommy and in the town of Vibble Annika Settergren. or pigtails. Pippi's anger is reserved for the most extreme cases. with an additional series of six books published in 1969–1975. Karin. The first three Pippi chapter books were published from 1945 to 1948. and has superhuman strength. in adaptations usually referred to as "Old Man" or Alfonzo) but no adults or relatives. Settergren. Tommy's and Annika's mother. such as when a man ill-treats his horse. Pippi was named by Lindgren's then nine-year-old daughter. Pippi usually reserves her worst behavior for the most pompous and condescending of adults.

has a well-honed sense of justice and fair play. rather.000 pounds. although Pippi loves the seafaring life and is a better sailor and helmsman than most of her father's crew. Pippi has an amazing talent for spinning tall tales. Captain Longstocking is the only person known who can match Pippi in physical ability. Pippi is very intelligent in a common-sense fashion. She will think nothing of taking a plunge while fully clothed in her short patchwork dress with oversized shoes and mismatched thigh-high stockings. determined in her belief that her father was still alive. Pippi herself seems unaware of the uniqueness of her power. Captain Longstocking was washed ashore upon a South Sea island known as Kurrekurredutt Isle. had been made the king (negerkung or "negro king" in the original) of en massa negrer ("a large group of negroes")[2] and would come to look for her there. Pippi's strength amazes and confounds people. Pippi retired to the Villa Villekulla after her father was believed lost at sea. including a trip to Kurrekurredutt where she was confirmed as the "fat white chief's" daughter. chatterbox of a child. and decided to stay where she was. from whom Pippi inherited her common sense and incredible strength. He originally bought Villa Villekulla to give his daughter a more stable home life than that onboard the ship. although she normally does not lie with malicious intent. captain of the sailing ship Hoptoad (Hoppetossa in Swedish)." It is never explained how she can be so strong. Pippi's unusual strength Pippi's strength has been described in various ways: • • • • "The strongest girl in the world.Pippi Longstocking 223 Personality Though lacking much formal education. including the children. . The Captain returned to Sweden to bring Pippi to his new home in the South Seas. foolish. She is also seen in the various movies picking up a horse (the books often mention Pippi moving her horse Old Man by carrying him from one place to another). she also pulls bars out of a jail window and throws pirates across a room. Father Pippi is the daughter of seafarer Ephraim Longstocking. Her attitude towards the worst of adults (from a child's viewpoint) is often that of a vapid. but Pippi found herself attached to the Villa and her new friends Tommy and Annika. with most of her targets not realizing just how sharp and crafty Pippi is until she has made fools of them. where he was made the "fat white chief" by its native people. she is described as having "The strength of ten policemen. weights/barbells weighing over 1. Princess Pippilotta. though she and the children sometimes took trips with her father aboard the Hoptoad. and has learned from a wide variety of experiences. As it turned out. she tells truth in the form of humorously strange stories. a car. though they eventually begin to take it in stride." On a VHS cover she is described as "She has the strength of Superman." "She is so strong you won't believe it!" In one of the books. In several of the movies Pippi is shown to be a superb swimmer. She will show respect (though still in her own unique style) for adults who treat her and other children fairly.

Pippi is shown to be extremely intelligent (flawlessly answering a strict but well-meaning teacher's questions). Episode 2-15. Gina also plays a girl named Susan Scholfield. Also of note is Swedish wrestler/actor Tor Johnson. The first episode was broadcast on Sveriges Radio TV in February 1969. aired on January 8. Although the story is mostly faithful to the original books.Pippi Longstocking 224 Books There are three full length Pippi Longstocking books:[3] • 1945: Pippi Longstocking • 1946: Pippi Goes on Board • 1948: Pippi in the South Seas There were three original picture books that were translated into English:[4] • 1971: Pippi on the Run • 1950: Pippi's After Christmas Party • 2001: Pippi Longstocking in the Park There are many picture books and short books based on chapter excerpts from the original three including: • Pippi Goes to School (1999) • Pippi Goes to the Circus (1999) • Pippi's Extraordinarily Ordinary Day (1999) Adaptations The 1949 movie The first movie adaptation of Pippi Longstocking was filmed in 1949. The series was directed by Olle Hellbom who also directed several other Astrid Lindgren adaptations. . 1950. not to mention the first adaptation done in color. ala Peter Pan). she lands softly onto the ground from the rooftop of her house. there are a few liberties taken. Inger Nilsson gave a confident oddball performance that was uncommonly consistent and eccentric for a child actress. she wrote the script herself for this version. The film was based on three of the books. which she attributes to her firsthand experiences in her world travels. and the first to feature a child actress to play Pippi. and Thunder-Karlsson and Bloom are renamed "Scar Face" Seymour and "Mad Dog" Jerome. whom Pippi challenges to a match of strength at the circus. This is the first American adaptation of Astrid Lindgren's character. It was directed by Per Gunvall and released on October 20. Pippi's originally nameless pet horse is named Horatio. The 1961 Shirley Temple's Storybook Episode In 1961 the American children's anthology TV series Shirley Temple's Storybook (hosted by Shirley Temple) included an adaptation of Pippi Longstocking. As Astrid Lindgren was unhappy with the 1949 adaptation. The production was a Swedish-West German co-production and several German actors had roles in the series. but several storylines were changed and characters were removed and added.[5] The 1969 version A Swedish Pippi Longstocking television series was created based on the books in 1969. who appears at the beginning and end of the story with her younger sister Betsy (played by Gina's sister Jennifer). in one of his final roles. Among the characters. playing a circus strongman. and Pippi can fly (rather. the Mighty Adolf. who made 10 other movies between 1944 and 1954. Pippi's character was played by Viveca Serlachius. former Mousketeer Gina Gillespie. in this case. both dreaming up the whole story after being sent to bed early.

Unfortunately. John Schuck and Dick Van Patten in supporting roles. 1970) Pippi on the Run (På rymmen med Pippi Långstrump. starring Tami Erin as Pippi with Eileen Brennan. The Soviet television film A Mosfilm television film version. after their meeting with Lindgren. The Swedish series was re-edited as four dubbed feature films for U. Pippi Longstocking. Pippi Longstocking by Nelvana. but also personally visited creator Astrid Lindgren. Lev Durov and Tatiana Vasilieva. Japanese animators Hayao Miyazaki and Isao Takahata had expressed great interest in doing an anime feature adaptation of Pippi Longstocking.Nagakutsushita No Pippi. Dennis Dugan. They traveled to Sweden. Pippi was played by Svetlana Stupak.[6] The ABC Weekend Special TV special In 1985. 1969) Pippi in the South Seas (Pippi Långstrump på de sju haven.[7] The American feature film An American feature film version from Columbia Pictures was released in 1988. which aired for two seasons (1997–1999) on HBO in the United States and Canada's Teletoon channel. became available on DVD in 2002. was released in 1997 and was adapted into an animated television series. 1969) Pippi Goes on Board (Här kommer Pippi Långstrump. 1970) 225 They became weekend television staples in several cities in the United States throughout the 1970s and 1980s. A Sequel to the first animated film. The first 6 episodes of the original TV series. Directed by veteran special effects wizard Colin Chilvers. The Strongest Girl In The World (長靴下のピッピ 世界一強い女の子 . and Part 2 aired on November 9. It was produced by Margaret Mikalan. The Animated Pippi An animated film adaptation by Nelvana. Among what remains of the project are watercolored storyboards by Miyazaki himself. their permission to complete the film was denied. Hayao Miyazaki's aborted anime film In 1971. Reruns are shown on the qubo digital subchannel. and discussed the project with her. the film is in fact just a retelling of the original story. and not only did research for the film (they went location scouting in Visby.[8] .S. The proposed project was titled Pippi Longstocking. was released in 1982. Carrie Kei Heim played the title role in the 2-part ABC Weekend Special. In other European countries this is the most favored version of Pippi Longstocking. Sekai Ichi Tsuyoi Onna No Ko). Part 1 of the special aired on November 2. Pippi Longstocking: Pippi's Adventures On The South Seas followed in 2000.Pippi Longstocking This version is the most well known version in Sweden and has been repeated numerous times by SR/SVT. one of the major locations where the 1969 TV series was filmed). directed by British veteran director Ken Annakin. and the project was canceled. entitled Pippi Longstocking. newly dubbed using British actors. While the title suggests a continuation. distribution: • • • • Pippi Longstocking (Pippi Långstrump. Peppi Dlinnyychulok. and her singing voice was provided by Svetlana Stepchenko. and starred Mikhail Boyarsky.

: Gale. Astrid Lindgren. Farmington Hills. ghibliworld. pp. 2002. Gale Group. imdb. http:/ / galenet.. 2002. "Pippi Mediaslargas" or "Pepita Mediaslargas" (Latin America) and "Pippi Longstocking" (Mexico) In Sinhalese "දිගමේස්දානලාගේ පිප්පි" ("Digamasedaanalaagee Pippi") In Swedish : "Pippi Långstrump" In Thai "ปิ๊ปปี้ ถุงเท้ายาว" ("Pippi Thung-Taow Yaow") In Turkish "Pippi Uzunçorap" In Ukrainian "Пеппі Довгапанчоха" ("Peppi Dovhapanchokha") In Vietnamese "Pippi Tất Dài" In Welsh "Pippi Hosan-hir" In Yiddish "‫"( "פּיפּפּי לאָנגסטאָקקינג‬Pippi Longstocking") In Georgian "პეპი მაღალიწინდა" ("Pepi Magalitsinda") or "პეპი • გრძელიწინდა" ("Pepi Grdzelitsinda") In German "Pippi Langstrumpf" In Greek "Πίπη Φακιδομύτη" ("Pipe Phakidomyte") which actually means Pippi the girl with the freckles on her nose In Hebrew "‫"( "בילבי בת-גרב‬Bilbi Bat-Gerev"). com/ servlet/ BioRC (requires login) [5] http:/ / www. 2008.. se/ varlden-runt/ astrid-i-varlden [2] Pippi Långstrump Går Ombord. com/ news. com/ servlet/ BioRC (requires login) [4] "Astrid (Ericsson) Lindgren. com/ title/ tt0699612/ [6] http:/ / www. Reproduced in Biography Resource Center. Gale Group. com/ title/ tt0344205/ [8] http:/ / www. 7-8 [3] "Astrid (Ericsson) Lindgren. "Pipi das Meias Altas" (Portugal) In Romanian "Pippi Şoseţica" In Russian "Пеппи Длинный Чулок" ("Peppi Dlinn'iy Chulok)" or "Пеппи Длинныйчулок" ("Peppi Dlinn'iychulok") In Serbian.Pippi Longstocking 226 Name in other languages The book of Astrid Lindgren was translated into over 70 languages. astridlindgren. http:/ / galenet.: Gale. 2008. Reproduced in Biography Resource Center. "‫"( "גילגי‬Gilgi") in old translations In Hindi "Pippi Lambemoze" In Hungarian "Harisnyás Pippi" In Icelandic "Lína Langsokkur" In Indonesian "Pippi Si Kaus Kaki Panjang" In Irish. Croatian and Bosnian: "Pipi Duga Čarapa" / "Пипи Дуга Чарапа" In Slovak "Pipi Dlhá Pančucha" In Slovenian "Pika Nogavička" In Spanish "Pipi Calzaslargas" (Spain). Mich. 2nd ed. imdb. Mich. 8 vols. com/ title/ tt0263853/ [7] http:/ / www. This section lists the character's names in languages other than English." Major Authors and Illustrators for Children and Young Adults. galegroup. galegroup. html#0405 . 1946. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • In Afrikaans "Pippi Langkous" In Albanian "Pipi Çorapegjata" In Basque "Pipi Galtzaluze" In Belarusian "Піпі Доўгаяпанчоха" In Bulgarian "Пипи Дългото Чорапче" In Catalan "Pippi Mitgesllargues" In Chinese "长袜子皮皮"("Changwazi Pipi") In Czech "Pipi Dlouhá Punčocha" In Danish "Pippi Langstrømpe" In Dutch "Pippi Langkous" In Esperanto "Pipi Ŝtrumpolonga" In Estonian "Pipi Pikksukk" In Faroese "Pippi Smokkuleykur" In Finnish "Peppi Pitkätossu" In French "Fifi Brindacier" (literally: "Fifi Steelwisp") • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • In Italian "Pippi Calzelunghe" In Japanese "長靴下のピッピ" ("Nagakutsushita no Pippi") In Korean "말괄량이 소녀 삐삐" ("Malgwallyang'i Sonyŏ Ppippi") In Kurdish "Pippi-Ya Goredirey" In Latvian "Pepija Garzeķe" In Lithuanian "Pepė Ilgakojinė" In Macedonian "Пипи долгиот чорап" In Norwegian "Pippi Langstrømpe" In Persian "‫"( "ﺑﻠﻨﺪﻩﭘﯽ ﺟﻮﺭﺍﺏﭘﯽ‬Pipi Joorab-Bolandeh") In Polish "Pippi Pończoszanka" or "Fizia Pończoszanka" In Portuguese "Píppi Meialonga" (Brazil)." Major Authors and Illustrators for Children and Young Adults. 2nd ed. imdb. it is the same as English "Pippi Longstocking" • • • • • • • • • References [1] http:/ / www. 8 vols. Farmington Hills.

1353/cj.jp/)] (Japanese)] . "Pippi and Her Pals". Children's Literature Association Quarterly 15 (3): 130–135.Pippi Longstocking 227 Further reading • Frasher.0168. "Pippi Longstocking: The Comedy of the Natural Girl".0. External links • The home of Pippi Longstocking (http://www. Girls and Pippi Longstocking". Ramona S.pippisworld. Cinema Journal 42 (2): 3–24. doi:10. doi:10.com) • Japanese stage musical starring [[Tomoe Shinohara (http://pippi.1353/uni.1353/uni.0247. • Hoffeld.guteinfo. "Tall Tale and Spectacle in Pippi Longstocking".macoron. Ulla (1989).1353/chq. Christine Anne (2003). The Lion and the Unicorn 1 (1): 47–53. "The Child of the Century".0. doi:10.0791. The Reading Teacher 30 (8): 860–863. "Boys. The Lion and the Unicorn 13 (2): 97–102.com/?id=2071) • Pippi Longstocking and Astrid Lindgren (http://www.0005. (1977). • Lundqvist. • Metcalf. JSTOR 20194413.0. Eva-Maria (1990).2003. Laura (1977). doi:10. • Holmlund.

where they are called upon by the lion Aslan to protect Narnia from evil and restore the throne to its rightful line. characters and ideas are freely borrowed from Greek. in addition to numerous traditional Christian themes. The books cover the entire history of Narnia.[2] The original illustrator. Lewis was awarded the 1956 Carnegie Medal for The Last Battle. for radio. the series narrates the adventures of various children who play central roles in the unfolding history of that world. the protagonists are all children from the real world magically transported to Narnia. The books have profoundly influenced adult and children's fantasy literature written since World War II. Pauline Baynes. S. It is considered a classic of children's literature and is the author's best-known work. and film. Lewis' exploration of themes not usually present in children's literature. and good battles evil. Set in the fictional realm of Narnia. Turkish and Roman mythology. television. to its eventual destruction in The Last Battle. Written by Lewis between 1949 and 1954. the final book in the . Lewis. the Witch and the Wardrobe Prince Caspian The Voyage of the Dawn Treader The Silver Chair The Horse and His Boy The Magician's Nephew The Last Battle Author Language Genre Clive Staples Lewis English Fantasy Children's literature HarperCollins 1950–1956 Print (hardcover and paperback) Publisher Published Media type The Chronicles of Narnia is a series of seven fantasy novels for children by C. magic is common. as well as from traditional British and Irish fairy tales. illustrated by Pauline Baynes and originally published in London between October 1950 and March 1956. the Witch and the Wardrobe until 1949.[1] he did not finish writing the first book The Lion. Lewis did not write the books in the order they were originally published. from its creation in The Magician's Nephew. Inspiration for the series is taken from multiple sources. was completed in 1954. With the exception of The Horse and His Boy. books presented in order of the fictional chronology (in publication order) The Lion. complete or in part. a place where animals talk. Background and conception Although Lewis originally conceived what would become The Chronicles of Narnia in 1939. created pen and ink drawings for the Narnia books which are still used in the books as published today. such as religion as well as the book's perceived treatment of issues including race and gender. have caused some controversy. The Magician's Nephew. the stage.The Chronicles of Narnia 228 The Chronicles of Narnia The Chronicles of Narnia The Chronicles of Narnia HarperCollins boxed set. having sold over 100 million copies in 47 languages. but the last to be written. the penultimate book to be published. The Chronicles of Narnia has been adapted several times. nor were they published in their current chronological order of presentation.

book clubs. on 2 September 1939. Lewis' home three miles east of Oxford city centre. which he acquired when he was reading the classics with Mr Kirkpatrick at Great Bookham [1914-1917]. 229 Name The name Narnia is based on Narni. As noted below (see Reading Order). Harper Collins also published several one-volume collected editions containing the full text of the series.The Chronicles of Narnia saga. Martin. halfway between Rome and Assisi". after he had read and discussed with Lewis his recently completed fourth book The Silver Chair. but when Harper Collins won the rights in 1994. Fellow children's author Roger Lancelyn Green first referred to the series as The Chronicles of Narnia. As a result. Lewis] where he found the word 'Narnia'. the first American publisher. Prince Caspian. Grundy (1904). The Voyage of the Dawn Treader and The Horse and His Boy. and because Father. and soon he pulled the six other Narnian stories in after him. Apart from that.'[4] Shortly before the start of World War II.S. This picture had been in my mind since I was about sixteen. they were not released at the time. many children were evacuated to the English countryside in anticipation of attacks on London and other major urban areas by Nazi Germany. written in Latin as Narnia. Lewis continues: At first I had very little idea how the story would go. with the first edition of The Lion. They were sent to stay with a kind of relation of Mother's who was a very old professor who lived all by himself in the country.[3] Lewis described the origin of The Lion. three school girls. The two issued both hard and paperback editions of the series during their tenure as publishers while at the same time Scholastic. the publication rights were first owned by Macmillan Publishers. But it is most about Peter who was the youngest.G.[8] The manuscript for The Lion. But then suddenly Aslan came bounding into it. Narnia — or 'Narni' in Italian — is in Umbria. I think I had been having a good many dreams of lions about that time. selling over 100 million copies in 47 languages including non-Roman scripts and Braille. simply because he liked the sound of it. Lancelyn Green wrote: "When Walter Hooper asked [C. Lewis showed him Murray's Small Classical Atlas. Margaret. when I was about forty. On plate 8 of the Atlas is a map of ancient Italy. Inc. originally entitled Night under Narnia. and later by HarperCollins. had gone off to the War and Mother was doing some kind of war work. Lewis later suggested that the experience gave him a new appreciation of children and in late September[6] he began a children's story on an odd sheet of paper which has survived as part of another manuscript: This book is about four children whose names were Ann. ed. Italy. the Witch and the Wardrobe in an essay entitled It All Began with a Picture: The Lion all began with a picture of a Faun carrying an umbrella and parcels in a snowy wood. and book fairs. Although three more books.S. produced paperback versions for sale primarily through direct mail order. I said to myself: 'Let's try to make a story about it.[7] In It All Began With a Picture C. In the United States. Lewis had underscored the name of a little town called Narnia. at the suggestion of Lewis' stepson they used the series' internal chronological order. I don't know where the Lion came from or why he came. They all had to go away from London suddenly because of Air Raids. But once he was there. he pulled the whole story together. Then one day. Macmillan. numbered the books in publication sequence.[9] Publication history The Chronicles of Narnia's seven books have been in continuous publication since 1956. Rose and Peter. were already complete. Mary and Katherine. in March 1951. the Witch and the Wardrobe released in London on 16 October 1950.[10] [11] [12] The books were first published in the United Kingdom by Geoffrey Bles.B. who was in the Army.[5] came to live at The Kilns in Risinghurst. Scholastic switched the numbering of its paperback editions in 1994 to mirror Harper . the Witch and the Wardrobe was complete by the end of March 1949.

1949[14] and published on 15 October 1951. Prince Caspian: The Return to Narnia (1951) Completed after Christmas. The Silver Chair (1953) Completed at the beginning of March 1951[15] and published 7 September 1953. a talking lion.[2] 230 Books The seven books that make up The Chronicles of Narnia are presented here in order of original publication date: The Lion. save Narnia from the evil White Witch. who has reigned over the land of Narnia for a century of perpetual winter. The Voyage of the Dawn Treader (1952) Written between January and February 1950[15] and published on 15 September 1952. they meet and plan their return to Narnia and freedom. completed by the end of March 1949[13] and published by Geoffrey Bles in London on 16 October 1950. they join Caspian's voyage on the ship Dawn Treader to find the seven lords who were banished when Miraz took over the throne. the Witch and the Wardrobe. the Witch and the Wardrobe (1950) The Lion. Miraz. face danger and betrayal on their quest to find Rilian. There they are given four signs to aid in the search for Prince Rilian. . Once there. with the help of Puddleglum the Marsh-wiggle. By chance. both of whom are in bondage in the country of Calormen. Narnia as they knew it is no more. Caspian's son. along with their priggish cousin. Their castle is in ruins and all the dryads have retreated so far within themselves that only Aslan's magic can wake them. Caspian has fled into the woods to escape his uncle. are the protagonists. Aslan calls Eustace back to Narnia together with his classmate Jill Pole. The Pevensie children help Aslan.The Chronicles of Narnia Collins'. This perilous journey brings them face to face with many wonders and dangers as they sail toward Aslan's country at the edge of the world. tells the story of four ordinary children: Peter. They are drawn back by the power of Susan's horn. leaving a legacy to be rediscovered in later books. The children become kings and queens of this new-found land and establish the Golden Age of Narnia. The Silver Chair is the first Narnia book without the Pevensie children. Susan. return to Narnia. The Horse and His Boy (1954) Begun in March and completed at the end of July 1950. They discover a wardrobe in Professor Digory Kirke's house that leads to the magical land of Narnia. and Lucy Pevensie. an era which begins and ends in the last chapter of The Lion. who disappeared after setting out ten years earlier to avenge his mother's death. The children set out once again to save Narnia. Edmund. Along the way they meet Aravis and her talking horse Hwin who are also fleeing to Narnia. Prince Caspian: The Return to Narnia tells the story of the Pevensie children's second trip to Narnia. Eustace and Jill. the Witch and the Wardrobe. Eustace Scrubb. blown by Prince Caspian to summon help in his hour of need. The Voyage of the ‘Dawn Treader’ sees Edmund and Lucy Pevensie.[15] The Horse and His Boy was published on 6 September 1954. A talking horse called Bree and a young boy named Shasta. who has usurped the throne. The story takes place during the reign of the Pevensies in Narnia. Instead.

who tricks Puzzle. Digory Kirke and his friend Polly Plummer stumble into different worlds by experimenting with magic rings made by Digory's uncle. the Witch and the Wardrobe The Magician's Nephew Prince Caspian The Voyage of the Dawn Treader The Silver Chair The Horse and His Boy The Magician's Nephew The Last Battle The Lion. To make the case for his suggested order. Many long-standing questions about the world are answered as a result. Reading order Fans of the series often have strong opinions over the order in which the books should be read.[2] Scholars and readers who appreciate the original order believe that Lewis was simply being . the publisher cites this letter to assert Lewis' preference for the numbering they adopted by including this notice on the copyright page: Although The Magician's Nephew was written several years after C. Jill and Eustace return to save Narnia from Shift. the prequel The Magician's Nephew brings the reader back to the origins of Narnia where we learn how Aslan created the world and how evil first entered it. and witness the creation of Narnia.The Chronicles of Narnia 231 The Magician's Nephew (1955) Completed in February 1954[16] and published by Bodley Head in London on 2 May 1955. this numbering was revised to use internal chronological order at the suggestion of Lewis' stepson. Macmillan. Caspian as a sequel and still didn't think there would be any more. The series was not planned beforehand as she thinks. They encounter Jadis (The White Witch) in the dying world of Charn. Harper Collins is happy to present these books in the order which Professor Lewis preferred. but I found I was wrong.[18] In the 2005 Harper Collins adult editions of the books. Lewis first began The Chronicles of Narnia. When I wrote The Lion I did not know I was going to write any more. Then I wrote P. the Witch and the Wardrobe The Horse and His Boy Prince Caspian The Voyage of the Dawn Treader The Silver Chair The Last Battle The books were not numbered until the first American publisher. The Last Battle (1956) Completed in March 1953[17] and published 4 September 1956. enumerated them according to their original publication order. precipitating a showdown between the Calormenes and King Tirian. So perhaps it does not matter very much in which order anyone read them. The reading order of the other five books is not disputed. Most scholars disagree with Harper Collins' decision and consider their chronological order to be the least faithful to Lewis' intentions. Publication order Chronological order The Lion. S. an ape. a donkey. I’m not even sure that all the others were written in the same order in which they were published. When Harper Collins took over the series rights in 1994. and when I had done The Voyage I felt quite sure it would be the last. into impersonating the lion Aslan. Gresham quoted Lewis' 1957 reply to a letter from an American fan who was having an argument with his mother about the order: I think I agree with your [chronological] order for reading the books more than with your mother's. he wanted it to be read as the first book in the series. The issue revolves around the placement of The Magician's Nephew and The Horse and His Boy in the series. The Last Battle chronicles the end of the world of Narnia. Douglas Gresham. Both are set significantly earlier in the story of Narnia than their publication order and fall somewhat outside the main story arc connecting the others.

