Foreign relations of Peru

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Peru is an important first-tier state in South America,[1] Peru has been a member of the United Nations since 1949, and Peruvian Javier Pérez de Cuéllar served as UN Secretary General from 1981 to 1991. Former President Alberto Fujimori's tainted re-election to a third term in June 2000 strained Peru's relations with the United States and with many Latin American and European countries, but relations improved with the installation of an interim government in November 2000 and the inauguration of Alejandro Toledo in July 2001.

Peru is planning full integration into the Andean Free Trade Area. In addition, Peru is a standing member of APEC and the World Trade Organization, and is an active participant in negotiations toward a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA).

Bilateral relations[edit]

Africa[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Algeria 1972[2]
  • Algeria has an embassy in Lima.
  • Peru has an embassy in Algiers.
 Angola 6 September 1985
  • Angola and Peru established bilateral relations on 6 September 1985.
  • Angola is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Brasília.
 Benin 22 November 2017
  • Peru and Benin established bilateral relations on 22 November 2017.
 Botswana
  • Peru and Botswana enjoy bilateral relations.
 Burkina Faso
  • Burkina Faso is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Washington, D.C.
  • Burkina Faso is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Brasília.
 Cameroon
  • Peru and Cameroon enjoy bilateral relations.
 Cape Verde
  • Cape Verde and Peru enjoy bilateral relations.
 Central African Republic
  • Peru and the Central African Republic enjoy bilateral relations.
  • The Central African Republic is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Washington, D.C.
Congo-Brazzaville
  • The Republic of the Congo is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Brasília.
Congo-Kinshasa
  • The Democratic Republic of the Congo and Peru enjoy bilateral relations.
 Djibouti 28 February 2018
  • Peru and Djibouti established bilateral relations on 28 February 2018.
 Egypt
  • Egypt has an embassy in Lima.
  • Peru has an embassy in Cairo.
 Equatorial Guinea
  • Equatorial Guinea is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Brasília.
 Eswatini
  • Eswatini and Peru enjoy bilateral relations.
 Ethiopia
  • Peru and Ethiopia enjoy bilateral relations.
 Ghana
 Guinea
  • Peru and Guinea enjoy bilateral relations.
 Ivory Coast
  • Ivory Coast is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Brasília.
 Kenya
  • Kenya is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Brasília.
  • Peru has a consulate in Nairobi.
 Lesotho
  • Lesotho and Peru enjoy bilateral relations.
 Libya Before 2008
  • Libya is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Brasília.
  • Peru was the first country to sever relations with Libya before the civil war.
 Mali
  • Mali is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Brasília.
 Mauritania
  • Mauritania is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Brasília.
  • Peru is accredited to Mauritania from its embassy in Rabat.
 Morocco
  • Morocco has an embassy in Lima.
  • Peru has an embassy in Rabat.
 Mozambique
  • Peru is accredited to Mozambique from its embassy in Pretoria.
 Namibia
  • Namibia is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Brasília.
 Niger
  • Niger and Peru enjoy bilateral relations.
 Nigeria
  • Nigeria is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Buenos Aires.
 Rwanda 7 December 2017
  • Peru and Rwanda enjoy bilateral relations.
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic 1987
  • The SADR has a mission and former embassy in Lima.
  • Peru established formal relations with the SADR in 1987, under Alan García, but recognition existed since 16 August 1984. Said relations expired on 9 September 1996, with Peru taking a neutral part in the Western Sahara conflict.[3][4][5]
  • On September 8, 2021, Peru and the SADR re-established their bilateral relations.[6]
 São Tomé and Príncipe
  • São Tomé and Príncipe and Peru enjoy bilateral relations.
 Senegal
  • Senegal is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Brasília.
  • Peru is accredited to Senegal from its embassy in Rabat.
 Seychelles
  • The Seychelles and Peru enjoy bilateral relations.
 Sierra Leone
  • Sierra Leone is accredited to Peru from its embassy in New York City.
 South Africa
  • Peru has an embassy in Pretoria.
  • South Africa has an embassy in Lima.
 Sudan
  • Sudan is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Brasília.
 Tanzania
  • Tanzania is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Brasília.
 Togo 18 December 2017
  • Peru and Togo established bilateral relations on 18 December 2017.
 Tunisia
  • Peru is accredited to Tunisia from its embassy in Algiers.
 Uganda 4 June 2021
  • Peru and Uganda established bilateral relations on 4 June 2021.
 Zambia
  • Peru is accredited to Zambia from its embassy in Pretoria.
 Zimbabwe
  • Peru is accredited to Zimbabwe from its embassy in Pretoria.

