Demographics of Russia
|Demographics of Russia|
|Growth rate||-0.1 (2021)(Q2)|
|Birth rate||9.8 births/1,000 population (2020)|
|Death rate||14.6 deaths/1,000 population (2020)|
|Life expectancy||73.34 years (2019)|
|• male||67.75 years (2018)|
|• female||77.82 years (2018)|
|Fertility rate||1.52 (2021)|
|Infant mortality rate||4.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2019)|
|Net migration rate||1.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014)|
|Under 18 years||~23.21%|
|65 and over||15.6%|
|Total||0.86 male(s)/female (2009)|
|At birth||1.06 male(s)/female|
|Under 15||1.06 male(s)/female (male 11,980,138/female 11,344,818)|
|15–64 years||0.925 male(s)/female (male 48,166,470/female 52,088,967)|
|65 and over||0.44 male(s)/female (male 5,783,983/female 13,105,896)|
|Nationality||noun: Russian(s) adjective: Russian|
Russia, the largest country in the world, had a population of 142.8 million according to the 2010 census, which rose to 146.2 million as of 2021. It is the most populous country in Europe, and the ninth-most populous country in the world; with a population density of 9 inhabitants per square kilometre (23 per square mile). The overall life expectancy in Russia at birth is 73.2 years (68.2 years for males and 78.0 years for females).
Since the 1990s, Russia's death rate has exceeded its birth rate, which has been called by analysts as a demographic crisis. In 2018, the total fertility rate across Russia was estimated to be 1.6 children born per woman, which is below the replacement rate of 2.1, and is one of the world's lowest fertility rates. Subsequently, the nation has one of the world's oldest populations, with a median age of 40.3 years. In 2009, it recorded annual population growth for the first time in fifteen years; and since the 2010s, Russia has seen increased population growth due to declining death rates, increased birth rates and increased immigration.
Russia is a multinational state, home to over 193 ethnic groups nationwide. In the 2010 Census, roughly 81% of the population were ethnic Russians, and the remaining 19% of the population were ethnic minorities, and roughly 85% of Russia's population was of European descent, of which the vast majority were Slavs, with a substantial minority of Finnic and Germanic peoples. According to the United Nations, Russia's immigrant population is the world's third-largest, numbering over 11.6 million; most of which are from post-Soviet states.
Total fertility rate, 1840–1926
In many of the following years, Russia had the highest total fertility rate in the world. These elevated fertility rates did not lead to population growth due to the casualties of the Russian Revolution, the two world wars and political killings.
Historical crude birth rates
|Crude birth rates of Russia||43.7||40.0||42.7||45.6||49.7||52.4|
|Crude birth rates of Russia||50.3||50.4||50.4||49.2||46.8||43.9||51.0||50.0|
|Average population||Live births||Deaths||Natural change||Crude birth rate (per 1,000)||Crude death rate (per 1,000)||Natural change (per 1,000)||Total fertility rates||Life Expectancy (male)||Life Expectancy (female)|
|Total average midyear population||Live births||Deaths||Natural change||Crude birth rate (per 1,000)||Crude death rate (per 1,000)||Natural change (per 1,000)||Total fertility rates[fn 1]||Urban fertility||Rural fertility||Life Expectancy (male)||Life Expectancy (female)||Life Expectancy (total)||Abortions (including miscarriage) reported|
|Urban live births||Urban deaths||Urban natural change||Urban crude birth rate (per 1,000)||Urban crude death rate (per 1,000)||Urban natural change (per 1,000)||Rural live births||Rural deaths||Rural natural change||Rural crude birth rate (per 1,000)||Rural crude death rate (per 1,000)||Rural natural change (per 1,000)|
Note: Russian data includes Crimea starting in 2014.
Current vital statistics
|Period||Live births||Deaths||Natural increase|
|January - October 2020||1,193,445||1,661,372||-467,927|
|January - October 2021||1,169,911||1,972,688||-802,777|
|Difference||-23,534 (-1.97)||+311,316 (+18.74)||-334,850|
Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2019.
- One birth every 18 seconds
- One death every 16 seconds
- Net loss of one person every 8 minutes
- One net migrant every 4 minutes
- 142,122,776 (July 2018 est.)
- 142,257,519 (July 2017 est.)
- Age structure
- 0–14 years: 17.21% (male 12,566,314 /female 11,896,416)
- 15–24 years: 9.41% (male 6,840,759 /female 6,530,991)
- 25–54 years: 44.21% (male 30,868,831 /female 31,960,407)
- 55–64 years: 14.51% (male 8,907,031 /female 11,709,921)
- 65 years and over: 14.66% (male 6,565,308 /female 14,276,798) (2018 est.)
