Grade ten English Teacher's Guide by Ritesh Shrestha - Issuu

Grade ten English Teacher's Guide

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Teeaccherr's Gu uidee En nglish Graade 10 1

Governm G ment of Nepal M Ministry y of Edu ucation

Curricu C ulum Developm ment Center C Sanothim mi, Bhakttapur 2074/2017


Teacher's Guide English Grade 10 (2017)

Government of Nepal

Curriculum Development Center Sanothimi, Bhaktapur


To the teacher This teacher's guide (TG) of grade ten English (2017) has been prepared with the aim of helping the teachers to implement the curriculum and the textbook effectively in the classroom. The new English curriculum of grade 10 is based on a communicative approach to language teaching. The communicative approach to language teaching emphasizes the teaching of language functions along with grammatical items and language structures. The thrust of the new curriculum is the development of communicative competence in the students. This means that students should be able to communicate both in spoken and written English, not only by using grammatically correct sentences but also by using the appropriate utterances according to the demands of the situation. The new English curriculum and the textbook of grade 10 are different from the old one. It is therefore, essential to familiarise the teachers with the new concepts that they need to follow while using the textbook developed in the spirit of the new curriculum. Thus, the Curriculum Development Centre has developed this teacher's guide taking into consideration the practical problems that teachers face while facilitating the learners in the classroom. This teacher's guide assists the teachers in three basic ways (1) by providing methodological suggestions to deal with the lessons, (2) by providing answers to the exercises given in the textbook including the models/samples and (3) by suggesting and providing additional resources useful for dealing with the units of the textbook. Although most of the techniques and activities included in this TG are communicative and task-based in nature, the activities do not rely solely on any one particular approach or method. Since the use of methodology depends on the cultural context, the political context, the local institutional context and the context constituted by the teachers and learners in their classrooms, the teachers are suggested to consider those contexts before deciding any method or technique of teaching.

Structure Each unit in this TG is divided into three parts: unit outline, learning facilitation process and additional resources. The first part, unit outline, provides the general overview of the unit such as the things to teach, content theme or topics, expected achievements of the students, soft skills that have been incorporated, teaching resources required for this particular unit and estimated periods allotted to the unit. The second part, learning facilitation process, provides a detailed lesson activities along with answers to the textbook exercises. Likewise, the third part, additional resources, includes various resources for the teachers and learners. The script of the audio for listening skill has been kept at the end of each unit under additional resource section.

Lesson organisation Each lesson in this TG has five elements: (1) content from the textbook, which provides information about which textbook exercise has been dealt with in that lesson, (2) materials required for this lesson, (3) lesson activities, i.e. the detailed methodological procedure for lesson activities, (4) extended activity and (5) teacher's reflection on the lesson. Extended activity is the task which is not given in the textbook. This activity is optional and can be i


used if the teachers have time to do. It can be assigned to the more capable students who finish the given tasks earlier. Remember that this activity is not obligatory for the learners. Answers to the textbook exercises have been included at the end of each activity. For the answers which are almost fixed, the phrase "Suggested answers" has been used and for the answers where there is the possibility of more than one answers, the phrase "Possible answers" has been used. In each lesson, activities have been divided into three sections as they are in the textbook: Engage yourself, Study time and Follow-up activity in case of reading and listening and Engage yourself, Time for writing/speaking and Follow-up activity in case of writing and speaking. The main aims of the activities under Engage yourself is to arouse the students' interest in the main task, to motivate them and to provide background for the task or the text. Therefore, the Engage yourself activities should not be lengthy. Most of class time should be spent on the activities under Study time or Time for writing/speaking. Follow-up activities are more like post-reading and post-listening activities in case of reading and listening; they are related to production activities in case of speaking and grammar; and they are mostly related to revising, editing and preparing the final version in case of writing. The periods required for each unit are suggested based on the curriculum. However, there may not be one-to-one correspondence between the periods suggested in the curriculum and the in teacher's guide. The teachers can adjust the periods themselves considering their own context.

The fun corner included in the textbook is just for learning and fun. Therefore, it should be conducted in a simple and easy way so that it would not be a burden for the students.

New concepts Some new concepts have been introduced in the new curriculum like soft skills and competencies. The secondary level English curriculum of grade 9-10 is competency-based and soft skills-integrated. Soft skills Soft skills can be defined as intra- and inter-personal socio-emotional skills, essential for personal development, social participation and workplace success. The four macro soft skills include co-operation skills, thinking skills, personal skills and innovation and business skills. There are several micro skills under these macro skills. These skills can be developed in the learners by involving them in meaningful activities like pair work, group work and project work. Project works are very useful for the development of soft skills. Therefore their use must be maximised as far as possible. Competency A competency is a combination of observable and measurable knowledge, skills, attitude, values and ability or readiness to do something. Competency focuses on the learners' ability ii


to do or perform something in real situation. Knowledge is the cognizance of facts, truths and principles gained from formal training and/or experience. A skill is a developed proficiency in mental operations or physical processes that is often acquired through specialized training. Attitude is a set of emotions, beliefs, and behaviors towards a particular object, person, thing, or event. Attitudes are often the result of experience or upbringing, and they can have a powerful influence over behavior. Value refers to the relative importance that an individual places on an item, idea, person, etc. as a part of their life. These feelings are unique to the individuals. Readiness is a quality of being able or willing to do something. Competencybased curriculum focuses on activity-based learning and learning by doing. Therefore, the students should be made more active in the learning process.

Principles of learning facilitation The teachers are not simply the consumer of theory developed by the methodologists but they are the creators of their own theories. In the process of applying theories developed by methodologists, the teachers develop their own theories in the classroom teaching context. This teacher's guide is based on the following principles drawn from the second language acquisition theories and the teachers should have them in mind while teaching:  Learners should get ample exposure to the target language.  Learners should use the target language as much as possible.  Learning environment should be anxiety free.  Learners must be encouraged to take risk while learning the language.  Errors should be taken as natural outcomes in the learning process.  Learners should develop a positive attitude towards the target language.  Student talking time (STT) must be maximised in the classroom.  Learners should take responsibility of their own learning.  Different learners learn in different ways.  Learners should be sensitive to their own learning styles.

Things to be considered Flexibility: In order to ensure the coverage of the textbook exercises, the activities in each lesson have been ordered as per the sequence of the textbook. However, it is not imperative that the lessons be taught in the same sequence. Lesson activities can be organised in a way that is appropriate. Basically, the principles of simple to complex, known to unknown, more common to less common, etc. can be followed to decide the sequence of the lesson activities. Communicative tasks: An attempt has been made to make the activities more learner friendly, more communicative, more inductive and more participatory. It is well accepted that learning of a foreign/second language is not possible by memorizing grammar structures. Rather the learners should be provided with ample opportunity to use language for meaningful communication in real-life context. Therefore, involving them in communicative tasks is quite important. Communicative activities like information gap-activities, role play, simulation, dramatization, information gap activities like strip story, language games, picture describing, picture narrating group work and pair work should be used as far as possible.

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Meaningful practice: The role of practice is crucial in learning of a foreign language. Knowing about a language and using a language are different things. Learners may know about a language but they may not be able to use it for communication in the absence of practice. Therefore, the students should be provided with an opportunity to practise language both inside and outside the classroom. Use of correct language: The language used by the teacher works as a model for the students. Therefore, the teacher should use the correct language in the classroom. The teacher should keep himself in the position of a learner, and try to discover new features of the target language. Doing difficult tasks in the classroom: Since the role of the teacher is to facilitate the learners in the learning process, the tasks which are difficult should be done as the class work with the direct support of the teacher. Likewise, writing practice must be done in the classroom under the direct support and the supervision of the teacher. They should not be left simply as home assignments. Writing techniques such as brain storming, mind maps, spidergram and quick write should be used in the classroom as far as possible. Likewise, the students should be involved in both process and product-based writing activities. Self pacing: All the students do not have the same learning ability. Therefore, students should be given chance to learn in their own pace. Likewise, more competent students can be requested to help their friends. Addressing diversity: Diverse-learner-composition is a common feature of almost all classes of Nepal. The following strategies can be helpful for addressing diversity in English language classroom:  Bringing variety in the content, tasks and activities  Maintaining correct learner pacing in the activities  Putting the learner's interest at the center of lesson planning  Using collaborative activities like pair work and group work  Allowing learners' choice in what tasks or materials they use and how  Allowing different individual responses, based on learners' own experience, opinions or imagination  Using compulsory plus optional strategy in assigning tasks and activities

Use of the curriculum along with the textbook and TG: Simultaneous use of the curriculum, the textbook and the teacher's guide is important for effective planning and efficient teaching. Therefore all of these resources should be consulted while planning lessons. Teachers should go over the unit to be taught very carefully. Use of dictionary: Dictionary a is very important resource for learning language, especially the vocabulary. Various aspects of the words can be taught by using them. Therefore the

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students should be encouraged to use the target language dictionary as far as possible. Likewise, they should be encouraged to use the glossary kept at the back of the textbook. It cannot be claimed that the activities given in this guide are sufficient. There can be several ways of facilitating the learners, and the methodology suggested here is only one of them. An inventive and experienced teachers are always free to use appropriate methodology that is quite suitable to their learners. The methodology included in this guide is simply a suggestion for the teachers, not a prescription. Various online resources and materials have been suggested in this guide. If the recommended online materials are not found to be appropriate, please inform the CDC about it. All valuable suggestions and comments teacher teachers as well as other persons concerned for further improvement of this teacher's guide will be welcomed by the Curriculum Development Centre. Curriculum Development Centre Sanothimi, Bhaktapur

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Addressing the students with disabilities The students with disabilities should also be involved in the active learning process by using appropriate techniques and strategies. The following tips can be helpful to address the needs of the students with disabilities in English language teaching classroom: 1. For the visually impaired students, the pictures, tables, charts, maps and diagrams should be well explained by the teacher or their friends. 2. For the deaf students, the listening comprehension tasks can be used as reading comprehension tasks. Similarly, while teaching listening, the deaf students, can be asked to communicate with their friend after they have listened to the audio by using signs. 3. The audio description should be clear for Blind students and the visual clues should be understandable to the deaf students. 4. Teaching phonemic transcription of sounds is problematic to deaf students is problematic. Lips reading can be an alternate way to it. 5. Groups and pairs formed for tasks and activities should be inclusive with the students with disabilities. Groups and pairs should be formed according to the nature of the task and the context. 6. While forming pairs, the students with single or cross sensory impairment (either blind and blind or blind and deaf) should not be included in the same pairs. 7. The students with disabilities should be engaged in the competitive tasks as well in one way or another. For example, the blind student can work as time keeper or the master of ceremonies (MC). 8. Blind students should be encouraged to use the Talking Dictionary by downloading it form the Internet. 9. The blind students should be provided with an opportunity to feel the paraorthographic texts (table, charts, etc.) in tactile (touching) made of by wooden or hard paper. 10. The crossword puzzle is sometimes problematic for the students with learning disabilities as well as visually impaired students. Therefore while solving puzzles, they should be asked to work in pair with the students having no disabilities. 11. The teacher's speed of delivery should be made slow, and the simple sentence structures should be used while talking about the topics which are difficult.

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UNIT ONE GIVING, WITHHOLDING AND REPORTING PERMISSION

Part 1: Unit Outline Curriculum reference: Language function no. 4 under scope and sequence Things to teach Language function and forms/exponents: Giving, withholding and reporting permission  Can/may/Is it Ok ………..?  You can ... but you mustn't ...  Let her sit here.  Don't let them write in the book.  Sujal told Sanskriti that he couldn't swim.  Palten said that he had won the match. Reading: A World Guide to Good Manners: How not to Behave Badly Abroad  Reading for fluency  Text based vocabulary items Grammar: Structures for giving and withholding permission  You can ... but you mustn't...  Let …….  Don't let…………….. Listening: A conversation about watching a movie  Use information from an oral text to complete a table  Take notes from the audio Speaking:

Writing:

   

Situational role play Asking for permission Giving permission Withholding permission

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Writing an invitation card Writing a letter of apology Writing a description of a place Picture description

Content themes/topics  Good manners on different occasions  Pashupatinath area  A wedding invitation  Description of Bhedetar  A touristic place 1


Expected achievements of the students By the end of this unit, the students will have:  read about the values and practices of international cultures.  guessed the meaning of unfamiliar words and phrases from the context.  predicted answers to the questions based on picture clues.  solved the vocabulary related tasks such as the crossword puzzle.  completed the reading comprehension tasks.  engaged in conversations for giving, withholding and reporting permission.  made sentences related to asking for permission from the substitution table.  completed the given listening comprehension tasks.  written invitation cards.  generated ideas working in groups.  written a letter giving suggestions.  written a description of a touristic place.  described the given pictures. Integrated soft skills  Intercultural understanding  Researching and collecting ideas Teaching resources  Pictures/video of Japanese breakfast scene (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zRIDcCLxdRI)  Map of the world to locate the following countries: Canada, the USA, Japan, China, Korea, Thailand, Italy, Spain, countries in Latin America, countries in the Middle East, Mexico, Britain and Greece  Flashcards containing words/phrases  Flashcards containing exponents for giving and withholding permission  Pictures/video/Newspaper cut-outs of Pashupatinath area  Pictures of people sitting on a bus  Invitation cards for wedding, birthday party, etc.  Picture/video of Bhedetar hill area in the eastern part of Nepal (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TaS9f8jkD6I) Estimated periods: Nine

Part 2: Learning Facilitation Process Lesson One Reading Content from the textbook  Engage yourself (p.1)  Study time (A World Guide to Good Manners: How not to Behave Badly Abroad (pp. 1-3) 2


Materials required  Flashcards containing the following words/phrases and their meanings: etiquette, a global village, to reveal the body, sleeved tops, time to relax and socialise, business banquets, a business card, business hours, the reverse side, a professional duty Lesson activities Engage yourself (1)  Ask the students to study the four pictures given in the textbook. Ask them to guess what backgrounds (ethnic, religious, geographic, etc.) the people in the picture are from.  Display the map of the world (if possible), and lead a discussion to locate where these people come from.  Encourage the students to speak out, and give reasons for why they think so.  Ask the students to reflect on their own ways of greeting seniors/friends and guests. Ask them to guess how the people in the given pictures greet on different occasions (daily greeting, on the telephone, on special occasions, etc.). Engage yourself (2)  Divide the class into groups of four to six. If the seats are fixed, you can ask students in one bench to turn around to join with the adjacent bench. Ask each group to think about and discuss their conventional eating conduct at home (who serves the food, where different members have their seats, who is served first, what they can eat, etc.). Invite a member from each group to share.  Ask the groups to think about dining conduct of the Japanese people. Ask them how the dining etiquette of Japanese people differs from that of Nepali people. If students are not able to take part in the discussion, you may supply some information about the way people in Japan have their dining conduct. Japan is a country that is big on manners, especially when it comes to eating and dining. There a lot of things for a foreigner to learn when eating in public and even at home. Learning these dining manners help avoid any embarrassment.  Restaurants provide Oshibori, a hot steamed hand towel, before a meal for customers to clean their hands.  Always say “itadakimasu” (Polite way of saying „I receive this‟) before eating your meal.  It is extremely a bad manner to burp, blow the nose and loudly chew with the mouth open while eating.  Slurping is encouraged in Japan as it is understood such that one is enjoying the meal.  You should always pick up small dishes, like a bowl of rice, and bring them closer to you when you‟re eating something out of them.  You should always eat everything on your plate (or at least try your best to). (Extracted from Japanese Dinning Etiquette)

Study time (A World Guide to Good Manners: How not to Behave Badly Abroad)  Present the following chunks of language on flashcards highlighting their pronunciation and spelling. etiquette, a global village, to reveal the body, sleeved tops, time to relax and socialise, business banquets, a business card, business hours, the reverse side, a professional duty 3


 

Display the cards or write these words on the board. Present their meanings contextually. Keep the flash cards pasted visibly/or you can write these on the board. etiquette: good manners a global village: the world seen as a community in which people are connected to reveal the body: to expose the body sleeved tops: a garment covering the arm time to relax and socialize: leisure time for social-familial activities business banquets: business party, entertainment a business card: a card containing useful information about a person business hours: working hours on a day the reverse side: opposite way a professional duty: a duty or an obligation related to the job

    

Ask the students to read the text (A World Guide to Good Manners...), quickly and underline the words/phrases introduced right before. Present the words/phrases and their meanings in a jumbled order; ask the students to match the words/chunks and their meanings correctly. Ask the students to go through the text, and see how the words/phrases are used in the context of the text. Invite the students to use these words/chunks in sentences. Give a sample sentence (e.g. The festival etiquette for Hindu people is different from Christian people.) Ask the students to work in pairs. Assign them to use the rest of the words/phrases in meaningful sentences. Monitor and support while the students are working.

Extended activity Ask the students to think about an occasion when they felt embarrassed because of not displaying proper social etiquette. Then ask them to write a paragraph. Reflection a. Did the student enjoy the lesson? How can you make it more enjoyable? b. Do you think that pre-teaching vocabulary helps the students understand the text? Lesson Two Reading Content from the textbook  Study time (Reading passage “A World Guide to Good Manners: How not to Behave Badly Abroad”, (pp.1-3)  Vocabulary in use (p.3)  Reading comprehension (p.4) Materials required  Daily used materials Lesson activities Study time Pre-reading questions  Revise the previous lesson highlighting the key words/phrases. You can speak out the meaning part of a word/phrase, and the students say the meanings. 4


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Ask the students to read the text quickly, and find out the answers to the questions given just before the text. Check whether the students could find the answers. Suggested answers a. The Canadians greet by shaking hands firmly while looking straight in the eyes of the other person. b. It takes two or three hours for Latin Americans to complete their lunch. c. People in Japan take off their shoes when entering a restaurant.

Vocabulary in use  Divide the class into pairs, and ask the pairs to study the cross-word puzzle.  Ask them to read the passage again, and locate the words that mean as indicated in the clues. Encourage the students to follow the clue (spelling and letter boxes).  Arrange for a public sharing after they seem to have completed the activity. Suggested answers Across

Down

1. EMBARRASSING 2. SLEEVE

1. REVEAL 2. FIRMLY 3. REVERSE 4. COLLEAGUES

Reading comprehension (1)  Ask the pairs to read the „true/false‟ questions. Then ask them to read the text again, and decide whether the statements are „true‟ or „false‟. Ask them to underline the sentence in the text based on which they decided so.  Ask them to cooperate with each other as they work in pairs, and each member should have the required parts highlighted.  Arrange for a public-sharing of the responses. Suggested answers a. True b. False

c. True

d. False

e. True

f. True

Reading comprehension (2)  Divide the class into new pairs, and ask the pairs to study the „short answer‟ questions.  Ask the pairs to read the text, and answer the questions. Ask them to mark the sentence/s in the text based on which they came to such answers. Ask them to write answers in the exercise book.  While the students are engaged with the task, move around the class and assist the students. You can go on correcting their answers and providing feedback moving around the class. Encourage the more proficient students to assist the less proficient ones.

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Suggested answers a. (i) Americans shake their hands firmly, whereas the Japanese do not do so. (ii) In America, there is a physical contact during greetings, but it is not so in Japan. (iii) The Japanese bow as per the degree of respect, but the Americans do not do so. b. The Muslim women should not wear clothes revealing their body. c. No, it is not. We have the main meal in the morning and in the evening. d. People prefer discussing during meals in Britain and the United States. e. It is necessary to print your business card in the local language while you are going to a country where your language is not widely spoken. f. The physical distance between the speakers play significant role in most South American countries and Mexico. Extended activity Divide the class into pairs. Ask each pair to form any ten short questions of their own form the reading text (A World Guide to Good Manners ...) and to answer those questions. Reflection What challenges did you face while supporting students in reading comprehension? Did the students go to reading between-the-lines from the reading-in-the-sentence? How do you cope with such challenges?

Lesson Three Reading Content from the textbook  Follow-up activities (p. 4) Materials required  A chart containing topics for generating the idea. Occasion Good manners Bad manners Greeting people Wearing clothes Having food/drink Doing business Lesson activities Follow up activities (1)  Lead a short open discussion about what things are considered as good manner or not in these situations: - while greeting people - while wearing clothes - while having food - while doing business  Encourage the students to express freely.  Divide the class into groups of four to six.

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Display the chart containing the thinking probes, and ask each group to think and discuss what are considered as good manners and what not in the following context: (Note the same task can be assigned to more than one group.) Group Occasion A Greeting People B Wearing Clothes C Having Food D Doing Business Make sure that each member is contributing the best in the discussion. Monitor and encourage the students. After they are done with, ask each group to share their conclusions. Arrange for a crossgroup feedback, if possible.

Follow up activities (2)  Ask the students to go through the question "Follow-up activity 2". Tell them that they are going to write a letter giving advice to a foreigner who wants to live in their community, and that s/he wants to learn about basic good manners on different occasions. The students should suggest him/her so that he/she does not seem awkward in the host community.  Ask the students to work individually, and share what they think a foreigner should display as good manners in Nepal. You may provide them some information as follow:        

Nepali people greet saying „namaste’ together with joining both palms. ‘Namaste’ is mostly done in formal occasions. In other occasions, it is done for seniors. Nepali people address each other saying didi (“older sister”), bahini (“younger sister”), daai (“older brother”), bhaai (“younger brother”), buwa (“father”) and aamaa (“mother”) for a warm reaction. The gesture of nodding the head means you are interested to the interlocutor; shaking of head leftright means you do not agree. While meeting for the first time, Nepali people ask each other‟s name, home town and profession. While eating, once you have touched something to your lips, it is regarded as polluted (jutho) for everyone else. If you are eating with your hands, use the right one only. The left hand is reserved for washing. Men wear shirt/long trousers; and women should wear a sari or Kurtha Suruwal on most occasion. You can shake hands with a stranger; kissing and hugging another in public is not accepted.

 Also discuss with the students the probable language items used while giving advice and possibility (should/should not, can/cannot etc.). For example: a. You should take the way people consider as normal.

b. I suggest taking a holiday. I suggest (that) you take a holiday. c. It's generally best/a good idea to... d. One idea is to ... e. You can take pictures of historical sites available here. f. One thing you could/should/have to do is ...  Elicit from the students, and discuss the parts of the letter. 7


address line, date line, salutation line, opening courtesy line, main body of the letter, complementary close line, closing line, signature line, etc.  Now ask the students to write a letter to a foreigner suggesting him/her about appropriate cultural behaviour in Nepal.  Once they have completed, arrange for a cross-students feedback swapping the products with one other. Sample letter [DATE LINE] July 15 [ ADDRESS LINE] Kawasoti Nawalparasi Dear Grace, [SALUTATION LINE] I am happy to know that you are visiting Nepal next month. I am sure that you are going to have a great time in Nepal. To make your stay more pleasant, I am going to advise you regarding some cultural behaviour in Nepal. [COURTESY, PURPOSE AND OPENING PARAGRAPH] Nepali people are more silent, and you may have to ask quite a few questions initially. You can ask questions about family, marriage and job. Nepali people feel more closed, and stand much closer while communicating. They may even hold your arm/hand once they become familiar with you. However, this does not occur between the male and the female. Men and women do not touch in public. Even a husband will not kiss, hug or openly hold hands or show other signs of affection to his wife in public. [BODY PARAGRAPH 1] Greetings are done by pressing both palms together at the chest level and saying "Namaste ". People wiggle the head-back and forth to mean ‟yes‟; and move the head from side to side to mean ‟no‟. Casual dress would be appropriate for men to wear to work, unless they are in an official setting. Women should wear longer clothes covering the body. In all cases, women should dress modestly with arms and legs covered. [BODY PARAGRAPH 2] I hope that you found the tips useful. I am waiting for your arrival in Nepal . [COURTESY EXPECTIO LINE] With best regards, [COMPLEMENTARY CLOSE LINE] Tina Ale [NAME]

Extended activity Ask the students to imagine themselves as Grace, and write a reply letter to Tina. Reflection What went well in this lesson? Was the lesson objective accomplished?

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Lesson Four Grammar Content from the textbook  Grammar activities (Engage yourself, Time for grammar and Follow-up activity) (pp. 56) Materials required  A chart containing the following: Asking for permission Giving permission Withholding permission Can I (verb) …………… Of course. Sorry, I‟m afraid. May I (verb) .……………. Yes, that‟s fine. You can… but….. Is it OK if (subject +verb) … That‟s OK. I‟m afraid not. Is it all right if (subject +verb) That‟s all right. You can‟t possibly….. …...  Picture of the Pashupatinatha Temple area Lesson activities Engage yourself  Ask the students to study the speech bubbles given in „Engage yourself‟ section. Ask them which expressions are used for giving permission, and which for withholding it.  Provide the following situations, and elicit from the students how they ask for permission and respond to it for each of the situations: Situations a. Asking to use the toilet during the class b. Trying the shoes on before making decision to buy them c. Asking to share the seat on a bus d. Using a friend‟s pen 

Display the structure chart pasting it on the board/wall of the classroom. Conduct a repetition/cue drill using the following structures: - Can I (verb)…………… - May I (verb).……………. - Is it OK if (subject +verb)… - Is it all right if (subject +verb)…... Example: Asking to use the toilet during the class a. Can I use the toilet? b. May I use the toilet? c. Is it Ok if I use the toilet? d. Is it all right if I use the toilet? Time for grammar (1)  Ask the students to read the conversations given in the "Engage yourself section".  Give a sample conversation using the structures in the chart. For example: Use protector: Can I use your protector? May I use your protector? Is it OK if I use your protector? Is it all right if I use your protector?). 9


Ask the students to work in pairs, and have similar conversations for the given situations. Support them as required. Time for grammar (2)  Ask the pairs to continue working for the activity 2. Ask them to make as many sentences as possible. Make sure that they generate correct and appropriate sentences. Example: a. Can I use your cell phone to call my mother? b. May I go to the book store to buy some books? 

Monitor and support the needy ones as they are engaged in the task.

Time for grammar (3)  Ask the students to study the sentences in activity 3. Tell them that the meaning of the modal auxiliaries 'can' and 'let' can also be expressed by "be allowed/permitted to" without changing their basic meaning. Provide these examples: You can go home. = You are allowed to go home. You can‟t park your bike here. = You are not allowed to park your bike here. You can take photograph here. = You are permitted to take photograph here. Let her sit here. = She is allowed to sit here.

Now ask the students to paraphrase the sentences given in 3 looking at the examples. Possible answers a. I am allowed to take photograph here. b. They are not allowed to leave the school. c. She is allowed to sit here. d. I am allowed/permitted to play here. e. They are not permitted to speak English in Nepali class.

Follow-up activity  Display the picture of the Pashupatinatha area to the class, and lead a discussion about different things available in that area. Ask them some questions such as "Where is Pashupatinath located?, Why do people go there, etc."  Arrange the students to work in pairs. Draw the following table on the board, and ask the students to think about what the tourists are allowed to do and not allowed to do there. What are tourists allowed to do?

What are they not allowed to do?

 Arrange for a public sharing of some sample pairs. Provide feedback as necessary. Extended activity Ask individual students to write a letter to foreign visitors informing them about what they can and cannot do in the Pashupatinatha Temple area. 10


Reflection How can teaching of grammar structures (structures for giving and withholding permission in this case) be linked to more productive use of language, i.e., for speaking and writing purposes? What strategies can be adopted to make teaching of grammar aligned to more communicative goals? Lesson Five Listening Content from the textbook  Listening activities (Engage yourself, Study time and Follow-up activity) (pp. 6-7) Materials required  Audio file/CD/Laptop/Audio player Lesson activities Engage yourself  Set the scene for the listening task. Engage the students in the picture-guessing activity. Ask them to guess answers to the questions given: a. Who are these people? (They are a daughter and her parents.) b. What are they talking about? (They are talking about a tour.)  Ask the students to predict what they will be going to listen. This activity will help them predict the content of listening.  To activate their current knowledge about the content of the listening, ask the students such questions as: What do you do on holidays? Do you stay home or go out? Do you like holidays?  If necessary, introduce the meaning of some new words which will appear in the audio (e.g. wander, movie, curious, uniform, etc.). Note: For sound files with much lexical density, i.e. having many unfamiliar words, key vocabulary should be taught explicitly. Study time (1)  Ask the students to work in pairs, and go through the task. Make sure that they are clear about the task.  Play the sound file (or read the audio script aloud), and ask the students to answer the questions using only the key words/phrases. You can play the audio more than once if required.  When all the students complete the task, arrange for a public sharing and feedback. Suggested answers a. This afternoon b. Wash the school uniform c. Four d. Parents e. Mother

Study time (2)  Ask the students to work for the second task (Listen and fill in the blanks). Make sure that they are clear about the task and the purpose. 11


 

Play the audio file (or read the audio script aloud). You can play the audio more than once if required. Encourage the students to get answers themselves listening to the audio. When all the students complete the task, arrange for a public sharing and feedback session. Suggested answers a. b. c. d. e.

plans public Tejendra call see/ meet

Follow-up activity  Ask the students to continue working in the pairs. This time, they are going to recall the expressions in the audio file that are used for giving and withholding permission. Ask them to divide the task between the peers: one will be completing one half of the table (Giving permission) and the other will be doing the second half (Withholding permission).  Play the audio file (or read the audio script aloud), and ask the pairs to work accordingly. Once they complete the task, arrange for a public sharing and feedback session again. Suggested answers Giving permission You can. My pleasure. 

Withholding permission Don‟t let he go. Don‟t you go to school? Don‟t wander around.

Play the audio once again (or read the audio script aloud), and ask the pairs to edit/correct any responses they might need to improve. Conduct a general discussion about what topic they listened to, who were speaking, etc.

Extended activity Ask students to engage in the „reaction to the text‟ activity. Conduct a discussion about whether they agree or disagree or even believe what they have listened to. Elicit their reactions using the following probes: Reaction to the text ideas a. Bandana is a modern girl. b. Her parents are considerate about the daughter. c. The friends could have done something more useful than watching a movie on holiday. d. Bandana and friends had the habit of wandering around the street. e. Why does Bandana say, “You are great, mom”? What could she have said if her mother had rejected her plan? Reflection What I did?

What went successfully?

What problems I faced?

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What could be done for betterment?


Lesson Six Speaking Content from the textbook  Speaking activities (pp. 8-10) Materials required  A chart containing expressions given in Engage yourself 1  Cards with clues for speaking as in Time for speaking, 2 Lesson activities Engage yourself (1)  Display the following chart to the class. Ask the students to go through it. Column A Giving permission Of course. Yes, certainly you can. By all means. Yes, that‟s fine. Please, you don‟t hesitate to … Sure. OK/Fine/Alright. That‟s all right. Let her sit here. 

Column B Withholding permission You can… but you mustn‟t ….. Don‟t let them ………. Sorry I‟m afraid……… I‟m afraid you can‟t. I am afraid not. I am afraid I can‟t let you. I can‟t possibly….

Ask the students to guess the possible situations when they will use the expressions in group A. Encourage them to speak up; they might speak as follows: Expression Possible situation Of course = Giving permission while asking as “May I use your pen?” Let her sit here. = Giving permission while asking as “ Where can she sit?”

Next, ask the students to go through the expressions in group B. Invite them to guess about the situations in which those expressions can be used. Encourage them to speak up, and elicit as many responses as possible. Students might respond as follows: Expression Possible situation You can…. But you mustn‟t… = While giving permission with caution as in „You can use my camera but you must not open the battery.‟ Sorry, I‟m afraid. = While withholding permission as a response to someone who says „Can I borrow your camera for my tour?‟

Engage yourself (2)  Elicit from the students what differences they find between the expressions in column „A‟ and Column „B‟. Encourage them to speak up. If they cannot come to appropriate responses, tell them that the expressions in A are for allowing someone to do something (giving permission) and the expressions in B are for restricting someone from doing something (withholding permission).

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Time for speaking (1)  Arrange the students for a pair work. Tell them that they are going to take up a role each for the given situations in B, 1. Invite a sample pair to stand up, and read aloud the conversation for situation one.  Conduct a simultaneous pair work activity. Members take up a role for each situation and speak to each other. Ask them to role play the conversations for all situations. Once they complete, ask them to change the role. While the pairs role play the conversation, go around the class and support. Time for speaking (2)  Ask the students to continue working in pairs. Ask them to go through the task (Time for speaking 2) and have a similar conversations as in Time for speaking 1. Give an example if necessary: a. take a photograph/yes A: Is it Ok if I take a photograph here? B: Sure, please. Go ahead.

Display the clue cards turn by turn. Ask the pairs to engage in a conversation based on the clues. After some time ask them to swap the roles and continue speaking. Assist the class as they involve in simultaneous practice activity. Pay more attention to those who are struggling as they speak. Suggested answers b. c.

d. e.

A: Excuse me ? Is it OK if I pat your beautiful cat? B: You can, but you mustn‟t press hard. A: Excuse me sir, could I take a leave for two days? I am not feeling well lately. B: You can, but you must cover the missing lessons once you are back. A: Is it alright if I go to the movie? B: Of course. A: Can I open the window? I am feeling hot. B: That‟s all right.

Follow-up activities (1)  Divide the class into pairs. Ask the pairs to go through the situations in Follow- up Activities 1, and have conversations in the given situations. Suggested answer i. A: May I go out of the class for a while? B: You may, but you must be inside in five minutes. ii. A: Excuse me. Can I use your selfie-stick for a day? B: I am afraid I can‟t let you. This is a new one, and it breaks easily.

Follow-up activities (2)  Present an imaginary situation in which the students are talking with their parents about their friends‟ birthday. They want to join the party, and want to spend the night there.  Divide the class into pairs. Elicit from them what they might speak to their parents to get permission. Ask them to think how they might ask for permission, and how their parents 14


might respond. Elicit sample responses. Tell them that a member will be taking the role of the parents and another will be taking the role of the child. Ask a sample pair to come to the front and play the role of the son/daughter and the father/ mother. Encourage the performers to speak freely, and support where necessary. Sample answer Son: Dad, Sujan is asking me to stay at his home today. I would like to stay and make the birthday party more enjoyable for him. Could I stay in his house for one night? Father: I am afraid you can‟t. You have to help me tomorrow. We have got to complete colouring the room. Son: Dad, I will be back early morning tomorrow. We can colour the room during the day as well. Can I join the party, please? Father: It‟s Ok, then. But you must be back early morning. Son: That‟s alright, dad. Thank you so much.

Extended activity Ask the students to form a group involving three members each. Ask them to take up the role of son/daughter, father/mother each for the situation in Follow-up activities 2. They will have a conversation in the group of three. Invite sample group to perform the conversation publicly. Reflection  Did this lesson go well? What different activities did you bring in?  What challenges do you face while teaching speaking?  What more could be done to make teaching of speaking more effective? Lesson Seven Writing Content from the textbook  Writing activities (pp. 10-11) Materials required  Samples invitation cards for wedding ceremony Lesson activities Engage yourself  Begin the lesson by setting a scene of a wedding context. Elicit from the students how often they have been invited to wedding events. Also ask them whether people invite in writing or orally.  Ask the students to work in pairs. Ask them to read the invitation card given in the textbook (p. 10) and answer the questions given below it. Possible answers a. Karuna is the daughter of Mr. C.P. Mishra and Mrs. K. Regmi. b. Bride‟s parents are Mr. C.P. Mishra and Mrs. K. Regmi, and the bridegroom‟s parents are Mr. G.C. Poudel and Mrs. N. Adhikari. c. The marriage ceremony is on 23rd February, 2018. d. The event is going to take place at Vision Party Palace.

 Lead a discussion about the different components of the invitation: who are inviting, for what occasion, for which day, at which place, what is RSVP (a French phrase 15


„Répondez s'il vous plaît‟ meaning "Please respond") what activities are being held, etc. Time for writing (1)  Divide the class into small groups. Ask each group to prepare an invitation card using the information given in the textbook.  If required refer back to the sample of the invitation. Remind the students how the different parts are arranged sequentially (e.g. inviters, occasion, involved parties/relation, date, venue, special activities, etc.). Also, highlight on the outline of the invitation and its look.  Move around the class and support the groups as required.  Once the students complete the task, invite sample groups to share (read aloud) their products with the class. Offer/invite for feedback for improvement. Extended activity Ask the students to collect some invitation cards (for wedding or other occasions). Have them share about the different patterns and contents. Reflection  It is alleged that teaching of writing has so far been limited to „assigning homework to the students, as the classroom is mostly occupied with talks, discussions and readings. How do you observe this allegation?  There are many approaches to teaching writing (e.g. parallel text, text deconstruction, genre analysis, process, etc.). How can a teacher employ the best aspects from each approach? Lesson Eight Writing Content from the textbook  Writing activities (p. 11) Materials required  Worksheets for punctuation (Extended activity) Lesson activities Time for writing 2 (Preparing an invitation card)  Assign an individual writing task for Time for Writing 2. Ask the students to think about their own parents‟ names and names of imaginative parents for the bride‟s side (It is so because it is for the brother‟s wedding.) Also, encourage them to think of an attractive design of the card.  Monitor, and assist those who are struggling. Once they complete the task, have them to share their products randomly among the classmates. Provide some time for peercorrection/ feedback, but ask them to keep the writing pad/copy of the friend with themselves. Focus on both the format and the content. Sample response can be as follows. Mr. Kapil Giri and Mrs. Bina Acharya request the honour of your presence to grace the auspicious occasion of the wedding ceremony of their loving son Sabin Giri (Son of Mr. Dayahari Chand and Mrs. Bhumika Bam)

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On Friday, 10th September 2017 from 10 A.M. to 3 P.M. at Hotel Great Nepal, Dhading.


Follow-up activity  Ask the students to go through the task under Follow-up activity. Make sure that they understand the task.  Ask them to think about why they could not attend the wedding. Encourage them to come up with interesting reasons. Ask individual students to write a reply to the invitation card expressing an apology for not being able to attend the wedding.  Lead a discussion on the format of a letter in short. Present the following on the board. Date: Dear {Name}, I received your invitation and I am so honored to be included among the people you want to celebrate your nuptials. Unfortunately, I will be unable to attend the wedding due to {reason}………….. I‟m so sorry to miss your joyful day. I know that your wedding will be perfect and I‟m so happy for you. Congratulations, and I wish you all the best! Sincerely, {Name}

{Sender} Once the students complete the task, ask them to swap their products with one another, and offer feedback. Ask them to read what the friend has written as a response. Have them return the exercise book to the original owner when they have completed. Extended activity  Write a sample letter of apology with intentional mistakes in the use of punctuation symbols. Then ask the students to edit the text for punctuation. Lesson reflection What I did? What went What problems I What could be done successfully? faced? for betterment?

Lesson Nine Project Work Content from the textbook  Project work activity (pp. 11-12) Materials required  An enlarged picture of Bhedetar Hill in the east of Nepal  An idea collection chart outlining the following pieces of information Place Location Geography Climate Facilities Historical sites 17


Cultural sites Allowed to do Not allowed to do Famous things Accessibility  Chart paper, marker, glue Lesson activities Project work  Elicit from the students what places are popular for tourists in Nepal. Ask which places they have visited, and which ones they would like to visit. Also elicit what things visitors can do there.  Share about your tour to one interesting place. Emphasize on what you did; what you were allowed to do there, and what not. Invite one/two students to share about their tour in the same way.  Display the picture of Bhedetar, and ask the students to guess about the place.  Elicit from them what things the place (i.e. Bhedetar) is famous for.  Ask the students to go through the picture and the corresponding text in Project Work.  Ask them to read the description. In the meantime, lead a text-based discussion with the following probes: Where is it located? How is the climate? How is its accessibility? What places are located nearby? How is the scenery? What things are available there? What special things are available? etc.

Divide the class into groups of five/six. Ask them to discuss and choose a popular touristic place in the locality (or the one they have visited) for the purpose of writing a description. Ask them to agree on a fixed place.  Display the idea collection chart, and ask them to complete the chart with the true information.  Ask the groups to collect as much information as possible about the place of their choice. Tell them the possible sources of information: books in the library, newspapers, the Internet, etc. Encourage the members to stay longer at school, and finalize the information collection. Also ask them to get pictures/photographs of the place.  Distribute the chart paper to each group (or, students can manage themselves). Ask each group to paste the pictures of their chosen place on top of the paper, and write a description below the picture/s. When they complete the task, invite the group members to share their products with the class. After the sharing, the products can be pasted on the display board/ wall of the classroom. Fun corner The „Fun corner‟ in this unit is a picture description activity. It is useful for developing speaking and/or writing skill of the students. Lead a general discussion about the pictures. Elicit from the students expressions about what is being displayed in the pictures.  Ask the students to form a group of five/six. Ask them to study the picture carefully, and prepare a written description of the picture.  When all the group complete the task, ask each group to present their description to the class.

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Part 3: Additional Resources 1. Links for conversation related to this unit a. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QbSjDffC62U b. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XeiF6FYKl_g 2. Script of the audio You will hear Bandana talking to her parents about watching the movie. Bandana: Daddy, my friends have planned to go to watch a movie this afternoon. Father: Watching a movie? Bandana: Yes. Can I go with them? Father: You can, but ask your mother first. Your mother might have some plans too. Bandana: Thank you, Daddy. Mother: Don‟t let her go unless she‟s washed her school uniform. Father: Did you hear your mom? Bandana: How about washing them tomorrow morning? Mother: No, no. Don‟t you go to school? Bandana: There‟s a public holiday tomorrow, mom. Mother: Okay, but who are you going with? Bandana: My besties; Sumana, Dolma and Tejendra. Mother: What time? Bandana: At noon. Mother: Don‟t wander around the street with your friends. After the movie is over, come back home. Bandana: O.K. Mom….er? Mother: What do you want to say? Bandana: My friends want to see you. May I call them here? Mother: My pleasure. Bandana: Thank you Mom. You‟re great.

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UNIT TWO REPORTING STATEMENTS Part 1: Unit Outline Curriculum reference: Language function no. 1 under scope and sequence Things to teach Language function and forms/exponents: Reporting statements • Dolma said that she didn‟t like the party. • Palten says that he has won the match. Reading: Reading the text related to debate competition • Reading comprehension followed by extended activities • Text based vocabulary items Grammar: Reporting statements Listening: Telephone conversation • Listening comprehension • Reporting the telephone conversation Speaking: Debate competition • Debating for or against a motion Writing: Our Culture: Our Identity • Writing script for debate • Writing an argumentative essay • Taking notes during the interview Content themes/topics  Debate on Using a single language is better than multiple languages  Culture and identity Expected achievements of the students By the end of this unit, the students will have:  completed the reading comprehension tasks.  guessed the meaning of unfamiliar words and phrases from the context.  taken notes of the important points from the reading text.  summarized the main ideas of the text.  participated in a debate competition.  reported the statements in indirect speech.  taken the interview and reported it.  completed the listening comprehension tasks listening to a conversation.  argued for or against the given idea.  written an essay on "our culture, our identity."  prepared a debate for or against the statement "native language is better than the english language."  prepared a questionnaire and interviewed people about the local culture. Integrated soft skills  Interpersonal skills  Intercultural skills  Thinking skills 20


 

Information management skills Creative thinking skills

Estimated periods: 9 Part 2: Learning Facilitation Process Lesson One Reading Content from textbook  Engage yourself  The transcription of debate “Using a single language is better than multiple languages” under study time (pp. 13-15). Required materials  The transcription of debate (for the motion and against the motion)  If possible, pictures showing the scene of the debate competition  Flash cards of the words from 'Vocabulary in use' Lesson activities Engage yourself • Ask the students to study the picture given on p. 13.

• Organize the students in pairs; ask them to guess the activity the persons in the picture are engaged in. • Encourage the students to share their ideas with the whole class. • If they can‟t guess the activity from the picture, tell them that the students in the picture are taking part in a debate competition. • Ask your students if they have participated in the debate competition. • Ask them to share about the topic (issue) of the debate they participated in, and the arguments given by the other participants. • Ask them what debate is. Encourage them to share their views. • Add your ideas, and tell them what debate is, in brief. You may tell them: A debate is a formal contest of argumentation in which two opposing teams defend and attack a given proposition. • Ask them what kind of world do they want to live in- A world where only one language is spoken or multiple languages are spoken. • Have a brief discussion, and ask them to share their arguments.