Lucy is the central character of the four Pevensie siblings.[20] 232 Main characters Further information: List of The Chronicles of Narnia characters Aslan Aslan the "Great Lion" is the central character in The Chronicles.S. So it is [ . S. is a much better introduction to Narnia than The Magician's Nephew — where the word "Narnia" appears in the first paragraph as something already familiar to the reader. C. the archetypes. appear as adults in The Horse and His Boy. Varying combinations of some or all of them appear in five of the seven novels. for example. as every story teller knows. Often the early events in a sequence have a greater impact or effect as a flashback.S. Queen Susan the Gentle. magical authority (both temporal and spiritual). These academics believe that the mysterious wardrobe. and his role in Narnia is developed throughout the remaining books. the White Witch. He is also the only character to appear in all seven books.[19] They maintain that much of the magic of Narnia comes from the way the world is gradually presented in The Lion. the King of Beasts. the Witch and the Wardrobe. . son of the Emperor-Over-the-Sea. the Witch and the Wardrobe. Lewis points out that rearranging the stories chronologically "lessens the impact of the individual stories" and "obscures the literary structures as a whole".] with the Chronicles. He is the eponymous lion of The Lion... compassionate. Echoing the Christian theme of redemption. the Witch and the Wardrobe. Lewis described Aslan as an alternative version of Jesus that is: "as the form in which Christ might have appeared in a fantasy world". as a narrative device.. they say. is quite unimportant as a reason. a wise. Lucy is the closest to Aslan. Lewis in Context and Bareface: A guide to C.. Of all the Pevensie children. and Queen Lucy the Valiant. mysterious and benevolent guide to the human children who visit as well as guardian and saviour of Narnia.[2] Peter Schakel devotes an entire chapter to this topic in his book Imagination and the Arts in C. Moreover. the Witch and the Wardrobe. and eventually become Kings and Queens of Narnia: High King Peter the Magnificent. Edmund betrays his siblings to Jadis.] is for the chronological order of events.[20] Other similar textual examples are also cited. but eventually realises the error of his ways whereupon he is redeemed with the intervention of Aslan and joins the fight against the White Witch.S. the Witch and the Wardrobe was intended to be read first. it is clear from the texts themselves that The Lion. When Aslan is first mentioned in The Lion. Pevensie Family The four Pevensie siblings are the main human protagonists of The Chronicles. King Edmund the Just. Lewis: Journeying to Narnia and Other Worlds. and the pattern of Christian thought all make it preferable to read the books in the order of their publication. the narrator says that "None of the children knew who Aslan was. and of all the human characters who visit Narnia. author of C.The Chronicles of Narnia gracious to his youthful correspondent and that he could have changed the books' order in his lifetime had he so desired.[21] Doris Meyer. the siblings (Peter in a passing mention). any more than you do" — which is nonsensical if one has already read The Magician's Nephew. The artistry. told after later events which provide background and establish perspective. and in Reading with the Heart: The Way into Narnia he writes: The only reason to read The Magician's Nephew first [. They are introduced in The Lion. Aslan is a talking lion. and that. Lucy is perhaps the one who believes in Narnia the most. Although introduced in the series as children.

Her accidental journey to the world of Charn prompts Digory to follow her. Born as the eldest son and heir of King Lune of Archenland. They no longer live openly in Narnia and the talking beasts are believed to be mythological. is the principal character in The Horse and His Boy. Prince Caspian / Caspian X Prince Caspian. In The Horse and his Boy (the events of which all occur during the reign of the four Pevensie children in Narnia) Shasta escapes to freedom. also called "Caspian the Seafarer" and "Caspian the Navigator". but his true significance in the narrative is only revealed in The Magician's Nephew. becoming a hero along with Jill Pole. but comes to confront and improve his behaviour. In the later books. is the title character of the second book in the series. Polly Plummer Polly Plummer appears in The Magician's Nephew and The Last Battle. . learns his true identity. later known as Cor of Archenland. and elder twin of Prince Corin. commonly known during her rule of Narnia as the White Witch. marries the Calormene Tarkheena Aravis. and sets up the pair's adventures in The Magician's Nephew. Talk of them is forbidden in Miraz's castle. and heir to. Cor was kidnapped as an infant and raised as a fisherman's son in the country of Calormen. White Witch / Jadis Jadis. Jill Pole Jill Pole appears in The Silver Chair and The Last Battle. He is portrayed at first as a brat and a bully. He first appears as a minor character in The Lion. is the main antagonist of The Magician's Nephew and The Lion. She is a classmate of Eustace Scrubb. Prince Caspian: The Return to Narnia is set 1300 years after the rule of High King Peter and his siblings when Old Narnians have been driven into hiding by Caspian's ancestors the Telmarines. King Miraz of Narnia. Lord of Cair Paravel and Emperor of The Lone Islands.The Chronicles of Narnia 233 Eustace Scrubb Eustace Clarence Scrubb is a cousin of the Pevensies. The White Witch was born before the creation of Narnia and died in battle in Narnian year 1000. He also appears briefly at the end of The Last Battle. saves Archenland and Narnia from invasion. first introduced as the young nephew of. Shasta grows up to become King of Archenland. Digory Kirke Digory Kirke is the character referred to in the title of The Magician's Nephew. Shasta / Cor Shasta. the Witch and the Wardrobe. and is restored to his heritage. later to become King Caspian X of Narnia. She is a friend of Digory Kirke. The Witch and the Wardrobe. Ram the Great. Eustace is shown as an altogether better person. and fathers the next king of Archenland. and a classmate of Jill Pole at their school Experiment House. She is the witch responsible for the freezing of Narnia resulting in the Hundred Years Winter.

The Narnian and Charnian worlds are themselves posited as just two in a multiverse of countless worlds that includes our own universe.S. most of which would be recognisable to those familiar with European mythologies and British fairy tales. the world containing the city of Charn. main protagonists' world of origin. Narnia itself is described as populated by a wide variety of creatures.The Chronicles of Narnia 234 Appearances of main characters Character The Lion. . Passage between these worlds is possible. the Witch and the Wardrobe (1950) Aslan Peter Pevensie Susan Pevensie Edmund Pevensie Lucy Pevensie Eustace Scrubb Jill Pole Digory Kirke Polly Plummer Prince Caspian White Witch Shasta Major Major Minor Minor Major Prince Caspian: The Return to Narnia (1951) Book The Voyage of the Dawn Treader (1952) Major Minor The Silver Chair (1953) The Horse and His Boy (1954) The Magician's Nephew (1955) The Last Battle (1956) Major Minor Major Minor Minor Major Minor Minor Major Major Major Major Major Minor Major Minor Minor Major Major Minor Narnian universe The main setting of The Chronicles of Narnia is the Lewis constructed world of Narnia and. and may be accomplished by various means. Lewis. the A map of the fictional universe of the Narnian world from C. in The Magician's Nephew. though rare.

The majority of characters from the reader's world serve as the protagonists of the various books. During the course of the series we learn in passing. Lewis does not limit himself to a single source of inspiration. Archenland. archaic style reminiscent of maps of Tolkien's Middle-earth. This is currently out of print. Like many stories. although smaller copies can be found in the most recent HarperCollins 2006 hardcover edition of The Chronicles of Narnia. This is typical of works that involve parallel universes. geocentric. The other. and Narnian creatures and their descendants created by Aslan. This ocean contains the islands explored in The Voyage of the Dawn Treader. along with a variety of other areas that are not described as countries. and that the passage of time does not correspond directly to the passage of time in our world. Geography The Chronicles of Narnia describes the world in which Narnia exists as one major landmass faced by "the Great Eastern Ocean". the Witch and the Wardrobe.The Chronicles of Narnia 235 Inhabitants See also: Narnia creatures and List of The Chronicles of Narnia characters Lewis' stories are populated with two distinct types of character: Humans originating from the reader's world of Earth. but suffices given the more fairy tale atmosphere of the work. and how it is ultimately destroyed. their subsequent defeat by Caspian X. although some are only mentioned in passing depending on chronology. the rule of the White Witch. As is often the case in a children's series. Two other maps were produced as a result of the popularity of the 2005 film The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion. that the world of Narnia is flat. and the destruction of Narnia. There are several maps of the Narnian universe available. offering snapshots of life in Narnia as its history unfolds. The Cosmology of Narnia is not as internally consistent as that of Lewis' contemporary Tolkien's Middle-earth. Calormen. the "Rose Map of Narnia". The history of Narnia is generally divided into the following periods: creation and the period shortly afterwards. the invasion and rule of the Telmarines. instead he borrows from many sources including ancient Greek and German mythology as well as Celtic literature. play a prominent role in all of these events. a full-colour version published in 1972 by the books' illustrator. Cosmology A recurring plot device in The Chronicles is the interaction between the various worlds that make up the Narnian multiverse. is available in print and in an interactive version on the DVD of the movie. usually from our world. and Telmar. The author also provides glimpses of more fantastic locations that exist in and around the main world of Narnia. The latter map depicts only the country Narnia and not the rest of Lewis' world. One. made in a monochromatic. the rule of King Caspian and his descendants. describing the process by which it was created. including what many consider the "official" one. . is based loosely on Baynes' map and has Narnian trivia printed on the reverse. including an edge and an underworld. the narrative is not necessarily always presented in chronological order. A variety of methods are used to initiate these cross-overs which generally serve to introduce characters to the land of Narnia. children themselves. On the main landmass Lewis places the countries of Narnia. has different stars from those of Earth. the Golden Age. Pauline Baynes. History See also: Narnian timeline and History of Narnia The Chronicles cover the entire history of the world of Narnia.

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Influences
Lewis' life
Lewis' early life has parallels with The Chronicles of Narnia. At the age of seven, he moved with his family to a large house on the edge of Belfast. Its long hallways and empty rooms inspired Lewis and his brother to invent make-believe worlds whilst exploring their home, an activity reflected in Lucy's discovery of Narnia in The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe.[22] Like Caspian and Rilian, Lewis lost his mother at an early age, spending much of his youth in English boarding schools similar to those attended by the Pevensie children, Eustace Scrubb, and Jill Pole. During World War II many children were evacuated from London and other urban areas because of German air raids. Some of these children, including one named Lucy (Lewis' goddaughter) stayed with him at his home The Kilns near Oxford, just as the Pevensies stayed with The Professor in The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe.[23]

Influences from mythology and cosmology
Drew Trotter, president of the Center for Christian Study, noted that the producers of the film The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe felt that the books' plots adhere to the archetypal "monomyth" pattern as detailed in Joseph Campbell's The Hero with a Thousand Faces.[24] Lewis was widely read in medieval Celtic literature, an influence reflected throughout the books, and most strongly in The Voyage of the Dawn Treader. The entire book imitates one of the immrama, a type of traditional Old Irish tale that combines elements of Christianity and Irish mythology to tell the story of a hero's sea journey to the Otherworld.[25] [26] Medieval Ireland also had a tradition of High Kings ruling over lesser kings and queens or princes, as in Narnia. Lewis' term "Cair," as in Cair Paravel, also mirrors "Caer", or "fortress" in the Welsh language. Reepicheep's small boat, The Coracle, is a type of vessel traditionally used in the Celtic regions of the British Isles. Some creatures in the book such as the one-footed Dufflepuds reflect elements of Greek, Roman and Medieval mythology while other Narnian creatures borrow from Greek and Germanic mythology by, for example, taking centaurs from the former and dwarfs from the latter. In 2008 Michael Ward published Planet Narnia,[27] which proposed that each of the seven books related to one of the seven moving heavenly bodies or "planets" known in the Middle Ages according to the Ptolemaic geocentric model of cosmology. At that time, each of these heavenly bodies was believed to have certain attributes, and Ward contends that these attributes were deliberately but subtly used by Lewis to furnish elements of the stories of each book: In The Lion [the Pevensie children] become monarchs under sovereign Jove; in The Dawn Treader they drink light under searching Sol; in Prince Caspian they harden under strong Mars; in The Silver Chair they learn obedience under subordinate Luna; in The Horse and His Boy they come to love poetry under eloquent Mercury; in The Magician's Nephew they gain life-giving fruit under fertile Venus; and in The Last Battle they suffer and die under chilling Saturn."[28] Similarly, Lewis' interest in the literary symbolism of medieval and Renaissance astrology is more overtly referenced in other works such as his study of medieval cosmology The Discarded Image, in his early poetry as well as in Space Trilogy. On the other hand, Narnia scholar Paul F. Ford finds Ward's assertion that Lewis intended The Chronicles to be an embodiment of medieval astrology implausible.[2]

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Influences on other works
Influences on literature
The Chronicles of Narnia has been a significant influence on both adult and children's fantasy literature in the post-World War II era. Examples include: Philip Pullman's acclaimed fantasy series His Dark Materials is seen as a response to The Chronicles. Pullman is a self-described atheist who wholly rejects the spiritual themes that permeate The Chronicles, yet his series nonetheless addresses many of the same issues and introduces some similar character types, including talking animals. In another parallel both Pullman's Northern Lights and The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe, the first books in each series, open with a young girl hiding in a wardrobe.[29] [30] [31] [32] Neil Gaiman's young-adult horror novella Coraline has been compared to The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe, as both books involve young girls traveling to magical worlds through doors in their new houses and fighting evil with the help of talking animals. His Sandman comic book series also features a Narnia-like "dream island" in its story arc entitled A Game of You. The novel Bridge to Terabithia by Katherine Paterson has Leslie, one of the main characters, reveal to her co-protagonist Jess her love of Lewis' books, subsequently lending him The Chronicles of Narnia so that he can learn how to behave like a king. Her book also features the island name "Terabithia", which sounds similar to Terebinthia, a Narnian island that appears in Prince Caspian and The Voyage of the Dawn Treader. Katherine Paterson herself acknowledges that Terabithia is likely to be derived from Terebinthia: I thought I had made it up. Then, rereading The Voyage of the Dawn Treader by C. S. Lewis, I realized that I had probably gotten it from the island of Terebinthia in that book. However, Lewis probably got that name from the Terebinth tree in the Bible, so both of us pinched from somewhere else, probably unconsciously."[33] Science-fiction author Greg Egan's short story "Oracle" depicts a parallel universe in which an author nicknamed Jack (Lewis' nickname) has written novels about the fictional "Kingdom of Nesica", and whose wife is dying of cancer, paralleling the death of Lewis' wife Joy Davidman. Several Narnian allegories are also used to explore issues of religion and faith versus science and knowledge.[34] Lev Grossman's New York Times bestseller The Magicians is a contemporary dark fantasy about an unusually gifted young man obsessed with Fillory, the magical land of his favorite childhood books. Fillory is a thinly veiled substitute for Narnia, and clearly the author expects it to be experienced as such. Not only is the land home to many similar talking animals and mythical creatures, it is also accessed through a grandfather clock in the home of an uncle to whom five English children are sent during World War II. Moreover, the land is ruled by two Aslan-like rams named Ember and Umber, and terrorized by The Watcherwoman. She, like the White Witch, freezes the land in time. The book's plot revolves heavily around a place very like the "wood between the worlds" from The Magician's Nephew, an interworld waystation in which pools of water lead to other lands. This reference to The Magician's Nephew is echoed in the title of the book.[35] J. K. Rowling, author of the Harry Potter series, has said that she was a fan of the works of Lewis as a child, and cites the influence of The Chronicles on her work: "I found myself thinking about the wardrobe route to Narnia when Harry is told he has to hurl himself at a barrier in Kings Cross Station — it dissolves and he's on platform Nine and Three-Quarters, and there's the train for Hogwarts."[36] Nevertheless she is at pains to stress the differences between Narnia and her world: "Narnia is literally a different world", she says, "whereas in the Harry books you go into a world within a world that you can see if you happen to belong. A lot of the humour comes from collisions between the magic and the everyday worlds. Generally there isn't much humour in the Narnia books, although I adored them when I was a child. I got so caught up I didn't think CS Lewis was especially preachy. Reading them now I find that his subliminal message isn't very subliminal."[36] New York Times writer Charles McGrath notes the similarity between Dudley Dursley, the obnoxious son of Harry's neglectful guardians, and Eustace Scrubb, the spoiled brat

The Chronicles of Narnia who torments the main characters until he is redeemed by Aslan.[37]

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Influences on popular culture
As with any popular long-lived work, contemporary culture abounds with references to the lion Aslan, travelling via wardrobe and direct mentions of The Chronicles. Examples include: Charlotte Staples Lewis, a character first seen early in the fourth season of the TV series Lost, is named in reference to C. S. Lewis. Lost producer Damon Lindelof said that this was a clue to the direction the show would take during the season.[38] The book Ultimate Lost and Philosophy, edited by William Irwin and Sharon Kaye, contains a comprehensive essay on Lost plot motifs based on The Chronicles.[39] The second SNL Digital Short by Andy Samberg and Chris Parnell features a humorous nerdcore hip hop song entitled Chronicles of Narnia (Lazy Sunday), which focuses on the performers' plan to see The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe at a cinema. It was described by Slate magazine as one of the most culturally significant Saturday Night Live skits in many years, and an important commentary on the state of rap.[40] Swedish Christian power metal band Narnia, whose songs are mainly about the Chronicles of Narnia or the Bible, feature Aslan on all their album covers.[41] [42] In anticipation of the December 9, 2005 premiere of the film The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, various Christian artists released a collection of songs based on The Chronicles of Narnia. During interviews, the primary creator of the Japanese anime and gaming series Digimon has noted the heavy influence of The Chronicles of Narnia.[43]

Religious overtones
An adult convert to Christianity, Lewis had previously authored a number of works on Christian apologetics and other fiction with Christian themes. The character Aslan is seen by many as a fictionalized version of Christ.[44] Lewis did not initially plan to incorporate Christian theological concepts into his Narnia stories. Lewis maintained that the Narnia books were not allegorical, preferring to term their Christian aspects a "supposition".[45] [46] The Chronicles have a large Christian following, and are widely used to promote Christian ideas. However, some Christians and Christian organizations have criticised Lewis, feeling that The Chronicles promote "soft-sell paganism and occultism" due to the recurring pagan imagery and themes. Fantasy author J.K. Rowling, herself a member of the Church of Scotland, has been critical of Narnia on ethical grounds.[47] Reactions from non-Christian authors, have been mixed as well. The Chronicles have been severely criticized by Phillip Pullman, but praised by Laura Miller.[48]

Other controversies
Gender stereotyping
Over the years, both Lewis and The Chronicles have been accused of gender stereotyping, with much of the criticism levelled by fellow authors. Most allegations of sexism centre on the description of Susan Pevensie in The Last Battle when Lewis writes that Susan is "no longer a friend of Narnia" and interested "in nothing nowadays except nylons and lipstick and invitations". Harry Potter author J.K. Rowling has said: There comes a point where Susan, who was the older girl, is lost to Narnia because she becomes interested in lipstick. She's become irreligious basically because she found sex, I have a big problem with that.[49] Philip Pullman, author of the His Dark Materials trilogy and dubbed "the anti-Lewis" for his fierce criticism of Lewis and his work,[29] [30] [31] [32] calls the Narnia stories "monumentally disparaging of women".[50] His

The Chronicles of Narnia interpretation of the Susan passages reflects this view: Susan, like Cinderella, is undergoing a transition from one phase of her life to another. Lewis didn't approve of that. He didn't like women in general, or sexuality at all, at least at the stage in his life when he wrote the Narnia books. He was frightened and appalled at the notion of wanting to grow up.[51] In fantasy author Neil Gaiman's short story "The Problem of Susan" (2004),[52] an elderly woman, Professor Hastings, deals with the grief and trauma of her entire family's death in a train crash. Although the woman's maiden name is not revealed, details throughout the story strongly imply that this character is the elderly Susan Pevensie. The story is written for an adult audience and deals with issues of sexuality and violence and through it Gaiman presents a critique of Lewis' treatment of Susan.[53] Other writers, including fan-magazine editor Andrew Rilstone, oppose this view, arguing that the "lipsticks, nylons and invitations" quote is taken out of context. They maintain that in The Last Battle, Susan is excluded from Narnia explicitly because she no longer believes in it. At the end of The Last Battle Susan is still alive with her ultimate fate unspecified. Moreover, in The Horse and His Boy, Susan's adulthood and sexual maturity are portrayed in a positive light, and therefore argued to be unlikely reasons for her exclusion from Narnia. Lewis supporters also cite the positive roles of women in the series, including Jill Pole in The Silver Chair, Aravis Tarkheena in The Horse and His Boy, Polly Plummer in The Magician's Nephew, and particularly Lucy Pevensie in The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe. Jacobs asserts that Lucy is the most admirable of the human characters and that generally the girls come off better than the boys throughout the series.[54] [55] In her contribution to The Chronicles of Narnia and Philosophy, Karin Fry, an Assistant Professor of Philosophy at the University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point, notes that "the most sympathetic female characters in The Chronicles are consistently the ones who question the traditional roles of women and prove their worth to Aslan through actively engaging in the adventures just like the boys."[56] Fry goes on to say: The characters have positive and negative things to say about both male and female characters, suggesting an equality between sexes. However, the problem is that many of the positive qualities of the female characters seem to be those by which they can rise above their femininity ... The superficial nature of stereotypical female interests is condemned.[56]

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Race
In addition to sexism, Pullman and others have also accused the Narnia series of fostering racism.[50] alleged racism in The Horse and His Boy, newspaper editor Kyrie O'Connor wrote:
[57]

Over the

It's just too dreadful. While the book's storytelling virtues are enormous, you don't have to be a bluestocking of political correctness to find some of this fantasy anti-Arab, or anti-Eastern, or anti-Ottoman. With all its stereotypes, mostly played for belly laughs, there are moments you'd like to stuff this story back into its closet.[58] The Calormenes in particular are seen by multiple critics as a negative representation of Semitic culture whilst novelist Philip Hensher raises specific concerns that a reader might gain the impression Islam is a "Satanic cult".[59] Gregg Easterbrook, writing in The Atlantic, calls the Calormen "standins for Muslims".[60] In rebuttal to this charge, at an address to a C.S. Lewis conference,[61] Dr. Devin Brown observed that there are too many dissimilarities between the Calormen religion and Islam, particularly in the areas of polytheism and human sacrifice, for Lewis' writing to be regarded as critical.

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Adaptations of The Chronicles of Narnia
Television
Various books from The Chronicles of Narnia have been adapted for television over the years, including: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe was first adapted in 1967. Comprising ten episodes of thirty minutes each, the screenplay was written by Trevor Preston, and directed by Helen Standage. Unlike subsequent adaptations, it is currently unavailable to purchase for home viewing. The book was adapted again in 1979, this time as an animated cartoon co-produced by Bill Meléndez and the Children's Television Workshop, with a screenplay by David D. Connell. Winner of the 1979 Emmy award for Outstanding Animated Program, it was the first ever made for television feature-length animated film. Many of the characters' voices in the British TV release were re-recorded by British actors and actresses with the exception of the characters Aslan, Peter, Susan, and Lucy. Between 1988-1990, the first four books (as published) were adapted by the BBC as four television serials. They were also aired in America on the PBS/Disney show WonderWorks.[62] They were nominated for a total of 14 Emmy awards, including "Outstanding Children's Program", and a number of BAFTA awards including Best Children's Programme (Entertainment / Drama) in 1988, 1989 and 1990.[63] [64] [65] The serials were later edited into three feature-length films (the second of which combined Prince Caspian and The Voyage of the Dawn Treader into one) and released on VHS and DVD.

Radio
A critically acclaimed BBC Radio 4 dramatisation was produced in the 1980s, starring Maurice Denham as Professor Kirke. Collectively titled Tales of Narnia, the programs covered the entire series with a running time of approximately 15 hours. In Great Britain, BBC Audiobooks release both audio cassette and compact disc versions of the series. Between 1999 and 2002 Focus on the Family produced radio dramatisations of the entire series through its Radio Theatre program.[66] Over one hundred performers took part including Paul Scofield as "The Storyteller" and David Suchet as Aslan. Accompanied by an original orchestral score and cinema-quality digital sound design, the series was hosted by Lewis' stepson Douglas Gresham and ran for just over 22 hours. Recordings of the entire adaptation were released on compact disc between 1999–2003.

Stage
Many stage adaptations of The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe have been produced over the years. In 1984, Vanessa Ford Productions presented The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe at London's Westminster Theatre. Adapted by Glyn Robbins, the play was directed by Richard Williams and designed by Marty Flood. The production was later revived at Westminster and The Royalty Theatre and went on tour until 1997. Productions of other tales from The Chronicles were also staged, including The Voyage of the Dawn Treader (1986), The Magician's Nephew (1988) and The Horse and His Boy (1990). The Royal Shakespeare Company premiered The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe in Stratford-upon-Avon in 1998. The novel was adapted as a musical production by Adrian Mitchell, with music by Shaun Davey.[67] The show was originally directed by Adrian Noble and designed by Anthony Ward, with the revival directed by Lucy Pitman-Wallace. Well received by audiences, the production was periodically re-staged by the RSC for several years afterwards.[68] Limited engagements were subsequently undertaken at the Barbican Theatre in London and at Sadler's Wells. This adaptation also toured the United States in the early 2000s.

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Film
Skeptical that any cinematic adaptation could render the more fantastical elements and characters of the story realistically, Lewis never sold the film rights to the Narnia series.[69] Only after seeing a demo reel of CGI animals did Douglas Gresham, Lewis's stepson and literary executor, and the films' co-producer, give approval for a film adaptation. The first novel adapted was The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe as The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe released in December 2005. Produced by Walden Media and The premiere of The Chronicles of Narnia: distributed by Walt Disney Pictures, the film was directed by Andrew Prince Caspian in 2008 Adamson, with a screenplay by Ann Peacock, Stephen McFeely and Christopher Markus. The movie was a critical and box-office success, grossing over $745 million worldwide and as of March 2011 ranked 38th on the list of highest-grossing films in nominal terms. Disney and Walden Media then co-produced a sequel The Chronicles of Narnia: Prince Caspian, released in May 2008, which grossed over $419 million worldwide. In December 2008 Disney pulled out of financing the remainder of the Chronicles of Narnia film series.[70] [71] Already in pre-production at the time, 20th Century Fox and Walden Media eventually co-produced The Chronicles of Narnia: The Voyage of the Dawn Treader, which was released in December 2010 going on to gross over $415 million worldwide.

