Timeline of Richmond, Virginia

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The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Richmond, Virginia, United States

Pre-European Era[edit]

History of Virginia
Flag of Virginia.svg Virginia portal
  • Prior to the arrival of Europeans, the Great Indian Warpath had a branch that led from present-day Lynchburg to present-day Richmond.
  • By 1607, Chief Powhatan had inherited the chiefdom of about 4–6 tribes, with its base at the Fall Line near present-day Richmond and with political domain over much of eastern Tidewater Virginia, an area known to the Powhatans as "Tsenacommacah."

17th century[edit]

1600s-1610s[edit]

1620s-1640s[edit]

1650s-1670s[edit]

1680s-1690s[edit]

18th century[edit]

1700s-1740s[edit]

1750s-1790s[edit]

19th century[edit]

1800s-1810s[edit]

1820s-1830s[edit]

1840s-1850s[edit]

1860s-1870s[edit]

1880s-1890s[edit]

20th century[edit]

1900s-1910s[edit]

1920s-1930s[edit]

1940s-1950s[edit]

1960s-1970s[edit]

1980s-1990s[edit]

21st century[edit]

2000s[edit]

2010s[edit]

  • 2017
    • On January 7, Levar Stoney is sworn in as Richmond's youngest ever mayor. He is 35 years old.[253]
    • In the wake of the Unite the Right rally violence incidents in Charlottesville, protestors including Antifa and Black Lives Matter gathered on Monument Avenue to stage an anti-racist counter-demonstration on August 14. A CBS6 cameraman was injured in the fracas.[254] A month later, when local confederate groups announced a rally on Monument Avenue for September 17, a significant police presence and counter-demonstration staged opposition and continued the debate over Monument Avenue's confederate statues.[255]
    • In October, Facebook announces plans to construct a $1 billion, 970,000-square-foot data center on about 330 acres of White Oak Technology Park.[256]
    • In November, Mayor Stoney announces a major downtown development plan involving replacing the Richmond Coliseum with a 17,500-seat arena[257] and redeveloping the surrounding area.[258]
  • 2018
    • On Sunday January 7, a cold snap sends temperatures plummeting to negative 3 degrees Fahrenheit, the coldest recorded temperature in 33 years. Pipes break across the city including flooding of I-95 downtown.[259]
    • Richmond Grocery Wars:[260][261] In the wake of the disappearance of Martin's and Ukrops, grocery chains such as Lidl, Publix, Wegmans, and Aldi continue to open stores in the Richmond area, squeezing existing stores like Kroger, Walmart, and Food Lion.[262][263][264]
    • June 24—the GRTC Pulse (bus rapid transit system) opens, connecting Rocketts Landing to Scott's Addition to Willow Lawn.[265][266] Mayor Stoney states that the $65 million project will generate $1 billion in economic activity over the next 20 years, resulting in a $15 return on investment for every dollar invested.[267]
    • As Hurricane Florence made landfall and moved through North Carolina, low-topped supercells developed from this system remnants that had moved north to the Richmond area. This system created 10 tornadoes (ranging from EF0 to EF2) that hit the greater Richmond region in the course of the afternoon of Monday September 17, killing one[268] and damaging multiple buildings on the Southside.[269] Many area schools sheltered students in place in some cases until 6:30PM.[270]
  • 2020
    • On June 1st, Richmond Police fired tear gas on peaceful protestors at the Robert E. Lee Monument.[271].