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Study time • Divide the class into groups of 4-5 members, and ask them to read the debate scripts of both the participants (Karma and Kabita), and note down the key ideas from the debate scripts. • Ask one member from each group to share the key ideas with the class. • Appreciate their ideas and effort, and add the ideas that the students did not cover in the discussion. Suggested key ideas from the debate scripts For the motion: Using a single language is better than multiple languages  Every year, several languages die out.  The world has become a global village due to the development in science and technology.  People prefer learning the language that helps them to communicate in the global village.  Using the same language would certainly aid understanding and global community.  People can communicate with one another without any problem if there is a single language.  A single language can unite all the people as global citizens.  A single language would promote learning and the flow of information and ideas.  Economic growth is also possible by using single language.  Interpreters will not be needed in international conferences, seminars and workshops.  Single language minimizes the communication barriers and helps international business and also makes the world‟s economy healthier.  Use of a single language may help in solving international and intercultural security problems.  A single language strengthens our fraternity, integrity, security and global understanding, in addition to helping international business and economy. Against the motion: Using multiple languages is better than a single language  Every year several languages die out. With them, the knowledge inherent there dies too.  Language influences our thought which then influences reality of the world around us.  Language carries culture.  Cultural and linguistic diversity have a reciprocal relationship.  Having only one global language is not good.  Each culture is unique.  If a language disappears, along with it, the culture also disappears.  Cultural diversity boosts tourism  The loss of cultures leads to the collapse of the tourism industry.  Using fewer languages also creates identity problems.  The ethnic groups without their own language and culture lose their linguistic and cultural identity.  Variety in literature is only possible through linguistic and cultural differences.  Each language has its own taste and own distinct quality. 22


Extended activity Ask the students to make a list of possible topics for debate and share it with the class next day. Reflection How did the lesson go? Did the students enjoy the lesson? What would be the other ways to facilitate this type of lesson? Make a note. Lesson Two Reading Content from textbook • Vocabulary in use • Reading comprehension (i& ii ) Required materials • Flash cards containing the words from „Vocabulary in use (i)‟. • Contextual meaning of the words underlined in the exercises ` Lesson activities Vocabulary in use (i) • Divide the class into groups of 4-6 students each. • Ask them to work in their groups, and discuss the possible meaning of the words given in exercise (i). • Encourage them to refer to the context/sentence in which the words are used in the debate. • Ask them to write the meanings in their notebooks. Suggested answers - The word „degeneration‟ is not in the text. Words Meanings perspective – view, perception disappear – vanish, disappear unintelligible – incomprehensible, meaningless promote – encourage, support investigate – inspect, examine Vocabulary in use (ii) • Organize the class into pairs, and ask each pair to read the given sentences and discuss the contextual meaning of the underlined words. • Move around the class while they are discussing. Assist the pair if need be. • After they finish, ask some of the pairs to give their answers. Suggested answers Words Meanings reluctant – unwilling, hesitant conference – meeting, session, seminar barrier – blockade, obstacle, hurdle fraternity – community, society flourish – grow, thrive, prosper lingua franca – common language

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Vocabulary in use (iii) • Ask the students to look at the given example and underline the synonyms of the given words. Tell them that the first one has been done for them. • You can also ask them to make sentences of their own using the given words. Words Synonyms determine: fix on; discover; influence diversity: difference; similarity; variety inherent: intrinsic; extrinsic, built in integrity: togetherness; incompleteness; entirety dialect: standard form; vernacular language; regional variety reciprocal: interactive; complementary; one-way Reading comprehension (i) • Get the students into pairs. • Tell them to work with their partners to answer the questions. • Ask them to go through the text, and mark the area that contains the answer of each question. • Go around the class and help the pairs answer questions. Pay special attention to the students who find difficulty. • Ask them to compare their answers with the immediate pairs. • Provide feedback. Add ideas, or help students improve their responses. Suggested answers a. The two speakers in the debate are Karma and Kabita. b. Karma is the supporter of fewer languages. c. Karma claims that using a single language is better for making our life easier and Kabita claims that using multiple languages is better to make life easier and comfortable. d. The Sanskrit language is supposed to have musical quality. e. Linguistic and cultural differences bring variety in literature. f. Using single language can minimize communication barrier. g. Three benefits of having fewer languages are:  It strengthens our fraternity.  It helps in international business and economy.  It promotes integrity and global understanding. h. The three benefits of having many languages in the world are:  It preserves our identity.  It boosts tourism.  It promotes our culture. Extended activity a. Ask the students to make meaningful sentence of their own using each of the following word/phrase: a. fix on b. variety c. build in d. one way e. fraternity f. integrity Reflection Did the students enjoy the lesson? What problems did I face today? What did I learn from today‟s lesson? 24


Lesson Three Reading (contd.) Reading comprehension (ii) • Tell the students that they are learning how to summarize a text. • Tell them: A summary is a condensed version of a larger reading. To write a summary, they have to use their own words so as to express briefly the main idea and relevant details of the piece they have read. The purpose in writing the summary is to give the basic ideas of the original reading such as what is the text about, and what does the author want to convey through the text? • Also tell them: While reading the original work, they need to take note of what or who is the focus and ask usual questions beginning with: Who? What? When? Where? Why? How? Using these questions will help them examine what they are reading and will help them to write the summary. • You can show the following video on the YouTube to explain how to write summary: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eGWO1ldEhtQ • Now organize the students into pairs and ask them to re-read the ideas of Karma and Kabita, listed in the previous lesson, and write the summary of each using the listed ideas. Reading comprehension (iii) • Divide the class into small groups. • Explain to them and clarify the meaning of each sentence given in the exercise. • Ask them to read the texts (debate scripts) again, and discuss and decide whether the given statements are true or false. • Encourage them to share their responses - whether the statements are true or false. If any confusion arises, provide further support and clarification. • Ask them to note down the answers. Suggested answers a. True b. True c. False d. True e. True Follow-up activities (1) • Ask the students to display their summaries on the wall and arrange a gallery walk (all students go around the board/wall of the classroom and read the summaries written by their friends.) • Ask each student to identify thing/s s/he missed in her/his summary but included in her/his friend‟s. Follow-up activities (2) • Ask the students to read the debate between Karma and Kabita once again. • Ask them to discuss in group about the possible ideas they can include in each of the debate. • Now tell the students to play the role of Karma and Kabita and present their arguments. Tell them to use the ideas collected in their groups. 25


• At this stage, encourage the quiet and shy students. The aim is to develop their confidence to speak in front of people. • Add ideas that you think are important but the students have missed in the debate. Extended activity • If time permits and the students are interested, make the students work in groups of 3 or 4 to write a script for and against the motion for the topic “The Pen is Mightier than the Sword”. • You can set this as homework to individual students. • Ask them to use the model from the textbook. Reflection What did I do today? What problems did I face today? What did I learn from today‟s lesson? Lesson Four Grammar Content from the textbook • Grammar activities (Engage yourself and study time) (p. 17-18) Required materials • Daily used materials Lesson activities Engage yourself (1) • Ask the students to go through the expressions of Prashanna and Dolma. • Get them to discuss in pairs, and find out how their expressions are different. • Compare their expressions with the whole class. Note: Focus on the differences not only in structures but also in meanings and the contexts of use. Suggested answer a. The first expression is in direct speech (what Prashanna said) but the second one is in indirect speech (what Dolma reported to someone else of what Prashanna said). b. In the first expression first person pronoun (I) is used, whereas in the second expression, first person is changed into (she). c. In the first expression the time adverb is „now‟, whereas in the second expression the time adverb is 'then', etc. Engage yourself (2) • Ask the students to do exercise „Engage yourself (2)‟ from the textbook by selecting the correct indirect speech for the given direct expressions. • Write some more example sentences in direct speech and their corresponding sentences in indirect speech on the board, and ask the students to read the sentences and analyse them focusing on their differences.

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Time for grammar (1) • Ask the students to find out what Sujal said to Sanskriti. Suggested answers a. Sujal said, “I‟ll see you tomorrow.” b. Sujal said, “Sarina phoned me.” c. Sujal said, “I can‟t swim.” You can also ask the students to state what Sanskriti said to Sujal. Suggested answers a. Sanskriti said, “I am leaving now.” b. Sanskriti said, “I will phone you tomorrow.” c. Sanskriti said, “I am learning English.” Time for grammar (2) • Ask the students to read the conversation between Sujal and Sanskriti (Time for grammar 1), and to report what Sujal said to Sanskriti. At the mean time, move around the class and assist the students. Suggested answers a. Sujal told Sanskriti that he would see her the next day. b. Sujal told Sanskriti that Sarina had phoned him. c. Sujal told Sanskriti that he couldn‟t swim. You can also ask the students to report what Sanskriti told Sujal. Suggested answers a. Sanskriti told Sujal that she would phone Sujal the next day. b. Sanskriti said that she was learning English. c. Sanskriti told Sujal that she was leaving then. Time for grammar (3) • Divide the class into the groups of four or five and ask each group to read the direct speech given, and complete the indirect reporting that follows. • Move around the class assisting the students. Your students surely come up with a lot of problems and questions. Many of them will also make errors. Let them commit the errors. Do not try to teach them the rules first. Encourage them to do the task by looking at the examples in the earlier section. If they cannot find a similar example, write a similar example on the board. • Finally conduct a whole-class feedback and correction session. Note: Do not teach the grammar rules (here for changing the direct speech into indirect) in isolation and before the students really feel their need. You can introduce the rules bit by bit, one rule at a time, in the context of example. 2. Let the students make mistakes first. Do not try to teach them without making any errors. Committing errors is a natural thing in the process of learning. 3. While teaching any grammar item (here reported speech), focus mainly on meaning of the expressions; do not limit yourself in the forms/structures. 1.

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Suggested answers a. Sankalpa said that he had overslept that morning. b. Durgaman told me that the earth moves round the sun. c. Hiramaya says that she is tired. d. Bidhya said that John had had an accident. e. Ashim said that he had been working until ten o‟ clock the previous night. f. Sandesh said that the place had been almost empty when he got there. g. Anu said that she had enjoyed herself the previous night. h. Sujata said that Pujan was living with her husband then. i. Dhanesh said that he was meeting John this night. j. She told me that it was raining cats and dogs there. Extended activity Ask the students to write five different assertive sentences of their own, and to report them using appropriate reporting clause. Reflection How did the lesson go? Were the students able to change the direct statements into reported statements? Lesson Five Follow-up activities Content from the textbook  Follow-up activities (p. 19) Follow up activity (1) • Divide the class into groups of four or five. • Ask them to work in a group and prepare a set of interview questions to extract the information from the police report narrative. • Compare their answers with the whole class. Suggested answers a. When did the robbery happen? b. What were you doing when the suspect entered he school? c. What did the suspect do first? d. What did the suspect ask Mr. Ghale to do? e. When did Mr. Ghale call the police? Follow up activity (2) • Organize the students into pairs. One of them plays the role of the police officer and the other will play that of Mr. Ghale. • Ask the student who is playing the role of the police officer to ask as many questions as possible. • Ask the student who is playing the role of Mr. Ghale to provide detailed information. • Provide necessary feedback.

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Extended activity Activity 1: Student reporter • Divide the class into pairs. • One student will be the reporter and the other will be someone worthy of an interview like the Prime Minister, a famous actress, a rich entrepreneur, a famous player, etc. • The celebrity answers a series of questions, and the reporter reports back to the class. For example: Interviewer: What are your future plans? Prime Minister: I will construct roads in all the districts of Nepal. Interviewer to the class: The Prime Minister said that he would construct roads in all the districts of Nepal. Activity 2: I heard it through the grapevine • One student whispers something to a classmate: I love chocolate more than coffee. • This student whispers it to another: Juan said he loved chocolate more than coffee.. • The whispering continues through the grapevine, until it reaches the last student who must then say the original statement in direct speech. • If there are differences, they must find out who made the mistake. For example: Juli to Karan: I love chocolate more than coffee. Karan to Monali: Juli said she loved chocolate more than coffee. Monali to Geeta: Karan said Juli loved chocolate more than coffee. Reflection How was the lesson? Have I been able to make the students understand how to change the direct statements into reported statements? What problems did I face today? What did I learn from today‟s lesson? Lesson Six Listening Content from the textbook Listening activities (Engage yourself, Study time and Follow-up) (p. 19 -20) Required materials • Audio file of the telephone conversation Engage yourself • Prepare the students for listening at this stage. Display the picture of people (p. 19) and ask the students to answer the given questions. • Accept all possible answers, and don‟t tell them whether they are right or wrong. Study time (1) • Tell the students that they are going to listen to a telephone conversation. While listening, they have to complete the telephone message slip. Assign this as individual task. • Play the sound file and ask the students to complete the message slip. You can play the audio more than once if required. • When the students complete, invite whole group correction and feedback session.

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Suggested answers Telephone Message Slip Caller‟s name : Sapana Call received by : Yogendra The caller is looking for : Agrim. Call time : 8:45 am Call back number : 974923346 Study time (2) • Explain the task to the students. • Play the audio file once again, and ask the students to listen to the telephone conversation carefully and to complete the sentences with the correct words/phrases. • Play the audio or read the audio scriptagain, and let the students make corrections or complete the missing parts. • Discuss the answers with the whole class and provide necessary feedback. Suggested answers a. a cultural show b. Kathmandu c. Agrim d. 10:30 am e. bus Follow-up activity • Ask the students to note down the main points by listening to the audio of the telephone conversation between Yogendra and Sapana. • Play the audio several times if necessary. • Now divide the students into pairs. • Ask each pair to write a similar telephone conversation. Remind them to use the ideas that they noted earlier. • Move around the classroom, and provide necessary feedback. • Ask them to practice the conversation in pairs. Monitor and support them. • Encourage the quiet/shy students to practice. • Select a couple of pairs and ask them to perform the conversation to the whole class. Extended activity • Make the students write the similar kind of telephone conversation between their friends. It can be assigned as home assignment. • Discuss and assign them themes (going to movie, exam next week, holiday plan, etc.) to be covered. Reflection How did the lesson go? What problems did I face today? What did I learn from today‟s lesson?

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Lesson Seven Speaking Content from the textbook Speaking activities (Engage yourself and Time for speaking) (p.20) Required materials • Daily used materials Lesson activities Engage yourself • Link the lesson with the debate competition that was presented at the beginning of this unit. • Discuss the topics given in the textbook with the students to help them understand what they mean. • Divide the students into groups of four and choose one topic each. • Make them discuss the topics in their group and facilitate them if needed. • When they are ready, ask the students to present their argument for or against in one sentence. • You can refer to some example arguments below. • Encourage students to argue as many different ways as possible. Zoos should be abolished For: I think the beautiful animals deserve to be free and should not be kept in the captive. Against: I think zoo is the only place where you can see all the amazing animals from around the world. All museums should be free to the public For: I think the cultural heritages kept in the museums are public property and should be free for the public to observe. Against: Since the museums need to spend so much of time, effort and resources to protect the cultural heritages, they should generate fund by charging fees to the visitors. Time for speaking (a) • Discuss the topics to help the students understand the topic of debate given in the exercise. • Make sure all the students know what the question refers to. • Discuss the procedure used to conduct debates with the students so that they are familiar with the procedure. • Refer the information below to know how to conduct class debates.

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• • • • • • • • •

How to Conduct a Class Debate? 1. Introduce the topic: All debates start with a topic, or resolution. Choose a topic to which your students can relate and perhaps one with practical application and interest. Make sure that your students understand the issue and any specialized vocabulary that goes with it 2. Assign the speakers into for and against: There are two sides to any debate. Naturally, one will argue for and another against the resolution. The class can be divided into two groups and each group can select 3 to 4 members to debate. Prepare the criteria for the evaluation and inform the students. 3. Give time for research: Your students will need time to collect ideas related to the issue. They will also need additional instruction on the specific vocabulary that may be involved. Encourage each group to form a strategy as to who will do most of the talking during the debate. Remind them that all of them are expected to participate in the research and strategy of the debate. 4. Keep track of time: Decide the order of the speaker (alternatively for and against). The speakers present their arguments. You can assign one of the students as the time keeper to remind the speaker about the time. Give a minute to the first speaker to present his/her counter arguments at the end since s/he doesn‟t get that in the beginning. 5. Make a judgment: Usually, in debate, the winner is the one who has presented the strongest case. For ESL classes, the overall purpose of speaking is more important than the specific outcome of the debate. Still, your students will probably want to know who won. You can ask them to vote secretly and combine the votes with the score they have obtained in your judgment to determine the winner. Divide the students into four groups. Assign one group to speak for the motion of the first issue and the second group to speak against the motion of the first issue. Assign third group to speak for the motion of the second issue and the fourth group to speak against the motion of the second issue. Tell them to make preparations for the debate by collecting the ideas from the members. Monitor and help them while they are making preparations. Ask one of the students to be the Master of Ceremony and ask him/her to lead the programme. Ask one participant from each group (you can allow more to speak if you have time) to speak for or against the issue as assigned earlier. Evaluate them and decide the winner. Explain the strengths and areas to be improved as feedback. You can also ask the students to vote the best speaker secretly to decide the winner. Some ideas for the first issue (against the motion) are provided below.

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Against the motion Mr. Chairperson, respected teachers, and friends! In my opinion, it's not at all required to have an educational qualification for the politicians. Introducing necessary educational qualification for eligibility for contesting elections, in a country like Nepal, where one third of the population is illiterate, will go much against the spirit of democracy for the sole reason as it will deprive the majority of the population, their right to contest elections. A good politician must be a good leader first, who can take good decisions, empathize with people, have a vision for the future and must know the way to get there. It doesn't really matter if the person owns some degree or not. What matters is his love for the nation and people. The person should be honest, patriot and devoted to the country. Unfortunately there is no such degree bestowed for exhibiting these qualities! It is not necessary that a person getting excellent marks is also a good planner and decision taker. A combination of the two is needed for a person to become a great politician. In my opinion, it is not required to have an educational qualification for the politician. It doesn't matter that a person has any degree or not. The only thing which matters is the work done for the public and his nation. Follow up activity • Asks the students to select one of the issues presented, and prepare the script for a debate. • You can assign this task as homework to the students. • Read the script and provide feedback. • You can also ask them to exchange their script, and provide feedback to other friends. • You can ask some of them to read the script in the class later. Extended activity Ask the students to list down any five topics on which they could debate for and against the motion. Reflection How did the lesson go? What did I do today? What problems did I face today? What did I learn from today‟s lesson? How can I improve? Lesson Eight Writing Content from the textbook Writing activities (Engage Yourself and Time for writing) (p. 21) Required materials • Daily used materials Engage yourself • Begin the class by asking the following questions to the students. a. Where do you live? b.How do you greet people in your culture? c. What are the significant cultural activities that you perform in your society? d.Why are they important? 33


e. Do you think they strengthen your identity? How?; and so on • Encourage the students to share their ideas and conclude the discussion providing your answers. • There is no right or wrong answer, so welcome and appreciate all responses. • Have discussion on the terms - thesis statement, topic sentences and concluding remarks. • Use the following reference to support your discussion. Thesis statement: • tells the reader how you will interpret the significance of the subject matter under discussion. • is a road map, it tells the reader what to expect from the rest of the paper. • is an interpretation of a question or subject, not the subject itself. • is usually a single sentence near the beginning of your paper (most often, at the end of the first paragraph) that presents your argument to the reader. the rest of the writing, the body of the essay, gathers and organizes evidence that will persuade the reader of the logic of your interpretation. Topic sentence: • the main idea of each paragraph. • contains the focus of the paragraph and tells readers what the paragraph is going to be about. • usually located at the beginning of each paragraph. Concluding remarks • restate the main argument. • remind the reader of the strengths of the argument. • reiterate the most important evidence supporting the argument. • provide a forum for you to persuasively and succinctly restate your thesis given the reader has now been presented with all the information about the topic. Time for writing • Ask questions related to culture to the students such as: a. What are the cultural festivals you celebrate? b. What aspects of your culture do you like? c. Why do you think it is necessary for us to preserve our culture? d. How are culture and identity related to each other? • Encourage the students to share their ideas as much as possible. • Divide the class into groups, and ask them to discuss the importance of preservation of culture. They can refer to the ideas collected earlier. Monitor and assist them when needed. • Ask them to share the ideas with the class. Note down their ideas on the board. Encourage them to share as many ideas as possible. • Explain the writing task to the students. Tell them to write an essay on “Our Culture, Our Identity” • Discuss and decide on the criteria such as length, areas to be covered, sub-topics to be included, etc. • Give them time to prepare the first draft. Monitor their work and provide necessary assistance especially to the below average students. • Make sure everyone writes. Encourage them to write the first draft without thinking much about the grammatical accuracy. 34


• Ask them to share their essays with their peers and encourage them to provide feedback to each other. • Ask the students to edit their essay based on the feedback from their peers. • Tell them to bring the final draft in the next class. • You can ask them to read each other‟s essays and mark the strengths and areas to improve. Extended activity Ask the students to write a good introductory paragraph for the essay “My Country, My Pride”. Reflection What did I do today? What problems did I face today? What did I learn from today‟s lesson? Lesson Nine Writing Content from the textbook • Follow-up activity (p. 21) • Project work (p. 22) Required materials • Daily used materials • A sample form to collect the information about culture Lesson activities Follow-up activity • Have a brief survey of what languages students speak at home. • Engage the students in discussion in groups to collect ideas for the debate (Native language is better than the English Language.). • Ask them the importance of native language in their community. • Make them prepare a debate for or against the motion (Native language is better than the English Language.). • Get them time to exchange their first draft with their partners who will provide feedback. • Make the students edit their writing, and present it to the class. Provide your suggestion, and make them prepare the final draft. • Provide them necessary feedback if they need. Project work • Help the students to prepare a questionnaire for collecting information about their local culture. • Divide them into groups of 4-5, and ask to go around in their community to interview people. • Tell them to take notes while they interview. • Give them some guidelines on the format of the report (length, sub topics to be included, etc.). • Since the task that will take around a week, monitor their work and provide necessary support every day or during the free time. 35


• Ask them to share the report with another group and exchange feedback. • Ask them to present their findings to the class, and provide necessary feedback.

a. b. c. d. e. f.

Sample questions to be included in questionnaire What are the major cultural festivals in your community? How do you celebrate them? What activities do you perform? Why is that festival celebrated? What are the changes in the cultural festival over the years? How can we preserve our culture to transfer to the next generation? What kind of support do you expect from the government agencies for the preservation and promotion of your culture?

Reflection  Are you satisfied with the activities you did in this lesson ?  Did you realize you could involve the students differently than what you did in the class? If yes how? Lesson Ten Fun Corner Content from the textbook Fun Corner (p. 22) Materials required Target language dictionaries Lesson activities Matching the phrasal verbs with their meanings  Ask the students to go through the task, and complete it. Give them the appropriate target language dictionaries (e.g. Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary).  When they complete the task, conduct a sharing and feedback session. Suggested answers get away: to have a holiday get across: to be communicated to somebody get back: to return get down: (Note: The meaning of 'get down' given in the textbook, i.e. to move from a higher position to a lower one is not correct. It should be "to leave the table after a meal." ) get in: to arrive at a place Writing the phrasal verbs game  Give the students some time to learn the new phrasal verbs consulting the target language dictionary. They can search and learn any phrasal verbs they like.  Now ask the students to get ready for writing the phrasal verbs in their exercise book.  Signal them to write the phrasal verbs. Set a time limit (for example, three minutes) for them.  When the time is over, signal them to stop. The one who writes the greatest number of phrasal verbs and can tell their meanings wins the game.

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Part 3: Additional Resources

1. Use of direct and indirect speech  We use reported speech when we want to repeat what someone had previously said. In direct speech the present tense is used, whereas in reported speech we need to use the past tense form of the verb.  In direct speech, the speaker conveys the message in his/her own words. But in reported speech, we convey the message of the speaker in our own words to another person. Follow the following general rules while reporting the direct statements. • Remove comma and inverted commas. • Change the reporting verb (e.g. said to – told). • Change the pronoun of the direct speech according to the rules. • Change the tense of the direct speech appropriately according to rules. • Change the words expressing nearness in time or places of the direct speech into its appropriate words expressing distance. . A. Change of tense, pronouns and adverbials Change of tense Direct Indirect Simple Present Simple Past He said, “I want to go home.” He said that he wanted to go home Present continuous Past continuous He said, “I am going home.” He said that he was going home Present perfect Past Perfect He said, “My brother has gone out.” He said that his brother had gone out. Present perfect continuous Past perfect continuous He said, “I have been writing an essay.” He said that he had been writing an essay. Simple past Simple past/ Past Perfect He said, “I went out in June.” He said that he had gone out in June. Past continuous Past perfect continuous He said, “I was writing an essay.” He said that he had been writing an essay. Future tense (shall/will) Should/would He said, “I will go home soon.” He said that he would go home soon. He said, “She will be playing chess.” He said that she would be playing chess. He said, “I shall have gone.” He said that he would have gone. He said, “I shall have been writing an essay.” He said that he would have been writing an essay. Change of pronoun Since the person who originally spoke and listened are changes, we need to change the pronoun to denote these people. For example: Direct - Rojan said to me, “I will not come with you.” Indirect - Rojan told me that he would not come with me. Change of adverbs Since the time and place of the direct speech and the reported sentences is different, we need to make changes in these words/adverbs as well. Direct Indirect/ reported yesterday the day before/ the previous day 37


tomorrow just now this last week these here

the following day / the next day then then that previous week those there

2. Some useful sites http://www.ef.com/english-resources/english-grammar/tense-changes-when-using-reported-speech/ http://www.studyandexam.com/indirect-speech-for-tense.html http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Krieger-Debate.html 3. Script of the audio You will hear a telephone conversation between Yogendra and Sapana. (Telephone ringing...) Yogendra: Hello! Yogendra speaking. Sapana: Hello, could I speak to Agrim? Yogendra : I'm afraid he is out. Can I take a message? Sapana: Oh, well, this is Sapana here. I‟m his friend. I wonder if he'll be free this afternoon. I'm going to watch a cultural show at Chhinamasta. I'd like him to come with me if he's free. When will he be back? Yogendra: He won't be long. He's just gone out to book a ticket to go to Kathmandu. He'll be here after 15 minutes...um...about at 9.00 a.m. I don't think he's doing anything this afternoon. Sapana: Good. Can you tell him I shall wait for him at NetaChowk, Rajbiraj at 10.00 a.m.? Yogendra : Okay. Sapana : If he's not there by 10.30 a.m., I'll take a bus. Could you please give him my cell number? It‟s 9749233462. Yogendra : Pardon? Could you please tell me your cell number again? Sapana: It‟s 9749233462. Yogendra : Let me check it. It‟s 9 - 7 -4 -9 -2 - 3 -3 -4- 6 -2, right? Sapana: Sure. Yogendra : Thank you so much. I'll pass him the message. Goodbye. Sapana: Bye.

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UNIT THREE REPORTING QUESTIONS

Part 1: Unit Outline Curriculum reference: Language function no. 2 under scope and sequence Things to teach Language function and forms/exponents: Reporting questions  She wanted to know where I was from.  Joshna asked me if I was coming to see her. Reading: The Ant and the Grasshopper  Reading comprehension followed by extended activities  Text based vocabulary items Grammar: Reporting questions Listening: Weather forecast  Identifying different weathers  Listening comprehension followed by extended activities Speaking: Reporting  Taking and giving an interview  Reporting interview, conversation Writing:  Preparing a weather forecast transcript  Writing an argumentative essay  Describing a person Content themes/topics  Importance of hard work  Weather forecast  A tourist area  Relevance of involving school students in community services  Homework and involvement in social activity Expected achievements of the students By the end of this unit, the students will have:  compared the characters of the story (george and tom).  guessed the meaning of unfamiliar words and phrases from the context and used them in speaking and writing.  completed the reading comprehension tasks based on the story.  summarised the fable 'the ant and the grasshopper.  written a description of a person who is like tom.  changed the questions which are in direct speech into indirect speech.  reported the given conversation.  completed listening comprehension tasks listening to the weather forecast.  prepared a weather forecast transcript.  played the role of an interviewer and an interviewee and reported it.  identified the thesis statement, topic sentences and concluding remark in an essay. 39


 

written an argumentative essay on 'involving students in social work than in writing more homework'. prepared a class magazine.

Integrated soft skills  Thinking skill  Inter-personal skill  Innovation skill  Critical thinking skill  Problem solving skill  Responsibility and commitment Teaching resources  Video of the story 'The Ant and the Grasshopper' ((https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8rPS9qtX_VE )  Flash cards of the words from 'vocabulary in use'  Sentence cards containing the sentences from reading comprehension (ii)  Pictures/videos showing different weathers (cloudy, rainy, dry, sunny and windy)  Audio file of weather forecast  A chart showing the part of an essay with their definition Estimated periods: 10

Part 2: Learning Facilitation Process Lesson One Reading Content from the textbook Reading activities (Engage yourself and Study time) (p. 23-24) Materials required  Flash cards containing the following words: gloom, hilarious, decently, expostulations, rumours, profoundly, unscrupulous, enticements, luxuries, amendment, considerable, qualm, cocktails, discreditable, prosecuted, assuredly, convicted, vindictive and scoundrel  A video clip of the fable 'The Ant and the Grasshopper' Lesson activities Engage yourself  Ask the students if they have ever read or heard the stories of birds and animals.  Ask them to work in pairs, and discuss what a fable is.  If they cannot say what a fable is, tell them the definition and features of a fable. Tell them that a fable is a story of birds or animals.     

Characteristics of Fable Fables are fiction in the sense that they did not really happen. They are meant to entertain. They are poetic, with double or allegorical significance. They are moral tales, usually with animal characters. Fables are short, and they usually 40 have no more than two or three characters.


Engage yourself (a)  Inquire the students if they have heard the fable of 'The Ant and the Grasshopper'.  If they have, conduct a short discussion on it.  Show the video clip of the fable or invite one of the students to tell the story. (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8rPS9qtX_VE ) Engage yourself (b)  Ask the students if there is someone like the ant or the grasshopper in their neighborhood. Let them think for a while.  Now if they think there is someone, ask them to share their experience with the class. Encourage the shy and introvert students to speak out. (They may say some names from their community, school or class. Consider their responses but ask them why s/he is like an ant or a grasshopper. Elicit the answers like s/he is lazy or s/he is labourious.) Study Time: The Ant and Grasshopper  Display the flash cards containing the following words one by one: gloom, hilarious, decently, expostulations, rumours, profoundly, unscrupulous, enticements, luxuries, amendment, considerable, qualm, cocktails, discreditable, prosecuted, assuredly, convicted, vindictive and scoundrel    

 

Ask the students to pronounce these words, if they cannot, provide a model pronunciation. After this ask the students to go through the text, and mark these words and other new words in the text. Ask them to guess the meaning of the words looking at the context. If they can't help them to find the meaning using a dictionary. Facilitate the students with the structure of the sentence and grammar of the text wherever it is necessary. For example; the sentence 'But when circumstances forced George to realize that his brother would never settle down and he washed his hands of him, Tom, without a qualm, began to blackmail him.' is a complex sentence which the students may feel difficult to understand. Simplify such sentences for them. Make the students aware of the grammar in the text too. For example: ask them to mark direct questions, identify the tense of the sentences, etc. Now divide the class into the groups of four or five (consider the sitting arrangement of the class), and ask them to discuss and write how Tom and George spent their lives. Ask each group to present their findings to the class, and provide necessary feedback.

Extended activity Ask the students to use the words in the box below in their own sentences: gloom, hilarious, decently, expostulations, rumours, profoundly, unscrupulous, enticements, luxuries, amendment, considerable, qualm, cocktails, discreditable, prosecuted, assuredly, convicted, vindictive and scoundrel

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Reflection  Are you satisfied with the activities you used in this lesson ?  Did you realise that you could involve the students differently than what you did in the class?  Did you use any different activity than you are suggested to do? If you did, make a list of them. Lesson Two Reading Content from the textbook  Vocabulary in use (p. 25)  Reading comprehension i & ii (pp. 25-26 ) Materials required  Flash cards containing the words from vocabulary in use (i) Lesson activities Vocabulary in use (i)  Display the flash cards containing the words given in this exercise one by one, and ask the students to locate the words in the story, and decide where to place each word in the table given in the exercise.  Ask them to read the story, and look for the words in context before making decision. Possible answers I don't know at all I have seen or I know the I know the heard but don't meaning meaning in this know the meaning context unscrupulous chuck gloom blackmail expostulations profoundly hilarious illegal discreditable qualm amendment decent scoundrel prosecuted suspected decently enticements convicted cocktail sore vindictive circumstances Vocabulary in use (ii)  Divide the class into the groups of four or five.  Ask each group to share the list from exercise (i) with each other and compile their work.  After this, ask each group to write a paragraph using the words they are familiar with (from exercise i).  Now ask the groups to exchange their writing. Provide necessary feedback.  Ask each group to edit their writing considering the feedback given by the other group.  Ask the group leaders to present their writing to the class, and provide feedback to them.  Ask them to modify their writing as per the feedback. A sample paragraph The earthquake stricken people are still in deep gloom as the reconstruction of the damaged houses is delayed. They suspect that they would never be away from the temporary houses where they have been living for last two years. They would be in hilarious spirits only after they get the new quake resistant houses. They have been affected financially too. Some of them are found to be involved in different illegal 42


activities like blackmail, robbery, theft, etc. They say if the government creates an opportunity to work decently, they are ready to live a decent life. Vocabulary in use (iii)  Ask each student to list down the words from the text which are still unfamiliar to them.  Now ask them to go round the class, and find out the meanings of the words by asking the friends who know their meanings.  If they do not still get the meaning of the words, ask them to consult the dictionary.  Ask them to write the meanings in their exercise books. Reading comprehension (i)  Ask the students to read the questions. Make sure that the students understand what each questions expects.  Ask them to read the story, and write the answers individually. While the students are writing the answers, move around the class assisting the students and checking their answers.  After they finish, ask them to their answers with the class.  Provide your feedback. Possible answers a. Tom was a black sheep in Ramsays' family because he always created problems. b. To serve in a bar or to drive a taxi was a respectable profession to Tom. c. George Ramsay was staring into the space because his only brother, Tom, troubled him very much. d. Tom left his work and wife because he wanted to enjoy himself. e. Tom managed his life when he ran out of money at first by borrowing from friends. f. Cronshaw and Tom cheated George by creating a fake case at the court. g. George gave Tom considerable sums for amendment which Tom spent to buy a car and jewellery. Such situations forced George to realize that his brother would settle down. Reading comprehension (ii)  Ask the students to read the sentences in the exercise.  Ask them to read the story once again, and decide the order of the sentences.  After they finish, ask them to their answer with the class.  Provide your suggestion and feedback too. Suggested answer h, b, c, d, g, e, i, a, f Extended activity Ask the students to write how they want to spend their life; like Tom or George? Ask them to give reasons to their answers. Reflection Did you use any activity other than the ones suggested? If yes, mention them.

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Lesson Three Reading Content from the textbook  Reading comprehension iii (p. 26)  Follow-up activities (p. 26) Materials required  Daily used materials Lesson activities Reading comprehension (iii)  Ask the students to recall the order of sentences of "Reading comprehension (ii)" from the previous lesson.  Involve the students in a short discussion on what other important events of the story are left.  Write those events on the board if they think there are.  Ask the students to put the sentences in the chronological order (follow the order made in exercise ii).  Ask them to write those points in a paragraph.  After this, ask the students to exchange their writing with each other, and provide feedback.  Ask them to revise their writing considering the feedback they get from their friends.  Choose some students randomly, and ask them to read their summary aloud.  Ask other students to listen to the summary attentively and find out the areas where improvement is necessary.  Provide your own suggestion and feedback. Sample summary Ramsays were respectable people. George Ramsay had a brother, Tom, who was not labourious but problematic. Though he started a business, he left thinking that it was boring. He not only left his business, but also his wife and two children and went for travelling. He borrowed money from friends when he had none and George continuously helped him with the money thinking that he would start a new business and settle one day. But with the money George gave, he bought a car and some jewellery. He never settled down and when he did not get money from his brother, George, he started blackmailing him. Lastly, he sued a fake case with the help of Cronshaw, and got five hundred pounds, and as soon as they cashed the cheque, they both went to Mont Carlo and remained there for months. Follow-up activities (1)  Ask the students to read the story in pairs, and collect information about Tom and George.  Provide them the framework like the table below to list the information about Tom and George. Tom George troublesome, a black sheep of the a serious man, respectable, a lawyer family, wanted to enjoy ………… himself………………. 44


Ask a pair to come to the front of the class. Ask one of them to describe Tom and the other George.  Now ask each pair to do the same at the simultaneously.  Go around the class and assist the students. Follow-up activities (2)  Ask the students to recall what kind of person Tom was with the help of the information collected in the previous activity.  Ask them to think about the person in their community who is like Tom.  Ask them to note down what similarities they see between Tom and that person.  Select some 4/5 students randomly, and ask them to share their experience with the class. Possible answer Yes, there was a thug in my village whose name was Birkha. Though he was healthy and wealthy, he never wanted to labour. Rather, he wanted to get easy money. He made some fake documents, and started to deceive people. But one day, police caught him and sued a trial. He is in a jail now. Unlike Tom who deceived everyone including his friends, Birkha never deceived his relatives neither did he blackmail them. He is jailed but Tom was not. Extended activity Assign each student with the task of writing a description of a person who is like Tom as home assignment. The following description can be given to them as an example. Raju Dai: A Grasshopper of our Village Raju Adhikary, who is called Raju Dai by everyone in my village, was once very rich as his father had left a lot of property to him. He was very proud of his father's wealth. So, he neither paid attention to his studies nor learned any skills. When he was young, he didn't do any work, rather he spent his father's property on drinking and gambling. He also bought a car and visited clubs every night. Soon, he finished his father's property. He began to cheat the people to satisfy his needs. Reflection Write a diary entry explaining what you did and what you made your students do in today's lesson. Lesson Four Grammar Content from the textbook  Engage yourself (pp. 26-27)  Time for grammar 1 (p. 27) Materials required  Daily used materials Lesson activities Engage yourself (1)  Ask the students to read the story, and locate the sentences given in the excerpt.  Get them to discuss in pairs, and find the speaker of each sentence. 45


Ask them to compare their answers with the whole class.

Suggested answers a. 'How are you?' I asked. - the narrator b. 'I'm not in hilarious spirits,' he answered. - George c. 'Is it Tom again?' - the narrator d. He sighed, 'Yes, it's Tom again.' - George e. 'Why don't you chuck him? You've done everything in the world for him. You must know by now that he's quite hopeless.' - the narrator Engage yourself (2)  Ask the students to read how Sangeet has reported the conversation between the narrator and George given in the previous activity.  Ask them to find out the difference in the verbs in the reporting clause, verb tense in the reported clause, sentence pattern, connectives, etc.  Provide a set of examples showing how direct questions are changed into indirect questions. You can write them on the board. Direct Indirect She said to me, "What is your name?" She asked me what my name was. The teacher said, "Have you done your The teacher wanted to know if we had done homework?" our homework. Monika says, "Where is my bag?" Monika asks where her bag is. The policeman said, "Did you see the car?" The police inquired if I had seen the car. Arpana said to Arpan, "Will you come to see Arpana asked Arpan whether he would come me?" to see her.   

Ask the students to work in pairs and find out the differences between the form of direct and indirect question. Ask them to share the differences they have noticed with the class. Ask the students to change the sentences in 'Engage yourself (1) into indirect speech.

Time for grammar (1)  Ask the students to work in pairs and match the direct speech with correct indirect speech.  Conduct a short whole-class correction and feedback session. Suggested answers a. She asked me where Dolma was. b. She asked me if he was at home. c. She asked me how old I was. d. The head teacher asked me if I could go to school at 10 o'clock. e. He asked her where she was from. f. She requests him to help her the next day. Extended activity Ask the students to listen to/watch a radio/TV interview, and note the questions asked by the interviewer. Also get them to change those questions into indirect questions. For example they 46


can watch the interview of the British https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4b0kULuS5o8

Prime

Minister

browsing

Reflection Which method did you use to teach grammar in this lesson, inductive or deductive? Why did you choose the very method? Lesson Five Grammar Content from the textbook  Time for grammar 2 and 3 (pp. 27-28)  Follow-up activity (p. 28) Materials required  Daily used materials Lesson activities Time for grammar (2)  Divide the class into pairs, and ask each pair to change the given sentences into indirect speech.  While the students are engaged with the task, move around the class and assist them. Note: The students are likely to have difficulty in solving the task. If this is the case, provide them with similar examples. Do not teach the rules in isolation (out of the context) and until they really feel the need of the rules. You can introduce the rues bit by bit, one at a time. Provide sufficient examples and practice opportunities in the context so that the students can generate the rules themselves.)  When each pair completes the task, conduct a public sharing and feedback session. Suggested answers a. Anupam asks me where I live. b. Sanjeeb asks him if he can solve the problem. c. Prabin asked if Pramila loved him. d. Dinesh asked his friends who had gone to Muktinath for worshipping the God. e. Navaraj told Saraswati to visit him in Australia. f. Julia inquired Pujan how her husband was. g. A stranger asked Astha what kind of music she liked. h. Bharatlal asked Phiroj if he was not applying for a grant. i. Aritosh asked Durgalal if he was not at the office. j. He asked me if I had not paid her. Time for grammar (3)  Ask two students (at least a girl) to come to the front of the class, and make them act as Pemba and a business person. At the same time, make other two students report on what Pemba and the business person said. One reports what Pemba said and the other reports what the business man said.  Get feedback from the class about their reporting.  Now divide the class into pairs, and ask each pair to complete the task first orally and then in written form.

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Possible answer Sudent 1: Miss, as I entered Duke Nepal Adventure, I met a business person talking to Pemba. Pemba greeted the business person, and asked how he could help him. Student 2: As the business person entered, he greeted Pemba and told that he wanted to see Mr. Bhisma Ranjan, Pemba's boss. He was there to deal a project. Student 1: Then Pemba replied positively, and requested the businessperson to have a seat. He assured the business person that he would inform the boss right then.

Follow-up activity  Ask the students to read any story they like, and pick some of the direct questions. Then ask them to change the sentences into indirect speech.  Check the students' work/answer, and provide feedback. Extended activity Ask the students to read the conversation below, and report it in a paragraph. Laurie: So, what are your plans for this weekend? Christie: I don’t know. Do you want to get together or something? Sarah: How about going to see a movie? Laurie: That sounds like a good idea. May be we should go out to eat beforehand. Sarah: It is fine with me. Where do you want to meet? Christie: Let’s meet at Summer Pizza House. I have not gone there for a long time. Laurie: Good idea again. I heard they just came up with a new pizza. It should be good because Summer Pizza House always has the best pizza in town. Reflection Were your students able to change the direct questions into indirect questions? What problems did they face? Mention the problems as well as the way you overcame those problems.

Lesson Six Listening Content from the textbook  Listening activities (Engage yourself, Study time, Follow-up activity) (pp.29-30) Materials required  Pictures/videos showing different weathers (cloudy, rainy, dry, sunny and windy)  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n0UW5Gj95n0 (for cloudy weather)  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wrDHsrDdy9s (for rainy weather)  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jRfxfAxbJpA (for dry weather)  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kqzk5b-tzg4 (for sunny weather)  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jts6tJUIg68 (for windy weather)  Audio file of weather forecast Lesson activities Engage yourself  Motivate and prepare the students for listening. For this, ask some questions relevant to the audio, such as: 48


a. What is the weather like today? b. What are the other types of weather? c. How is a windy day?, etc.  Display the pictures/videos showing different weather conditions one by one, and ask the students which weather is shown in the picture/video.  Ask the students to work in pairs, and match the pictures with the weather given in the exercise.  Ask them to share their answers with the class, and provide feedback. Suggested answers a. - iii b. - v c. - i d. - iv e. - ii Study time (1)  Ask the students to read the task, and make sure that they understand it.  Now ask them to match the different directions with the correct weather listening to the audio file or the teacher.  Play the audio file or read the script of the audio aloud. You can play the audio more than once.  Move around the class, and assist the students.  Once they complete, ask them to share their answer with the class and provide feedback. Suggested answers a. - iii b. - iv c. - ii d. - i Study time (2)  Ask the students to read the instruction, and the incomplete sentences given in this task. Make sure that they understand each of the sentences in the exercise.  Now ask them to fill in the gaps with the correct words/phrases listening to the audio.  Play the audio or read the audio script aloud. You can play it more than once.  Move around the class to see if the students are engaged with the task.  After they complete the task, conduct a public sharing and feedback session. Suggested answers a. 15 b. umbrella c. a thunderstorm d. cloudy e. south Follow-up activity (1)  You can assign this task as home assignment. Ask the students to listen to the weather forecast on radio or TV in English; one in the evening and the other next morning. Ask them to note down some main points from those reports.  Ask the students to present the points in next class. 49


Some sample points a. The sun will rise at 6:00 in the morning and set at 5: 55 in the evening. b. The day will be sunny though it will be partly cloudy in the east. c. The maximum temperature will be 28o C and the minimum will be 24o C. Follow-up activity (2)  Divide the class into groups of four or five.  Ask each group to write a weather report to be broadcasted from the FM station. Remind them to use the points they listed earlier.  Ask the group leaders to read their report aloud, and ask other students to comment on the report. Provide your suggestion too. Then ask them to edit their writing considering the feedback provided by their friends and teachers. A sample weather report Good evening. It’s 7:15. Here’s the weather forecast for the next 24 hours. Heavy rain is expected in the eastern region of the country. It will be cloudy all day there with plenty of rain. In the central region it will be quite hot with long spells of sunshine, whereas in the west, it will again be cloudy, with showers at times. Moving to the mid-west and far west it will be mostly sunny and very hot. In the western hills it will be dry and windy. The maximum and minimum temperatures recorded at the five regions yesterday were: Dhankuta: maximum temperature 28.2 degrees Celsius, minimum 21.5 degrees Celsius and, rainfall, 15.8 millimeters. Kathamndu: maximum temperature 30 degrees Celsius, minimum 19.3 degrees Celsius with 1.8 millimeters of rainfall. Pokhara: maximum temperature 31.1 and minimum 22.3 degrees Celsius, with 1.8 millimeters of rainfall. Birendranagar: maximum temperature 31.7 degrees Celsius, minimum 23.3 degrees Celsius with 6 millimeters of rainfall and Dipayal: maximum temperature 36.8 degrees Celsius, minimum 24.2 degree Celsius with 3 millimeters of rainfall. That’s all for today. Extended activity Ask the students to record a weather report broadcasted on the radio/TV, and change it into indirect speech. It can be assigned as home assignment. Reflection Most Nepali EFL learners are poor in listening skill. Do you have the similar experience? What strategies have you implemented for the improvement of the listening competency of the students? Lesson Seven Speaking Content from the textbook  Speaking activities (Engage yourself, Time for speaking 1and 2) (pp. 30 - 31) Materials required  Daily used materials Lesson activities Engage yourself  Begin the class asking some students (4/5) what their parents told them in the morning. Ask them to use indirect speech. Give priority to introvert or shy students.  Ask the students to work in pairs, and to role play the conversations given in A.  Ask them to write the indirect reporting made by Krishpa in their exercise book. 50


Suggested answer a. Daddy, Mommy asks me when you finish your work. b. Mommy, Daddy asks if you are ready for the outing. Time for speaking (1)  Ask the students to go through the situation given in the exercise.  Ask two students to work as a public pair; make them clear about their roles. Ask one student to act as an interviewer and the other as an interviewee. Provide some sample questions that the interviewer can ask and the answer Anjana would give. Interviewer: How did you reach there? Anjana: Well, we went there for an expedition. Interviewer: What did you eat there? Anjana: Um….For a few days I had some food with me. Later I survived on jungle fruits. Interviewer: And did you have water to drink? Anjana: We had water for a day only. After a day, we found a source of sweet water there. Interviewer: And what about the clothes to wear? Anjana: I had a few sets of clothes with me in my handbag. I used them. Interviewer: Finally, how did you spend the days and nights there? Anjana: Well, I used to come to the shore during the days to see if somebody was there for the rescue and the nights in a cave there. Interviewer: Thank you Anjana for your time. Anjana: I am thankful to you too for providing me with an opportunity to share my experience. 

