Demographics of Russia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Demographics of Russia
RUS SbA1y20210101.png
Population pyramid of Russia as of 1 January 2021
Population146,171,015[1]
Growth rateNeutral decrease -0.1 (2021)(Q2)
Birth rate9.8 births/1,000 population (2020)[2]
Death rate14.6 deaths/1,000 population (2020)[2]
Life expectancyIncrease 73.34 years (2019)[3]
 • male67.75 years (2018)[4]
 • female77.82 years (2018)[4]
Fertility rateIncrease 1.52 (2021)[5]
Infant mortality rate4.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2019)[6]
Net migration rate1.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014)
Age structure
Under 18 years~23.21%[7]
18–44 years~34.73%[7]
45–64 years26.55%[7]
65 and over15.6%[7]
Sex ratio
Total0.86 male(s)/female (2009)
At birth1.06 male(s)/female
Under 151.06 male(s)/female (male 11,980,138/female 11,344,818)
15–64 years0.925 male(s)/female (male 48,166,470/female 52,088,967)
65 and over0.44 male(s)/female (male 5,783,983/female 13,105,896)
Nationality
Nationalitynoun: Russian(s) adjective: Russian
Major ethnicRussians
Language
SpokenRussian, others
Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1897 67,473,000—    
1926 93,459,000+1.13%
1939 108,377,000+1.15%
1959 117,534,000+0.41%
1970 130,079,000+0.93%
1979 137,552,000+0.62%
1989 147,386,000+0.69%
2002 145,166,731−0.12%
2010 142,856,836−0.20%
2015 144,985,057+0.30%
2019 146,764,655+0.31%
2020 146,171,015−0.40%
Source:[8][9][failed verification]

Russia, the largest country in the world, had a population of 142.8 million according to the 2010 census,[10] which rose to 146.2 million as of 2021.[11] It is the most populous country in Europe, and the ninth-most populous country in the world; with a population density of 9 inhabitants per square kilometre (23 per square mile).[12] The overall life expectancy in Russia at birth is 73.2 years (68.2 years for males and 78.0 years for females).[13]

Since the 1990s, Russia's death rate has exceeded its birth rate, which has been called by analysts as a demographic crisis.[14] In 2018, the total fertility rate across Russia was estimated to be 1.6 children born per woman, which is below the replacement rate of 2.1, and is one of the world's lowest fertility rates.[15] Subsequently, the nation has one of the world's oldest populations, with a median age of 40.3 years.[16] In 2009, it recorded annual population growth for the first time in fifteen years; and since the 2010s, Russia has seen increased population growth due to declining death rates, increased birth rates and increased immigration.[17]

Russia is a multinational state, home to over 193 ethnic groups nationwide.[18] In the 2010 Census, roughly 81% of the population were ethnic Russians,[18] and the remaining 19% of the population were ethnic minorities,[19] and roughly 85% of Russia's population was of European descent,[19] of which the vast majority were Slavs,[20] with a substantial minority of Finnic and Germanic peoples.[21][22] According to the United Nations, Russia's immigrant population is the world's third-largest, numbering over 11.6 million;[23] most of which are from post-Soviet states.[24]

History[edit]

Total fertility rate, 1840–1926[edit]

The total fertility rate is the number of children born to each woman. It is based on fairly good data for the entire period. Sources: Our World In Data and Gapminder Foundation.[25]

In many of the following years, Russia had the highest total fertility rate in the world.[25] These elevated fertility rates did not lead to population growth due to the casualties of the Russian Revolution, the two world wars and political killings.

Total fertility rate in Russia 1840–1926
Years 1840 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849[25]
7 7 7 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.05 7.06 7.08 7.08
Years 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859[25]
7.07 7.07 7.07 7.06 7.05 7.03 7.01 7 6.98 6.97
Years 1860 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869[25]
6.95 6.93 6.95 6.96 6.98 6.99 7.01 7.02 6.51 6.87
Years 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879[25]
6.74 7.03 6.85 7.24 7.17 7.15 7.02 6.87 6.58 6.98
Years 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889[25]
6.8 6.66 7.03 6.89 6.83 6.74 6.47 6.61 6.96 6.8
Years 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899[25]
6.71 7.44 6.57 7.17 7.18 7.34 7.43 7.52 7.28 7.36
Years 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909[25]
7.36 7.2 7.36 7.2 7.24 6.72 7.04 7.08 7.44 7.12
Years 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919[25]
7.2 7.2 7.2 6.96 6.88 3.36 5.2 5.04 5.72 3.44
Years 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926[25]
6.72 4.72 6 6.48 6.72 6.8 6.72

Historical crude birth rates[edit]

Years 1801–1810 1811–1820 1821–1830 1831–1840 1841–1850 1851–1860[26]
Crude birth rates of Russia 43.7 40.0 42.7 45.6 49.7 52.4
Years 1861–1870 1871–1880 1881–1890 1891–1900 1901–1910 1911–1914 18th century
(only Orthodoxs)
1801–1860
(only Orthodoxs)[26]
Crude birth rates of Russia 50.3 50.4 50.4 49.2 46.8 43.9 51.0 50.0
Russian population by age and sex (demographic pyramid) on 1 January 1927
Russian population by age and sex (demographic pyramid) on 1 January 1946
Average population[27] Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1,000) Crude death rate (per 1,000) Natural change (per 1,000) Total fertility rates Life Expectancy (male) Life Expectancy (female)
1927 94,596,000 4,688,000 2,705,000 1,983,000 49.6 28.6 21.0 6.73 33.7 37.9
1928 96,654,000 4,723,000 2,589,000 2,134,000 48.9 26.8 22.1 6.56 35.9 40.4
1929 98,644,000 4,633,000 2,819,000 1,814,000 47.0 28.6 18.4 6.23 33.7 38.2
1930 100,419,000 4,413,000 2,738,000 1,675,000 43.9 27.3 16.7 5.83 34.6 38.7
1931 101,948,000 4,412,000 3,090,000 1,322,000 43.3 30.3 13.0 5.63 30.7 35.5
1932 103,136,000 4,058,000 3,077,000 981,000 39.3 29.8 9.5 5.09 30.5 35.7
1933 102,706,000 3,313,000 5,239,000 -1,926,000 32.3 51.0 -18.8 4.15 15.2 19.5
1934 102,922,000 2,923,000 2,659,000 264,000 28.7 26.1 2.6 3.57 30.5 35.7
1935 102,684,000 3,577,000 2,421,000 1,156,000 34.8 23.6 11.3 4.31 33.1 38.4
1936 103,904,000 3,899,000 2,719,000 1,180,000 37.5 26.2 11.4 4.54 30.4 35.7
1937 105,358,000 4,377,000 2,760,000 1,617,000 41.5 26.2 15.4 5.08 30.5 40.0
1938 107,044,000 4,379,000 2,739,000 1,640,000 40.9 25.6 15.3 4.99 31.7 42.5
1939 108,785,000 4,329,000 2,600,000 1,729,000 39.8 23.9 15.9 4.91 34.9 42.6
1940 110,333,000 3,814,000 2,561,000 1,253,000 34.6 23.2 11.4 4.26 35.7 41.9
Total Fertility Rate in Russia 1941–1945
Years 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945[25]
4.60 2.96 1.68 1.72 1.92