Notes
[1] Roger Lancelyn Green & Walter Hooper, C. S. Lewis: A Biography. Fully revised & expanded edition. (2002), pp. 302-307. (The picture of a Faun with parcels in a snowy wood has a history dating to 1914.) [2] Ford, Paul (2005). Companion to Narnia: Revised Edition. San Francisco: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-079127-8. [3] Roger Lancelyn Green & Walter Hooper, C. S. Lewis: A Biography. (2002), p. 311. [4] C.S. Lewis. On Stories: And Other Essays on Literature. 1982, p. 53. ISBN 0-15-668788-7 [5] Paul F. Ford. Companion to Narnia. Revised Edition. 2005, p. 106. ISBN 978-0-06-079127-8 [6] Owen Dudley Edwards. British Children's Fiction in the Second World War. 2007, p. 129. ISBN 978-0-7486-1650-3 [7] Roger Lancelyn Green and Walter Hooper. C.S. Lewis: A Biography. Fully Revised and Expanded Edition. 2002, p. 303. ISBN 0-00-715714-2 [8] C.S. Lewis. On Stories: And Other Essays on Literature. 1982, p. xix & 53. ISBN 0-15-668788-7. It all Began with a Picture is reprinted there from the Radio Times, 15 July 1960. [9] Roger Lancelyn Green and Walter Hooper, C.S. Lewis: A Biography, 2002, p. 306. [10] Kelly, Clint (2006). "Dear Mr. Lewis" (http:/ / www. spu. edu/ depts/ uc/ response/ winter2k6/ features/ lewis. asp). Respone 29 (1). . Retrieved 22 September 2008. "The seven books of Narnia have sold more than 100 million copies in 30 languages, nearly 20 million in the last 10 years alone" [11] Edward, Guthmann (11 December 2005). "'Narnia' tries to cash in on dual audience" (http:/ / www. sfgate. com/ cgi-bin/ article. cgi?file=/ c/ a/ 2005/ 12/ 11/ NARNIA. TMP). SFGate (San Francisco Chronicle). . Retrieved 22 September 2008. [12] Glen H. GoodKnight. (2010). Narnia Editions & Translations. Last updated August 3, 2010 (http:/ / inklingsfocus. com/ translation_index. html). Retrieved 6 September 2010. [13] Roger Lancelyn Green & Walter Hooper, C. S. Lewis: A Biography. 2002, p. 307. [14] Roger Lancelyn Green & Walter Hooper, C. S. Lewis: A Biography. 2002, p. 309. [15] Roger Lancelyn Green & Walter Hooper, C. S. Lewis: A Biography. 2002, p. 310. [16] Roger Lancelyn Green & Walter Hooper, C. S. Lewis: A Biography. 2002, p. 313. [17] Roger Lancelyn Green & Walter Hooper, C. S. Lewis: A Biography. 2002, p. 314. [18] Dorsett, Lyle; Marjorie Lamp Mead (ed.) (1995). C. S. Lewis: Letters to Children. Touchstone. ISBN 978-0-684-82372-0. [19] Brady, Erik (1 December 2005). "A closer look at the world of Narnia" (http:/ / www. usatoday. com/ life/ movies/ news/ 2005-12-01-narnia-side_x. htm). USA Today. . Retrieved 21 September 2008. [20] Schakel, Peter (1979). Reading with the Heart: The Way into Narnia. Grand Rapids: Erdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-1814-0.

The Chronicles of Narnia
[21] Rilstone, Andrew. "What Order Should I Read the Narnia Books in (And Does It Matter?)" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20051130010333/ http:/ / www. aslan. demon. co. uk/ narnia. htm). The Life and Opinions of Andrew Rilstone, Gentleman. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. aslan. demon. co. uk/ narnia. htm) on 30 November 2005. . [22] Lewis, C.S. (1990). Surprised by Joy. Fount Paperbacks. p. 14. ISBN 0006238157. [23] Wilson, Tracy V. (7 December 2005). "How Narnia Works" (http:/ / entertainment. howstuffworks. com/ narnia. htm). HowStuffWorks. . Retrieved 28 October 2008. [24] Trotter, Drew (11 November 2005). "What Did C. S. Lewis Mean, and Does It Matter?" (http:/ / www. leaderu. com/ popculture/ meaningandlewis-lwwpreview. html). Leadership U. . Retrieved 28 October 2008. [25] Huttar, Charles A. (22 September 2007). ""Deep lies the sea-longing": inklings of home (1)" (http:/ / www. thefreelibrary. com/ "Deep+ lies+ the+ sea-longing":+ inklings+ of+ home+ (1). -a0171579955). Mythlore / The Free Library. . Retrieved 28 March 2011. [26] Duriez, pp80, 95 [27] Michael Ward, Planet Narnia: The Seven Heavens in the Imagination of C.S. Lewis (Oxford University Press, 2008) [28] Planet Narnia, by Michael Ward (http:/ / www. independent. co. uk/ arts-entertainment/ books/ reviews/ planet-narnia-by-michael-ward-792454. html) The Independent, 9 March 2008 [29] Miller, " Far From Narnia (http:/ / www. newyorker. com/ archive/ 2005/ 12/ 26/ 051226fa_fact) The New Yorker, 26 December 2005 [30] Cathy Young, " A Secular Fantasy – The flawed but fascinating fiction of Philip Pullman (http:/ / www. reason. com/ news/ show/ 124392. html)", Reason Magazine (March 2008) [31] Peter Hitchens, " This is the most dangerous author in Britain (http:/ / home. wlv. ac. uk/ ~bu1895/ hitchens. htm)", The Mail on Sunday (27 January 2002), p. 63 [32] Chattaway, Peter T. " The Chronicles of Atheism (http:/ / www. christianitytoday. com/ ct/ 2007/ december/ 12. 36. html), Christianity Today [33] Bridge to Terabithia, 2005 Harper Trophy edition, section "Questions for Katherine Paterson." [34] Egan, Greg. "Oracle" (http:/ / gregegan. customer. netspace. net. au/ MISC/ ORACLE/ Oracle. html), 12 November 2000. [35] Publishers Weekly blog Decatur Book Festival: Fantasy and its practice « PWxyz (http:/ / blogs. publishersweekly. com/ blogs/ PWxyz/ ?p=2115) [36] Renton, Jennie. "The story behind the Potter legend" (http:/ / www. accio-quote. org/ articles/ 2001/ 1001-sydney-renton. htm). Sydney Morning Herald. . Retrieved 10 October 2006. [37] McGrath, Charles (13 November 2005). "The Narnia Skirmishes" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2005/ 11/ 13/ movies/ 13narnia. html?ei=5090& en=49132a2956301464& ex=1289538000& partner=rssuserland& emc=rss& pagewanted=all). The New York Times. . Retrieved 29 May 2008. [38] Jensen, Jeff, (February 20, 2008) " 'Lost': Mind-Blowing Scoop From Its Producers (http:/ / www. ew. com/ ew/ article/ 0,,20179125_5,00. html)", Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved on 29 October 2008. [39] Irwin, William (2010). Ultimate Lost and Philosophy Volume 35 of The Blackwell Philosophy and Pop Culture Series. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 368. ISBN 0470632291, 9780470632291. [40] Josh Levin (Dec. 23, 2005,). "The Chronicles of Narnia Rap" (http:/ / www. slate. com/ id/ 2133316/ ). Slate. . Retrieved December 19, 2010. [41] Brennan, Herbie (2010). Through the Wardrobe: Your Favorite Authors on C.S. Lewis' Chronicles of Narnia. BenBella Books. p. 6. ISBN 1935251686, 9781935251682. [42] "Narnia" (http:/ / www. metal-archives. com/ band. php?id=4452). Encyclopedia Metallum. . Retrieved December 15, 2010. [43] "Digimon RPG" (http:/ / www. gamershell. com/ pc/ digimon_rpg/ ). Gamers Hell. . Retrieved July 26, 2010. [44] Carpenter, The Inklings, p.42-45. See also Lewis' own autobiography Surprised by Joy [45] Martindale, Wayne; Root, Jerry. The Quotable Lewis. p. 59 [46] Sharing the Narnia Experience:A Family Guide to C. S. Lewis's the Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe by Paul Friskney p. 12 [47] Lev Grossman J.K. Rowling Hogwarts And All (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ printout/ 0,8816,1083935,00. html) TIME, 17 July 2005 [48] Laura Miller The Magician's Book: A Skeptic's Guide to Narnia (2008) [49] *Lev Grossman J.K. Rowling Hogwarts And All (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ printout/ 0,8816,1083935,00. html) TIME, 17 July 2005 [50] Ezard. " Narnia books attacked as racist and sexist (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ uk/ 2002/ jun/ 03/ gender. hayfestival2002)" The Guardian, 3 June 2002 [51] Pullman " The Darkside of Narnia (http:/ / www. crlamppost. org/ darkside. htm)" The Cumberland River Lamppost, 2 September 2001 [52] The story can be found in Flights: Extreme Visions of Fantasy Volume II (edited by Al Sarrantonio) and in the Gaiman collection Fragile Things. [53] Gaiman: "The Problem of Susan", p. 151ff. [54] " The Problem of Susan (http:/ / www. livejournal. com/ users/ synaesthete7/ 176635. html)" RJ Anderson, 30 August 2005 [55] Lipstick on My Scholar (http:/ / andrewrilstone. blogspot. com/ 2005/ 11/ lipstick-on-my-scholar. html)" Andrew Rilstone, 30 November 2005 [56] Chapter 13: No Longer a Friend of Narnia: Gender in Narnia The Chronicles of Narnia and Philosophy: The Lion, the Witch and the Worldview Edited by Gregory Bassham and Jerry L. Walls; Open Court, Chicago and La Salle, Illinois, 2005 [57] " Pullman attacks Narnia film plans (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ entertainment/ 4347226. stm)" BBC News, 16 October 2005

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" Narnia books attacked as racist and sexist (http://www. The Independent. by Al Sarrantonio). March 28. [67] Cavendish.discovery. com/ orlando/ stories/ 2008/ 12/ 29/ daily3.livejournal.uk/uk/2002/jun/03/ gender. The Natural History of Make-believe: A Guide to the Principal Works of Britain. S. The New Yorker.time. Vol. ISBN 978-0-8387-5183-1. 2009 Are The Chronicles of Narnia Sexist and Racist? | NarniaWeb (http:/ / www. a letter to his brother Warren on March 3. Narnia Editions & Translations. Parabolic Reflections 30 August 2005 • Chattaway. Retrieved March 27. . html). . Neil. archive. bafta. " The Problem of Susan (http://www. Fully revised & expanded edition. . [68] Melia. mlive. James (December 24. Flights: Extreme Visions of Fantasy Volume II (ed. co. " Don't let your children go to Narnia: C.html). html). com/ comments/ greg/ 2005/ 06/ narnia-radio-broadcast.com. Lev J. ISBN 978-0-8387-5183-1 . bafta. indystar. independent. ISBN 0-00-715714-2 • Grossman.timesandseasons. 2008. "Prisoner of Narnia" (http://www. 2007 • Green. org/ web/ 20051214153306/ http:/ / www. R.J. 2. com/ videohound_lists/ 90154/ Wonderworks-Family-Movie-Series) [63] "Children's Nominations 1988" (http:/ / www. narniaweb. movieretriever. .php?command=view&id=907)". p. org/ awards/ childrens/ nominations/ ?year=1989). C. " 5th Narnia book may not see big screen (http:/ / web. bafta.org/scripts/viewDB/index. "Engaging fairytale is sure to enchant all" (http:/ / www. 1991. Time Vol. New York.9171.hayfestival2002)". Philip " Don't let your children go to Narnia: C. dll/ article?AID=/ 20051201/ LIVING/ 512010303/ 1007)" IndyStar.K. ISBN 978-0-19-503806-4 • Hensher. Walter. ISBN 978-0-451-46099-8 • GoodKnight. com/ apps/ pbcs. [66] Wright.html) Retrieved 9-6-10 • Gopnik. (http:// inklingsfocus. uk/ coventry/ stage/ stories/ 2002/ 12/ lion-the-witch-and-the-wardrobe. BAFTA. ISBN 978-0-19-503806-4. Liz (9 December 2002).co. The Skeleton in the Wardrobe: C. bizjournals. shtml). 1926. . 2005 • Ezard. S. Retrieved 31 March 2011. "Theatre: The Lion. Adam (2005). com/ resources-links/ are-the-chronicles-of-narnia-sexist-and-racist/ ) [62] Wonderworks Family Movie Series at VideoHound (http:/ / www.com/users/synaesthete7/176635. Greg. 166 – Issue=4 (25 July 2005) • Goldthwaite. 2008). New American Library. Canadian Christianity. discovery. Europe and America: OUP 1996. "The Problem of Susan". Last updated August 3. "Reviews by Greg Wright — Narnia Radio Broadcast" (http:/ / hollywoodjesus. BAFTA. uk/ arts-entertainment/ theatre-the-lion-the-witch-and-the-wardrobe-1186280. Roger Lancelyn & Hooper. see also All My Road Before Me. BBC. Dominic (21 November 1998). . [69] A general dislike of cinema can be seen in Collected Letters. 361. 405 [70] Sanford.newyorker. co. (2010). " Narnia 'baptizes' — and defends — pagan mythology (http://www. Retrieved 31 March 2011. Lewis' Fantasies — A Phenomenological Study: Bucknell University Press. 2010. com/cgi-bin/na. org/ awards/ childrens/ nominations/ ?year=1990).html)".1083935. S.com/time/magazine/article/ 0.com/translation_index. Retrieved 31 March 2011.com/archive/2005/11/21/ 051121crat_atlarge). 1 December 2005 [59] Philip Hensher. "Disney No Longer Under Spell of Narnia" (http:/ / blog. Retrieved 31 March 2011. p. Times and Reasons. Lewis's books are racist and misogynist (http:/ / www. BAFTA. Retrieved 31 March 2011. 2002. June 1. Peter T. Lewis: A Biography.guardian. 3 June 2002 • Gaiman. HarperCollins. . Orlando Business Journal. 1 March 1999 [60] October 2001 of The Atlantic [61] Keynote Address at The 12th Annual Conference of The C.org/?p=3881)". [71] "Disney opts out of 3rd 'Narnia' film" (http:/ / www. Glen H. org/ awards/ childrens/ nominations/ ?year=1988). . Lewis and Inklings Society Calvin College. bbc. 243 References • Anderson. org/ scripts/ viewDB/ index. 4 December 1998 • Holbrook. Rowling Hogwarts And All (http://www. [65] "Children's Nominations 1990" (http:/ / www.cgi?bc/bccn/1205/16narnia)".00. The Independent. 2004. Jonathon " The recycled image (http://www. 1940. John. html). com/ james_sanford/ 2008/ 12/ disney_is_no_longer_under_the. David. [64] "Children's Nominations 1989" (http:/ / www. S. John. 2011. Retrieved 31 March 2011. December 29. The Guardian. S.canadianchristianity. html). php?command=view& id=907)" Discovery Institute. The Witch And The Wardrobe" (http:/ / www.The Chronicles of Narnia [58] Kyrie O'Connor. • Green. Lewis's books are racist and misogynist (http:// www.

Joseph Literary Giants. Philip " The Darkside of Narnia (http://www. New York Times. Chesterton. Lewis and the Narnia Chronicles.html). Colin A Field Guide to Narnia. 2004 Downing. R.org/darkside. Literary Catholics. Kenneth Following Aslan: A Book of Devotions for Children. David Into the Wardrobe: C. S. Ignatius Press. Augustine's Press. Tyndale House. S. Kyrie " 5th Narnia book may not see big screen (http://web. The Guardian. Santa Barbara: Santa Barbara News-Press.html)". Tyndale House Publishers. Oxford University Press. 2005 • Moynihan. Meghan O'Rourke. Root. Michael Planet Narnia: The Seven Heavens in the Imagination of C. ISBN 978-1-890318-34-5 • Martindale. 2004. Berit Narnia: Blending Truth and Myth (http://www. Lewis.crlamppost.K. 5 October 1986 • Hurst. G. Lewis' Narnia isn't simply a Christian allegory (http://www. S.slate. 2006 • Ward. Lewis: C. Jossey-Bass. html?res=9A0DE4D8163DF936A35753C1A960948260). S. Lewis.php?doc_id=BTT_on_her_own_words).nytimes. InterVarsity Press. 2004 Duriez. St. S.planetnarnia. 2005 • Jacobs.newyorker. Anamchara Books. Kjos Ministries.archive. Rolland Christian Mythmakers: C.dll/article?AID=/20051201/LIVING/512010303/1007)" Houston Chronicle. Tom (2004). J. 2005 Hein. Tolkien. Jim Finding God in the Land of Narnia. 1009. Christianity Today. 2008 244 Further reading • • • • • Bruner. Michael Planet Narnia: The Seven Heavens in the Imagination of C. Walden Media.com/apps/pbcs.com/ id/2131908/nav/tap1/). ISBN 978-0-8423-5115-7 • Miller. S. Wayne. HarperSanFrancisco. The New Yorker • O'Connor. Alan The Narnian: The Life and Imagination of C.) The Latin Letters of C. Lewis and Don Giovanni Calabria. R. 2006 • Pearce.htm). Jerry The Quotable Lewis. Oxford University Press. 1 December 2005 • Meghan O'Rourke The Lion King: C.christianitytoday.edu/campbell/campbell04_news.org/web/20051214153306/ http://www. Remembering a Master Mythologist and His Connection to Santa Barbara (http://www. 1 October 1998 • Ward.com/archive/2005/12/26/051226fa_fact). George MacDonald.com/movies/special/narnia-news. Katherine Katherine Paterson: On Her Own Words (http://www. • Kjos.htm)". Veritas Press. Josh " Nine Minutes of Narnia (http://www. com). ISBN. S. ISBN 978-0-940895-48-5 • Jacobs.com/walden/_pdf/ get_document. ISBN 978-1-58617-077-6 • Pullman. 2005 Bustard. pacifica. 2008 . Slate magazine. Lewis. Stephen Holden. Madeleine L'Engle.indystar. Cornerstone Press Chicago. 2005 • McIntosh. Laura " Far From Narnia (http://www. 2002.to/articles2/05/narnia.The Chronicles of Narnia • Drama: 'Narnia' A Children's Musical (http://theater2. 9 December 2005 • Paterson. Ned The Chronicles of Narnia Comprehension Guide. & Others Second Edition. 1990.com/mem/theater/treview. Martin (ed.walden. Kurt & Ware. Lewis (http://www.crossroad. S.

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External links
• C.S. Lewis entry at BBC Religions (http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/christianity/people/cslewis_1. shtml) • Harper Collins site for the books (http://books.narnia.com/) • The secret of the wardrobe (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/magazine/4447090.stm) BBC News, 18 November 2005 • The Chronicles of Narnia Wiki

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The Cat in the Hat
The Cat in the Hat
Author(s) Country Language Genre(s) Publisher Dr. Seuss United States English Children's literature Random House

Publication date March 12, 1957 (renewed 1985) Media type Pages ISBN OCLC Number Followed by Print (Hardcover and paperback) 61 978-0717260591 304833 [1]

The Cat in the Hat Comes Back

The Cat in the Hat is a children's book by Dr. Seuss and perhaps the most famous, featuring a tall, anthropomorphic, mischievous cat, wearing a tall, red and white-striped hat and a red bow tie. He also carries a pale blue umbrella. With the series of Beginner Books that The Cat inaugurated, Seuss promoted both his name and the cause of elementary literacy in the United States of America.[2] The eponymous cat appears in six of Seuss's rhymed children's books: • • • • • • The Cat in the Hat The Cat in the Hat Comes Back The Cat in the Hat Song Book The Cat's Quizzer I Can Read with My Eyes Shut! Daisy-Head Mayzie

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History
Theodor Geisel, writing as Dr. Seuss, created The Cat in the Hat in response to the May 25, 1954, Life magazine article by John Hersey, titled "Why Do Students Bog Down on First R? A Local Committee Sheds Light on a National Problem: Reading." In the article, Hersey was critical of school primers: In the classroom boys and girls are confronted with six books that have insipid illustrations depicting the slicked-up lives of other children. [Existing A 2003 White House Christmas decoration using "The Cat in the Hat" as the theme. primers] feature abnormally courteous, unnaturally clean boys and girls. . . . In bookstores, anyone can buy brighter, livelier books featuring strange and wonderful animals and children who behave naturally, i.e., sometimes misbehave. Given incentive from school boards, publishers could do as well with primers. Hersey’s arguments were enumerated over ten pages of Life magazine, which was a leading periodical in the U.S. during that time. After detailing many issues contributing to the dilemma connected with student reading levels, Hersey asked toward the end of the article: Why should [school primers] not have pictures that widen rather than narrow the associative richness the children give to the words they illustrate — drawings like those of the wonderfully imaginative geniuses among children’s illustrators, Tenniel, Howard Pyle, "Theodor S. Geisel". Ted Geisel's friend William Ellsworth Spaulding, who was then the director of Houghton Mifflin's education division, invited Geisel to dinner in Boston and "proposed that Ted write and illustrate such a book for six- and seven-year olds who had already mastered the basic mechanics of reading. 'Write me a story that first-graders can't put down!" [Spaulding] challenged."[3] Spaulding supplied Geisel with a list of 348 words that every six year old should know, and insisted that the book's vocabulary be limited to 225 words. Nine months later Dr. Seuss finished The Cat In The Hat, which used 223 words that appeared on the list plus 13 words that did not. Because Geisel was under contract with Random House, Houghton Mifflin retained the school rights to The Cat in the Hat and Random House retained the rights to trade sales.[3] The story is 1629 words in length and uses a vocabulary of only 236 distinct words, of which 54 occur once and 33 twice. Only a single word – another – has three syllables, while 14 have two and the remaining 221 are monosyllabic. The longest words are something and playthings. In an interview he gave in Arizona magazine in June 1981, Dr. Seuss claimed the book took nine months to complete due to the difficulty in writing a book from the 223 selected words. He added that the title for the book came from his desire to have the title rhyme and the first two suitable rhyming words that he could find from the list were "cat" and "hat". Dr. Seuss also regretted the association of his book and the "look say" reading method adopted during the Dewey revolt in the 1920s. He expressed the opinion that "... killing phonics was one of the greatest causes of illiteracy in the country."

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Plots
The Cat in the Hat
The Cat in the Hat (1957) is the first book featuring the title character. In it the Cat brings a cheerful, exotic and exuberant form of chaos to a household of two young kids, brother and sister, one rainy day while their mother leaves them unattended. The Cat performs all sorts of wacky tricks—the Cat at one point balances a teacup, some milk, a cake, three books, the Fish, a rake, a toy boat, a toy man, a red fan, and his umbrella while he's on a ball to the chagrin of the fish—to amuse the children, with mixed results. Then, the Cat gets a box from outside. Inside the box are two creatures named Thing One and Thing Two, who begin to fly kites in the house. The Cat's antics are vainly opposed by the family pet, a sapient and articulate fish. The children (Sally and her unnamed older brother, who serves as the narrator) ultimately prove exemplary latchkey children, capturing the Things with a net and bringing the Cat under control. To make up for the chaos he has caused, he cleans up the house on his way out, disappearing a second before the mother arrives. The book has been popular since its publication, and a logo featuring the Cat adorns all Dr. Seuss publications and animated films produced after The Cat in the Hat. Seuss wrote the book because he felt that there should be more entertaining and fun material for beginning readers. From a literary point of view, the book is a feat of skill, since it simultaneously maintains a strict triple meter, keeps to a tiny vocabulary, and tells an entertaining tale. Literary critics occasionally write recreational essays about the work, having fun with issues such as the absence of the mother and the psychological or symbolic characterizations of Cat, Things, and Fish. This book is written in a style common to Dr. Seuss, anapestic tetrameter (see Dr. Seuss's meters). More than 11 million copies of The Cat in the Hat have been printed. It has been translated into more than 12 different languages.[4] [5] In particular, it has been translated into Latin with the title Cattus Petasatus and into Yiddish with the title "di Kats der Payats".

The Cat in the Hat Comes Back
The Cat in the Hat made a return appearance in this 1958 sequel. On this occasion, instead of Thing One and Thing Two, he brings along Little Cat A, nested inside his hat. Little Cat A doffs his hat to reveal Little Cat B, who reveals C, and so on down to the microscopic Little Cat Z, who turns out to hold the key to the plot in his hat. The crisis involves a pink bathtub ring and other pink residue left by the Cat after he snacks on a cake in the bathtub with the water running. Preliminary attempts to clean it up fail as they only transfer the mess elsewhere, including a dress, the wall, a pair of ten dollar shoes, a rug, the bed, and then eventually outside. A "spot killing" war then takes place between the mess and Little Cats A through V, who use an arsenal of primitive weapons including pop guns, bats, and a lawnmower. Unfortunately, the initial battle to rid the mess only makes it into an entire yard-covering spot. Little Cats V, W, X, and Y then take off their hats to uncover microscopic Little Cat Z. Z takes his hat off and unleashes a "Voom", which cleans up the back yard and puts all of the other Little Cats back into the big Cat in the Hat's hat. The book ends in a burst of flamboyant versification, with the full list of little cats arranged into a metrically-perfect rhymed quatrain, designed to teach the reader the alphabet. Little Cats A, B and C were also characters in the 1996 TV series The Wubbulous World of Dr. Seuss (Little Cat N also made an appearance, but only once and some of the alphabetical cats appeared in Season 2 regularly as Little Cat Z began to be visible). The Cat in The Hat Comes Back was part of the Beginner Book Video series along with There's a Wocket in My Pocket! and Fox in Socks. Adrian Edmondson narrated both Cat in the Hat stories for a HarperCollins audiobook that also includes Fox in Socks and Green Eggs and Ham.

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Beginner Books
The Cat in the Hat was published by Random House. However, because of its success, an independent publishing company was formed, called Beginner Books. Geisel was the president and editor. Beginner Books was chartered as a series of books oriented toward various stages of early reading development. (From 1957 to 1960, Random House was the distributor of Beginner Books. In 1960, Random House purchased Beginner Books, and it became a division of Random House.)[6] The second book in the series, The Cat in the Hat Comes Back, published in 1958, was nearly as popular. Springing from this series of beginning readers were such standards as A Fly Went By (1958), Sam and the Firefly (1958), Green Eggs and Ham (1960), Go, Dog. Go! (1961), Hop on Pop (1963), and Fox in Socks (1965), each a monument in the picturebook industry, and also significant in the historical development of early readers. All are still in print and remain very popular over forty years after their initial publication. Creators in the Beginner Book series included Stan and Jan Berenstain, P. D. Eastman, Roy McKie, and Helen Palmer (Mr. Geisel's wife). The Beginner Books dominated the children's picturebook market of the 1960s, and still plays a significant role today within the phases of students' reading development. The early success of Beginner Books, both from a commercial and learn-to-read perspective, initiated the blurring between educational and entertainment books.[7]

The Cat in the Hat's Learning Library
In 1998, Random House launched a series titled "The Cat in the Hat's Learning Library." In each book, the Cat in the Hat, Thing 1 and Thing 2, teach Dick (the boy's name in The Cat in the Hat was not revealed, but the 1971 animated special suggested it was Conrad) and Sally about the book's topic. There are even side notes that are narrated by Thing 1 and Thing 2. In the book Clam-I-Am, the Cat in the Hat takes a break, and Dick and Sally's beloved pet, Norval the Fish, (the fish's name in the cartoon special was Karlos K. Krinklebein) along with the Cat in the Hat and the Things, teaches the children about life at the beach. At the end of each book, after the Cat in the Hat's teaching is done, there is a glossary on some of the words used, an index, and a list of suggested books, from other publishers, that cover the topic each book covered. While the Learning Library Series kept Dick and Sally intact, they've made changes to Thing 1 and Thing 2. In the original The Cat in the Hat book and the special, Thing 1 and Thing 2 had plain white skin and blue hair and wore red sleepers. In "The Cat in the Hat's Learning Library," the illustrators have changed the Things' appearance so that they have pink skin and yellow hair and wear blue sleepers.