Now divide the class into pairs, and ask each pair to act out the role of an interviewer and interviewee.  Move around the class observing their performance and assisting them. Time for speaking (2)  Ask the students to continue working in the same pairs.  Ask them to write the conversation that they just had in the previous activity in their exercise book.  Now ask them to write a paragraph reporting the conversation they have just written.  Go through their written task, and provide feedback. A sample paragraph The interviewer asked Anjana how she had reached in the island. She replied that she had gone there for an expedition. The interviewer wanted to know what she had eaten there. Anjana answered him that she had had some food with her for a few days and later she had had some jungle fruits. Then the interviewer inquired about water to drink. She told him that she had had water for a day only and they had found a source of sweet water the next day. The interviewer wanted to know about the clothes to wear. Anjana replied that she had had some in her handbag. Finally, the interviewer asked her how she had spent the days and nights. Anjana told him that she used to come to the shore during the days to see if somebody had been there for the rescue, and she had spent the nights in a cave there. At the end, both of them thanked each other.

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Extended activity Ask the students to record an interview broadcasted on radio/TV, and report it. It can be assigned as a homework. Reflection Write answers to these questions in your diary. a. How much did you talk in this lesson ? b. How much time did you provide to your students to talk? c. How did you respond to student's talk? d. Were instructions and explanations clear?

Lesson Eight Speaking Content from the textbook  Speaking activities (Time for speaking, Follow - up activities) (p. 31) Materials required  Daily used materials Lesson activities Time for speaking (3)  Ask the students to recall the interview between Anjana and the interviewer.  Ask them to go through the instruction given in this section. Make sure that they understand it.  Ask two students to come to the front of the class, and assign them the role of an interviewer and Anjana's mother. Other students will be the general audience.  Now ask them to start a conversation. Sample interview Interviewer: Good afternoon, Mrs Dahal. Anjana's Mother: Good afternoon. Interviewer: Mrs Dahal! Would you mind if I ask you about your daughter, Anjana? Anjana's Mother: Not at all. Interviewer: When did you know that Anjana had been missing? Anjana's Mother: A friend of her telephoned me about the incident. Interviewer: What did you do for her rescue after you knew that she had been missing? Anjana's Mother: Um….I went to the project office where my daughter worked and collected some information about her. Then I went to the police for help. Interviewer: Did the police help you? Anjana's Mother: Sure, they started their action when I told them about the incident in detail. Interviewer: And when did they rescue her? Anjana's Mother: Well, she was rescued after a fortnight. Interviewer: Could you please tell us what she is doing these days? Anjana's Mother: She is working as a researcher in the same office. 52


Interviewer: Anjana's Mother: 

Thank you Mrs Dahal for your time. You're welcome!

Now ask the students to report the interview. While they are engaged with the task, go around the class and assist them. Possible answer The interviewer asked Anjana's mother when she had known that Anjana had been missing. She replied that a friend of Anjana had telephoned her about the incident. The interviewer wanted to know what she had done for Anjana's rescue after she had known that Anjana had been missing. She answered that she had gone to the project office where her daughter had worked, and had collected some information. Then she had gone to the police office for help. The interviewer asked if the police had helped her and she accepted that the police had started their action when she had told them about the incident in detail. The interviewer asked her when the police had saved her, and she replied that her daughter had been rescued after a fortnight. The interviewer wanted to know what Anjana was doing then. She told him that Anjana was working as a researcher in the same company. At the end both of them thanked each other.

Follow-up activities (1)  Ask the students to go through the instruction. Make sure that they understand it.  Now divide the class into pairs, and ask each pair to have conversation. One student in each pair will play the role of Mr. Ghale and the other will play the role of Ms. Baidhya.  If you find that the students are having difficulty, ask two brilliant students to come to the front of the class and act out the role of Mr Ghale and Ms. Baidhya.  Provide some time to each pair for rehearsal before the actual performance.  Move around the class recording the errors made by the students and the areas where students face troubles.  After the students complete the conversation, conduct a brief feedback session focusing on the errors and the problematic areas you have noted down in your diary. Sample conversation Mr. Ghale: Excuse me, could you tell me what the major tourist attractions are here? Ms. Baidhya: Oh, yeah! There is a famous temple nearby. Similarly, there is a big tea garden near the hill and a national park along the side of the river. Mr. Ghale: Mr. Baidhya, how can I get to the national park? Ms. Baidhya: You can hire a taxi from anywhere or catch a public vehicle from the bus station. Mr. Ghale: Where can I stay at night? Are there any comfortable places to stay in? Ms. Baidhya: Oh, there are good hotels with excellent facilities. They are affordable too. Mr. Ghale: Thank you Mr. Baidhya. Ms. Baidhya: You're welcome! Follow-up activities (2)  Ask the students to continue working in the same pairs.  Ask them to write down the conversation which they had practiced in activity 1.  Now ask them to write a paragraph reporting the conversation.  Go around the class, and assist the students. 53


Finally, go through their writing, and provide feedback.

Sample paragraph Mr. Ghale came to a new place in Nepal and he asked Mr. Baidhya about the tourist attractions and others. At first Mr. Ghale asked Mr. Baidhya what the major tourist attractions there were in his locality and Mr. Baidhya replied that there were a temple, a big tea garden near the hill and a national park along the river. Again Mr. Ghale asked how he could get to the national park, and Mr. Baidhya replied that he could hire a taxi from anywhere or catch a public vehicle from the bus station. At last Mr. Ghale asked if there were any hotels to stay at night. And Mr. Baidhya replied that there were good hotels with excellent facilities, and they were affordable too. At last Mr. Ghale thanked Mr. Baidhya, and he thanked Mr. Ghale too. Extended activity Ask the students to write a paragraph reporting what their teacher told in the English class on a particular day. Assign the task as home assignment. Reflection Write a short reflective journal answering the questions below. a. Were the students engaged in the task? b. With what parts of the lesson did the students seem most engaged? c. With what parts of the lesson did the students seem least engaged? Lesson Nine Writing Content from the textbook  Engage yourself (p. 31) Materials required  A chart showing the part of an essay with their definition Lesson activities Engage yourself  Begin the class asking the following questions to the students: a. What do you mean by socialization? (a continuing process whereby an individual acquires a personal identity and learns the norms, values, behaviour, and social skills appropriate to his or her social position.) b. How can a person be socialized? (developing good social skills) c. How many of you enjoy working in groups? Raise your hands. d. Who wants to do things alone? Raise your hands. e. How many of you want to be the social workers in the future? f. Do you want to be involved in community services? g. What are the advantages and disadvantages of involving students in social services?  After this, ask the students to look at the picture and guess: a. Who are the people there? (a boy and adults of the society) b. What are they doing? (A boy is teaching the adults.)  Tell the students that they are going to read an essay silently. Also inform them that this is an argumentative essay. Tell your students what an argumentative essay is in brief. 54


An argumentative essay uses evidence and facts to prove whether or not a thesis is true. It presents two sides of a single issue, and covers the most important arguments for and against. People sometimes confuse the argumentative essay and the persuasive essay. The persuasive essay relies heavily on emotional and ethical appeals to persuade readers, and the argumentative essay does not. 

After they read the essay, ask them to work in pairs to find out the answers to the questions given at the end of the essay.  Ask them to share their answers with the class and conclude the discussion providing your answers. Suggested answers a. There are five paragraphs. b. The first paragraph is about introduction to the relevance of involving school graduates in the community services. c. The main idea of the text is that the teenagers must be engaged in the social services during their school career which not only strengthens their social horizon but also they become employable. d. The writer, at the end, suggests that the school students must be involved in social services and the concerned authorities should put such programmes into action. e. The logical connectors used in the essay are; likewise, therefore, on the one hand, on the other hand, as we know, in addition, etc. f. The suitable title for the essay is 'Importance of Social Works for Students'.  Now ask the students if they are familiar with the terms thesis statement, topic sentences and concluding remarks.  Give them brief information about these terms displaying the chart which contains the part of an essay with their definition. a. Thesis statement  is usually a single sentence near the beginning of your paper (most often, at the end of the first paragraph) that presents your argument to the reader. the rest of the writing, the body of the essay, gathers and organizes evidence that will persuade the reader of the logic of your interpretation.  tells the reader how you will interpret the significance of the subject matter under discussion.  is a road map, it tells the reader what to expect from the rest of the paper.  is an interpretation of a question or subject, not the subject itself. b. Topic sentence  the main idea of each paragraph.  contains the focus of the paragraph and tells the readers what the paragraph is going to be about.  usually located at the beginning of each paragraph. c. Concluding remarks  Restates the main argument.  Reminds the reader of the strengths of the argument.  Reiterates the most important evidence supporting the argument. 55


 

 Provides a forum for you to persuasively and succinctly restate your thesis given the reader has now been presented with all the information about the topic. Ask the students to work in pairs to find out the thesis statement, topic sentences and concluding remarks of the essay given under the heading 'Engage yourself'. Ask them to share their answers with the class and provide necessary feedback.

Possible answer Thesis statement: Sending school graduates to work in community services is a good idea to minimize the physical gap between people as it equips them with valuable life skills. Topic sentence (1): If a person is sent to community for services, s/he learns practical ways of dealing with social problems and their consequences. Topic sentence (2): The lack of productive activities might create social problems. Topic sentence (3): Ability to establish strong social relationships also increases their employability as they learn soft skills that are compulsory for any person to work in a team. Concluding remarks: I would like to suggest the concerned authority to put such programmes into action as soon as possible. Extended activity Ask the students to collect some samples of academic essay, and note down the thesis statement, topic sentences and concluding remarks. Reflection What background knowledge and skills did you assume students were bringing to the lesson? Were the instructional strategies you used appropriate for this assignment? Do you see any patterns in how you approached the lesson - as pacing, grouping? Do you see patterns in your teaching style - for example do you comment after every student replies? What were the results of the approach you used - was it effective, or could you have eliminated or reorganized steps? Lesson Ten Writing Content from the textbook  Time for writing (p. 32)  Follow-up activity (p. 33) Materials required  News prints, sketch pens, etc. Lesson activities Time for writing  Begin the class by asking a few questions related to homework and social work, like: a. Do you enjoy doing homework? b. Do you like to be involved in social works? c. Which one do you prefer doing homework or being involved in social work? d. Should students be given homework or social works? etc.  Divide the class into groups of four to six, and ask each group to brainstorm on the following topics one by one: Topic 1: Advantages of doing homework Topic 2: Disadvantages of doing homework 56


Topic 3: Advantages of being involved in social works Topic 4: Disadvantages of being involved in social works  The main aim of this activity is to help the students generate information on the topic. Move around the class and help the students.  If the students are not able to generate sufficient information, ask them to consult the resources in the library or the Internet. Suggested clues Advantages of doing homework  Home work is helpful in reminding the lesson learnt on a particular day.  Makes students engaged and being ready for assignments.  Helpful for examinations. Disadvantages of doing homework  Students get less time for refreshment.  They do not get opportunity to learn practical life skills.  They become individualistic. Advantages of being involved in social works  Students can use the theoretical knowledge in their practical life.  They unknowingly learn the life skills and good manners.  It broadens their social horizon. Disadvantages of being involved in social works  Students may detach from their study.  They may get influenced by the people with antisocial activities.  Some students who need more practice at home for their study may not get time.  Now ask the students to make an outline of their essay (Assign this as individual task). Inform them that one has to write either in favour of doing homework or being involved in social works.  Now ask them to prepare the first draft of their essay using outline and the information they have generated and collected earlier.  Once they prepare the first draft, ask them to exchange it with their partners, and get and provide feedback on each other's draft.  Ask the students to revise and edit their writing, and prepare the final version.  Select some students' writings randomly, go through them and provide your feedback. Sample essay Students Should be Engaged in Social Activities rather than School Work at Home Some people believe that students must be assigned with enough homework so that they get an opportunity to practise the things taught in the class at home. So they will not forget it. Others think that they shouldn't be overloaded by homework rather they must be given an opportunity to engage in social activities. In my opinion neither of the views is correct in themselves. The students should not be overburdened with large amounts of home work since they have already practiced such activities inside the classroom. Though homework is helpful in reminding them about the lesson they have learnt on a particular day, getting them engaged and being ready for assignments and examinations, they have very little time to get refreshed. If we keep the students engaged with the homework all the time, it will

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have adverse effect on their social skills. They never get a chance to learn the skills that they need for socialization. There is a danger that such children become self-centric. Instead of heavily loaded homework, project work, which relates the student's theoretical knowledge to practice, should be given to the students. On the one hand, such activities help them learn language unknowingly and apply learned behaviours in practice. On the other hand, they help them to broaden their social horizon, address their diverse interests, raise their selfesteem, make them more committed and enhance their ability to work in team. When we were in class five, our English teacher always gave us project work like activities which we had to accomplish involving in the teams. Almost every week we had to present our findings to the class which miraculously increased our performance. Because of the regular project work, we became more adaptive to social issues, learnt to solve problems individually, become more sociable and befriended with many people in the society. Other teachers of the class, on the contrary, always gave us homework which none of us had interest in. Thus, I strongly claim that learning by doing is the best technique which helps students to catch fish from a pond rather than providing them with amount of readymade fish. Therefore, the students should be engaged in social works to teach them the life skills they need for their future adjustments. Follow-up activity  Ask the students to share their essays with their peers again, and underline the thesis statement, topic sentences and concluding remarks in each other's writing. (These parts are made italic in the sample essay in "Time for writing".  Have some of them present their work to the class, and provide feedback regarding the arguments presented by them and the organization of their writing. Lesson Eleven Project work and Fun corner Content from the textbook Project work (p. 33) Fun corner (p. 33) Materials required  News prints, sketch pens, etc. Project work  Explain the task to the students. (Preparing a class magazine).  Sit with the students, and make a plan with them for the preparation of a magazine.  Divide the students in a group of five to seven, and divide the task among the group members such as collection of English articles, essays, poems, reflections, jokes, journals, cartoons, riddles, etc. One of the group may collect articles, whereas the other group will collect poems.  Tell them the possible sources of materials, too (newspapers, different books in the school library or they can write their own).

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 Suggest the students to select the materials that are suitable for their level, related to current world issues, awareness materials for health, hygiene, drug abuse, etc.  Assign some students the responsibility for designing the magazine. (For this one editorial team can be made who will decide the section for different type of materials, colours to be used, design of writing, etc.)  Ask them to discuss and decide the name of the magazine too.  Ask them to involve in the task only in the extra class time.  Have regular meetings with them. Help them in the selection of materials, and facilitate them if they find any difficulty.  After the materials are collected, ask the editorial team to edit, (They can take the help of the English teachers.) and put the materials in a particular section of the magazine. Help them for the selection of the section, colouring, and also in the overall layout of the magazine.  After the magazine is prepared, ask the students to paste it on the wall of the school where most students will have the access to read it. Fun corner  Divide the class into five groups, and assign a riddle to each group.  They will discuss in their groups, and decide the answer.  Let them share their answers with the class. The group which comes up with the right answer at first will be the winner. Suggested answers a. a stamp b. 12 (every 2nd - January 2nd, Feb. 2nd, etc.) c. the letter 'b'. d. A living person cannot be buried. e. post office Extended activity Ask the students to read any news in the daily newspaper, and present it to the class in the next class. Reflection Write a reflective journal considering the following questions: a. Were my instructions clear? b. Was the lesson taught at a reasonable pace? c. Did all students participate in the lesson?

Part 3: Additional Resources 1. Reporting questions When we report what people say, we usually change the tense of the verbs to reflect that we are reporting – not giving direct speech. This pattern is followed when we report questions and there are also other important changes between direct questions and reported questions. Yes/no questions  Direct question: “Do you like working in teams?” Reported question: He asked if I liked working in teams. When we report yes/no questions we use ‘if’ or ‘whether’. 59


Direct question: “Did you enjoy the party?” Reported question: She asked me whether I’d enjoyed the party. The tense of the verb changes as it does in reported speech but we don’t use auxiliary verbs. The word order is the same as in an affirmative sentence. Questions with a question word  Direct question: “What time does the train leave?” Reported question: He asked what time the train left. When there is a question word (what, where, why, who, when, how) we use that question word in the reported question but there is no auxiliary verb and the word order is like an affirmative sentence (‘what time the train left’ not He asked me what time did the train leave.) Look at some more examples:  Direct question: “Who did you see?”  Reported question: She asked me who I’d seen.  Direct question: “Where did you go to school?”  Reported question: He asked me where I’d gone to school.  Direct question: “Why are you crying?”  Reported question: She asked him why he was crying. Notice that the reported questions do not have a question mark at the end. 

Indirect questions Similar to reported questions are indirect questions.  Can you tell me what time the train leaves? NOT Can you tell me what time does the train leave?  I’d love to know what he said to her. NOT I’d love to know what did he say to her. Source: https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/quick-grammar/reported-questions

2. Useful links  http://study.com/academy/lesson/argumentative-essay-paper-definition-examplesquiz.html (For further details about argumentative essay)  http://www.teachhub.com/teaching-strategies-value-self-reflection (for self reflection techniques)  https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=bbc+weather+report (for weather reports)  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uZ0BUf4WuhQ ( for the ways to teach indirect questions) 3. Script of the audio You will hear the weather forecast. News reporter: Here's the weather forecast. Weather reporter: Welcome to the weather forecast. Now, let's see what the weather is like today. In the north of the country, it's very windy and cold. There's a chance of some rain too, so don't leave home without your umbrella! The temperature is around 15 degrees centigrade. In the east, it’s rainy all day today, I'm afraid. There may be a thunderstorm in the afternoon. The temperature is a bit higher than yesterday, at around 18 degrees centigrade. In the west and middle of the country, the weather is dry, but cloudy. So no rain for you, but it's quite windy and the temperature is just 20 degrees centigrade. The south of the country has the best weather today. It's cloudy most of the time but sunny this afternoon. The temperature is around 25 degrees centigrade. 60


UNIT FOUR REPORTING COMMANDS

Part 1: Unit Outline Curriculum Reference: Language function 3 under scope and sequence Language function and forms/exponents: Reporting commands  Stay clean and safe.  Our Health teacher said, “Stay clean and safe.”  Our Health teacher asked us to stay clean and safe. Reading: Memoirs of my Visit to France  Construct meaning from written, printed and digital forms for detailed understanding  Reading for fluency and comprehension  Text based vocabulary items Grammar: Reporting commands  Imperative sentences (V1+……….)  Negative imperative sentences (Don‟t V1 +….)  The head teacher told me to come to school at ten o'clock. Listening: A Poem by Eleanor Farjeon (Knowledge)  Listen to audio, understand the gist and retrieve specific information from it.  Record in note or make summary from the main points of spoken messages. Speaking: Reporting commands  Present information, ideas and express feelings clearly and coherently  Creating and reporting conversations Writing: Transferring information from table to prose  Practice thinking skills while writing  Writing recipe of a cup of milk tea  Converting the instructions into a cohesive paragraph  Writing a summary of a poem  Writing a book review  Writing a description of a place Content themes/topics  Memoirs of my visit to France  Direct and Reported speech  Making command and reporting  Preparing food; momo, milk tea, etc.  Book review Expected achievements of the students By the end of this unit, the students will have:  completed the comprehension tasks after reading the text 'memoirs of my visit to france'  categorised vocabulary in terms of word class, word formation, pronunciation, etc. using dictionary and thesaurus. 61


       

completed the comprehension activities listening to the audio. produced correct sentences that express command and reported them. enacted situational role plays. written recipe for preparing a cup of milk tea. converted instructions into a cohesive paragraph. completed the unfinished text in a coherent way. presented the information of non-verbal text in paragraphs. reviewed a book in english.

Integrated soft skills

 

Working with peers Critical thinking and creativity

Teaching resources  Pictures or a video about France  Flashcards containing words/ chunks  Chart containing structures of reported speech  Dictionaries and thesauruses  A format of book review  Audio file and audio player/ laptop Estimated Periods: 10

Part 2: Learning Facilitation Process Lesson One Reading Content from the textbook  Engage yourself (p.34)  Study time (Memoirs of my visit to France, pp. 34-37)  Reading comprehension (pp. 39-40) Materials required  Pictures or a video about France  Textbook for individual students  Flashcards containing the following words and their meanings: fuming, overcast, drizzling, vicinity, emboldened, cursory, connoisseur, sculptor, dilettante, awe, reverence, magnum opus, exceedingly, imitated, innumerable Lesson activities Engage yourself (1)  Invite the students to study the given pictures on page no. 34 in the textbook under Engage Yourself section carefully.  Ask them to guess which popular tourist destinations in Nepal the given pictures show.  Give some clues to help them identify them, if needed.  Also ask them why those places are famous for. For example: Pokhara is famous for Fewa lake, Davi’s fall and caves.

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Engage yourself (2)  Ask the students to write down the names of any two places they have visited. Also ask them why these places are important.  Once they complete the task, ask them to share their answers to the class.  Encourage the students to speak up freely. Suggested answers: Famous tourist place Famous for Kathmandu city historic temples, carved statues, Durbar Squares Chitwan National Park close view of wildlife, jungle safaris Swayambhunath Swayambhu Stupa Lumbini Maya Devi temple, Ashoka Stupa Study time: Memoirs of My Visit to France  Show the pictures/video of „France‟ and provide a brief background to the text.  Present the following key vocabulary items on flashcards highlighting their pronunciation and spelling. Present their meanings contextually. Keep the flash cards pasted visibly or you can write these words on the board. fuming, overcast, drizzling, vicinity, emboldened, cursory, connoisseur, sculptor, dilettante, awe, reverence, magnum opus, exceedingly, imitated, innumerable fuming: furious, filled with smoke; drizzling: light rainfall embolden: encourage, make strong connoisseur: expert dilettante: amateur reverence: respect, worship exceedingly: extremely innumerable: countless, numerous

    

overcast: cloudy vicinity: nearby area, local area cursory: brief, superficial sculptor: artist awe: wonder, fear magnum opus: master work imitated: copied, reproduced

Present the vocabulary items and their meanings in a jumbled order; ask the students to read the text, and match the words and their meanings. Ask the students to read the text quickly, and underline the vocabulary items which are still new for them. Give a model loud reading of the text. In the meantime, ask the students to attend to the words carefully as you read aloud. (Note: Since the text contains several French words, model pronunciation by the teacher may be necessary in this lesson.) Engage the students in individual loud reading activity. Help those who are struggling to pronounce the new words. Ask the students to work in pairs. Assign them to use the key vocabulary items in meaningful sentences. Monitor and support while the students are working. Provide sample sentences. For example: a. Some gases are colourless and strongly fuming which have a suffocating smell. b. The foggy sky in September accompanied by drizzling rain is a beautiful scene to see. For home study, assign them the text to read again, and complete the pre- reading activity given under „Study time‟. Encourage them to scan the text for the answers.

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Suggested answers 1. fir, pine, walnut, juniper and yew 2. Rodin‟s and Monet‟s Museums 3. Metro station, museums, Pomidio Centre, a complex building of high tech structure, etc. 4. Muluk Bahira Ma, Spenkosamjhana, Romko Kanda Ra Pyarisko Phool. Extended activity Ask the students to read the text, and take note of the important points from each paragraph. Reflection  Some students just give up reading when they come across a longer and dense text. How can such students be better facilitated for reading comprehension?  What challenges did you face while dealing the passage „Memoirs of my visit to France‟ with the students? Lesson Two Reading Content from the textbook  Reading passage under „Study time‟ (pp. 35-37)

   

Required materials  Five sets of dictionary and thesaurus (individual dictionary for the students preferred) Lesson activities Vocabulary in use (i) Divide the class into groups of four to six, and tell them do the task. Before they start, draw their attention to the example and clarify the example. Tell them that various information about words like their word class, pronunciation, spelling, meaning and word use can be found in the target language dictionary. Demonstrate a sample of how to use dictionary to locate a word and find out its various aspects. Ask the students to attend to the list of words in „Vocabulary in use (i). Take a word, say, „fuming‟ from the list, and ask them to find it in the passage. Ask them to read the sentence, and underline it where the word has been used. Encourage them to guess the meaning of the word just looking at the context (sentence) in which the word has been used. Here, the word „fuming‟ means „filled with vapour‟. Ask the students to go to „F‟ section of the dictionary. Make them informed that words are kept in alphabetical order in the dictionary. Now, ask them to find the „word class‟ of the word and its pronunciation. Show them an example („Fuming‟ is an adjective, and it is pronounced as /ˈfjuːmɪŋ/). Now, ask them to draw a table as shown below and do the rest for the vocabulary related activities. Word Word in text Contextual Word Pronunciat Word meaning class ion formation & its meaning fuming This morning the city of Filled with Adjective / ˈfjuːmɪŋ/ Fume+ Paris looks slightly vapour ing fuming: the sky is 64


vicinity

connoisseur

awe

exceedingly overcast

emboldened

sculptor

reverence

imitated drizzling cursory

dilettante

magnum

overcast, and it is drizzling. I had asked Nirmalbhaai for a list of museums in the vicinity of Paris yesterday. People know I am never a painter, nor a sculptor, nor a connoisseur of art, or professional, but then, the world knows that my interest in the lives of great artists and their lasting works is growing deeper. I move merely a dilettante, however, with a deep sense of awe

the area near or surrounding a particular place

Noun

/vɪˈsɪnɪti/

an expert judge in matters of taste

Noun

/ˌkɒnəˈsəː/

a feeling of reverential respect mixed with fear or wonder Extremely/ to a great extent marked by a covering of grey cloud give (someone) the courage or confidence to do something an artist who makes sculptures deep respect for someone or something take or follow as a model rain lightly hasty and therefore not thorough or detailed. a person who cultivates an area of interest, such as the arts, without real commitment or knowledge a work of art,

Noun

/ɔː/

Adverb

/ɪkˈsiːdɪŋli, ɛkˈsiːdɪŋli/ /ˈəʊvəkɑːst /

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Adjective

Verb

/ɪmˈbəʊld( ə)n,ɛmˈbəʊ ld(ə)n/

Noun

/ˈskʌlptə/

Noun

/ˈrɛv(ə)r(ə) ns/

Verb

/ˈɪmɪteɪt/

Verb Adjective

/ˈdrɪzlɪŋ/ /ˈkɜːsəri /

Noun

/dɪlɪˈtænti/

Noun

/ˈmægnəm

-


opus

innumerable   

 

music, or literature that is regarded as the most important or best work that an artist, composer, or writer has produced too many to be Adjective counted

ˈəʊpəs/

/ɪˈnjuːmərə bl /

As the students are engaged in the activity, move around the class, monitor and supervise their work, and provide necessary support. When they finish their tasks, ask them to exchange their task with the next group and check the answers. When they get their own work back to them, allow them to work on comments made by the friends. Invite some of the sample responses. Support them if required. Vocabulary in use (ii) Ask the students to continue working in groups. Distribute a dictionary to each group, and ask them to complete the activity referring to the dictionary. Ask them to read the table carefully. The table contains a list of main words and their related words. Ask them to find out the related words (synonyms and antonyms) to the main words given in the right hand side column. Also make them clear that if the list does not include an antonym to the main word, it should be marked as Not Applicable (N/A). Suggested answers Main words Synonyms Antonyms mustered gathered scattered consequence result, output, effect NA ascend mounted up declined, descended magnificent splendid, glorious, outstanding NA replica copy, duplicate original swiftly fast, quickly undyingly suffocated crowded, congested open pensive serious, sober negligent remarkable noticeable, impressive general Vocabulary in use (iii) There are some words in the passage which may be unfamiliar to the students. Ask them to work individually, and to prepare a list of unfamiliar words from the passage. Then ask them to find the meanings of these words in the dictionary. Students might come up with items as given. observation: the act of making and recording a measurement entrusted: put into the care or protection of someone trend: the popular taste at a given time originated: come into existence; take on form or shape symbolism: an artistic movement in the late 19th century that tried to express abstract or mystical ideas through the symbolic use of images claustrophobic: suffering from claustrophobia; abnormally afraid of closed-in places. 66


Extended activity Ask the students to read the text (working in small groups), and give title to each paragraph of the text. Reflection Vocabulary is one of the building blocks of language, and possibly it is the most vital one. Vocabulary is central for both the reception and production of language. When the language is learnt for academic purposes, vocabulary plays a vital role in reading and writing activities. There is a complex inter-relationship between reading comprehension and vocabulary learning- comprehension cannot be achieved without having a thorough grasp of the words contained in the text, and words cannot be learnt clearly without getting them across in the contextual texts. This intermixing has a far reaching implication in language teaching in advanced levels. Based on this backdrop, reflect on your practices of teaching vocabulary. Lesson Three Reading Content from the textbook  Reading passage under „Study time‟ (pp. 35-37)  Reading comprehension activities (pp. 39-40) Required materials  Daily used materials Lesson activities Reading comprehension (i) 

Arrange the class to work in pairs. Ask the pairs to attend to the „true‟, false‟ and „not given‟ questions. Make sure that students clearly understand what the statements mean.  Ask the pairs to read paragraphs 1, 2, and 3 of the reading passage and scan and skim the text first to locate the paragraphs in which the given statements are found.  Ask them to underline the sentence in the text, and ask them read the paragraph in detail to ascertain their decision. Each member should have the required parts highlighted.  Arrange for a public-sharing of the responses. Suggested answers a. false b. true c. not given d. false e. false f. not given Reading comprehension (ii)  Divide the class into new pairs. Ask them to read the paragraphs 4,5,6 and 7 in the passage.  Ask the students to scan the paragraphs to locate the information required for the given statements. When they find out the correct paragraph for the information, ask them to underline it, and read it in detail. Now ask them to choose the correct endings for the statements from the list given.

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Allocate about 15 minutes time for it. When they complete the task, ask them to share the answers. Let them correct the answers and re-work on it if needed.  Suggested answers are as follows. Suggested answers a. = iii b. = ii c. = i d. = iv e. = v Reading comprehension (iii)  Engage the students in a brief review activity asking some text based questions (e.g. where is the speaker/author going? Which museum did he visit at first).  Ask them to go through the instruction and the statements along with the options.  Ask them to read the paragraphs 8 and 9, and complete the task. They will do it individually. Show a sample answer as a model. Allocate about 15 minutes‟ time to accomplish the task.  When they finish their work, arrange for a public sharing of the responses. Suggested answers a. alone b. from a vending machine c. you have to use a map d. B.P Koirala e. Vernon f. Govinda Raj Bhattarai g. climbing the escalator Extended activity Ask the students to take notes of the main points of paragraphs 1-3, and write a summary of the paragraphs based on them. Reflection What activities did you feel went well? What did not? What new strategies could be adopted for this lesson? Lesson Four Reading comprehension Content from the textbook  Reading comprehension question-answer (pp.40-41) Required materials  Daily used materials Lesson activities Reading comprehension (iv)  Ask the students to go through the task (Reading comprehension iv).  Make sure that the students clearly understand what the questions demand. Ask them to go through the paragraphs 10 to 14 in the text, and answer the questions working in pairs.

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Ask them to mark (underline) the sentence/s in the passage based on which they come to such answers. Ask them to cooperate with each other as they work in pairs, and each member should have the required parts underlined in the text.  Once the students seem to have completed, arrange for a public-sharing of the responses. Suggested answers a. The weather was fuming and drizzling. b. Musee Rodin was at the end of the road. c. The road was broad but wet; its sidewalks were lonely and desolate, and were shaded by poplars and maples. There were tree leaves scattered in a colourful way. d. The author felt lonely and helpless because no one cared about anybody; people did not want to speak to him. People passing by him did not attend to him, and they did not talk in English. e. The author bought a hand machine so that he could hear the recorded voice being explained to him in English. f. The garden was full of pointed shapes of fir and pine trees, giving the best proof of French topiary. Far away stood other trees like walnut, juniper and yew, birds chirruped from the top. g. The Thinking Man squatted on a large and tall marble slab, in half bent posture and pensive mood. This is one of the masterpieces in modern art, an incomparable work; Rodin‟s pensive mood is remarkable. h. The author had visited museum in Baltimore three years ago. i. The replica of Rodin‟s thinker man was in Baltimore. j. The theme of the brochure distributed at the metro station was to visit the Rodin Museum on the first day of the Paris Visit. Extended activity Ask the students to retell/rewrite the story in the „third person point of view‟ using the past tense. That morning the city of Paris looked slightly fuming; the sky was overcast, and it was drizzling too. But it did not harm him. The speaker had decided to go out for a visit or an observation tour…………………………………… (continue this way till the end.) Reflection Did the lesson go successfully as suggested? What changes did you make? Reflect over your lesson. Lesson Five Reading Content from the textbook Follow-up activities (p. 41) Material required  A chart of descriptive words to describe a place

Adjectives to describe places alive amazing beautiful bright calm colourful creepy crowded deserted

different dry enchanted fresh hot incredible interesting 69 magnificent modern

fairytale-like mystical ancient majestic impressive spacious dazzling evocative serene


Lesson activities Follow-up activity (1)  Divide the class into different groups. Ask each group to make a list of the places the author has described in his memoirs. Invite some students to share how the author has described Paris City. Ask the interested students to add after one volunteer has completed the description. Students might come up with the following places: Metro station, museums, Pomidio Centre, A complex building of high tech structure, etc.  Display the chart of the descriptive words to the class. Choose a descriptive words from the list and describe Paris City. For example: Paris is an amazing place. It has wonderful places to visit.  Now, ask the students to work in their respective groups, and describe the places as the author did. Make sure that the students are going to use synonyms of the descriptive words used by the author. When they finish their task, invite for a public sharing session. Sample sentences 

Paris Nord Station was crowded and magnificent.

Metro Station was modern and impressive.

Louvre was incredible and impressive because there stood an incredible painting of Mona Lisa.

Follow–up activity (2)  Ask the students whether they have visited any museum inside the country or not. Let them speak one-by-one, and listen to their responses. Then ask them to jot down their ideas about what they saw in the museum.  Now, ask them individually to share what they saw in the museum. Sample answer The National Museum of Nepal (Rashtriya Sangrahalaya) is a popular attraction of the capital city, Kathmandu. About a century old, the museum stands as a tourist destination and historical symbol for Nepal. Being the largest museum of Nepal, it plays an important role in nationwide archaeological works and development of museums. For the residents of Kathmandu, the monument serves to relive the battles fought on the grounds of Nepal. The main attractions are collection of historical artworks (sculpture and paintings) and a historical display of weapons used in the wars in the 18-19th century. The museum has separate galleries dedicated to statues, paintings, murals, coins and weapons. It has three buildings-Juddha Jayatia Kala Shala, Buddha Art Gallery and the main building which consists of natural historical section (collection of species of animals, butterflies and plants), cultural section and philatelic section. (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Museum_of_Nepal)

Lesson reflection What I did?

What went on successfully?

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What challenges I faced?


Lesson Six Grammar Content from the textbook Grammar activities (Engage yourself, Time for grammar, Follow-up activity (p. 41-42) Required materials  Chart containing the structure and rules of reported speech (pertinent to structures for giving commands)  A video on reported speech (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lcnVMh0tR9w)

 

  

Lesson activities Engage yourself (1) Ask the students to read the given sentences carefully. Tell them that a teacher is making these utterances. Let them discuss among bench-partners. Encourage introvert students to speak up, and share their ideas. Tell the class that the utterances spoken by the teacher are in the imperative form, and they have the function of giving command to the students. Engage yourself (2) Ask the students to work in pairs, and go through the sentences given in „2‟. Ask them to observe carefully how the reporter (Kala) has reported the sentences. Draw their attention to the form and meaning of those sentences. Involve the students in an oral reporting activity. Ask one student to come to you just outside the door. Tell some commands (e.g. Open the window; Complete the homework in time; Go to the dentist if you have toothache, etc.) to his/ her ear; and ask him/her to report these to the class (e.g. The student says: Teacher asked me to open the window.). Play the video (if possible) and let the students watch it. (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lcnVMh0tR9w) This nine minute long video contains discussion and examples/rules of reporting in a simple way. Let the students watch the video about how to change utterances in direct speech into corresponding reported speech. Lead a short discussion after watching it. Time for grammar (1)  Ask the students to continue working in pairs. Ask them to read the questions given under „Time for grammar‟, exercise 1.  Display the chart containing the rules for changing the verb forms while reporting. Lead a short discussion on it. Refer to „Additional Resources 1‟ at the end of this unit.  Present a sample of a reported sentence. Discuss what changes were made while reporting a command. Clarify the ideas referring to the rule chart.  Arrange the students to engage on the exercises in a-g. Move around the class to monitor and encourage the students. Provide support if required.  When they finish, invite some pairs to share the answers; other can recheck and tally the answers. Suggested answers a. He asked me not to wait. b. She reminded me to post the letter. c. Kripa warned me to keep out of those rooms at all times. d. Bill told Jane not to shout. e. Anuj asked me not to tell anyone what had happened. 71


f. Tom asked her to open the door for her. g. Shabdik asked Prasikha to listen carefully. Time for grammar (2)  Divide the class into new pairs, and ask each pair to read the sentences under exercise 2.Ask them to report the given utterances. (Refer to the chart in „Additional Resources 2‟ at the end of this unit that contains the rules for changing direct speech into reported speech).  Provide a sample as an example. Then arrange the students to engage in the task. Meanwhile move around the class and monitor and support as required.  When the pairs complete the task, invite them for sharing their answers. Provide feedback to them. Suggested answers a. The doctor advised me to eat more vegetables and fruits. b. Dad asked me to shut the door. c. Arnav thanked me. d. The notice welcomed us to Manang. e. I begged him not to drive too fast. f. She advised me to fry it in oil. g. He advised me not to lend her anything. Follow-up activity Divide the class into groups. Ask them to list down 10 sentences that express command, and other 10 sentences that express exclamation in their exercise book. Make sure that they use the sentence structures correctly. Invite them for samples, and let them share the sentences tothe classroom. Sentences that express commands 1. Go to the library. 2. Please, come here. 3. Please, sit down. 4. Please, speak up. 5. Turn on page 67. 6. Keep quiet. 7. Share your ideas to your friends. 8. Finish your homework. 9. Brush your teeth twice a day. 10. Help yourself with the food. Sentences that express exclamation 1. Wow, what a beautiful house! 2. How nice! 3. That‟s great! 4. That‟s wonderful! 5. How pretty! 6. What a cute baby! 7. What a day! 8. Yuk, disgusting! 9. That is really horrible! 10. Hurray, we won the match! 72


Extended activity (Reported Speech Card Games) Materials required  Cards with the sentences in direct speech and corresponding indirect speech Aim of the activity  By the end of this lesson the students will have reviewed the structure of direct and reported speech in a funny way. Lesson activity  Prepare a set of index card each with a direct speech statement on one side and the corresponding indirect statement on the other.  Divide the class into two groups A and B. A student from group A picks up a card, and reads the direct statement. A student from group B must report on what they just said. Student from group A checks B‟s reply on the back of the card. Keep on playing the game in this way for some time. The team with the most correct points wins.  You can make this more challenging by using statements that are similar but in different tenses. (Source: Adapted from http://busyteacher.org)

Reflection How can the teaching of a grammar point be made more interactive and more communicative? Lesson Seven Listening    

Content from the textbook Listening activities (pp. 43-44) Materials required Audio file/CD CD player Two sets of flashcards (Containing the following words in one, and their meanings in the other): knowledge, meadow, bare, spring, harvest, secrets, rhyme

Lesson activities Engage yourself  Set the scene for the listening task. Engage the students to look at the picture given in the textbook. Ask them to study the pre-listening questions, and attempt their answers. Encourage them to come up with creative answers by looking at the pictures. Possible answers a. The first picture shows a farmer planting something in the bare land. b. The second picture suggests a student learning in the classroom/room. c. The relationship between the two pictures is that sowing seeds is equal to learning. 

Set the context of the audio by giving some idea about who is speaking, where and why. Generate the students‟ interest to listening by engaging them as follows: Speak out some possible sentences. For example, a speaker is talking about learning and knowledge and its Also, ask them to predict what they might be listening soon.

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Activate the key vocabulary/language used in the text. Present the following words displaying in the flashcards (knowledge, meadow, bare, spring, harvest, secrets, rhyme). Study time (1)  Ask the students to work individually. Ask them to listen to the audio and complete the given task.  Play the sound file (or read the audio script aloud), and ask the students to complete the task. You may play the sound file more than once. Suggested answers  needs _____ seeds  bare ______ care  grow _____ snow  time ____ rhyme  Spring ___ bring 

 

Once the students complete the task, arrange for a public sharing and feedback session.

Study time (2) Arrange for a pair work activity. Ask the students to go through the task for some time. Make sure that they understand the task. Play the audio or read the audio script aloud. You may play the audio more than once. Once they complete the exercise, arrange for a public sharing and feedback session. Suggested answers i. a ii. c iii. d

   

iv.b

v. c

Follow-up activity Ask the students to continue working in pairs. Ask them to go through the instruction given under Follow-up activity. Now, play the sound file or read the audio script aloud. Ask the pairs to note down the important points listening to the audio. You can play the audio more than once. Ask each pair to discuss the points that they have noted down, and write a summary of the poem. Move around the class to assist the students who are struggling. Suggested answer The poet compares the human being with a farmer and the human mind with a meadow. A farmer likes to sow seeds and plant things and look after it with care. A good farmer does not like to see bare land. The poet wants to convey the same message that we should not keep our minds empty. Like a good farmer, we should plant the seeds of knowledge in our minds, which will grow and develop like the seeds and plants in a farmer‟s meadow. The seeds of knowledge can be about nature or science, history, math, music and literature. If we keep our minds busy through reading, we are sure to gain wisdom and knowledge, but it should be done at the right time. Extended activity  Ask the students to listen to a news broadcast from the radio and note down the important points. Then, report it to the class in reported speech. 74


 Involve the students in „Hot Potato‟ game. Hot Potato is an interesting game to practice reported speech. Follow these procedures to implement the game.  Write some statements on the board, or you may elicit some statements from the students. You can include both simple and complex sentences.  Speak out a statement at a time. Once you make the statement, students start passing around a small object (a paper ball) to one another. In the meantime, keep on saying „Hot Potato… „Hot Potato… „Hot Potato‟.  Stop uttering „Hot Potato‟ after sometime. As soon as you say „stop‟, the student left holding the object at that time must restate what you said using reported speech. Lesson reflection What I did? What went on successfully? What challenges I faced? Lesson Nine Speaking Content from the textbook  Speaking activities (pp. 44-45) Required materials  Daily used materials  Chart containing the structure and rules (Refer to „Additional Resources‟ Section) Lesson activities Engage yourself (1)  Arrange the students to work in pairs. Ask them to study the grammar section (pp. 4142), and copy some sentences that express direct command.  Inform them that that the sentences that express command start with „a verb‟. They are in the form of order, and they are used while asking somebody to do something. Suggested responses - Leki, give me your homework. - Brijesh, put your book down. - Shakti, wait for me. - Let the boys clear up this mess. - Bishnulal, finish your class work first. Engage yourself (2)  Ask them to study the sentences they have listed. Lead a discussion on the form of the verbs. Tell them that „verb‟ is an action word. Now ask them to make a list of the verbs that have been used in the sentences. Suggested answers give, put, wait, clear, finish Time for speaking (1)  Ask the students to go through the instruction under „Time for speaking (1).  Divide the class into groups having three members in each. Ask one member to read the instruction of exercise 1 under „Time for speaking‟ section, while the two take part in reporting.  Ask each group to have similar conversation as shown in the example. Give them some time for rehearsal before the actual performance.  Move around the class and assist the students. 75


Suggested answers a. English teacher/describe village/town Science teacher: Describe your village or town. A: Our science teacher said, “Describe your village or town.” B: Our science teacher asked us to describe our village or town. b. Math teacher/solve problem Math teacher: Solve problem. A: Our Math teacher said, “Solve problem.” B: Our Math teacher asked us to solve the problem. c. Social teacher/help people in trouble Social teacher: Help people in trouble. A: Our Social teacher said, “Help people in trouble.” B: Our social teacher asked us to help people in trouble. d. Nepali teacher/compose a poem Nepali teacher: Compose a poem. A: Our Nepali teacher said, “Compose a poem.” B: Our Nepali teacher asked us to compose a poem. e. Health teacher/keep clean and safe Health teacher: Keep clean and safe. A: Our Health teacher said, “Keep clean and safe.” B: Our Health teacher asked us to keep clean and safe. 