After WWII[edit]

Vital Statistics of Russia 1946–2019[27][28][29][30][31][32][33]
Total average midyear population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1,000) Crude death rate (per 1,000) Natural change (per 1,000) Total fertility rates[fn 1] Urban fertility Rural fertility Life Expectancy (male) Life Expectancy (female) Life Expectancy (total) Abortions (including miscarriage) reported
1946 98,028,000 2,546,000 1,210,000 1,336,000 26.0 12.3 13.6 2.81 46.6 55.3
1947 98,834,000 2,715,000 1,680,000 1,035,000 27.5 17.0 10.5 2.94 39.9 49.8
1948 99,706,000 2,516,000 1,310,000 1,206,000 25.2 13.1 12.1 2.60 47.0 56.0
1949 101,160,000 3,089,000 1,187,000 1,902,000 30.5 11.7 18.8 3.21 51.0 59.8
1950 102,833,000 2,859,000 1,180,000 1,679,000 27.8 11.5 16.3 2.89 52.3 61.0
1951 104,439,000 2,938,000 1,210,000 1,728,000 28.1 11.6 16.5 2.92 52.3 60.6
1952 106,164,000 2,928,000 1,138,000 1,790,000 27.6 10.7 16.9 2.87 54.6 62.9
1953 107,828,000 2,822,000 1,118,000 1,704,000 26.2 10.4 15.8 2.73 55.5 63.9
1954 109,643,000 3,048,000 1,133,000 1,915,000 27.8 10.3 17.5 2.97 55.9 64.1
1955 111,572,000 2,942,000 1,037,000 1,905,000 26.4 9.3 17.1 2.82 58.3 66.6
1956 113,327,000 2,827,000 956,000 1,871,000 24.9 8.4 16.5 2.73 60.1 68.8
1957 115,035,000 2,880,000 1,017,000 1,863,000 25.0 8.8 16.2 2.75 59.7 68.4 3,407,398
1958 116,749,000 2,861,000 931,000 1,930,000 24.5 8.0 16.5 2.69 61.8 70.4 3,939,362
1959 118,307,000 2,796,228 920,225 1,876,003 23.6 7.8 15.9 2.58 2.03 3.34 62.84 71.14 67.65 4,174,111
1960 119,906,000 2,782,353 886,090 1,896,263 23.2 7.4 15.8 2.56 2.06 3.26 63.67 72.31 68.67 4,373,042
1961 121,586,000 2,662,135 901,637 1,760,498 21.9 7.4 14.5 2.47 2.04 3.08 63.91 72.63 68.92 4,759,040
1962 123,128,000 2,482,539 949,648 1,532,891 20.2 7.7 12.4 2.36 1.98 2.92 63.67 72.27 68.58 4,925,124
1963 124,514,000 2,331,505 932,055 1,399,450 18.7 7.5 11.2 2.31 1.93 2.87 64.12 72.78 69.05 5,134,100
1964 125,744,000 2,121,994 901,751 1,220,243 16.9 7.2 9.7 2.19 1.88 2.66 64.89 73.58 69.85 5,376,200
1965 126,749,000 1,990,520 958,789 1,031,731 15.7 7.6 8.1 2.14 1.82 2.58 64.37 73.33 69.44 5,463,300
1966 127,608,000 1,957,763 974,299 983,464 15.3 7.6 7.7 2.13 1.85 2.58 64.29 73.55 69.51 5,322,500
1967 128,361,000 1,851,041 1,017,034 834,007 14.4 7.9 6.5 2.03 1.79 2.46 64.02 73.43 69.30 5,005,000
1968 129,037,000 1,816,509 1,040,096 776,413 14.1 8.1 6.0 1.98 1.75 2.44 63.73 73.56 69.26 4,872,900
1969 129,660,000 1,847,592 1,106,640 740,952 14.2 8.5 5.7 1.99 1.78 2.44 63.07 73.29 68.74 4,751,100
1970 130,252,000 1,903,713 1,131,183 772,530 14.6 8.7 5.9 2.00 1.77 2.52 63.07 73.44 68.86 4,837,700
1971 130,934,000 1,974,637 1,143,359 831,278 15.1 8.7 6.3 2.02 1.80 2.60 63.24 73.77 69.12 4,838,749
1972 131,687,000 2,014,638 1,181,802 832,836 15.3 9.0 6.3 2.03 1.81 2.59 63.24 73.62 69.02 4,765,900
1973 132,434,000 1,994,621 1,214,204 780,417 15.1 9.2 5.9 1.96 1.75 2.55 63.28 73.56 69.00 4,747,037
1974 133,217,000 2,079,812 1,222,495 857,317 15.6 9.2 6.4 2.00 1.78 2.63 63.12 73.77 68.99 4,674,050
1975 134,092,000 2,106,147 1,309,710 796,437 15.7 9.8 5.9 1.97 1.76 2.64 62.48 73.23 68.35 4,670,700
1976 135,026,000 2,146,711 1,352,950 793,761 15.9 10.0 5.9 1.96 1.74 2.62 62.19 73.04 68.10 4,757,055
1977 135,979,000 2,156,724 1,387,986 768,738 15.9 10.2 5.7 1.92 1.72 2.58 61.82 73.19 67.97 4,686,063
1978 136,922,000 2,179,030 1,417,377 761,653 15.9 10.4 5.6 1.90 1.70 2.55 61.83 73.23 68.01 4,656,057
1979 137,758,000 2,178,542 1,490,057 688,485 15.8 10.8 5.0 1.87 1.67 2.54 61.49 73.02 67.73 4,544,040
1980 138,483,000 2,202,779 1,525,755 677,024 15.9 11.0 4.9 1.87 1.68 2.51 61.38 72.96 67.70 4,506,249
1981 139,221,000 2,236,608 1,524,286 712,322 16.1 10.9 5.1 1.88 1.69 2.55 61.61 73.18 67.92 4,400,676
1982 140,067,000 2,328,044 1,504,200 823,844 16.6 10.7 5.9 1.96 1.76 2.63 62.24 73.64 68.38 4,462,825
1983 141,056,000 2,478,322 1,563,995 914,327 17.6 11.1 6.5 2.11 1.89 2.76 62.15 73.41 68.15 4,317,729