Americas[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Antigua and Barbuda
  • Peru and Antigua and Barbuda enjoy bilateral relations.
 Argentina 10 July 1822 See Argentina–Peru relations
 Bahamas
  • Peru is accredited to the Bahamas from its embassy in Santo Domingo.
 Barbados 29 February 1968
 Belize 27 November 1991
 Bolivia 1826 See Bolivia–Peru relations
  • Bolivia has an embassy in Lima.
  • Peru has an embassy in La Paz.
 Brazil 1826 or 1827 See Brazil–Peru relations
 Canada 21 October 1944
 Chile 1821 See Chile–Peru relations

In November 1999, Peru and Chile signed three agreements which put to rest the remaining obstacles holding up implementation of the 1929 Treaty of Lima, which officially ended the 1879 War of the Pacific. In December 1999, President Alberto Fujimori made the first visit ever to Chile by a Peruvian head of state.

Relations between the two nations have since mostly recovered. In 2005, the Peruvian Congress unilaterally approved a law which increased the stated sea limit with Chile. This law superseded the Peruvian supreme decree 781 for same purpose from 1947, which had autolimited its maritime border to geographical parallels only. Peru's position was that the border has never been fully demarcated, but Chile disagreed reminding on treaties in 1952 and 1954 between the countries, which supposedly defined seaborder. The border problem has still not been solved. However, Chile's Michelle Bachelet and Peru's Alan García have established a positive diplomatic relationship, and it is very unlikely any hostilities will break out because of the dispute.

Nevertheless, in early April 2007, Peruvian nationalistic sectors, mainly represented by left wing ex-presidential candidate Ollanta Humala decided to congregate at 'hito uno' right at the border with Chile, in a symbolic attempt to claim sovereignty over a maritime area known in Peru as Mar de Grau (Grau's Sea) just west of the Chilean city of Arica. Peruvian police stopped a group of nearly 2,000 people just 10 km from the border, preventing them from reaching their intended destination. Despite these incidents, the presidents of both Chile and Peru have confirmed their intentions to improve the relationships between the two countries, mainly fueled by the huge amount of commercial exchange between both countries' private sectors.

  • Chile has an embassy in Lima.
  • Peru has an embassy in Santiago.
 Colombia 6 June 1822 See Colombia–Peru relations
  • Colombia has an embassy in Lima.
  • Peru has an embassy in Bogotá.
 Costa Rica 25 April 1852
  • Costa Rica has an embassy in Lima.
  • Peru has an embassy in San José.
 Cuba 8 July 1972 See Cuba–Peru relations
  • Peru had relations with Cuba prior to 1972, but broke them off in the 1960s.
  • Cuba has an embassy in Lima.
  • Peru has an embassy in Havana.
 Dominica 18 March 1986
  • Peru and Dominica established formal relations in 1986.[13]
 Dominican Republic
 Ecuador See Ecuador–Peru relations
  • In October 1998, Peru and Ecuador signed a peace accord which definitively resolved border differences which had, over the years, resulted in armed conflict. Peru and Ecuador are now jointly coordinating an internationally sponsored border integration project. The United States Government, as one of four guarantor states, was actively involved in facilitating the 1998 peace accord between Peru and Ecuador and remains committed to its implementation. The United States has pledged $40 million to the Peru-Ecuador border integration project and another $4 million to support Peruvian and Ecuadorian demining efforts along their common border.
  • In November 2009, Peru made an agreement with Ecuador in which Peru would export between 40 and 50 megawatts of electricity until April 2010 in order to help Ecuador with its energy crisis.[14] Rafael Correa, Ecuador's president, expressed his gratitude to Peru for its generous aid during Ecuador's energy crisis.[15]
  • Ecuador has an embassy in Lima.
  • Peru has an embassy in Quito and a consulate in Guayaquil.
 El Salvador 10 June 1857 See El Salvador–Peru relations
 Grenada
  • Peru and Grenada enjoy bilateral relations.
 Guatemala 20 April 1857
 Guyana 1971
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations on 17 July 1971.
  • Guyana is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Brasília, Brazil.
  • Peru is accredited to Guyana from its embassy in Caracas, Venezuela.
  • Both countries are full members of Organization of American States and Union of South American Nations.
 Haiti
 Honduras
 Mexico 1823 See Mexico–Peru relations