Time for grammar (2): Pair work Now, divide the class into pairs, and ask them to engage with exercise 2. Make sure that everyone has understood the task. Meanwhile, move around the class and assist the pairs. Suggested answers a. A: Mrs Moore, submit this proposal by 3 p.m. to the company owner. B: Her Boss commanded Mrs Moor to submit that proposal by 3 p.m. to the company owner. b. A: Sergeant, join earthquake relief work. B: The army commander commanded the sergeant to join earthquake relief work. c. A: Raju, serve the meal for all. B: My father asked me to serve the meal for all. d. A: Search team, investigate and identify the criminal as soon as possible. B: The police officer ordered the search team to investigate and identify the criminal as soon as possible. e. A: Use the medicine daily twice a day for 15 days. B: The doctor suggested his patient to use the medicine daily twice a day for 15 days.

Follow-up activity  Ask the students to list down some sentences (that express command or order) told by the teacher or their friend. Then, ask them to transform those sentences into reported speech. Extended activities What Did They Ask You? Aim of this activity  By the end of this activity, the students will have reviewed the structure of direct and reported speech in a fun way.

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Lesson activities  Ask the students to brainstorm a list of people who might ask them questions: a police officer, their mother/father, a teacher, a taxi driver, etc.  Then a student reports something that someone asked, without revealing who it was: This person asked me if I had my driver license.  Students must guess the person who asked them questions. For example, "it was the police officer". I Heard it through the Grapevine Aim of this activity  By the end of this activity, the students will have reviewed the form and use of direct and reported speech in a fun way. Lesson activities  One student whispers something to a classmate (e.g. I love chocolate more than anything else.)  This student whispers it to another: Juan (name of the friend) said he loved chocolate more than anything else.  The whispering continues through the grapevine, until it reaches the last student who must then say the original statement in direct speech.  If there are differences, they must find out who made the mistake: Karen said Juan loved chocolate more than life itself. - I said he loved it more than anything else. (Source: http://busyteacher.org)

Lesson reflection What I did?

What went on successfully?

What challenges I faced?

Lesson Nine Writing Content from the textbook  Writing activities (pp. 46-47) Required materials  Daily used materials

  

Lesson activities Engage yourself Divide the class into pairs, and ask them to read the given cooking recipe. Lead a focused discussion. When they complete reading it, lead a discussion based on the questions given on page 47. Then, ask them to do it in their exercise book. Check their work and give feedback if necessary. Possible answers a. The instructions are about how to prepare vegetable momo. b. I think the instructions are presented in numbers to show the sequence of actions. c. Imperative sentences are used in the text because the instructor wants us to do it. d. If we don‟t follow the instructions sequentially, we can‟t have the good taste of momo.

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    

Time for writing Ask the students whether they are familiar with any cooking recipe or not. Listen to their responses, and ask them to do „Time for writing‟ activity individually. Walk round the class. Monitor and support as required. Once the students have done with, ask them to exchange their writings with the friend sitting next to them. Also invite for constructive feedback to make it better. Now, ask them to improve their recipe according to the feedback. Invite sample students to share their recipe to the class. Sample answer Making a cup of black tea Ingredients     

Dried tea-leaves Sugar Water Milk Cooking utensils (kettle, teapot, spoon, strainer, etc.)

Procedure  First, boil a cup of water in a kettle about 3-5 minutes.  After that, pour the hot water into the teapot.  Now, add the dried-tea leaves into the teapot. Don‟t add too much dried-tea leaves because the tea will be too thick to drink. Cover the teapot with its lid.  Wait about 3 minutes until the tea becomes dark in colour. You can smell aroma coming up.  Add sugar according to your taste, and stir it with a spoon.  Now, the tea ready to serve. Extended activity Give the following task to the students: a. Ask your mother or sister about the cooking recipe for preparing omelet. Write the recipe, and share it to the class.  Divide the class into groups; ask them to discuss a unique recipe that is famous in their community. Let them share how to prepare it. Finally, ask them to compile the recipes and make a recipe book. Lesson reflection What activities did you find went well in this lesson? What adaptation did you make? How do you teach writing in a more productive way? Lesson Ten Writing Content from the textbook  Follow-up activity (p. 47) Required materials  Daily used materials

Lesson activities Follow–up activity Ask the students to go through the instruction given in the textbook. 78


  

Ask individual students to complete this activity. Make sure that each student is doing her/ his level best to complete the task. When the students are finished with the first draft, invite some students to share their ideas so that those who are not clear about the task will get the way. Divide the class into pairs, and ask them to evaluate their friends‟ work and make constructive feedback to make the writing better. Now, ask them to work on their friends‟ feedback and revise the paragraphs. Suggested answer Firstly, collect all the ingredients required to prepare momo. Then, take a bowl and prepare hard dough by adding flour, water and salt. After that keep it for 15 minutes. Meanwhile, wash all the vegetables and chop cabbage, onions, and spring onions finely. After that boil potatoes. Then grate them and carrots as well. Secondly, take a bowl and mix the chopped cabbage, onions and spring onions, grated potato and carrot, soy sauce, momo spices, ginger paste, melted butter, salt and pepper. Then, portion out the dough into small pieces. Then roll out the pieces, place the vegetable stuffing on to the pieces and seal them together. After that grease momo perforated container with oil. Then lay momo into container. Heat the steamer by adding water. After that, place the sealed momo on to the steamer. Third, steam momo over the pot of boiling water for about 10 minutes. Now, momo is ready, serve hot momo with suitable accompaniment or sauce. Extended activity Ask the students to write a recipe of any typical food item, and ask them to convert the instructions into paragraph. Reflection What are the advantages of introducing authentic texts and tasks to the students? What different authentic materials and tasks do you incorporate in regular sessions? Lesson Eleven Project Work and Fun Corner Content from the textbook  Project work and Fun corner (p. 47) Required materials Points to be noted while reviewing a book Title: Author: Publisher: Published Year: Edition: Genre: Language: 1. Brief summary of the book 2. Comments on the book‟s strengths and weaknesses  Did you like the book? (Yes/No) Why?  Which characters you liked the most? Why? 3. Theme/idea/moral of the book 79


4. The reviewer‟s personal response to the book with specific examples to support praise or criticism

  

Lesson activities Project work Tell the students that they are going to read an interesting book individually and present a review on it. Ask the students whether they have read any book or a text (story or information) other than the text books. Conduct a general discussion with some probing clues, e.g. Who wrote it? What is the title? About what topic? What message do we get from it? Ask them what their general interest area is about the genre of the book (story, essay, drama, poem, etc.) and the theme (adventure, environment, love, horror, etc.). Ask them to decide on the title/theme of the book they are interested to read. You might help them in the selection of the book suggesting as follows:    

Look at the title, if the name of the book (title) is interesting pick that one to read. Second step of selecting the book is through name of author, if the author is well-known and you know him/her and if you like their thoughts then pick that book to read. Third step for selecting book for reading is to read the summary part of the book given on back page of the book. The next step is to flip the pages and to look at the lines and pictures given inside. If they attract you then go reading.

 Ask them to take the book from school library and start reading it (alternately, they might get one from the market, or get from anybody who can lend one).  Display the outline chart of the book review, and ask the students to copy in their exercise book.  Ask them to read the book and note down the required/ important pieces of information.  After they have completed, ask them to develop the notes into paragraphs. You may ask them to write the final review in chart paper.  Go through the sample reviews and provide feedback to them.  Arrange for a sharing session about the students‟ experience of reviewing the book.

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Sample book review Review of a Book Muna Madan

Title: Muna Madan Author: Laxmi Prasad Devkota Publisher: Sajha Prakashan, Kathmandu, Nepal Publish Year: 2008 Edition: Twenty fifth Edition Genre: Nepali Poetry Language: Nepali

Muna Madan is a folk epic narrating the tragic story of Muna and Madan written in poetic version in 1935 by Nepalese poet Laxmi Prasad Devkota. It is one of the most popular works in Nepali literature. Just before his death in 1959 Devkota made his famous statement, "It would be all right if all my works were burned, except for Muna Madan." It is the most commercially successful Nepali book ever published. It is based on the Jhaurey folk tune. The book describes the life of a man (Madan) who leaves his wife (Muna) and goes to Lhasa to make money. Madan represents all the youths of Nepal who go abroad to earn money to earn their living. The wife of Madan, Muna is the queen of love and sacrifice. She loves her Madan a lot so she is upset as she has to send him to a place, Lahsa, where there are lots of obstacles and risks. But finally she accepts this challenge and stays in the country with her mother-in-law who is old and weak. While returning home, Madan becomes sick on the way. His friends leave him on the road and come back home saying he has died. Finally he is rescued by a man who is considered to be of lower caste in Nepal. That is why it is said that a man is said to be great not by caste or race but by a heart full of love and humanity. When Madan returns to Kathmandu after regaining his health, he discovers that his mother and his beloved wife had already died. Madan comes to realize that money is of no value at that point. The story also shows the life of a poor woman who suffered much without her husband and later dies because of grief. In this poem, Devkota has written about the biggest problems of the then Nepalese society. Through the story of Muna and Madan, Laxmi Prasad Devkota wants to stabilize the facts of traditional societies, unscientific beliefs and the negative impacts of unemployment and poverty in Nepalese society. The poet has wonderfully defined love by writing about the relationship of Muna and Madan. The book has proved to be a great piece in the Nepali Literature. I found this a-must-read book in Nepali literature. 81


Fun corner  Ask the students to observe the given sculpture very closely. Invite everybody to describe it using the adjectives. For example: This sculpture represents sad feeling of the human being. Or, the man in the sculpture is alone and not happy.  Respect all the responses of the students. Now ask them to list down other adjectives (descriptive words) that can be used to describe this sculpture. Some adjectives absorbing, abstract, acclaimed, aesthetically pleasing, appealing, artistic, astonishing, atmospheric, award-winning, awe-inspiring, balanced beautiful, ceramic, classic, colorful 

When they finish listing down the adjectives to describe the sculpture, ask them to use some of those adjectives, and describe the sculpture. Suggested answer This sculpture is very attractive. It is pleasing for the viewers. It presents a vivid scene of a man who is thinking deeply sitting alone on a giant stone. The art is very appealing: the face, body, look and posture of the man all are artistic and balanced. The candid presentation of the reality of human life can be understood from this sculptor. I feel this man is serious; he is in a difficult situation, and possibly he is planning for some ways out of terrible situation. This sculpture is indeed a candid portrayal of the life in the advent-grade society. It must be an award winning sculpture.

Extended activity Ask the students to write a couple of paragraphs based on the discussion of the picture. Lesson reflection Developing extensive reading habits should be one of the prominent goals of language teaching in the secondary/tertiary level. What challenges do you face while engaging students in extensive reading activities? What different resources are you in access of for this purpose?

Part 3: Additional Resources 1. Changing Direct Speech into Indirect Speech While changing sentences from direct speech to indirect speech, we need to follow some rules. These rules are different for different types of sentences. We normally have to make the following types of changes while changing sentences form direct into indirect: 1. Change of reporting verb 2. Change of tense 3. Change of persons 4. Change of adverbials We have to change the reporting verb, tenses, persons and adverbials to make clear who reported the speech and when and where it was reported. Look at the sentence: Tanka said to me, "I have no money." R.V. R.S. "I didn't eat food", said Tara 82


R. S.

R.V.

The verb followed by the speaker is called a reporting verb (RV) and the speaker's saying which is inside the inverted commas is called reported speech (RS). Remember if the reporting verb is in the past tense, we have to change the tense and adverbials of the reported speech. If the reporting verb is in present and future tense, tenses and adverbials of the reported speech are not changed. A. Change of reporting verb The reporting verb say or said in direct speech can be replaced with other verbs in indirect speech. The following is a list of verbs that can be used to replace reporting verbs in indirect speech forms: Declarative sentence Imperative Interrogative Exclamatory sentence sentence sentence told

suggest

told

asked

argued

acknowledge

advised

enquired

expressed

comment

allowed

questioned

mentioned

declare

commanded

wanted to know

promised

explain

forbade

wondered

blessed

replied

insist

instructed

demanded

cried out

requested

report

ordered

wished

pleaded

prayed

reminded

urged

urged

warned

warned

wished

begged asked B. Change of personal pronouns Study at the following examples: 1. Direct: Jack said, "I am in the kitechen." Indirect: Jack said that he was in the kitchen. 2. Direct: Nikita said to me, "Please help me." Indirect: Nikita requested me to help her. 3. Direct: Anu said to me, " You are very helpful person." Indirect: Anu told me that I am very helpful person. 4. Direct: Manoj said, "She never helps me." Indirect: Manoj said that she never helps him. The personal pronouns are changed as follows:  First person changes according to subject of the reporting verb. 83

exclaimed with: joy, sorrow, pain, appreciation


 

Second person changes according to object of the reporting verb. Third person remains unchanged.

Personal Pronouns

1st person 2nd person 3rd person

1st person 2nd person 3rd person

Subject Pronouns Singular Plural I we you you he/she/it they Subject Pronouns Singular Plural I we you you he/she/it they

Object Pronouns Singular Plural me us you you him/her/it them Object Pronouns Singular Plural me us you you him/her/it them

C. Change of tense We need to change the tense if the reporting verb is in the past tense. The tense of the reported speech changes into corresponding past tense as follows: Direct speech Simple present "I prefer coffee to tea.", she said. Present continuous I said to her, "You are doing well." Present perfect Krishna said to me, "I have made a plan." Present perfect continuous Sudha said to us, "I have been waiting for you." Simple past Raju said to me, "I didn't like her." Past continuous My father told me, ' I was doing my best." Past perfect She said to him, "I had prepared food." Past perfect continuous She said to him, "I had been preparing food." All future We said to her, "We will help you." My sister said to me, "I will have returned by 8." Sonu said to him, "I would finish it."

Indirect speech Simple past She said that she preferred coffee to tea. Past continuous I told her that she was doing well. Past perfect Krishna told me that he had made a plan. Past perfect continuous Sudha told us that she had been waiting for us. Past perfect Raju told me that he hadn't liked her. Past perfect continuous My father told me that he had been doing his best. No change in tense She told him that she had prepared food. ……………No change in tense. She told him that she had been preparing food. Conditional We told her we would help her. My sister told me that she would have returned by 8. Sonu told him that she would finish it.

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Do not change the tense if the reporting verb is in the present tense or in the future tense, or if the original statement is about something that is still true. For example: Direct speech Indirect speech She said to me, "The sun gives heat." She told me that the sun gives heat. Sashi said to him, "I never drink tea." Sashi told him that she never drinks tea. He said to us, “The earth rotates the sun.” He told us that the earth rotates the sun. The teacher will tell us, "I will help you." The teacher will tell us that he will help us. He says, "I'm a brave boy." He says that he is a brave boy.  These modal verbs do not change in reported speech: might, could, would, should, ought to e.g. We said, "It could be difficult to find our house." We said that it could be difficult to find our house. She said, "I might bring a friend to the party." She said that she might bring a friend to the party. D. Change of adverbials Words that refer to time, place and position are also changed in reported speech. Study the sentences in direct and their corresponding indirect versions in the following table. Direct speech Indirect speech "I will see you here tomorrow", she said. She said that she would see me there the next day. "I saw him today", she said. She said that she had seen him that day. "I saw him yesterday", she said. She said that she had seen him the day before. "I met her the day before yesterday", he He said that he had met her two days before. said. "I'll see you tomorrow", he said He said that he would see me the next day. "We'll come the day after tomorrow", they They said that they would come in two days said. time/ two days later. "I have an appointment next week", she She said that she had an appointment the said. following week. "I was on holiday last week", he told us.

He told us that he had been on holiday the previous week. "I saw her a week ago," he said. He said he had seen her a week before. "I'm getting a new bike this week", she She said she was getting a new bike that week said. "Do you like this pant?" he asked He asked if I liked that pant. He said, "I work here". He said that he worked there. a. Words denoting time Adverbs and adverbial phrases of time change as follows: Direct Indirect today that day five years ago five years before this week that week now then tonight that night yesterday the day before the day before yesterday two days before 85


tomorrow the day after tomorrow next week/year etc. last week/year etc. a year etc. ago

the next day/the following day in two day's time the following week/year etc. the previous week/year etc. a year before/the previous year

b. Words denoting place and position Direct speech Indirect speech here there in this city in that city last previous this place that place

2. Script of the audio You will hear a recitation of the poem by Eleanor Farjeon. Listen to it carefully. Knowledge Your mind is a meadow To plant for your needs You are the farmer With knowledge of seeds, Don‟t leave your meadow Unplanted and bare, Sow it with knowledge And tend it with care. Who‟d be a know-nothing When he might grow The seeds of knowledge Of stars and snow; The science of numbers, The stories of time, The magic of music, The secrets of rhyme? Don‟t be a know-nothing! Plant in the spring, And see what harvest The summer will bring. - Composed by Eleanor Farjeon

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UNIT FIVE GIVING ADVICE AND WARNINGS

Part 1: Unit Outline Curriculum reference: Language function no. 6 under scope and sequence Things to teach Language function and forms/exponents: Giving advice and warnings  You should study hard.  Why don't you take hot water?  You are not allowed to do that.  You can't open that door.  You mustn't speak loudly here. Reading:

I. A letter to Kunsang II. Movie Review: “2012” is a Perfect Disaster  Reading comprehension followed by extended activities  Text based vocabulary items Modal auxiliaries, expressions of advise, suggestion and warning A conversation between a librarian and a student  Listening comprehension followed by extended activities Activities that focus on giving advice or warnings; pair and group works Writing Dialogue and Movie/Book review

Grammar: Listening:

Speaking: Writing:

Content themes/topics  A letter  A movie review Expected achievements of the students By the end of this unit, the students will have:  guessed the meaning of unfamiliar the words in the text.  completed the comprehension activities of the given reading text.  used attitude words/phrases appropriately,  given advise and warnings using appropriate words/phrases/expressions.  completed the comprehension activities after listening to the audio.  composed a dialogue for giving advice or warnings.  written a dialogue about distinct views on the qualities of a captain or a leader,  prepared a dialogue using the given hints, and  written a book/movie review.  written a report based on a field visit. Integrated soft skills  Problem solving and decision-making skills 87


 

Development of critical and creative thinking skills Communication and interpersonal skills

Teaching materials  Flash cards of the words and that of the meanings from 'Vocabulary in use' from the letter and the movie review  A chart having lists of expressions/phrases/words used for giving advice and warnings  Audio file of the assigned listening script  Sign cards like, “NO HORN”, “NO TRESPASSING”, “QUIET PLEASE” Estimated periods: 8

Part 2: Learning Facilitation Process Lesson One Reading I Content from the textbook  Engage yourself (p.48)  Study time (A Letter to Kunsang p. 48) Required materials  Flash cards of the words from 'Vocabulary in use' Lesson activities Engage yourself  Ask the students to look at the pictures and guess who they are. Write their answers on the board. Do not comment on the guesses. After they give their answers, you give yours.

Pic. 1

Pic. 2

Pic. 3

Suggested answers Pic.1- A family, parents and children. Pic.2- A doctor Pic.3- A teacher.  Now ask them „If you are in trouble, who comes into your mind first?‟  Listen to their answers. Do not comment when they give answers. Give logical answer when they finish. Possible answer: Parents Study time Reading I  Write the following questions on the board, and then ask the students to read the letter quickly but carefully to find the answers. Check the students‟ answers. a. When was the letter written? b. What is the relation between Manisha and Kunsung? Answers: a. April 7, 2017 b. Aunt and Nephew 88


Vocabulary in use (i)  Tell the students that attitude words/phrases are used to bring out the writer‟s attitude/tone/mood to what s/he is saying. Some examples of such words are: generally speaking, strictly speaking, roughly speaking, of course, surely, personally, frankly, unfortunately, ideally, presumably, confidentially, ideally, literally, in my opinion, quite properly, in short, naturally, undoubtedly, as a matter of fact, indeed, evidently, eventually, in brief, understandably, personally, apparently, to be precise, to be honest, to my surprise, with respect, obviously, technically, clearly, practically, unjustly, really, officially, admittedly, if I may say so, in theory, etc.  Now ask the students to read the letter carefully, and pick out all the attitude words/phrases. Answer: Surely, To my surprise, Honestly, really, obviously, Undoubtedly, Of course  Next ask the students to use these attitude words/phrases in sentence of their own Possible answers: a. Surely we should do something about it. b. To my surprise, I passed the test with good grades. c. I didn‟t tell anyone, honestly! d. He really likes you. e. Diet and exercise are obviously important for good health. f. There is undoubtedly a great deal of truth in what he says. g. “Will you come to the party?” “Of course I will.” Vocabulary in use (ii)  Ask the students to read the letter again and find the words from the text that give similar meaning to the given words. Suggested answers a. metropolitan b. surely c. happy d. appalling e. appealing Extended activity Assign the following task to the students: Working in a groups of two to three, choose the most appropriate attitude word from the box to fill in each of the blank space in the letter below. Generally speaking Ideally Frankly Evidently Quite properly Undoubtedly Naturally Really Of course As a matter of fact Understandably Honestly Personally Literally Obviously Unjustly Clearly Officially Admittedly Dear Sir, This is in response to the last week‟s editorial, „Discipline in Our Schools‟. (1) …………, I am not a regular writer to newspapers, but this editorial compelled me to jot down a few words. (2) ………., I could not control my anger when I read the editorial, which nearly claimed that discipline is the same as cruelty. 89


When I was at school, we were (3)…………. told what to do, and we did it. (4)………., if we did not, we were punished. And if we repeatedly refused to obey, we were punished strictly. (5)………., this may seem hard to some people, and (6)…………, we disliked it at the time, but we did not really suffer, and we learnt certain morals and a certain self-respect. (7) ………, I am committed that discipline is important if children are to have a sense of security. (8)……….. , every child needs to know what is right and what is wrong, i.e. it needs moral guidance. (9)………….. , to judge from their behaviour in public, many children nowadays have no such guidance. (10)…………., physical cruelty would be going too far, but good sound discipline would make these young people happier with themselves and better members of society. Yours faithfully, Ram Shrestha Answers: (1) Generally speaking (2) Frankly (3) quite properly (4) Naturally (5) Of course (7) Personally (8) Obviously (9) Clearly (10) Admittedly

(6) understandably

Reflection Did your students find the answers to the questions easily? What were the problems that were faced by your students? Did your students get an idea to use attitude words and phrases appropriately in their write ups? Were they able to find the words from the text that give similar meaning? Lesson Two Reading I (contd.) Content from the textbook  Reading comprehension (p. 49) Required materials  The reading text (A Letter to Kunsang) Lesson activities Reading comprehension (i)  By this time the students have already read the letter several times, and have learned the meanings of some difficult words as well.  Now ask the students to read the letter once again, and answer the questions. Make sure that they have understood the questions.  Ask each student to do the work on his/her own in the class. Move around the class when the students are working.  Assist the students who find difficulty to answer the questions. Possible answers (Accept any correct answers.): a. Manisha has written the letter. b. The letter is addressed to Kunsang. c. Kunsang wants to go to the biggest metropolitan city of Nepal. d. Kunsang wants to leave his village to find a job. e. Manisha wants her nephew to give a second thought because life in the city is very difficult f. She suggested Kunsang not to ignore his parents‟ support, and that he should complete his studies first. g. No, I do not like his idea. He should complete his studies before leaving for metropolitan city because life in such a city would be very difficult if one is not well qualified. 90


Reading comprehension (ii)  Divide the class into two groups. Ask one group to tell you the advantages of living in a metropolitan city, and write their points on the board. Next ask the other group to tell you the disadvantages of such city, and write their points, too, on the board.  Now ask the students to read the letter again, and complete the table, also tell them that they may add their opinion, if they want to. Advantages Disadvantages City may be appealing. City can be appalling. More and better medical facilities Pollution Easier communication and transportation Higher standard of living More scope for cultivating intellect More violence and crime More recreational facilities More traffic jam More comfortable domestic life Less scope of getting fresh things More civic facilities Less scope of enjoying life Follow-up activity  This exercise can be set as a homework.  Tell the students to imagine themselves as Kunsang, and write a response letter to aunt. Possible answer (Accept any correct and sensible answer.): April 8, 2017 Dear aunt, Thank you very much for your letter which I received yesterday. I am glad that you have shown concern about me. I know that my parents love me unconditionally and have brought me up to think for myself. They have never compromised for my study and needs. I do know that I am good at studies, but I do not like to stay here because I find my school boring and monotonous, and I have decided to go to city and do something of my choice. Since you have asked me to meet you before I take my final decision, I will definitely be there this weekend. With much love, Kunsang Extended activity Ask the students to write a letter to his/her cousin who spends more time on social networking sites than on studies. Also tell them that they need to use at least five attitude words they have learnt so far. Reflection How did you feel about this lesson? Did your students enjoy your lesson? Did they understand the reading text? Were they able to do the activities well? What were the main difficulties that you faced in this lesson? Do your students have vocabulary, reading and comprehension problems? Have your students written the response letter correctly? What strategies may help you to tackle such problems? Write a reflective diary including your plan for further improvement of these kinds of reading lessons.

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Lesson Three Reading II (Movie Review) Content from the textbook  Movie Review: “2012” is a Perfect Disaster (p. 50) Required materials  Movie Review: “2012” is a Perfect Disaster Lesson activities Reading (Movie Review)  Write the following questions on the board: a. What is the name of the movie? b. Who directed the movie? c. Who are the producers? d. Who has written its script? e. Who are the lead actors of the movie? f. When was the movie released?  Now ask the students to read the first part of the review on p. 50 quickly, and answer the questions. Suggested answers a. The name of the movie is“2012” b. Roland Emmerich directed the movie. c. Harald Kloser, Mark Gordon and Larry J. Franco are the producers. d. Harald Klose and Roland Emmerich have written the script. e. John Cusack, Amanda Peet, Chiwetel Ejiofor, Woody Harrelson are the lead actors of the movie. f. The movie was released on November13, 2009 Vocabulary in use  Ask the students to go through the words in the box. Make sure that they know the meaning of the words. Group the students into pairs.  Now ask each pair to read the complete review, and replace the underlined words/phrases in the sentences given with the suitable words/phrases from the box. When the students work, move around the class to see if they are doing correctly. Help the pair/s that face/s difficulties. Suggested answers a. movie reviewer b. broadens c. a protagonist d. extremely large number of people e. appealing. f. the people who speak American Indian language in Central America and Mexico, misinterpretation g. unbelievable. h. boom Extended activity Ask the students to watch any recently released Nepali movie and to answer the following questions: a. What is the name of the movie? b. Who directed the movie? c. Who are the producers? 92


d. Who has written its script? e. Who are the lead actors of the movie? f. When was the movie released? Reflection How did you feel about this lesson? Did your students enjoy your lesson? Did they understand the reading text? Were they able to do the activities well? What were the main difficulties that you faced in this lesson? Do your students have vocabulary, reading and comprehension problems? Write a reflective diary including your plan for further improvement of this kinds of reading lessons. Lesson Four Reading II (Movie review) Content from the textbook  Movie Review: “2012” is a Perfect Disaster (p. 50) Materials required  Movie Review: “2012” is a Perfect Disaster Lesson activities Reading comprehension (i)  Tell the students that each of the given sentences is either true or false. Now, ask the students to read the movie review again, and then write true against the statements that are correct and false against the ones that are incorrect.  Check the answers by asking students to tell the line number where the answer lies. Suggested answers a. True b. True c. False d True e. True Reading comprehension (ii)  Divide the students into groups as per your convenience. Ask the students to go through the questions carefully.  Make sure the students understand the questions. If they find difficulty to get what the questions ask for, clarify it. Next ask them to read the review once again to find out the answers to the questions.  Ask them to mark the lines where the answers to these questions are likely to be found.  Move around the class to see that the students are doing their works. If need be, give clue/s to the student/s or the group/s to find the answers.  Compare the answers with the whole class. Suggested answers (Accept any correct answers): a. Roland Emmerich is the director of the movie “2012”. b. The movie was released on 13th November, 2009. c. It was assumed that the Mayan calendar picks “2012” as the date of humanity‟s disaster. d. The audience do not feel bored while watching the movie because the actors, the story the dialogue and the special effects are fantastic. e. The way things are presented in the movie “2012” makes it the perfect movie. 93


f. Other movies have explosions; “2012” has an atom bomb size detonation that wipes Yellowstone off the map. Other movies have earthquakes; “2012” sends California sinking, in flames into the sea. Other movies kill thousands; “2012” kills zillions without breaking a sweat. Follow-up activity (Refer to Lesson 3, Activity 3 (Follow up Activity) of Unit 14 for detailed explanation about Paragraph writing)  Ask the students to note down the major points of the movie review. Major points:  In “2012” Roland Emmerich creates a picture of the world’s future.  According to the movie, the Mayan calendar ends on Dec. 21, 2012, predicting that the world will end on that day.  Catastrophic natural disasters damage the planet, resulting in the deaths of millions.  The movie is the greatest achievement in Emmerich’s career as a destroyer of the world.  It is a four-star movie.  It has spectacular special effects.  The best movie of its kind ever made.  Now ask the students to develop a paragraph about the movie with a suitable topic sentence, supporting sentences and a concluding sentence. The above given points can be put together to build a paragraph.  Ask some of the students to read their paragraph to the class. Extended activity Ask the students to write the review of the Nepali movie they have recently watched. Ask them to use the information they have collected for the extended activity in the previous lesson. Reflection Write a reflective diary including your plan for further improvement of these kinds of reading lessons. Lesson Five Grammar Content from the textbook  Engage yourself (p. 52) Required materials  Modal verbs cards List of modal verbs: can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, would, ought to, have and need to. Lesson activities Engage yourself  Explain the students about the modal auxiliary verbs.  Tell them that a modal verb is an auxiliary verb which is used with another verb to talk about possibility, probability, permission, intention, etc. For example: a. It might take more than a month. (possibility) b. They say it may rain tonight. (possibility) c. You might have told me about it! (showing disapproval) d. That can’t be the right answer. (logical deduction) 94


e. He must be English. (logical deduction) f. He must take his medicine three times a day. (obligation) g. I can’t lift that box by myself. (ability) h. May I look at the questions now? (asking for permission)  The examples of modal verbs are can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, would, ought to, have and need to.  Now ask the students to examine the use of modal verbs in these sentences extracted from "A Letter to Kunsang". a. You must not do it. b. You must think of them and their unconditional love. c. Dear Kun, everyone needs to be ambitious but over ambition may ruin your life. d. You should not ignore your parents' support and education. e. If anything appalling ever happens to you, I might not forgive myself.  After they go through the sentences, ask them to make their own sentences using the modal verbs: can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, would, ought to, have and need to. For example: a. I can speak German. b. I could swim quite well when I was younger. c. They say it may snow tomorrow. d. It might take more than a week. e. Must you make so much noise? f. You mustn’t blame yourself for this. g. Shall we go now? h. He should be here by now. i. We will have to put this off until tomorrow. j. Would you shut the door, please? k. We ought to be going. l. They have to be more punctual. m. You might have discussed it with me first. n. I need to go to the supermarket. Time for grammar 1. Read the school uniform code, and encircle the modal verbs.  Tell the students that the given text is about the school uniform code.  Pair up the students, and ask each pair to encircle the modal verbs in the text. Suggested answer The school uniform codes are important to maintain a sense of oneness and unity. Therefore, students must come to school in their stipulated uniform. They may wear coloured clothes of their choice on their birthdays but they have to maintain the regulations for sportswear, formal wear and Friday clothing accordingly. As the bottom line for clothing is comfort and decency, students are not allowed to wear jewellery or make-up. Similarly, hair must be of natural colour, decent length and style. Next, they should trim their nails. Furthermore, they need to wear trousers and skirts according to specifications. Lastly, they ought to follow the instructions of the discipline incharge. Breaching uniform codes may result in detention. 2. Imagine Kunsang has visited Manisha. What might Manisha have told her nephew?  Ask the students to work in pairs to complete the following sentences with suitable expressions of advice, suggestion or warning. 95


Possible answers (Accept any suitable answers.): a. Kunsang, you mustn‟t hurt your parents‟ feelings. b. You have to think about your parents. c. You ought not to give up studying now. d. If I were you, I would complete my high school education. e. You aren‟t allowed to do as you wish at this age. f. You may go to town after completing your high school. g. You are not supposed to leave school now. Follow-up activity  Ask the students to work in pairs.  Tell them to fill in the blank spaces using the correct modal verb in each blank space in the given text. Suggested answer (accept any other correct answer) The roads can be dangerous for pedestrians. Even for those who are not driving, it is important to be aware that traffic could be approaching from unexpected directions. Apart from motorways, it‟s not illegal crossing the road at any point. It is advisable to use crossings, some of them controlled by traffic lights, whenever you can. You ought to cross the road when the green signal is on but, if the light is flashing, don‟t start to cross. There are crossing points known as zebra crossings which have black and white road markings and orange flashing beacons at each side of the road. Drivers should give way to pedestrians on the crossing. Pedestrians of developed cities can also use subways and overhead bridges for their safety. Don‟t forget, pedestrians must not walk along or cross any motorways at any time. Extended Activity Ask the students to read „A Letter to Kunsang‟ (Reading ii) again, and pick up all the modal verbs in the letter. Reflection Some people believe that we can use three different approaches to teaching grammar, i.e. deductive, inductive and the text-based for teaching the same grammar item in the same lesson. Do you agree with this view? Why or why not? If yes, how is it possible? Prepare a plan for your next grammar lesson. Lesson Six Listening Content from the textbook  Listening activities (Engage yourself, Study time, Follow-up activity) (p. 54) Required materials  Audio file or audio scriptof telephone conversation between a librarian and a student  Related pictures Lesson activities Engage yourself  This is a listening exercise with the objective of making students listen to a conversation having modal verbs.  Ask the students to look at the given pictures carefully, and then guess the answers to the given questions. 96


a. Where are these people? b. What are they doing?  Write their answers on the board. Do not comment on the guesses or say which is right or wrong. Answers: a. They are in a library. b. They are reading.  Now ask them the questions given in the exercise: a. Are you fond of reading books? b. How often do you visit a library? c. How do you find a book of your choice in a library? Suggested answers a. Yes, I am. / No, I am not. b. I go there every day/ once a week. c. I go to the particular section. /I simply ask it from the librarian. Study time (1)  Tell the students to listen to the conversation, and make a list of different sections of a library.  Next play the audio file or read the audio scriptaloud.  You can play the audio more than once if the students cannot complete the task.  After they finish, play the audio file or read the audio scriptone more time so that they can correct their answers. Suggested answers a. Library display section b. Periodical section c. Reference section d. Biography section Study time (2)  Ask the students to listen to the conversation again, and answer the questions given.  Make sure that the students understand each of the given questions.  Play the audio file or read the audio scriptaloud. Students listen and write. Play the audio file or read the audio scriptmore than once if necessary. Suggested answers a. Her teacher b. Seldom/Rarely/Once in a while c. Magazines and newspapers d. Library Display Section e. Biography Section Follow-up activity  Divide the class into a groups of six students in each.  Ask them to discuss the rules and regulations of the school library. 97


Tell them that each student from each group states one rule /regulation so that each group can come up with six different rules and regulations.  After they discuss, ask them to write the rules and regulations on a plain sheet of paper.  After they finish share it with the class. Possible answer (Accept any other suitable answer.) Library Rules and Regulations  Sit in your assigned seat.  Be respectful and considerate of ...  Yourself  Your classmates  Your teacher-librarian  The library and library materials  Be responsible.  Walk to keep each other safe.  Use quiet voices so others may learn.  Ask for permission to use the computers and print.  Food/drinks/gum/candy are not allowed in the library.  Student photo identification library cards are required to sign out the library material. Extended activity Ask each student to imagine himself/herself as the captain/monitor of the class, and ask them to write a set of rules to be followed by his/her classmates when in the classroom. Reflection Did your students really enjoy the lesson? What are other possible ways of teaching listening to the students? Note: Textbook exercises are not enough for students to engage themselves in the listening texts, so different pre-listening activities such as vocabulary practice, vocabulary games, background of the text, etc. are expected from you at this stage. Please consider the same for other units as well. Lesson Seven Speaking Content from the textbook  Speaking activities (Engage yourself, Time for speaking, Follow-up activity (p. 5556) Required materials  Bigger cards having the signs as given in the exercise Lesson activities Engage yourself  By this time the students should have been familiar with different modal verbs.  Ask the students to work in pairs. Tell them to look at the pictures, and in turns tell each other what they mean.

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Pic. 1 Pic. 2 Pic. 3  Move round the class to see that each pair is engaged in the activity.  After they finish, ask the students to tell you the meaning of the pictures. Possible answers Pic.1 - Entering this place /area is strictly prohibited./You are not allowed to enter this place/area./ You must not enter this place/area. Pic. 2 – No Horn! /You ought not to blow/honk your vehicle‟s horn in this area. Pic. 3 – You are not allowed to make noise here. /Making noise is strictly prohibited. /You shouldn‟t make noise here

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Time for speaking Exercise 1  Organize the students in pairs, and then ask each pair to take it in turns to tell two sentences about each picture using modal verbs, as shown in the example.  Move around the class to make sure that each pair is engaged in the activity. Example:

A: She might be late for school. B: She must have missed her class. Possible answers (Accept any justifiable answers):

Pic 1 A: He might be having a day off today. B: He must be watching a live football match.

Pic 2 A: The students must have greeted the teacher. B: The teacher might have asked how they have been.

Pic 3 A: She might be thinking about her future. B: She must be dreaming about her married life. 100


Pic 4 A: The man must have good harvests this year. B: He might be thinking of taking the crops to the market.

Exercise 2  Organize the students into a group of three or four. Ask them to share the problem given, and to give or receive advice, as in the example.  Move around the class to make sure that each group is engaged in the activity. Example: trouble with English homework A: I’ve trouble with English homework. B: You must join an English language class. C: If I were you, I’d get a supplementary book. D: You ought to consult your English teacher. Possible answers (Accept any correct answers.) a. suffering from gastritis A: I‟m suffering from gastritis. B: You must consult a gastroenterologist. C: You have to avoid eating/having oily and spicy food. D: It would be better if you correct your eating habits. b. feeling lazy A: I am feeling lazy. B: If I were you, I would go for a walk. C: You should keep yourself active. D: Why don't you help your mother in the kitchen? c. weak in mathematics A: I am weak in mathematics. B: How about taking tuition classes? C: You should first learn the basics thoroughly. D: If I were you, I would ask our teacher to help me with my maths. Follow-up activity  Organize the students into pairs, and them to go through the given situations carefully. Make sure that the students understand each of the situations clearly.  Now ask them to give possible explanation for each situation using different modal verbs where possible, as shown in the example.  Move around the class to see that each group is engaged in the activity. Example: Your parents start banging at your door in the middle of night. It might be an earthquake. 101


Possible answers (Accept any justifiable explanation.): a. Your best friend is looking upset. He might have scored low grades in all the subjects. b. You receive an email which tells you to meet your uncle on Monday at school. He must be going abroad so he wants to see me before he leaves. c. Your sister is suffering from the common cold. She must have been caught in the rain yesterday. d. Your teacher is setting up a projector in the classroom. S/he might be showing us a video/film related to the story explained yesterday. Extended activity Ask each student to suggest his/her friend who is in the following situation: a. Failed his/her unit test b. Lost his/her book c. Missed his/her school bus d. Forgot his/her homework exercise book e. His/her grandmother is admitted to hospital f. His/her friend is suffering from cold and fever Reflection Did your students really enjoy the lesson? Were your students actively participating in the individual and group work? What are other possible ways of facilitating the students? Lesson Eight Writing Content from the textbook  Writing activities (Engage yourself, Time for writing, Follow-up activity) ( p. 56-57) Materials required  Sample book review Lesson activities Engage yourself  Organize the students into pairs.  Ask each pair to read the dialogue between two students who are discussing the good qualities that a school captain should possess.  One student in the pair can read the dialogue by Mani Pratap, and the other can read that of Sunaina.  Move round the class to see the students are role playing. Time for writing Dialogue writing  Ask the students to read the dialogue under 'Engage yourself' once again, and then write a similar/parallel dialogue between two students who have different views on the qualities of a captain or a leader.  After they submit, mark their work and provide necessary tips, if needed. Writing a book/movie review  Give the students the necessary tips on how to write a book/movie review. 102


 

Tips for writing a book/movie review: a. Start with a couple of sentences describing what the book/movie is about. b. Discuss what you particularly liked about the book/movie. c. Mention anything you disliked about the book/movie. d. Round up your review. e. You can give the book a rating, for example a mark out of five or ten, if you like. Ask them to go through the movie review under Exercise: Reading II once again, and write a similar review of a film/movie of their choice. You may ask them to include answers to the questions given in the instruction in their review. Sample book review I Capture the Castle Dodie Smith's novel I Capture the Castle is a journey through the mind of a young writer as she attempts to chronicle her daily life. Seventeen-year-old Cassandra Mortmain has recently learned to speed-write, and she decides to work on her writing skills by describing the actions and conversations of those around her. Cassandra lives in a fourteenth-century English castle with an interesting cast of characters: her beautiful older sister, Rose; her rather unsociable author father and his second wife, artist-model Topaz; Stephen, the garden boy; a cat and a bull terrier; and sometimes her brother Thomas when he is home from school. One fateful day they make the acquaintance of the Cotton family, including the two sons, and a web of tangled relationships ensues. While I definitely recommend this book to other readers, I would recommend it to older teenagers, mainly because it will resonate better with them. The writing is tame enough that younger teens could also read it, but most of the characters are adults or on the verge of adulthood. Older readers would take the most from it since they can not only relate, but they may also better pick up on and appreciate Cassandra's sometimes subtle humor. Over the course of the novel, Cassandra undergoes a definite transformation from child to mature young adult, even though it's only over the course of several months. I love that I could see into her mindset and read exactly what she was feeling when she thought out situations. Her thoughts flowed well and moved the book along very quickly. Cassandra's narrative voice is wonderful. She is serious at times, but also very witty, which makes for an engaging read. It feels absolutely real, as though I'm reading someone's actual journal. Sometimes I forget that I am reading a story and not a real-life account. Her emotions and the dialogue are so genuine, and they are spot-on for a seventeen-year-old girl in her situation. Cassandra has many wonderful insights on life, on topics ranging from writing to faith to matters of the heart. I personally have had some of the same thoughts as Cassandra, except Ms. Smith was able to put them into words. Capture the Castle should be essential reading for aspiring writers, those looking for historical fiction or romance, or anyone who loves reading amazing classic books. Dodie Smith is an exceptional writer, and I Capture the Castle is a book that will never become out of fashion.

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Follow-up activity  Ask the students to go through the instruction carefully, and then compose a dialogue using the hints given in the box.  Tell them that the beginning of the dialogue is given, and they have to continue it using the given hints.  Move around the class and assist the students. Suggested dialogue Hridaya : Sister, I'm planning to go abroad. Bimala : Why do you want to go? Hridaya : I‟ve heard that there are many job opportunities. I can get a good job, make a good income and, of course, have a better and secured future. Bimala : Well, when you go abroad, you should take care of several things. Hridaya : I know. I have to be careful. Bimala : I have heard that many people who have gone abroad have returned with fatal diseases. Hridaya : Yes, people who live carefree lives, and those who do not take care of their health contract to such diseases. But you need not worry. I am not a careless person. Bimala : I have heard that a person who is skillful and can speak different languages is highly paid there. Hridaya : Yes! You have heard right. I have planned to join a language institute to learn Japanese and Korean languages. Bimala : Okay, if you have already decided to go. I won‟t stop you, but you must go legally. Hridaya : I will not go illegally. I will get necessary information from the government offices, and also get help from the helpline. Bimala : Better do that. My good wishes will always be with you. Hridaya :Thank you di! Reflection There are basically two approaches to teaching writing: process and product. Which approach to teaching writing do you think you followed in this lesson? If you are to teach a similar type of writing, how would you teach it in a better way? Write in your personal diary based on your experience of this lesson. Lesson Nine Project Work and Fun Corner Content from the textbook  Project work and Fun corner (p. 58) Materials required  Questionnaire Lesson activities Project work  Ask each student to visit a nearby farmer. Ask him/her about farming such as, things to be considered, possible diseases, benefits, challenges, etc. in his/her farming. Take notes of the important points. Prepare a short report and present it to the class. Sample questions that the students can ask the farmer: 104


a. b. c. d. e. f.