Adaptations
Animated media
• The Cat in the Hat, a 1971 American animated musical television special • The Grinch Grinches the Cat in the Hat, a 1982 American animated musical television special; a crossover in which the Cat in the Hat meets the Grinch. • The Cat in the Hat Knows a Lot About That!, a 2010 animated television series seen on PBS Kids in the United States and Treehouse TV in Canada starring Martin Short in the role of the Cat.

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Film
The film adaptation of the book was released in 2003. It was produced by Brian Grazer and directed by Bo Welch, and stars Mike Myers in the title role of the Cat in the Hat, and Dakota Fanning as Sally. Sally's brother, who is not named in the book, is known in this version as "Conrad" and played by Spencer Breslin. While the basic plot of the live-action adaptation of The Cat in the Hat rotates around that of the book, the film filled out its 82 minutes by adding new subplots and characters quite different from those of the original story, similar to How the Grinch Stole Christmas. Reviews were critically negative criticizing the film's crude humor, language, and mature content, and the film was nominated for eight Golden Raspberry Awards.

Seussical the Musical
Seussical the Musical is a musical that combines different Dr. Seuss stories together. The Cat In The Hat plays the narrator, as well as a few minor characters. In the original Broadway production, this role was played by David Shiner.

Educational CD game
Living Books has created an educational CD game of the story, guided by animated characters. Software MacKiev brought this electronic version of the book to the Mac OS X.

Ride
Opened in 1999 at Universal Studios' Islands of Adventure park in Orlando, Florida, the ride takes guests on a colorful journey into the story of The Cat in the Hat.

Android App
The Cat in the Hat also adapted into a popular android paid app and listed as one of the popular paid apps at Android market.

Quoted in the U.S. Senate
In the 110th Congress, Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid compared the impasse over a bill to reform immigration with the mess created by the Cat in The Cat in the Hat. He read lines of the book from the Senate floor, quoting "'That is good,' said the fish. 'He's gone away, yes. But your mother will come. She will find this big mess.'"[8] He then carried forward his analogy hoping the impasse would be straightened out for "If you go back and read Dr. Seuss, the cat manages to clean up the mess."[9] Reid's hopes did not come about for as one analyst put it "the Cat in the Hat did not have to contend with cloture."[8]

Editions
All were published by Random House. The original edition was a joint publication with Houghton Mifflin. • The Cat in the Hat: • First Edition The first edition was published in 1957, prior to the establishment of ISBNs. The first edition can be identified by the '200/200' in the top right corner of the front dust jacket flap [10], signifying the $2.00 selling price. The Cat In The Hat sold for $2.00 for the first year of publication, then was reduced to $1.95 with the establishment of Beginner Books in 1958. According to the Children's Picturebook Price Guide, 2006-2007 edition, The first edition Cat In The Hat has an estimated market value of $4000. • ISBN 0-394-80001-X (hardcover, 1957, Large Type Edition)

The Cat in the Hat • • • • ISBN 0-394-90001-4 (library binding, 1966, Large Type Edition) ISBN 0-394-89218-6 (hardcover with audio cassette, 1987) ISBN 0-679-86348-6 (hardcover, 1993) ISBN 0-679-89267-2 (hardcover, 1999)

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• The Cat in the Hat Comes Back: • ISBN 0-394-80002-8 (hardcover, 1958) • The Annotated Cat: Under the Hats of Seuss and His Cats introduction and annotations by Philip Nel • ISBN 978-0-375-83369-4 (hardcover, 2007)

References
[1] http:/ / worldcat. org/ oclc/ 304833 [2] MacDonald, Ruth K. (1988). "Chapter 4, The Beginnings of the Empire: The Cat in the Hat and Its Legacy". Dr. Seuss. Twayne. pp. 105–146. [3] Morgan, Judith; Neil Morgan (1995). Dr. Seuss & Mr. Geisel. Random House. p. 154. ISBN 0679416862. [4] The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel (http:/ / www. jsonline. com/ story/ index. aspx?id=590928) The Cat at 50: Still lots of good fun that is funny: "There are more than 10 million copies in print today in more than a dozen languages, including the Latin, "Cattus Petasatus."" (April 14, 2007) [5] Lodge, Sally (1/11/2007). "The Cat in the Hat Turns 50…With a Bang" (http:/ / www. publishersweekly. com/ article/ CA6406625. html?nid=2788). Children's Bookshelf (Publishers Weekly). . Retrieved 2008-09-21. "The Cat in the Hat has sold more than 10.5 million copies in its classic edition alone (not including massive book club sales)." [6] Morgan, Judith; Neil Morgan (1995). Dr. Seuss & Mr. Geisel: A Biography. Random House. p. 167. [7] Zielinski, Linda; Stan Zielinksi (2006). Children's Picturebook Price Guide. Flying Moose Books. p. 14. [8] Dana Milbank (June 8, 2007). "Snubbing the White House, Without Snubbing the White House" (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2007/ 06/ 07/ AR2007060702206_2. html). The Washington Post. . [9] Stephen Dinan (June 6, 2007). "Senate tries to cool immigration bill heat" (http:/ / www. washtimes. com/ national/ 20070606-123944-6924r. htm). Washington Times. . [10] http:/ / www. 1stedition. net/ blog/ 2006/ 05/ the_cat_in_the_hat_1957_1. html

done by Michael Simeon for the first British edition. Knopf.[4] Plot James Henry Trotter. However. desolate hill near the white cliffs of Dover. James is forced to go and live with his two horrible aunts. James's world is turned upside down when. bigger and squishier" than a cherry. Dahl changed it to James and the Giant Peach because a peach is "prettier. his mother and father are devoured by a rhinoceros that had escaped from the zoo.[2] [3] Because of the story's occasional macabre and potentially frightening content. It was adapted into a film of the same name in 1996. Inc.252 Modern Works James and the Giant Peach James and the Giant Peach First edition cover Author(s) Illustrator Country Language Genre(s) Publisher Publication date Media type Pages ISBN OCLC Number Dewey Decimal Roald Dahl Nancy Ekholm Burkert United Kingdom English Children's novel Alfred A. The plot centers on a young English orphan boy who enters a gigantic.D137 Jam 2002 James and the Giant Peach is a popular children's novel written in 1961 by British author Roald Dahl. there have been various reillustrated versions of it over the years. it has become a regular target of the censors and is #56 on the American Library Association's top 100 list of most frequently challenged books. improperly fed. four years old. lives with his loving parents in a pretty and bright cottage by the sea in the south of England. while on a shopping trip in London. For three years Spiker and Sponge physically and verbally abuse James. The original first edition published by Alfred Knopf featured illustrations by Nancy Ekholm Burkert. beaten for hardly any reason. Spiker and Sponge. 1961 Paperback 160 0-375-81424-8 50568125 [Fic] 21 [1] LC Classification PZ8. Around the house James is treated as a drudge. Originally titled James and the Giant Cherry. not allowing him to venture beyond the hill or play with other children. Emma Chichester Clark. and has a wild and surreal cross-world adventure with six anthropomorphic insects he meets within the giant peach. who live on a high. magical peach. Lane Smith and Quentin Blake. and .

and it begins to roll down the hill. fleshy tunnel which leads to the hollow stone in the middle of the cavernous fruit. Inside the stone the inhabitants cheer as they feel the peach rolling over the aunts. releasing it from the tree. houses. The aunts discover this and make money off the giant peach while keeping James locked away. As the seagulls strain to get away from the giant peach. Angered. with entire chunks taken out of it.James and the Giant Peach forced to sleep on bare floorboards in the attic. the peach begins to fall to the ground. to which the Cloud-Man is hanging from. who. but in his excitement he falls off the peach into the ocean and has to be rescued by James. That night. The Centipede entertains with ribald dirges to Sponge and Spiker. Entering the stone. with no damage to the plant. and severing the silken strings between the seagulls and the peach. The Centipede bites through the stem of the peach with his powerful jaws. A huge passenger jet flies past the giant peach. One Cloud-Man almost gets on the peach by climbing down the silken strings tied to the stem. James stumbles across a strange little man. Hours later. James trips and spills the sack onto the peach tree outside his home. the ever resourceful James and the other inhabitants of the peach lure over five hundred seagulls to the peach from the nearby islands. As the Cloud-Men gather up the cloud in their hands to form hailstones and snowballs to throw down to the world below. will bring him happiness and great adventures. Using the blind Earthworm as bait. the giant peach floats through mountain-like. The mass of seagulls lifts the giant peach into the air and away from the sharks. As the seagulls strain to get away from the Cloud-Men. spherical nuclear bomb. and rescue services are all called out. the inhabitants of the giant peach see the glimmering skyscrapers of New York City peeking above the clouds. When he does a single freed seagull. when drunk. the giant peach smashes through an unfinished rainbow the Cloud-Men were preparing for dawn. who become central to the plot and James' companions in his adventure. and the giant fruit begins leaking its peach juice. but quickly drifts away from civilization and into the expanses of the Atlantic Ocean. but when James appears from within the skewered peach 253 . All of this shrinks the peach somewhat. but instead he curiously ventures inside a juicy. The insects loathe the aunts and their hilltop home as much as James. although because it is now lighter the seagulls are able to pull it quicker through the air. almost hitting it. orange-coloured. which had previously never given fruit. indeed a certain peach grows to the size of a large house. James quickly befriends the insect inhabitants of the peach. mysteriously. also transformed by the magic of the green tongues. and the seagulls take the giant peach great distances. believing the city is about to be destroyed. The man promises that if James mixes the contents of the sack with a jug of water and ten hairs from his own head. the result will be a magic potion which. The people on the 86th floor observation deck at first believe the inhabitants of the giant peach to be monsters or Martians. "Cloud-Men". believing it to be a floating. an army of Cloud-Men appear from the cloud and pelt the giant peach with hail so fiercely and powerfully that the peach is severely damaged. The peach rolls through villages. As the sun rises. At night the aunts shove James outside to collect rubbish from the crowd. knows all about James's plight and gives him a sack of tiny glowing-green crocodile tongues. is enough the carry him away from the peach as Cloud-Men are weightless. moonlit clouds. the peach is attacked by a swarm of hundreds of sharks. fire. The seagulls are then tied to the broken stem of the fruit using spiderwebs from the Spider and strings of white silk from the Silkworm. but it is saved when it is impaled upon the tip of the Empire State Building. The seagulls free. There the inhabitants of the peach see a group of magical ghost-like figures living within the clouds. the loud-mouthed Centipede berates the Cloud-Men for making snowy weather in the summertime. police. squashing Spiker and Sponge flat in its wake. infuriating them even further. James discovers a band of rag-tag anthropomorphic insects. not far from the Azores. and a famous chocolate factory before falling off the cliffs and into the sea. and begins to blossom. and people begin running to air raid shelters and subway stations. they merely carry it higher and higher. and panic. and they were waiting for him to join them so they can escape together. thousands of feet in the air. The peach floats in the English Channel. One summer afternoon when he is crying in the bushes. On the way back to the house. The people below see the giant peach suspended in the air by a swarm of hundreds of seagulls. but James asks the Centipede to bite through some of the strings. who control the weather. The tree becomes enchanted through the tongues. The military.

A lazy. anthropomorphic insects he meets in the giant peach.A dominating. it is revealed that he becomes Vice-President-in-Charge-of-Sales of a high-class firm of boot and shoe . all now James's friends. the mysterious old man can be seen in the final illustration hiding amongst the New York City crowd. taking an almost brotherly role to the boy. or shining them. However.The protagonist of the book. Sponge is more or less dominated by Aunt Spiker. In the 1996 film. It was the Centipede who set the peach in motion by biting through the stem which connected it to the peach tree. which becomes an open tourist attraction and the ever-friendly James has all the friends he has ever wanted. who derives a sadistic pleasure in manipulating and tormenting young James. who she sees as nothing more than a slave.A friendly yet mysterious wizard who is only seen once. Spiker is described as tall and thin . the peach's other former residents. He is generally optimistic and even brave yet also loud-mouthed and rash. and thoroughly repulsive lady. which gets himself and his companions into some bad situations. allowing James to begin his surreal journey and escape his evil aunts in the process. In the last chapter of the book. selfish. • The Old Man . He wants nothing more than to have friends and be happy. in the form of the magical.almost emaciated . • Aunt Sponge . James lives out the rest of his life in the giant peach stone. Something of a dreamer. Nonetheless they trip up over each other and meet the same end. depicted as a boisterous rascal with a good heart. malicious. it is revealed that the giant hollowed-out stone which had once been at the center of the peach is now a mansion located in Central Park. The wizard is not seen again after his encounter with James. James is a seven-year-old orphaned boy who is forced into the care of his repulsive and abusive aunts. • The Centipede . but his powerful jaws also save them on a few occasions. James finally stands up to them and ties them up with the Spider's thread. clever and ever-resourceful throughout his adventure in the giant peach. he actually has only forty-two). each singing praises of their imagined beauty while they are in fact repulsive. Meanwhile.James and the Giant Peach and explains his story. and equally as cruel and repulsive as her sister Spiker. cruel. greedy. The Centipede has an ego for many things including being the only actual pest of the group and his number of legs (he claims to have a hundred. all go on to find very interesting futures in the world of humans. however. • Aunt Spiker . she and Sponge survive being crushed by the peach and pursue James to New York. and James gets what he wanted for three long years . and also starts the adventure when he gives James a bag full of magical gems. also in the 1996 film she also has the same fate as her sister. In the last chapter of the book and after the destruction of the peach. Spiker and Sponge. he gets more than he wished for in the form of millions of playmates in New York City. His wish is eventually granted. Both she and her sister Sponge are vain. and morbidly fat woman.An anthropomorphic male centipede. Sponge is more gluttonous. By the end of his adventure. The police then take them away. battered remains of the giant peach are brought down to the streets by steeplejacks. However in the 1996 re-printing of the book. It is these magical items which enchant the giant peach and its insect inhabitants. yet is ultimately behind all of magical occurrences in the book. but attempts to save her own life instead of Spiker when she sees the giant peach rolling towards her. he is perhaps James' closest friend among the insects. She meets her end when she is crushed to death as the giant peach rolls over her. nonetheless. with illustrations by Lane Smith. and his intuitive plans save his and his friends' lives on more than one occasion. after his parents are killed by a rhinocerous. James never hears either Aunt Spiker laugh out loud during his three years with them. or taking them off. but as his nemesis the Earthworm points out. They are given a welcoming home parade. He often asks for help with putting on his many boots.with steel glasses. where its delicious flesh is eaten up by ten thousand children. which his aunts deny him.playmates in the form of millions of potential new childhood friends. James sees this as far worse than any abuse they give him. the anthropomorphic insects. thinking of eating the peach while Spiker seizes upon the money-making opportunities it will bring. the people hail James and his insect friends as heroes. 254 Characters • James Henry Trotter . James is. The skewered. but each attacks the other's repulsiveness.

• The Old Green Grasshopper . In the 1996 film. and having nine spots. who had been haunted all her life by the fear that her house was on fire and her children all gone. although he loves life more than the rest of the inhabitants of the peach and is a passionate musician. The Earthworm is paranoid and has an extreme phobia of birds . and with a much more bleak and pessimistic outlook which causes much of the trouble between him and the more jovial Centipede. It is also shown that she may have feelings for the Centipede. Miss Spider makes hammocks using her webs for the rest of the insects to sleep in (the Earthworm uses a much longer bed than the rest). it is revealed that he becomes a member of the New York Symphony Orchestra where his playing is greatly admired. where she saves New York from an enormous electric bill by illuminating the Statue of Liberty's torch. His career is the most like the novel next to the Glowworm. She explains that the more black spots a ladybird has on the red shell. and often imagines that things are worse than they really are. and at the end of the film he is seen running for mayor. In the last chapter of the book and after the destruction of the peach. black and murderous-looking head. The film also implies he has feelings for the Spider. 255 .although being an Earthworm. as all the other careers of the insects are vastly different. and a newspaper clipping has the headline "Dr Ladybird delivers 1000th baby: Expectant mothers love Ladybird: Baby boom kids in expert hands". the more respectable and intelligent they are. she is therefore very respectable and intelligent. anthropomorphic female glowworm.An anthropomorphic female spider not unlike the Ladybug in personality and generally friendly and decent in manner. • The Earthworm . The Earthworm does however become an unwitting hero when he begrudgingly saves himself and the other inhabitants of the peach. this phobia is not unfounded. Her webs are very strong and it is her webs. although he is generally more sophisticated (and certainly more optimistic than the Earthworm). she quietly hangs from the ceiling in the hollowed-out stone at the center of the giant peach and provides lighting for the interior of the fruit in the form of a bright green bioluminescence.A six-legged. motherly anthropomorphic female ladybird who takes care of James as if he were her son. Centipede is also an important role for James. • The Ladybird . with whom he frequently argues. In the 1996 film. playing a violin from his own legs and providing music for his companions. After this the Earthworm becomes something of a celebrity and appears on commercials and on television. In the 1996 film. Her ending is exactly the same in the 1996 film. The Old Green Grasshopper takes something of a fatherly role to James and is depicted as elderly. married the head of the New York Fire Department and lived happily ever after with him. The Earthworm is not without a warm. She has particular resentment towards Spiker and Sponge especially Sponge. He is also blind (having no eyes. and tells that she is pioneering new techniques. They use him as bait to lure in over five hundred seagulls. the Labybug becomes a well-recommended maternity nurse. which tie the flock of seagulls to the stem of the giant peach and enable it to be lifted out of the sea and into the air. • Miss Spider . A newspaper cutting at the end of the 1996 movie adaptation shows the Earthworm in an advert as a smooth spokesman for skin cream. An incessantly sleepy character. like in the novel.An anthropomorphic male grasshopper. who is responsible for the cruel deaths of Miss Spider's father and grandmother. In the last chapter of the book and after the destruction of the peach. it is revealed that the Ladybird. he has a Brooklyn accent and argues with Grasshopper rather than Earthworm. which to a stranger was probably the most terrifying of all". along with silk from the Silkworm. described by Dahl as having "a large. Miss Spider is a more youthful. • The Glowworm . wearing Stevie Wonder-type blind glasses with two attractive women standing by.An anthropomorphic male earthworm who is more or less enemies with the Centipede.A good-natured. but unlike the book. escaping the sharks. The Earthworm is depicted as a much less physical character than the Centipede. she doesn't speak often and is slow to move. his violin is an actual violin however. he is seen to get along well with James. like any earthworm). In the 1996 film. sultry version of her counterpart in the novel.James and the Giant Peach manufacturers. which are then tied to the stem and used to hoist the peach out of the sea and away from sharks. his personality has aspects of both the Centipede and the Earthworm. affectionate side. and opens a nightclub called the Spider Club at the end of the movie.

The movie is a combination of live action and stop-motion due to costs. librarycareers. Entertainment Weekly. 1996. cfm& ContentID=85714)."[8] The movie was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Original Musical or Comedy Score (by Randy Newman). Silkworm does not appear in the 1996 film as a part of the Peach crew. close-upfilm. his widow. "I think Roald would have been delighted with what they did with James. Often asleep. . bcdb. It won Best Animated Feature Film at the Annecy International Animated Film Festival. co. mainly a symbol of James' fear and how he overcomes it. Darren Horne. Hornswogglers or even Vermicious Knids. uk/ 1/ hi/ uk/ 4079720. Snozzwangers. cfm?Section=bbwlinks& Template=/ ContentManagement/ ContentDisplay. who both also had worked on the movie The Nightmare Before Christmas which was also a Disney project. 2011 [8] Gleiberman. htm).James and the Giant Peach • The Silkworm . [7] " James And The Giant Peach (http:/ / www. pdf) Puffin Books [3] Clarie Heald (11 June 2005) Chocolate doors thrown open to Dahl (http:/ / news. [6] Evans. • Rhinoceros . ew. All of those animals (except the last) are mentioned by Willy Wonka to live in Loompaland. Liccy Dahl said that.a reference to Willy Wonka's chocolate factory (the illustration even depicts the word "WONKA" on the side of the building). filling in for the absent Cloud-Men. although the film was generally well received. The film uses the rhino as a recurring theme.[5] It was directed by Henry Selick and produced by Denise Di Novi and Tim Burton. and feature in the sequel book. Chloe. html)". Vermicious Knids are extraterrestrials. people in New York City accuse the passengers aboard the peach to be Whangdoodles.292168. but instead in James' dream sequence. stm) BBC News [4] The 100 Most Frequently Challenged Books of 1990–2000 (http:/ / www. arguably replaced by a scene with skeleton pirates. When the peach rolls off the tree. co.[7] There are numerous changes between the plot of the film and the plot of the book. The film was released on April 12. References [1] http:/ / worldcat. Retrieved 2008-12-09. who throw rocks and supplies at the peach after Centipede taunts them.com. Noah Wolfgram. Liccy Dahl. Towards the end of the book.. bbc. but two cloud men appear dancing together in the "Family" number of the film.com. com/ Features/ henryselick. American Library Association. "Layers: A Look at Henry Selick" (http:/ / www.Are minor antagonists. 256 References in the book to other Roald Dahl works James and the Giant Peach possibly references Charlie and the Chocolate Factory in the beginning and end of the novel (although its copyright date is 3 years earlier). but calling the live-action segments "crude. html). The film displays the rhino as a monsterous cloud-like creature. org/ oclc/ 50568125 [2] Roald Dahl Fact Sheet: Puffin play ground (http:/ / www. she helps Miss Spider to make ropes for the seagulls. digitalmediafx. "Roald Dahl: From Page to Screen" (http:/ / www.00. which is also the home of Oompa-Loompas. Retrieved 2008-12-12. com/ ew/ article/ 0. ."[5] Owen Gleiberman of Entertainment Weekly gave the film a positive review. com/ cartoon/ 23587-James_And_The_Giant_Peach. html).[6] It was narrated by Pete Postlethwaite (who also played the wizard). . Her appearance somewhat represents James.A mad rhino that escaped from a zoo and killed James' parents. Owen. [5] Roberts. Charlie and the Great Glass Elevator. it rolls through a "famous chocolate factory". uk/ static/ puffinplayground/ childrensactivities/ downloadspdfs/ RoaldDahl/ DAHL_FACTSHEET4.A female anthropomorphic Silkworm. consented to let a film adaptation be made in conjunction with Disney in the mid-1990s. "PITS A WONDERFUL LIFE" (http:/ / www. bcdb. They never appear in the film as a plot device. March 23. the Film version Although Roald Dahl turned down more than one offer to make an animated film of James and the Giant Peach during his lifetime. close-upfilm. org/ Template. Retrieved 2008-12-12. a possible reference to hibernation. praising the animated part. . puffin. com/ features/ Featuresarchive/ roalddahl. • Cloud Men .

1994) ISBN 0-14-034269-9 (paperback. 1990) ISBN 0-394-81282-4 (hardcover.James and the Giant Peach • • • • • ISBN 0-14-037156-7 (paperback. 1961) 257 . 1961) ISBN 0-394-81282-9 (library binding. 1995) ISBN 1-55734-441-8 (paperback.

and he is made "the king of all wild things". in 2009. a 1980 opera. originally published by Harper & Row. In his room.[2] Plot The book tells the story of Max. and Max sails to the land of the Wild Things. but Max proves to be the fiercest. However. the book has sold over 19 million copies worldwide as of 2008. . who one evening plays around his home making "mischief" in a wolf costume. a live-action feature film adaptation directed by Spike Jonze. and. As punishment. dancing with the monsters in a "wild rumpus". wild forest and sea grows out of his imagination. The book has been adapted into other media several times. he soon finds himself lonely and homesick and returns home to his bedroom where he finds his supper waiting for him still hot.Where the Wild Things Are 258 Where the Wild Things Are Where the Wild Things Are Cover of Where the Wild Things Are Author(s) Illustrator Cover artist Country Genre(s) Publisher Publication date Media type Pages ISBN OCLC Number Maurice Sendak Maurice Sendak Maurice Sendak United States Children's picture book Harper & Row 1963 Children's Literature 48 pages ISBN 0-06-025492-0 26605019 [1] LC Classification MLCM 2006/43328 (P) Where the Wild Things Are is a 1963 children's picture book by American writer and illustrator Maurice Sendak. According to HarperCollins. his mother sends him to bed without supper. a mysterious.[3] conquering them by "staring into all their yellow eyes without blinking once". The Wild Things are fearsome-looking monsters. including an animated short in 1973 (with an updated version in 1988).

and manage to come to grips with the realities of their lives. Prague for Weston Woods Studios.[12] [13] He indicated that the three books are "all variations on the same theme: how children master various feelings . Emile and Bernard."[10] New York Times film critic Manohla Dargis noted that "there are different ways to read the wild things.[15] In the 1980s Sendak worked with British composer Oliver Knussen on a children's opera based on the book. his publisher suggested the switch when she discovered that Sendak could not draw horses. jealousy .[7] A graffito depicting a scene from the book. but thought that he "could at the very least draw 'a thing'!"[4] He replaced the horses with caricatures of his aunts and uncles. Aaron. Where the Wild Things Are.[9] Mary Pols of Time magazine wrote that "[w]hat makes Sendak's book so compelling is its grounding effect: Max has a tantrum and in a flight of fancy visits his wild side.[5] [6] When working on the opera adaptation of the book with Oliver Knussen. use of the psychoanalytic story of anger". boredom. Lanes's book The Art of Maurice Sendak. It took about two years for librarians and teachers to realize that children were flocking to the book. . According to Sendak.' balancing the seesaw of fear and comfort. with narration by Allen Swift and a musique concrète score composed by Deitch. through a Freudian or colonialist prism. Canada.Where the Wild Things Are 259 Development history The original concept for the book featured horses instead of monsters. but he is pulled back by a belief in parental love to a supper 'still hot. in Kelsey-Woodlawn. Sendak gave the monsters the names of his relatives: Tzippy.[8] Since then. SK. at first the book was banned in libraries and received negative reviews. Francis Spufford suggests that the book is "one of the very few picture books to make an entirely deliberate. Sendak discusses Where the Wild Things Are along with his other books In the Night Kitchen and Outside Over There as a sort of trilogy centered on children's growth. Canada. Literary significance According to Sendak. and for critics to relax their views."[11] In Selma G. and beautiful. change and fury. fear. Two versions were released: the original 1973 version. whom he had studied critically in his youth as an escape from their weekly visits to his family's Brooklyn home. in Saskatoon. Moishe.danger. checking it out over and over again. and probably as many ways to ruin this delicate story of a solitary child liberated by his imagination."[12] The book was awarded the Caldecott Medal in 1964. survival. the first complete performance of the final version was given by the Glyndebourne Touring Opera in London in 1984. Saskatoon. frustration. it has received high critical acclaim.[14] Adaptations In 1973 the book was adapted into an animated short directed by Gene Deitch at Krátký Film.[7] The opera received its first (incomplete) performance in Brussels in 1980. and an updated version in 1988 with new music and narration by Peter Schickele. This was A graffito depicting a scene from the book.

