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2021 Pacific typhoon season

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2021 Pacific typhoon season
2021 Pacific typhoon season summary.png
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formedJanuary 19, 2021
Last system dissipatedSeason ongoing
Strongest storm
NameSurigae
 • Maximum winds220 km/h (140 mph)
(10-minute sustained)
 • Lowest pressure895 hPa (mbar)
Seasonal statistics
Total depressions4
Total storms2
Typhoons1
Super typhoons1 (unofficial) [nb 1]
Total fatalities14 total
Total damage$26.94 million (2021 USD)
Related articles
Pacific typhoon seasons
2019, 2020, 2021, 2022, 2023

The 2021 Pacific typhoon season is an ongoing event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation, in which tropical cyclones form in the western Pacific Ocean. The season runs throughout 2021, with no seasonal boundaries, though most tropical cyclones typically develop between May and October. The season's first named storm, Dujuan, developed on February 16. The season's first typhoon, Surigae, reached typhoon status on April 16. It became the first super typhoon of the year on the next day, also becoming the strongest tropical cyclone in 2021 so far. Surigae was also the most powerful tropical cyclone on record in the Northern Hemisphere for the month of April.[1]

The scope of this article is limited to the Pacific Ocean to the north of the equator between 100°E and 180th meridian. Within the northwestern Pacific Ocean, there are two separate agencies that assign names to tropical cyclones, which can often result in a cyclone having two names. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)[nb 2] names a tropical cyclone should it be judged to have 10-minute sustained wind speeds of at least 65 km/h (40 mph) anywhere in the basin, whilst the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) assigns names to tropical cyclones which move into or form as a tropical depression in their area of responsibility located between 135°E and 115°E and between 5°N and 25°N, regardless of whether or not a tropical cyclone has already been given a name by the JMA. Tropical depressions that are monitored by the United States' Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC)[nb 3] are given a number with a "W" suffix.

Seasonal forecasts

Other forecasts
Date
Forecast
Center
Period Systems Ref.
December 27, 2020 PAGASA January–March 0–3 tropical cyclones [3]
December 27, 2020 PAGASA April–June 1–4 tropical cyclones [3]
2021 season Forecast
Center
Tropical
cyclones
Tropical
storms
Typhoons Ref.
Actual activity: JMA 4 2 1
Actual activity: JTWC 2 2 1
Actual activity: PAGASA 2 2 1

During the year, several national meteorological services and scientific agencies forecast how many tropical cyclones, tropical storms, and typhoons will form during a season and/or how many tropical cyclones will affect a particular country. These agencies included the Tropical Storm Risk (TSR) Consortium of University College London, PAGASA and Taiwan's Central Weather Bureau. The first forecast was released by PAGASA on December 27, 2020, in their monthly seasonal climate outlook predicting the first half of 2021.[3] The PAGASA predicts that only 0–3 tropical cyclones are expected to form or enter the Philippine Area of Responsibility between January and March, while 1–4 tropical cyclones are expected to form between April and June. PAGASA also predicted that the ongoing La Niña could persist until the end of the first quarter of 2021.[3]

Seasonal summary

Typhoon SurigaeTropical Storm Dujuan (2021)

The season began in January with a weak and short-lived tropical depression that brought damages to the Philippines. In mid-February, another tropical depression formed, before being assigned the local name Auring by the PAGASA. The system then strengthened into a tropical storm, being given the name Dujuan by the JMA, making it the first named storm of the year. Another tropical depression formed in March, though it was short-lived, dissipating shortly after forming. On April 12, a tropical depression formed to the south of Woleai. It strengthened into a tropical storm, being given the name Surigae by the JMA. On April 15, it was further upgraded into a severe tropical storm, before being upgraded to a typhoon on the next day, and to a super typhoon on April 17,[nb 1] making it the first of the season and the strongest recorded cyclone to form in the month of April in the Northern Hemisphere.

Systems

Tropical Storm Dujuan (Auring)

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Dujuan 2021-02-19 0435Z.jpg Dujuan 2021 track.png
DurationFebruary 16 – February 22
Peak intensity75 km/h (45 mph) (10-min)  996 hPa (mbar)

On 12:00 UTC of February 16, the JMA reported that a tropical depression had formed.[5] Two hours later, the JTWC issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert (TCFA) for the system.[6] By February 17, the system moved into the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR), being assigned the local name Auring from the PAGASA.[7] At 09:00 UTC on the same day, the JTWC upgraded the system to a tropical depression, giving it the designation 01W.[8] On February 18, as it neared the Philippines, both the JTWC and the PAGASA upgraded the system to a tropical storm.[9][10] The JMA followed suit soon after, assigning it the name Dujuan.[11] The PAGASA later upgraded Dujuan to a severe tropical storm; however, this only lasted for six hours.[12][13] On February 20, the storm significantly weakened due to high vertical wind shear, prompting the JTWC to downgrade the system back to a tropical depression,[14] though the JTWC briefly re-classified the system as a tropical storm due to improvements in the storm's structure.[15] By February 22, all agencies had downgraded the system to a tropical depression after the system's center had weakened prior to making landfall.[16][17][18] The JMA and the JTWC issued their final advisories moments after.[16][19] The storm made landfall over Batag Island in Laoang, Northern Samar at 09:00 PHT (01:00 UTC) on February 22,[20] dissipating thereafter.[21]