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  7. ^ "History of Henricus (1611 Settlement)". henricus . org. Retrieved 25 January 2019. Subsequent efforts to reestablish the town of Henricus failed. In May 1625, more than three years after the devastating attack, only 22 inhabitants were reported residing in ten “dwelling-houses” at Henricus.
  8. ^ Scholl Center for American History and Culture. "Virginia: Individual County Chronologies". Atlas of Historical County Boundaries. Chicago: Newberry Library. Archived from the original on March 5, 2017. Retrieved June 30, 2015.
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  10. ^ "History of Henricus (1611 Settlement)". henricus . org. Retrieved 25 January 2019. In 1637, fifteen years after the uprising, the site was included in a 2,000 acre tract patented by William Farrar. Because it was owned by William Farrar, Sr., the peninsula became known as Farrar’s Island..
  11. ^ "History Lesson". Richmond Times-Dispatch.
  12. ^ "The Messenger Newsletter (published by the CHESTERFIELD HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF VIRGINIA) Volume #86 July2008 "Chesterfield's major town and the tenth largest city in Virginia was incorporated in 1769 with the name of Manchester. The Indians had called the area "Manastoh,""" (PDF).
  13. ^ Claiborne, J. Herbert (1921). "William Claiborne of Kent Island". The William and Mary Quarterly. 1 (2): 74–99. doi:10.2307/1923023. JSTOR 1923023.
  14. ^ "The Battle of Bloody Run | Church Hil People's News". Chpn.net. 2014-12-02. Archived from the original on 2014-12-16. Retrieved 2015-12-22.
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  16. ^ http://www.jessicacrabtree.com/journal1/2010/09/first-indian-reservation "Pamunkey-Mattaponi Reservation (Virginia, 1658) The first colonial record of an Indian reservation comes from the Virginia colony, where in 1658 – a hundred years before New Jersey's Lenape reservation was formed – the Virginia General Assembly voted on a land reserve for the Pamunkey and Mattaponi tribes."
  17. ^ Gundersen, Joan; Dictionary of Virginia Biography. "Anna Bennett Bland (d. 1687)". Encyclopedia Virginia. Retrieved 2 March 2016.
  18. ^ Fausz, J. Frederick; Dictionary of Virginia Biography. "Richard Bennett (bap. 1609–ca. 1675)". Encyclopedia Virginia. Retrieved 2 March 2016. He served from April 30, 1652, to March 31, 1655
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  22. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=aqI1CQAAQBAJ&lpg=PT23&dq=Bacons%20rebellion%20in%20Richmond&pg=PT23#v=onepage&q=Bacons%20rebellion%20in%20Richmond&f=false "he purchased a plantation at Curles Neck, on the James, forty Mules above Jamestown, and a tract of land at the site of Richmond, on what was then the frontier."
  23. ^ Tate, Thad W.; Dictionary of Virginia Biography. "James Blair (ca. 1655–1743)". Encyclopedia Virginia. Retrieved 2 March 2016.
  24. ^ "At the beginning of the eighteenth century, dissenting congregations were rare in Virginia, and the long-established Anglican Church remained comfortably dominant." Kidd, Thomas S. "Act of Toleration (1689)". Encyclopedia Virginia. Retrieved 2 March 2016.
  25. ^ The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. "James Blair American colonial educator". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2 March 2016.
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  27. ^ Young, Chester Raymond (1981 / 2004). Westward into Kentucky: The Narrative of Daniel Trabue (paperback ed.). Lexington, KY: The University PRess of Kentucky. p. 160. ISBN 978-0-8131-9119-5. Retrieved 28 February 2018. By a letter dated March 18, 1699/1700, King William III ordered Governor Francis Nicholson of Virginia to make grants of land to a group of French Reugees and to help settle them. ... The Virginia Council decided on August 8, 1700 that the necomers should be seated in Henrico (now Powhatan) county at Manakin Town. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  28. ^ Lambert, David (2010). The Protestant International and the Huguenot Migration to Virginia. New York, Washington DC/Baltimore, Bern, Frankfurt, Berlin, Brussels, Vienna, Oxford: Peter Lang. pp. –162. ISBN 978-1-4331-0759-7. Retrieved 28 February 2018. With the arrival of the fifth – and final – ship, the William and Elizabeth, in Virginia on 9 August 1701, the total migration of these French Protestant and Vaudois refugees was thereby completed.