1984 142,061,000 2,409,614 1,650,866 758,748 17.0 11.6 5.3 2.06 1.86 2.69 61.71 72.96 67.67 4,361,959
1985 143,033,000 2,375,147 1,625,266 749,881 16.6 11.4 5.2 2.05 1.87 2.68 62.72 73.23 68.33 4,552,443
1986 144,156,000 2,485,915 1,497,975 987,940 17.2 10.4 6.9 2.18 1.98 2.83 64.77 74.22 69.95 4,579,400
1987 145,386,000 2,499,974 1,531,585 968,389 17.2 10.5 6.7 2.22 1.974 3.187 64.83 74.26 69.96 4,385,627
1988 146,505,000 2,348,494 1,569,112 779,382 16.0 10.7 5.3 2.13 1.90 3.06 64.61 74.25 69.81 4,608,953
1989 147,342,000 2,160,559 1,583,743 576,816 14.7 10.7 3.9 2.01 1.83 2.63 64.20 74.50 69.73 4,427,713
1990 147,969,000 1,988,858 1,655,993 332,865 13.4 11.2 2.3 1.892 1.698 2.600 63.76 74.32 69.36 4,103,425
1991 148,394,000 1,794,626 1,690,657 103,969 12.1 11.4 0.7 1.732 1.531 2.447 63.41 74.23 69.11 3,608,421
1992 148,538,000 1,587,644 1,807,441 –219,797 10.7 12.2 –1.5 1.547 1.351 2.219 61.96 73.71 67.98 3,436,695
1993 148,459,000 1,378,983 2,129,339 –750,356 9.3 14.3 –5.1 1.369 1.200 1.946 58.80 71.85 65.24 3,243,957
1994 148,408,000 1,408,159 2,301,366 –893,207 9.5 15.5 –6.0 1.394 1.238 1.917 57.38 71.07 63.93 3,060,237
1995 148,376,000 1,363,806 2,203,811 –840,005 9.2 14.9 –5.7 1.337 1.193 1.813 58.11 71.60 64.62 2,766,362
1996 148,160,000 1,304,638 2,082,249 –777,611 8.8 14.1 –5.2 1.270 1.140 1.705 59.61 72.41 65.89 2,652,038
1997 147,915,000 1,259,943 2,015,779 –755,836 8.5 13.6 –5.1 1.218 1.097 1.624 60.84 72.85 66.79 2,498,716
1998 147,671,000 1,283,292 1,988,744 –705,452 8.7 13.5 –4.8 1.232 1.109 1.643 61.19 73.12 67.14 2,346,138
1999 147,215,000 1,214,689 2,144,316 –929,627 8.3 14.6 –6.3 1.157 1.045 1.534 59.86 72.42 65.99 2,181,153
2000 146,597,000 1,266,800 2,225,332 –958,532 8.6 15.2 –6.5 1.195 1.089 1.554 58.99 72.25 65.38 2,138,800
2001 145,976,000 1,311,604 2,254,856 –943,252 9.0 15.4 –6.5 1.223 1.124 1.564 58.88 72.16 65.30 2,114,700
2002 145,306,496 1,396,967 2,332,272 –935,305 9.6 16.1 –6.4 1.286 1.189 1.633 58.68 71.90 64.95 1,944,481
2003 144,648,624 1,477,301 2,365,826 –888,525 10.2 16.4 –6.1 1.319 1.223 1.666 58.53 71.85 64.84 1,864,647
2004 144,067,312 1,502,477 2,295,402 –792,925 10.4 15.9 –5.5 1.344 1.253 1.654 58.91 72.36 65.31 1,797,567
2005 143,518,816 1,457,376 2,303,935 –846,559 10.2 16.1 –5.9 1.294 1.207 1.576 58.92 72.47 65.37 1,675,693
2006 143,049,632 1,479,637 2,166,703 –687,066 10.3 15.1 –4.8 1.305 1.210 1.601 60.43 73.34 66.69 1,582,398
2007 142,805,120 1,610,122 2,080,445 –470,323 11.3 14.6 –3.3 1.416 1.294 1.798 61.46 74.02 67.61 1,479,010
2008 142,742,368 1,713,947 2,075,954 –362,007 12.0 14.5 –2.6 1.502 1.372 1.912 61.92 74.28 67.99 1,385,600
2009 142,785,344 1,761,687 2,010,543 –248,856 12.3 14.1 –1.8 1.542 1.415 1.941 62.87 74.79 68.78 1,292,389
2010 142,849,472 1,788,948 2,028,516 –239,568 12.5 14.2 –1.7 1.567 1.439 1.983 63.09 74.88 68.94 1,186,108
2011 142,960,908 1,796,629 1,925,720 –129,091 12.6 13.5 –0.9 1.582 1.442 2.056 64.04 75.61 69.83 1,124,880
2012 143,201,700 1,902,084 1,906,335 –4,251 13.3 13.3 –0.0 1.691 1.541 2.215 64.56 75.86 70.24 1,063,982
2013 143,506,995 1,895,822 1,871,809 24,013 13.3 13.0 0.2 1.707 1.551 2.264 65.14 76.31 70.77 1,012,399
2014 146,090,613 1,942,683 1,912,347 30,346 13.3 13.1 0.2 1.750 1.588 2.318 65.29 76.49 70.93 929,963
2015 146,405,999 1,940,579 1,908,541 32,038 13.3 13.1 0.2 1.777 1.678 2.111 65.92 76.71 71.39 848,180
2016 146,674,541 1,888,729 1,891,015 –2,286 12.9 12.9 –0.0 1.762 1.672 2.056 66.50 77.06 71.87 836,611
2017 146,842,402 1,690,307 1,826,125 –135,818 11.5 12.4 –0.9 1.621 1.527 1.923 67.51 77.64 72.70 779,848
2018 146,830,576 1,604,344 1,828,910 –224,566 10.9 12.5 –1.6 1.579 1.489 1.870 67.75 77.81 72.91 661,045
2019[34][35] 146,764,655 1,481,074 1,798,307 –317,233 10.1 12.3 –2.2 1.504 1.43 1.75 68.24 78.17 73.34 621,652
2020 146,171,015 1,436,514 2,138,586 –702,072 9.8 14.6 –4.8 1.505 66.49 76.43 71.54 510,333