2009. A concert performance was given at The Proms in the Royal Albert Hall. com/ the-simpsons/ the-girl-who-slept-too-little/ episode/ 392639/ trivia. Matthew (February 4.8599. publishersweekly. London in 2002. 2009). A concert production will be produced by New York City Opera in spring 2011. com/ disney/ early-cg-experiments-by-john-lasseter-and-glen-keane. 2009. Retrieved on August 27. com/ aa/ 5aa/ 5aa307. [13] Gottlieb. 2009. Retrieved October 18. tfaoi. 2009. "Some of His Best Friends Are Beasts" (http:/ / www. 46. "Maurice Sendak's Trilogy: Disappointment. "Books Of The Times" (http:/ / www. . Retrieved 2011-10-05.S. com/ underwire/ 2009/ 10/ review-where-the-wild-things-are-is-woolly-but-not-wild-enough/ ) by Hugh Hart.Present (http:/ / www. Retrieved October 05. html?bl). 2005. The New York Times. The animated series The Simpsons made allusion to Sendak's book in the season 17 episode "The Girl Who Slept Too Little". [12] Lehmann-Haupt. 2009. 2009. 2008) "Wild Things All Over" (http:/ / www. [4] Warrick. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child 63: 186–217. and Forest Whitaker providing the voices of the principal Wild Things. Mary (October 14. wired. htm). They would visit his house in Brooklyn when he was growing up ("All crazy – crazy faces and wild eyes") and pinch his cheeks until they were red. com/ time/ arts/ article/ 0. 2011.[19] 260 Notes [1] http:/ / worldcat. 2009. Strauss and New Works" (http:/ / www. html) [18] Sperling. [17] Early CG Experiments by John Lasseter and Glen Keane (http:/ / www. com). "For New York City Opera Season. Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved October 16. [15] The Tennessean. . com/ 1981/ 06/ 01/ books/ books-of-the-times-139237. . wired. The New York Times. with Lauren Ambrose. 2008). html?scp=1& sq=where the wild things are opera& st=cse). tv. [10] Pols. nytimes. Emma (2011-10-02). com/ book_reviews/ view_one_review/ 2292). Chris Cooper. . [14] American Library Association: Caldecott Medal Winners. ew. pep-web. [8] Sendek. ala. Fury. 2009. Catherine O'Hara. Retrieved August 28. com/ 2010/ 03/ 10/ arts/ music/ 10opera. org/ street_children/ world/ sendak. The Guardian (London). Richard M (2008). James Gandolfini. 063. Retrieved October 12.August 14. PMID 19449794. The New York Times. Publishers Weekly [3] "Where the Wild Things Are (review)" (http:/ / bluerectangle. Minnesota in 1985 and the New York premiere by New York City Opera in 1987. p. [17] The live-action film version Where the Wild Things Are is directed by Spike Jonze. "'Where the Wild Things Are' gets long-awaited release date" (http:/ / hollywoodinsider. Nicole (September 11. html). cartoonbrew. 0538254:b28340676& xid=Loomia). "monsters from Wild Things were based on his own relatives. . the take on the book was titled The Land of Wild Beasts. [11] Dargis. 70. org/ oclc/ 26605019 [2] Thornton. time. Time magazine. 1938 . co. [6] Brockes. and Their Transformation through Art" (http:/ / www. April 15 .com (http:/ / wired.00. "Bach in Black" by Russell Johnston [16] Wakin. Maurice (October 16. org/ ala/ mgrps/ divs/ alsc/ awardsgrants/ bookmedia/ caldecottmedal/ caldecottwinners/ caldecottmedal. (March 10. php?id=psc. html . 1993) "Facing the Frightful Things" (http:/ / www. Sendak was one of the producers for the film. Accessed May 27. Daniel J.tfaoi. www. [9] Spufford.com. com/ 2008/ 09/ wild-things. com/ 2009/ 10/ 16/ movies/ 16where. The soundtrack was written and produced by Karen O and Carter Burwell. Nashville Scene p. It was released on October 16. html). 2009) in a video from "Review: Where the Wild Things Are Is Woolly.[16] In 1983 the Walt Disney Studio conducted a series of tests of Computer-generated imagery created by Glen Keane and John Lasseter using as their subject Where the Wild Things Are. cfm). The screenplay was adapted by Spike Jonze and Dave Eggers. guardian. 60. March 12. nytimes.1930148. uk/ books/ 2011/ oct/ 02/ maurice-sendak-interview). In the episode. But Not Wild Enough" (http:/ / www. 2008. Paul Dano. 0186a). The screenplay was novelized by Dave Eggers as The Wild Things. Christopher (June 1. performance in Saint Paul.[18] The film stars Max Records as Max and features Catherine Keener as his mother. 2009) "Where the Wild Things Are: Sendak with Sensitivity" (http:/ / www. published in 2009. . Los Angeles Times. html). Retrieved September 12. [19] http:/ / www.Where the Wild Things Are followed by its first U." [7] Burns. html?loomia_si=t0:a16:g2:r3:c0. org/ document. 2010). Manohla (October 16. htm). [5] "Wild Things: The Art of Maurice Sendak" (http:/ / www. nytimes. "Maurice Sendak: 'I refuse to lie to children'" (http:/ / www. pangaea. Retrieved December 30. Pamela (October 11. p. Bernstein. .2009. 1981). com/ article/ CA6528120.

pbs. The Child That Books Built.youtube. Francis (2002).org/now/arts/sendak. • Spufford. External links • Where the Wild Things Are (1973) (http://www.Early Disney CG Animation Test (http://www.Where the Wild Things Are 261 References • Burns. Tom (Ed. Faber.imdb.com/title/tt1288496/) at the Internet Movie Database • Where the Wild Things Are (2009) (http://www. Children's Literature Review 131.com/title/tt0386117/) at the Internet Movie Database • NOW on PBS (http://www.html) WATCH: Bill Moyers and Maurice Sendak discuss the inspiration behind "Where the Wild Things Are" and where mischievous Max might be today.) (2008).com/ watch?v=LvIDRoO8KnM) .imdb. • Where The Wild Things Are .

. The book's sequel. Augustus Gloop (a boy who eats constantly). Cadbury would often send test packages to the schoolchildren in exchange for their opinions on the new products. machines in the factory that inspired Dahl to write the story. Each child will win a lifetime supply of chocolate after the factory tour. Knopf. posing as employees. Willy Wonka. in 1964 and in the United Kingdom by George Allen & Unwin in 1967. who lives in extreme poverty with his extended family. Although. and his adventures inside the chocolate factory of Willy Wonka. Knopf. The story features the adventures of young Charlie Bucket inside the chocolate factory of the eccentric chocolatier. The book was adapted into two major motion pictures: Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory in 1971. was written by Roald Dahl in 1972. At that time (around the 1920s). Charlie and the Chocolate Factory was first published in the United States by Alfred A. both companies became highly protective of their chocolate making processes. Violet Beauregarde (a girl who chews gum all day). Charlie and the Great Glass Elevator. it wasn't closed forever and one day he decided to allow five children to visit the factory. Dahl had also planned to write a third book in the series but never finished it. The children have to find one of the five golden tickets hidden inside the wrapping paper of random Wonka bars.Charlie and the Chocolate Factory 262 Charlie and the Chocolate Factory Charlie and the Chocolate Factory First edition cover of the UK version Author(s) Illustrator Roald Dahl Joseph Schindelman (original) Quentin Blake (1998 editions onwards) United Kingdom English Children's Fantasy novel Alfred A. Inc. Because of this. and Charlie Bucket win tickets and visit the factory. Cadbury and Rowntree's were England's two largest chocolate makers and they each often tried to steal trade secrets by sending spies. Mike Teavee (a boy who loves to watch television). so he eventually closed the factory to the public. Paperback) 155 0-394-91011-7 9318922 [1] Charlie and the Great Glass Elevator Charlie and the Chocolate Factory is a 1964 children's book by British author Roald Dahl. Willy Wonka opened the largest chocolate factory in the world. but spies stole his recipes.[3] Plot The story centers around an average boy named Charlie Bucket. Veruca Salt (a girl who is spoiled). into the other's factory. Fifteen years prior to the beginning of the story. Inc. (original) Penguin Books (current) Country Language Genre(s) Publisher Publication date 1964 Media type Pages ISBN OCLC Number Followed by Print (Hardback.[2] The story was originally inspired by Roald Dahl's experience of chocolate companies during his schooldays. It was a combination of this secrecy and the elaborate. and Charlie and the Chocolate Factory in 2005. often gigantic.

In the chapter. allegedly one of several other children who Dahl originally created for the book but had to cut out due to size constraints." "Accidents" happen while on the guided tour. Veruca and her parents are covered with garbage. and a TV studio-like room with a giant "Wonkavision" camera. pygmy-like men called Oompa-Loompas. which enrages Miranda and her father. and any other ways you can think of. Though the children got punished in accordance to their vices. The factory is staffed by small. tries some of his three-course-dinner gum in the R&D department and swells up like a blueberry upon reaching the blueberry pie dessert. as each child and their parents are driving away in a truck full of Wonka chocolate. Violet is drained of her blueberry juice but her face is tinged purple. Piker that they were surely ground into Spotty Powder. a nut-sorting room with an army of trained squirrels that sort the good nuts from the bad. was published. they witness the other four children returning home. sideways. and storm into the secret room where it is made. Wonka introduces the group to a new sweet that will make children temporarily appear sick so they can miss school that day. and were indeed needed all along for the recipe. Veruca tries to grab one of the trained squirrels that Wonka uses to crack nuts in The Nut Room and is thrown into the garbage chute in the direction of the incinerator (her parents are pushed in soon after). ignoring Wonka's advice. and Mike is overstretched and is now overtall and extremely skinny. Two screams are heard and Wonka agrees with the distraught Mrs. Mike tries to use the Wonkavision machine. Wonka wanting to pass his factory on to someone else but wanting to choose a child so that he won't have to deal with an adult trying to do things his way rather than learn from Wonka's experience.[4] . where everything is made of candy and there is a chocolate lake in the middle. The pipe has made Augustus thin as a straw. wins the prize: he will one day take over the factory from Wonka. Charlie and Grandpa Joe then travel in the elevator to Charlie's house to fetch the rest of his family. A pink Viking sugar boat and a special glass elevator (with walls covered in buttons) take the tour group from room to room. which can teleport giant bars of chocolate into people's homes through their television. 263 Lost chapter In 2005. as they had to "use one or two schoolmasters occasionally or it wouldn’t work." He then reassures Mrs. Piker is escorted to the boiler room by the Oompa-Loompas. Augustus falls in the chocolate lake and gets accidentally sucked up and taken away to the room where they make the most delicious kind of strawberry-flavoured chocolate-coated fudge.and ends up shrunken to about 6 inches high. Wonka. As they float in the air. being the only child left and the one Wonka likes the most. which had been removed during the editing of the book as it seemed too gruesome for younger readers. a "teacher's pet" with a headmaster father. including a chocolate-mixing room that looks like a huge garden. The chapter featured the elimination of Miranda Piker. Charlie and Grandpa Joe board the Great Glass Elevator. which bursts through the roof. a very short chapter entitled "Spotty Powder". Wonka does honor the terms of each Golden Ticket holder: a lifetime supply of Wonka candies. Wonka. Mrs. Piker that he was joking.a machine that sends chocolate bars via television and allows someone to literally take the bar from the screen. slantways. They vow to stop the candy from being sold. Violet. a research and development room with dozens of complex machines designing new forms of candy. Charlie.Charlie and the Chocolate Factory The factory is full of strange and fantastical rooms. the elevator can go "up and down. who sing a short song about how delicious Miranda's classmates will find her.

. Hair Toffee.Charlie and the Chocolate Factory 264 Main rooms There are four main rooms that the tour goes through. and Wonka's greatest idea so far. pumpkins filled with sugar cubes instead of seeds. This room is where Wonka uses trained squirrels to break open good walnuts for use in his sweets. However. with large geese laying golden chocolate eggs. There are trees made of taffy that grow jelly apples. The Chocolate Room The Chocolate Room is the first room the group enters. even the grass. the nut sorting room is an egg room. Wonka assures her father that she could be stuck on top of the garbage chute and they quickly enter the Nut Room. and spotty candy cubes. and blueberry pie and ice cream". though he forbids them to enter. Veruca Salt desperately wants a squirrel. but it rejects her as a "bad nut" and an army of squirrels haul her across the floor and throw her down the garbage chute. once the chewer gets to the dessert. the side effect is that they turn into a giant "blueberry. then send it to other rooms of the factory. The main icon of the room is the Chocolate River. Wonka had an Oompa-Loompa take Mrs. jelly bean stalks. "There is no other factory in the world that mixes its chocolate by waterfall. roast beef and baked potato. All bad walnuts are thrown down in a garbage chute which leads to an incinerator that is lit every other day. such as the Fudge Room as Augustus Gloop is sucked into that pipe after falling into the river while drinking from it. Willy Wonka proclaims. They pass many other rooms but don't go in. such as Everlasting Gobstoppers. Violet is subsequently taken to the Juicing Room so that the juice can be removed from her immediately. She tries to grab a squirrel for herself. losing one child at a time. This room is home to Wonka's new—and still insufficiently tested—candies." Pipes that hang on the ceiling come down and suck up the chocolate. Also. mushrooms that spurt whipped cream. the squirrels rush up behind him and push him in. Three-Course Dinner Chewing Gum. there is a boat that is operated by Oompa-Loompas which takes the tour on a Chocolate River Ride. The sorting mechanism is the same. This candy is a three course dinner all in itself. In the 1971 film version. Wonka allows the party to rest briefly outside the Nut Room. the 2005 film version followed the original storyline with Veruca wanting a squirrel and being rejected and thrown down a garbage chute to the incinerator that is lit every Tuesday. As Mr. Gloop to the Fudge Room to look for her son. bushes that sprout lollipops. Luckily for Veruca and her father. but Veruca places herself on the mechanism while trying to get a goose. The tour then leaves the Inventing Room. The Nut Room After an exhausting jog down a series of corridors. "Tomato soup. where the chocolate is mixed and churned by the waterfall. Wonka is told by by an Oompa-Loompa that the incinerator is broken allowing three weeks of rotten garbage to break their fall. Salt leans over the hole to look for Veruca. but must not be touched by human hands. the bushes. It is said that everything in this room is edible: the pavements." This happens to Violet Beauregarde after she rashly grabs and consumes the experimental gum. However. containing. but becomes furious when Wonka tells her she cannot have one. The Inventing Room The Inventing Room is the second room that the tour goes through.

"Makes the person who sucked them feel as warm as toast" • • • • • • • • • • • • • Square Candies that Look Round • Stickjaw for Talkative Parents - . you taste it in your mouth!" Mint Jujubes for the Boy Next Door . Wonka suggests that he be put through the Gum Stretcher. When Veruca Salt criticizes Wonka for making up a "Snozzberry" flavour. Television Chocolate. In the 1971 version. he tells her "We are the music makers. this was the event that nearly caused Charlie to be expelled from the contest. and attempts to send himself through television."They'll give him green teeth for a month!" Pishlets for children who can't whistle Rainbow Drops . Mike Teavee is stretched by the Taffy Puller. In the 1971 and 2005 film versions. the Wonkavator heads pass a room where pink sheep are being sheered of their wool.000 feet deep!" Scarlet Scorchdroppers . Charlie takes the newly shrunk bar (Mike believes the bar is just an image on a screen). The Oompa Loompas escort the Teavee family to the Gum Stretcher. • • • • • • • • • • • Butterscotch and Buttergin Candy-Coated Pencils for Sucking in Class Cavity-Filling Caramels ." Cows that give Chocolate Milk Devils Drenchers to set your breath alight Eatable Marshmallow Pillows Exploding Candy for your Enemies Fizzy Lemonade Swimming Pools Fizzy Lifting Drinks ."No more dentists!" Coconut-Ice Skating Rinks Cotton Candy Sheep . notably Vitamin Wonka. then send it through the air in a million pieces to appear in a television." Luminous Lollies for in Bed at Night Magic Hand-Fudge . Willy Wonka just quoted "I'd rather not talk about this one. and even consumed. Mike's mother accompanies him to the factory. At Wonka's behest. This room had Charlie and Grandpa Joe drinking the concoction that nearly caused them to be chopped up by fan blades at the top of the room.Charlie and the Chocolate Factory 265 The Television Room The Television Room is home to Wonka's latest invention. Fudge Mountain .Featured in the 1971 film. while his father accompanies him in the 2005 film. Mike Teavee is amazed at this new discovery.This was included in the 1971 film. In the latter film. and we are the dreamers of dreams. Other rooms Other rooms. but they escaped by burping repeatedly until they were safe on the ground."When you hold it in your hand. but stretched impossibly thin.In the 2005 film. Each is given the name of the product it contains."10. which will make his toes as long as his fingers "so he can play piano with his feet". Subsequently. which is presumably made or extracted there.This is where the Oompa-Loompas mine chocolate fudge in the Mountain Glumptious Globgobblers . though they didn't find out until after the tour. as he is ridiculously tall."All the perfumed juices go squirting down your throat" Hot Ice Creams for Cold Days Invisible Chocolate Bars for Eating in Class Lickable Wallpaper for Nurseries . mentioned but not visited."Suck them and you can spit in seven different colors!" Rock-Candy Mine . The bar can be taken from the screen. are listed below in alphabetical order. He also planned to give him vitamins. where they take a giant bar of Wonka chocolate and shrink it. the consequence of his restoration is shown. resulting in him being shrunk down to be no more than an inch high. where he tests the stretchiness of gum.

directed by Mel Stuart. with the "antagonists" not being adults or monsters (as is the case even for most of Dahl's books) but the naughty children. and Peter Ostrum as Charlie Bucket. film director Tim Burton states. Wolper and starring Gene Wilder as Willy Wonka. a number of prominent individuals have spoken critically of the novel over the years. the United Kingdom. and Oceania that uses the book's characters and imagery for its marketing. the film had an estimated budget of $2. titled Charlie and the Chocolate Factory and directed by Tim Burton. Ireland and Brazil. "I responded to Charlie and the Chocolate Factory because it respected the fact that children can be adults". It was distributed by Warner Bros. Europe. has described the book as "fantasy of an almost literally nauseating kind" and accused it of "astonishing insensitivity" regarding the original portrayal of the Oompa-Loompas as black pygmies. Eleanor Cameron. compared the book to the candy that forms its subject matter. Children' novelist and literary historian. The . grossing about $470 million worldwide with an estimated budget of $150 million. Le Guin voiced her support for this assessment in a letter to Cameron. a line of candies was introduced by the Quaker Oats Company in North America. New Zealand. the United Kingdom. A fan of the book since childhood.[5] although Dahl did revise this later. Australia.[11] In 1985. the candies are produced in the United States.9 million. commenting that it is "delectable and soothing while we are undergoing the brief sensory pleasure it affords but leaves us poorly nourished with our taste dulled for better fare".[8] [9] Accolades • • • • Blue Peter Book Award (UK 2000) Millennium Children's Book Award (UK 2000) New England Round Table of Children's Librarians Award (USA 1972) Surrey School Award (UK 1973) Adaptations The book was first made into a feature film as a musical titled Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory. The 1971 and 2005 films are consistent with the written work to varying degrees.[7] Defenders of the book have pointed out it was unusual for its time in being quite dark for a children's book.Charlie and the Chocolate Factory • Strawberry-Juice Water Pistols • Toffee-Apple Trees for Planting out in your Garden • Wriggle-Sweets that Wriggle Delightfully in your Tummy after Swallowing The 2005 film also included a Puppet Hospital and Burn Clinic as well as the Administration Offices (where the female Oompa-Loompas work) when the Great Glass Elevator passes by them. However. Presently sold in the United States.[6] Ursula K. The film grossed only $4 million and. was still considered a box-office disappointment. is the current owner). character actor Jack Albertson as Grandpa Joe. as well as repeated television airings. while it passed its budget. who receive sadistic revenges in the end. "Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory: From Inauspicious Debut to Timeless classic". Another novelist. was released on 15 July 2005. 266 Reception Although the book has always been popular and considered a children's classic by many literary critics. as was noted in an article entitled. Released worldwide on 30 June 1971 and distributed by Paramount Pictures (Warner Bros. exponential home video and DVD sales.[10] Concurrently with the 1971 film. the Charlie and the Chocolate Factory video game was released for the ZX Spectrum by developers Soft Option Ltd and publisher Hill MacGibbon. produced by David L. the Czech Republic. by Nestlé. this version starred Johnny Depp as Willy Wonka and Freddie Highmore as Charlie Bucket. The Brad Grey production was a hit. New Zealand and Canada. the film has since developed into a cult classic. Another film version. John Rowe Townsend.

London: Times Online. where they join Willy Wonka as they travel the factory. timesonline. Alton Towers. "McLuhan. Ursula K. . html) The Daily Telegraph [3] Bathroom Readers' Institute. 1976) ISBN 0-553-15097-9 (paperback. 2005. and Literature: Part I" (http:/ / www. These are often titled Willy Wonka or Willy Wonka Jr. com/ magazine/ articles/ 1970s/ oct72_cameron. 1992. (April 1973). uk/ tol/ arts_and_entertainment/ books/ article546539. 2005-07-23.Charlie and the Chocolate Factory Burton film. most often as plays or musicals for children. [6] Cameron.[13] On 1 April 2006. Plexus. 1–3. 1988) ISBN 0-89966-904-2 (library binding. . 1998) ISBN 0-375-81526-0 (hardcover.177. hbook. illustrated by Michael Foreman) ISBN 1-85089-902-9 (hardcover. 2001) ISBN 0-375-91526-5 (library binding. ." Uncle John's Fast-Acting Long-Lasting Bathroom Reader. 2010. It is expected to premiere in 2013 in London. Eleanor (1972). In the final stage of the ride. 1985.[12] The Estate of Roald Dahl also sanctioned an operatic adaptation of Charlie and The Chocolate Factory called The Golden Ticket. uk/ culture/ books/ booknews/ 8143303/ The-25-best-childrens-books. 1987) ISBN 0-606-04032-3 (prebound. 13. Lawrence Edelson . A video game based on Burton's adaptation was released on July 11. Charlie.Producing Artistic Director. hbook. and Felicity Dahl. org/ oclc/ 9318922 [2] Martin Chilton (18 Nov 2010) The 25 best children's books (http:/ / www. co. The opera received its world premiere at Opera Theatre of Saint Louis on June 13. The Horn Book Magazine. heavily expanded the personalities of the four "bad" children and their parents from the limited descriptions in the book.). pp. Violet. "You're My Inspiration. and a radio production for BBC Radio 4 in the early 1980s. Retrieved 2008-09-27. The Golden Ticket has completely original music and was commissioned by American Lyric Theater. 1974. asp). greatly expanded Willy Wonka's personal back-story. co. ece). 2005. The Golden Ticket was written by American composer Peter Ash and British librettist Donald Sturrock. illustrated by Quentin Blake) References [1] http:/ / worldcat. 267 Editions • • • • • • • • • • • • • ISBN 0-394-81011-2 (hardcover. in particular. They almost always feature musical numbers by all the main characters (Wonka. etc. telegraph. where guests travel around the chocolate factory in bright pink boats on a chocolate river. Written for Children!. A new professional musical is currently under development and will be directed by Oscar winner Sam Mendes. likewise. Ashland:Bathroom Reader's Press. Youth. revised Oompa Loompa edition) ISBN 0-87129-220-3 (paperback. The Horn Book Magazine.[14] The ride features a boat section. and Literature: Part I)" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-09-27 [8] Paul A. opened a family boat ride attraction themed around the story. Many of the songs are revised versions from the 1971 film. guests enter one of two glass elevators. reprint) ISBN 0-14-130115-5 (paperback. in a co-production with American Lyric Theater and Wexford Festival Opera. Both films. [5] John Rowe Townsend. com/ magazine/ letters/ apr73. 2004) ISBN 0-8488-2241-2 (hardcover) ISBN 0-14-131130-4 (2001. This book has adapted frequently for the stage. Youth. 2003) ISBN 0-14-240108-0 (paperback. asp). the British theme park. "Letters to the Editor (on McLuhan. Kestrel Books. Grandpa Joe. 1980. Retrieved 2008-09-27 [7] Le Guin. [4] "The secret ordeal of Miranda Piker" (http:/ / entertainment. eventually shooting up and out through the glass roof. illustrated by Joseph Schindelman) ISBN 0-14-031824-0 (paperback. 1973. Woods (2007) Tim Burton: A Child's Garden of Nightmares p. 2007 .