  29. ^ "Richmond | Virginia, United States". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2019-06-07.
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  31. ^ "Road to Revolution Heritage Trail". Roadtorevolution.com. Retrieved 2015-12-22.
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  35. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=9af3Sm3hUpAC&pg=PA86&lpg=PA86&dq=westham,+Virginia+randolph&source=bl&ots=cb8UIB-il6&sig=cIjy-juRnD0MoTGB5WSuqPC9gDw&hl=en&sa=X&ei=sMNwVd_lFpPhsAT64oDICQ&ved=0CEkQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=westham%2C%20Virginia%20randolph&f=false The Backcountry Towns of Colonial Virginia by Christopher E. Hendricks
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  37. ^ "This Day in Presbyterian History · Samuel Davies". Thisday.pcahistory.org. Retrieved 2015-12-22.
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  39. ^ "The Honorable Colonel William Byrd's Lottery: How It Came About | Mount Vernon's Mystery Midden". Mountvernonmidden.org. 2014-04-02. Retrieved 2015-12-22.
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  41. ^ "Early Coal Pits Mid-Lothian Mines and Railroad Foundation – Midlothian, Virginia". Midlothian Mines Park. Retrieved 28 February 2018. "The first mines discovered in this vicinity, were the old Black Heath pits, Buck & Cunliffe's, Ross & Curry's, Wooldridge's, Railey's, and the Green Hole." (owned eventually by Colonel "Harry" Heth)
  42. ^ Ellyson 1856.
  43. ^ https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0017_0_16731.html "establishment of the state's first Jewish congregation in 1789. Kahal Kadosh Beth Shalome was the sixth and westernmost congregation in the colonies,"
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  45. ^ "To George Washington from Bushrod Washington, 13 March 1798". Founders.archives.gov. 2015-09-29. Retrieved 2015-12-22.
  46. ^ Dabney, Virginius (2012-10-05). Richmond: The Story of a City – Virginius Dabney – Google Books. ISBN 978-0-8139-3430-3. Retrieved 2015-12-22.
  47. ^ Marcus, Maeva; Perry, James R. (1985). The Documentary History of the Supreme Court of the United States, 1789–1800 ... - Maeva Marcus – Google Books. ISBN 978-0-231-08870-1. Retrieved 2015-12-22.
  48. ^ http://scholarship.richmond.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1067&context=masters-theses
  49. ^ Miller 1977, pp. 152–153
  50. ^ Gordon-Reed, Annette. Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings: An American Controversy. University of Virginia Press (April 1997), pp. 59–61. ISBN 0-8139-1698-4
  51. ^ "Thomas Jefferson to William Short, September 8, 1823". Retrieved 2006-09-30.
  52. ^ Salmon, John S. (1994). A Guidebook to Virginia's Historical Markers. Charlottesville and London: University of Virginia Press -- Virginia Department of Historic Resources. p. 120. ISBN 978-0-8139-1491-6. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
  53. ^ a b c d e f Wallenstein 2000.
  54. ^ "US Newspaper Directory". Chronicling America. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. Retrieved September 18, 2012.
  55. ^ "--Richmond: A Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary".
  56. ^ a b Davies Project. "American Libraries before 1876". Princeton University. Retrieved September 18, 2012.
  57. ^ African Repository and Colonial Journal. American Colonization Society. May 1850. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  58. ^ "Virginia". American almanac and repository of useful knowledge for the year 1832. Boston: Gray and Bowen, and Carter and Hendee. 1832.
  59. ^ A documentary history of the early organizations of printers, Indianapolis, Ind: International Typographical Union, 1907, OCLC 6953828, OL 7017494M