How long have you been engaged in this job for? What kinds of crops do you usually grow? What do you do to increase the production of your crops? How much do you save every year? Do you face any challenges in producing and selling crops? Are you satisfied with your profession?

Fun corner  Engage the students in the crazy story game.  Follow the instructions given. Extended activity Situation: A daughter wants to pursue her higher education in the Engineering field, but her father wants her to study Medicine. Now ask the students to draft a conversation that takes place between the father and the daughter. Reflection Write a reflective note on this lesson in your diary.

Part 3: Additional Resources 1. Some useful sites  https://www.tesol-direct.com/tesol-resources/english-grammar-guide/modal-auxiliaryverbs/  http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/grammar/hilfsverben2.htm  http://www.booktrust.org.uk/books/teenagers/writing-tips/tips-for-writing-book-reviews/  http://blog.netgalley.com/tips-for-writing-reviews/  http://www.mensaforkids.org/teach/lesson-plans/book-review-guide/book-reviewwriting-examples/ 2. Exponents for giving advice and warnings Advice  You should/ ought to/must/ have to/had better/may …. A. Asking for advice  Do you think I ought to call the police?  What do you think I should buy him for his birthday?  Do you have any ideas about how I can sell my bicycle?  Should I try to talk with him about this matter again?  If you were me, what would you tell her?  If you were in my position, would you forgive me?  Do you have any advice for me?  Can you give me an advice?  Do you have any recommendations about good transportation to Mustang?  Can you recommend a suitable menu for dinner? 105


B. Giving advice To do something  I think you‟d better …..  If I were you, I‟d ….  It would probably be a good idea …..  Take my advice and ….  I advise you to …..  How about ……? Not to do something  I don‟t think you should ….  I would not …, if I were you.  You‟d better not …  Warnings Not to do something  Don‟t push so hard on that toy, or you might / will break it!  Watch out! Be careful!  Work hard otherwise you‟ll fail your exam. To do something  Be careful of ….  Make sure you …  Be careful!  Look out!  Watch out!  Make sure you don‟t … 3. Script of the audio You will hear a conversation between a librarian and Anjali. Student: Excuse me, Sir! Librarian: Yes, please. What can I do for you? Anjali: Would you mind helping me choose a book? My teacher advised me to get a book of my interest, but I‟m confused. Librarian: Oh! Don‟t you consult reference books? Anjali: Seldom. Librarian: You know, if you choose the right book that can change your life. Anjali: How can I find the right book in this big library? Can you please help me? Librarian: Sure. If this is your first time, you need to search carefully. For this, firstly, you must take some time to look around and get to know the place. Anjali: Oh, I see. Then? Librarian: Choose the section that interests you. There is a Library Display section for new books. Anjali: Is there any other section too? Liberian: Of course. The other section is the Periodical Section. It's for magazines and newspapers. Are you getting me? Anjali: Yes. Of course. 106


Librarian: Anjali: Librarian: Anjali: Librarian: Anjali:

You must know about the Reference Section, right? Hmmm. But I‟d like to know about the success stories of people. For it, you can find biographies of famous personalities in the Biography Section. Thank you for your suggestion and help. You‟re welcome. Hope to see you again. Sure, ma‟am.

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UNIT SIX EXPRESSING CONDITIONS (I)

Part 1: Unit Outline Curriculum reference: Language function no. 7 under scope and sequence Things to teach Language Function and Exponents: Expressing condition(s)  If you play volleyball, you'll be late.  If you don't eat, you'll be hungry. Reading: 1.Did I Miss Anything? (Poem) 2. Achham (Brochure)  Reading comprehension followed by extended activities  Text based vocabulary items Grammar: Conditional sentences Listening: Minimal pairs  Listening comprehension followed by extended activities Speaking: Expressing condition  Taking part in conversations  Asking questions with condition, collecting information & presenting information in the class Writing: A Paragraph, a brochure  Writing a paragraph on the importance of classroom education  Writing a brochure of a place Content themes/topics  Importance of classroom education  Achham district  A touristic/historical/religious area Expected achievements of the students By the end of this unit, the students will have:  guessed the meanings of unfamiliar words from the context.  recited the poem 'did i miss anything?'.  summarised the poem.  completed different types of comprehension activities based on the reading texts.  asked questions using conditional structure and responded to them.  identified the sounds of english.  written a paragraph about the importance of classroom education.  written a summary of the text 'achham'.  used conditional structures in conversations.  written a brochure of a place.  engaged in a reading-based project. Integrated Soft Skills  Thinking skills  Inter- personal skills 108


 Problem solving skills  Information management skills  Innovation skills Teaching resources  Audio of the poem 'Did I Miss Anything?'  Flash cards of the words from 'Vocabulary in use'  A chart showing the structure and use of conditional sentences  Brochures of different places  Audio/video files containing minimal pairs  A chart containing the phonemic transcription of English sounds  A video from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MOMGmw6oj3Q for the model of poem recitation Estimated periods: 8

Part 2: Learning Facilitation Process Lesson One Reading Content from the textbook  Engage yourself (p. 59)  Study time: Reading I: Did I Miss Anything? (pp. 59-60) Materials required  Audio of the poem 'Did I Miss Anything?' (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VGmoLfYas3E)  Flash cards of the words from 'Vocabulary in use' Lesson activities Engage yourself  Ask the students to look at the picture given in this section, and ask them the questions from the textbook.  Make them work in groups of four or five to discuss the answers of those questions.  After they find out the answers, ask them to share their answers with the class. Do not say either they are right or wrong, but give your opinion. Possible answers (Accept any possible answers.) a. These people are students. b. They are in the classroom. They are discussing their holiday plans. c. I talk about sports, movies, teachers etc. when I am free in the class. d. Yes, I will worry if I miss my class. or No, I don't worry.  You can add your own questions like: a. Have you ever missed a class? b. Did you ask your friends about the lessons taught? c. Did you realise that you shouldn't have missed it? d. Do you miss the class now? etc.  They may either say yes or no, consider both of the answers. Study Time: Reading I: Did I Miss Anything?  Write the title of the poem, and ask the students to think about the theme of the poem. (importance of classroom education) 109


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Ask the students how they feel about classroom education. They may give various answers like:  It's important because we get different learning experiences.  Classroom education helps to get better marks in the exam.  I feel bored in the class, etc. Tell your view too. For example:  Classroom education familiarizes the students with human experiences.  It makes the students more competitive and cooperative.  It helps them in socialization, etc. Ask them who has composed the poem. (Tom Wayman). Ask them to share with the class if anyone has any information about the poet. Provide them a brief introduction to the poet.

Introduction to the poet Tomm Wayman was born in 1945 in Hawkesbury, Ontario, Canada. Wayman has lived most of his life in British Columbia. He studied at the University of British Columbia and the University of California. He holds Associate Professor Emeritus of English status from the University of Calgary, where he taught from 2002 to 2010. In 2007 he was the Fulbright Visiting Chair in creative writing at Arizona State University, and has also taught at Colorado State University and Wayne State University. For decades, Wayman has had a particular interest in people writing about their own workplace experiences, including how their jobs affect their lives off work. He has composed a number of poems. Some of them include: For and Against the Moon (1974), Money and Rain (1975), Free Time (1977), Living on the Ground (1980), My Father's Cup (2002) and Dirty Snow (2012).  Ask the students to read the poem silently, and mark the words which are unfamiliar to them.  Write the words marked by the students on the board.  Teach them the pronunciation and meaning of these words using flash cards.  Give them a brief background information of the poem. For example: The poem is a compilation of all the answers the poet wanted to give to his students who asked him the same question (Did I miss anything?) when he was teaching at a college. An absent student shows up and asks whether "anything" happened in the class. The assumption behind the question is that all this work by the teacher doesn't really amount to "anything." So the question belittles all the effort the teacher has put into doing his or her job. The poem "Did I Miss Anything?" has a mocking tone, and when people are angry they say things they don't mean. The speaker in the poem is pretending to answer the student's question honestly but in fact is taking a round-about way to say to the student that there's something wrong with the way the student has phrased the question.   

Now provide a model recitation of the poem to the students and, ask them to listen to you carefully. If you have an audio or video of the poem, play it, and ask them to listen to or watch it. You can play the audio or video more than once. Invite the class to recite the poem with you together, if required do it more than once. 110


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Next ask the class to recite the poem in their own. Observe how they recite. Now, ask them to recite the poem in small groups, and finally invite some individual students randomly to recite the poem.  After this, ask the students to identify the stanzas into two groups: "student's point of view" and "teacher's point of view". Move around the class and assist them.  You can ask half of the class to recite the stanzas which express the student's point of view, and the next half will recite the stanzas that express the teacher's point of view. Encourage them to use gestures too. Vocabulary in use (i)  Ask the students to work in pairs to match the words with their meanings. Encourage them to guess the meanings of the words from the context in the lines of the poem.  Once they finish, ask them to share their answers with the class, and provide necessary feedback. Suggested answers Words Meanings assign to provide a person a particular task descend to come or go down from a higher to a lower level (of a hill, etc.) reveal to make something known to somebody assemble to bring people, ideas or things together as a group Vocabulary in use (ii)  Ask the students to work in the pairs to use the words in their own sentences.  Ask them to share their answers with the class, and provide necessary feedback. Possible answers a. The teachers assign us homework everyday. b. The climbers have descended to the bottom of the mountain. c. We shouldn't reveal our secrets to anyone. d. The students always assemble in the ground for prayer. Reading comprehension (i)  Ask the students to go through the statements. Make sure that they understand all the statements.  Ask them to work in pair again, and decide which sentence shows the importance of classroom education and which does not.  After they complete the task, ask them to share their answers with the class, and provide necessary feedback. Suggested answer a. Yes b. No c. No d. Yes e. No Reading comprehension (ii)  Ask the students to go through the questions. Make sure that they understand each of the questions.  Ask them to go through the poem, and mark the lines where the answers to these questions are likely to be found.  Ask them to work in pairs to finalize the answer to each question.  Move around the class to assist them. Go on correcting their answers at the same time. Possible answers a. Tom Wayman composed this poem. 111


b. The students sat silently folding their hands on their desks in the absence of their teacher. c. The angel revealed to the students what each woman or man must do to attain divine wisdom in this life and hereafter. d. The speaker in the first stanza spends time for the full two hours in complete silence. e. The speaker in the second stanza thinks being in the class is important because things taught in the classroom are asked in the examination. f. The speaker in the third stanza says that education is useless and has no value. g. Yes, the speaker in the fourth stanza agrees with the statement that 'Education enlightens people with wisdom.' He argues that an angel descended and told them what a man or woman must do to achieve divine wisdom. h. The last stanza suggests that classroom is the only place where there are shared experiences but the students have missed the class. Reading comprehension (iii)  Ask the students to go through the poem again.  Divide the students into groups of four or five.  Ask each group to say a sentence about the poem after they discuss in their groups.  List the sentences told by the students on the board.  Ask the students if someone can summarize the poem using those sentences. If they can't, summarise yourself.  Again make the students work in the group to fill in the gaps, and make a summary of the poem.  Get them to share their answer with the class, and provide feedback to them. Suggested answer student's point of view, missing, silence, assigned, blames, meaningless, enlightened, accomplished, significance and microcosm respectively Extended Activity  Ask the students to write the moment when they missed the class, and how they felt about it. Reflection Many teachers say that most of their students fear poetry. Did your students feel the same? What did you do to make your students enjoy the poem? Write a reflective journal. Lesson Two Reading Content from textbook  Follow-up activities ( p. 62) Materials required  Few sheets of chart paper Lesson activities Follow-up activity (1)  Divide the class into the group of four to six students in each.  Ask each group to list out the sentences which show the importance of classroom education in the poem. For example: a. Things taught in the classroom are asked in the examination. b. Classroom education helps in extracurricular activities like quiz, debate, etc. c. We get wisdom that is useful to our present life as well as hereafter. 112


       

Move around the class to facilitate the students. After they complete the list, ask them to write on chart paper. Ask each group to share it with the class. Conduct a brief feedback session. Now ask the students to write a paragraph using the points presented to the class. Make them exchange their writing with other groups. Each group will go through the writing of the other group, and provide suggestion regarding the selection of the word, mechanics, organization, etc. Ask each of the group to edit their writing as per the feedback given, and present it to the class. Provide feedback to them after they present their writing to the class. They may write as below:

Importance of Classroom Education Classroom education plays a very important role in the life of a person. It enables the students to participate in extra-curricular activities. Students get wisdom that they can utilize in their day to day life. The students get chance to share their experiences and wherever such possibility lies, that becomes a classroom for them. Classroom education helps the students learn good etiquettes, manners and life skills which make them socialized. The teachers focus on those lessons that are likely to be asked in the examination. So, the students who attend the class regularly are high scorers in the examinations. Thus, classroom education influences us now and hereafter. Follow-up activity (2)  Divide the class into the groups of four to six students in each.  Ask each group to list out the sentences which show how one of the speakers dislikes being in the class. For example: a. He thinks the classroom education is useless. b. It is the total waste of time. c. Things taught in the classroom are valueless.  Move around the class to facilitate the students.  After they complete the list, ask them to write on chart paper.  Ask each group to share it with the class. Conduct a brief feedback session.  Now ask the students to write a paragraph using the points discussed before.  Ask each group to exchange their writing with other groups.  Each group goes through the writing of the other group, and provides suggestion regarding the selection of the word, mechanics, organization, etc.  Ask each group to edit their writing as per the feedback given, and present it to the class.  Provide your feedback too. They may write as shown below: A student has missed the class and dislikes being in the classroom. He has to stay in silence folding his arms when the teacher is absent. For him classroom education is valueless. It is meaningless and a waste of time. It will have no effect or purpose later in life. He also believes that nothing significant occurs in the absence of the teacher in classroom. Thus he wants to stay away from the classroom. Extended activity Ask the students to write a poem including their feeling of classroom education.

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Reflection Did every member of the group actively participate in group activities? What should be done to insure the active participation of all the members of a group? Write your experience. Lesson Three Reading Content from the textbook  Reading II: Achham (pp.63 - 64)  Reading activities (Vocabulary in context, Reading comprehension, Follow - up activity (pp.65- 66) Required materials Flash cards containing the words from vocabulary in context Lesson activities Reading II: Achham  Ask the students some questions about their district, for example: location, headquarters, facilities, place of historical and religious importance, etc.  After this, ask them to go through the text, and mark the new words.  Teach the pronunciation and meaning of these words using flash cards.  Now, ask the students to find some information like location, headquarters, facilities, place of historical and religious importance, etc. about Achham. Vocabulary in context  Display the flash cards containing the 'words' from the vocabulary in context.  Ask the students to go through the text, and see the context in which these words are used.  Ask the students to work in pairs, and match the words with their meanings.  After they complete the task, ask them to share their answers with the class, and provide your feedback. Suggested answers Words Meanings a. access ii. the means or opportunity to enter a place b. heritage i. the history, traditions and qualities that a society had for many years c. confluence iv. the junction of two rivers, especially rivers of approximately equal width d. scripture v. the sacred writing e. topography vi. physical features of an area of land f. predominant iii. main Reading comprehension (i)  Ask the students to go through the statements. Make sure that they understand them.  Ask them to go through the text once again, and decide whether the sentences are true or false working in pairs.  Once they complete, ask them to share their answers with the class.  Provide your feedback too. Suggested answer a. True b. True c. False d. False e. True 114


Reading comprehension (ii)  Ask the students to read the questions. Make sure that they understand what each question demand.  Ask them to go through the text, and mark the lines where the answers to these questions are likely to be found.  Make them work in pairs to finalize the answer to each question.  Move around the class to assist the students. At the same time keep on correcting their answers and giving feedback. Possible answers a. We can get to Mangalsen by road except during the monsoon. During the monsoon, we can go there by walking for eight hours from Sanfebagar. b. There is only one airport available in Achham. c. The safer and easier way to reach Mangalsen is via road because there is no direct access of air ways to Mangalsen. d. The similarity between Achham and Doti is that they have similar cultural heritages. e. The climate of Achham is sub-tropical, mild and cool. f. People have a hope of safe journey because it is a hilly region, and there are no good roads. g. Yes, I would like to go to Achham because there are many religious places which I'm keen to visit. Reading comprehension (iii)  Divide the class into six groups (number of groups may vary according to the size of the class).  Assign one group to collect the information to be filled in one column, and the other groups will work for other columns in the same way.  Ask each group to present their task to the class, and others will provide them feedback.  Provide your advice too. Possible answers Major Types of Rivers Lakes and Means of Medical ethnic dances ponds communication facilities groups Chhetris, Narsingha, Budhiganga, Khaptad, Post office, Hospital, Brahmins Jhyali and Seti, Karnali, Rishi Daha, Telephone, Health post, Deuda Kailash Kalidaha, Wireless Clinic, Khola, Bataulee, Barha Aayurvedic Cheepee Banda Aathara centres Khola Khanda Follow-up activity  Divide the class into groups of three to five, and ask each group to write the summary of the brochure using the information collected in the previous activity.  Ask them to exchange their writing with other groups. Each group goes through the writing of the other groups, and provides suggestion regarding the selection of the word, mechanics, organization, accuracy, etc.  Ask each group to edit their writing as per the feedback given.  Go through their writing and provide feedback to them.

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Sample summary Achham Lying nearly 930 kilometres away from the capital city, Kathmandu, Achham is one of the hilly districts of western Nepal. Its district headquarter is Mangalsen which is eight hours walk from the airport at Sanfebagar. Though it has seasonal road from Safebagar to Mangalsen, it is closed during the rainy season. However, a bridge is being built over the river Budhiganga, which will let the vehicles drive in all the seasons. The major castes residing there are Chhetris and Brahmins. Among them Kunwar, Khati, Swar, Rawal, Bogati, Dhami, Bohora, Devkota, Dhungana, Rijal, Dhakal and so on are the major ones. Thus, we can say, there is mosaic of different castes. There are cultural heritages which are similar to that of Doti. Narsinga, Jhyali and Deuda are the major dances, and there are various religious places along the river Budiganga and at the confluence of Budhiganga and Saraswati river. Even these religious places are described in the Hindu sacred book the Skanda Puran. These places have the potential to make Achham a major tourist area. The climate is moderate, with plenty of rainfall. Besides, religious and cultural places, it has natural assets like lakes, ponds, and other tourist areas. There are lodges for the tourists for the temporary stay. Extended activity  Ask the students to write a couple of paragraphs about their district using the clues given below. Location - accessibility - climate - important places- ethnic groups - festivals - facilities

Reflection Did you run the class as suggested by TG? Did you use any activity different from the activities suggested? What different activities did you use? Write them. Lesson Four Grammar Content from the textbook  Grammar activities (Engage yourself, Time for Grammar, Follow-up activity (pp. 66-67) Materials required  A chart showing the forms and use of conditional sentences Lesson activities Engage yourself  Ask the students to read the sentences under 'Engage yourself'.  Ask them to go through the table given.  Ask them if they are familiar with present simple tense, future simple tense and imperative sentences.  If they can't, provide them some examples. For example:  Present simple tense a. He loves music. b. The girls enjoy cooking. c. It rains in summer. Form: S + verb infinitive/ verb singular ...  Future simple a. She will pass the exam. b. I'll learn the guitar. c. The boys will have a party. 116


Form: S + will/shall + verb infinitive ...  Imperative sentences a. Study well. b. Listen to the music. c. Work hard. Structure: Verb infinitive + ...  Make the students work in pair to decide whether the sentences have "If + present simple, + present simple" or "If + present simple, + future simple" or If + present simple, + imperative" structures.  Let them put the sentences in the right column of the table after they are sure about the pattern of the sentences.  Ask the students to share their answers with the class, and provide necessary feedback. Suggested answer If+ present simple + present If + present simple + future If + present simple + simple simple imperative a. If you heat ice, it melts. a. If I don't have enough time a. If you want to borrow a b. If traffic lights are red, the today, I 'll wash your car book from the library, drivers stop the vehicles. tomorrow. show your library card. c. If I want to write a letter, I b. If I haven't got enough time b. If you want to wake up need a pen and paper. today, I 'll wash your car early, set alarm on your d. If water is heated, it tomorrow. clock or mobile. changes into vapour. a. If you lose her phone number, you won't be able to contact her. b. If Harry gets good results, he'll study medicine. 

Ask the students to tell the context in which we use the following structures:  If + present simple + present simple  If + present simple + future simple  If + present simple + imperative Display the chart containing the structure and use of these patterns to the class. For example:

Structures

If + present simple + present simple Cause and effect

If + present simple + If + present simple + future simple imperative Use/Context Possible condition and Suggestion/advice probable result, based on facts, real world and about particular situation Examples a. If you kick the dog, it a. If he invites, she will a. If you want to pass the barks. come. exam, study well. b. If you heat the water, b. If you become late, b. If your mother calls, go it evaporates. you will miss the home. bus. Note: Log on to https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ttUbJjKBncQ to watch a video that may help you.

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Time for grammar (1)  Remind the students about the form of "If + present simple …… "and their uses.  Ask them to work in pairs to supply the correct form of the given verbs considering those structures and their uses.  Once they complete, ask them to share their answers with the class, and provide your feedback. Suggested answers a. meet b. won't go c. beat d. will come e. forget f. melts Time for grammar (2)  Ask the students to work in pairs again to supply the appropriate clauses.  Once they complete, ask them to share their answers with the class, and provide your feedback. Possible answers a. If I don't pay the phone bill today, your phone line will be cut. b. If Manju joins the team, they will win. c. If it rains, I'll stay at home. d. If you forget to take your practical exam, you will fail the exam. e. If you leave now, you can reach in time. f. Go to the canteen if you are hungry. Follow-up activity  Divide the class into the groups of four or five.  Ask each group to form ten conditional sentences with If + present simple………… structure.  Move around the class, observe their activities and facilitate them.  After they complete, ask them to present their work to the class. Provide your feedback too. Possible answers a. If you want to get good grade in the test, study hard. b. If you sing songs, I'll dance. c. If my brother passes his trial, I'll give him my cell phone. d. The dog barks if you kick it. e. We will visit Pokhara if the weather becomes fine. f. My wife becomes happy if I take her to a restaurant. g. Sartha, go home if your mother calls you. h. If you boil water, it changes into vapour. i. I will marry her if she wants. j. I'll be happy if you help me. Extended activity Ask the students to write a paragraph explaining what they would do if they were given Rs. 5000. Reflection Did your students achieve the expected outcomes of the lesson? Which activities helped them and which activities were ineffective? Mention them. 118


Lesson Five Listening Content from the textbook  Listening activities (Engage yourself, Study time, Follow-up activity) (pp.67-68) Required materials  Audio file containing the minimal pairs  A chart containing the phonemic transcription of English sounds Lesson activities Engage yourself  Make the students ready for listening. For this, pronounce the words given under 'Engage yourself' and ask them to notice the differences in the pronunciation of the pairs of words. For example: In the first pair, the first word has /p/ sound, whereas the second word has /f/ sound.  Have a short discussion on the differences they have noticed.  Make the students familiar with the sounds of the English language. (Refer to the chart of the English sounds given in the additional resource section at the end of this unit.) Study time (1)  Tell the students what they are going to listen to minimal pairs. Also inform them that if a pair of words has all the sounds identical except one, the pair is a minimal pair. If the pair has more than one different sound, it's not a minimal pair. Give them some examples.  Tell the students to discriminate the sound, and write 'S' if they are same and 'D' if they are different.  Now play the audio and do the first one with the whole class. Then let the students to do the remaining themselves, while listening to the audio, either working individually or in pairs. You can play the audio as many time as necessary.  Play the audio once again, and ask them to correct their answers if necessary. Suggested answers a b c d e f g h i j D D D D S D D D D D Study time (2)  Tell the students that they have to identify which of the given words in each pair is used in the audio.  Play the audio or read the audio script(track two) aloud while the students listen.  Now play the audio or read the audio scriptaloud, and do the first one with the class.  Play the audio or read the audio scriptagain, and let students complete the rest of the exercise.  After they complete, ask them to share their answers with the class, and provide necessary feedback. Suggested answers Note: The table in the book is incomplete. A column should be added just after the second column of words. a. Cap Cab √ b. Stable Staple √ c. Bees Peas √ d. Bin Pin √ e. Bear Pear √ f. Big Pig √ g. Back Pack √ 119


Follow-up activity  Display the chart containing the phonemic transcription of English sounds, and make the students familiar with the phonemic transcription of English sounds.  Ask the students to work in pairs. Let them take the help of the dictionary and find out the minimal pairs for the words given in this section.  Make them share their list with the class, and provide feedback. Possible answers hat - sat pat - bat cap - tap lack - hack hall- ball heat - beat hold - cold follow - hollow Extended activity Ask the students to write the phonemic transcription of the pairs given under 'Engage yourself' taking the help of the dictionary. Reflection If you had the opportunity to teach the lesson again to the same group of students, would you do anything differently? What? Why? Lesson Six Speaking Content from the textbook  Speaking activities (Engage yourself, Time for speaking, Follow-up activity (p. 68-69) Materials required  Table showing the form of conditional sentences Lesson activities Engage yourself (1)  Ask the students if they have ever lost something. If someone says 'yes', ask him/her what s/he did to find the lost thing. (The pupil may reply as' I asked my sister if she had seen it.')  Make the students read the context and conversation under this section silently. Engage yourself (2)  Invite two students (a boy and a girl) to the front of the class, and ask them to play the role of Bikeshan and Prakriti. Give priority to introvert or shy students. You can invite some other pairs too who will repeat the same procedure.  After this, ask the students to practise the conversation in their private pairs.  Ask them to reverse their roles. Time for speaking (1)  Ask the students to go through the given situations. Make sure that they understand the situation.  Ask them to work in pairs, and have similar conversations as in the example.  Ask them to reverse their roles in each situation.  Move around the class, and facilitate them whenever they feel difficulty. 120


Possible conversations a. Puja is not feeling well. Puja: Hello daddy, I'm not feeling well. What should I do? Daddy: Oh, if you are not feeling well, go to hospital. b. Aashis wants to do better in the exam. Aashis: Excuse me sir, I want to do better in the coming exam. What can I do? Teacher: Don't worry. If you want to do better in the exam, practice a lot. c. Juna wants to learn guitar. Juna: Bhumiya, I want to learn to play the guitar. Will you please help me? Bhumiya: Oh, I'm sorry. If you want to learn the guitar, join guitar classes. d. Dawa wants to cook meat. Dawa: Mother I want to cook meat. But I don't have any idea about it. How can I cook? Mother: Well, if you want to cook meat, use cooking recipe. e. John wants to visit unknown places of Nepal. Joe: Excuse me, I want to visit some famous places of Nepal but I don't know about them. How can I visit them? Bir : Oh, it's very simple. If you go to Nepal Tourism Board, you'll get a lot of information. Time for speaking (2)  Invite two students to the front of the class, and ask them to act out the conversation given in the example.  Invite the next pair, and give them the first situation. Make one student ask the question and the other answer. Remind them the use of conditional sentences by displaying the table with the structures. They may have the conversation in the following way. Student A: What happens if you eat too much? Student B: If you eat too much, you'll gain weight.  Move around the class and facilitate them whenever they feel difficulty.  Ask them to reverse their roles. Possible conversations a. A: What happens if you eat too much? B: If you eat too much, you'll gain weight. b. A: What happens if you don't study sincerely? B: If you don't study sincerely, you will not get better grades. c. A: What happens if you ride a bike at 140 km/hr? B: If you ride a bike at 140 km/hr, you may get an accident. d. A: What happens if water freezes? B: If water freezes, it becomes ice. e. A: What happens if you cross busy road on red light? B: If you cross busy road on red light, a vehicle may hit you. 121


Follow-up activity  Ask the student to go through the instruction, and do the task as instructed. Possible responses Student A: If I find Rs. 1 million on the way, I will deposit it in the bank. Student B: If I lose my wrist watch, I will buy another. Student C: If I find a baby crying, I will give him/her a chocolate. Student D: If I suffer from a common cold, I will take a rest. Student E: If I'm very poor in mathematics, I will practise more. Student F: If I can't sleep at night, I will consult a doctor. Student G: If a cashier of a bank gives me less money, I will complain to the branch manager. Extended activity Ask the students to write a paragraph starting with "If I were the national player, I would...". Reflection Write a reflective journal of today's lesson.

Lesson Seven Writing Content from the textbook  Writing activities (Engage yourself, Time for writing, Follow-up activity ( p.70) Materials required  Brochure of different places Lesson activities Engage yourself  Begin the class by asking the following questions to the students: a. What different places have you visited? b. Among them, which is the most beautiful one? Why? c. Where is it located? d. What are the things that you liked the most there?, etc.  Ask the students to recall the information about the place on the basis of the points given in the textbook. Ask them to write the information under different headings in their exercise book. Make the students work individually. For example: Location - hilly region of Eastern Development region.  Go round the class, and facilitate them wherever necessary. Time for writing  Divide the class into groups of four to six students in each.  Give some of the brochures you have collected to the students, and make them aware about the format and layout of the brochure as in the reading text 'Achham'.  Now ask the students to arrange the information they have collected in the Engage yourself section about the most memorable place in the format of a brochure.  Ask them to share their writing with the next group, and get feedback. Provide your feedback too.  Ask them to edit their writing on the basis of the feedback they get.  Go through their writings and give them feedback.

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Follow-up activity  Ask the students to collect some brochures of schools/colleges.  Make the students go through them, and decide the best one.  Ask them why s/he has selected that one as the best. (They may say the brochure is the best because it gives factual information, or it has attractive design and illustrations, etc.) Extended activity  Ask the students to make a brochure of their village/ town. Reflection Write a reflective note on this lesson in your diary. Lesson Eight Project work and Fun corner Content from the textbook  Project work (p. 70)  Fun corner (p. 70) Materials required  Books on poetry Lesson activities Project work  Present the project to the class, and tell the students that they have to find a poem by visiting the library or searching on the Internet, and pick a poem from there. They also have to present the poem to the class and find the rhyming words too. This is the stage which creates the atmosphere for project work.  Organise the class for 'run up' activities. The students will work both in and out of the classroom. The main activities will be picking up a poem from school's library or by surfing the Internet and presenting the poem to the class. For example:  Picking up a poem: The students will visit the library of the school during their leisure time, and read the collection of poetry available in the library. Or they will surf the Internet and find a poem that they like. Get them to consider the following things.  Select an authentic poem.  Select the poem that is suitable to their level.  Presenting the poem to the class: Ask the students to recite the poem they have selected. Also show the students a video which works as a model for the recitation of the poem. (For recitation make the students watch a video from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MOMGmw6oj3Q) Fun corner Make the students work in pairs in which one will ask what is wrong with the word to his/her partner, and what is the correct one, and the other will answer. If s/he gives correct answer s/he will score one point. Now the turn to ask for the second word will be reversed. They will do it turn by turn. The one who scores more will be the winner. Suggested answers  acidentally - She drops 'c'. It's accidentally.  anedote - She drops 'c'. It's anecdote.  sychology - She drops 'p'. It's psychology.  ryme - She drops 'h'. It's rhyme.  asthetic - She drops 'e'. It's aesthetic.  sking - She drops 'i'. It's skiing. 123


     

truely - She adds 'e'. It's truly. receve - She drops 'i'. It's receive. libary- She drops 'r'. It's library. swiming- She drops 'm'. It's swimming. retreive - She changes the position of 'e' and 'i'. It's retrieve. occurance - She drops 'r' and replaces 'e' with 'a'. It's occurrence.

Reflection Write a reflective note on this lesson in your diary.

Part 3: Additional Resources 1. List of English sounds Consonant sounds 1. /k/ 2. /g/ 3. /ŋ/ 4. /tʃ/ 5. /dʒ/ 6. /z/ 7. /ʒ/ 8. /t / 9. /d/ 10. /θ/ 11. /ð/ 12. /n/ 13. /p/ 14. /f/ 15. /b/ 16. /v/ 17. /m/ 18. /j/ 19. /r/ 20. /l/ 21. /w/ 22. /ʃ/ 23. /s/ 24. /h/

cat, kite, back, stomach game, ghost king, pinky chair, catch jug, bridge zebra, is pleasure, garage, genre tiger, cat donkey, mad thin, maths mother, bathe, that nest, money, pigeon pen, map fan, photograph, laugh brother, cabbage, cab van, cave monkey, ram yam, yak, yes rat, park, car leg, calendar waist, walk shoes, sugar sister, mister horse, perhaps

Vowel sounds 1. /ə/ 2. /ʌ/ 3. /ɑː/ 4. /ɪ/ 5. /iː/ 6. /ʊ/ 7. /uː/ 8. /e/ 9. /æ/ 10. /ɒ/ 11. /ɜː/ 12. /ɔː/

above, ago, about cut, hut arm, car pig, sick see put pool, too pen, ten cat, rat orange girl, bird talk, walk 124


Diphthongs 1. /eə/ 2. /eɪ/ 3. /əʊ/ 4. /ɔʊ/ 5. /ɑɪ/ 6. /ɔɪ/ 7. /ɪə/ 8. /ʊə/

hair say home go kite boy near pure

2. Useful links  Canadian Poetry Online (https://canpoetry.library.utoronto.ca/wayman/pub2.htm)  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R9tOn9UFNSY ( for the documentary of Achham ) 3. Listening script Track 1 You will hear the pronunciation of pairs of words which have similar sounds except one sound. Listen to them carefully and notice the differences in their pronunciation. 1. wait wet 2. pain pen 3. taste test 4. age edge 5. fear fear 6. funny honey 7. force horse 8. fast vast 9. safe save 10. proof prove Track 2 You will hear some conditional sentences. Listen to them carefully. 1. If you like, I will give you a yellow cap. 2. If you need, ask him to staple them. 3. If you take me there, I will see so many peas! 4. If I were you, I would use a bin. 5. If you go there, you will see a very big pear. 6 . If I were a farmer, I would work on a pig farm. 7. If you finish it, please give me that back.

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UNIT SEVEN EXPRESSING CONDITIONS (II)

Part 1: Unit Outline Curriculum reference: Language function no. 8 under scope and sequence Language function and forms/exponents Expressing conditions (Unless, had, provided that, if only)  Unless Sita could sing, she would not be very popular.  If he had not come to Nepal, he would not have seen Mt Everest.  If Prasad weren't the captain, the team would play better.  Had he invited me, I would have attended the party.  If only I knew her address, I would go to her home alone.  Provided that you are under twenty, you can play the match. Reading

Rampant pesticide use risks health Climate change is going to make inequality even worse than it already is  Identify the structure and the organization of paragraphs by developing an awareness of connectives  Construct meaning from written, printed and digital forms for detailed understanding  Reading for fluency and comprehension  Text based vocabulary items

Grammar

Listening

Speaking

Writing

Structures for expressing conditions and their use  Unless, had, provided that, if only….  Past simple  Past perfect Airline boarding announcement  Listen and respond to the common expressions  Record in note or make summary from the main points of spoken messages Expressing condition  Communicate appropriately in a variety of formal and informal situation  Use grade-appropriate verbal and non-verbal forms of communication in the whole-class, group and pair oral activities  Give a simple speech to reflect own ideas News report writing  Follow the writing process: controlled, guided and free  Practice thinking skills while writing  Plan and organize ideas and information for writing 126


Content themes/topics  Pesticide  Climate change  Airline boarding announcement Expected achievements of the students By the end of this unit, the students will have:  Completed the comprehension activities based on the reading texts.  Designed the cover page of the newspaper.  Used conditional structures (type 2 and 3) in speaking and writing.  Construct sentences using if conditional structures  Completed comprehension tasks listening to the audio.  Written an airline boarding announcement.  Enacted situational role plays using conditional sentences.  Written news reports based on the given clues  Written a news report after collecting information about a particular locality.  Designed a front page of a newspaper by pasting the cut outs. Integrated soft skills  Working individually and with groups  Thinking creatively  Collaboration skills Teaching resources  Newspapers (samples)  A cut out of short news report having its all the elements like author, date, etc.  Flashcards containing words/chunks from 'Vocabulary in use'  Flashcards containing structures expressing conditions  Pictures/video of aero plane  Audio files of airline boarding announcement Estimated Periods: 10

Part 2: Learning Facilitation Process Lesson One Reading   

Content from the textbook Reading activities (Engage yourself, Study time) (71-73) Materials required Sample newspapers Flashcards containing the following words/chunks and their meanings: excessive, commercially, pesticides, insecticide, consumption, ailments, cultivation Lesson activities Engage yourself 127


 

Ask the class, "Why are newspapers important for the students?” What kind of information related to the current political, economic and social situations do they provide? Have them think for a while, and invite sample responses from them. Ask the students to speak up for the questions a-c given in the textbook. Accept any responses and their varieties. Possible answers a. Yes, I have seen The Himalayan Times. But I have not seen the Rising Nepal. b. I read newspaper in Nepali once a week. c. Yes. This morning I read …..

 

  

Study time Reading I: "Rampant pesticide use risks health", "Climate change is going to make inequality even worse than it already is" Divide the class into pairs. It is good to form pairs making a combination of a good reader and a struggling reader. Ask the pairs to quickly go through the two articles (scanning) to locate important facts: title, dates, newspapers, name of the people, places. Ask them to focus their attention to these parts asking relevant lead- in questions. Then attend them to questions a-d under Reading 1, Study time. Students may come up with responses as follows: Suggested answers a. These articles are taken from two different newspapers: The Himalayan Times and The Washington Post. b. The news articles „Rampant pesticide use risks health‟ and „ Climate change is going to make inequality even worse than it already is‟ were published on July 19, 2009 and December 8, 2015, respectively. c. Francis Denning is an Assistant Professor of Economics at Yale-NUS College in Singapore. d. RICE stands for the Regional Integrated Model of Climate and the Economy. Ask the students to read both the articles silently once again, and to underline the unfamiliar words. Write down the common unfamiliar words eliciting from the students on the board. Encourage them to look at the context in which the words have occurred. Encourage them to catch hold of the context clues in the passage itself, and to guess the meaning of the words. Now, show the flash cards containing some unfamiliar words and their meanings. Use other suitable techniques to clarify the meanings of new words. Possible word meanings and their meanings are suggested below: excessive: beyond normal limits, unreasonable, undue commercially: in a commercial manner, in a way that is related to making money pesticides: a chemical used to kill pests insecticides: chemical substances made and used for killing insects, especially those that eat plants consumption: the action of using up a resource ailments : bodily disorders or chronic diseases, unrest, illness cultivation: to prepare and use (soil) for growing plants

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Now, ask the students to use the selected words into meaningful sentences. You can show an example of sentence making activity. For example: excessive: Excessive use of chemicals in the vegetable is harmful for health. commercially: I would never feed my dog with food bought commercially from the shop. pesticides: You should wash your fruits and vegetables well before eating them to remove any pesticides that may still be on them. insecticide: Insecticides are agricultural chemicals that exterminate insects harmful to plants. consumption: The consumption of Waiwai noodles is high in the market nowadays. ailments: Unfortunately, the stomach ailment causes vomiting and chronic diarrhoea. cultivation: The jungle was cleared, and the land was then used for the cultivation of crops. Extended activity Ask the students to collect any newspaper of their interest, collect some important national and international news and present it in the next class. Lesson reflection What challenges did you face while teaching this lesson? What variety of activities can be employed for making a reading lesson more effective? Lesson Two Reading Content from the textbook  Reading activities (Study time, Vocabulary in context, Reading comprehension) (pp.71-74)

a. b.  

Materials required  Daily used materials Lesson activities Vocabulary in context (i)  Ask the students to read both texts, and complete the gap filling exercise.  Move around the class, and assist the students. Pay more attention to the weak students.  When they finish the task, invite them for a public sharing. Listen to the responses carefully and provide feedback if needed. Suggested answers a. commercially b. excessive c. consumption d. cultivation e. pesticides f. insecticides g. ailments Vocabulary in context (ii) Arrange the students in pairs. Ask them to study the words and their meanings in „ii‟. Now, ask them to use these words in meaningful sentences. You might give a model sentence as well. As the pairs are in progress, move around the class to support the needy students. When they finish, ask the pairs to share their ideas and provide them necessary feedback.

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Suggested answers dysfunction: Many diseases cause dysfunction of the body parts. miscarriage: Smoking and drinking alcohol excessively during pregnancy leads to miscarriage. ramification: This new decision has some legal ramification. drastically: I met my friend after two years; I could not recognize her easily. She has changed drastically. exacerbate: If you do not study seriously, your rank will exacerbate, and you will feel even worse than this. glaring: The teacher was glaring up at me. I knew it without looking at him. lacunae: There are large lacunae in the education system of eastern and western part of our world. tweak: Is it possible to tweak our answers, teacher? They do not seem good.

Reading comprehension (i)  Ask the students to read the news articles again, and decide whether the given sentences are true or false. For this, ask them to read the articles and locate (underline) the sentences on the basis of which they have come to the decision. This close- reading habit helps the students to change their habit of wild-guessing.  Now ask them to write the answers in their exercise book individually. Suggested answers a. True b. True c. True

 a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i.

d. True

e. True

f. True

g. False h. True

Reading comprehension (ii)  Arrange the students into pairs. Ask the pairs to read the questions, and try to understand what the questions are looking for. Questions a, d, e, f and g are related to the first passage (Rampant pesticide risks ... ); b and c are related to both and the rest are related to the second passage (Climate change…).  Ask the pairs to read the first question, and find its answer in the first passage. Ask them to locate the key information in the respective passage before starting to write the answers.  Ask them to complete the answers of each question in the passage. At the mean time move around the class assisting the needy students and correcting their answers. Suggested answers a. The headlines of the news articles above are „Rampant pesticide use risks health‟ and „Climate change is going to make inequality even worse than it already is‟. b. The authors of the articles are the editorial board of The Himalayan Times and Chelsea Harvey. c. The first and second articles were written on July 19, 2009 and December 8, 2015, respectively. d. It is difficult to carry out the tests in lab due to the poor facilities in the labs and staff shortage. e. Unprescribed use of chemicals is harmful for both the farmers and consumers. f. The scientist Paneru recently visited vegetable farms in Charaudi and Mahadevsthan villages of Dhading, Empaphant and Baradi of Tanahun and Tutunga village of Kaski districts. g. The excessive use of pesticides affects the nervous system and can cause impotence, liver and kidney dysfunction. They can also cause disabilities, miscarriage and skin, heart and eye ailments. 130


j. h. The poor will be disproportionately affected by climate change. k. i. Francis Denning and his colleagues developed Regional Integrated Model of Climate and the Economy. l. j. Regional Integrated Model of Climate and the Economy was developed to study the inequalities within different regions of the world essentially acknowledging that different countries contain people of both higher and lower incomes. Extended activity Ask the students to find out the structure and organisation of the two reading passages (news articles) given in the textbook. Reflection What are the merits and demerits of using authentic texts for teaching reading? Write a reflective note based on the experience you gained form this lesson. Lesson Three Reading Content from the textbook  Follow-up activities (pp.75-76) Materials required  Newspapers containing different news articles  News print/chart paper/A4 paper Lesson activities Follow-up activity (1)  Tell the class that they are going to choose a news article that interests them, and make a poster.  Divide the class into groups of four or five students in each. Distribute the newspaper and newsprint/chart paper/A4 paper to each group.  Instruct them to search news articles about an area of their interest after the discussion in the group. Then tell them to cut and paste the news article in the provided newsprint paper attractively.  When they finish the task, let the groups share and present their hand-made newspaper to the class. Follow-up activity (2)  Ask the students to continue working in the groups.  Distribute newspapers and the news print or chart paper to each pair.  Ask them to attend to the cover page of the newspapers. Lead a focused discussion on the contents of the front page (newspaper‟s name, headlines, titles, author‟s name, date of publication, price of the newspaper, etc.). Ask them to cut these parts from the newspapers, and paste them appropriately on the A4 sheets.  Let them watch the video about „What makes a good commercial?‟ for about two minutes (This is a 1.54 minute long video; source: www.youtube.com. What makes a good commercial?), or lead a discussion on how to design advertisements as are given in the cover page of the newspapers.  Allow some time for designing a persuasive and attractive advertisement on the sheet of the paper on which they are preparing the cover page of a newspaper. 131


When they finish, let some sample groups share their products with the class. Other students will observe and provide feedback on their friends‟ works.