Peru and Mexico have historically had a unique relationship solidly based on that they share two of the most significant ancient cultures in the Americas. Both countries have expressed solidarity over the need to defend the recovery of cultural and archaeological heritage in the form of artifacts that have been illegally stolen from Peru and Mexico and which are to this date, illegally or legitimately kept in foreign locations. Peru's President Alan García and Mexico's Felipe Calderón signed a joint declaration in April 2011 aimed at deepening the two countries' friendship, cooperation, integration, trade, investments and the permanent fight against poverty and organized crime. The two countries aim to achieve a new model of integration within Latin America, and to represent a positive, realistic, and active example of integration amongst two "brotherly" nations.

 Jamaica 29 April 1970
  • Jamaica has a consulate in Lima
  • Jamaica is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Bolivia.
 Nicaragua
  • Nicaragua has an embassy in Lima.
  • Peru has an embassy in Managua.
 Panama 2 March 1908
 Paraguay 2 May 1858
 Saint Kitts and Nevis
  • Peru is accredited to Saint Kitts and Nevis from its embassy in Santo Domingo.
 Saint Lucia
  • Peru is accredited to Saint Lucia through its embassy in Port of Spain.
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 5 May 1986
  • Peru is accredited to Saint Vincent and the Grenadines through its embassy in Port of Spain.
 Suriname
  • Peru is accredited to Suriname from its embassies in Brazil.
 Trinidad and Tobago
  • Peru has an embassy in Port of Spain.
  • Trinidad and Tobago is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Caracas, Venezuela.
 United States 2 May 1826
  • The U.S. maintains an embassy in Lima, Peru. There is a U.S. Consular Agency in Cuzco, and the USAID building is located in Lima.
 Uruguay 1912
 Venezuela
  • Peru has an embassy in Caracas.
  • Venezuela has an embassy in Lima.

Asia[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
Afghanistan Afghanistan 2012 See Foreign relations of Afghanistan
 Armenia 20 April 1992[20] Both countries established diplomatic relations on 20 April 1992.
 Azerbaijan 25 June 1996[21] See Azerbaijan-Peru relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Lima.
  • Peru has an embassy in Baku.
 Bahrain 22 September 2009
  • Bahrain is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Brasília.
 Bangladesh
  • Bangladesh is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Mexico City.
  • Peru is accredited to Bangladesh from its embassy in Bangkok.
 Brunei
  • Brunei is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Washington, D.C.
  • Peru is accredited to Brunei from its embassy in Bangkok.
 Cambodia 31 May 1976
  • Peru is accredited to Cambodia from its embassy in Kuala Lumpur.
  • Cambodia have no official accredited Resident to Peru.
China China (PRC) August 1875 See China–Peru relations
Countries which signed cooperation documents related to the Belt and Road Initiative
Taiwan China (ROC) August 1875 See China–Peru relations and Foreign relations of Taiwan
 India See India–Peru relations
 Indonesia 1975 See Indonesia-Peru relations
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Lima.
  • Peru has an embassy in Jakarta.
 Iran Before 1978
  • Iran is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Quito.
  • Peru used to have an embassy in Tehran until 1978.
  • Peru is accredited to Iran from its non-resident embassy in New Delhi.
 Iraq 1975
  • Peru and Iraq agreed to renew their bilateral ties in 2012.
  • Iraq is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Caracas.
 Israel 1957
 Japan 1873 See Japan–Peru relations
 Jordan
  • Jordan is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Brasília.
  • Peru is accredited to Jordan from its embassy in Cairo.
 Kazakhstan 1997
  • Peru and Kazakhstan established bilateral relations in 1997.
 North Korea 1988
  • North Korea has an embassy in Lima.
  • Diplomatic relationships between both countries are suspended since 2017.
 South Korea 1 April 1963[27]