htm). Staffordshire (http:/ / www. Retrieved 24 August 2011 268 External links • Charlie and the Chocolate Factory (http://roalddahl. 2006 [10] Kara K.wonka. Scott T. Johnny Depp Burton on Burton (http:/ / books. altnyc. guardian. Retrieved 2010-12-28. . family) The Guardian. org/ new-operas-for-new-audiences/ the-golden-ticket/ ) American Lyric Theater [14] Alton Towers Theme Park.roalddahl. google. com/ books?id=K5iMS7khPawC& pg=PA221& dq=willy+ wonka+ and+ the+ chocolate+ factory+ cult+ classic& hl=en& ei=UVMNTcSoJ8O7hAfj_Im3Dg& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=2& ved=0CDgQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage& q=willy wonka and the chocolate factory cult classic& f=false) p. com/ index. Mark Salisbury. [12] Sam Mendes Sweet On 'Charlie And The Chocolate Factory' And Focus Feature 'On Chesil Beach' With Carey Mulligan (http:/ / www.com/) . deadline.Charlie and the Chocolate Factory [9] Tim Burton. Pollard Critical approaches to food in children's literature (http:/ / books. Taylor & Francis. google. Keeling. 2008 [11] "Willy Wonka company information" (http:/ / www. uk/ travel/ 2006/ jul/ 08/ familyholidays. com/ 2010/ 06/ sam-mendes-sweet-on-charlie-and-the-chocolate-factory-and-focus-feature-on-chesil-beach-with-carey-mulligan/ ) [13] The Golden Ticket (http:/ / www. uk/ books?id=-GY9R1c_kKgC& pg=PA223& dq=gene+ wilder+ charlie+ and+ the+ chocolate+ factory& hl=en& ei=4FgNTcGLGYaEhQfP26y4Dg& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=6& ved=0CD0Q6AEwBTgK#v=onepage& q=gene wilder charlie and the chocolate factory& f=false) Macmillan. co. careersinfood.221.com) • The Willy Wonka Candy Company (http://www. cfm/ fuseaction/ ShowResourcesLinkDetails/ ResourceLinkID/ 7319/ Willy_Wonka.com/wiki/) • Official Roald Dahl Website (http://www.wikia. co.

is the first of a series of books written by Ursula K.A Wizard of Earthsea 269 A Wizard of Earthsea A Wizard of Earthsea Cover of first edition (hardcover) Author(s) Illustrator Cover artist Country Language Series Genre(s) Publisher Ursula K.[3] Le Guin has said that the book was in part a response to the image of wizards as ancient and wise. the illustrator of the book [2] ) asked Le Guin to try writing a book "for older kids". first published in 1968. giving her complete freedom for the subject and the approach.[4] Further inspiration came from the work of her parents. Herman Schein (the publisher of Parnassus Press and the husband of Ruth Robbins. 1972 National Book Award for Children's Books for The Farthest Shore. and 1979 Lewis Carroll Shelf Award for A Wizard of Earthsea. Her short stories. the 1972 Newbery Silver Medal Award for The Tombs of Atuan. Kroeber and Theodora Kroeber: see Ishi. including the 1990 Nebula for Tehanu. The tale of Ged's growth and development as he travels across Earthsea continues in The Tombs of Atuan and The Farthest Shore and is supplemented in Tehanu and The Other Wind. established some of the groundwork for the original Earthsea trilogy. Bildungsroman Parnassus Press Publication date 1968 Media type Pages ISBN OCLC Number Preceded by Followed by Print (Hardcover & Paperback) 205 0395276535 1210 [1] The Rule of Names The Tombs of Atuan A Wizard of Earthsea. and to her wondering where they come from. . Le Guin and set in the fantasy world archipelago of Earthsea depicting the adventures of a budding young wizard named Ged. anthropologists Alfred L. The series has won numerous literary awards. Le Guin Ruth Robbins Brian Hampton (paperback) United States English The Earthsea Cycle Fantasy novel. "The Rule of Names" (1964) and "The Word of Unbinding" (1964). Inspiration In 1967.

and takes him as an apprentice. Ged pursues the shadow southwards across the ocean. The tale of his remarkable feat spreads far and wide. who advises him to turn the tables on his shadow. but the new Archmage sends a willing Ged to a poor island group instead. is also a witch . but is nearly drowned when the shadow lures him into steering his boat onto rocks. but after a painful and slow recovery. in his hubris. he has found the true name of a dragon which might be the one he faces. Unsure of where to go next. who have been seen scouting the region. He instinctively returns to Gont and Ogion. a person is referred to by his or her "use name". is the same girl who taunted him years ago. a shadowy being is somehow released. flees yet again. However. but his pride and arrogance grow even faster than his skill and. finally reaching the ear of a wise Gontish mage. Ged masters his craft with ease. At the school. Ged discovers by accident that he has an extraordinary talent for magic. Then. taking the form of a falcon. He takes a desperate gamble. but his power far exceeds hers. the roles of Ged and his enemy become reversed. he attempts to summon a dead spirit . While there his pursuing nemesis nearly catches him by taking the form of a gebbeth. and she is determined to enslave Ged by using the power of an ancient stone. so one's true name is revealed only to those whom one trusts completely. that is by taking over a man's body. Ged flees the gebbeth and finds what appears to be a safe haven in the domain of Benderesk. Ged is wracked with guilt at causing the old man's death. In this world. His aunt.a perilous spell which goes awry. taciturn bronze-smith with nothing in common with his son. It is driven off by the head of the school. rather than being. he gives the boy his "true name". His guess is right and by using the dragon's name Yevaud. he graduates from the school. who were abandoned there as children and who have forgotten there is an outside world and other people. with no idea how to deal with his other foe. After Ged regains his strength. Roke's wizards are much sought after by princes and rich merchants. Ged's is Sparrowhawk. one of the larger islands in the north of the archipelago of Earthsea. he decides upon the far northern island of Osskil. his much older siblings have all left home. a magician who knows someone's true name has control over that person. Normally. but the man . Ged tries to return to the safety of Roke. but the magical. teaches him the little she herself knows. and the shadow becomes the hunted. One day at the taunting of the daughter of the local lord . a Kargish man and his sister. Ogion finally gives him a choice: stay with him or go to the renowned school for wizards. When he is ready to leave. The shadow seizes the chance to escape into the world and attacks him. In the rite of passage into adulthood.A Wizard of Earthsea 270 Plot summary Ged (commonly known as Sparrowhawk) is a young boy on Gont. Despite their fear of him they provide with food and water. Though he has grown to love the old man. In following his master's wise guidance. He recognizes that the boy is so powerful he must be trained so as not to become a danger to himself and others. he offers to take the pair wherever they want to go. he constructs another boat. One day. Fortunately Ged realizes his peril just in time and. the lord of Terranen. Normally. Ged. Ogion the Silent. who expends all of his power in the process and dies shortly thereafter. so the boy grows up wild and headstrong. in the old histories. but he manages to reach a small island inhabited by only two old people. protective Mage-wind drives away the ship on which he is a passenger. His mother is dead. scarring his face.Ged reads out a powerful spell from one of Ogion's old books.who. Even though he does not go through completely with the spell. The undisciplined young man grows restless under the gentle. to protect the inhabitants from a powerful dragon and its maturing sons. on the island of Roke. he uses his talent and a fog-gathering spell he learned from a passing weatherworker to save his village from Karg raiders. it is later revealed. and his father is a dour. Ged eventually comes to realize that he cannot both defend the islanders against the dragon and fight against the nameless thing he summoned into the world. the lady of Terranen. The vessel sinks. he is able to force the dragon to vow that neither it nor its offspring will ever trouble the islanders. the Archmage Nemmerle. the village witch. patient tutelage of his master. the youngster is drawn irresistibly to a life of doing. The shade advances on Ged but is driven away by the timely return of Ogion. Serret.

Though Vetch cannot see the transformation. the only friend he made at school. Serret Daughter of the Lord of Re Albi. but Ged senses that he has forged a bond that cannot be broken and that the shadow cannot now avoid a final confrontation. . Ged fails to save his sick son Ioeth. (The siblings' story and the gift's significance are revealed in the sequel). The name means "silver" in Osskilian. frightening the islanders. Ged confides in Estarriol about his situation. He befriends Ged when Ged first arrives. His enemy flees. Vetch A mage of Iffish. Ged Protagonist of the story. So Ged embraces his foe and the two become one. but he is now unwelcome at every island he lands on. Increasingly despondant. This is because the shadow has taken on Ged's own shape and has gone before him. each naming the other "Ged". Havnor. Ged steps out of the boat and walks off to confront his waiting shadow. called Ogion. wife of Benderesk. By doing this he has accepted his own 'shadowside' and the possibility of his own death and thus. However. friend of Ged. Formerly the Master Patterner. born in the domain of Eolg. Eventually they leave the last known island of earthsea and head off into the open sea. Ged follows the shadow south. Together. Ged perceives the ocean gradually turning into land. Though some of his teachers had thought it to be nameless. Back at sea. The mage of the island is none other than Vetch or Estarriol. Yevaud The Dragon of Pendor. Pechvarry A boatmaker of the Ninety Isles. a wizard called Sparrowhawk. and Estarriol agrees to help him. As they draw closer to the shadow. but he senses it just in time and comes to grips with it. Ged lands on the island of Iffish and there his luck begins to turn.A Wizard of Earthsea fearfully turns him down and the woman does not seem to understand what he means. an immensely powerful magic. Skiorh An Osskilian who becomes possessed by the shadow that is unwittingly released into Earthsea by Ged. Jasper A sorcerer of O. the shadow nearly takes Ged unawares. Son of Enwit. Childhood rival of Ged. student of Heleth and master of Ged. 271 Major characters Aihal A wizard on Gont. Called Estarriol. Ged has freed himself. Ged and his adversary speak at the same moment. she gives him a parting gift of one of her few possessions. the two wizards set off south and east in pursuit of the shadow. the boat runs aground. a broken half of an armlet. Nemmerle Archmage of Roke when Ged is young. Ged returns to the boat healed and a relieved Estarriol sails the boat back to earthsea and his home island of Iffish.

and "O Feiticeiro e a Sombra". edu/ journals/ chl/ summary/ v009/ 9. first 2007 • Spanish: "Un mago de Terramar". [3] Esmonde. or "Il Mago di Earthsea". html)." (http:/ / www. ISBN 80-7254-272-9 Estonian: "Meremaa võlur" Finnish: "Maameren Velho". Margaret P. 1980. The film very loosely combines elements of the first. blogspot. [7] Le Guin." (http:/ / muse. [4] Le Guin. . foreword. bbc. [6] Le Guin. ISBN 978-8-445-07333-9 • • • • • Swedish: "Trollkarlen från övärlden". . collectingchildrensbooks. org/ oclc/ 1210 [2] Sieruta. or "Il Mago" Polish: "Czarnoksiężnik z Archipelagu". . Retrieved April 28." (http:/ / www. ISBN 9789722328173. html). 1992.[6] Studio Ghibli released an adaptation of the series in 2006 titled Tales from Earthsea.blogspot. (New York. uk/ programmes/ b00pfpcm). ISBN 966-692-809-4 Indonesian : "A wizard of Earthsea". . esmonde. 2011. "Smud-ged in Earthsea" (http:/ / collectingchildrensbooks. ISBN 978-602-97067-0-3 Danish : ' ' " Troldmanden fra Jordhavet" ' ' Adaptations BBC Radio produced a radioplay version in 1996 narrated by Judi Dench. first 1976 French: "Le sorcier de Terremer" German: "Der Magier der Erdsee".com. slate. 2003. ISBN 83-7469-227-8 Portuguese: "O Feiticeiro de Terramar". first 1998 Metis Yayınları Ukrainian: "Чарівник Земномор'я". ursulakleguin. October 1975). com/ id/ 2111107/ ). ISBN 978-975-342-057-0. 2011. first 1979."הקוסם מארץ הים‬first 1985 Hungarian: "A Szigetvilág varázslója". Ursula. 2000. Retrieved April 28. 2011). Ursula. 1977 Italian: "Il Mago di Terramare". (March 2. first 1990.A Wizard of Earthsea 272 Translations • • • • • • • • • • • • Bulgarian: "Магьосникът от Землемория". Retrieved 2011-07-10. Ursula (December 16. Le Guin has commented with displeasure on the results.: The Johns Hopkins University Press) 9: 185–190. 2010. . com/ GedoSenkiResponse. 2004). "A Whitewashed Earthsea . third. jhu.[7] References Notes [1] http:/ / worldcat. ISBN 978-5-699-29645-3 • Romanian: "Un vrăjitor din Terramare". first 1984 Czech: "Čaroděj Zeměmoří". Children's Literature (Project MUSE database. [5] "A Wizard of Earthsea" (http:/ / www.[5] An original mini-series titled Legend of Earthsea was broadcast in 2005 on the Sci Fi Channel. first 1989 ISBN 963-11-6420-9 Icelandic: "Galdramaðurinn". com/ 2011/ 03/ smud-ged-in-earthsea.How the Sci Fi Channel wrecked my books. "The Good Witch of the West. Bibliography . (1981). 1983.com. slate. and fourth books into a new story. Retrieved 2011-07-10. co. ISBN 972-23-2817-4 • Russian: "Волшебник Земноморья". ISSN 1543-3374. Le Guin has stated that she was not pleased with the result. 2003. "A First Response to Gedo Senki. Harper & Row. 2006. also "Маг Земноморья". Retrieved 2011-07-10. html). ISBN 91-29-65814-4 Turkish: "Yerdeniz Büyücüsü". The Wind's Twelve Quarters. Peter D. It is based very loosely on A Wizard of Earthsea and The Tombs of Atuan. ISBN 3-453-30594-9 Hebrew: "‫ .

• Martin.com/) • An excerpt of Tales from Earthsea (http://www. ISBN 0877546592.ursulakleguin. New York. Le Guin: A Critical Companion (1st ed. ISBN 0415995272. Of Sorcerers and Men: Tolkien and the Roots of Modern Fantasy Literature (1st ed. ISBN 0313332258. London: Grafton Books.com/TalesEarthsea_Excerpt. David (1988). 1946-1987 (1st ed. WI: Crickhollow Books. Le Guin (Modern Critical Views) (1st ed.K. New York. New York: Routledge. Le Guin (1st ed. Harold. 273 External links • Ursula K. ISBN 0805773932.isfdb. Graham J.cgi?Earthsea_Cycle) series listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database • Review of A Wizard of Earthsea by J. Ursula K. ISBN 978-0872262197. ISBN 978-1933987040.com/2009/ review-a-wizard-of-earthsea-by-ursula-k-le-guin/) . (2006).fantasybooknews.).). Michael (2006). NY: Routledge.). Ursula K. • Mathews.. • Cadden.html) • Earthsea (http://www. Ursula K. ISBN 978-0415938902. NY: Chelsea House.). Philip (2009). • Drout. Le Guin Beyond Genre: Fiction for Children and Adults (1st ed. Boston. • Pringle. ISBN 978-0760785232. Le Guin's official website (http://www.). Ursula K. Fantasy: The Liberation of Imagination (1st ed. Murphy.). A Guide to Fantasy Literature: Thoughts on Stories of Wonder & Enchantment (1st ed.ursulakleguin. Charlotte (1984). Milwaukee.org/cgi-bin/pe. Modern fantasy: the hundred best novels: an English language selection. Richard (2002). • Spivack. ed (1986).).A Wizard of Earthsea • Bernardo. Westport. China: Barnes & Noble.). Mike (2005). MA: Twayne Publishers. CT: Greenwood Press. Pelletier (http://www. • Bloom. Susan M.

God? it's me. and whether to voice her opinion if it differs from those of her friends. She also is dealing with conflict between her grandparents on both sides of her family. such as buying her first bra. she goes to the bathroom and finds spots of blood in her underwear. 274 Are You There God? It's Me. Margaret eventually stops "talking to God" after being in the middle of a confrontation between her parents and maternal grandparents. having her first period. about a girl in sixth grade who grew up with no religion. Author(s) Country Language Genre(s) Publisher Publication date Media type Pages ISBN OCLC Number LC Classification Judy Blume United States English Young adult Yearling 1970 Print 149 pp ISBN 0-440-40419-3 19882286 [1] MLCS 2006/13809 (P) Are You There God? It's Me. but — believing at first that the priest is God himself speaking to her and not comprehending the concept of Christian confession or its confidential nature — she simply responds "I am sorry. is a 1970 book by Judy Blume. finding her way to the confessional booth. but more for the purpose of showing her granddaughter what the Jewish faith entails. Margaret enjoys spending time with her paternal grandmother. liking boys. In the end of the book. She calls her mom. and makes one final prayer to God before the book ends: ." In school. which proves to be more than she can handle as she is finding out a lot about herself as well. as her maternal grandparents are trying to guarantee that she is indeed Christian as she was born with a Christian mother. who was prepared for this and has bought Teenage Softies. Margaret. and the novel explores her quest for a single religion. The ambiguities of her interfaith identity are particularly highlighted in a scene — following a heated argument with another girl — in which Margaret visits a church. Margaret. although she has referred to Margaret as "my Jewish girl" and introduced her to synagogue services. she is assigned a year-long independent study project. Margaret. she chooses a study on people's beliefs. She puts the pad on. typically categorized as a young adult novel. Plot summary The main conflict in the novel comes from Margaret's need to settle her mixed religious heritage. there the unseen priest inquires as to her problems. as the story is frequently interlaced with her praying by beginning with the title's words "Are You there. She is angry at him for putting her in such a conflict. She deals with her issues of belief in God. Margaret also confronts many other pre-teen female issues. who seems to accept her for who she is and is more accepting of her son's interfaith marriage. Margaret's mother is Christian and her father is Jewish. Margaret.Are You There God? It's Me. Margaret. coping with belted sanitary napkins (changed to adhesive sanitary pads for recent editions of the book)." before running out of the church in tears. jealousy towards another girl who has developed a womanly figure earlier than other girls. Are You There God? It's Me.

Margaret's stay-at-home mother. She's 11 years old. who is Christian.Margaret's father. and after confirming she was the writer of the book. the book was placed on Time Magazine's top 100 fiction books written in English since 1923. made plans to visit the week Margaret was supposed to go to Florida. a boy of the same age as Margaret who is dealing with puberty as well. • Evan Wheeler .Margaret's Grandmother and Herbert's mother..Margaret's neighbor and her first new friend in Farbrook.Barbara's estranged parents who all but disowned her for marrying outside her religion. and hung up the phone. • Moose Freed . She refers to Margaret as "my Margaret" or her "Jewish girl". an only child. • Barbara Simon (nee Hutchins) . To this day. Then Again. no connection between communism and the topics in the book has ever been made. • Herbert Simon . Benedict Jr. Thanks an awful lot. This novel time deals with Tony Miglione. and is a member of the Four PTS's. Maybe I Won't. • Phillip Leroy . • Mary and Paul Hutchins . I know you're there God.A classmate of Margaret's whom she initially likes. • Gretchen Potter . • Laura Danker .. External links • Judy Blume's website [3] • Works by or about Are You There God? It's Me.Nancy's older brother. Awards In 2011. • Janie Loomis . and is starting the 6th grade. . a woman called her in the early 1980s.Protagonist of book. but it was the start of her unfortunate battle with censors. I know you wouldn't have missed this for anything! Thank you God. and Margaret. who is Jewish and is in insurance. called her a Communist.A friend of Nancy whose father is a doctor. [2] Subsequent book Blume's success with Are You There God? It's Me Margaret inspired her to write another book. [4] in libraries (WorldCat catalog) . Gretchen. She's just starting puberty and noticing boys. NJ. although his transition from childhood to adulthood is obviously quite different from Margaret's.Are You There God? It's Me. • Miles J. According to Blume. • Sylvia Simon .Another girl in the Four PTS's with Nancy.Evan's friend and a boy Margaret takes an interest in. and after Barbara sent them a Christmas card. ” Major characters • Margaret Simon . Margaret. Margaret. Margaret.Margaret's sixth grade teacher who is in his first year as a teacher. plus she's uncertain of which religion she prefers to follow. 275 “ Are you still there God? It's me. • Nancy Wheeler . Controversy Are You There God? It's Me Margaret has been criticized by certain groups for being controversial in dealing with puberty and religious indecision.A classmate of Margaret's who is tall and very developed for her age.

1951793_1951936_1952095. time. judyblume.Are You There God? It's Me.00. org/ identities/ lccn-n80-7880 . [3] http:/ / www. com/ time/ specials/ packages/ article/ 0. html [4] http:/ / worldcat. Time Magazine. html).28804. Lev. . Retrieved 10-01-2011. org/ oclc/ 19882286 [2] Grossman. "All Time 100 Novels" (http:/ / www. Margaret. com/ margaret. 276 References [1] http:/ / worldcat.

Since the release of the first novel Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone on 30 June 1997. the main theme is death. Rowling. K. Levine Books (US) 29 June 1997 – 21 July 2007 (initial publication) Print (hardcover and paperback) Audiobook Publisher Published Media type Harry Potter is a series of seven fantasy novels written by the British author J. to conquer the wizarding world. with the [1] school's motto.[2] The series has also had some share of criticism. whose aims are to overcome death. all of whom are students at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry.Harry Potter 277 Harry Potter Harry Potter The coat of arms of Hogwarts. Bildungsroman. the books have gained immense popularity. coming of age. subjugate non-magical people. representing the four Houses (clockwise. mystery. such as love and prejudice. Gryffindor). thriller. A series of many genres. especially Harry Potter.[10] . There are also many other themes in the series. young-adult fiction.[5] [6] [7] [8] According to Rowling. As of June 2011. critical acclaim and commercial success worldwide. Rowling United Kingdom English Fantasy.[3] [4] and the last four books consecutively set records as the fastest-selling books in history. starting top right: Slytherin. and destroy all those who stand in his way.[9] although it is primarily considered to be a work of children's literature. Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows Author Country Language Genre J. thriller. and romance). Hufflepuff. adventure. which translates to "never tickle a sleeping dragon". Ravenclaw. The books chronicle the adventures of the adolescent wizard Harry Potter and his best friends Ron Weasley and Hermione Granger. magical realism Bloomsbury Publishing (UK) Arthur A. including concern for the increasingly dark tone. including fantasy and coming of age (with elements of mystery. The main story arc concerns Harry's quest to overcome the evil wizard Lord Voldemort. K. it has many cultural meanings and references. the book series has sold about 450 million copies and has been translated into 67 languages.

[19] For reasons not immediately revealed. which are frequently experienced by Harry viewing the memories of other characters in a device called a Pensieve. the series will be released in various ebook formats through "Pottermore". with the seventh book split into two parts. an event so very remarkable. Hagrid reveals some of Harry's history. and the greater test of preparing himself for the confrontation that lies ahead. The series also originated much tie-in merchandise. the wizarding world of Harry Potter exists in parallel within the real world and this is how Potter's world contains magical elements similar to things in everyday life. the highest grossing film series of all time. even the Muggles notice signs of it.[13] His ability is inborn and such children are invited to attend a school that teaches the necessary skills to succeed in the wizarding world. have been made into an eight-part film series by Warner Bros. keeper of grounds and keys at Hogwatrs. a fun-loving member of an ancient. social and emotional. the book leaps forward to a time shortly before Harry Potter's eleventh birthday. the orphaned Harry had been placed in the home of his unpleasant Muggle (non-wizard) relatives. Lord Voldemort. Many of its institutions and locations are recognizable. it is clear some remarkable event has taken place in the wizarding world.[19] With Hagrid's help. The books have since been published by many publishers worldwide. After the introductory chapter. K. the spell with which Voldemort tried to kill Harry rebounded. As its inadvertent saviour from Voldemort's reign of terror. at the orders of the venerable and well-known wizard Albus Dumbledore. Harry prepares for and undertakes his first year of study at Hogwarts. people.[14] Harry becomes a student at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry and it is in here where most of the novels' events take place. through the series. making the Harry Potter brand worth in excess of $15 billion. The environment J.[12] 278 Plot Further information: Harry Potter universe The novels revolve around Harry Potter. Rowling created is completely separate from reality yet intimately connected to it. In October 2011. or Muggle. Rubeus Hagrid. who then attempted to kill him also.[17] The books also contain many flashbacks. the reader is introduced to many of the primary locations used throughout the series. While the fantasy land of Narnia is an alternative universe and the Lord of the Rings’ Middle-earth a mythic past. such as London. living within the ordinary world of non-magical. an orphan who discovers at the age of eleven that he is a wizard. Harry has become a living legend in the wizarding world. including ordinary teenage challenges such as friendships and exams. Pictures.[18] It comprises a fragmented collection of hidden streets. [19] Harry learns that as a baby he witnessed his parents' murder by the power-obsessed dark wizard. The full background to this event and to the person of Harry Potter is only revealed gradually.[14] Early years When the first novel of the series Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (changed in some countries to Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone) opens. Harry survived with only a lightning-shaped scar on his forehead as a memento of the attack. Harry meets most of the main characters and gains his two closest friends: Ron Weasley. lonely country manors and secluded castles that remain invisible to the Muggle population. . he learns to overcome the problems that face him: magical. However.[11] The books. overlooked and ancient pubs. and Voldemort disappeared. As Harry begins to explore the magical world. As Harry develops through his adolescence. Harry's first contact with the wizarding world is through a half-giant.[15] Each book chronicles one year in Harry's life[16] with the main narrative being set in the years 1991–98.Harry Potter The initial major publishers of the books were Bloomsbury in the United Kingdom and Scholastic Press in the United States. and it is at this point that his background begins to be revealed. the Dursleys who had him safe but hid his true heritage from him in hopes that he would grow up "normal".

Harry Potter large, happy, but hard-up wizarding family, and Hermione Granger, a gifted and hard working witch of non-magical parentage.[19] [20] Harry also encounters the school's potions master, Severus Snape, who displays a deep and abiding dislike for him. The plot concludes with Harry's second confrontation with Lord Voldemort, who in his quest for immortality, yearns to gain the power of the Philosopher's Stone a substance that gives everlasting life.[19] The series continues with Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets describing Harry's second year at Hogwarts. He and his friends investigate a 50-year-old mystery that appears tied to recent sinister events at the school. Ron's younger sister, Ginny Weasley, enrols in her first year at Hogwarts, and finds a notebook which turns out to be Voldemort's diary from his school days. Ginny becomes possessed by Voldemort through the diary and opens the "Chamber of Secrets", unleashing an ancient monster which begins attacking students at Hogwarts. The novel delves into the history of Hogwarts and a legend revolving around the Chamber. For the first time, Harry realises that racial prejudice exists in the wizarding world, and he learns that Voldemort's reign of terror was often directed at wizards who were descended from Muggles. Harry also learns that his ability to speak Parseltongue, the language of snakes, is rare and often associated with the Dark Arts. The novel ends after Harry saves Ginny's life by by destroying a basilisk and the enchanted diary which has been the source of the problems. The third novel, Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, follows Harry in his third year of magical education. It is the only book in the series which does not feature Voldemort. Instead, Harry must deal with the knowledge that he has been targeted by Sirius Black, an escaped murderer believed to have assisted in the deaths of Harry's parents. As Harry struggles with his reaction to the dementors—dark creatures with the power to devour a human soul—which are ostensibly protecting the school, he reaches out to Remus Lupin, a Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher who is eventually revealed to be a werewolf. Lupin teaches Harry defensive measures which are well above the level of magic generally shown by people his age. Harry learns that both Lupin and Black were close friends of his father and that Black was framed by their fourth friend, Peter Pettigrew.[21] In this book, another recurring theme throughout the series is emphasised—in every book there is a new Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher, none of whom lasts more than one school year.