- 0–14 years: 17.12% (male 12,509,563/female 11,843,254)
- 15–24 years: 9.46% (male 6,881,880/female 6,572,191)
- 25–54 years: 44.71% (male 31,220,990/female 32,375,489)
- 55–64 years: 14.44% (male 8,849,707/female 11,693,131)
- 65 years and over: 14.28% (male 6,352,557/female 13,958,757) (2017 est.)
- Median age
- total: 39.8 years. Country comparison to the world: 52nd
- male: 36.9 years
- female: 42.7 years (2018 est.)
- total: 39.6 years
- male: 36.6 years
- female: 42.5 years (2017 est.)
- total: 39.6 years
- male: 36.7 years
- female: 41.6 years (2009)
- Birth rate
- 10.7 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 184th
- 11 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
- Death rate
- 13.4 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 8th
- Total fertility rate
- 1.61 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 179th
- Net migration rate
- 1.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 52nd
- Population growth rate
- –0.11% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 205th
- –0.08% (2017 est.)
- +0.19% (2014 est.)
- Mother's mean age at first birth
- 24.6 years (2009 est.)
- Life expectancy at birth
- total population: 71.3 years. Country comparison to the world: 155th
- male: 65.6 years
- female: 77.3 years (2018 est.)
- Infant mortality rate
- total: 6.8 deaths/1,000 live births
- male: 7.6 deaths/1,000 live births
- female: 5.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 163rd
definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
- total population: 99.7%
- male: 99.7%
- female: 99.6% (2015 est.)
- School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
- total: 16 years
- male: 15 years
- female: 16 years (2016)
- Unemployment, youth ages 15–24
- total: 16%. Country comparison to the world: 83rd
- male: 15.3%
- female: 16.9% (2015 est.)
- Ethnic groups
Russian 80.9%, Tatar 3.9%, Ukrainian 1.4%, Bashkir 1.1%, Chuvash 1%, Chechen 1%, other 10.2%, unspecified 3.9% note: nearly 200 national and/or ethnic groups are represented in Russia's 2010 census (2010 est.)
Russian Orthodox 15–20%, Muslim 10–15%, other Christian 2% (2006 est.) Note: estimates are of practicing worshipers; Russia has large populations of non-practicing believers and non-believers, a legacy of over seven decades of Soviet rule; Russia officially recognizes Orthodox Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Buddhism as traditional religions.
Russian (official) 85.7%, Tatar 3.2%, Chechen 1%, other 10.1%. Note: data represent native language spoken (2010 est.)
- Population distribution
Population is heavily concentrated in the westernmost fifth of the country extending from the Baltic Sea, south to the Caspian Sea, and eastward parallel to the Kazakh border; elsewhere, sizeable pockets are isolated and generally found in the south
- urban population: 74.4% of total population (2018)
- rate of urbanization: 0.18% annual rate of change (2015–20 est.)
- 74% urban, 26% rural (2010 Russian Census)
- Population density
- Sex ratio
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.46 male(s)/female
total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2009)
In 2006, in a bid to compensate for the country's demographic decline, the Russian government started simplifying immigration laws and launched a state program "for providing assistance to voluntary immigration of ethnic Russians from former Soviet republics". In August 2012, as the country saw its first demographic growth since the 1990s, President Putin declared that Russia's population could reach 146 million by 2025, mainly as a result of immigration. New citizenship rules introduced in April 2014 allowing eligible citizens from former Soviet republics to obtain Russian citizenship, have gained strong interest among Russian-speaking residents of those countries (i.e. Russians, Germans, Belarusians and Ukrainians).
There are an estimated four million undocumented immigrants from the ex-Soviet states in Russia. In 2012, the Russian Federal Security Service's Border Service stated there had been an increase in undocumented migration from the Middle East and Southeast Asia (Note that these were Temporary Contract Migrants) Under legal changes made in 2012, undocumented immigrants who are caught will be banned from reentering the country for 10 years.
Since the collapse of the USSR, most immigrants have come from Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Moldova, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Armenia, Belarus, and China.
Temporary migrant workers in Russia consists of about 7 million people, most of the temporary workers come from Central Asia, the Balkans and East Asia. Most of them work in the construction, cleaning and in the household industries. They primarily live in cities such as Moscow, Sochi and Blagoveshchensk. The mayor of Moscow said that Moscow cannot do without worker migrants. New laws are in place that require worker migrants to be fluent in Russian, know Russian history and laws. The Russian Opposition and most of the Russian population opposes worker migration. The hate of worker migration has become so severe it has caused a rise in Russian nationalism, and spawned groups like Movement Against Illegal Immigration.
Russia, by constitution, guarantees free, universal health care for all Russian citizens, through a compulsory state health insurance program. The Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation oversees the Russian public healthcare system, and the sector employs more than two million people. Federal regions also have their own departments of health that oversee local administration. A separate private health insurance plan is needed to access private healthcare in Russia.