The establishment of diplomatic relations between the Republic of Korea and the Republic of Peru started on 1 April 1963.[27]

  • Peru has an embassy in Seoul.
  • South Korea has an embassy in Lima.
 Kuwait
 Kyrgyzstan 27 June 1999
  • Both countries established non-resident ties on 27 June 1999.
 Laos
  • Laos is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Havana.
  • Peru is accredited to Laos from its embassy in Bangkok.
 Lebanon
  • Peru is accredited to Lebanon from its embassy in Cairo.
 Malaysia See Malaysia–Peru relations
  • Malaysia has an embassy in Lima
  • Peru has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur
 Maldives
  • The Maldives are accredited to Peru from their embassy in New York City
  • Peru is accredited to the Maldives from its embassy in India.
 Mongolia 30 May 1950
  • Mongolia is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Brasília.
  • Peru is accredited to Mongolia from its embassy in Beijing.
 Myanmar
  • Myanmar is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Brasília.
  • Peru is accredited to Myanmar from its embassy in Bangkok.
   Nepal
  • Nepal is accredited to Peru from its embassy in New York City.
  • Peru is accredited to Nepal from its embassy in India.
 Oman
  • Oman is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Brasília.
 Pakistan
  • Pakistan is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Buenos Aires.
  • Peru is accredited to Pakistan from its embassy in Beijing.
 Palestine 2011-01-24
  • Peru recognized Palestine on 24 January 2011.[28]
  • Palestine has an embassy in Lima.
 Philippines
  • Peru is accredited to the Philippines from its embassy in Bangkok, Thailand.
  • Philippines is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Santiago, Chile.
 Qatar 1989 At an official level, both countries began diplomatic relations in 1989.[29]
  • Peru has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Lima.
 Saudi Arabia
  • Peru has an embassy in Riyadh.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Lima.
 Thailand 10 November 1965
  • Peru has an embassy in Bangkok.
  • Thailand has an embassy in Lima.
 Singapore
  • Singapore is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Singapore.
  • Peru has an embassy in Singapore.
 Sri Lanka
  • Sri Lanka is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Brasília.
 Syria
  • Syria is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Santiago.
 Tajikistan 21 January 2000
  • Peru and Tajikistan established bilateral relations on 21 January 2000.
 Timor-Leste 30 September 2002
  • Peru and East Timor established bilateral relations on 30 September 2002.
  • Peru is accredited to East Timor from its embassy in Jakarta.
 Turkey 1950[30] See Peru–Turkey relations
  • Peru has an embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.[30]
  • Turkey has an embassy in Lima.[30]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was US$250 million in 2019 (Peruvian exports/imports: 72.6/177.4 million USD).[30]
 Turkmenistan
 United Arab Emirates
  • Peru has a consulate-general in Dubai.
  • The UAE has an embassy in Lima.
 Uzbekistan December 22 1999
  • Peru and Uzbekistan established bilateral relations on December 22 1999.
 Vietnam See Peru–Vietnam relations
 Yemen
  • Peru is accredited to Yemen from its embassy in Riyadh.