  60. ^ Lewis, Ronald L. (1987 / 2009). Black Coal Miners in America: Race, Class, and Community Conflict, 1780–1980. Lexington, Kentucky: The University Press of Kentucky. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-8131-9274-1. Retrieved 28 February 2018. By the late 1830s, many coal companies were operating in the Richmond Basin. One of the largest of them was the famous Midlothian Mining Company, chartered in 1836. According to the president of the company, A. S. Wooldridge... Check date values in: |date= (help)
  61. ^ "Mid-Lothian Coal Mining". Midlothian Mines Park website. Retrieved 28 February 2018.
  62. ^ https://olivercromwellcase.wordpress.com/2012/11/04/aquia-creek-landing/ "A railroad from Fredericksburg to Richmond was completed in 1837 which made the landing on Aquia Creek even more attractive. The year 1842 saw a critical development in the story of Aquia Creek Landing as the Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac Railroad extended their rail line from Fredericksburg to the landing. This now allowed cargo and passengers to move faster than ever from Washington to Richmond connecting to other areas in the north and south."
  63. ^ "History – History – VCU School of Medicine". Medschool.vcu.edu. 2014-04-23. Retrieved 2015-12-22.
  64. ^ "Bosher's Dam". Richmond Outside. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
  65. ^ "History – Richmond College". rc.richmond.edu. University of Richmond. Retrieved 13 March 2017.
  66. ^ "Tredegar's parallel decline continued until 1841 when the owners hired twenty-eight year old Joseph R. Anderson, an ex-army officer, to take charge of the company's affairs". Archived from the original on September 8, 2008.
  67. ^ "Education from LVA: Tredegar Strike". Virginiamemory.com. Retrieved 2015-12-22.
  68. ^ https://bethahabah.org/heritage/history/# "A growing number of German and Eastern European Jews immigrated to Richmond and joined the congregation, but soon longed for their more familiar form of Ashkenazic worship. In 1841, they founded Congregation Beth Ahabah – House of Love – as an offshoot of K.K. Beth Shalome. "
  69. ^ Henrico Historical Society. "Henrico History".
  70. ^ a b "Full text of "Charles Dickens in America"".
  71. ^ Richmond (Virginia). Second Presbyterian Church. (1890), Commemoration of forty-five years of service, Richmond, Va: Printed by Whittet & Shepperson, OCLC 4908395, OL 6343111M
  72. ^ "Map of the Richmond & Danville Railroad system in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, & Texas". Library of Congress. Retrieved 28 February 2018. Chartered in 1847 and completed to Danville in 1856.
  73. ^ "Gesangverein Virginia". Retrieved September 18, 2012.
  74. ^ Brock 1880.
  75. ^ Cornelius Jacob Heatwole (1916), A history of education in Virginia, New York: Macmillan, OL 7029252M
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  82. ^ "Centennial Collection". Libwww.library.phila.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-22.
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  84. ^ Chamber of Commerce 1882.
  85. ^ First annual catalogue of the officers and students of Hartshorn Memorial College, Richmond, Va: W. Jones, steam printer, 1884, OL 7208530M
  86. ^ D.L. Chandler (5 October 2014). "Little Known Black History Fact: Bill 'Bojangles' Robinson". Black America Web.
  87. ^ a b "About the Robert E. Lee Camp Confederate Soldiers' Home Applications for Admission Database". Lva.virginia.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-22.
  88. ^ "Chicago Historical Society Northwestern University Wet With Blood".
  89. ^ "Chicago Historical Society Northwestern University Wet With Blood".
  90. ^ Charter, constitution and by-laws of the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities, Richmond: W. E. Jones, printer, 1901, OL 23285872M
  91. ^ "American and Western Photographic Societies", International Annual of Anthony's Photographic Bulletin, New York: E. & H. T. Anthony & Company, 1890
  92. ^ a b Christian 1912.
  93. ^ Confederate Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument Association, Richmond (1894), Souvenir, unveiling soldiers' and sailors' monument, Richmond, Virginia, May 30, 1894, Richmond: J. L. Hill printing co., OCLC 4555693, OL 6902186M
  94. ^ page 40
  95. ^ "Harris, Robert B., "The life of Major James Henry Dooley" (1936). Honors Theses. Paper 262. pp. 9–10 "In 1889 he was one of the organizers and directors of the great Seaboard Airline Company" "During the years 1900, 1901, and 1902, Mr. Dooley was chairman of the executive council of the Seaboard Airline Railway Company"".