Note: Russian data includes Crimea starting in 2014.

Current vital statistics[edit]

[36]

Period Live births Deaths Natural increase
January - October 2020 1,193,445 1,661,372 -467,927
January - October 2021 1,169,911 1,972,688 -802,777
Difference Decrease -23,534 (-1.97) Negative increase +311,316 (+18.74) Decrease -334,850

Demographic statistics[edit]

Population pyramid of Russia on 1 January 1941
Population pyramid of Russia as of 1 January 2015.
Population pyramid of Russia in 2017
Birth and death rates and natural growth, 1927–1940
Birth and death rates and natural growth, 1950–2014

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2019.[37]

  • One birth every 18 seconds
  • One death every 16 seconds
  • Net loss of one person every 8 minutes
  • One net migrant every 4 minutes

Demographic statistics according to the US based CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[38]

Population
142,122,776 (July 2018 est.)
142,257,519 (July 2017 est.)
Age structure
0–14 years: 17.21% (male 12,566,314 /female 11,896,416)
15–24 years: 9.41% (male 6,840,759 /female 6,530,991)
25–54 years: 44.21% (male 30,868,831 /female 31,960,407)
55–64 years: 14.51% (male 8,907,031 /female 11,709,921)
65 years and over: 14.66% (male 6,565,308 /female 14,276,798) (2018 est.)
0–14 years: 17.12% (male 12,509,563/female 11,843,254)
15–24 years: 9.46% (male 6,881,880/female 6,572,191)
25–54 years: 44.71% (male 31,220,990/female 32,375,489)
55–64 years: 14.44% (male 8,849,707/female 11,693,131)
65 years and over: 14.28% (male 6,352,557/female 13,958,757) (2017 est.)
Median age
total: 39.8 years. Country comparison to the world: 52nd
male: 36.9 years
female: 42.7 years (2018 est.)
total: 39.6 years
male: 36.6 years
female: 42.5 years (2017 est.)
total: 39.6 years
male: 36.7 years
female: 41.6 years (2009)[39]
Birth rate
10.7 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 184th
11 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate
13.4 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 8th
Total fertility rate
1.61 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 179th
Net migration rate
1.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 52nd
Population growth rate
–0.11% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 205th
–0.08% (2017 est.)
+0.19% (2014 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth
24.6 years (2009 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 71.3 years. Country comparison to the world: 155th
male: 65.6 years
female: 77.3 years (2018 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 6.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 7.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 163rd
Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)

total population: 99.7%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.6% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 16 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2016)
Unemployment, youth ages 15–24
total: 16%. Country comparison to the world: 83rd
male: 15.3%
female: 16.9% (2015 est.)
Ethnic groups

Russian 80.9%, Tatar 3.9%, Ukrainian 1.4%, Bashkir 1.1%, Chuvash 1%, Chechen 1%, other 10.2%, unspecified 3.9% note: nearly 200 national and/or ethnic groups are represented in Russia's 2010 census (2010 est.)

Religions

Russian Orthodox 15–20%, Muslim 10–15%, other Christian 2% (2006 est.) Note: estimates are of practicing worshipers; Russia has large populations of non-practicing believers and non-believers, a legacy of over seven decades of Soviet rule; Russia officially recognizes Orthodox Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Buddhism as traditional religions.

Languages

Russian (official) 85.7%, Tatar 3.2%, Chechen 1%, other 10.1%. Note: data represent native language spoken (2010 est.)

Population distribution

Population is heavily concentrated in the westernmost fifth of the country extending from the Baltic Sea, south to the Caspian Sea, and eastward parallel to the Kazakh border; elsewhere, sizeable pockets are isolated and generally found in the south

Urbanization
urban population: 74.4% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 0.18% annual rate of change (2015–20 est.)
74% urban, 26% rural (2010 Russian Census)
Population density

8.4 people per square kilometer (2010 Russian Census)[40]

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.46 male(s)/female
total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2009)[39]

Immigration[edit]

In 2006, in a bid to compensate for the country's demographic decline, the Russian government started simplifying immigration laws and launched a state program "for providing assistance to voluntary immigration of ethnic Russians from former Soviet republics".[41] In August 2012, as the country saw its first demographic growth since the 1990s, President Putin declared that Russia's population could reach 146 million by 2025, mainly as a result of immigration.[42] New citizenship rules introduced in April 2014 allowing eligible citizens from former Soviet republics to obtain Russian citizenship, have gained strong interest among Russian-speaking residents of those countries (i.e. Russians, Germans, Belarusians and Ukrainians).[43][44]

There are an estimated four million undocumented immigrants from the ex-Soviet states in Russia.[45] In 2012, the Russian Federal Security Service's Border Service stated there had been an increase in undocumented migration from the Middle East and Southeast Asia (Note that these were Temporary Contract Migrants)[46] Under legal changes made in 2012, undocumented immigrants who are caught will be banned from reentering the country for 10 years.[47][48]

Since the collapse of the USSR, most immigrants have come from Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Moldova, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Armenia, Belarus, and China.[49]

Worker migration[edit]

Temporary migrant workers in Russia consists of about 7 million people, most of the temporary workers come from Central Asia, the Balkans and East Asia. Most of them work in the construction, cleaning and in the household industries. They primarily live in cities such as Moscow, Sochi and Blagoveshchensk. The mayor of Moscow said that Moscow cannot do without worker migrants. New laws are in place that require worker migrants to be fluent in Russian, know Russian history and laws. The Russian Opposition and most of the Russian population opposes worker migration. The hate of worker migration has become so severe it has caused a rise in Russian nationalism, and spawned groups like Movement Against Illegal Immigration.[50][51]

Health[edit]

Russia, by constitution, guarantees free, universal health care for all Russian citizens,[52] through a compulsory state health insurance program. The Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation oversees the Russian public healthcare system, and the sector employs more than two million people. Federal regions also have their own departments of health that oversee local administration. A separate private health insurance plan is needed to access private healthcare in Russia.[53]

According to the World Bank, Russia spent 5.32% of its GDP on healthcare in 2018.[54] It has one of the world's most female-biased sex ratios, with 0.859 males to every female.[16] In 2019, the overall life expectancy in Russia at birth is 73.2 years (68.2 years for males and 78.0 years for females),[13] and it had a very low infant mortality rate (5 per 1,000 live births).[55] The principle cause of death in Russia are cardiovascular diseases.[56] Obesity is a prevalent health issue in Russia. In 2016, 61.1% of Russian adults were overweight or obese.[57] However, Russia's historically high alcohol consumption rate is the biggest health issue in the country,[58] as it remains one of the world's highest, despite a stark decrease in the last decade.[59]

In 2021, analysis of official government statistics showed that Russia suffered the biggest ever fall in population in peacetime, a drop of 997,000 between October 2020 and September 2021, due primarily to the COVID-19 pandemic.[60]

Ethnic groups[edit]

Ethnic groups in Russia
Ethnic groups in Russia of more than 1 million people in 2010
Percentage of ethnic Russians by region in 2010

Russia is a multinational state, with more than 193 ethnic groups within its borders. It had a population of 142.8 million according to the 2010 Russian Census,[10] of which around 111 million were ethnic Russians,[61] who constituted 80.9% of the total population, while rest of the 19% of the population were minorities.[19] The sizable numbers of Tatars, Ukrainians, Bashkirs, Chuvash and Chechens in the country made up around 8.4% of the total population. The rest of the 10.6% of the population were diverse Indo-European, Turkic and Finnic peoples.