Europe[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Albania 1973
  • Peru and Albania established formal relations in 1973.
  • Albania is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Brasília.
 Andorra 3 June 1997
  • Andorra does not hold an embassy in Peru.
  • Peru is accredited to Andorra from its embassy in Madrid, Spain.
 Austria
  • Austria has an embassy in Lima.
  • Peru has an embassy in Vienna.
 Belarus 19 February 1997
  • Belarus is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Buenos Aires.
  • Peru is accredited to Belarus from its embassy in Moscow.
 Belgium
  • Belgium has an embassy in Lima.
  • Peru has an embassy in Brussels.
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 23 January 1998
  • Peru is accredited to Bosnia and Herzegovina from its embassy in Budapest.
 Bulgaria 1969 See Bulgaria–Peru relations
 Croatia 1993-01-12
 Cyprus 1966
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1966.[32]
  • Cyprus is represented in Peru through its embassy in Brasilia, Brazil.[33]
  • Peru is accredited to Cyprus from it missions in Italy.
 Czech Republic 1922[34]
  • Peru first established relations with Czechoslovakia in 1922.[34]
  • Czech Republic has an embassy in Lima.
  • Peru has an embassy in Prague.
 Denmark
 Estonia July 1995
  • Estonia is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Brasília.
  • Peru is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Helsinki.
 Finland 1963-01-25
 European Union 2000[35]
  • The European Union has a consulate in Lima.
  • Peru has a section of its Ministry of Foreign Affairs dedicated to the European Union, as well as diplomatic relationships with its members.
 France 1826 See France–Peru relations
  • France has an embassy in Lima.
  • Peru has an embassy in Paris.
 Georgia 21 October 2010
  • Georgia is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Brasília.
  • Peru has a consulate in Tbilisi.
 Germany Before January 26 1943
 Greece 1966 See Greece–Peru relations
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1966.[36]
  • Greece has an embassy in Lima.
  • Peru has an embassy in Athens.
 Hungary
  • Peru has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Lima.
 Iceland
  • Iceland is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Ottawa.
  • Peru is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Oslo.
 Ireland 27 June 1999
  • Ireland is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Santiago and maintains an honorary consulate in Lima.
  • Peru has an embassy in Dublin.
 Italy 1874-12-23 See Italy–Peru relations
 Latvia
  • Latvia is accredited to Peru through its embassy in Berlin.
  • Peru is accredited to Latvia through its embassy in Helsinki.
 Liechtenstein
  • Liechtenstein does not have an embassy accredited to Peru.
  • Peru is accredited to Liechtenstein from its embassy in Bern.
 Lithuania June 1997
  • Peru is accredited to Lithuania from its embassy in Helsinki.
 Luxembourg
  • Luxembourg is accredited to Peru through its embassy in Berlin.
  • Peru is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Brussels.
 Malta
  • Malta has two honorary consulates in Lima and Arequipa.
  • Peru has an honorary consulate in Valetta.
 Moldova
  • Peru is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Bucharest.
 Monaco
  • Monaco is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Paris.
  • Peru is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris.
 Montenegro 12 September 2006
  • Peru is accredited to Montenegro from its embassy in Bucharest.
 Netherlands
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Lima.
  • Peru has an embassy in The Hague and a consulate-general in Amsterdam.
 North Macedonia 29 June 2005
  • Peru is accredited to North Macedonia from its embassy in Bucharest.
 Norway
  • Peru has an embassy in Oslo.
  • Norway has a consulate-general in Lima.
 Poland 1923 See Peru–Poland relations
 Portugal
  • Peru has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Lima.
 Romania 10 October 1939
  • Romania has an embassy in Lima and an honorary consulate in Arequipa.
  • The Republic of Peru has an embassy and an honorary consulate, both in Bucharest.