  96. ^ "The Triple Crossing". American-rails.com. Retrieved 2015-12-22.
  97. ^ "Richmond's Triple Crossing ~ Photography In Place".
  98. ^ Jessie Carney Smith, ed. (2010). "Timeline". Encyclopedia of African American Popular Culture. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-35797-8.
  99. ^ "The St Luke Penny Savings Bank".
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  102. ^ Geocaching. "GC24MY0 Ashland Trolley Line Returns (Traditional Cache) in Virginia, United States created by Images4U & RiverRain".
  103. ^ a b c "Maps and Formation Information: Richmond". County And City Records. Library of Virginia. Retrieved March 16, 2017.
  104. ^ Griggs, Walter S. (August 28, 2012). Hidden History of Richmond. Arcadia Publishing. p. 95. ISBN 978-1-61423-665-8.
  105. ^ "Richmond's part in the early automobile and racing industries". Virginia Historical Society's Blog. 2012-08-27.
  106. ^ "The Kline Kar of York, Pennsylvania, and Richmond, Virginia".
  107. ^ Society for the Betterment of Housing 1913.
  108. ^ George Llewellyn Christian (1921), Sketch of the origin and erection of the Confederate Memorial Institute at Richmond, Virginia, Richmond, OCLC 6246398, OL 6635503M
  109. ^ "Battle Abbey". Virginia Historical Society. Retrieved September 18, 2012.
  110. ^ "Three Chopt Road Historic District registration form" (PDF). National Register of Historic Places. Retrieved January 22, 2015.
  111. ^ "Our History". Westhampton College (University of Richmond). University of Richmond. Retrieved January 22, 2015.
  112. ^ page 49
  113. ^ Ray Bonis -- Selden Richardson. (2010-11-18). "The Shockoe ExaminerBlogging the History of Richmond, Virginia".
  114. ^ "Henrico County's History". Henrico Historical Society. Retrieved 25 January 2019. an annexation in 1922 by Chesterfield County that claimed the site of Henricus, changing the boundary of Henrico to what it is today.
  115. ^ a b "Asked and Answered". Style Weekly.
  116. ^ http://www.dhr.virginia.gov/registers/Cities/Richmond/127-0178_National_Theater_2003_Final_Nomination.pdf
  117. ^ a b c Jack Alicoate, ed. (1939), "Standard Broadcasting Stations of the United States: Virginia", Radio Annual, New York: Radio Daily, OCLC 2459636
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  119. ^ "Full text of "Southern good roads"".
  120. ^ The Goodrich. B.F. Goodrich Company. 1913.
  121. ^ http://www.chesterfieldhistory.com/PDF/Messenger/messenger%20Jan%202013%20s.pdf
  122. ^ http://www.dhr.virginia.gov/registers/Cities/Richmond/127-0387_Virginia_War_Memorial_Carillon_1984_Final_Nomination.pdf
  123. ^ Federal Writers' Project 1941.
  124. ^ "Why is a murderous gangster buried in a Virginia woman's yard?". WTVR.com.
  125. ^ "The Tri-State Gang in Richmond: Murder and Robbery in the Great Depression".
  126. ^ "Richmond's Very Own Sandwich". Richmond Times-Dispatch.
  127. ^ Kappatos, Nicole. "From the Archives: The old Lee Bridge". Richmond Times Dispatch. Retrieved 27 September 2018. The bridge was dedicated on November 4, 1934 as the Robert E. Lee Memorial Bridge.
  128. ^ "Jan. 24, 1935: First Canned Beer Sold". WIRED. 24 January 2011.
  129. ^ https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1298&dat=19460607&id=m9xLAAAAIBAJ&sjid=hIoDAAAAIBAJ&pg=2928,492508&hl=en Fredericksburg Freelance Start Friday June 7, 1946 "New Park Named for Pocahontas" "the area was begun as a park in 1935 by the Old Civilian Conservation Corps. It was opened in 1938 but had been closed to all but military groups because of the war."
  130. ^ Denise Watson (25 July 2011). "Saving Jewish Germans during WWII at a Virginia farm". Virginian-Pilot.
  131. ^ https://books.google.com/books/about/The_Virginia_Plan.html?id=SVehZdFh39YC "Thalhimer became determined to aid Jews fleeing from Germany, and he eventually met a representative of Gross Breesen, a German-Jewish agricultural training institute. The mission of Gross Breesen, and eventually Thalhimer, was to train young Jews in agriculture in hopes that the expertise gained would ensure the students' successful emigration from Germany. Thalhimer purchased a farm, Hyde Farmlands, in Burkeville, Virginia to give the students a home in Virginia."