Dujuan briefly moved over Palau on February 16 as a tropical depression, bringing heavy rainfall to parts of the country.[22][23] In anticipation of the storm, the PAGASA raised Signal #1 warnings for the eastern section of Mindanao and on the eastern provinces of Visayas on February 19.[24][25][26] Signal 2 warnings were also issued for the majority of Samar Island, Southern Leyte, the Dinagat Islands, and Surigao del Norte on February 21, prior to its landfall.[27] Classes and government work were suspended on February 22 in parts of Eastern Visayas and Central Visayas, including Surigao del Sur.[28][29] A total of 242,194 individuals were affected in Northern Mindanao, Caraga, and in the Davao Region. At least 77,811 of the affected individuals were taken to 344 various evacuation shelters in each region. One person was reported dead with four others reported missing, with total damages to agriculture and infrastructure amounting to 159.8 million (US$3.29 million).[30]

Typhoon Surigae (Bising)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 5 super typhoon (SSHWS)
Surigae 2021-04-17 0710Z.jpg Surigae 2021 track.png
DurationApril 12 – April 24
Peak intensity220 km/h (140 mph) (10-min)  895 hPa (mbar)

A low-pressure area south of Woleai developed into a tropical depression on April 12.[31][32] A few hours later, the JTWC issued a TCFA for the developing storm, with the PAGASA beginning to issue advisories for the tropical depression as it remained outside of the PAR.[33][34] On April 13, the JTWC upgraded the storm to a tropical depression and assigned it the designation 02W.[35] At 18:00 UTC, the JMA upgraded the cyclone to a tropical storm and named it Surigae.[36] On April 15 at 00:00 UTC, the JMA upgraded Surigae to a severe tropical storm as an eye began forming.[37] Later that day, the JTWC upgraded the storm to a typhoon, making it the first of the season. The JMA followed suit early on the next day as a central dense overcast developed and filled the original eye. Surigae continued to rapidly intensify, and on April 16, the JTWC upgraded Surigae to a Category 2-equivalent typhoon on the SSHWS.[38] The system continued its rapid intensification until it reached Category 5 super typhoon status, becoming the most intense typhoon ever recorded in the month of April.[39][40] Surigae soon reached its peak intensity, with a minimum central pressure of 895 millibars (26.4 inHg), 10-minute maximum sustained winds of 220 km/h (140 mph), and 1-minute sustained winds of 305 km/h (190 mph).[41][42] After attaining peak intensity, signs of a concentric eyewall indicated that the storm was undergoing an eyewall replacement cycle, with the central dense overcast starting to warm up and the eye becoming cloud-filled.[43][44] On April 19, following its eyewall replacement cycle, Surigae became annular.[45] A few days later, on April 22, Surigae began to weaken again, with the storm's structure deteriorating and its large eye dissipating.[46] Soon afterward, all of the remaining convection was sheared to the east as the storm moved over cooler waters.[47] As most of the remaining thunderstorms had dissipated, the JTWC assessed that Surigae transitioned into a subtropical cyclone on April 23.[48] Late on April 24, the JTWC issued their final advisory on the system as it was nearing the completion of its extratropical transition.[49] A few hours later, the JMA declared that Surigae had become extratropical.[50]

After being named, tropical storm watches and warnings were issued for Yap in the Federated States of Micronesia, as well as for Koror and Kayangel in Palau on April 14.[51] Warnings were eventually issued for Ngulu Atoll as well.[52] Winds of up to 30 mph (50 km/h) were recorded in Yap on that day as Surigae passed from the southwest.[53] Damage in Palau was estimated at US$4.8 million.[54] On April 16, as the storm tracked towards the Philippines, the PAGASA issued Signal #1 warnings for areas around the country, also issuing Signal #2 warnings the next day for Catanduanes and Samar.[55][56][57] Very strong winds and heavy rains affected the eastern part of the Philippines, with storm surge inundating parts of coastline nearest to the typhoon. Surigae killed a total of 8 people and left another 10 missing.[58][59] The storm also caused at least 272.55 million (US$5.65 million) in damages.[58]

Other systems

A tropical depression on January 19

During January 19, the JMA reported that a tropical depression had developed to the east of Luzon, Philippines.[60] The precursor to the depression brought scattered showers and thunderstorms to Mindanao, Palawan, and Visayas on January 18.[61] The JMA, however, discontinued advisories for the system on the next day.[62] The depression also brought stormy weather to Luzon on January 20. The PAGASA warned residents of possible flash flooding and mudslides due to heavy rainfall.[63] The system's precursor was associated with a frontal system, with its combined effects bringing heavy rainfall over much of Visayas, the Bicol Region, and Northern Mindanao, resulting in three deaths and agricultural damages of up to 642.5 million (US$13.2 million).[64]