Diplomatic relations' level:

  • Legation: October 10, 1939 – March 5, 1942
  • Embassy: since November 9, 1968

Diplomatic relations' timeline:

  • October 10, 1939 – March 5, 1942
  • since November 9, 1968
 Russia 16 May 1874
1 February 1969
1991
See Peru–Russia relations
 San Marino
  • San Marino is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Rome.
  • Peru is accredited to San Marino from its missions in Italy.
 Serbia 1967 See Peru–Yugoslavia relations
 Slovakia
  • Slovakia is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Buenos Aires.
  • Peru is accredited to Slovakia from its embassy in Vienna.
 Slovenia
  • Slovenia is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Buenos Aires.
  • Peru is accredited to Slovenia from its embassy in Vienna.
 Sovereign Military Order of Malta 1954
  • The Sovereign Military Order of Malta has an embassy in Lima.
  • Peru is accredited to the Sovereign Military Order of Malta from its embassy in the Holy See.
 Spain 1879 See Peru–Spain relations
 Sweden 1940 See Peru–Sweden relations
  Switzerland
  • Peru has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Lima
 Ukraine
  • Peru is accredited to Ukraine from its embassy in Moscow, Russia.
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Lima.
 United Kingdom 1827
  Vatican City 1877 See Holy See–Peru relations

Oceania[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia 1963

Both countries have an expanding relationship in all areas. In February 2018 trade ministers from both Peru and Australia signed a free trade agreement.[44]

  • Australia has an embassy in Lima.
  • Peru has an embassy in Canberra and a consulate-general in Sydney.
 Cook Islands September 2017[45][46]
  • Peru is accredited to the Cook Islands from its embassy in Canberra.
  • The Cook Islands are accredited to Peru from the Australian embassy in Lima.
 Fiji Before 1983[47]
  • Fiji is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Brasília.
  • Peru is accredited to Fiji from its embassy in Canberra.
 Kiribati Before 1983[47]
  • Peru and Kiribati enjoy bilateral relations.[48][47]
 Marshall Islands 14 November 1991
  • Peru and the Marshall Islands established formal relations on 14 November 1991.
 Micronesia 7 May 1992
  • Peru and Micronesia established formal relations on 7 May 1992.
 Nauru Before 1985[47]
  • Peru and Nauru enjoy bilateral relations.[49][47]
 New Zealand 1972 See New Zealand–Peru relations
  • New Zealand is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Santiago, Chile and maintains an honorary consulate in Lima.
  • Peru has an embassy in Wellington.
 Niue 3 July 2020
  • Peru and Niue established relations on 3 July 2020.
 Palau 14 February 2019
  • Peru and Palau established formal relations on 14 February 2019.
 Papua New Guinea Before 1983[47]
  • Peru is accredited to Papua New Guinea from its consulate-general in Sydney.
 Samoa 23 January 1984
  • Peru and Samoa established relations on 23 January 1984.
 Solomon Islands 14 March 2012
  • Peru and the Solomon Islands established relations on 14 March 2012[50]
 Tuvalu 29 March 2012
  • Peru and Tuvalu established diplomatic relations on 29 March 2012.[51]
 Tonga
  • Peru and Tonga enjoy diplomatic relations.
 Vanuatu 30 May 1986[52]
  • Peru and Niue established relations on 30 May 1986.[52]

Transnational issues[edit]

Illicit drugs[edit]