According to the World Bank, Russia spent 5.32% of its GDP on healthcare in 2018. It has one of the world's most female-biased sex ratios, with 0.859 males to every female. In 2019, the overall life expectancy in Russia at birth is 73.2 years (68.2 years for males and 78.0 years for females), and it had a very low infant mortality rate (5 per 1,000 live births). The principle cause of death in Russia are cardiovascular diseases. Obesity is a prevalent health issue in Russia. In 2016, 61.1% of Russian adults were overweight or obese. However, Russia's historically high alcohol consumption rate is the biggest health issue in the country, as it remains one of the world's highest, despite a stark decrease in the last decade.
In 2021, analysis of official government statistics showed that Russia suffered the biggest ever fall in population in peacetime, a drop of 997,000 between October 2020 and September 2021, due primarily to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Russia is a multinational state, with more than 193 ethnic groups within its borders. It had a population of 142.8 million according to the 2010 Russian Census, of which around 111 million were ethnic Russians, who constituted 80.9% of the total population, while rest of the 19% of the population were minorities. The sizable numbers of Tatars, Ukrainians, Bashkirs, Chuvash and Chechens in the country made up around 8.4% of the total population. The rest of the 10.6% of the population were diverse Indo-European, Turkic and Finnic peoples.
Around 85% of the Russian population was of "European" descent in the 2010 census, counting Slavs and with a substantial minority of Finnic peoples and Germans. The 2010 census recorded roughly 81% of the population as ethnic Russians, and rest of the 19% of the population as other minorities belonging to over 190 ethnic groups across the country. According to the United Nations, Russia's immigrant population is the third-largest in the world, numbering over 11.6 million; most of which are from post-Soviet states, mainly Ukrainians.
|Officially ethnic Russian-minority regions in Russia|
|Republic||ethnic Russians (%)|
Russian is the official and the predominantly spoken language in Russia. It is the most spoken native language in Europe, the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, as well as the world's most widely spoken Slavic language. Russian is the second-most used language on the Internet after English, and is one of two official languages aboard the International Space Station, as well as one of the six official languages of the United Nations.
Besides Russian, approximately over 100 minority languages are spoken across Russia. According to the Russian Census of 2002, 142.6 million across the country spoke Russian, 5.3 million spoke Tatar, and 1.8 million spoke Ukrainian. The constitution gives the country's individual republics the right to establish their own state languages in addition to Russian, as well as guarantee its citizens the right to preserve their native language and to create conditions for its study and development.
Russia is a secular state by constitution, and its largest religion is Christianity. It has the world's largest Orthodox population. As of a different sociological surveys on religious adherence; between 41% to over 80% of the total population of Russia adhere to the Russian Orthodox Church. Other branches of Christianity present in Russia include Roman Catholicism (approx. 1%), Baptists, Pentecostals, Lutherans and other Protestant churches (together totalling about 0.5% of the population) and Old Believers. There is some presence of Judaism, Buddhism, Hinduism and other pagan beliefs are also present to some extent in remote areas, sometimes syncretized with one of the mainstream religions.
In 2017, a survey made by the Pew Research Center showed that 73% of Russians declared themselves as Christians—out of which 71% were Orthodox, 1% were Catholic, and 2% were Other Christians, while 15% were unaffiliated, 10% were Muslims, and 1% followed other religions. According to various reports, the proportion of Atheists in Russia is between 16% and 48% of the population.
Islam is the second-largest religion in Russia, and it is the traditional religion amongst the bulk of the peoples of the North Caucasus, and amongst some Turkic peoples scattered along the Volga-Ural region. Buddhists are home to a sizeable population in the three Siberian republics: Buryatia, Tuva, Zabaykalsky Krai, and in Kalmykia; the only region in Europe where Buddhism is the most practised religion.
Russia has a free education system, which is guaranteed for all citizens by the constitution. The Ministry of Education of Russia is responsible for primary and secondary education, and vocational education; while the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia is responsible for science and higher education. Regional authorities regulate education within their jurisdictions within the prevailing framework of federal laws. Russia has the world's highest college-level or higher graduates in terms of percentage of population, at 54%.
Pre-school education in Russia is highly developed, some four-fifths of children aged 3 to 6 attend day nurseries or kindergartens. Schooling is compulsory for nine years. It starts from age 6 to 7 and leads to a basic general education certificate. An additional two or three years of schooling are required for the secondary-level certificate, and some seven-eighths of Russian students continue their education past this level. Admission to an institute of higher education is selective and highly competitive: first-degree courses usually take five years. The oldest and largest universities in Russia are Moscow State University and Saint Petersburg State University. There are also ten highly prestigious federal universities across the country. According to a UNESCO report in 2014, Russia is the world's sixth-leading destination for international students.