Around 85% of the Russian population was of "European" descent in the 2010 census,[19] counting Slavs and with a substantial minority of Finnic peoples and Germans. The 2010 census recorded roughly 81% of the population as ethnic Russians, and rest of the 19% of the population as other minorities belonging to over 190 ethnic groups across the country.[62] According to the United Nations, Russia's immigrant population is the third-largest in the world, numbering over 11.6 million;[63] most of which are from post-Soviet states, mainly Ukrainians.[64]

There are 22 republics in Russia, who have their own ethnicities, cultures, and languages. In 13 of them, ethnic Russians constitute a minority:

Languages[edit]

Minority languages across Russia

Russian is the official and the predominantly spoken language in Russia.[66] It is the most spoken native language in Europe,[67] the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia,[68] as well as the world's most widely spoken Slavic language.[68] Russian is the second-most used language on the Internet after English,[69] and is one of two official languages aboard the International Space Station,[70] as well as one of the six official languages of the United Nations.[71]

Besides Russian, approximately over 100 minority languages are spoken across Russia.[72] According to the Russian Census of 2002, 142.6 million across the country spoke Russian, 5.3 million spoke Tatar, and 1.8 million spoke Ukrainian.[73] The constitution gives the country's individual republics the right to establish their own state languages in addition to Russian, as well as guarantee its citizens the right to preserve their native language and to create conditions for its study and development.[74]

Religion[edit]

Religion in Russia (2012)[75]

  Unaffiliated Christians (4.1%)
  Other Christians[a] (0.5%)
  Atheists (13%)
  Muslims[b] (6.5%)
  Pagans[c] (1.3%)
  Buddhists (0.5%)
  Other religions[d] (1.1%)
  Undeclared (5.5%)

Russia is a secular state by constitution, and its largest religion is Christianity. It has the world's largest Orthodox population.[76][77] As of a different sociological surveys on religious adherence; between 41% to over 80% of the total population of Russia adhere to the Russian Orthodox Church.[78][79][80] Other branches of Christianity present in Russia include Roman Catholicism (approx. 1%), Baptists, Pentecostals, Lutherans and other Protestant churches (together totalling about 0.5% of the population) and Old Believers.[81][82] There is some presence of Judaism, Buddhism, Hinduism and other pagan beliefs are also present to some extent in remote areas, sometimes syncretized with one of the mainstream religions.

In 2017, a survey made by the Pew Research Center showed that 73% of Russians declared themselves as Christians—out of which 71% were Orthodox, 1% were Catholic, and 2% were Other Christians, while 15% were unaffiliated, 10% were Muslims, and 1% followed other religions.[83] According to various reports, the proportion of Atheists in Russia is between 16% and 48% of the population.[84]

Islam is the second-largest religion in Russia, and it is the traditional religion amongst the bulk of the peoples of the North Caucasus, and amongst some Turkic peoples scattered along the Volga-Ural region.[85] Buddhists are home to a sizeable population in the three Siberian republics: Buryatia, Tuva, Zabaykalsky Krai, and in Kalmykia; the only region in Europe where Buddhism is the most practised religion.[86]

Education[edit]

Moscow State University, the most prestigious educational institution in Russia.[87]

Russia has a free education system, which is guaranteed for all citizens by the constitution.[88] The Ministry of Education of Russia is responsible for primary and secondary education, and vocational education; while the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia is responsible for science and higher education.[89] Regional authorities regulate education within their jurisdictions within the prevailing framework of federal laws. Russia has the world's highest college-level or higher graduates in terms of percentage of population, at 54%.[90]

Pre-school education in Russia is highly developed, some four-fifths of children aged 3 to 6 attend day nurseries or kindergartens. Schooling is compulsory for nine years. It starts from age 6 to 7 and leads to a basic general education certificate. An additional two or three years of schooling are required for the secondary-level certificate, and some seven-eighths of Russian students continue their education past this level. Admission to an institute of higher education is selective and highly competitive: first-degree courses usually take five years.[91] The oldest and largest universities in Russia are Moscow State University and Saint Petersburg State University.[92] There are also ten highly prestigious federal universities across the country. According to a UNESCO report in 2014, Russia is the world's sixth-leading destination for international students.[93]

Literacy[edit]

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total literacy: 99.7% (2015)
male: 99.7%
female: 99.6%[16]

Russia's free, widespread and in-depth educational system, inherited with almost no changes from the Soviet Union, has produced nearly 100% literacy. 97% of children receive their compulsory 9-year basic or complete 11-year education in Russian. Other languages are also used in their respective republics, for instance Tatar, and Yakut.

About 3 million students attend Russia's 519 institutions of higher education and 48 universities. As a result of great emphasis on science and technology in education, Russian medical, mathematical, scientific, and space and aviation research is generally of a high order.[94]

Urbanized areas[edit]

Russia is one of the world's most urbanized countries, with roughly 75% of its total population living in urban areas.[16] Moscow, the capital and largest city, has a population estimated at 12.4 million residents within the city limits,[95] while over 17 million residents in the urban area,[96] and over 20 million residents in the metropolitan area.[97] Moscow is among the world's largest cities, being the most populous city entirely within Europe, the most populous urban area in Europe,[96] the most populous metropolitan area in Europe,[97] and also the largest city by land area on the European continent.[98] Saint Petersburg, the cultural capital, is the second-largest city, with a population of roughly 5.4 million inhabitants.[99] Other major urban areas are Yekaterinburg, Novosibirsk, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod, and Chelyabinsk.

 
Largest cities or towns in Russia
Rosstat (2016[100][101]/2017)
Rank Name Federal subject Pop. Rank Name Federal subject Pop.
Moscow
Moscow
Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
1 Moscow Moscow [102]12,381,000 11 Rostov-na-Donu Rostov Oblast 1,120,000 Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk
Yekaterinburg
Yekaterinburg
2 Saint Petersburg Saint Petersburg [102]5,282,000 12 Krasnoyarsk Krasnoyarsk Krai [103]1,084,000
3 Novosibirsk Novosibirsk Oblast [104]1,603,000 13 Perm Perm Krai 1,042,000
4 Yekaterinburg Sverdlovsk Oblast [105]1,456,000 14 Voronezh Voronezh Oblast 1,032,000
5 Nizhny Novgorod Nizhny Novgorod Oblast 1,267,000 15 Volgograd Volgograd Oblast 1,016,000
6 Kazan Tatarstan [106]1,232,000 16 Krasnodar Krasnodar Krai [107]881,000
7 Chelyabinsk Chelyabinsk Oblast [108]1,199,000 17 Saratov Saratov Oblast 843,000
8 Omsk Omsk Oblast [109]1,178,000 18 Tolyatti Samara Oblast [110]711,000
9 Samara Samara Oblast [110]1,170,000 19 Izhevsk Udmurtia [111]646,000
10 Ufa Bashkortostan [112]1,126,000 20 Ulyanovsk Ulyanovsk Oblast 622,000

See also[edit]

Census information:

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In fertility rates, 2.1 and above is a stable population and has been marked blue, 2 and below leads to an aging population and the result is that the population decreases.
  1. ^ Including Old Believers (0.2%), Protestantism (0.2%), and Catholicism (0.1%).
  2. ^ The Sreda Arena Atlas 2012 did not count the populations of two Muslim-majority federal subjects of Russia, namely Chechnya and Ingushetia, which together had a population of nearly 2 million, thus the proportion of Muslims may be slightly underestimated.[75]
  3. ^ The category included Rodnovers accounting for 44%, Hinduists accounting for 0.1%, and other Pagan religions and Siberian Tengrists and shamans accounting for the rest.[citation needed]
  4. ^ Including Judaism (0.1%) and other unspecified religions.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Оценка численности постоянного населения на 1 января 2021 г. и в среднем за 2020 г. [Estimated population as of 1 January 2021 and on the average for 2020] (XLS). Russian Federal State Statistics Service (in Russian). Retrieved 29 May 2021.
  2. ^ a b https://www.economy.com/russian-federation/indicators
  3. ^ Ожидаемая продолжительность жизни при рождении за 2019 год (предварительно) [Life expectancy at birth (preliminary data for 2019)] (XLSX). Russian Federal State Statistics Service (in Russian). Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  4. ^ a b Ожидаемая продолжительность жизни при рождении [Life expectancy at birth]. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (in Russian). Archived from the original (XLSX) on 29 January 2020. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
  5. ^ Суммарный коэффициент рождаемости [Total fertility rate]. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (in Russian). Archived from the original (XLSX) on 29 January 2020. Retrieved 19 December 2020.
  6. ^ Оперативные данные по естественному движению населения Российской Федерации [Preliminary vital statistics of Russia] (XLSX). Russian Federal State Statistics Service (in Russian). Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  7. ^ a b c d https://www.worldometers.info/demographics/russia-demographics/
  8. ^ "RUSSIA: historical demographical data of the whole country". Populstat.info. Archived from the original on 7 July 2017. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  9. ^ Оценка численности постоянного населения на 1 января 2020 года и в среднем за 2019 год [Preliminary estimated population as of 1 January 2020 and on the average for 2019] (XLS). Rosstat (in Russian).
  10. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  11. ^ Rosstat (2020). "Оценка численности постоянного населения на 1 января 2020 года и в среднем за 2019 год". gks.ru.
  12. ^ "Population density (people per sq. km of land area)". The World Bank. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
  13. ^ a b "Life expectancy and Healthy life expectancy, data by country". World Health Organization. 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  14. ^ Koehn, Jodi. "Russia's Demographic Crisis". Kennan Institute. Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
  15. ^ Berman, Ilan (23 January 2020). "Putin's Demographic Revival Is A Pipe Dream". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
  16. ^ a b c d "Russia". The World Factbook. 7 February 2020.
  17. ^ Foltynova, Kristyna (19 June 2020). "Migrants Welcome: Is Russia Trying To Solve Its Demographic Crisis By Attracting Foreigners?". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 9 July 2021. Russia has been trying to boost fertility rates and reduce death rates for several years now. Special programs for families have been implemented, anti-tobacco campaigns have been organized, and raising the legal age to buy alcohol was considered. However, perhaps the most successful strategy so far has been attracting migrants, whose arrival helps Russia to compensate population losses.
  18. ^ a b "EAll- Russian population census 2010 - Population by nationality, sex and subjects of the Russian Federation". Demoscope Weekly. 2010. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
  19. ^ a b c d "ВПН-2010". perepis-2010.ru. Archived from the original on 18 January 2012.
  20. ^ "Russia - The Indo-European Group". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 18 July 2021. East Slavs—mainly Russians but including some Ukrainians and Belarusians—constitute more than four-fifths of the total population and are prevalent throughout the country.
  21. ^ Taagepera, Rein (2013). The Finno-Ugric Republics and the Russian State. New York City: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-91977-7.
  22. ^ Sabine Ipsen-Peitzmeier, Markus Kaiser (Hrsg.): Zuhause fremd – Russlanddeutsche zwischen Russland und Deutschland. Bielefeld 2006, ISBN 3-89942-308-9.
  23. ^ Kirk, Ashley (21 January 2016). "Mapped: Which country has the most immigrants?". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
  24. ^ Ragozin, Leonid (3 April 2019). "Russia and Ukraine Fight, But Their People Seek Reconciliation". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Max Roser (2014), "Total Fertility Rate around the world over the last centuries", Our World In Data, Gapminder Foundation
  26. ^ a b А. Г. Рашин. Население России за 100 лет (1811—1913 гг.). Статистические очерки. Раздел первый. Масштабы и темпы динамики численности населения России за 1811—1913 гг. Глава первая. Динамика общей численности населения России за 1811—1913 гг. страница 38
  27. ^ a b E.Andreev, L.Darski, T. Kharkova "Histoire démographique de la Russie. 1927–1959"
  28. ^ "Goskomstat". Goskomstat. Retrieved 14 May 2011.
  29. ^ "Демография". Gks.ru. Archived from the original on 4 February 2014. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
  30. ^ "Каталог публикаций::Федеральная служба государственной статистики". Gks.ru. 8 May 2010. Retrieved 4 June 2013.
  31. ^ "Численность населения" (XLS). Gks.ru. Retrieved 1 September 2017.
  32. ^ "ЕМИСС – Число прерываний беременности". Fedstat.ru. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
  33. ^ https://rosstat.gov.ru/storage/mediabank/Dem_ejegod-2019.pdf
  34. ^ https://www.gks.ru/storage/mediabank/Popul2020.xls
  35. ^ https://www.gks.ru/storage/mediabank/EDN(1).xlsx
  36. ^ "Vital movement of the population".
  37. ^ "Russia Population 2018", World Population Review
  38. ^ "The World FactBook – Russia", The World Factbook, 12 July 2018
  39. ^ a b Age structure of the Russian population as of 1 January 2009 Rosstat Retrieved 8 October 2009
  40. ^ "Сообщение Росстата". Perepis-2010.ru. Archived from the original on 18 January 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2011.
  41. ^ Sputnik. "Russia trying to resolve demographic problem through immigration". En.rian.ru. Retrieved 1 September 2017.
  42. ^ Sputnik. "Immigration Drives Russian Population Increase". En.ria.ru. Retrieved 1 September 2017.
  43. ^ Lomsadze, Giorgi (23 April 2014). "The Caucasus Concerned over Born-Again Russians". Eurasianet.org. Retrieved 1 September 2017 – via EurasiaNet.
  44. ^ "Uzbekistan: Minorities Taking Advantage of New Russian Citizenship Rules". EurasiaNet.org. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
  45. ^ "Новости NEWSru.com :: ФМС: в РФ нелегально работают 3 млн трудовых мигрантов, остальные 4 млн "халтурят" с налогами". Newsru.com. Retrieved 14 May 2011.
  46. ^ "Russia reports surge in undocumented migration from Asia". Indian Express. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
  47. ^ "Illegal immigrants can be barred from Russia for 5–10 years". The Voice of Russia. Archived from the original on 10 July 2012. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