On March 9, a low-pressure area entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility, though it was not expected to develop at that time.[65][66] On March 14, the low-pressure area intensified into a tropical depression over the Sulu Sea before quickly degenerating back into a low-pressure area.[67][68] The system brought light to moderate rains over parts of the Philippines, with the PAGASA advising residents of the possibility of floods and landslides.[69]

Storm names

Within the Northwest Pacific Ocean, both the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) assign names to tropical cyclones that develop in the Western Pacific, which can result in a tropical cyclone having two names.[70] The Japan Meteorological Agency's RSMC Tokyo — Typhoon Center assigns international names to tropical cyclones on behalf of the World Meteorological Organization's Typhoon Committee, should they be judged to have 10-minute sustained windspeeds of 65 km/h (40 mph).[71] PAGASA names to tropical cyclones which move into or form as a tropical depression in their area of responsibility located between 135°E and 115°E and between 5°N and 25°N even if the cyclone has had an international name assigned to it.[70] The names of significant tropical cyclones are retired, by both PAGASA and the Typhoon Committee.[71] Should the list of names for the Philippine region be exhausted then names will be taken from an auxiliary list of which the first ten are published each season. Unused names are marked in gray.

International names

A tropical cyclone is named when it is judged to have 10-minute sustained windspeeds of 65 km/h (40 mph).[72] The JMA selected the names from a list of 140 names, that had been developed by the 14 members nations and territories of the ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee.[73] Retired names, if any, will be announced by the WMO in 2022; though replacement names will be announced in 2023. The next 28 names on the naming list are listed here along with their international numeric designation, if they are used. During the season, the name Surigae was used for the first time after it replaced Mujigae in the 2015 season.

  • Dujuan (2101)
  • Surigae (2102)
  • Choi-wan (unused)
  • Koguma (unused)
  • Champi (unused)
  • In-fa (unused)
  • Cempaka (unused)
  • Nepartak (unused)
  • Lupit (unused)
  • Mirinae (unused)
  • Nida (unused)
  • Omais (unused)
  • Conson (unused)
  • Chanthu (unused)
  • Dianmu (unused)
  • Mindulle (unused)
  • Lionrock (unused)
  • Kompasu (unused)
  • Namtheun (unused)
  • Malou (unused)
  • Nyatoh (unused)
  • Rai (unused)
  • Malakas (unused)
  • Megi (unused)
  • Chaba (unused)
  • Aere (unused)
  • Songda (unused)
  • Trases (unused)

Philippines

PAGASA uses its own naming scheme for typhoons that will either develop within or move into their self-defined area of responsibility.[74] The names were taken from a list of names, that was last used during 2017 and are scheduled to be used again during 2025.[74] All of the names are the same except Uwan and Verbena which replaced the names Urduja and Vinta after they were retired.[74]

  • Auring (2101)
  • Bising (2102)
  • Crising (unused)
  • Dante (unused)
  • Emong (unused)
  • Fabian (unused)
  • Gorio (unused)
  • Huaning (unused)
  • Isang (unused)
  • Jolina (unused)
  • Kiko (unused)
  • Lannie (unused)
  • Maring (unused)
  • Nando (unused)
  • Odette (unused)
  • Paolo (unused)
  • Quedan (unused)
  • Ramil (unused)
  • Salome (unused)
  • Tino (unused)
  • Uwan (unused)
  • Verbena (unused)
  • Wilma (unused)
  • Yasmin (unused)
  • Zoraida (unused)

Auxiliary list

  • Alamid (unused)
  • Bruno (unused)
  • Conching (unused)
  • Dolor (unused)
  • Ernie (unused)
  • Florante (unused)
  • Gerardo (unused)
  • Hernan (unused)
  • Isko (unused)
  • Jerome (unused)

Season effects

This table summarizes all the systems that developed within or moved into the North Pacific Ocean, to the west of the International Date Line during 2021. The tables also provide an overview of a systems intensity, duration, land areas affected and any deaths or damages associated with the system.

Name Dates active Peak classification Sustained
wind speeds
Pressure Areas affected Damage
(USD)
Deaths Refs
TD January 19 – 20 Tropical depression Not specified 1008 hPa (29.77 inHg) Philippines $13.2 million 3 [64]
Dujuan (Auring) February 16 – 22 Tropical storm 75 km/h (45 mph) 996 hPa (29.41 inHg) Palau, Philippines $3.29 million 1 [30]
TD March 14 Tropical depression Not specified 1006 hPa (29.71 inHg) Philippines None None
Surigae (Bising) April 12 – 24 Typhoon 220 km/h (140 mph) 895 hPa (26.43 inHg) Caroline Islands, Palau, Sulawesi, Philippines $10.5 million 10 [58][59][54]
Season aggregates
4 systems January 19 –
Season ongoing
220 km/h (140 mph) 895 hPa (26.43 inHg) $26.9 million 14

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b A super typhoon is an unofficial category used by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) for a typhoon with winds of at least 240 km/h (150 mph).[4]
  2. ^ The Japan Meteorological Agency is the official Regional Specialized Meteorological Center for the western Pacific Ocean.
  3. ^ The Joint Typhoon Warning Center is a joint United States Navy – United States Air Force task force that issues tropical cyclone warnings for the western Pacific Ocean and other regions.[2]

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