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total literacy: 99.7% (2015)
Russia's free, widespread and in-depth educational system, inherited with almost no changes from the Soviet Union, has produced nearly 100% literacy. 97% of children receive their compulsory 9-year basic or complete 11-year education in Russian. Other languages are also used in their respective republics, for instance Tatar, and Yakut.
About 3 million students attend Russia's 519 institutions of higher education and 48 universities. As a result of great emphasis on science and technology in education, Russian medical, mathematical, scientific, and space and aviation research is generally of a high order.
Moscow, the capital and largest city of Russia
Saint Petersburg, the cultural capital and the second-largest city
Yekaterinburg, the fourth-largest city in the country.
Russia is one of the world's most urbanized countries, with roughly 75% of its total population living in urban areas. Moscow, the capital and largest city, has a population estimated at 12.4 million residents within the city limits, while over 17 million residents in the urban area, and over 20 million residents in the metropolitan area. Moscow is among the world's largest cities, being the most populous city entirely within Europe, the most populous urban area in Europe, the most populous metropolitan area in Europe, and also the largest city by land area on the European continent. Saint Petersburg, the cultural capital, is the second-largest city, with a population of roughly 5.4 million inhabitants. Other major urban areas are Yekaterinburg, Novosibirsk, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod, and Chelyabinsk.
|Rank||Name||Federal subject||Pop.||Rank||Name||Federal subject||Pop.|
|2||Saint Petersburg||Saint Petersburg||5,282,000||12||Krasnoyarsk||Krasnoyarsk Krai||1,084,000|
|3||Novosibirsk||Novosibirsk Oblast||1,603,000||13||Perm||Perm Krai||1,042,000|
|4||Yekaterinburg||Sverdlovsk Oblast||1,456,000||14||Voronezh||Voronezh Oblast||1,032,000|
|5||Nizhny Novgorod||Nizhny Novgorod Oblast||1,267,000||15||Volgograd||Volgograd Oblast||1,016,000|
|7||Chelyabinsk||Chelyabinsk Oblast||1,199,000||17||Saratov||Saratov Oblast||843,000|
|8||Omsk||Omsk Oblast||1,178,000||18||Tolyatti||Samara Oblast||711,000|
- Demographic history of Russia
- Demographics of Siberia
- Demographic crisis of Russia
- List of federal subjects of Russia by total fertility rate
- Genetic studies on Russians
- Health in Russia
- Indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East
- Russian cross
- Russian nationality law
- Soviet Census
- Russian Empire Census (1897)
- Russian Census (2002)
- Russian Census (2010)
- Russian Census (2020)
- List of cities and towns in Russia by population
- In fertility rates, 2.1 and above is a stable population and has been marked blue, 2 and below leads to an aging population and the result is that the population decreases.
- Including Old Believers (0.2%), Protestantism (0.2%), and Catholicism (0.1%).
- The Sreda Arena Atlas 2012 did not count the populations of two Muslim-majority federal subjects of Russia, namely Chechnya and Ingushetia, which together had a population of nearly 2 million, thus the proportion of Muslims may be slightly underestimated.
- The category included Rodnovers accounting for 44%, Hinduists accounting for 0.1%, and other Pagan religions and Siberian Tengrists and shamans accounting for the rest.
- Including Judaism (0.1%) and other unspecified religions.
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There are six official languages of the UN. These are Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish. The correct interpretation and translation of these six languages, in both spoken and written form, is very important to the work of the Organization, because this enables clear and concise communication on issues of global importance.
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Although ethnic Russians comprise more than four-fifths of the country's total population, Russia is a diverse, multiethnic society. More than 120 ethnic groups, many with their own national territories, speaking some 100 languages live within Russia's borders.
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2. The Republics shall have the right to establish their own state languages. In the bodies of state authority and local self-government, state institutions of the Republics they shall be used together with the state language of the Russian Federation. 3. The Russian Federation shall guarantee to all of its peoples the right to preserve their native language and to create conditions for its study and development.
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Kalmykia is Europe's only Buddhist Republic. The region's people are descended from the nomads who wandered the vast Central Asian steppes under Genghis Khan's empire. When the empire began to collapse, the Kalmykians migrated toward the Caspian Sea settling what is today called Kalmykia – Kalmyk means "remnant" in the local language.
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1. Everyone shall have the right to education... 2. Guarantees shall be provided for general access to and free pre-school, secondary and high vocational education in state or municipal educational establishments and at enterprises.... 3. Everyone shall have the right to receive on a competitive basis a free higher education in a state or municipal educational establishment and at an enterprise... 4. The basic general education shall be free of charge. Parents or persons in law parents shall enable their children to receive a basic general education.
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Russia is the world leader when it comes to graduating its citizens from college... Fifty-four percent of the Russian Federation’s population aged 25 to 64 has an associate’s degree or higher, data from the Organisation for Economic and Co-operative Development reveals.
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