  48. ^ "Russia closed for immigration?". Russia. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
  49. ^ "ФМС России". fms.gov.ru. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
  50. ^ "The Backlash Against Immigration in Russia". Newsweek. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
  51. ^ "Some 500 illegal immigrants from Vietnam arrested in Moscow". RIA Novosti. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
  52. ^ "Chapter 2. Rights and Freedoms of Man And Citizen". Constitution of Russia. Retrieved 27 December 2007. 1. Everyone shall have the right to health protection and medical aid. Medical aid in state and municipal health establishments shall be rendered to individuals gratis, at the expense of the corresponding budget, insurance contributions, and other proceeds.
  53. ^ "Healthcare in Russia: the Russian healthcare system explained". Expatica. 8 January 2021. Retrieved 21 April 2021.
  54. ^ "Current health expenditure (% of GDP)". World Bank. Retrieved 21 April 2021.
  55. ^ "Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births)". World Bank. Retrieved 21 April 2021.
  56. ^ Lakunchykova, Olena; Averina, Maria; Wilsgaard, Tom; Watkins, Hugh; Malyutina, Sofia; Ragino, Yulia; Keogh, Ruth H; Kudryavtsev, Alexander V; Govorun, Vadim; Cook, Sarah; Schirmer, Henrik; Eggen, Anne Elise; Hopstock, Laila Arnesdatter; Leon, David A (2020). "Why does Russia have such high cardiovascular mortality rates? Comparisons of blood-based biomarkers with Norway implicate non-ischaemic cardiac damage". Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 74 (9): 698–704. doi:10.1136/jech-2020-213885. PMC 7577103. PMID 32414935.
  57. ^ Ritchie, Hannah; Roser, Max (11 August 2017). "Obesity". Our World in Data. Retrieved 21 April 2021.
  58. ^ McKee, Martin (1 November 1999). "Alcohol in Russia". Alcohol and Alcoholism. 34 (6): 824–829. doi:10.1093/alcalc/34.6.824. PMID 10659717.
  59. ^ "Russia's alcohol policy: a continuing success story". The Lancet. 5 October 2019. Retrieved 18 May 2021. Russians are officially drinking less and, as a consequence, are living longer than ever before: life expectancies reached an historic peak in 2018—almost 68 years for men and 78 years for women—according to a WHO report examining the effects of alcohol control measures on mortality and life expectancy in Russia... Russians are still far from being teetotal: a pure ethanol per capita consumption of 11·7 L, reported in 2016, means consumption is still one of the highest worldwide, and efforts to reduce it further are required.
  60. ^ Sauer, Pjotr (13 October 2021). "Russia's population undergoes largest ever peacetime decline". The Guardian.
  61. ^ Ethnic groups in Russia Archived 22 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine, 2002 census, Demoscope Weekly. Retrieved 5 February 2009.
  62. ^ "Национальный состав населения по субъектам Российской Федерации". Retrieved 24 August 2020.
  63. ^ Kirk, Ashley (21 January 2016). "Mapped: Which country has the most immigrants?". The Daily Telegraph.
  64. ^ Leonid Ragozin (3 April 2019). "Russia and Ukraine Fight, But Their People Seek Reconciliation". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  65. ^ Polinsky, Maria (2020). The Oxford Handbook of Languages of the Caucasus. Oxford University Press. p. 1189. ISBN 9780190690694.
  66. ^ "Chapter 3. The Federal Structure". Constitution of Russia. Retrieved 22 April 2015. 1. The Russian language shall be a state language on the whole territory of the Russian Federation.
  67. ^ "The 10 Most Spoken Languages in Europe". Tandem. 12 September 2019. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
  68. ^ a b "Russian". University of Toronto. Retrieved 9 July 2021. Russian is the most widespread of the Slavic languages and the largest native language in Europe. Of great political importance, it is one of the official languages of the United Nations – making it a natural area of study for those interested in geopolitics.
  69. ^ "Usage statistics of content languages for websites". W3Techs. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
  70. ^ Wakata, Koichi. "My Long Mission in Space". JAXA. Retrieved 18 July 2021. The official languages on the ISS are English and Russian, and when I was speaking with the Flight Control Room at JAXA's Tsukuba Space Center during ISS systems and payload operations, I was required to speak in either English or Russian.
  71. ^ "Official Languages". United Nations. Retrieved 16 July 2021. There are six official languages of the UN. These are Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish. The correct interpretation and translation of these six languages, in both spoken and written form, is very important to the work of the Organization, because this enables clear and concise communication on issues of global importance.
  72. ^ "Russia - Ethnic groups and languages". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 8 November 2020. Although ethnic Russians comprise more than four-fifths of the country's total population, Russia is a diverse, multiethnic society. More than 120 ethnic groups, many with their own national territories, speaking some 100 languages live within Russia's borders.
  73. ^ "Russian Census of 2002". 4.3. Population by nationalities and knowledge of Russian; 4.4. Spreading of knowledge of languages (except Russian). Rosstat. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 16 January 2008.
  74. ^ "Chapter 3. The Federal Structure". Constitution of Russia. Retrieved 27 December 2007. 2. The Republics shall have the right to establish their own state languages. In the bodies of state authority and local self-government, state institutions of the Republics they shall be used together with the state language of the Russian Federation. 3. The Russian Federation shall guarantee to all of its peoples the right to preserve their native language and to create conditions for its study and development.
  75. ^ a b "Арена: Атлас религий и национальностей" [Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities] (PDF). Среда (Sreda). 2012. See also the results' main interactive mapping and the static mappings: "Religions in Russia by federal subject" (Map). Ogonek. 34 (5243). 27 August 2012. Archived from the original on 21 April 2017. The Sreda Arena Atlas was realised in cooperation with the All-Russia Population Census 2010 (Всероссийской переписи населения 2010) and the Russian Ministry of Justice (Минюста РФ).
  76. ^ "Religious Belief and National Belonging in Central and Eastern Europe". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 10 May 2017.
  77. ^ "Orthodox Christianity in the 21st Century". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 10 November 2017.
  78. ^ There is no official census of religion in Russia, and estimates are based on surveys only. In August 2012, ARENA determined that about 46.8% of Russians are Christians (including Orthodox, Catholic, Protestant, and non-denominational), which is slightly less than an absolute 50%+ majority. However, later that year the Levada Center Archived 31 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine determined that 76% of Russians are Christians, and in June 2013 the Public Opinion Foundation determined that 65% of Russians are Christians. These findings are in line with Pew's 2010 survey, which determined that 73.3% of Russians are Christians, with VTSIOM Archived 29 September 2020 at the Wayback Machine's 2010 survey (~77% Christian), and with Ipsos MORI Archived 17 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine's 2011 survey (69%).
  79. ^ Верю — не верю. "Ogonek", #34 (5243), 27 August 2012. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