279

Voldemort returns
During Harry's fourth year of school (detailed in Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire) Harry is unwillingly entered as a participant in the Triwizard Tournament, a dangerous contest where Harry must compete against a witch and a wizard "champion" from visiting schools as well as another Hogwarts student.[22] Harry is guided through the tournament by Professor Alastor "Mad-Eye" Moody, who turns out to be an impostor – one of Voldemort's supporters named Barty Crouch, Jr in disguise. The point at which the mystery is unraveled marks the series' shift from foreboding and uncertainty into open conflict. Voldemort's plan to have Crouch use the tournament to bring Harry to Voldemort succeeds. Although Harry manages to escape from him, Cedric Diggory, the other Hogwarts champion in the tournament, is killed and Voldemort resurges.
"The Elephant House" – The café in Edinburgh in which Rowling wrote the first part of Harry Potter. In the fifth book, Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Harry must confront the newly resurfaced Voldemort. In response to Voldemort's reappearance, Dumbledore re-activates the Order of the Phoenix, a secret society which works from Sirius Black's dark family home to defeat Voldemort's minions and protect Voldemort's targets, especially Harry.

Despite Harry's description of Voldemort's recent activities, the Ministry of Magic and many others in the magical world refuse to believe that Voldemort has returned.[23] In an attempt to counter and eventually discredit

Harry Potter Dumbledore, who along with Harry is the most prominent voice in the wizarding world attempting to warn of Voldemort's return, the Ministry appoints Dolores Umbridge as the High Inquisitor of Hogwarts. She transforms the school into a dictatorial regime and refuses to allow the students to learn ways to defend themselves against dark magic.[23] Harry forms "Dumbledore's Army", a secret study group to teach his classmates the higher-level skills of Defence Against the Dark Arts that he has learned. An important prophecy concerning Harry and Voldemort is revealed,[24] and Harry discovers that he and Voldemort have a painful connection, allowing Harry to view some of Voldemort's actions telepathically. In the novel's climax, Harry and his friends face off against Voldemort's Death Eaters. Although the timely arrival of members of the Order of the Phoenix saves the children's lives, Sirus Black is killed in the conflict.[23] In the sixth book, Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Voldemort begins waging open warfare. Harry and friends are relatively protected from that danger at Hogwarts. They are subject to all the difficulties of adolescence; Harry eventually begins dating Ginny Weasley. Near the beginning of the novel, Harry is given an old potions textbook filled with annotations and recommendations signed by a mysterious writer, "the Half-Blood Prince". This book is a source of scholastic success, but because of the potency of the spells that are written in it, becomes a source of concern. Harry takes private lessons with Dumbledore, who shows him various memories concerning the early life of Voldemort. These reveal that Voldemort, to preserve his life, has split his soul into pieces, creating a series of horcruxes, evil enchanted items hidden in various locations, one of which was the diary destroyed in the second book.[25] Harry's snobbish adversary, Draco Malfoy, attempts to attack Dumbledore, and the book culminates in the killing of Dumbledore by Professor Snape, the titular Half-Blood Prince. Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, the last book in the series, begins directly after the events of the sixth book. Voldemort has completed his ascension to power and gains control of the Ministry of Magic. Harry, Ron, and Hermione drop out of school so that they can find and destroy Voldemort's remaining horcruxes. To ensure their own safety as well as that of their family and friends, they are forced to isolate themselves. As they search for the horcruxes, the trio learn details about Dumbledore's past, as well as Snape's true motives—he had worked on Dumbledore's behalf since the murder of Harry's mother. The book culminates in the Battle of Hogwarts. Harry, Ron, and Hermione, in conjunction with members of the Order of the Phoenix and many of the teachers and students, defend Hogwarts from Voldemort, his Death Eaters, and various magical creatures. Several major characters are killed in the first wave of the battle. After learning that he himself is a horcrux, Harry surrenders himself to Voldemort, who casts a killing curse at him. However, the defenders of Hogwarts do not surrender after learning this, but continue to fight on. Having managed to return from the dead, Harry finally faces Voldemort, whose horcruxes have all been destroyed. In the subsequent battle, Voldemort's curse rebounds off of Harry's spell and kills Voldemort. An epilogue describes the lives of the surviving characters and the effects on the wizarding world.

280

Supplementary works
Rowling has expanded the Harry Potter universe with several short books produced for various charities.[26] [27] In 2001, she released Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them (a purported Hogwarts textbook) and Quidditch Through the Ages (a book Harry reads for fun). Proceeds from the sale of these two books benefitted the charity Comic Relief.[28] In 2007, Rowling composed seven handwritten copies of The Tales of Beedle the Bard, a collection of fairy tales that is featured in the final novel, one of which was auctioned to raise money for the Children's High Level Group, a fund for mentally disabled children in poor countries. The book was published internationally on 4 December 2008[29] [30] Rowling also wrote an 800-word prequel in 2008 as part of a fundraiser organised by the bookseller Waterstones.[31] In 2011, Rowling launched a new website announcing an upcoming project called Pottermore.[32]

Harry Potter

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Structure and genre
The Harry Potter novels fall within the genre of fantasy literature; however, in many respects they are also bildungsromans, or coming of age novels,[33] and contain elements of mystery, adventure, thriller, and romance. They can be considered part of the British children's boarding school genre, which includes Rudyard Kipling's Stalky & Co., Enid Blyton's Malory Towers, St. Clare's and the Naughtiest Girl series, and Frank Richards's Billy Bunter novels: the Harry Potter books are predominantly set in Hogwarts, a fictional British boarding school for wizards, where the curriculum includes the use of magic.[34] In this sense they are "in a direct line of descent from Thomas Hughes's Tom Brown's School Days and other Victorian and Edwardian novels of British public school life".[35] [36] They are also, in the words of Stephen King, "shrewd mystery tales",[37] and each book is constructed in the manner of a Sherlock Holmes-style mystery adventure. The stories are told from a third person limited point of view with very few exceptions (such as the opening chapters of Philosopher's Stone and Deathly Hallows and the first two chapters of Half-Blood Prince). In the middle of each book, Harry struggles with the problems he encounters, and dealing with them often involves the need to violate some school rules. If students are caught breaking rules, they are often disciplined by Hogwarts professors, who employ the use of punishments often found in the boarding school sub-genre.[34] However, the stories reach their climax in the summer term, near or just after final exams, when events escalate far beyond in-school squabbles and struggles, and Harry must confront either Voldemort or one of his followers, the Death Eaters, with the stakes a matter of life and death–a point underlined, as the series progresses, by one or more characters being killed in each of the final four books.[38] [39] In the aftermath, he learns important lessons through exposition and discussions with head teacher and mentor Albus Dumbledore. In the final novel, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Harry and his friends spend most of their time away from Hogwarts, and only return there to face Voldemort at the dénouement.[38] Completing the bildungsroman format, in this part Harry must grow up prematurely, losing the chance of a last year as a pupil in a school and needing to act as an adult, on whose decisions everybody else depends—the grown-ups included.[40]

Themes
According to Rowling, a major theme in the series is death: "My books are largely about death. They open with the death of Harry's parents. There is Voldemort's obsession with conquering death and his quest for immortality at any price, the goal of anyone with magic. I so understand why Voldemort wants to conquer death. We're all frightened of it."[9] Academics and journalists have developed many other interpretations of themes in the books, some more complex than others, and some including political subtexts. Themes such as normality, oppression, survival, and overcoming imposing odds have all been considered as prevalent throughout the series.[41] Similarly, the theme of making one's way through adolescence and "going over one's most harrowing ordeals—and thus coming to terms with them" has also been considered.[42] Rowling has stated that the books comprise "a prolonged argument for tolerance, a prolonged plea for an end to bigotry" and that also pass on a message to "question authority and... not assume that the establishment or the press tells you all of the truth".[43] While the books could be said to comprise many other themes, such as power/abuse of power, love, prejudice, and free choice, they are, as J. K. Rowling states, "deeply entrenched in the whole plot"; the writer prefers to let themes "grow organically", rather than sitting down and consciously attempting to impart such ideas to her readers.[10] Along the same lines is the ever-present theme of adolescence, in whose depiction Rowling has been purposeful in acknowledging her characters' sexualities and not leaving Harry, as she put it, "stuck in a state of permanent pre-pubescence".[44] Rowling said that, to her, the moral significance of the tales seems "blindingly obvious". The key for her was the choice between what is right and what is easy, "because that ... is how tyranny is started, with people being apathetic and taking the easy route and suddenly finding themselves in deep trouble."[45]

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Origins and publishing history
In 1990, J. K. Rowling was on a crowded train from Manchester to London when the idea for Harry suddenly "fell into her head". Rowling gives an account of the experience on her website saying:[46] "I had been writing almost continuously since the age of six but I had never been so excited about an idea before. I simply sat and thought, for four (delayed train) hours, and all the details bubbled up in my brain, and this scrawny, black-haired, bespectacled boy who did not know he was a wizard became more and more real to me." Rowling completed Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone in 1995 and the manuscript was sent off to several prospective agents.[47] The second agent she tried, Christopher Little, offered to represent her and sent the manuscript to Bloomsbury. After eight other publishers had rejected Philosopher's Stone, Bloomsbury offered Rowling a £2,500 The novelist, J. K. Rowling. advance for its publication.[48] [49] Despite Rowling's statement that she did not have any particular age group in mind when beginning to write the Harry Potter books, the publishers initially targeted children aged nine to eleven.[50] On the eve of publishing, Rowling was asked by her publishers to adopt a more gender-neutral pen name in order to appeal to the male members of this age group, fearing that they would not be interested in reading a novel they knew to be written by a woman. She elected to use J. K. Rowling (Joanne Kathleen Rowling), using her grandmother's name as her second name because she has no middle name.[49] [51] Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone was published by Bloomsbury, the publisher of all Harry Potter books in the United Kingdom, on 30 June 1997.[52] It was released in the United States on 1 September 1998 by Scholastic—the American publisher of the books—as Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone,[53] after Rowling had received US$105,000 for the American rights—an unprecedented amount for a children's book by a then-unknown author.[54] Fearing that American readers would not associate the word "philosopher" with a magical theme (although the Philosopher's Stone is alchemy-related), Scholastic insisted that the book be given the title Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone for the American market. The second book, Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets was originally published in the UK on 2 July 1998 and in the US on 2 June 1999. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban was then published a year later in the UK on 8 July 1999 and in the US on 8 September 1999.[55] Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire was published on 8 July 2000 at the same time by Bloomsbury and Scholastic.[56] Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix is the longest book in the series at 766 pages in the UK version and 870 pages in the US version.[57] It was published worldwide in English on 21 June 2003.[58] Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince was published on 16 July 2005, and it sold 9 million copies in the first 24 hours of its worldwide release.[59] [60] The seventh and final novel, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, was published 21 July 2007.[61] The book sold 11 million copies in the first 24 hours of release, breaking down to 2.7 million copies in the UK and 8.3 million in the US.[62]

Translations
The series has been translated into 67 languages,[3] [63] placing Rowling among the most translated authors in history.[64] The books have seen translations to diverse languages such as Azerbaijani, Ukrainian, Arabic, Urdu, Hindi, Bengali, Welsh, Afrikaans, Latvian and Vietnamese. The first volume has been translated into Latin and even Ancient Greek,[65] making it the longest published work in Ancient Greek since the novels of Heliodorus of Emesa in the 3rd century AD.[66]

Harry Potter Some of the translators hired to work on the books were well-known authors before their work on Harry Potter, such as Viktor Golyshev, who oversaw the Russian translation of the series' fifth book. The Turkish translation of books two to seven was undertaken by Sevin Okyay, a popular literary critic and cultural commentator.[67] For reasons of secrecy, translation can only start when the books are released in English; thus there is a lag of several months before the translations are available. This has led to more and more copies of the English editions being sold to impatient fans in non-English speaking countries. Such was the clamour to read the fifth book that its English language edition became the first English-language book ever to top the bestseller list in France.[68] The United States editions of the Harry Potter novels have required the adaptation of the texts into American English, as many words and concepts used by the characters in the novels may have not been understood by a young American audience.[69]

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Completion of the series
In December 2005, Rowling stated on her web site, "2006 will be the year when I write the final book in the Harry Potter series."[70] Updates then followed in her online diary chronicling the progress of Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, with the release date of 21 July 2007. The book itself was finished on 11 January 2007 in the Balmoral Hotel, Edinburgh, where she scrawled a message on the back of a bust of Hermes. It read: "J. K. Rowling finished writing Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows in this room (552) on 11 January 2007."[71] Rowling herself has stated that the last chapter of the final book (in fact, the epilogue) was completed "in something like 1990".[72] [73] In June 2006, Rowling, on an appearance on the British talk show Richard & Judy, announced that the chapter had been modified as one character "got a reprieve" and two others who previously survived the story had in fact been killed. On 28 March 2007, the cover art for the Bloomsbury Adult and Child versions and the Scholastic version were released.[74] [75]

Achievements
Cultural impact
Fans of the series were so eager for the latest instalment that bookstores around the world began holding events to coincide with the midnight release of the books, beginning with the 2000 publication of Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. The events, commonly featuring mock sorting, games, face painting, and other live entertainment have achieved popularity with Potter fans and have been highly successful in attracting fans and selling books with nearly nine million of the 10.8 Crowds wait outside a Borders store in Newark, Delaware for the million initial print copies of Harry Potter and the midnight release of Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince. Half-Blood Prince sold in the first 24 hours.[76] [77] The final book in the series, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows became the fastest selling book in history, moving 11 million units in the first twenty-four hours of release .[78] The series has also gathered adult fans, leading to the release of two editions of each Harry Potter book, identical in text but with one edition's cover artwork aimed at children and the other aimed at adults.[79] Besides meeting online through blogs, podcasts, and fansites, Harry Potter super-fans can also meet at Harry Potter symposia. The word Muggle has spread beyond its Harry Potter origins, becoming one of few pop culture words to land in the Oxford English Dictionary.[80] The Harry Potter fandom has embraced podcasts as a regular, often weekly, insight to the latest discussion in the fandom. Both MuggleCast and PotterCast[81] have reached the top spot of iTunes podcast rankings and have been polled one of the top 50 favourite podcasts.[82]

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Awards and honours
The Harry Potter series have been the recipients of a host of awards since the initial publication of Philosopher's Stone including four Whitaker Platinum Book Awards (all of which were awarded in 2001),[83] three Nestlé Smarties Book Prizes (1997–1999),[84] two Scottish Arts Council Book Awards (1999 and 2001),[85] the inaugural Whitbread children's book of the year award (1999),[86] the WHSmith book of the year (2006),[87] among others. In 2000, Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban was nominated for a Hugo Award for Best Novel, and in 2001, Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire won said award.[88] Honours include a commendation for the Carnegie Medal (1997),[89] a short listing for the Guardian Children's Award (1998), and numerous listings on the notable books, editors' Choices, and best books lists of the American Library Association, The New York Times, Chicago Public Library, and Publishers Weekly.[90]

Commercial success
The popularity of the Harry Potter series has translated into substantial financial success for Rowling, her publishers, and other Harry Potter related license holders. This success has made Rowling the first and thus far only billionaire author.[91] The books have sold more than 400 million copies worldwide and have also given rise to the popular film adaptations produced by Warner Bros., all of which have been highly successful in their own right.[4] [92] The films have in turn spawned eight video games and have led to the licensing of more than 400 additional Harry Potter products (including an iPod). The Harry Potter brand has been estimated to be worth as much as $15 billion.[12] The great demand for Harry Potter books motivated the New York Times to create a separate bestseller list for children's literature in 2000, just before the release of Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. By 24 June 2000, Rowling's novels had been on the list for 79 straight weeks; the first three novels were each on the hardcover bestseller list.[93] On 12 April 2007, Barnes & Noble declared that Deathly Hallows had broken its pre-order record, with more than 500,000 copies pre-ordered through its site.[94] For the release of Goblet of Fire, 9,000 FedEx trucks were used with no other purpose than to deliver the book.[95] Together, Amazon.com and Barnes & Noble pre-sold more than 700,000 copies of the book.[95] In the United States, the book's initial printing run was 3.8 million copies.[95] This record statistic was broken by Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, with 8.5 million, which was then shattered by Half-Blood Prince with 10.8 million copies.[96] 6.9 million copies of Prince were sold in the U.S. within the first 24 hours of its release; in the United Kingdom more than two million copies were sold on the first day.[97] The initial U.S. print run for Deathly Hallows was 12 million copies, and more than a million were pre-ordered through Amazon and Barnes & Noble.[98]

Reception
Literary criticism

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Early in its history, Harry Potter received positive reviews. On publication, the first volume, Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, attracted attention from the Scottish newspapers, such as The Scotsman, which said it had "all the makings of a classic",[99] and The Glasgow Herald, which called it "Magic stuff".[99] Soon the English newspapers joined in, with more than one comparing it to Roald Dahl's work: The Mail on Sunday rated it as "the most imaginative debut since Roald Dahl",[99] a view echoed by The Sunday Times ("comparisons to Dahl are, this time, justified"),[99] while The Guardian called it "a richly textured novel given lift-off by an inventive wit".[99]

British editions of the seven Harry Potter books.

By the time of the release of the fifth volume, Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, the books began to receive strong criticism from a number of literary scholars. Yale professor, literary scholar and critic Harold Bloom raised criticisms of the books' literary merits, saying, "Rowling's mind is so governed by clichés and dead metaphors that she has no other style of writing."[100] A. S. Byatt authored a New York Times op-ed article calling Rowling's universe a "secondary secondary world, made up of intelligently patchworked derivative motifs from all sorts of children's literature ... written for people whose imaginative lives are confined to TV cartoons, and the exaggerated (more exciting, not threatening) mirror-worlds of soaps, reality TV and celebrity gossip".[101] Michael Rosen, a novelist and poet, advocated the books were not suited for children, who would be unable to grasp the complex themes. Rosen also stated that "J. K. Rowling is more of an adult writer."[102] The critic Anthony Holden wrote in The Observer on his experience of judging Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban for the 1999 Whitbread Awards. His overall view of the series was negative—"the Potter saga was essentially patronising, conservative, highly derivative, dispiritingly nostalgic for a bygone Britain", and he speaks of "pedestrian, ungrammatical prose style".[103] Ursula Le Guin said, "I have no great opinion of it. When so many adult critics were carrying on about the 'incredible originality' of the first Harry Potter book, I read it to find out what the fuss was about, and remained somewhat puzzled; it seemed a lively kid's fantasy crossed with a "school novel", good fare for its age group, but stylistically ordinary, imaginatively derivative, and ethically rather mean-spirited."[104] By contrast, author Fay Weldon, while admitting that the series is "not what the poets hoped for", nevertheless goes on to say, "but this is not poetry, it is readable, saleable, everyday, useful prose".[105] The literary critic A. N. Wilson praised the Harry Potter series in The Times, stating: "There are not many writers who have JK’s Dickensian ability to make us turn the pages, to weep—openly, with tears splashing—and a few pages later to laugh, at invariably good jokes ... We have lived through a decade in which we have followed the publication of the liveliest, funniest, scariest and most moving children’s stories ever written".[106] Charles Taylor of Salon.com, who is primarily a movie critic,[107] took issue with Byatt's criticisms in particular. While he conceded that she may have "a valid cultural point—a teeny one—about the impulses that drive us to reassuring pop trash and away from the troubling complexities of art",[108] he rejected her claims that the series is lacking in serious literary merit and that it owes its success merely to the childhood reassurances it offers. Taylor stressed the progressively darker tone of the books, shown by the murder of a classmate and close friend and the psychological wounds and social isolation each causes. Taylor also argued that Philosopher's Stone, said to be the most light-hearted of the seven published books, disrupts the childhood reassurances that Byatt claims spur the series' success: the book opens with news of a double murder, for example.[108] Stephen King called the series "a feat of which only a superior imagination is capable", and declared "Rowling's punning, one-eyebrow-cocked sense of humour" to be "remarkable". However, he wrote that despite the story being "a good one", he is "a little tired of discovering Harry at home with his horrible aunt and uncle", the formulaic

noting the social. Harry Potter.[114] and Joyce Fields wrote that the books illustrate four of the five main topics in a typical first-year sociology class: "sociological concepts including culture. targeting the owners of websites over the "Harry Potter" domain name. J. social institutions. Huck. She also noted the "deeper magic" by which the self-sacrifice of Harry's mother protects the boy throughout the series. Suellentrop wrote that Dumbledore's maxim that "It is our choices that show what we truly are. Frodo. a mass-media experience that no other novel can possibly provide". I think Harry will take his place with Alice.195 pages. however. the cultural and marketing "hysteria" marked by the publication of the later books "trains children and adults to expect the roar of the coliseum.[112] Agreeing about the motivating effects..[117] In an 8 November 2002 Slate article. . evil" theme of the series is "childish". far more than our abilities" is hypocritical. but for the ages". after 10 years. society.[116] In contrast Emily Griesinger described Harry's first passage through to Platform 9¾ as an application of faith and hope. The popularity and high market value of the series has led Rowling. and which the power-hungry Voldemort fails to understand. and political inspiration she has given her fandom. arguing that she had instead created "a world of youthful democracy and diversity".[109] 286 Social impacts Although Time magazine named Rowling as a runner-up for its 2007 Person of the Year award. but expressed concern about the distracting effect of the prolific merchandising that accompanies the book launches. magical ability potential is "something you are born to. and over 375 million copies. not something you can achieve". or from various conflicts over copyright and trademark infringements. Washington Post book critic Ron Charles opined in July 2007 that the large numbers of adults reading the Potter series but few other books may represent a "bad case of cultural infantilism". her publishers.[111] Librarian Nancy Knapp pointed out the books' potential to improve literacy by motivating children to read much more than they otherwise would.[110] cultural comments on the series have been mixed. Diane Penrod also praised the books' blending of simple entertainment with "the qualities of highbrow literary fiction". and that the straightforward "good vs. which have included banning the sale of Harry Potter imitations.[115] Jenny Sawyer wrote in 25 July 2007 Christian Science Monitor that the books represent a "disturbing trend in commercial storytelling and Western society" in that stories "moral center [sic] have all but vanished from much of today's pop culture . Noting that in Rowling's fiction.[118] In a 12 August 2007 New York Times review of Deathly Hallows.[119] Controversies The books have been the subject of a number of legal proceedings. He also argued "through no fault of Rowling's".[37] King has also joked that "Rowling's never met an adverb she did not like!" He does however predict that Harry Potter "will indeed stand time's test and wind up on a shelf where only the best are kept. Sawyer argues. Rowling's towering achievement lacks the cornerstone of almost all great children's literature: the hero's moral journey".Harry Potter beginning of all seven books. Chris Suellentrop likened Potter to a "trust-fund kid whose success at school is largely attributable to the gifts his friends and relatives lavish upon him". neither faces a "moral struggle" nor undergoes any ethical growth.. and socialisation. moral. and film distributor Warner Bros.[113] Jennifer Conn used Snape's and Quidditch coach Madam Hooch's teaching methods as examples of what to avoid and what to emulate in clinical teaching. and Dorothy and this is one series not just for the decade. and social theory". Christopher Hitchens praised Rowling for "unmooring" her "English school story" from literary precedents "bound up with dreams of wealth and class and snobbery". as "the school that Dumbledore runs values native gifts above all else". K. to take legal measures to protect their copyright. and is thus "no guide in circumstances in which right and wrong are anything less than black and white". and his encounter with the Sorting Hat as the first of many in which Harry is shaped by the choices he makes. stratification and social inequality. stemming either from claims by American Christian groups that the magic in the books promotes witchcraft among children. 4.

[135] After extensive casting.[127] In 2000. including both fiction and non-fiction.982. and initially counting only hardback sales. The newspaper created a new children's section covering children's books.[128] In 2004 The New York Times further split the children's list.[131] 287 Audiobooks The Harry Potter books have all been released in unabridged audiobook versions. shortly before the publication of Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. and Nielsen should have created a separate game-show list when Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? dominated the ratings.[130] Time suggested that. praise and some comments that presented both benefits and disadvantages of the move. In 1997 to 1998 Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone won almost all the UK awards judged by children. filming began in October 2000 at Leavesden Film Studios and in London itself. Jonathan Demme. Chris Columbus was appointed on 28 March 2000 as director for The locomotive that features as the "Hogwarts Express" in the Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (titled "Harry film series. Dale is also the narrator for the special features disc on the DVDs. and removed the Harry Potter books from the section for individual books. with Warner Bros.900).[124] [125] The books also aroused controversies in the literary and publishing worlds. nonetheless allowing for the inclusion of Irish actors such as the late Richard Harris as Dumbledore.[123] while a number of critics have criticised the books for promoting various political agendas. The move was supported by publishers and booksellers. for a reported £1 million ($1. Rowling sold the film rights of the first four Harry Potter books to Warner Bros. and one judge threatened to resign if Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban was declared the overall winner. very close behind the winner of the poetry prize.[126] and Sandra Beckett suggested the reason was intellectual snobbery towards books that were popular among children. Doubtfire and proven experience with directing children as influences for their decision. Billboard should have created a separate "mop-tops" list in 1964 when the Beatles held the top five places in its list.[127] In 1999 the winner of the Whitbread Book of the Year Award children's division was entered for the first time on the shortlist for the main award. the previous three Harry Potter books topped the New York Times fiction best-seller list and a third of the entries were children's books. with production ending in July 2001. but none of the children's book awards judged by adults. and Alan Parker were considered. on the same principle.Harry Potter and suing author Nancy Stouffer to counter her accusations that Rowling had plagiarised her work. Terry Gilliam. Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone" in the United States). which was still dominated by Harry Potter books into sections for series and individual books. it finished second. Just three days . citing his work on other family films such as Home Alone and Mrs. The UK versions are read by Stephen Fry and the US versions are read by Jim Dale.[136] [137] Philosopher's Stone was released on 14 November 2001.[134] After many directors including Steven Spielberg. and for casting of French and Eastern Europe actors in Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire where characters from the book are specified as such. Films In 1998. Seamus Heaney's translation of the Anglo-Saxon epic Beowulf.[129] The split in 2000 attracted condemnation.[120] [121] [122] Various religious conservatives have claimed that the books promote witchcraft and are therefore unsuitable for children.[132] [133] Rowling demanded the principal cast be kept strictly British.