Reading II (1)  Ask the students to scan the workshop schedule (from the top-both vertically and horizontally), and discuss in pairs what information it contains. When they complete, arrange for a short sharing session.  Conduct a short but closer discussion session. Ask text-directed focused questions related to the programme, organizer, number of workshops, workshop titles, times, etc. Exercise 1: Question answer  Ask the pairs to attend to question no. 1 (a-d).  Ask them to study the table again, and locate the answers in the table first and then write in their exercise book.  While the students are working, move around the class and assist them. At the mean time you can correct their answers and provide them feedback.  Once they complete the task, arrange for an open response session. Suggested answers a. The workshop packages MVERC is planning to conduct in 2017 are: - Essay writing - Story writing - Letter writing b. The WGID number for essay writing is MVERC-01-2017. c. MVERC and WGID stand for Millennium Vision Education and Research Center and Workshop Group Identity, respectively. d. We can go to Chitwan to learn about letter writing. Exercise 2: True false  Ask the students to continue working in pairs. Now ask them to read the workshop schedule again, and decide whether the given statements are true or false.  Correct the answers using a mass correction technique. Suggested answers a. False b. False

c. True

d. False

e. True

Extended activity Ask the students to write a paragraph describing the workshop schedule. Reflection What are authentic materials? What is the value of using authentic materials in ELT? How do you maximize using authentic materials in day-to-day classroom teaching?

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Lesson Four Grammar Content from the textbook  Grammar activities (Engage yourself, Time for grammar, Follow-up activity (p.76-77) Materials required  A chart containing the forms and uses of conditional sentences Types Uses Structures and examples Zero  It expresses cause and effect relationship. Simple present and simple present If you heat water, it evaporates.  The time is present. The statements talk about real world, general truth, such as scientific facts. If you don‟t water plants, they die. First It shows the possible condition happening in the Simple present and will/shall/can/may +V1 present or future. If he invites me, I will attend the party.

Simple present and imperative If you want to pass the exam, work hard. Simple past and would/could/might +V1 If I were you, I would do the exercise regularly. Unless he studied hard, he would fail the test. Third It shows unfulfilled conditions in the past and Past perfect and would/could/might+ have also expresses regrets. +V3 If he had contacted me, I would have helped him. He would have supported us if we had requested him. (Note: V1= base/infinitive form of the verb; V2 = past form of the verb, and V3= past participle form of the verb) Second

It shows doubtful and hypothetical condition in the present.

Lesson activities Engage yourself  Ask the students to read the sentences given under „Engage yourself‟ section carefully. Ask them to share with their friends what these sentences mean and in which contexts they occur. Assist them as required.  Tell them that the sentences are termed as „Conditional sentences‟. These are special types of sentences, and have special context of use.  Ask the students to make similar sentences.  Now, display the chart given above. Lead a discussion about the form and meaning of the four different types of the conditional sentences.  Now, ask the students to attend to the sentences again, and decide their meanings and structure tallying them against the structure chart. Discuss their answers, and provide necessary feedback. Suggested answers a. a. Unreal condition; structure: past simple + would V1 (infinitive) b. b. Impossible condition; structure: past perfect + would have + V3 (past participle) c. c. Unreal condition; structure: past simple + would + V1 (infinitive) d. d. Impossible condition; structure: past perfect + would have + V3 (past participle) e. e. Real condition; structure: simple present + simple present (V1- infinitive or V-s/es) 133


Time for grammar (1)  Divide the class into pairs, and ask them to work on „Exercise 1‟. Here, the students have to decide whether the given sentences mean „real‟, or „unreal‟ or „impossible‟ conditions.  Hide the structure chart. Encourage the students to decide the meanings based on their understanding.  When they finish the first task, ask them to share their answer with reasons. Provide necessary feedback. Suggested answers 1. a. real  b. impossible  c. impossible  d. real  e. real  f. real  g. unreal Time for grammar (2)  Write the first sentence (exercise a) on the board copying the same as has been given in the textbook (Why don’t you explain everything to him? If you ……………. (not tell) him the truth, I’m sure you’ll regret it one day.). Here, the verb form is to be decided according to the meaning/structure.  Ask the students what they might fill in the blank space. If anyone speaks up, ask the reason for choosing it. If no one responds, show a sample, and explain why the form of the verb was chosen referring to the structure chart.  Now, ask the students to complete the task by themselves discussing in pairs.  When they finish, arrange for a mass checking session. A. Suggested answers 2. a. don‟t tell a. b. could have seen b. c. would never have met c. d. couldn‟t have reached e. gets Follow-up activity  Ask the students to continue working in pairs. Ask them to go through the „follow- up activity‟. Here, they have to think of an imaginative situation about themselves becoming the Prime Minister, and the reforms they would like to bring about in the field of education, for example.  Ask an open question: What would you like to do if you were the Prime Minister of Nepal?‟ Invite responses from all students, and jot them down on the board. Encourage everybody to open up, and speak freely. After a while, ask them to think of their own unique interests, and compose a paragraph beginning with: If I were the Prime Minister of the country, I’d…‟  Move around the class assisting the students, especially the weaker ones.  When they complete the task, invite some students for sharing their answers.  Provide necessary feedback focusing on the structure of the sentences and their meanings. 134


Suggested answer If I were the prime minister of the country, I‟d change the lifestyle of the people living here. The people who are under poverty would get the poverty fund to run their family. Similarly, I would start….. Extended activity Creating a Chain Poem Materials required: Daily used materials Aim of this activity:  By the end of this activity, the students will have created a chain poem using the conditional sentences. Sample chain poem If I drink coffee, I‟ll stay awake tonight. If I stay awake tonight, I‟ll fall asleep in the morning. And if I fall asleep in the morning, my teacher will be very angry. (Source: http://evasimkesyan.com/2014/02/16/fun-activities-with-conditionals/)

Lesson activities  Tell the students that they are going to create a poem using conditional sentences.  Show a sample of a chain poem, and tell them why it is called chain poem. (It is a chain poem because the poem has been developed as a series or chain of consequences.)  Divide the class into pairs and ask them to choose a topic of their interest and a structure of the conditional sentence. However, when it is chosen, they have to stick with the same conditional structure throughout. You can encourage them to start from the Zero type to the third gradually.  As the students are engaged in the task, move around the class and monitor their progress. If anybody needs help, help them.  When they finish the task, ask the pairs to exchange their writing with the next pairs, and provide feedback to improve the poem.  Invite sample pairs to share their products with the class. Reflection What I did?

What went on successfully?

What challenges I faced?

Lesson Five Listening Content from the textbook  Listening activities (Engage yourself, Study time, Follow-up activity (77-78) Materials required  Audio file  Audio player  Two sets of flashcards (containing following vocabulary items in one, and their meanings in the other) airport, announcement, passengers, flight attendant, prohibited, luggage, underneath, navigational, lavatory

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Lesson activities Engage yourself Set the scene for the listening task engaging the students in the picture-guessing activity. You can ask: What can you see in the pictures? ‘Listen to their responses. (Possible answer: airplanes, terminal hall, lorry, etc.) Again, ask them how many of them have been to an airport. You can also share your experience if you have been to an airport. You can also ask them what the person who flies the plane is called (Answer: Pilot); what persons who assist for the service in the plane are called (Answer: flight attendants). Lead a discussion on what things are forbidden in an aeroplane. Ask them why certain things are forbidden. Jot down their responses on the board. Lead a focused discussion on the things/items that are really forbidden in an aero plane. (Answer: electronic devices, smoking, noise, etc.) Clarify the meanings of new words using appropriate techniques. You can use the flash cards too.

Study time (1)  Ask the students to go through the sentences given. Make sure that students understand what the statements mean.  Play the sound file (or read the audio scriptaloud), and ask the students to decide whether the sentences are „true‟ or „false‟. You can play the sound file (or read the audio scriptaloud) more than once for facilitating comprehension.  Once it is done, arrange for a public sharing and feedback session. Suggested answers a. False b. True c. False d. False e. True  

 

Study time (2) Now, ask the students to go through the activity 2. This is a matching activity for the key words with their associative words as they co-occur in the audio. Play the audio again (or read the audio scriptaloud), and ask the students to match the associations. Once it is done, arrange for a public sharing and feedback session. Suggested answers a. folding ____________ iv. tray b. fasten ____________ v. seat belt c. instruction _________ i. cards d. turn off ___________ ii. cell phones e. flight ____________ iii. attendants

Follow-up activity Tell the class that they are going to listen to the audio again. This time, however, they have to note down important information, and following the note and other ideas, they have to draft a similar announcement. Now play the audio, and ask the students to note down the key words/chunks of language closely attending to the content of the announcement. 136


After the listening is over, ask them to draft a similar announcement. If the time allows, invite sample students to share their drafts. If not, set this task for home study engagement. Reflection What I did? What went What problems I What could be done successfully? faced? for betterment? Lesson Six Speaking Content from the textbook  Speaking activities (Engage yourself, Time for speaking, Follow-up activity (p.78-79) Materials required  A chart with example sentences for expressing a wish Lesson activities Engage yourself  Ask the students to look at the given picture, and think what it shows, and what is happening there.  Ask them individually what the people in the basket of the hot air balloon are talking about. Encourage the students to speak up.  Listen their responses actively, and also ask them the reasons behind their response. Students can say anything they feel but it, but they must give reason behind their answers: how can they say so or what help them to say so, etc. Time for speaking (1)  Ask the students to study the situation in „Time for speaking‟. Make the task clear to the class, and check their comprehension.  Ask the students to work in pairs, and share their decision with each other. Ask them to think about for their responses, and share with the peers.  Invite sample students to share their choice with reason with the class. Students might come up as follows: I would choose a engineer to be thrown overboard because I personally think that an engineer is less important that the others. Time for speaking (2)  Engage the students in a simultaneous pair work activity.  Ask the pairs to study the examples, which contain clues for making a question using a conditional structure, and for which another member of the pair has to respond with explanation.  Ask them to start questioning and responding alternatively. Monitor and provide necessary support as the pairs engage in the task.  Once they have completed it, invite sample pairs to share their conversation to the class. Invite for necessary feedback for improvement. Suggested answers a. What/if political leader? A: What would you do if you were a political leader? B: I‟d guide the youngsters in the right path, and encourage them to be responsible citizens. b. What /if the Prime Minister? A: What would you do if you were the Prime Minister? 137


B: I‟d try my best to run the country smoothly without disturbing public lives. I‟d fight against injustice and inequality. a. What/if the President of America? A: What would you do if you were the President of America? B: I‟d send all the immigrants to their own countries. b. What /if lost in the desert? A: What would you do if you were lost in the desert? B: I‟d try to find my way with the help of foot print or the direction of the sun. Time for speaking (3)  Ask the students to work individually. Ask them to think what they wish to have in their life now. Attend them to the example given in 3.  Now display the following chart with the example sentences for expressing a wish: Sentences that express wish Set A a. If only I knew how to use a computer. (= I don‟t know how to use a computer and I would like to learn how to use it.) b. If only he knew the truth. (he doesn‟t know the truth, but he wishes he did) c. If only there was something she could do or say to help. d. If only she weren‟t so tired. (If only she wasn‟t so tired.) e. If only someone would buy the house. f. If only they would talk to each other. Set B a. I don‟t like this place. I wish I lived in somewhere more interesting. b. These seats are very uncomfortable. I wish we were travelling first class. c. Everyone wishes they had more free time. d. Mary wishes she had listened to what her mother told her. e. I wish I hadn‟t spent so much money last month.  

Ask the students to read the sentences carefully, and find their meanings and forms. Now write the structures for expressing wishes on the board: Structure of the sentences in set A: "If + only + Sub. + past simple..." and Structure of the sentences in set A: "Sub + wish (in appropriate form) + Sub + simple past or past perfect..."

Then ask the students to make five sentences each following similar structures. When they complete it, call sample students for public sharing activity. Provide them feedback if needed.

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Suggested answers: A. "If + only + Sub. + past simple..." and a. I wish I met him. b. If only she understood my feelings. c. If only they invited me d. I wish I saw her. e. I wish I learnt it. B. "Sub + wish (in appropriate form) + Sub + simple past or past perfect..." a. John wishes he wasn‟t so busy. b. I wish it wasn‟t so cold. c. I wish I had worked harder when I was at school. d. I wish I had a caring husband. e. I wish I had a cute daughter.

Time for speaking (4)  Ask the class to work in pairs, and go through the instruction and the example in 4. Write some more example sentences for expressing regret on the board. Make sure that students understand the meaning and form of the examples.  Now, present the structure for expressing regret "If+ the past perfect + would (not)+ have+ past participle.." by writing it on the board. You might also present some example utterances, e.g. If I had studied better I would not have scored E in the exam.  Divide the class into groups, and ask them to attend to the situations in 4. Ask them to discuss and complete the tasks as shown in the example. Move around the class and assist the students.  When they finish the task, conduct a public sharing by inviting sample students. Provide feedback if needed. Suggested answers a. a. not get good grade in the exam I’m sad. If I had studied hard, I would have got good grade in the exam. b. b. suffer from common cold I’m irritated. If I had worn warm woolen cloths, I wouldn’t have suffered from common cold. c. c. spend all the money at a restaurant I’m regretting. If I hadn’t spent all the money at a restaurant, I wouldn’t have been bankrupt. d. d. not complete my homework I’m tensed. If I hadn’t watched movies on TV till 8 p.m., I would have completed my homework.   

Follow-up activity Ask the students work individually. Make sure that they understand the task clearly. In this activity, they have to think of a situation which could have made their exam more successful, and some corresponding exponents. When they are engaged doing it, monitor and support them. When they finish, invite for sample responses.

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Suggested answers If I had studied hard, I would have performed well in the exam. If I had taken the study seriously, I would have done better in the exam. If I hadn’t been careless in my study, I would not have suffered now.

Extended activity Assign the student a letter writing task in which they will be expressing their feelings of regret for securing very low grades in most subjects. Ask them to write a letter of regret to the principal including the promises for the days to come. Lesson reflection What I did?

What went on successfully?

What challenges I faced?

Lesson Seven Writing Content from the textbook  Engage yourself (pp. 80-81) Materials required  A chart showing the various parts of the news report Lesson activities Engage yourself (1)  Begin the lesson by engaging students to observe the given pictures and recognize them.  Give them some clues to identify the places if needed.  Ask them these questions to brainstorm their ideas: Which picture is the best? Have you ever been to the place shown in the second picture? Where can we have jungle safari like shown in the third picture? 

Engage yourself (2) Introduce the parts of the news report to the class displaying the chart. For example: Elements Headline Byline Place-line Lead

Body Facts Quotation

          

Definition Catches your attention Sums up the story Writer‟s name Writer‟s specialty, e.g. sports, food, crime, current events Where the story begins The opening section Gives most important information Should answer most of the 5W‟s Supplies detail Most important details come first Simple true statements What someone actually said Adds accuracy and feeling at the scene

Now, write the heading “Nepal, must see destination‟ for 2016, recommends leading global magazine” on the board, and ask them to guess what the heading means. Welcome their responses.

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Divide the class into pairs, ask them to draw a similar chart as shown above, and fill in the elements of a news report given in page 80. When they have completed, call some sample pairs, and ask them to share their answers and lead the discussion. Suggested answer: Fill in all the elements of the news report reading the news report given in the textbook. Elements Definition Evidence from the article Headline Nepal „must see destination‟ for 2016,  Catches your attention recommends leading global magazine  Sums up the story Byline Not mentioned  Writer‟s name  Writer‟s specialty, e.g. sports, food, crime, current events Place-line  Where the story begins Kathmandu Lead The National Geographic Traveller magazine has  The opening section enlisted Nepal as one of the must-see destinations  Gives most important in the world for 2016. information  Should answer most of the 5W‟s Body - Nepal has been placed sixth in the list of 16 cool  Supplies detail destinations in the world.  Most important details come - Tourist numbers to Nepal plummeted by 85 per first cent after the devastating earthquakes, but the country is once more open for business and safe to visit. Facts - Nepal „must see destination‟ for 2016,  Simple true statements recommends leading global magazine. - In its „cool list 2016‟ prepared for the January/February 2016 issue of the UK based travel magazine, Nepal has been placed sixth in the list of 16 cool destinations in the world. Quotation  What someone actually said - One of the world‟s popular travel publications said, adding, “This is a nation that has long relied  Adds accuracy and feeling at heavily on tourism with many visitors lured by the scene the chance to combine volunteerism with an adventure holiday in a stunning landscape.” - “We‟ve scoured the planet for this year‟s must see destinations and come up with an eclectic list of top spots for culture, cuisine, festive celebrations, pristine coastline and places to go. Some are obvious, some not so but we they should be top of anyone‟s travel plans in 2016and beyond,” the magazine quoted its editor Pat Riddell as saying.

Now, ask the students to read the article quickly, and to answer the questions given in page 81. Suggested answers a. The text was written on December 08, 2015. b. This article can be found on www.thehimalayantimes.com. c. The text is about the recommendation of the National Geographical Traveller Magazine to enlist Nepal as one of the must-see destinations in the world for 2016. d. The headline of the article is “Nepal, must see destination’ for 2016, recommends leading global magazine”. 141


e. Simple present tense is used in the heading. f. The source of the news is „The Himalayan Times‟ newspaper. Extended activity

Ask the students to write the parts of the news report on the chart paper, and past in on the wall of their classroom. Lesson reflection What I did?

What went on successfully?

What challenges I faced?

Lesson Eight Writing

      

Content from the textbook  Time for writing (p. 81) Materials required Sample exercise to create news report on „Talented Students Awarded Medals‟ Lesson activities Time for writing Review the elements of the news report. Ask the students to go through the instruction and the clues. Make the task clear to the class. Divide the class into small groups of three, and ask them to create a news report on “Lionel Messi wins FIFA world player award for fifth time”. Again refer to the news report given on page 80 back, and remind them how the different elements of the news report are arranged sequentially (e.g. heading, byline, place-line, lead, quotation, body, etc.). Walk round the class; monitor and support as required. Once the students complete the task, invite sample students to share/read their products aloud with the class. Invite for feedback for improvement. Arrange for a focused discuss for the further improvement of the news articles. Possible answer Lionel Messi Wins FIFA world player award for fifth time Published: February 5, 2017 Argentina: World‟s famous football player, Lionel Messi, 29, won the Ballon d‟Or trophy on Monday. He is Barcelona and Argentina forward. He became the world‟s best player 2015 for the fifth time. Before this, he has already won four straight FIFA awards from 2009-2012 continuously. “It is incredible that it‟s my fifth. It‟s a very special moment for me to be back on the stage,” Messi said in his acceptance speech. He has scored 41.33 per cent of total voting points in a 23 candidate ballot, whereas, Ronaldo has secured second position with 27.76 per cent. Neymar, Messi‟s Barcelona teammate stands in the third position with 7.86 per cent. Voting was conducted by national team captains and coaches, plus journalists were also invited from FIFA member countries. Extended activity Ask the students to write a news report on ‘Talent Students Awarded Medals’. If they cannot, complete it in the class, assign it as homework.

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Talented Students Awarded Medals Published: January 5, 2017 Kathmandu: Talented students belonging to the schools of Kathmandu district were awarded medals in a colourful ceremony held here in Kathmandu today. The top 3 students who had scored excellent grades in the Secondary Education Examination (SEE) exam held last year were recognized with gold, silver and bronze medals by an organization known as Institute of Science and Technology. The best among the best was Megha Gurung from Sagun School. She was awarded with gold medal. Similarly, Sanu Kaji Sherpa from S.P.S. School and Shanti Rana from J.P. School were awarded with silver medal and bronze medal, respectively. These medals were awarded on the basis of the grades the respective students obtained in the SEE exam. The Chief Guest, District Education Officer congratulated the awardees after he distributed the medals. He furthermore, encouraged all the students participating as the audience in the programme to work hard in order to meet the glorious destination of life. Lesson reflection What I did?

What went on successfully?

What challenges I faced?

Lesson Nine Writing Content from the textbook Follow-up activity (p. 81)

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Materials required  Chart of 5Ws+1H questions to gather the information  Sample news report Lesson activities Follow-up activity Ask the students to read the task. Make sure that everyone is clear about the task. Display the 5W+1H chart for collecting idea to the class. For example: What Who was When did it Where did it Why did that How did it happened? involved? take place? take place? happen? happen?

Ask each student to copy the chart in his/her exercise book, and make note of the basic information about the event that happened in their locality. As they are working on this prewriting stage of writing the news report, move around the class and supervise the students‟ involvement. When they finish gathering the basic information, welcome some students to share their ideas so that those who are not able to collect information will get the way. Remind them about the sample news report and its various elements, and ask them to prepare the first draft of their news report using the information they have collected.

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When they complete the first draft, let them exchange their writing with their friend‟s, who is sitting next to them. Ask them to evaluate their friends‟ work, and make constructive feedback to make the writing better. Now, ask them to work on their friends‟ feedback and prepare the final version of the report by revising and editing the news report. When they finish this task, go through some sample writings and provide constructive feedback to them. Sample answer Swine Flu Kills 20 in Pokhara (The headline) HNS, Pokhara, by Anil Mishra. (Source, place, reporter) The infectious Mexican flu, Swine Flu has caused at least 20 deaths (what happened?) in Pokhara valley alone during this month (where and when happened?). The flu is said to have spread throughout Pokhara valley at an alarming rate. Local health personnel claim that the disease appeared there because of the inflow of Mexican tourists in Pokhara (how did it happen?). “When an infected person gets into contact with a normal person, the disease easily transfers from one to another” said a medical professional (what do the witness/ participants say?). More than 70 people are at different hospitals for the treatment of the flu. Meanwhile, the District Education Office has announced a 7-day school closure due to the fear of further disaster. The administration has requested the public to wear an air-mask for health safety (what happened after the incident?).

Extended activity Ask the students to collect any one news report and find answers of the 5Ws and 1 H questions. Reflection Which approach to teaching writing did you follow in this lesson? How can you make this approach more beneficial to the learners? Lesson Ten Project Work and Fun Corner Content from the textbook  Project Work (p. 81)  Fun Corner (p. 82) Materials required  Copies of two different national English newspapers  Chart papers  Glue, scissors, colourful sign pens  Cards with idioms and their meaning given in the textbook on page no. 82. Lesson activities Project Work  Now divide the class into groups of five members.  Ask each group to go through the task, i.e. project work. 144


    

Provide two different English newspapers, a chart paper and some colorful pens/pencil, glue and scissors to each group. Ask them to divide the task to each member so that the work can be done collaboratively. The teacher can help in work division if needed. Ask them to collect interesting news from those given news papers and design the attractive front page of the newspaper along with basic information e.g. date, day, price, etc. Encourage them to be creative. As they are busy in the task, move around the class, monitor and supervise the work. Give hand to the needy groups if needed. When they complete the activity, call them group-wise in-front of the class, and share their work. The best group-work will be awarded.

Fun Corner (1)  Ask the students what an idiom means. Also ask them to provide the exampls. An idiom is a word or phrase which means something different from its literal meaning. Idioms are common phrases or a term whose meaning is changed, but can be understood by their popular use. Because idioms can mean something different from what the words mean, it is difficult for someone not very good at speaking the language to use them properly. Some idioms are only used by some groups of people or at certain times. (Source: https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Idiom) 

Divide the class into groups. Give each group a set of cards with idioms given in the textbook on page no. 82 and next set of cards with their meanings. Ask each group to match the idioms with their meanings. Do not allow them to look at the book.  Once they complete the task, ask them to check their answer looking in the textbook. Fun Corner (2)  Now ask them to work in pair to fill in the blanks with the given idiomatic expression.  First of all, randomly ask them for the answer to activate their prior knowledge.  Listen to their response first, and encourage them to use their common sense and learning to complete the task. Encourage them to use the correct form of verb as well.  When they complete the task, call them for the public sharing. Suggested answers a. Fuel these days is costing an arm and a leg. b. I‟m going to stay home because I am feeling under the weather today. c. By visiting Mugu, I killed two birds with one stone, I enjoyed the beauty of nature and also spent time with my old friends. d. My father and I see eye to eye on most things. e. There was a quite atmosphere in the party so I decided to get the ball rolling and got up to dance. Extended activity Ask the students to collect any five idioms (along with their meanings) from any source and use them in their own sentences. Reflection What is the importance of idiomatic expressions in spoken discourse?

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Part 3: Additional Resources 1. Sample news report Bus plunges into Trishuli river in Dhading, killing at least 31 October 28, 2017 KATHMANDU: A bus carrying passengers returning from a Hindu festival to the Nepali capital of Kathmandu skidded off the main highway and plunged into a river on Saturday, killing at least 31 people and leaving others trapped, officials said. The accident occurred around dawn, around 50 km (30 miles) west of the city on the Prithvi Highway that connects Kathmandu with the southern plains. “We have recovered 31 bodies and are looking for more,” government official Ram Mani Mishra told Reuters from the scene. “It‟s highly unlikely for anyone to survive for so long under water.” Rescuers on rubber boats and police divers managed to spot the bus hours after the crash and were trying to lift it from water with the help of a crane, Mishra said. Apart from the deaths, 16 people have been injured, government administrator Shyam Prasad Bhandari said. Two with grave injuries were taken to Kathmandu while the rest were treated at a local hospital, he said. Police said survivors were thrown out of the bus windows but another 13 people were still believed to be trapped in the bus. The bus had left Rajbiraj town in the southeastern plains on Friday night. Road accidents are common in mostly mountainous Nepal, where police say about 1,800 people die in crashes every year. Accidents are also blamed on poorly maintained and crowded vehicles. (Source: https://thehimalayantimes.com/nepal/bus-plunges-into-trishuli-river-in-dhading-killing-at-least-31/)

2. Script of the audio You will hear an airline boarding announcement. (Sound of an aeroplane about to fly.) Ladies and gentlemen, the Captain has turned on the Fasten Seat Belt sign. If you haven‟t already done so, please place your carry-on luggage underneath the seat in front of you or in an overhead bin. Please take your seat and … fasten your seat belt. Make sure your folding trays are in their full upright position. If you are seated next to an emergency exit, please read carefully the special instruction-cards located by your seat. If you do not wish to perform the functions described in the event of an emergency … please ask a flight attendant to reseat you. At this time, we request that all mobile phones, pagers, radios and remote controlled toys be turned off for the full duration of the flight … as these items might interfere with the navigational and … communication equipment on this aircraft. We request that all other electronic devices be turned off until we fly above 10,000 feet. We will notify you when it is safe to use such devices. We remind you that this is a non-smoking flight. Smoking is prohibited on the entire aircraft, including the lavatories. Tampering with, disabling or destroying the lavatory smoke detector is prohibited by law. If you have any questions about our flight today, please don‟t hesitate to ask one of our flight attendants. Thank you. 146


UNIT EIGHT ASKING FOR REASONS, PURPOSES AND THEIR RESPONSES

Part 1: Unit Outline Curriculum reference: Language function no. 9 under scope and sequence Things to teach Language function and exponents: Stating reasons  because/because of/as/therefore Ravi is absent because he is ill. Ravi is absent as he is ill. Ravi is absent because of his illness. He is good in his studies, therefore, he passed his test with good grade. Stating purpose  so that/for/in order to/to We go to hospital so that we can get our health checked up. We go to hospital for getting our health checked up. We go to hospital in order to get our health checked up. We go to hospital to get our health checked up. Reading: Human Trafficking  Reading comprehension followed by extended activities  Text based vocabulary items Grammar: Purpose Connectives (so that/for/in order to/to) Reason Connectives (because/because of/as/therefore) Listening: A conversation on “Causes and effects of Smoking”  Listening comprehension followed by extended activities Speaking: Activities related to different types of connectives stated above  Taking part in conversations  Asking questions for reasons, purpose and result, and giving proper responses. Writing: Letter writing  Writing a letter to the editor on/about - reckless driving - insufficient water supply in your locality - load shedding  Writing a letter complaining to the local authority about an issue that is bothering you and the people of your locality Paragraph writing  Writing a couple of paragraphs comparing any two organizations or institutions 147


Content themes/topics  Human Trafficking  Reasons for smoking and effects of smoking  Environment conservation Expected achievements of the students By the end of this unit, the students will have:  guessed the meanings of the words from the context.  used the new words in speaking and writing.  completed the comprehension activities based on the reading texts.  prepared a poster about human trafficking with slogans.  written a success story of an organizations that is working against human trafficking.  used 'purpose' and 'reason' connectives appropriately speaking and writing.  made meaningful sentences by rearranging the jumbled words.  completed the comprehension tasks after listening to the conversation.  written letters to the editor.  written a couple of paragraphs comparing the institutions/organizations. Integrated soft skills  Critical thinking skills  Communication skills  Information management skills  Learning skills  Creative thinking and problem solving Teaching resources  Flash cards of the words from 'Vocabulary in use' from the text 'Human Trafficking'  Materials needed for drawing a picture  A chart showing the structure and use of purpose and reason connectives  Audio file of the assigned listening script Estimated periods: 9

Part 2: Learning Facilitation Process Lesson One Reading Content from textbook  Engage yourself, Study time: Human Trafficking p. 83-84) Required materials  The reading text  If possible, real picture showing people demonstrating with placards  Flash cards of the words from 'Vocabulary in use' 148


Lesson activities Engage yourself  Before asking the students to look at the given picture, ask them the following questions: - Have you seen people demonstrating in your community/village/town? - What was the reason behind their demonstration? Listen to their answers. Encourage them to speak.  Now group the students, and ask them to go through the set of questions given. Make sure that the students understand each questions.  Thereafter, ask the students to look at the given picture carefully, and answer these questions from the textbook. a. What is the picture about? b. What are the people doing in the picture? c. Have you ever participated in a programme that protests against human trafficking?  Ask each group to give its answers. Suggested answers a. The picture is about demonstration/protest. b. They are demonstrating against human trafficking. c. Yes, I have. /No, I haven‟t. Study time Reading (Human trafficking) Write the following questions on the board, and then ask the students to read the text quickly but carefully to find out the answer to the questions. Check the students‟ answers. a. What is human trafficking? b. Why are humans trafficked? c. Who are the trafficking victims? Suggested answers (Accept any other relevant answers) a. Human trafficking is an unlawful trade of human beings. b. They are trafficked for sexual exploitation, forced labour, extraction of organs or tissues and so on. c. Majority of the trafficking victims are women and children. Vocabulary in use Finding words/phrases from the text is a very useful exercise for teaching vocabulary. Divide the students into groups. Ask them to go through the meanings under the heading “Vocabulary in use” (p. 85) carefully, and find the word that goes with each of the meaning from the text. Also tell them that the initial letter of the word is given against/after each meaning. When the students do the activity, move around the class to see that each member in the group is engaged. If any group finds difficulty, help it get the word. Suggested answers a. Cross-cutting b. Sexual exploitation c. Transnational d. Prostitute e. Marginalization f. Deserted wife g. Vulnerable 149


h. Helpline Extended activity Tell the students that six people in the group are holding placards, some people in the front are holding a banner, and that two of the placards do not have any slogan on it. Now ask them to write slogans for those blank placards. Possible slogans “Families Belong Together” “Human Trafficking Is Criminal” “Stolen People, Stolen Dreams” “This Could Be Your Daughter. Stop Human Trafficking.” “You and Me, Lets Help Set Them Free.” “Don’t Be Cruel and Cold, Humans Should Not Be Sold.” (Source: freshquotes.com) Reflection Did your students really enjoy the lesson? Do you think your students can take draft slogans on their own? Lesson Two Reading (contd.) Content from textbook  Reading (Human Trafficking p. 84) Required materials  The reading text  If possible, real picture showing people demonstrating with placards  Usual classroom materials Lesson activities Study time: Reading comprehension (i) Ask the students to go through the sentences in Activity i under the heading “Reading comprehension” (p. 85). Tell the students that each of the given sentence is either true or false. Now, ask the students to read the text “Human Trafficking” again, and then write true against the statements that are correct and false against the ones that are incorrect. Check the answers by asking students to tell the line number where the answer lies. Suggested answers a. False b. True c. False The following sentences or the ideas related to these sentences are not in the text. d. The nearest family members may help smugglers. Not mentioned in the text. e. Rich and developed countries are free from human trafficking problems. Not mentioned in the text. Reading comprehension (ii)  Divide the students into groups as per your convenience. Ask the students to go through the questions in Activity ii under the heading “Reading comprehension” (p. 85). 150


 Make sure the students understand the questions. If they find difficulty to get what the questions ask for, clarify it. Next ask them to read the text “Human Trafficking” once again to find out the answers to the questions.  Ask them to mark the lines where the answers to these questions are likely to be found.  Move around the class to see that the students are doing their works. If need be, give clue/s to the student/s or the group/s to find the answers.  Compare the answers with the whole class. Answers (Accept any correct answers.) a. Human trafficking is an unlawful trade of human beings. b. Marginalized women and children, people from low income households, ethnic minorities, illiterate people, people with low level of education, refugees, illegal migrants, children running away from home, members of split families, women of forced marriage and early marriage, deserted wife, widows and discriminated daughters are prone to trafficking. c. Traffickers take help of local people to identify helpless families. The members of such families are lured to promises of better life and well-paid jobs in cities. Traffickers also put forward false proposal, make false marriages and even make the poor people dream of making easy money and living a sophisticated life. d. Yes, I agree with the statement that "Human trafficking is another form of slavery." Human trafficking is a cruel type of slavery because it removes the victim from all that is familiar to her/him.The trafficked/smuggled humans are forced to work as prostitutes, domestic servants, beggars, factory workers, mine workers, circus performers and child soldiers. e. Common people have their own way of life, but the victims are compelled to live the life decided by others. For example, a domestic servant has to work according to the demand of his/her master. He/she is not given any chance to fulfil his/her desires. Reading comprehension (iii) Divide the students into pairs. Ask them to re-read the text “Human Trafficking” and complete the table with the information from the text. When the student work, move around the class to make sure that the students are doing accordingly. Assist the pair/s if needed. Who are easily How do they get What do they do after trafficked? trafficked? trafficking? illiterate, people from promise of better job, well domestic work, work as prostitutes, low income households, paid job in cities, false beg, work in factory, work in mine, ethnic minorities, marriages and proposals, perform in circus and work as child refugees, illegal easy money, dream of soldiers. migrants, street children, sophisticated life, etc. members of split families, women of forced marriage and early marriage, deserted wife, widows, discriminated daughters and victims of earthquakes, floods, wars and epidemics 151


Extended activity Ask the students to write a couple of paragraphs about the causes and effects of human trafficking. Reflection Did your students find the answers to the questions easily? What were the problems that were faced by your students? Were they able to write correct sentences while writing answers? How can you help your students write correctly? Lesson Three Follow-up activities Content from textbook  Follow up activities (p. 86) Required teaching materials  Sample poster about human trafficking  Few catchy slogans to bring awareness to common people Lesson activities Follow up activity (i)  Divide the students into groups of 4 students each. Tell each group that they have 30 minutes to prepare a colourful poster about human trafficking with a few catchy slogans to bring awareness to common people of their locality.  Give each group the required materials.  You can ask the students to write slogans similar to the ones listed in the activity „Engage yourself‟ above.  Move around the class assisting the group in their works, if need be.  After the students finish the work, display their works either in the class or on the school display board. Follow up activity (ii)  This activity can be set for home assignment.  Ask the students to write the names of any five institutions or organizations that are combating against human trafficking and a success story of any one of them. Suggested answers There are many such institutions/organizations all over the world, five of them are listed below: 1. Maiti Nepal 2. Alliance Anti Trafic(AAT), France 3. Awareness Against Human Trafficking (HAART), Kenya 4. Coalition to Abolish Slavery and Trafficking, Los Angeles 5. FIGHT – Fight Global Human Trafficking, Germany Maiti Nepal-fighting human trafficking Maiti Nepal, a non-profit organization, was founded by Anuradha Koirala in 1993. This organization is dedicated to addressing the human rights crisis of girl sex trafficking. So far it has helped rescue or prevent the trafficking of over 20,000 girls into the brothels of India and Tibet. The organization provides homes for the survivors of trafficking. It also provides educational 152


support to the children and women who have a desire for learning. Furthermore, it provides psychological counseling, support, and life skills to girls/women who are at risk of being trafficked. The main activity of this organization is to rescue girls by setting up a team of survivors of trafficking. The organization also organizes several activities including awareness campaigns regarding sex trafficking, rescue operations for the trafficked women and girls, apprehending traffickers, providing legal support to the needy, women empowerment programmes, and providing anti-retroviral therapy (ART) to HIV infected children and women. As the founder and director of Maiti Nepal, Anuradha Koirala had received the Courage of Conscience Award from The Peace Abbey in Sherborn, Massachusetts on August 25, 2006. She won the CNN Hero of the Year award in 2010.The United States government has given a twoyear grant of $500,000 to Maiti Nepal in April 2010. Recently she has been bestowed Padma Shri Award 2017 by the Honourable President of India Mr. Pranab Mukherjee for her exemplary Social Work. Anuradha Koirala is the only foreigner to be bestowed Padma Shri Award, the fourth highest civilian award of India. Until now, Anuradha Koirala has received over 30 national and international awards for her courageous acts and lifetime achievement furthering the cause of children‟s and women‟s rights. (source-wikipedia.org) Extended activity What is your opinion about the works being done by Maiti Nepal? Do you think there should be other such organization in Nepal to combat human trafficking? Write a couple of paragraph about you view. Reflection Which approach to teaching writing do you think you followed in this lesson? If you are to teach a similar type of writing, how would you teach it in a better way? Lesson Four Grammar Content from the textbook  Grammar activities (Engage yourself, Time for Grammar, Follow-up activity (p. 86-87) Materials required  Words cards/sentence cards showing the use of reason and purpose connectives Lesson activities Engage yourself  Reason connectives are used to link a statement with its reason. Ask the students if they are familiar with reason connectives/conjunctions. Ask them to make a list of them.  Ask them to say, and list them on the board.  Give them the examples of reason connectives.  because  because of  for  as  since  therefore (as a result/consequently/hence…) 153


Provide some sentences in which reason connectives are used. Examples: a. Ahmed is absent today because he is ill. b. The match was postponed because of heavy rain. c. We listened to him eagerly, for he brought good news of our families. d. I hope they‟ve decided to come as I wanted to hear about their India trip e. They‟re rather expensive, since they‟re quite hard to find. f. He is only 16. Therefore, he is not eligible to vote.  Ask the students if they can say the context in which these conjunctions are used. If they can't, tell them.  Now, tell the students that purpose connectives are used to link an action with its purpose.  Ask the students if they are familiar with purpose connectives/conjunctions. Ask them to make a list of them.  Ask them to say, and list them on the board.  Give them the examples of purpose connectives.  to  in order to  so that  for  Provide some sentences in which purpose connectives are used. Examples: a. Many people in the villages rear domestic animals to earn their living. b. I went to the bank in order to deposit/withdraw some money. c. Students go to school so that they can gain knowledge. d. People go to religious places like temple, mosque, church, gurudwara, etc. for offering their prayers.  Ask the students if they can say the context in which these conjunctions are used. If they can't, tell them. Engage yourself  Ask the students to work out on their own.  Tell the students that the sentences have been extracted from the reading text above.  Ask them to underline the conjunctions of cause and purpose/reason.  After they finish, ask them to read out the answers to the class. Suggested answers a. because b. In order to c. because d. because of Extended activity Ask the students to connect the following sentences using suitable reason or purpose connectives. Tell them to make as many sentences as possible. a. Many youths go to university. They want to get higher academic degrees. b. He did not go to Pokhara with his friends. He is suffering from common cold. c. I want to study Medicine. I want to become a doctor. d. He went to hospital. He wanted to get his health checked up. 154


Reflection Do you think the exercises given in the textbook for practising the use of connectives are sufficient for the students? Did you add your own exercises for this purpose? Did your students enjoy this? Lesson Five Time for grammar Content from textbook  Time for grammar (p. 86) Required materials  Cards with connectives written on them Lesson activities Time for grammar (i)  Tell the students that connectives are missing in the given conversation, and that they have to fill in the appropriate connectives from the list. Also tell them that a connective can be used more than once if needed.  Before the students start, remind them about the context in which different reason and purpose conjunctions are used.  Make them work in pairs to fill the gaps choosing the appropriate conjunction from the list.  Get them to share their answers with the class, and provide your feedback. Suggested answer Mother: Today, I‟m going to take you for shopping. What do you want to buy? It‟s, therefore, I need to carry enough money to meet your demands. Son: I want to buy an Xbox. It‟s for playing games. It‟s also meant for gaming, watching videos and surfing the net. Daughter: For me, I need a party dress so that I can attend my best friend‟s birthday party. Next, I want to buy a hand bag to match with my dress. If you don‟t mind, I will buy shoes for casual wear as well. Father: I‟m planning to buy a fridge because it preserves foods for a long time. Mother: That‟s all for today because of load shedding our credit cards might not work. Therefore, I am taking hard cash with me. Is that ok? Time for Grammar (ii)  Tell the students that in this exercise they have to rearrange the words to form meaningful sentences.  Ask them to work in pairs to produce sensible sentences.  After they finish, read out the correct sentences to the class. Suggested answers a. Because of the noisy party, Pemba‟s neighbour got angry. Or Pemba‟s neighbour got angry because of the noisy party. b. Krishna started a training in order to become a beautician at beauty centre. Or In order to become a beautician at beauty centre, Krishna started a training. 155


c. d. e. f.

I visit the zoo so that I can observe the activities of wild animals. A pencil sharpener is used to sharp a pencil. I practise a lot so that I can improve my mathematics to secure better marks. He could not continue his class because of chronic sore throat.

Follow-up activity  Tell the students that in the following leave application some connectives are missing.  Ask the students to work in pairs to complete the leave letter by inserting appropriate connectives.  After they finish, read out the answers to the class. Lazimpat 5 June, 2016 The Class Teacher, Nandi Ratri School, Naxal, Kathmandu Dear Sir, I am writing this application to request a leave of absence for seven days starting from 6 June. It is because of a knee injury. Yesterday while I was returning home from school, I had an accident. A motor bike coming from the opposite direction slipped and somersaulted nearby an electric pole because/as it was in a great speed. The bike rider fell off the bike and banged into me. I had a deep cut on my knees. [Therefore,] The doctor has advised me to take a complete rest, and take medicine for a week. Therefore, I request you to grant me a week's leave. I assure you that I will complete all the assignments given during my absence as soon as I join my regular class. Therefore, I request you to grant me a week's leave. Thanking you. Yours faithfully, Amulya Rana Magar Grade 10 Nandi Ratri School Extended activity Ask each student to write a leave application for a week to his/her class teacher stating that s/he needs to go to his/her village/hometown to attend the marriage ceremony of his/her sister. Reflection Do you think the exercises given in the textbook for practising the use of connectives are sufficient for the students? Did you add your own exercises for this purpose? Did your students enjoy this?

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Lesson Six Listening Content from the textbook  Listening activities (Engage yourself, Study time, Follow-up activity) (p. 88-89) Materials required  Audio file or audio script containing the causes and effects of smoking Engage yourself

WARNING!!! BE SMART, DON‟T START! QUIT SMOKING TODAY For help, call 9649148259 Save the World, Banepa

Pre-listening activity (i)  Ask the students to look at the given pictures carefully, and then answer these questions. Talk about the picture and the notice, if needed, to help them guess the answers. a. What do each figure in the picture denote? b. What does the picture suggest?  Give some time to the students to think. Accept any suitable answers. Suggested answers a. The leading figure denotes the lungs of a human, and the figure following denotes a lit cigarette. b. It probably suggests that once a person is addicted to smoking, he/she cannot give it up easily. Pre-listening activity (ii)  Now ask the students to look at the notice, and guess the answers to the questions below. a. Why do some children smoke? b. What kind of diseases can smoking cause?  Write their answers on the board. Don‟t comment on the guesses. Just ask students to say what their reasons are that make some children smoke, and what diseases smoking can cause.  Play the audio or read the script. Ask them to check if their guesses were correct.  Play the audio or read the script again so that they can correct their answers. Suggested answers a. Some children smoke to imitate their parents, relatives or neighbours. Some smoke in the influence of their friends. Some smoke by peer pressure. Some in the name of fashion, and many do so due to the influence of cinema. 157


b. Smoking can cause lung cancer, stomach cancer and mouth cancer, asthma, heart diseases, stroke and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, reproductive effects in women and many more. Study time (1)  Tell the students to go through the questions carefully. Make sure that they understand the questions.  Ask them to listen to the conversation, and answer the questions given.  Play the audio or read the script once again. Ask them to listen to it carefully and do the task.  After they finish, play the audio or read the script again, and make them check their answers. Suggested answers a. The main reason for smoking by the children is that they copy their parents, relatives or neighbours. b. The nicotine inhaled in the course of smoking makes the arteries contract. c. Lung cancer, stomach cancer and mouth cancer (write any two). d. C stands for Chronic in COPD. e. Youngsters starts smoking in the name of fashion. Study time (2)  Ask the students to listen to the conversation again, and tick (√ ) the reasons for smoking that are mentioned in the audio/script. One has been done for them. Play the audio or read the script once again. Remind them that they are to tick mark only those reasons that they hear in the audio. a. Imitation of the elders √ Suggested answers b. Bad company c. Considering smoking as a mature activity √ d. Peer pressure√ e. Influence of the TV f. Pressure of the elders g. Influence of the cinema√ h. Impact of advertisements j. Lack of knowledge Follow-up activity  Pair up the students. Ask them if they agree with the reasons for smoking that are given in the conversation. [If any pair say NO, ask for the reasons.]  Now ask them to discuss in pairs, and list any other reasons that have not come in the conversation. Give them some time to think. After they finish, ask them to read out the reasons other than the ones in the audio. Some other possible reasons for smoking:  Smoking is an addiction  Smoking gives them pleasure.  For social integration  They enjoy smoking  To feel relaxed  To remove stress 158


Extended activity Ask the students to justify the statement “Cigarette smoking is injurious it health.” Reflection Did your students find the answers to the questions easily? What were the problems that were faced by your students? Were they able to write correct sentences while writing answers? How can you help your students write correctly? Lesson Seven Speaking Content from the textbook  Speaking activities (Engage yourself, Time for speaking, Follow-up activity) (p. 88-91) Materials required  Charts and posters related to animals rights and clean environment Lesson activities Engage yourself  Divide the whole class into two groups. Further ask the students in each group to make pairs. Then ask the pairs in one group to study picture no. 1 and the other group to study picture no. 2 carefully.  Now ask each pair to share with each other the messages their picture conveys. Give them 3 minutes time. Make sure the students are sharing their ideas.  Next you can call 3 students from each group in front of the class to tell the class the message/s they have come up with. Picture 1

Animal Liberation Nepal, Chitwan Possible messages Animals need to be preserved. Animals’ homes must not be destroyed. Animals should not be kept in cage for entertainment. Pets must be treated kindly. ………….