  132. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=4WTNtQrpspgC&pg=PA176&lpg=PA176&dq=eleanor+roosevelt+in+Richmond+1939+spingarn&source=bl&ots=iUCdrbUNYc&sig=gMbddLStLvyoBS5NGl7GMa5q9Ok&hl=en&sa=X&ei=JuebVd6QAYH8gwTD3bvoDw&ved=0CCUQ6AEwATgK#v=onepage&q=eleanor%20roosevelt%20in%20Richmond%201939%20spingarn&f=false The Sound of Freedom: Marian Anderson, the Lincoln Memorial, and the Concert By Raymond Arsenault "On July 2, both Anderson and Eleanor Roosevelt traveled to Richmond to attend the annual convention of the NAACP" (p176)... "the first lady personally presented the medal to Anderson"(p177)
  133. ^ "The Crisis". July 1939.
  134. ^ "Belgium's Loss, Richmond's Gain: Virginia Union's Friendship Building". RVANews.
  135. ^ "Pocahontas State Park marks 75 years in county". Richmond Times-Dispatch.
  136. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=KbkF_pCwCsAC&lpg=PA9&ots=BwfNYRBJri&dq=Swift%20Creek%20Recreational%20Demonstration%20Area%20pocahontas&pg=PA9#v=onepage&q=Swift%20Creek%20Recreational%20Demonstration%20Area%20pocahontas&f=false Virginia State Parks By Sharon B. Ewing "The commonwealth took possession of the Swift Creek Recreation Demonstration Area, near Richmond, in 1946. Soon afterwards, it was renamed Pocahontas State Park."
  137. ^ "Fabergé".
  138. ^ Charles A. Alicoate, ed. (1960), "Television Stations Virginia", Radio Annual and Television Year Book, New York: Radio Daily Corp., OCLC 10512206
  139. ^ a b c http://www.nbc12.com/story/12269580/15-years-and-counting-for-richmonds-abandoned-azalea-mall It's been more than 10 years since the barren expanse of asphalt appeared in Richmond's Northside where the Azalea Mall used to be... Azalea Mall opened in 1962 and closed in 1995... The opening of Virginia Center Commons in 1991 – located seven miles north – was the symbolic end of Azalea Mall..."
  140. ^ "School Busing".
  141. ^ In 1970, cross-town busing was court mandated to enforce school desegregation in Richmond, Virginia. Unitary status was declared in Richmond when cross-town busing ended in 1986.
  142. ^ "A Different Kind of Education". richmondmagazine.com.
  143. ^ a b "Why Richmond, Why?!? History of Cloverleaf Mall". Richmond Times-Dispatch.
  144. ^ "Richmond Interstates and Expressways".
  145. ^ Bruno, Lesley Howson (7/5/2011). "Why Richmond, Why?!? Powhite Parkway". Media General. Richmond Times Dispatch. Retrieved 15 June 2018. The Powhite Parkway opened in 1973 and covered the 3.4 miles between Carytown and the Chippenham Parkway. It was the first of a series of road projects to be completed by the Richmond Metropolitan Authority (RMA) and provided a valuable link between the north and south sides of the river. It was completely repaved in 2008, when the new Powhite Toll Plaza was finished. The RMA uses asphalt. The Downtown Expressway, another RMA project, opened in 1976 and connected interstates 95 with the recently completed 195, effectively creating a loop around the city. The concrete portion of the Downtown Expressway, however, is owned by VDOT. The Powhite Extension was completed in 1988 by the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) and connects the Powhite Parkway with VA-288 in Chesterfield County. VDOT roads are concrete. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  146. ^ "Cigarette making still going strong in South Richmond". Richmond Times-Dispatch.
  147. ^ https://www.kingsdominion.com/media-center/park-history " On May 3, 1975, after less than two years of construction, Kings Dominion opened its gates to the public."
  148. ^ "Near 40, Brandermill aims for reinvention". Richmond Times-Dispatch.
  149. ^ "Rampage: The Briley brothers terrorized Richmond area". Richmond Times-Dispatch.
  150. ^ http://www.richmond.com/entertainment/music/article_d157fc60-d168-11e3-862b-001a4bcf6878.html Looking Back at 30 Years of Friday Cheers in Richmond by Colleen Curran "May 21, 2014... Friday Cheers is turning 30 this year. Where it all began ... At Sixth Street Marketplace."
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Bibliography[edit]