  80. ^ "Archived copy" Опубликована подробная сравнительная статистика религиозности в России и Польше (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2 December 2015. Retrieved 6 January 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  81. ^ "Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia". Sreda, 2012.
  82. ^ 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps. Ogonek, No. 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 21/04/2017. Archived.
  83. ^ "Religious Belief and National Belonging in Central and Eastern Europe". Pew Research Center. 10 May 2017. Retrieved 9 September 2017.
  84. ^ Zuckerman, P. (2005). "Atheism: Contemporary Rates and Patterns". In Martin, Michael (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge University Press.
  85. ^ "Russian Federation". Europe: Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine. World and Its Peoples. Marshall Cavendish. 2010. p. 1387. ISBN 978-0-7614-7900-0.
  86. ^ Jardine, Bradley (4 January 2017). "Russia's Buddhist Republic". The Diplomat. Retrieved 4 June 2021. Kalmykia is Europe's only Buddhist Republic. The region's people are descended from the nomads who wandered the vast Central Asian steppes under Genghis Khan's empire. When the empire began to collapse, the Kalmykians migrated toward the Caspian Sea settling what is today called Kalmykia – Kalmyk means "remnant" in the local language.
  87. ^ "Lomonosov Moscow State University". QS World University Rankings. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
  88. ^ "Chapter 2. Rights and Freedoms of Man and Citizen". Constitution of Russia. Retrieved 27 July 2021. 1. Everyone shall have the right to education... 2. Guarantees shall be provided for general access to and free pre-school, secondary and high vocational education in state or municipal educational establishments and at enterprises.... 3. Everyone shall have the right to receive on a competitive basis a free higher education in a state or municipal educational establishment and at an enterprise... 4. The basic general education shall be free of charge. Parents or persons in law parents shall enable their children to receive a basic general education.
  89. ^ "Education System Russia" (PDF). Nuffic. 3 October 2019. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
  90. ^ "Countries With The MOST College Graduates". Huffington Post. 22 July 2010. Retrieved 27 September 2013. Russia is the world leader when it comes to graduating its citizens from college... Fifty-four percent of the Russian Federation’s population aged 25 to 64 has an associate’s degree or higher, data from the Organisation for Economic and Co-operative Development reveals.
  91. ^ "Russia - Education". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 30 July 2021.
  92. ^ Ridder-Symoens, Hilde de (1996). History of the University in Europe: Volume 2, Universities in Early Modern Europe (1500–1800). A History of the University in Europe. Cambridge University Press. pp. 80–89. ISBN 978-0521361064.
  93. ^ "Top 20 countries for international students". The Guardian. 17 July 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
  94. ^ "Russia country guide – EUbusiness.com – business, legal and financial news and information from the European Union". Eubusiness.com. Retrieved 14 May 2011.
  95. ^ "RUSSIA: Central'nyj Federal'nyj Okrug – Central Federal District". City Population.de. 8 August 2020. Retrieved 1 September 2020.
  96. ^ a b "Demographia World Urban Areas" (PDF). Demographia. Retrieved 22 July 2020.
  97. ^ a b Alexander Akishin (17 August 2017). "A 3-Hour Commute: A Close Look At Moscow The Megapolis". Strelka Mag. Archived from the original on 17 April 2021. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  98. ^ "Moscow, a City Undergoing Transformation". Planète Énergies. 11 September 2017. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  99. ^ "RUSSIA: Severo-Zapadnyj Federal'nyj Okrug: Northwestern Federal District". City Population.de. 8 August 2020. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  100. ^ Surinov, A.; et al., eds. (2016). "5. Population: Cities with population size of 1 million persons and over". Russia in Figures (PDF) (Report). Moscow: Federal State Statistics Service (Rosstat). p. 82. ISBN 978-5-89476-420-7. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  101. ^ Оксенойт, Г. К. (2016). 31. Численность населения городов и поселков городского типа по федеральным округам и субъектам Российской Федерации. In Рахманинов, М. В. (ed.). Численность населения Российской Федерации: По муниципальным образованиям (Report) (in Russian). Москва: Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Росстат). Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  102. ^ a b Оценка численности постоянного населения на 1 января 2017 года и в среднем за 2016 год. gks.ru. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  103. ^ Предварительная оценка численности постоянного населения на 1 января 2017 года и в среднем за 2016 год по городским округам и муниципальным районам Красноярского края. krasstat.gks.ru. Archived from the original on 3 February 2017. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  104. ^ Численность населения по муниципальным районам и городским округам Новосибирской области на 1 января 2017 года и в среднем за 2016 год (PDF). novosibstat.gks.ru. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  105. ^ Предварительная оценка численности населения на 1 января 2017 года и в среднем за 2016 год. sverdl.gks.ru. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  106. ^ Численность населения муниципальных образований Республики Татарстан на начало 2017 года (PDF). tatstat.gks.ru. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  107. ^ Оценка численности населения на 1 января 2017 года по муниципальным образованиям Краснодарского края. krsdstat.gks.ru. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  108. ^ Численность постоянного населения Челябинской области в разрезе городских округов, муниципальных районов, городских и сельских поселений на 1 января 2017 года. chelstat.gks.ru. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  109. ^ База данных показателей муниципальных образований Омской области (Население). gks.ru. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  110. ^ a b Утвержденная численность постоянного населения Самарской области (на 1. 1. 2017. г. и среднегодовая за 2016. г.). samarastat.gks.ru. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  111. ^ Численность постоянного населения Удмуртской Республики /Утверждено Росстатом (письмо от 3. 3. 2017. г., No. 08-08-4/891-ТО)/ (PDF). udmstat.gks.ru. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  112. ^ Оценка численности постоянного населения Республики Башкортостан на 1 января 2017 года по муниципальным образованиям (PDF). gks.ru. Retrieved 12 June 2017.

Further reading[edit]

  • Gavrilova N.S., Gavrilov L.A. Aging Populations: Russia/Eastern Europe. In: P. Uhlenberg (Editor), International Handbook of the Demography of Aging, New York: Springer-Verlag, 2009, pp. 113–131.
  • Gavrilova N.S., Semyonova V.G., Dubrovina E., Evdokushkina G.N., Ivanova A.E., Gavrilov L.A. Russian Mortality Crisis and the Quality of Vital Statistics. Population Research and Policy Review, 2008, 27: 551–574.
  • Gavrilova, N.S., Gavrilov, L.A., Semyonova, V.G., Evdokushkina, G.N., Ivanova, A.E. 2005. Patterns of violent crime in Russia. In: Pridemore, W.A. (ed.). Ruling Russia: Law, Crime, and Justice in a Changing Society. Boulder, Colorado: Rowman & Littlefield Publ., Inc, 117–145
  • Gavrilova, N.S., Semyonova, V.G., Evdokushkina G.N., Gavrilov, L.A. The response of violent mortality to economic crisis in Russia. Population Research and Policy Review, 2000, 19: 397–419.

External links[edit]