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Picture 2 Use Less, Save More and Keep it Green!

We owe this planet to our future generation.

GREEN NEPAL, Gairigaon Possible messages Forests must be preserved. Trees must not be cut. Plant a tree so that next generation can get air for free. Let’s go green to get our globe clean. ………  Now ask the students to suggest what each of these organisations- Animal Liberation Nepal, Chitwan and Green Nepal, Gairigaon- is for using the given expressions. Suggested answers 1. The purpose of Animal Liberation Nepal, Chitwan is to preserve animals. 2. GREEN NEPAL, Gairigaon was established in order to aware people about the importance of preserving forests/planting trees. Time for speaking (1)  Make the students recall the context in which reason and purpose conjunctions are used.  Now ask one student at a time to tell the class a sentence of his/her own using reason and purpose conjunctions appropriately.  You can, for example say: You: (Name of the student) Will you please make a sentence using „because‟? Student: Yes, miss/madam. Biru is absent today because he has gone to hospital.  Ask similar questions to different students until all the connectives learnt are used up.  After having done so, divide the students into groups, each group having 5 members- A, B, C, D and E.  Now ask each group to look at the first picture and the words below it carefully, and then play the role as shown in the example. Move around the class to see the students are doing the assigned work. Example: sold car/bought a cycle/cheap/financial problem/eco-friendly/money A: Why did she sell her car and buy a bicycle? B: She sold her car and bought a cycle because fuel has become so expensive. C: It is because of her financial problem. D: She sold her car and bought a bicycle so that she could be eco-friendly. E: She did it in order to get money.  Next ask them to look at each of the pictures given, and to go through the clues related to them so as to play their respective roles. Move around the class to see the students are doing the assigned work. Assist them if need be. 160


left school/started working/lost parents/earn money/basic needs/ feed younger sister Suggested answers: A: Why did he leave school? B: He left school to start working. C: He started working because he lost his parents. D: He had to earn money in order to meet his basic needs. E: And also to feed his younger sister.

joined martial art class/hobby/fit and strong/self-defense / confidence Possible answer A: Why did she join the martial art class? B: She joined the martial art class because martial art is her hobby. C: She joined it in order to keep herself fit and strong. D: She wants to learn new technique so that she can defend herself when she is attacked. E: And also to develop a sense of confidence in her skill.

dead body cremated/electric machine/eco-friendly/easy/cheap/ time saving Possible answer: A: Why should dead body be cremated in the electric machine? B: Dead body should be cremated in the electric machine because such machine is eco-friendly. C: Because cremating dead body in the electric machine is easy. D: Dead body should be cremated in the electric machine because it is cheap. E: Dead body is cremated in the electric machine so that time can be saved. Time for speaking (2)  Ask the students to look at the words in the boxes, and form as many meaningful sentences as possible using one word each from different boxes. 161


Example: I bought a TV for entertainment. Suggested answers a. The reason for taking the bus to the bus park was to park it there. b. I bought a camera so that I can take photographs. c. I bought a mobile phone for communication. d. The purpose of building a museum is to preserve antique items. e. In order to store documents, I bought a pen drive. f. They wanted to perform a drama. Therefore, they went to the theatre. g. We went to the old care center because we wanted to take the old citizens to the zoo. h. The forest was made a sanctuary for breeding the animals. Follow-up activity  This activity can be set as a home assignment.  Divide the class into two groups, and ask the students of one group to prepare a short speech on the topic “Human Trafficking as a serious problem” and the other group to do the same on “Causes of global warming and its effects”. Also tell the students that they have to deliver their speech in the class without looking at their work. Possible answers Human Trafficking as a serious problem Human trafficking is just another name for modern-day slavery. The trafficked victims are forced into labour and sexual exploitation. Every year several women and children are trafficked across national borders. Most human trafficking victims are actually tricked into the trade by the false promises made regarding job opportunities. Many girls are trapped with the bait of false marriages. Human trafficking has robbed people of their right of freedom. The impact of human trafficking is frightening. Although the brunt of it is faced by the victims, the nation suffers as a whole. Our country shows alarming rates of human trafficking. Many women and children are trafficked for forced labour and commercial sexual exploitation. No crime can be worse than this. Causes of global warming and its effects Global Warming is defined as the increase of the average temperature on Earth. As the Earth is getting hotter, disasters like hurricanes, droughts and floods are getting more frequent. The major causes of global warming are increase in the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and deforestation. The increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is mainly from fossil fuel emissions. Further deforestation increases the seriousness of global warming. All living plants and trees store carbon in them. When these plants die and decay, carbon dioxide is released back into the atmosphere. Nowadays forests and grasslands are cleared for various purposes, and as such enormous amounts of stored carbon enter the atmosphere and increases the global temperatures. This increase in global temperatures is causing a wide range of changes. Sea levels are rising due to melting of land ice. Amounts and patterns of rainfall are changing. The Changes in temperature and rainfall patterns have given rise to extreme heat waves, droughts and floods. Other effects of global warming include higher or lower agricultural productions, reduced summer stream flows, changes in ecosystems, species extinctions and many more.

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Extended activity Give the following question to the students and elicit responses from them. a. Why is it important to preserve wildlife? Give your reasons in at least five points. Reflection Did you find your teaching as effective as you thought it would be? Do you think you can teach it in a different way? How? Lesson Eight Writing Content from the textbook  Writing activities (Engage yourself, Time for writing, Follow-up activity) ( pp. 92-93) Materials required  Format of the letter to the editor Lesson activities Note:  The content in the box is all about what a letter to the editor is, why and how it should to be written.  Ask your students what a letter to editor is, why it is written and how it should be written. If the students give you satisfactory answers you move on to another activity. If they don‟t, explain and clarify them. What is a letter to the editor? When you feel strongly about an issue, and you want to let people know what you think. Letters to the editor (LTE) can be an effective way to get the word out. An LTE is a written way of talking to a newspaper, magazine, or other regularly printed publication. It is generally found in the first section of the newspaper, or towards the beginning of a magazine, or in the editorial section. The LTE can take a position for or against an issue, or simply inform, or both. It can convince readers by using emotions, or facts, or emotions and facts combined. It is usually short and tight. Why should you write a letter to the editor? Letters to the editor are among the most widely read features in any newspaper or magazine. They allow you to reach a large audience. You can probably think of many more specific reasons why you might want to write to the editor, but here are a few general ones:  You are angry about something, and want others to know it.  You think that an issue is so important that you have to speak out.  Part of your group's strategy is to persuade others to take a specific action. Or you want to:  Suggest an idea to others.  Influence public opinion.  Educate the general public on a specific matter.  Influence policy-makers or elected officials directly or indirectly.  Publicize the work of your group and attract volunteers or program participants. How do you write a letter to the editor? Begin your letter with a sender address/your address, Sender’s address: Pokhara, Kaski, Nepal Then write the date, Date: 4th Mangshir, 207.. Next write the inside address, 163


Inside address:

The Editor, The Kathmandu Post After that open the letter with a salutation, Salutation: Dear sir/Madam Now begin your letter with a good introductory line thatGrabs the reader's attention. Your opening sentence is very important. It should tell readers what you‟re writing about, and make them want to read more. Explain what the letter is about at the start. Throughout your letter, remember the rule:  Be quick,  Be concise, and then  Be quiet. Don't make the editor or the general public wait to find out what you want to say. Tell them your key point at the beginning. Explain why the issue is important. If you are motivated enough to write a letter to a newspaper or magazine, the importance of your topic may seem clear to you. Remember, it should not share your background or the interest. Explain the issue and its importance simply. Use plain language that most people will understand. Give evidence for any praise or criticism. If you are writing a letter discussing a past or pending action, be clear in showing why this will have good or bad results. State your opinion about what should be done. You can write a letter just to ''vent," or to support or criticize a certain action or policy, but you may also have suggestions about what could be done to improve the situation. If so, be sure to add these as well. Be specific. And the more good reasons you can give to back up your suggestions, the better. Keep it brief. Generally, shorter letters have a better chance of being published. So go back over your letter and see if anything can be cut or condensed. If you have a lot to say and it can't be easily made short, you may want to check with the editor to see if you could write a longer opinion feature or guest column. Sign the letter. Be sure to write your full name (and title, if relevant) and to include your address, phone number, and email address. Newspapers won't print anonymous letters, though in some cases they may withhold your name on request. They may also call you to confirm that you wrote the letter before they publish it. Check your letter to make sure it's clear and to the point. A newspaper may not print every letter it receives, but clear, well-written letters are likely to be given more serious consideration. (Source -http://ctb.ku.edu)

Time for writing Engage yourself  After having found the students‟ knowledge about letter to the editor or having explained and clarified it, ask the students to read the letter to the editor on “Terrible traffic jams” given in the textbook.  After they finish, ask them if there is anything that needs to be clarified. If they ask for any clarification, clarify it or else proceed to the following activity, i.e., writing letter to the editor.  You can make the students write an LTE on „reckless driving‟ in the class and assign the other two “insufficient water supply in your locality” and “load shedding” as homework. 164


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Ask them to do the task looking the letter to the editor given in the textbook as an sample.

A letter to the Editor on reckless driving New Road, Kathmandu Kathmandu 5th Baishak, 2074 The Editor, The Kathmandu Post Kathmandu, Nepal Dear Sir, Through the columns of your esteemed daily, I wish to draw the attention of Traffic Police of Kathmandu Metropolitan city towards reckless driving. It is high time that proper steps are taken to put a stop to the reckless driving of motor bikes, cars and other vehicles in the streets of our thickly populated city. It was only yesterday that a school boy narrowly escaped from being run over by a passenger car going at a very high speed. The boy was crossing the street when a car came racing along at a great speed. Many women and children who try to cross the roads of this overpopulated city become victims to such reckless driving. This has caused many fatal accidents. There is no doubt that regulations regarding speed limit do exist, but the drivers pay no heed to them. Hence, accidents are almost a daily occurrence. The police must strictly enforce the regulations regarding the speed limit. The public who are the worst sufferers, must bring pressure to bear upon the police and the other authorities to put a stop to reckless driving, otherwise this hazard will continue leading to more deaths. Thanking you. Yours sincerely, Ramesh Shrestha Mobile no: 9800000001 Email: rshtra@gmail.com Follow-up activity  Tell the students that a complaint letter to the local authority on any issue that is bothering you and the people of your locality is to a great extent similar to the LTE.  Divide the class into two groups. Ask students from each group about an issue that bothers them and the people in their locality, and note them on the board. Do the same with the other group as well.

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After the groups come up with their issues, ask them to write the letter following the steps they had followed while writing the LTE. Make the students write this letter in the class so that you can assist them in their work when they come across any difficulty. When they finish, collect their exercise books for marking. Mark their letter and provide feedback.

Extended activity Ask the students to write a letter to the editor of a daily newspaper regarding the poor condition of roads in their locality. Reflection Which approach to teaching writing do you think you followed in this lesson? If you are to teach a similar type of writing, how would you teach it in a better way? Write in your personal diary based on your experience of this lesson. Lesson Nine Project Work and Fun Corner Content from the textbook  Project work (p. 93)  Fun corner (p. 93) Materials required  Daily used materials Project work  Ask the students to visit any three organisations or institutions in their locality. Ask them fill in the table given with correct information first, and then to write a couple of paragraphs comparing any two organisations or institutions. Ask them to use the information they have collected.  Tell the students that when they compare any two institutions, their main focus should be on the similarities not the differences.  Ask the students to submit their work in a week time. When they submit, mark their work and give feedback. Fun corner Pair up the students and ask them to practise saying the given expressions with different tones according to the contexts. Reflection Write a reflective note on this lesson in your diary.

Part 3: Additional Resources 1. Some useful sites  http://dictionary.cambridge.org/grammar/british-grammar/linking-words-andexpressions/conjunctions-contrasting (for the rules of contrastive conjunctions)  http://dolon-tutorial.blogspot.com/2009/02/rules-of-grammar.html (for transformation of sentences) 166


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http://www.wikihow.com/Write-Letters-to-the-Editor http://yp.scmp.com/over-to-you/letters-to-the-editor/article/99362/letter-editor-recklessdriving

2. Script of the audio You will hear a conversation between Sarala, Udaya and their teacher about causes and effects of smoking. Sarala and Udaya: Good afternoon sir! Teacher: Good afternoon! Sarala: Sir, we‟ve collected some information about causes and effects of smoking. Udaya: Shall I share with you all? Teacher: Very good! You may … Udaya: Smoking is injurious to health. But … people don‟t... Teacher: Why do you think children smoke? Sarala: Mmm! The main reason why children smoke is that… that … they imitate their parents, relatives or neighbours. I guess… they believe that smoking is a grown up activity. They feel as if they are matured when they smoke. Udaya: Not only that, some children smoke in the influence of their friends. They smoke to impress their friends. Other may start smoking by peer pressure. I‟ve heard that… a boy… was addicted to smoking because he was bullied by his classmate. Teacher: How? Udaya: In the beginning, he was pressured to smoke but later he was habituated to it. And now he is addicted. Teacher: Besides that smoking has become a part of fashion. In the name of fashion, youngsters start smoking. Sarala: Well … I think many boys and girls smoke due to the influence of cinema. Teacher: Hmm! I wish those children were aware of it. Can you tell me the possible effects of smoking, Udaya? Udaya: Sir, when people smoke, it affects people nearby smokers more than the smokers. Therefore, people nearby smokers are prone to health hazards. Because of inhaled nicotine, heart beat gets faster and makes the arteries contract. Sarala: As far as I know, smokers may get different kinds of cancers like lung cancer, stomach cancer and mouth cancer. Similarly, they suffer from asthma in early age. Teacher: Besides, there is a great chance of heart diseases, stroke and COPD i.e. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, reproductive effects in women and the list goes on. It‟s like a slow poison. Sarala and Udaya: It will kill … silently. Teacher: You must know that cigarettes are highly addictive. Once you start, it‟s almost impossible to quit. Therefore, it‟s wise not to start. Prevention is better than a cure! Sarala and Udaya: Yes, sir! 167


UNIT NINE EXPRESSING UNEXPECTED RESULTS Part 1: Unit Outline Curriculum reference: Language function no. 10 under scope and sequence Things to teach Language function and forms/exponents: Expressing Unexpected Results  though/ although/even though/however/in spite of/despite, etc.  Although he is poor, he is happy.  Despite his old age, he is living a very active life. Reading: 1.The Road not Taken 2. A Scary Secret of Two Sisters  Reading comprehension followed by extended activities  Text based vocabulary items Grammar: Contrastive conjunctions (though /although/even though/ however/in spite of/despite, etc.) Listening: Biography of Louis Braille  Listening comprehension followed by extended activities Speaking: A game related to contrastive conjunctions  Taking part in conversations  Asking questions with condition, collecting information and presenting information to the class Writing: A Travelogue, Description of a place, paraphrasing a poem  Paraphrasing the poem 'The Road not Taken'  Writing experience of a terrific moment  Writing a travel experience of a place  Writing a description of a place visited by the students Content themes/topics  Dilemma in one's life  Unexpected incident/event  Biography of Louis Braille  Braille alphabet  Travel experience  Place of historical/natural significance Expected achievements of the students By the end of this unit, the students will have:  guessed the meaning of the unfamiliar words from the context.  recited the poem 'the road not taken' and paraphrased it.  shared the scary event of their life.  completed the comprehension activities based on the reading texts.  drawn a picture to show the situation that the two sisters faced in the story.  used contrastive conjunctions appropriately in speaking and writing. 168


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transformed sentences as per the given instructions. completed comprehension activities after listening the audio. written a travel experience. written a description of a place of historical/natural significance.

Integrated soft skills  Thinking skills  Inter- personal skills  Problem solving skills  Communication and collaboration skills Teaching resources  Audio of the poem 'The Road Not Taken' (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KUaQgRiJukA)  Video of the poem (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eGAFcWWYZDI)  Flash cards of the words from 'Vocabulary in use' from the poem 'The Road not Taken'  Flash cards of the words scary, blunder, breeze, disappointed, gravelled, soccer, disgusting, uttering, etc. with their meanings and pronunciation.  Materials needed for drawing a picture  A chart showing the structure and use of contrastive conjunctions  Audio file containing the biography of Louis Braille  A chart of Braille alphabets Estimated periods: 8 Part 2: Learning Facilitation Process Lesson One Reading Content from the textbook  Reading activities (Engage yourself, Study time, Reading I: The Road Not Taken (p.9495) Materials required  Audio of the poem 'The Road Not Taken'  Video of the poem recited in chorus  Flash cards of the words from 'Vocabulary in use' Lesson activities Engage yourself  Ask the students to look at the picture given in this section, and answer the questions given in the textbook orally. a. The boy is thinking about the way to go somewhere. b. Students may say 'The one to his right or left.' Consider both answers. c. Students may reply as," Yes, I have faced dilemma several times. The first dilemma that I faced was when I had to choose between going either to private school or continue my study in a government school. In that situation I consulted elders and experts. It was really difficult for me to take decision." Share your experience too.

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Ask the students if they are happy with their way of life or they have regret. Ask them why? (Some of them may say they are happy and others may reply they have regret. Consider both answers but try to elicit the reason from them why they think so. Ask the students to guess the theme of the poem. (Dilemma in life to make a decision when one has to choose one thing between the two which seem to be very similar.)

Study time: Reading I (The Road Not Taken)  Write the title of the poem on the board, and ask the students to read the poem silently and underline the new words.  Write down the new words underlined by the students on the board, and teach their meanings and pronunciation using the flash cards and appropriate techniques.  Ask them to work in pairs, and use those words in their own sentences. For example: a. At Muglin Bazaar the road has diverged towards Pokhara and Narayanghad. b. I was afraid of the wild animals to go to the wood to fetch firewood. c. They travelled through miles of wild country where the hills were covered with a dense undergrowth of brush. d. She would claim to be a research scientist. e. She completed her work and breathed a sigh of relief. f. The bulk of the jungle which lies between two streams has never been trodden by the foot of man. g. The branches of the trees are bent by the strong wind. h. John passed the bar exam and hence will be a lawyer soon.  Give a brief background of the poet and the poem to the students. Background of the poet Robert Lee Frost (March 26, 1874 – January 29, 1963) was an American poet. He is highly regarded for his realistic depictions of rural life. His work frequently employed settings from rural life in New England in the early twentieth century, using them to examine complex social and philosophical themes. One of the most popular and critically respected American poets of the twentieth century, Frost was honored frequently during his lifetime, receiving four Pulitzer Prizes for Poetry. He was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal in 1960 for his poetic works. On July 22, 1961, Frost was named poet laureate of Vermont. (Source: Adapted from https://www.poets.org/poetsorg/poet/robert-frost)

Background of the poem „The Road Not Taken‟ is a poem about someone trying to decide which road s/he is going to take on a stroll through the woods. It is a poem about the journey of life. The two roads diverged in a yellow wood forest symbolise a person‟s life. The narrator‟s choice about which road to take represents the different decisions we sometimes must make and how those decisions affect our future. Frost is making the connection between life and travelling. Frost captures the uncertainty about making decisions. In the poem, the poet tries to encourage readers to overcome the fear of the unknown: someone must be the first person to try a new thing.

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Note to the teacher: The last line of the third stanza of the poem in the textbook has been mistakenly placed as the first line of the final stanza. It should be: And both that morning equally lay In leaves no step had trodden black. Oh, I kept the first for another day! Yet knowing how way leads on to way, I doubted if I should ever come back. I shall be telling this with a sigh Somewhere ages and ages hence: Two roads diverged in a wood, and II took the one less traveled by, And that has made all the difference 

Now provide a model reading of the poem to the students, and ask them to listen to you carefully.  If you have an audio or video of the poem, play it and ask them to listen to or watch it. You can play the audio or video more than once.  Ask the class to recite the poem together with you, if required do it more than once. Observe how they recite.  You can ask half of the class to recite the poem turn by turn. Encourage them to use gestures too.  Ask them to recite the poem in small groups and finally invite some individual students randomly to recite the poem. Vocabulary in use (i)  Ask the students to read the poem silently, and mark the adjectives, which are given in the poem.  Ask them to work in pairs, and decide which adjectives describe the first road and which describe the second road.  Ask them to place the adjectives that describe the first road under the column 'the first road' and other adjectives in the next column.  Ask them to share their answers with the class, and provide your feedback. Suggested answers The First Road The Second Road bent in the undergrowth, trodden black, fair, better, grassy, worn, less travelled, worn Vocabulary in use (ii)  Make the students work in pair to match the words with their meaning.  Ask them to consult the dictionary if required.  Ask them to share their answers with the class, and provide necessary feedback. Suggested answers Words Meanings a. diverged iii. branched away b. wood v. forest c. undergrowth vi. shrubs; a mass of bushes 171


d. claim iv. demand e. sigh i. a deep and long breath f. trodden ii. walked on g. bent viii. curved h. hence vii. from now on Reading comprehension (i)  Ask the students to read the words in the box, and see if they are familiar with those words. If they are not, tell them to consult the dictionary and find the meanings of those words.  Ask them to read the sentences given in the exercise. Be sure that all of them understand the sentences. If anyone has difficulty, facilitate them.  Now ask them to fill the gaps in the sentences with the correct word from the box working in pairs.  When they finish the task, ask them to share their answers with the class, and provide necessary feedback. Suggested answers dilemma, speaker, choices, roads, roads, decision, difficult, less travelled road, difference Reading comprehension (ii)  Ask the students if they know what the rhyming words are. If anyone knows, make him/her share it with the class.  Tell them that rhyming words have the same ending sounds. Give them some examples like: a. wood, stood, could b. day, play clay c. flew, knew, chew  Now ask the students to read the poem silently, and find out the words that rhyme with the words in this exercise. Suggested answers  fair, wear, there  day, lay, way  sigh, by Reading comprehension (iii)  Ask the students to go through the questions. Make sure that the students understand the questions.  Ask them to go through the poem, and mark the lines where the answers to these questions are likely to be found.  Ask them to work in pairs to finalize the answer to each question.  Go around the class and help the pairs.  Provide feedback on their answers. Suggested answers a. The speaker in the poem is a traveller. b. The speaker is standing at a point from where the way has diverged. c. He stops there for a long time because he can't decide the way to take. d. He is in a dilemma because there are two ways and he has to choose the one since he cannot go both of them at once. 172


e. He chooses the one which is less travelled. f. He leaves the other one to travel on another day. g. Yes, the speaker is optimistic. Though the road he took was tough, he says that has made all the differences. h. Yes, I think he has made the right decision. i. I think 'the roads' means the choices for future that come simultaneously. j. The central idea of the poem is that successful people dare to do something that has not been done by anyone. Extended activity  Ask the students to write a description of the moment when they were in dilemma and the decision that they made in that situation. Reflection  Are you satisfied with the activities you did in this lesson ?  Did you realise you could involve the students differently than what you did in the class?  Did you use any different activity other than you are suggested to do? If you did, make a list of them. Lesson Two Reading Content from the textbook  Follow-up activities ( p. 96)  Reading II :A Scary Secret of Two Sisters (p. 97) Required materials  Flash cards of the following words: scary, blunder, breeze, disappointed, gravelled, soccer, disgusting, uttering, etc. with their meanings and pronunciation. Lesson activities Follow-up activity (1)  Ask the students to do the task, i.e. "Follow-up activity 1" individually.  Once they complete the task, ask them to share their answer with their pair.  Invite some students randomly to share their experience with the class. Possible answer Yes, I have been in such a dilemma many times in my life. The major one was that when I had to choose between two schools. My father wanted me to study at the school near my house where I could help my parents when I had leisure time. But I wanted to go to the nearest city which is almost two hours walk from my house, and I had to stay there in a rented house. I finally chose a school in the city. I missed my friends, old school and many more. Though I was in a dilemma, my decision has made everything different now. Follow-up activity (2)  Tell the students what paraphrasing is (using your own words to express the message of the original text without changing the meaning.)  Divide the class into the groups of four to six.  Ask them to read the poem 'The Road Not Taken' again, and list out the main ideas from each stanza. For example: 173


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a. The speaker arrives at a fork in a wood and faces a dilemma to choose the way. He looks into both of them. b. The speaker chooses the second path after looking at them for a long time. c. The speaker hopes to travel the next path the next time but later he realizes that it is impossible. d. The poet remembers the choice he made long ago which has made a difference in his life. Move around the class to facilitate the students. After they complete the list, ask them to share it with the class. Note down their ideas on the board, and help the students organise the ideas. If you think they have missed some, share it with them. Now ask each group to discuss and write a paragraph incorporating the points on the board. Make them exchange their writing with other groups. Each group goes through the writing of the other group, and provides suggestion regarding the selection of the word, message, etc. Ask the groups to edit their writing as per the feedback given, and present it to the class. Provide feedback to their writing. Possible answer The Road Not Taken is a poem about life and all the choices you make. Frost's masterpiece is the quintessence of the iceberg principle and has so much meaning behind it. He knows that both roads have an equal reputation and that either road will be a good choice. He realized that upon choosing a road he would never be able to choose the other one. In life everyone gets chances and options but people don't always get the opportunity to change their decision. Also people can't tell their future and how everything will turn out. People can only anticipate so far into the future. This is the reason that the traveller must ponder on what path to take in life. Life can give a person these choices at any time, and the traveller knew that either path would lead him to a different life. He would never be the same person after making choices in life. The road was not less travelled by! It was simply the choice that a person makes the person. The difference could be anything. The traveller could be anyone, but he was telling you a story that changed his personality. (Adapted from https://prezi.com/fggrj9fjttnv/a-paraphrase-analysisexplicate-of-robert-frosts-theroad-not-taken/)

Follow-up activity (3)  Divide the class into new groups.  Ask each group to discuss, and decide the message of the poem and write in their exercise book.  Move around the class to assist the students.  After they complete the task, ask them to share their answer with the class.  Give the conclusion incorporating their ideas. 174


Possible answer The main theme of the poem, "The Road Not Taken," is that human beings are confronted with and defined by the choices they make. Reading II: A Scary Secret of Two Sisters  Ask the students some questions about their own experience that is related to the story. For example: a. Have you ever been scared? b. When and where? c. What scared you? d. What did you do there? e. Did you tell about it to your parent or not? f. Were you alone or with your friends?  Ask the students some signpost questions, and make them read the text quickly and answer the questions. Some sample questions: a. Where were the two sisters going? (hometown of their grandparents) b. What happened to them when they went out of the hotel? (They were robbed.) c. Why didn't they tell about the event to their parents? (because they would punish)  Ask the students to read the text silently, and mark the words that are unfamiliar to them.  Clarify the meanings of the new words to the classing using appropriate techniques. You can also use the flash cards. Extended activity Ask the students to write the summary of the story ' A Scary Secret of Two Sisters'. Reflection Did these activities help you make your students learn more easily? Why? Why not? Lesson Three Reading Content from the textbook  Reading activities (Vocabulary in use, Reading comprehension, Follow-up activity( p. 98100) Materials required  Flash cards containing the meanings given in "Vocabulary in use (i)"  Materials needed for drawing a picture Lesson activities Vocabulary in use (i)  Display the flash cards containing the meaning of the words from the text.  Ask the students to read the text again, and guess the word for each meaning. Give the hints with the first letter and number of letters. They can also take the help from the crossword puzzle.  If they can't, tell the words to them.  Ask the students to fill those words in the crossword puzzle. 175


Suggested answers Across 4. GRAVELLED 6. SNATCHING 8. SHIVERED Down 1. VANISHED 2. BLUNDER 3. FURNISHED 5. THUG 7. GROWLED Vocabulary in use (ii)  Ask the students to work in pairs.  Ask them to go through the story again, and mark the words that describe the street and the thug. They can take the help from the example given in the textbook. For example: lodge : small, expensive, well furnished, not clean, not cozy, etc.  Ask them to note down the words in their exercise books.  After they complete, ask them to share the words with the class and write them on the board.  If they have missed any, write it on the board avoiding repetition. Suggested answer a. Lodge: small, not clean and well furnished, expensive, not airy rooms b. Street: narrow, gravelled, little, quiet c. Thug: tall, lanky, filthy, drunk Reading comprehension (i)  Ask the students to go through the task. Make sure that they understand the sentences and the alternatives.  Ask them to read the text once again, and decide the best alternative for each sentence working in pairs.  After they complete the task, ask them to share it with the class.  Help them correct their answers if they have made any mistake. Suggested answers a. pleasant b. dirty c. thug d. We won't e. obedient Reading comprehension (ii)  Ask the students to go through the questions. Make sure that they understand them.  Ask them to read the text again, and mark the lines where the answers to these questions are likely to be found.  Ask them to work in pairs to finalize the answer to each question.  Go around the class and help the pairs.  When they finish, check their answers and provide feedback. Possible answers a. The two sisters went to their grandparent's home town to spend their vacation. b. They decided to go out of the hotel in the absence of their grandparents. c. They went out of the lodge because they didn't like the hotel. d. When they reached the street a thug suddenly came and looted them. 176


e. From their mistake they learnt that children must obey their parents and elders because their experience and knowledge are guidelines for their better life. f. They decided not to share that scary incident to anyone because if they did, they would be punished. g. From this text, I learnt that we must obey our elders because they have better understanding about life and situations. Reading comprehension (iii)  Divide the class into the groups of four or five.  Ask each group members to imagine as if they were narrator's sister, and discuss how she would share her experience, and list it in points.  After this, ask them to write the points in paragraphs.  Make the group leaders read their writing aloud, and other groups will comment on it.  Provide your feedback too, and ask them to edit their writing. Possible answer My sister and I decided to go to our grandparent's hometown to spend our vacation. On the way we had to stay at a lodge which was neither cozy nor clean. We wanted to stay somewhere else but there were no such places. Thus we had no option. As soon as we unpacked our luggage, my grandparents went outside warning us not to go out. We had already made a plan to go out and as soon as our grandparents went out, we went out of the lodge. As we reached to a gravelled street, a thug came and looted us. We were frightened and decided not to tell anyone about the incident. Thus, we learnt a lesson that we must listen to the elder people because they have plenty of experience and knowledge.

Follow-up activity  Conduct a drawing competition in the class.  Ask the students to study the situation given in the textbook for drawing.  the thug (tall and lanky, black beard, curly hair, wearing a black face mask and spectacles, snatching a bag from the elder girl)  two girls (one ten and the other sixteen)  the street (gravelled, narrow, bushes on both sides)  setting sun  Allocate about ten minutes for the competition.  Give reward to the best one. Extended activity Ask the students to write a couple of paragraphs describing an event when they were extremely scared as in the story 'A Scary Secret of Two Sisters'. Then ask them to share it with the class. Reflection Write a reflective journal of today's lesson. Lesson Four Grammar Content from the textbook  Grammar activities (Engage yourself, Time for Grammar, Follow - up activity (p. 100-102) Materials required  A chart with the list of contrastive conjunctions

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Lesson activities Engage yourself  Ask the students if they are familiar with some contrastive conjunctions. If yes, ask them to make a list of them.  List the conjunctions students share on the board.  Give them the examples of contrastive conjunctions with the help of the chart.  though/even though/although  in spite of  despite  however  whereas, etc.  Provide some sentences in which contrastive conjunctions are used. For example: a. Psychologists are interested in individuals, whereas anthropologists study groups. b. Although he is poor, he is very generous. c. In spite of her sickness, she got a better result in the examination. d. Diana is still doing her homework despite being very tired. e. Even though Nia had studied hard, she failed the test. f. You were right about several things; however, you made a few errors.  Ask the students if they can say the context in which these conjunctions are used. If they cannot, tell them. Tips to the teacher   

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We use contrastive conjunctions to show the difference between two things when we compare them. Contrastive conjunctions are used to emphasize the contrast between two ideas and to link two ideas or statements that are considered to be different. In the sentence, 'although' is equivalent in meaning to 'though' and 'even though'. However 'although' is the most formal of these three, with 'even though' and 'though' being more commonly found in the less formal writing of magazines and newspapers. Use them to signal that the statement in the main clause is unexpected or surprising. When placed after the main clause, '(even) though' limits or reduces the strength of claims stated in the main clause. 'Whereas' is used to contrast between extreme examples that represent almost polar opposites of each other. 'However' is based on a positive-to-negative ordering of information. 'Despite' and 'in spite of' are always followed by a noun, pronoun, and gerund. 'Despite' and 'in spite of' express the same meaning. 'Despite' is more formal than 'in spite of' and thus more likely to be used in academic writing. Use 'despite' and 'in spite of' to introduce a fact which makes the other part of the sentence seem surprising.

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Time for grammar (1)  Remind the students about the context in which different contrastive conjunctions are used.  Ask the students to work in pairs to fill the gaps choosing the appropriate contrastive conjunctions from the bracket.  Ask them to share their answers with the class, and provide your feedback. Suggested answers  a. Although b. Although c. In spite of d. Despite e. Even though f. In spite of g. Although Time for grammar (2)  Write some affirmative and some negative sentences on the board, and ask your students to identify which ones are negative and which ones are positive. For example: a. Harry always goes out. b. Harimaya rarely gets angry. c. He has already done his homework. d. She hasn't arrived at school yet. e. I don't have any sweets. f. None of the boys are present.  Similarly write some statements and some interrogative sentences on the board, and ask the students to find out which are questions and which are statements. For example: a. Did you come to school yesterday? b. I read a novel yesterday. c. Hasn't he arrived yet? d. Geeta has already recorded a song. e. When do you get back to Kathmandu? f. Why are they running very fast? etc.  Tell the students about the feature of affirmative, negative, interrogative sentences and statements with examples.  After this, divide the class into two groups, draw their attention to exercise 2 under time for grammar, and conduct a contest between these groups.  Ask each group a sentence from column 'A' and they have to say the appropriate negative sentence from column 'B'. Before you start, decide their turns with a lottery, and ask them turn by turn.  Award marks for each correct answer, and the group scoring the highest will be the winner. Suggested answers a. - iii, b. - iv, c. - I, d. - vi, e. - ii, f. - v, g. - x, h. - xi, i. - ix, j. - viii, k. - vii Time for grammar (3)  Ask the students to work in pairs. Tell them to change the sentences given in the exercise as directed in the brackets.  Go round the class and facilitate them.  After they complete the task, let them share their answers with the class.  Make necessary correction if they make any error. 179


Suggested answers a. She can speak Japanese. b. Did you see somebody in the park? c. I have already submitted my assignment. d. The man did not walk slowly towards the door. e. There is someone hiding in the cave. f. Both the girls completed their work. g. John never plays with his dog in the garden. h. I know the way to his house. i. This did not give him a deep and lasting pleasure. Follow-up activity  Ask the students to read the conversation in the textbook. Make sure that they have understood the conversation.  Divide the students into four groups, and name them as 'Affirmative', 'Negative', 'Interrogative', 'Imperative' and 'Exclamatory'.  Now ask each group to discuss and write a sentence about the respective type of sentence, they are named after.  Facilitate the students if they feel any difficulty.  After they make a sentence, ask the group leaders to read out the sentences written by them.  Ask other students to put down the sentences in their exercise book.  Make the students write a conversation as in the textbook.  Go round the class, observe their activities and facilitate them.  Ask them to present their work to the class after they form the sentences.  Provide your feedback. Possible answer Mr. Exclamatory: Wow! What a beautiful morning! Mr. Affirmative: I agree with you. It's really beautiful. Mr. Negative: I don't think so. It isn't warm and clear. Mr. Imperative: Stop your arguments. Let's go back to school. Mr. Affirmative: We are getting late for school. We should be on time. Mr. Negative: Can't you walk a bit faster ?! I don't want to be punished. Extended activity Ask the students to pick up a paragraph from the story 'A Scary Secret of Two Sisters', and change the sentences into negative if they are positive and vice versa. Reflection Write a diary entry explaining what you did and what you made your students do in today's lesson. Lesson Five Listening Content from the textbook  Listening activities (Engage yourself, Study time, Follow-up activity (p. 102-103) Materials required  A chart of Braille alphabet 180


 Audio file containing the biography of Louis Braille Lesson activities Engage yourself  Make your students ready for listening. For this, display the chart of the Braille alphabet, and ask them the questions given in this section. They may answer as given below: a. Yes, we can. They are Braille alphabets. b. Visually impaired people use them. c. Louis Braille was born in 1809.  You can also ask the question of your own. Like; a. Who invented these alphabets? (Louis Braille) b. How are they different from English alphabets? (They use dots.) c. How do the visually impaired people read these alphabets? (by touching them)  Introduce the key vocabulary items from the audio that are likely to be difficult for the students. Study time (1)  Ask the students to listen to the audio file, and find the answers to the questions given in this exercise.  Play the sound file or read the audio script. You can play it more than once if necessary.  After they finish, play the audio once again and ask them to correct their answers. Suggested answers a. at the age of three b. for visually impaired people c. six d. from Captain Charle's Barbier e. Lung infection Study time (2)  Ask the students to listen to the audio file, and put the sentences in the order as they occur in the audio. For this ask them to write number against each sentence.  Play the sound file or read the audio script. You can play it more than once if necessary.  After they finish, play the audio once again and ask them to correct their answers. Suggested answer a. He was born in 1809. b. At the age of 15, Louis Braille developed the Braille system. c. Braille replaced the system of 'night writing.' d. His system became a part of the institute curriculum. e. The Braille system was modified time and again. Follow-up activity  Ask each student to write his/her name in their exercise book using the Braille alphabets. They have to pierce the paper using any pointed object like compass.  Go round the class and help them. Extended activity Ask the students to write a biography of the person whom they consider as their role model. Reflection Write in your diary what worked well for you today, what did not work and what you want to improve. 181


Lesson Six Speaking Content from the textbook  Speaking activities (Engage yourself, Time for speaking, Follow- up activity (p. 103-105) Materials required  Daily used materials Lesson activities Engage yourself  Ask the students to recall the context in which different contrastive conjunctions are used. They have already discussed them under grammar section of this unit.  Conduct a contest among the students to make as many sentences as they can from the substitution table given in the textbook. Allocate five minutes time for the activity.  Tell them that the one who makes the highest number of sentences within the time frame will be the winner.  Let them do it, and also reward the winner. Possible answers a. Despite her wealth, she never wore gold jewellery. b. Despite her hard labour, she did not get the expected result. c. In spite of her wealth, she never wore gold jewellery. d. In spite of her hard labour, she did not get the expected result. e. Despite the heavy rain, she went to the office. f. In spite of the heavy rain, she went to the office. g. Although she was poor, she did not expect help from other. h. Though she was sick, she did not go to see the doctor. i. Although she was sick, she went to the office. j. Even though I emailed her, she has not replied me. k. Although she was ill, she went to the office. l. Even though she was ill, she did not go to see the doctor. Time for speaking  Tell the students that they are going to play the game in pairs. One of them will be 'A' who will read the part of the sentences given in the column "Student A" and the other will complete the sentences reading appropriate part that matches with what the 'Student A' has said from the column "Student B".  Remind them that the part of the sentences in the 'Student A' in pair 1 should be matched with the part of the sentences in the column 'Student B' of the same pair, i.e. pair 1.  Also inform them that they will get 1 mark for each correct answer.  Invite some pairs in front of the class (encourage the shy students) and work as the model pairs while other students observe them. For example : Student A (from pair 1): Despite the cold weather ……… Student B (from pair 1) ….......... we wore shirts.  Now ask the students to work as public pair and play the game.  Ask them to reverse the role and act out again.  Go round the class, and facilitate them. Possible answers  From pair 1 182


a. Student A: Despite the cold weather…………………… Student B: … we all had an ice-cream/…we wore shirts/….birds migrated. b. Student A: In spite of the bad condition of the house ………………… Student B: …. she bought it last week. c. Student A: Despite an unattractive appearance……………… Student B: ……….he married a beautiful girl. d. Student A: In spite of the high price…………….. Student B: ……I bought the latest mobile phone. e. Student A: Despite the failure……………………. Student B: ……….he did not get discouraged/…they continued with hope.  From pair 2 a. Student A: Student B: b. Student A: Student B:

Although he looked shabby………….. ………..he was awarded A. Even though his parents objected………………. …………he joined the army.

c. Student A: Though we have known each other………………… Student B: ……….we forgot our name. d. Student A: Even though she passed her exam………. Student B: ……she was not happy with her result/….she couldn't remember any answer. e. Student A: Although they were playing away from home………….. Student B: ………they won the match/…. they were playing with high confidence. Follow-up activity  Divide the class into the groups of four or five.  Ask each group to write five sentences using 'however' and 'though'.  Ask them to divide the sentences into two parts (First clause in group A and the second clause in part B) as in the previous exercise under time for speaking.  Facilitate the students whenever they face difficulty.  After they complete, make them share with other groups which will be played by the members of the other groups.

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Sample answer Pair 1 Student A Read out the first part of these sentences twice. a. The concert was short…… b. Tom asked me to do him a favour…… c. However hard he may try………… d. You can't park here……………. e. I'll be there…………………..

Pair 2 Student A Read out the first part of these sentences twice. a. Though he tried hard, .......... b. Though Tom and Mary are twins, .... c. Though she was tired, ....... d. Though she did not wear expensive clothes, ....... e. Though I didn't want to drink alone, ......

Pair 1 Pair 2 Student A Student B Choose one of these parts of the sentences Choose one of these parts of the sentences to complete what your friend reads out. to complete what your friend reads out. a. ....... however, I couldn't do what he . ........ I did. asked. ....... they don't look very similar b. ....... however, there is a parking lot just ....... nothing changed. around the corner. ....... she was neatly dressed. c. ....... he won't succeed. ....... she kept working. d. ....... however, I might be late. e. ....... however, it was very good.