Published in 18th-19th century[edit]

Published in 20th century[edit]

  • William Wirt Henry (1904), "Richmond on the James", in Lyman P. Powell (ed.), Historic Towns of the Southern States, New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons
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  • Souvenir Views: Negro Enterprises & Residences, Richmond, Va., Richmond: D. A. Ferguson, 1907, OL 5109683M
  • Richmond Guide Book, Richmond, Virginia: M. A. Burgess, 1909, OL 24363987M
  • "Richmond", Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.), New York: New York : Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1910, OCLC 14782424 – via Internet Archive
  • W. Asbury Christian (1912), Richmond, her past and present, Richmond, Va: Manufactured by L.H. Jenkins, OCLC 1253125, OL 6548616M
  • Edward Hungerford (1913), "City of the 7 Hills", The Personality of American Cities, New York: McBride, Nast & Company
  • Richmond Chamber of Commerce (1913), Richmond, Virginia, yesterday and today, Richmond: Whittet & Shepperson, printers, OCLC 6214750, OL 6565301M
  • Society for the Betterment of Housing and Living Conditions in Richmond (1913), Report on housing and living conditions in the neglected sections of Richmond, Virginia, Richmond, Va: Whittet & Shepperson, printers, OL 7043534M
  • Louise Nurney Kernodle (1918). Guide Book of the City of Richmond.
  • Directory of Business and Professional Women. 1921
  • "City of Richmond, Virginia". The Modern City. League of American Municipalities. 7. November 1922.
  • Federal Writers' Project (1941), "Richmond", Virginia: a Guide to the Old Dominion, American Guide Series, Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780403021956 – via Google Books
  • Virginius Dabney (1990) [1976]. Richmond: The Story of a City. University Press of Virginia.
  • Michael B. Chesson. Richmond after the War, 1865–1890. Richmond: Virginia State Library, 1981.
  • Peter J. Rachleff. Black Labor in the South: Richmond, Virginia, 1865–1890. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1984.
  • Patricia C. Click. The Spirit of the Times: Amusements in Nineteenth-Century Baltimore, Norfolk, and Richmond. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1989.
  • Marie Tyler-McGraw. At the Falls: Richmond, Virginia, and Its People. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1994.
  • Trudy Ring and Robert M. Salkin, ed. (1995). "Richmond". Americas. International Dictionary of Historic Places. Routledge. p. 542+. ISBN 978-1-134-25930-4.
  • Peter Wallenstein (2000). "Richmond". In Paul Finkelman (ed.). Encyclopedia of the United States in the Nineteenth Century. Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 0-684-80500-6.

Published in 21st century[edit]

External links[edit]