Until recently the world's largest coca leaf producer, Peru has reduced the area of coca under cultivation by 24% to 387 km2 at the end of 1999; most of cocaine base is shipped to neighboring Colombia, Bolivia, and Brazil for processing into cocaine for the international drug market, but exports of finished cocaine are increasing by maritime conveyance to Mexico, US, and Europe.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Schenoni, Luis (2017) "Subsystemic Unipolarities?" in Strategic Analysis, 41(1): 74-86 [1]
  2. ^ "Relaciones políticas". Embajada de Argelia en Lima-Perú.
  3. ^ "Establecimiento de relaciones diplomáticas entre el Perú y la República Árabe Saharaui Democrática" (in Spanish). Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores del Perú. Retrieved 2012-04-24.[permanent dead link]
  4. ^ Ricardo Sánchez Serra (2011-11-28). "Los saharauis y el Perú" (in Spanish).
  5. ^ Ricardo Sánchez Serra (2008-12-11). "El estoicismo del pueblo saharaui" (in Spanish). La Razón.
  6. ^ "Restablecimiento de relaciones diplomáticas con la RASD". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Peru. 2021-09-08. Retrieved 2021-09-08.
  7. ^ "Embajada de la República Argentina en República del Perú - Embassy of Argentina in Lima (in Spanish)". eperu.cancilleria.gov.ar. Retrieved 2016-06-13.
  8. ^ "Embassy of Peru in Buenos Aires (in Spanish)". Archived from the original on 2014-11-05. Retrieved 2014-11-13.
  9. ^ "Diplomatic Relations – Belize" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-12-30. Retrieved 2018-12-06.
  10. ^ "Canadian embassy in Lima". Archived from the original on 2008-12-10. Retrieved 2009-05-22.
  11. ^ "Inicio Embajada del Perú en Canadá - Peruvian embassy in Ottawa". embassyofperu.ca. Retrieved 2016-06-13.
  12. ^ Alexander Panetta, "Canada limits main foreign aid recipients to 20 countries", Canada East website (accessed 3 March2009)
  13. ^ Daily Report: Latin America - volume 86,issue 51–61. Foreign Broadcast Information Service. 1986. p. 3.
  14. ^ "Perú exportará energía eléctrica a Ecuador hasta abril de 2010". Archived from the original on 2009-12-20. Retrieved 2016-06-13.
  15. ^ http://www.peru.com/economiayfinanzas/noticias20091114/66081/Presidente-de-Ecuador-Rafael-Correa-agradece-cooperacion-de-Peru-en-crisis-energetica-
  16. ^ "Embassy of Mexico in Lima (in Spanish)". embamex.sre.gob.mx. Retrieved 2016-06-13.
  17. ^ "Consulado General del Perú - Embassy of Peru in Mexico City (in Spanish)". consuladodelperu.com.mx. Retrieved 2016-06-13.
  18. ^ "Peruvian embassy in Asuncion (in Spanish only)". embperu.com.py. Archived from the original on 2012-02-24. Retrieved 2016-06-13.
  19. ^ "Peruvian embassy in Montevideo (in Spanish only)". Archived from the original on 2002-02-10. Retrieved 2016-06-13.
  20. ^ "Se inauguró primer Consulado de nuestro país en Armenia". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Peru. 2019-02-08.
  21. ^ "Peru". mfa.gov.az. Retrieved 2021-01-25.
  22. ^ Consul de Perú en Hong Kong Archived November 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  23. ^ "Consul de Perú en Hong Kong". Archived from the original on 2016-11-04. Retrieved 2016-03-25.
  24. ^ "PATA Foundation § Ms Pansy Ho". 11 March 2013. Since 2006, Ms. Ho has served as the Honorary Consul of the Republic of Peru in Macau.
  25. ^ Embassy of Japan in Lima (in Japanese and Spanish)
  26. ^ Embassy of Peru in Tokyo (in Japanese and Spanish)
  27. ^ a b "Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of Korea-Latin America and Caribbean". mofa.go.kr. Retrieved 2016-06-13.
  28. ^ Government of Peru (24 January 2011). "Perú reconoce al Estado Palestino" (in Spanish). Ministry of Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on 2011-01-30. Retrieved 2011-01-24.
  29. ^ "Qatar-Peru relations". Qatari Embassy in Lima. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  30. ^ a b c d "Relations between Turkey and Peru".
  31. ^ "Министерство на външните работи - Bulgarian embassy in Brasilia (also accredited to Peru)". mfa.bg. Retrieved 2016-06-13.
  32. ^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Cyprus" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2015-09-09.
  33. ^ "MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS - Bilateral Relations - Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Cyprus". mfa.gov.cy. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2016-06-13.
  34. ^ a b "Celebran 95 años de relaciones diplomáticas entre el Perú y la República Checa". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Peru. 2017-12-06.
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