Filming was completed in summer 2002. released on 18 November 2005. Deathly Hallows. with the film being released on 15 November 2002. K. production for Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets. Yates was selected to direct Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince. constraints of time and budget. Philosopher's Stone. with television director David Yates following suit after he was chosen to helm Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix. who play main characters Ron Weasley and Hermione Granger. The story and design of the games follows the selected film's characterisation and plot. also directed by Columbus. Due to the fourth film beginning its production before the third's release. Objectives usually occur in and around Hogwarts. and another group preferring the more stylised character-driven approach of the later films. playing an active role within the filmmaking process of Philosopher's Stone and serving as producer on the two-part Deathly Hallows. doing so for all succeeding films in the franchise.Harry Potter after the film's release. Yates' first two instalments grossed higher than any other film after Philosopher's Stone. Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows. as was the Harry Potter: Quidditch World Cup game. EA worked closely with Warner Brothers to include scenes from the films. while Cuarón's Prisoner of Azkaban grossed the least. Mike Newell was chosen as the director for Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. and two other spin-offs. Production of both parts started in February 2009. The video games are released to coincide with the films.[139] Newell became the first British director of the series.[154] At the 64th British Academy Film Awards in February 2011. containing scenery and details from the films as well as the tone and spirit of the books. only acting as producer. The last game in the series.[148] As well as financial success. which was released on 15 July 2009.[141] [142] [143] [144] In March 2008. Columbus declined to direct Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban.[138] Daniel Radcliffe portrayed Harry Potter. eight of which correspond with the films and books. The film/book based games are produced by Electronic Arts. Horn announced that the final instalment in the series. Rowling gained creative control on the film series. becoming the only director to have helmed more than one film since Columbus. with the final day of principal photography taking place on 12 June 2010. I can create dazzling effects relying on nothing but the interaction of my own and my readers’ imaginations". and after shooting in 2003. Actors Rupert Grint and Emma Watson. Obviously films have restrictions novels do not have. along with various other magical areas. The two-part game forms .[152] [152] [152] [153] She wrote on her website of the changes in the book-to-film transition. would be released in two cinematic parts: Part 1 on 19 November 2010 and Part 2 on 15 July 2011. began. Columbus' Philosopher's Stone became the highest-grossing Potter film upon completing its theatrical run in 2002. Production began in January 2006 and the film was released the following year in July 2007. Rowling was joined by producers David Heyman and David Barron along with directors David Yates. Mexican director Alfonso Cuarón took over the job. the film was released on 4 June 2004. but it was eventually topped by Yates' Deathly Hallows.[149] [150] 288 Opinions of the films are generally divided among fans. Alfonso Cuarón and Mike Newell in collecting the Michael Balcon Award for Outstanding British Contribution to Cinema on behalf of all the films in the series. David Yates returned to direct his third and fourth Potter films. "It is simply impossible to incorporate every one of my storylines into a film that has to be kept under four hours long.[147] The Harry Potter films have been top-rank box office hits. being released in November 2001. the film series has also been a success among film critics. with all eight releases on the list of highest-grossing films worldwide.[155] [156] Games There are ten Harry Potter video games. Warner Bros.[145] [146] J. was split with Part 1 released in November 2010 and Part 2 debuting on consoles in July 2011.[140] After executives were "really delighted" with his work on the film. with the game version of the first entry in the series. alongside David Heyman and David Barron. with one group preferring the more faithful approach of the first two films. were also in attendance.[151] Rowling has been constantly supportive of all the films and evaluated Deathly Hallows as her "favourite one" in the series. President and COO Alan F.

Interactive Entertainment. seeing gains of as much as 36%. Developed at a cost of $265 million.. Ollivander's offers personalized magic wands. The new land. including soaring over Hogwarts. and the Three Broomsticks serves food and drink. but ultimately turned down the opportunity. A soft opening was held at the end of March 2010.[162] a period during which attendance to competitor resort Walt Disney World dropped slightly. stated that two new sound stages would be constructed to house and showcase the famous sets from each of the British-made productions." The Lost Continent. with the land opening on 16 June 2010 for reserved guests.[157] [158] The other spin-offs games. The land officially opened to the public on 18 June 2010." a new Harry Potter-themed expansion to the Islands of Adventure theme park at Universal Orlando Resort in Florida. In addition to the three rides are several themed shops and restaurants.[164] United Kingdom In March 2011.[160] leading into the village of Hogsmeade. heavily inspired by their appearances in the books and films: Honeydukes sells sweets. board games such as Cluedo Harry Potter Edition. announced plans to build a tourist attraction in the United Kingdom to showcase the Harry Potter film series. such as chocolate frogs and Bertie Bott's Every-Flavour Beans. Harry Potter & the Forbidden Journey. following a £100 million investment. The attraction will be located at Leavesden Film Studios. with the gameplay revolving around a third-person shooter style format. dementors. A number of other non-interactive media games have been released. Studio Tour London will be a behind-the-scenes walking tour featuring authentic sets. and the Whomping Willow. Dueling Dragons. a renovation of the previously existing ride. where all eight of the Harry Potter films were made. getting involved in a Quidditch match. and having close encounters with dragons. a KUKA arm attraction which takes passengers through many realistic scenes influenced by the movies and books. Flying Unicorn. Zonko's Joke Shop sells various items including Sneakoscopes. Universal and Warner Brothers announced they would create "The Wizarding World of Harry Potter. Scene It? Harry Potter and Lego Harry Potter models." Islands of Adventure saw a massive increase in attendance following the expansion. 289 Attractions United States After the success of the films and books. Warner Bros. The castle contains the expansion's centrepiece attraction. merchandise shop.[159] Guests enter the land through a recreation of the Hogsmeade station. Warner Bros. the new land "has seen capacity crowds [and] waits of up to two hours just to enter the . which are influenced by the themes of both the novels and films. as well as from much of the existing "island. a renovation of the previously existing rollercoaster.[165] . costumes and props from the film series. and a family roller coaster called Flight of the Hippogriff.. was built from land reserved for expansion outside of the park's original border. most notably Butterbeer and pumpkin juice. promoted as the seventh themed "island" of the park. with a forced-perspective Hogwarts castle at the very end of the street. Lego Harry Potter: Years 1–4 and the upcoming Lego Harry Potter: Years 5-7 are developed by Traveller's Tales and published by Warner Bros.Harry Potter the first entry to convey an intense theme of action and violence.[163] Disney had itself entered negotiations for a Harry Potter-themed expansion.[161] Other attractions include a twin high-speed rollercoaster named the Dragon Challenge. Warner Bros.

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jkrowling.ca/books?id=c0Vx_faEKUcC& lpg=PP1&dq=Harry Potter&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=true). Neil (2007). Susan (2008). ISBN 9780830834303 • Gunelius. Gina (2005). Friends and Foes of Harry Potter: Names Decoded (http://books. Harry Potter: the story of a global business phenomenon (http://books.Harry Potter 296 Further reading • Agarwal. Routledge. A parent's guide to Harry Potter (http://books.ca/ books?id=-jtl-ZDxEFkC&lpg=PP1&dq=Harry Potter&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=true).warnerbros.com (Canadian publisher) . Harry Potter Collector's Handbook (http://books. William (2010).com/) on Scholastic.ca/books?id=BoX-6R21MgQC&lpg=PP1&dq=Harry Potter&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q& f=true).com) – Official website (Warner Bros.google. Critical perspectives on Harry Potter (http://books. Outskirts Press.google.google. Giselle Liza (2003). Praeger. ISBN 023020323X • Heilman.raincoast. IVP Books. Palgrave Macmillan.ca/books?id=WZwZWP5Sl3AC& lpg=PP1&dq=Harry Potter&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=true). InterVarsity Press. ISBN 0830832882 • Duriez. google.) Harry Potter (http://www.ca/books?id=JGQBcu5O_ZcC&lpg=PP1&dq=Harry Potter&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=true).com (International publisher) Harry Potter (http://harrypotter. Field Guide to Harry Potter (http://books. ISBN 159800221X • Anatol. K. Rowling's personal website (http://www.scholastic.ca/ books?id=abYKXvCwEToC&lpg=PP1&dq=Harry Potter&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=true).com/harrypotter) on Raincoast.bloomsbury. ISBN 9781440208973 External links • • • • • J.com (US publisher) Harry Potter (http://www. Colin (2007). BenBella Books.com) Harry Potter movies (http://harrypotter.ca/ books?id=06FgsmilUXAC&lpg=PP1&dq=Harry Potter&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=true). The psychology of Harry Potter: an unauthorized examination of the boy who lived (http://books. Nikita.google.com/harrypotter) on Bloomsbury. Reading Harry Potter: critical essays (http://books.google. Krause. ISBN 0313320675 • Burkart.google.ca/ books?id=-__ICQemqaEC&lpg=PP1&dq=Harry Potter&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=true). ISBN 978-0-415-96484-5 • Mulholland.google. Elizabeth E (2008). ISBN 9781932100884 • Silvester. Chitra Agarwal (2005).

The entire series is actively narrated by Snicket. in September 1999. who makes numerous references to his mysterious." Since the release of the first novel. all of whom are part of an overarching conspiracy known to the children only as "V. The children are placed in the custody of their distant cousin Count Olaf. video game. bringing about the serial slaughter and demise of a multitude of characters. critical acclaim. and Sunny Baudelaire after their parents' death in an arsonous house fire. Beatrice. and assorted merchandise.F.A Series of Unfortunate Events 297 A Series of Unfortunate Events A Series of Unfortunate Events The Bad Beginning The Reptile Room The Wide Window The Miserable Mill The Austere Academy The Ersatz Elevator The Vile Village The Hostile Hospital The Carnivorous Carnival The Slippery Slope The Grim Grotto The Penultimate Peril The End Author Illustrator Lemony Snicket Brett Helquist Cover artist Brett Helquist Country Language Genre Publisher United States English Gothic fiction. Arthur Poe. 2006 Published A Series of Unfortunate Events is a series of children's novels (or novellas) by Lemony Snicket (the nom de plume of American author Daniel Handler) which follows the turbulent lives of Violet. and commercial success worldwide. The Bad Beginning. 1999 – October 13.D. . deceased love interest. The thirteen books in the series (or "tridecalogy") have collectively sold more than 60 million copies and have been translated into 41 languages. After the Baudelaires are removed from his care by their parents' estate executor. Olaf begins to doggedly hunt the children down. Steampunk. Both Snicket and Beatrice play roles in the story along with Snicket's family members. the books have gained significant popularity. who begins to abuse them and openly plots to embezzle their inheritance. absurdist fiction. Klaus. spawning a film. Mystery HarperCollins EgmontUK September 30.

has said in an interview with online entertainment-magazine The A. but he. In the fifth book. Count Olaf orders the siblings to cook and clean in his gloomy. like many of the adults in the series. but met with the publishers to discuss the book. Violet. passed on The Basic Eight. They challenged him to write the book he wished he could have read when he was ten.A Series of Unfortunate Events 298 Origins The author of the series. 1999. Handler thought it was a terrible idea at first. In The Slippery Slope Violet shares a tender moment with Quigley Quagmire (it is never detailed exactly what happened). which awaits Violet when she turns eighteen. pretending it is the plot for his latest play.V. also orphans who lost their parents in a fire which is suspected not to be a mere coincidence.F. Club that he decided to write a children's story when he was trying to find a publisher for his first novel. Klaus and Sunny make friends with the Quagmires. with help from his many accomplices tries to steal their fortune. In The Bad Beginning. a concept which the publishers liked. In The End. one of Count Olaf's accomplices. V. they are sent to live with a distant relative named Count Olaf after briefly living with Mr."[3] Handler claimed that watching the local news frequently and seeing the depressing stories of crime. finds the children wherever they are and. he attempts to marry Violet. She has four very sharp teeth and loves to bite things and speaks in random phrases. Their roles switch in the eighth through twelfth books. murder. The careful reader will find quite a few rabbis. she is an incredible inventor.[1] One of the publishers. The Basic Eight. is oblivious to the dangerous reality of the children's situation. the three children uncover more and more of the mystery surrounding their parents' deaths and soon find that their parents were in a secret organization. Sunny Baudelaire is a baby in the beginning of the series. but they were interested in his writing a story for children. but the plan falls through when Klaus reads up on marriage law. to Handler's surprise. who later breaks his heart by leaving them to live with her brother. the middle child. who was originally believed to have died in the same fire that killed his parents. Klaus falls in love with Fiona. is twelve when the books begin. she finally learns to speak properly. is fourteen when the books begin. he loves books and is an extraordinary reader. The Baudelaires routinely try to get help from Mr. Violet always invents things to help them. the Baudelaires must rely on their strengths and each other in order to uncover the mystery and finally find a place they can call home. In The Grim Grotto. in which the orphans adopt disguises while on the run from the police after Count Olaf frames them for his own murder through use of a body double. Klaus always finds out information from books.[5] In each of the first seven books. The children become orphans after their parents are killed in a fire at the family mansion. the eldest. Poe. a banker in charge of the orphans' affairs. and other atrocities along the way. The Baudelaires are Jewish! I guess we would not know for sure but we would strongly suspect it. Daniel Handler. she also develops a love for cooking later on in the series. In The End. The siblings discover that he intends to get his hands on the enormous Baudelaire fortune. violence and hardship was part of the inspiration of the book series.[4] Plot summary The series follows the adventures of three siblings: the Baudelaire orphans. When asked in a Moment Magazine interview about the Baudelaire children and Handler's own Jewish heritage he replied "Oh yeah! Yes. Poe. released September 30. The first book in the series was The Bad Beginning.[2] which became a "Gothic novel about children growing up through terrible things". Klaus Baudelaire. As the books continue. In the first book. dirty house.. not only from their manner but from the occasional mention of a rabbi or bar mitzvah or synagogue. although her English improves as the series goes on. committing arson. along with several of their guardians. but occasionally something good happens. The siblings are followed by misfortune wherever they go. HarperCollins. Violet Baudelaire. Each of the three siblings has a distinctive skill that often helps them in dire situations. Olaf disguises himself. and Sunny has extremely sharp teeth that can bite .D. He retooled a manuscript he had for a mock-Gothic book for adults.

dying.[6] Although the film version sets the Baudelaires' mansion in the city of Boston. Violet always has something to invent. as she begins to grow into her teeth and develops culinary skills (except in The Miserable Mill. where Klaus mentions he plans to read a set of novels by PG Wodehouse. Sunny actually manages to climb up an elevator shaft with her sharp teeth in order to save her siblings from a terrible fate. he describes "adversity" as meaning "Count Olaf"). I can spy on them and find out. Mr. or being written in other languages: "Shalom" or "Sayonara. in The Reptile Room. although many are mentioned. references to people: "Busheney" to describe Count Olaf. suggesting television exists as well. and 'cigam' [magic] in The Miserable Mill. i. specifically the Duchess of Winnipeg and the King of Arizona. Snicket often goes off into humorous or satirical asides. Sunny begins to grow normal size teeth and learns how to cook. "timeless"[6] version of Earth with stylistic similarities to both the 19th century and the 1930s. as its only use in the book is to show a picture of Count Olaf (which both Mr. Remora mentions that he watched television at a telling of one of his classroom stories.[2] Despite the general absurdity of the books' storyline. which would put the novel no earlier than the 20th century.[2] In later books. though with contemporary. Massachusetts. in The End thereby asking if Count Olaf is dead. the phonetic spelling of "kick the bucket". Sunny speaks in single word utterances which are often a variety of incomplete sentences or short word sentences. Lemony Snicket continuously maintains that the story is true and that it is his "solemn duty" to record it. one of the letters describes the computer as capable of an advanced act of forgery. there is fiber-optic cable for sale. In France They're Out. which. The setting of the world has been compared to Edward Scissorhands in that it is "suburban gothic". is nonetheless more advanced than the earliest computers. Sunny always finds something to chew on or. or one which is only relevant to the events at hand (for example. yet in the Last Chance General Store. through cultural references: 'Matahari'. backwards: 'edasurc' [crusade] in The Carnivorous Carnival.'. where Violet and Klaus swap roles. where the Baudelaires are in a new predicament in a new location with a new guardian who has a literary name. Uncle Monty and the Baudelaires plan a trip to Peru. One example of this "technological disconnect" is documented in The Hostile Hospital. In The Ersatz Elevator. cook. this computer's exact functions are never stated.e. Snicket works the siblings' respective skills into the story line. there are also references to the fictional nobility of North American regions. Also. phrases: 'Kikbucit?'. and seemingly anachronistic scientific knowledge. Their meaning is disguised by being spelled phonetically: 'surchmi' in The Slippery Slope.A Series of Unfortunate Events almost anything into pieces.. discussing his . For example. sometimes with a humorous definition. In the early books. followed by the definition of "you are a vile man who has no regard for anyone else". in the Austere Academy.. and that becomes her primary skill. Poe and Vice Principal Nero believe will keep him away). in later books. he typically says "a word which here means.[9] Recurring themes and concepts The majority of the books in A Series of Unfortunate Events pick up where the previous book ended." Eventually she begins to speak in more complete English sentences. When describing a word the reader may not be aware of. 299 Setting The books seem to be set in an alternate. where the Baudelaire children send a message via Morse code on a telegraph. real places rarely appear in the books. while outdated by current standards. followed by a definition of 'If I stay.[6] The location of each book's critical events is usually identified in the book's title. A book in Jerome and Esmé Squalor's library was titled Trout. and the plots of the first seven books follow the same basic pattern: each book is thirteen chapters long (only exception for The End where there are actually fourteen chapters making for 170 chapters in total).[7] An "advanced computer" appears in The Austere Academy. and in the early books.". but in the companion book The Unauthorised Autobiography. Klaus being the inventor and Violet the researcher). Lemony Snicket frequently explains words and analogies in incongruous detail.[8] One of the few clues to the exact date comes towards the end of the final book in the series. Klaus always finds a library to do research in.

D. Lemony Snicket: The Unauthorized Autobiography. peer pressure. This contrast between the Baudelaires' actions and Lemony Snicket's bemused. His tone portrays admiration for the children as well as his own severe insecurity. or his personal life. dark humor. A high account is given to learning: those who are "well-read" are often sympathetic characters.[10] Snicket's narration has been described as "self-conscious" and "post-modern". Although the books are melodramatic and escapist. For example. Lemony Snicket starts each book with a "post-modern dissection of the reading experience" before linking it back to how he presents the story of the Baudelaires and what their current situation is. The vast secret consisting of the V. In this way he uses the persona of Lemony Snicket as a foil for the Baudelaires. reverent reactions underscores one of the themes of the books. Clues pointing towards the semi-de facto ending were in the introductions to the books by Lemony Snicket. they also depict "the sinister menace of an all-too-real adult world". while those who shun knowledge are villains. However. Social commentary is a major element in the books. Ultimately. A theme which becomes more prevalent as the series continues is the simultaneous importance and worthlessness of secrets. and that they will not end well. The End. he also provides ample comic relief with wry. and you wouldn't even want me to describe the worst of it. Snicket claims to have been chased by an angry mob for sixteen miles. or that some things are best left unsolved.. Snicket translates for the youngest Baudelaire orphan. In the excerpt for each book. Sunny. as we are constantly told to put the books down. there's fire' in The Slippery Slope and the descriptions of the water cycle in The Grim Grotto. When giving accounts of bravery or resilience on the part of the Baudelaires. or a cultural reference. for example. 300 . Snicket often uses alliteration (repeated starting sounds on consecutive words) to name locations throughout the story. a mechanical monster. the concept is especially important.such as the repeated comparisons of the words 'nervous' and 'anxious' in The Ersatz Elevator. Daniel Handler seems to urge the reader to find courage in him or herself and in his or her friends and if not to challenge despondence then at least to take it with a grain of salt. This becomes less common as Sunny begins to speak real words. Snicket often describes the character first and does not reveal the name of the character until they have been thoroughly described. Snicket often calls himself a coward either explicitly or otherwise.. However. the mystery of the Baudelaire orphans is never solved. incomplete and not explained in detail. Snicket warns of the misery the reader may experience in reading about the Baudelaire orphans and suggests abandoning the books altogether. but also gives off a sense of squeamishness with passages like the above excerpt. which often comment on the seemingly inescapable follies of human nature. which includes mushrooms. he writes: "[. one of her first longer sentences in the series being "I'm not a baby" to her sister Violet in The Slippery Slope.[11] The words she uses are often from another language. and so forth remains a mystery. ambition and other social ills. such as "Arigato" ("thank you" in Japanese) when thanking Quigley. By emphasizing the vitality of the Baudelaire orphans.. In the final book. who in the early books can say only words or phrases that make sense to her siblings. He uses this writing technique for the titles of the books (the only exception being the final book. while the adults around them obey authority and succumb to mob psychology. the orphans' parents. a distressing message from a lost friend and tap-dancing". In the excerpt for The Grim Grotto. Count Olaf.[12] Many of the books start with a theme being introduced which is continually referenced throughout the book .[12] When describing a character whom the Baudelaires have met before. a desperate search for something lost. The books consistently present the Baudelaire children as free-thinking and independent.F. There are several possible interpretations of this—that secrets are unimportant. however.] the horrors [the Baudelaire children] encounter are too numerous to list. Lemony Snicket's narration and commentary is characteristically cynical and despondent. some details of his life are explained somewhat in his fictional autobiography. The details of his supposed personal life are largely absurd. The End).A Series of Unfortunate Events opinions of various matters. as demonstrated by a several page long discussion of the phrase In the dark. Snicket displays a great aversion to macabre elements. the consistent use of the phrase 'Where there's smoke.

Edgar and Albert. as the Baudelaires become more confused during the course of the series about the difference between right and wrong. which Lemony Snicket makes an excuse that his typewriter is occasionally freezing due to the cold air in the Mortmain Mountains. This is done usually by showing a flyer drifting by. Throughout the second half of the series the letters V.g. At the end of The Carnivorous Carnival. good characters' flaws become major problems. While the books are marketed primarily to children.D dog the orphans. the series features references more likely to make sense to adults. However. is an allusion to C. especially the villains. Poe has two sons. or telegram form. There is also a full page picture at the end. in an allusion to the Book of Genesis. Snicket shows the name of the final book: The End. . In the final book. Charles Baudelaire met Edgar Allan Poe. one showing the title.[2] perhaps in keeping with the common theme of being "well-read". With all due respect. one of them showing the title. in the seventh instalment. which explains to the editor how to get a manuscript of the next book. The remaining letters are difficult to read. there are only a few letters visible. though sometimes also by a significant object. a disease involving coughing up blood. Detective Dupin. Auguste Dupin.. The Vile Village. For example. see the individual article for any book in the series.F. starting with the fourth book (which previews the fifth book) each letter has a specific quality to do with the next book. and some do not even show the title at all. the letters are on ordinary pieces of paper as legend says." Salinger and his short story "For Esmé – with Love and Squalor" In book nine. Historical references are made in the fifth book where Nero. The poem also begins with the line. Isadora and Duncan Quagmire. Beatrice. 302 Genre This series is most commonly classified as children's fiction. the story takes place at Caligari Carnival. to whom he dedicated all of his work after her death. The Cabinet of Doctor Caligari about the eponymous carnival hypnotist who works alongside a troupe of freaks. is named after the Roman emperor Nero who. Also. a play by William Shakespeare. because of its strange characters. 5. In the fourth book. Monty's name is presumably a reference to the English absurdist comedy troupe Monty Python. "In a burnt. This may be an allusion to the legendary Italian poet Dante Alighieri and his unrequited love. this is a nod to 1920 film.A Series of Unfortunate Events In the second book. a violin playing head master." similar to the Baudelaire mansion burning down at the beginning of the series. Jerome and Esmé Squalor's names reference Jerome David "J. The Divine Comedy. but can also be classified as adventure.[20] [21] because of the mix of humorous and macabre elements. quirky writing style and improbable storylines and black comedy.[2] [17] a satire of gothic literature. the Baudelaire orphans are taken in by Uncle Monty. 2. The Hostile Hospital (2001) 9. 3. Distribution Books The series includes thirteen novels as follows:[23] 1. 7. Georgina Orwell is a reference to the British author George Orwell. Beatrice is also the symbol of Divine Love who guides Dante to Paradiso in Dante's most famous work. most or all of the inhabitants of the island in which the Baudelaires find themselves on in The End are characters from The Tempest. who are named for the famous American pioneer of Modern dance. In "The End"." much like the actor Count Olaf. "The Carnivorous Carnival". The Reptile Room. the famed herpetologist. but it has also been classified in more specific genres such as gothic literature. The poem references an "actor without a job. 6.

of whom Handler states: "he does a splendid job". each one originally appearing on one of the corresponding thirteen audiobooks of the series. new illustrations and a serial supplement entitled The Cornucopian Cavalcade is in progress. very hard. future narrating duties were handed back to Curry. though Handler as Lemony Snicket reads books 3 to 5. a novelty band of which Handler is a member. The Slippery Slope (2003) The Grim Grotto (2004) The Penultimate Peril (2005) The End (2006) 303 There are books that accompany the series.[33] Album In October 2006.[28] and short materials such as The Dismal Dinner and 13 Shocking Secrets You'll Wish You Never Knew About Lemony Snicket. Liam Aiken as Klaus. who is supposedly the dead beloved of Lemony Snicket. with cloth binding on the spines matching the colours of the cover. Every book in the main series has a clue in a form of a picture about the next book at the end of the book that can be seen before the letters to the editor. Handler has said: "It was very. 11. Two bonus songs are included. although they are skipped entirely in The Grim Grotto. however. It was released on December 17. Emily Browning as Violet. 13.[6] The endpapers were "designed in a suitably Victorian style". Of narrating the audio books. Daniel Handler alluded to more Lemony Snicket books focused on the world of A Series of Unfortunate Events. it stars Jim Carrey as Count Olaf.A Series of Unfortunate Events 10. At the end of "Chapter Fourteen".[33] Film Lemony Snicket's A Series of Unfortunate Events is a film adaptation of the first three titles in the series. It was the worst kind of arduous. such as The Beatrice Letters. Starting at 'The Carnivorous Carnival' there is another actor who replaces Handler in reading the two blurbs.[32] The “Dear Reader” blurb is usually read by Handler (as Snicket) at the beginning."[32] As such. Murder!. The Tragic Treasury: Songs from A Series of Unfortunate Events by The Gothic Archies was released. who married another and died before the events of the books. Meryl Streep as Aunt Josephine.[31] Every book's dedication is to a woman named Beatrice. The books were at one point published at the rate of three or four books per year. All of the record