Extended activity Ask the students to write a paragraph about their past experience using contrastive conjunctions. Reflection Reflection Sheet 1. Which students participated and which did not? Why? 2. What didn't work or could have been more effective? What was missing or needed? 3. What worked really well today? 4. What is important for me to do tomorrow? This week? Lesson Seven Writing Content from the textbook  Writing activities (Engage yourself, Time for writing, Follow- up activity ( p.105) Materials required  A chart with a diagram showing the organization and ways of collecting information for writing a travel experience (The diagram given in the textbook can be taken as a sample.) Lesson activities Engage yourself  Begin the class by asking the following questions to the students. a. Have you ever travelled to any interesting places? 184


b. With whom did you go there? c. Where is it located? d. What things mostly interested you?  Ask the students to recall their travel experience and collect the information about the place on the basis of the points given in the textbook. They have to write the information under different headings. Ask the students to work individually.  Help the students to collect information by phrasing appropriate questions and giving probes. The first section is introduction; ask the students to write some sentences answering the questions. a. Where did you travel? b. What was the purpose of your travel? c. Who were there with you? d. When did you travel? e. How did you travel? Did you use any vehicle?  Help the to collect information for the body paragraph 1: a. Important things you saw/visited there. 1. …………………. 2. …………………… 3. ………………. b. Popular things you saw/visited there. 1. …………………………. 2. ………………….. 3. ……………………… c. Unusual things you saw there. 1. ……………………. 2. ………………………… 3. …………………………  For the second body paragraph, ask them to recall the following things: a. Activities you did. 1. …………………………………… 2. …………………………………… 3. ………………………………………. b. People you saw.  Ethnicity, religion, occupation, etc. c. Culture  Dresses, festivals, songs, dances, etc. d. Nature  Hills, mountains, rivers, lakes, forests, etc. e. Weather  What was the weather like?  The last paragraph is conclusion. For this, ask them to answer the following questions. a. What was the most memorable experience about the travel? b. What idea/lesson did you learn from this travel? Time for writing  Now ask the students to put the information they have collected about the place in separate paragraphs. 185


Ask them to give a suitable title. For example: 'My Travel Experience'. Sample answer My Trip to Ilam Our school was closed for summer vacations from 15th May. It was very hot in Biratnagar. My parents decided to go to Ilam. I too accompanied them. We packed our luggage and got ready for the journey. We reached there in the afternoon and put up at a hotel. Ilam is one of the best hill-station of Nepal. It may be called the queen of hill-station. It has many beauty spots. Next day, after breakfast, we were crowded with tourists from different parts of the country. People were making all sorts of purchases. After lunch we went to tea gardens. Ilam has a healthy climate. The mountain slopes are covered with green tea gardens which present a caring sight at sunset and look very grand. The morning and evening hours are very pleasant. A cool breeze sets up and refreshes the mind. It makes one forget the oppressive heat of the plains. I felt happy in the company of nature. The bright hued flowers, the clouds sailing across the sky and the snow covered peaks of the high mountains in the distance filled my heart with joy. I returned to Jhapa reluctantly. The memory of my visit to Ilam is still fresh in my mind. Adapted from http://www.english-for-students.com

Follow-up activity  Ask each student to share their writing with a friend of them and get feedback.  Let them edit their writing on the basis of the feedback they get.  Ask some of them to present their writing to the class, and provide your feedback.  Get them to edit again, and prepare a final copy. Lesson Eight Project work and Fun corner Content from the textbook  Project work (p. 105)  Fun corner (p. 106) Required materials  Diary for note taking  Camera for taking photographs/video Lesson activities Project work  Ask the students to visit a place of historical or religious importance, and write a description of it.  Follow the procedure below: 1. Planning  Decide the site to visit and the time of visit.  Talk to the principal for permission.  Talk to the students about the aim and the tasks they need to do. 186


 Inform the students about collecting the information as in time for writing activity.  Help them to make information collection tools. 2. Collecting data  Take the students to the site on scheduled day and time.  Ask them to take note of the important information about the place such as location, sites, people and cultural/religious activities performed there. 3. Reporting  Ask the students to write the description of the place they have visited including:  Introductory paragraph (what, when, who, where, why, how?)  Body paragraphs (important or valuable things present there, activities done, things seen, etc.)  Concluding paragraph (ideas/ things learnt)  You can ask them to use the sample descriptions given in the textbook (e. g. the text of page no. 12 about Bhedetar or the text of page nos. 117 and 118 about Devghat) Fun corner  Ask the students if they know what an idiom is. If someone knows, make him/her share what s/he knows about idiom.  Tell the students what an idiom is (an expression whose meaning is not predictable from the usual meanings of its constituent elements).  Ask them to read the sentences given in the textbook, and guess the meaning of the idioms included in the sentences.  Now, ask them to match the idioms with their meanings. Suggested answer Idioms Meanings a. once in a blue moon ii. almost never, rarely b. when pigs fly iii. something that never happens c. a piece of cake i. something very easy to do d. let the cat out of the bag v. to accidently reveal a secret e. hit the nail on the head iv. to say the exact right thing Extended activity Ask the students to get some books on travel experience like Kathmandu Dekhi London Samma: Yatra Sansmaran by Muktinath Sharma Neupane or any other and read at home. Ask them to summarise the book the next day. Reflection Write a reflective note on this lesson. Part 3: Additional Resources 1. Summary of the poem "The Road not Taken" The Road not Taken is a beautiful poem about making choices in life. It discusses the very common situation of coming to the crossroads and not knowing which way to choose. Like all Frost poems it begins in delight and ends in wisdom. One morning the poet came to a junction where two roads diverged in a yellow wood. He stood for a long time there, wondering which way to choose. He was sorry that he could not travel both roads. After considering the prospects of both roads, he took the second one because it was 187


grassy and less travelled by. He kept the first road for another day. But he doubted if he should ever come back because one way leads to another way. The poem ends quite dramatically when the poet hopes that later in his life he will be able to say with a sigh of relief that choosing the road less traveled by has made all the difference in his life. (Or, is it a sigh of dismay? The reader is left to guess for himself.) 2. Brief analysis of the poem "The Road not Taken" Thus the poet speaks of the basic problems of making the right choice. The poem is about choice: how one decision can change a person's entire life. The speaker chose one path over another, and that, he says, "has made all the difference." The fork in the road is symbolic of the choice the speaker has to make about his life. Each path corresponds to a different direction his life may take, so he has to choose carefully. Many alternatives are available at the time of choice but man has to select one. It is only the future that will reveal, whether the decision is wrong or not. After taking decisions we cannot undo them, we can only regret them. Even if we wish, we cannot start all over again. 2. Useful links  http://www.notablebiographies.com/Br-Ca/Braille-Louis.html  http://dictionary.cambridge.org/grammar/british-grammar/linking-words-andexpressions/conjunctions-contrasting (for the rules of contrastive conjunctions)  http://dolon-tutorial.blogspot.com/2009/02/rules-of-grammar.html (for transformation of sentences) 3. Script of the audio You will hear a man talking about Louis Braille. Born in January 1809 A.D in France, Louis Braille could not see by the age of 3. Even though he was visually impaired, his intelligence and determination to read opened the door of knowledge for all those who could not see. When he was at about 15 years, he developed a tactile writing system for educating the visually impaired. This new system helped to decrease the gap between people like him and the sighted ones. This system is called the Braille System. The Braille System is used for books, menus, signs, elevator buttons, and currency. It consists of a series of raised dots, from one to six, arranged on an oblong block called „the Braille Cell‟. Braille is not a language; rather it is a code by which language such as English or Spanish may be written and read. It has entire sets of letters, signs of punctuation, contractions and so on. The founder of “night writing‟, Captain Charles Barbier‟s lecture inspired Louis to form the Braille System. Later, the Braille System replaced Barbier's “night writing.” The Captain‟s symbols was a coded method for soldiers. Finding it a bit complex, Braille reduced the numbers of dots from twelve to six. Braille placed the letters in a uniform order for better recognition. Furthermore, he made other changes that enabled the students to take notes and even write by punching dots into the paper with a pointed instrument. Despite the popularity of the Braille System, it was not accepted formally in his life time. Because of a lung infection, Louis died at the age of forty three. Though Braille was admired and respected by his pupils, his writing system became part of the institute curriculum only after his death. The system is still in use with some modification from time to time. Since then it has been helping to educate all the people who are unable to see.

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UNIT TEN DESCRIBING EVENTS

Part 1: Unit Outline Curriculum reference: Language function no. 11 under scope and sequence

Things to teach Language function and forms/exponents: Causative verbs (have, get, make)  I made him do it.  She had her brother clean the room.  Dolma and Ali were made to arrange the classroom.  She is going to have her hair trimmed tomorrow.  How can we get the pupils do their assignments regularly? Voice  Ram kicked the ball.  The beggar was given some food and clothes. Relative pronouns (who, whom, whose, that, which, etc.)  The house that is on the hill is very nice. Reading: Yogamaya: Poet, Teacher, Insurgent  Reading for diction  Text based vocabulary items Grammar: Causative verbs Active and passive voice Relative pronouns Listening: A telephone conversation with the usage of informal English words  Using information from the audio to fill in the blanks  Answering the questions based on the audio file Speaking: Describing pictures  Pictorial description using relative pronouns (who, whom, that, which, etc.) Writing:  Preparing an outline to describe a place  Writing a description of a familiar place  Writing a descriptive paragraph on a person Content themes/topics  Extract of Nimri Aziz’s article: Yogmaya: Poet, Teacher, Insurgent  Social reformers of the country  Description of Devghat  Popular places of a district Expected achievements of the students By the end of this unit, the students will have:  told the meanings of famous sayings given.  completed the comprehension tasks based on the reading texts. 189


      

composed sentences using causative verbs. changed the sentences in passive voice into active voice. used causative verbs from the context. completed the comprehension tasks listening to the audio. enacted role plays using informal english. described persons, places, events and pictures using relative clauses. composed an on popular places.

Integrated soft skills  Working in pairs and groups  Critical thinking skills  Cooperation and valuing  Development of self-esteem Teaching resources  Anchor chart comprising various words from the text  Note cards with meanings of the various words from the text  Extracts from books and newspapers  Pictures and news cuts of Devghat area  Map of Nepal to show various districts  Video of people using informal English  Sample booklets of mini-biography  Cards containing structure of causative sentences  Extracts of fictional and non-fictional texts Estimated periods: Nine

Part 2: Learning Facilitation Process Lesson One Reading Content from the textbook  Reading activities (Engage yourself, Study time, Vocabulary in use) (pp. 107-108) Materials required  Flashcards and note cards Lesson activities Engage yourself  Ask the students if they have heard about famous literary figures ‘Rudyard Kipling’ and leader of the Civil Rights Movement ‘Martin Luther King’.  Give a brief introduction to the aforementioned personalities. Rudyard Kipling was an English writer best known for the children's book The Jungle Book. He was born on December 30th, 1865 in Bombay, India to John Lockwood Kipling, a pottery designer and sculptor, and Alice Kipling. When he was five he was sent with his sister to board with a captain and his wife in Portsmouth while his parents stayed in India. It was later learned that the captain's wife was cruel to Rudyard. In 1878 Rudyard attended the United Services College to prepare for the British Army, but at 16 Rudyard went to work as an assistant editor at a newspaper in India. His writing career began while working at the paper. While working at the 190 Rudyard was asked to start writing short stories. newspaper the Civil and Military Gazette Rudyard Kipling's first collection of prose titled Plain Tales from the Hills was published in 1888 in Calcutta. Rudyard was 22 years old when it was published. He drew the first pictures for The Jungle Book while living in the cottage. He wrote popular novels, for example, The Light that Failed, Kim, Action and Reaction.


Martin Luther King was born on January 15, 1929 in Atlanta. He is best known for advancing the civil rights movement. He led non-violent protests to fight for the rights of all people including African Americans. He hoped that America and the world could become a colorblind society where race would not impact a person's civil rights. He is considered one of the great orators of modern times, and his speeches still inspire many to this day. In 1963, Martin Luther King helped to organize the famous "March on Washington". Over 250,000 people  Divide the students into groups (4-5 members in each), and ask them to discuss with attended this march in an effort to show the importance of civil rights legislation. There, he friends to analyse the sayings of the famous personalities. delivered his famous ‘I Have a Dream’ speech. He died on April 4, 1968 in Memphis.  Encourage the students to share their analysis. Invite a representative from each  Ask the students to read the sayings, and discuss their meanings in small groups. Suggested answers a. The first saying means that stories and arts make a lasting impression in the hearts and minds of the people and therefore we do not forget them, even the facts of history. Similarly, the second saying means that we should be voicing our ideas and struggling for betterment until the end of our living. b. The text may be about a woman named Yogmaya, who has contributed a lot for social reform in Nepal.  

Ask the students to look at the picture in B, Study time, and guess the name of the person. Also ask them to look at the title of the text below, and guess what the text is about. Introduce the topic ‘Yogamaya: Poet, Teacher, Insurgent’ to the students.

Study time: ‘Yogamaya: Poet, Teacher, Insurgent’  Give a brief background to the text.  Ask the students to read the text and underline the new words. Go on writing the new words as underlined by the students on the board. Clarify the meanings of the words using appropriate technique. You can use the note cards to clarify the meanings of words. An example of the note card is given below. Words Meanings two-pronged separated into parts agenda list of items to be discussed in a meeting oppression unjust exercise of or power corruption dishonest behavior intertwined one involving with the other and vice versa ultimatum a final demand expunged removed completely parity the state or condition of being equal utopia a perfect place convention an assembly of people feminists people who believe that women and men should 191


have equal rights Briefly explain the literary verses used by Yogmaya to the class. For example: a. The verse extract expresses the ideas for equality and fraternity. It implies that human beings are equal in roles and responsibilities; they have equal fate like the tears in the eyes. b. The second verse is about Yogmaya’s love of nature and homeland. It describes the beauty and glory of the Nepal - the mountains, and the rivers, and the entire nature. c. In the third verse, Yogmaya is venting up her revolutionary ideals with a political goal. She exposes that corruption; injustice and bribery are the twice punishable sins of the society.

Vocabulary in use (i)  Ask the students to read the text and find the word in the text for the meanings given working in pairs. Move around the class and assist the students. Suggested answers a. two-pronged b. oppression c. intertwined d. expunge e. virtue Vocabulary in use (ii)  Ask the students to continue working in pairs. Ask them to go through the text, and match the words with their meanings.  Check whether the students could find the answers. Invite for a short sharing session, and provide necessary feedback. Suggested answers a. = ii b. = i c. = vi d. = iii e. = iv f. = v Extended activity Imaginative writing Ask the students to imagine that they were in the time period when the Ranas ruled the country. Encourage them to write an ‘Imaginative Journal’ on how their lives was like in the Rana Period. Lesson reflection Which activities did you find applicable in your classroom? What changes did you introduce in the activities ?

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Lesson Two Reading Content from the textbook  Reading comprehension (p.109) Materials required  Daily used materials  Textbook for individual students Lesson activities Reading comprehension (1) Sentence completion  Divide the class into pairs and involve them in the gap filling activity. Ask them to read the text, and find a word/ phrase from the text to complete the incomplete sentences. Ask them to underline the words/phrases in the passage as evidences for comprehension. Suggested answers a. cultural and religious oppression of the time. b. 1930s and 1940 c. parity and mutual respect d. a non- violent e. injustice against women and girls Reading comprehension (ii)  Ask the students to read the text individually in an intensive manner, and write answers to the questions. Ask them to highlight the answers as they find them in the text.  As the students engage, move around the class supporting the needy students to locate the answers. Suggested answers a. Yogamaya is a poet, teacher and insurgent, and Manamaya is a follower. b. Yogamaya became a rebel firstly due to the cultural and political oppression of her time and secondly due to the unfair rule of the then Prime Minister who allowed corruption and inequality to prevail in the country. c. Yogamaya demanded that the government grant them justice. d. The hazurbani implies the powerful verses composed by Yogamaya. The verses became popular as her teachings became a comprehensive utopian ideal and served as a nonviolent strategy against the Rana rule. e. I think Yogmaya stopped her revolt because the rulers did not fulfill her demands, and instead her protests were rounded up by the army. f. Yogamaya died by dipping herself into the thundering current of Arun river. g. After Yogamaya’s death, the government might have accused her of madness, and might have banned all information about her. Even it might have launched a false campaign to prove that the government was good. h. From the given verses, I understood that she was fighting for equality and justice. i. From this text, I learnt the lesson that people revolt against cruelty and injustice, however the method of revolution can be different. 193


Reflection What challenges do you come across while introducing reading texts which are laden with cultural and historical connotations? What strategies do you adopt while dealing such reading texts in the classroom? Lesson Three Reading Content from the textbook  Follow-up activities (p.110) Materials  Textbook for individual students  References containing information about ‘Sankhadhar Sakhwa’, a social reformer of Nepal Lesson activities Follow-up activity  Ask the students to go through the task given in C. Here, they have to think about an important social reformer of Nepal.  Elicit from the students some names of the social reformers they are familiar with. Write those names on the board. They might come up with names as follows. Yogbir Singh Kansakar King Jayasthiti Malla Sankhadhar Sakhwa, etc.  

Mohan Shamsher Ram Shah

Lead a focused discussion on a reformer (You can ask the students to decide the name). Ask them to think about: What did he/she do? When? In what situation? What changes were achieved as a result? How was the reform process carried out? Present a model to the class. For example: Sankhadhar Sakhwa: A Social Reformer of Nepal Sankhadhar Sakhwa was a great social reformer of Nepal. He paid off the debt of the Nepalese people during the reign of King Raghav Dev in 879 AD. Sakhwa was a trader. On a special day, the king of Bhaktapur sent a team of porters to Kathmandu to collect sand from a particular spot. At that time, Sankhadhar Sakhwa saw them resting with their baskets of sand. The men were taking a break before returning to Bhaktapur. Sankhadhar thought it strange that people should come all this distance just to get sand. Thinking that the sand might be special, he asked the porters to dump their load at his home, convincing them that they could always get more. Later, Sankhadhar found gold in his sand, while the king of Bhaktapur was left with a pile of ordinary sand which his porters had dug up after the auspicious hour had passed. With that surprising gift, Sankhadhar repaid the debts of the poor peasants. In memory of the day, a new calendar of Nepal Sambat was used.

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Divide the class into groups, and let them explore more about the reformer of their choice. Allow freedom to join library or consult other references if possible. Once they complete, invite for sample presentations.

Extended activity Ask the students to create a mini-biography of the person they have chosen. Assign this as a group activity. You can bring a couple of self-made samples for their understanding. Reflection What activities went well in the class? What activities needed improvement? What different strategies did you adopt in this lesson? Lesson Four Grammar Content from the textbook  Grammar activities (Engage yourself, Time for grammar) ((pp. 110-111) Materials required  Textbook for individual students  Active-Passive Verb Chart  Causative Verb Chart Active verb

V1/ Vs-es (present simpe)

V2 (past simple)

Passive verb

is/am/are+V3

was/were+V3

is/am/ are/ was/ were+ V-ing (Continuous) is/am/ are/ was/ were+ being+ V3

has/ have/ had+V3 (Perfect) has/ have/ had+ been +V3

can/ could/ shall/ should/ will, etc. (Modal) can/ could/ shall/ should/ will, etc. +be+V3

V1+ object (imperative)

Let+ object+be+V3

Notes:  V1 = The bare infinitive form of a verb  V3 = Past participle form of a verb Causative Verbs Chart   Notes:  

Causative Verbs Causative verbs without agent (HAVE/ GET) subject + have/ get + object +V3 I had my hair trimmed yesterday. Causative verbs with agent (HAVE/GET/MAKE) subject + HAVE/MAKE + agent + V1 I had the barber trim my hair. subject + Subject= GET + agent + to of + aV1sentence that determines agreement with the verb The part I got the trimpart my of hair.  barber Agent to = the a sentence which is the real actor of the action denoted subject +be + to +V1 by made the verb He was the hair.  made Verbto=trim the part of a sentence that shows the action being carried out

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Lesson activities Engage yourself (1)  Ask the students to look at the pictures given in the book. Tell them that in the pictures, it is inevitable that the photographer has played an important role to motivate the model to pose and make certain movements or gestures.  Ask them to work in pairs, and to match the pictures with the sentences a-d given below the pictures. Suggested answers Picture A= b. The photographer gets the model to stand near the tree. Picture B= c. The photographer has the model walk on the bank of the river. Picture C: The photographer makes the model stand on the boat. Picture D: The photographer has got the model remove her sun glasses. 

Explain the meanings of those sentences to the students. Tell them that in the examples, the model did not do different things herself, but the photographer made her do those things.

Engage yourself (2)  Ask the students to continue working in pairs. Ask them to quickly go through the reading passage (Yogamaya: Poet, Teacher, Insurgent), and find examples of sentences having causative verbs. Allow them about five minutes, and ask them to share their findings. They might come up as: The Prime Minister, along with his generals allowed corruption and inequality to prevail. Time for grammar (1)  Divide the class into groups. Ask them to attend to the table in 1, and make as many sentences from the table as possible. Give a sample, e.g. I will make Monika clean the table.  Move around the class and assist the students.  Go through their sentences and provide necessary feedback. Suggested answers Ramesh has made Kiran trim his hair. Anju got somebody to send the message. Binita has Mina clean the table. Sagar has had somebody clean the table. Time for grammar (2)  Revise the concept of active and passive voice with a demonstration. Carry out some actions, and make the students describe the action. For example students may say; Example: The teacher kept the exercise books on the table. - Ask them to recognize the subject (the teacher) and the verb (kept). - Underline the subject and the verb there. Tell them that the subject (the teacher) carries out the action of the verb (kept) in this example. So, the subject is also the ‘actor/agent’ of the action here. Demonstrate another example with a passive sentence. 196


  

    

Example: The exercise books were kept on the table. - Ask them to recognize the subject (the exercise books) and the verb (were kept). - Underline the subject and the verb there. Tell them that the subject (the copies) does not carry out the action of the verb (kept) in this example. So, the subject is not the ‘actor/agent’ of the action here. The, tell them that sentence having first types of characteristics are called as ‘active’ and second types of characteristics as ‘passive’ sentences. Discuss the concept of ‘voices’ further with some corresponding sentences in active and passive forms. Ask the students to work in pairs. Attend them to the sentences in 2. Write a sentence from 2 on the board (e.g. English is taught in every school in the country). Highlight the subject (e.g. English) and the verb (is taught) parts. Tell the students that this sentence does not contain an explicit actor part, and hence is a passive sentence. Tell them to underline the subject, the verb and the object parts in the sentences. Monitor and assist as the students engaged. Once they have recognized the parts, arrange for a sample sharing and feedback session. Display the ‘verb structure’ chart. Ask the students to study it carefully noticing how verbs in active sentences are converted into passive, and vice versa. Ask the students to think of the corresponding active sentences for the sentences in 2. Tell them that in case there is not a mention of the agent (with marker ‘by’), they can choose a generic agent such as people, they, we, someone, etc. Monitor and encourage the students as they engage in the activity.

Suggested answers a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j.

We teach English in every school in the country. They made my jacket in Thailand. The Chinese invented paper. People are televising his interview throughout the world. The municipality has surfaced this street. John cannot solve this problem. Has the university awarded you? You could see that he was going to wash the dress. Begin the assembly. Justine would have cooked food.

Lesson reflection How can the teaching of grammatical items be made communicative? Can an inductive approach be employed in the normal classroom? Why is a deductive approach still the much sought after while teaching grammar? Lesson Five Grammar Content from the textbook  Grammar activities (Time for grammar 3, Follow-up activity (pp. 111-112) Materials required 197


 Textbook for individual students  A chart with relative pronouns Lesson activities Time for grammar (3)  Review the concept of relative clauses by presenting a set of sentences. Write two sentences on the board, and show an example by merging (relativising) them into one: The girl is tired. The girl is carrying a heavy bag. = The girl who is carrying a heavy bag is tired.  Elicit from the students what changes have been made in these sentences. Lead a focused discussion. Tell the class that the noun (the girl) is relative/repeated in both sentences, and the clause with the relative noun (The girl is carrying a heavy bag) is the relative clause. The relative noun is a person noun, hence the relative word ‘who’ in its place.  Display the chart with relative pronouns to the class. Let the students study the chart. Present some example sentences on the board as follows:

Person Place Time Things (non- person)

Relative pronouns who/whom/whose where when which/that

A textbook is a book which is meant for the students. I won't eat in a restaurant whose cooks smoke. I want to live in a place where there is lots to do. Yesterday was a day when everything went wrong! Do you know the girl who started in grade 7 last week? Can I have the pencil that I gave you this morning? 

Now, ask the students to do the sentence completing task given in the textbook. Assist them as required. Suggested answers a. The day when we went for the school excursion is still fresh in my mind. b. The back of the yard where the orchards stand is my favourite place. Follow-up activity c. President Bhandari, for whom the government asked to lead a delegate, is representing us.  Ask the students to whose go through theprinted instruction the is conversation with blank spaces. d. My best friend, name is on thisand album, a famous singer.  e. The town where the streets used to be bumpy has changed a lot.

 Ask them to complete the conversation working in pairs. Correct the answers.  Ask them to take a role each for Mother and Son, and parctise the conversation in pairs. Suggested answers i. makes us do ii. makes us learn iii. makes us pronounce iv. made us stay v. made my best friend memorize 198 vi. have somebody fix vii. got somebody fix viii. have your project work done and designed


Extended activity  Assign the students a group work activity. Ask each group to create their own mini- dialogue exchanges using causative verbs. Various contexts can be given. For example; - The chores a landlady may make her tenant to do - Housekeeper’s works obliged by the master - Secretary’s duties assigned by the boss Reflection What did I do?

What went well?

What is to be improved?

Lesson Six Listening Content from the textbook  Listening activities (Engage yourself, Study time, Follow- up activity) (p. 113) Materials required  Textbook for individual students  Sound files Lesson activities Engage yourself  Speak out some words in informal English with normal pronunciation. Ask the students whether they are familiar with these words or not.  Engage them in guessing the meaning (and standard forms) of the words given in the textbook. Casual forms Standard forms dunno don' know gonna is/am/ are going to do gotta have got yeah I agree with. info information cell mobile cos because telly television loads of a lot of  Once their meanings are discussed, engage the students in the ‘usage’ of these forms with appropriate sentences. Encourage them to make sentences using the words. For example: a. I am gonna play harp tonight. b. I am purchasing a new cell today cos I lost mine! Study time (1)  Ask the students to study the task 1 carefully. Make sure they understand the task.  Ask them to listen to the sound file, and complete the task. You can play the audio more than once if required.  After they have completed, arrange for a sharing session. Suggested answers a. gonna b. yeah c. Dunno d. cos e. loads of

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Time for grammar (2)  Ask the students to study the questions given. Make sure that they are clear about the demands of the questions.  Ask the students to listen to the audio and do the task.  Play the audio (or read the audio script). Students listen and write the answers. You can play the audio more that once if necessary. Suggested answers a. Siblings (brother and sister) are talking on the telephone. b. The girl is sending the email again because the brother hasn’t received the one she had sent before. c. The boy wrote about the importance of the English language for the magazine. d. The boy got information to write the article from the net. e. The brother met a guy in the bio department, possibly his sister’s classmate in the university. Follow-up activity  Ask the students to work in pairs. Tell them that they are going to make a conversation on a topic of their interest. Elicit a context for speaking (e.g. two friends talking about a project work assignment; two friends talking about environmental pollution, etc.).  Also, tell them that they will be using the informal forms parctised before in their conversation.  Encourage them to think of intelligent exchanges and practise the conversation with their partners.  Now ask sample pairs to act out their conversation. Extended activity Ask the students to collect any 5 English informal words and their standard forms. Lesson reflection It is believed that communicative language is full of colloquialisms, slangs, proverbs and phonetic features of connected speech. Do you think it is desirable to incorporate such features of conversational English into the EFL classrooms? Lesson Seven Speaking Content from the textbook  Speaking activities (Engage yourself, Time for speaking, Follow- up activity) (p.114117) Materials required  Daily used materials Lesson activities Engage yourself  Ask the students to study the pictures given. There are eight different pictures showing different places and activities. Ask the students to work in pairs. Ask one student to describe any two pictures and the other to write as per the description of the other. For example: Picture A 200


Student A: This is a stadium with several layers of stairs. There are two large poles standing to project the electricity. It is empty. Student B: (Listens to A, and writes after him/ her.) Picture B Student A: This is a bookshelf in the library. There are stacks of large book arranged systematically. A girl is choosing one book. Student B: (Listens to A, and writes after him/ her.) Picture C Student A: There is a scene of a beautiful house. It has a garden in the front, and terraced land behind it. Student B: (Listens to A, and writes after him/ her.) Picture D Student A: This is a scene from an office. There is a wheelchair on which a man is sitting facing a large office table. Picture E Student A: There is a mountaineer ascending a tall mountain. The man is equipped with mountaineering customs. Student B: (Listens to A, and writes after him/ her.) Picture F Student A: This is a scene of a city road. There are vehicles going on the street. There are a hospital and a supermarket. A man is standing opposite the buildings and observing them. Student B: (Listens to A, and writes after him/ her.) Picture G Student A: This is a scene from an airport. One aeroplane is flying, whereas another is about to fly. The airport office is visible. Student B: (Listens to A, and writes after him/ her.) Picture H Student A: This is a scene of an early morning, in which the sun is just shining. It seems the sun is coming out of a lake, as it fully reflects into the water. Student B: (Listens to A, and writes after him/ her.)  Ask the members in the pair to reverse the roles as well. Time for speaking  Ask the students to look at the pictures. This task is for parctising the use of relative pronouns.  Ask them to describe people, event, places, situations, etc. using words like who, whose, whom, that, which, etc. Ask them to imagine the related details using the relative clauses too. The students must be able to say at least three sentences for the picture. Possible answers a. The small beautiful town, which was very peaceful and attractive, has been expanded into a large downtown these days. Now it can been a crowded and exotic city. People who want to cross the road find it really difficult there. b. The man who is planting flower seedlings in the first picture is watering them. The plant, which grew so fast, however is not giving much yield. c. The girl who is sitting on the last bench is Manisha. She is very good at studies. Along with studies, she plays football too. She played well yesterday with the boys which didn’t surprise me. d. Do you see the banana peel lying on the road? The man, who threw it, is Min. It was ironic 201


that he slipped on the same banana peel. e. The children, who are learning computer classes, are from humble background. Their parents are farmers, who can barely fulfill all the expenses need for a good life. f. The boy wants to play in such a place where no one disturbs him. The place, where he goes for play, is usually far off. The boy also has a sister, who has to climb to the top of a ladder to call her brother. Follow-up activity  Ask the students to work in pairs, and find the differences in the two pictures. Encourage them to use relative pronouns while showing the differences in the pictures. Possible answers Picture A: The dog is in front of the table. Picture B: The blanket is a spotted one. Picture A: There is a photograph hanging on the wall. Picture B: The view from window has a scene of trees. Reflection It is an accepted that in a speaking class there are expressive students, average students and shy students. What differentiated strategies do you adopt in such a situation?

Lesson Eight Writing Content from the textbook Writing activities (Before you write, Time for writing, Follow- up activity) (p.117-118) Materials required  Daily used materials Lesson activities Before you write  Ask the students to decide a place for writing a description.  Describe the guidelines given in the textbook, and encourage them to prepare an outline for their writing. Encourage them to supply required information in the outline. Help them to generate information/idea on the topic they have selected.  Tell the students about the importance of describing words, connectives to enhance their write-ups. Time for writing  Ask the students to work in pairs, and read the description of Devghat, and closely observe how the information is organized in this piece of writing.  Now ask them to write a similar type of description of a place using the information they have collected in the previous activity.  Ask the students to focus on the quality of writing: the descriptive words, placing of ideas coherently, unity of meaning, etc. You can highlight the features of language that make a text coherent (i.e. pronouns, definite article, ordering of ideas, etc.)  Once they complete, go through their writing and give them feedback. Follow- up activity  Ask the students to write a descriptive paragraph about a person who has a great influence in their life. 202


 Ask them to generate ideas at first. Raise their consciousness about the features of a good paragraph: a topic sentence, coherence, unity, main ideas, conclusion, etc. Reflection What did I do?

What went well?

What improvements are required?

Lesson Nine Project Work and Fun Corner Content from the textbook  Project work (p.118)  Fun corner (p.118) Materials required  Samples of descriptive essays/ paragraphs  Tongue twister cards Lesson activities Project work  Divide the class into groups. Ask them to decide on a popular place of their interest and collect information about the place using the guideline given in the textbook.  Ask the group members to divide roles among themselves: Member A will work for finding ideas about the location of the place; Member B will collect ideas relevant to the significance of the place; Member C will search for route and accessibility and Member D will attempt collecting ideas about better seasons to visit the place.  Ask each member to share among themselves the ideas they have collected, and prepare the first draft of their writing.  Remind the students to ensure that they have followed revising step before producing the final write-ups.  When they complete the task, go through their write-ups and provide feedback. Sample essay Bhaktapur Durbar Square Bhaktapur Durbar Square is located in the current town of Bhaktapur. This city is also known as Bhadgoan, which lies 13 km east of Kathmandu. The complex consists of at least four distinct squares: Durbar Square, Taumadhi Square, Dattatreya Square and Pottery Square, the whole area is informally known as Bhakapur Durbar Square. The Durbar Square houses the 55-window Palace which was constructed by King Jitamitra Malla and was home to royalty until 1769. It is now a national gallery. Close by is the Golden Gate which leads into Mulchok Court which is home to the Taleju Temple. This temple, like others in the main towns of the Kathmandu Valley, is dedicated to the goddess Taleju Bhawani and includes shrines to both Taleju Bhawani and Kumari. Entrance to the temple is restricted to Hindus and the living goddess strictly cannot be photographed. The Durbar Square at Bhaktapur was severely damaged by an earthquake in 1934. At first there were 99 courtyards attached to this place, but now only 6 remain. Before the earthquake, there were 3 separate groups of temples. Currently, the square is surrounded by buildings that survived the quake. Bhaktapur Durbar Square has a great historical and cultural importance. It has been proved a great tourism spot of Nepal as it is visited by thousands of foreign 203 visitors every year. It is a good source of income for our government. If such places are preserved, it can be a great treasure for the nation. The surrounding of Bhaktapur Durbar Square is densely populated that has adverse effect on the site. So the government must take some steps to control it. Local people should be more careful about the cleanliness of the surrounding. People must be aware about the cultural and historical importance.

(Adapted from www.ranjitks.blogspot.com)


Fun corner  Ask the students to read tongue twisters as fast as possible. Give other tongue twisters for them to practice as well. In the end, you can even ask students to bring tongue twisters to challenge their peers.  Arrange for a tongue-twister sharing event allocating certain amount of time in the class. Examples of some other tongue twisters: a. I saw Susie sitting in a shoe shine shop. Where she sits she shines, and where she shines she sits. b. I wish to wish the wish you wish to wish, but if you wish the wish the witch wishes, I won't wish the wish you wish to wish. Reflection What are the benefits of project-based language learning? What challenges do you face while introducing language learning projects? Do you think the dichotomy between language and content has been merged as a result of project-based learning activities? Part 3: Additional Resources 1. Script of the audio You will hear a telephone conversation between a brother and a sister. Listen to the conversation carefully, and notice how informal English is used by speakers. Brother: Hello! Sister: Hey, you! D’you get my mail? Brother: Dunno! Where’s it??? I didn’t find!!! Sister: I’m terribly sorry. I’m gonna email you again. Have you written anything for the magazine? Brother: Oh, yeah! I’ve written about the importance of the English language. It’s informative. I’ve described how it is considered as a global language. Well, you know it’s spoken by so many people as their second language. Sister: Cool, and? Brother: I’ve found loads of great info and stuff on the net. In the beginning, I thought about writing about the advantages of watching the telly. Later, I changed my mind. Meanwhile, I met a student from uni. Sister: Who is that fellow? Brother: Haha… He’s a guy in the bio department. I guess he’s your class mate. He was really friendly, too. Your help is much appreciated, sis. Sister: It’s my pleasure, bro! And it’s better if you ask his cell number. Anyway, I'm gonna be late for my college cos it’s already 8. Brother: Hmmm. Ok. See you then. Sister: Bye.

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UNIT ELEVEN EXPRESSING PREFERENCES

Part 1: Unit Outline Curriculum reference: Language function no. 12 under scope and sequence Things to teach Language function and forms/exponents:

Expressing preferences  You go to the movies; I'd rather stay home tonight.  I prefer tea to coffee.  She likes living in Ilam better than living in Kathmandu. Parents  Reading comprehension followed by extended activities  Text based vocabulary items Preference words and articles  Use of words such as „like‟, „dislike‟ „prefer‟, etc. to express preference  Use of definite and indefinite articles

Reading:

Grammar:

Listening: A conversation about preference  Listening comprehension followed by extended activities Activities that focus on the use of ‘likes’ and ‘dislikes’  Answer questions taking turns (using clues)  Telling how one feels about different kinds of people Writing job application and curriculum vitae (CV)  Rearranging the scrambled sentences so as to make up a job application  Writing a job application for the vacant position  Filling up the given table with information from the advertisements  Designing an advertisement for the post of a secondary level English teacher for school

Speaking:

Writing:

Content themes/topics  The story „Parents‟  Advertisement  Job application  Curriculum Vitae (CV) 205


Expected achievements of the students By the end of this unit, the students will have:  guessed the meaning of the unfamiliar words from the context.  completed the comprehension tasks of the given reading text.  expressed their preferences using appropriate words/phrases.  written a paragraph about the character in the story "parents."  used articles (a, an, the) appropriately to complete a story.  completed the comprehension tasks after listening to the conversation.  written a couple of paragraphs expressing their preferred future professions.  written a couple of paragraphs expressing their likes and dislikes.  prepared their own curriculum vitae.  written a job application letter.  designed an advertisement for the post of a secondary level English teacher. Integrated soft skills  Inter-personal skills  Integrity/Honesty  Self-management  Information management skills  Creative thinking skills  Innovation skills  Creative thinking and problem solving  Diverse communication and collaboration Teaching materials  Separate flash cards of the words from 'Vocabulary in use' and from the story „Parents‟, with their meanings.  A chart having lists of „likes‟ and „dislikes‟ verbs used for expressing preferences.  Audio file of the assigned listening script.  A sample CV  Usual classroom materials Estimated periods: 8

Part 2: Learning Facilitation Process Lesson One Reading Content from textbook  Reading activities ( Engage yourself, Study time: Reading, Parents (p.119) Materials required  The reading text  Flash cards of the words from 'Vocabulary in use' and that of their meanings. Lesson activities Engage yourself  Ask the students to look at the picture, and guess the answers to the given questions. a. Who are these people? 206


 

b. What is the man doing? c. Why are they there? Write their guesses on the board. Do not comment on their guesses or say which is right or wrong. After having written down the answers, ask them to read the story „Parents‟ and find if their guesses are correct.

Suggested answers a. These people are father and daughter b. The man is waiting for his daughter‟s e-friend. c. The daughter is there to meet her e-friend, and the father to find if his daughter‟s e-friend is a 12-year-old girl. Study time Reading  Write the following statements on the board, and then ask the students to read the story silently and as quickly as possible to find out whether the statements are true or false. Among other things, the objective of this task is to develop fluency of reading among the students. a. Anuja‟s e-friend is a 13 year old girl. b. Anuja‟s father loves Anuja very much. c. Anuja didn‟t hide anything about her from her e-friend. d. Anuja meet her e-friend. e. Anuja‟s e-friend has come with her mother.  Check the students‟ answers. Answers: a. false b. true c. false d. false e. true Vocabulary in use  Finding words for the given meanings is a very useful exercise for teaching vocabulary.  Organize the class into groups and then ask them to go through the words in the box under the heading “Vocabulary in use” (p. 121).  Now ask them to write each of the given words against its meaning.  When the students do the activity, move around the class to see that each member in the group is engaged. If any group finds difficulty, help the group match the meaning with the word. Suggested answers a. obsessed b. window-shopping c. ridiculous 207


d. e. f. g. h.

stomach swerved lurking evil stammered

Extended activity Ask the students to use the following words in sensible sentences of their own. a. obsess b. ridiculous c. swerve d. lurk e. evil f. stammer Reflection How did the lesson go? Are you satisfied with your delivery? Did the students find any difficulty in finding the words to the meanings given? How could you improve the lesson?

Lesson Two Reading (contd.) Content from the textbook  Reading comprehension (p. 122) Required teaching materials  The story “Parents”  Usual classroom materials Lesson activities Reading comprehension (i)  Organize the class into pairs, and tell the students that the extracts given are from the story “Parents”. Also tell them to find the extracts in the story and read it carefully in the context (the lines before or after), and then answer the questions that follow.  After they finish, ask each pair to compare the answers with that of the other pair/s.  Finally give the correct answers. Suggested answers (accept any other correct answers): a. I. Anuja to her father II. A particular girl. Here, Anuja‟s e-friend III. A common girl. Here, Anuja b. I. Anuja‟s father to Anuja/Father to daughter II. Anuja III. Anuja‟s e-friend didn‟t appear so they left for home. c. I. Anuja‟s father to his friend Dhurva II. He tries to confirm if he was seen by his daughter‟s e-friend‟s mother. III. Anuja‟s e-friend‟s mother Reading comprehension (ii)  This reading comprehension activity requires the students to read the story more carefully in order to answer more detailed comprehension questions. The students have to use their imagination and think profoundly before giving answers to the questions given in this section.  Now ask the students to read the story silently once again, and answer the questions. Make sure that they have understood the questions. 208


Tell the students that they should not pick up the sentences straight from the story to answer the questions.  Encourage the students to answer in their own words as far as possible.  Ask each student to do the work on his/her own in the class. Move around the class while the students are working and assist those who face difficulty to answer the questions. Suggested answers (Accept any other correct answers.) a. Anuja is going to meet her e-friend. b. First he warned her about bad people who fake themselves as teenager, chat with girls like her and seek opportunities to take advantage of innocent girls, and then suggested that he would accompany her to the meeting spot. c. Anuja‟s secret was that she had chatted with her e-friend as a boy. She told this to her father to avoid any kind of confusion that would crop up when meeting her e-friend. d. Her father noticed a car with dark windows parked on the other side of the road. e. No, she didn‟t meet her friend because she didn‟t appear. f. He might have felt embarrassed. (Answer may vary) g. I think the mother of Anuja‟s friend is cleverer. h. Anuja's father was an attentive, concerned and a caring father. i. Yes, he was caring. Had he not been caring, he wouldn‟t have accompanied his daughter to meet her e-friend. Reading comprehension (iii)  Divide the class into groups of four to six.  Tell the students that the sentences given are scrambled sentences.  Now ask them to read the story once again, and rearrange the events in the order in which they happened.  Move around the class and assist the students. Correct order: b, c, a, g, d, e, f, h  Anuja wants to meet her friend.  Anuja's father also goes with her.  Anuja reveals her secret to her father.  It was not easy to digest new information.  Her friend did not turn up.  Father tells his daughter not to wait for her friend for more than 10 minutes.  They returned without meeting her friend.  Instead of a boy of 13, there appeared a lecherous old man. Extended activity Read the story once again and answer the following questions: a. What kind of girl is Anuja? b. Why do you think Anuja‟s father accompanied her to meet the new friend she has made on the social networking site? Reflection What were the strengths/weaknesses in this lesson? What strategies do you want to continue or discontinue? Write down in four lines.

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Lesson Three Reading (contd.) Content from the textbook  Reading comprehension (p.122) Materials required  The story “Parents”  Usual classroom materials Lesson activities Follow-up activity (i)  Organize the students into several groups, and then ask each group to complete the given diagram with the adjectives that would best describe Anuja.  Move around to see that each group is engaged with the task.  After they finish, check that they have come up with correct adjectives.  Now ask them to write a paragraph using the adjectives to describe Anuja in about 50 words. Suggested answer Anuja: [Adjectives: honest, truthful, trustworthy, young, immature, friendly, inventive, outgoing, extrovert, humble, etc.] An Outgoing Anuja Anuja is a young girl of 13. She is an honest and trustworthy girl. Since she is friendly and outgoing, she makes friends readily on the social networking sites and spends her free time chatting with them and sending them texts and messages. She is inventive and extrovert. She befriends a girl of 12 on the social sites telling her that she is a boy. Her bond with her new e-friend grows so strong that both of them plan to meet in person. Her immaturity is seen here. She doesn‟t think of what she will do if her e-friend comes to know that she not a boy but a girl, or if her friend turns out to be a boy. She fixes the date and time to meet her new friend. She is very excited to meet her. When she tells her father that she is meeting her e-friend, her father objects to her decision and tells her that there are fake people who look for opportunities to take advantage of innocent girls. He doesn‟t allow Anuja to go alone. He wants to accompany her. In the beginning Anuja doesn‟t like this, but later she agrees. This shows that she is also a humble girl. Follow–up activity (ii)  Ask some of the students individually how s/he would make sure that her/his child is not in danger that when s/he becomes a parent. What are the possible measures that s/he can take in that situation?  Write their measures on the board in short points.  Now tell them to write any five measures that they would take to make sure that the child is not in danger in their exercise books. Mark their answers. Possible measures a. Know everything about the child's activities and his /her friends. b. Place the computer in a family area of the household and do not permit private usage. c. Monitor what the child‟s friends are posting regarding the child‟s identity. d. Don't allow the child to play alone in the isolated area/s. e. Tell her/him to keep a safe distance from strangers. 210


f. Teach him/her to refuse anything from strangers, including money, gifts or rides. g. Tell the child to inform the parents before going anywhere. h. Join with other concerned parents to set up safety systems for your neighborhood. Extended activity Give the following task to the student. Using suitable adjectives describe yourself in about 100 words. Reflection Did the group complete the given diagram with the adjectives that would best describe Anuja on time? How do you reflect yourself in your today‟s class? How actively did the students participate? Write a paragraph in your personal diary. Lesson Four Grammar Content from the textbook  Engage yourself (p.123) Materials required  Word cards of words expressing preferences Like, dislike, prefer, enjoy, etc  Usual classroom materials Lesson activities Engage yourself  The objective of this activity is to practise the function of expressing preferences by using the words that express preferences.  Tell the students that „like‟, „dislike‟, „prefer‟, etc. are the words that express preference.  Organize the class into pairs, and ask each pair to play the role of A and B in turns and read the conversation aloud. Make sure that the students understand the conversation.  Move round the class, and help the individual pairs with their practice. Time for grammar (1)  Tell the students that this is a grammar exercise designed to practise the use of the forms that express preference.  Organize the students into pairs, and ask each pair to make as many sentences as possible from the table given. would like to being dependent. prefers earning little money. Purna Laxmi doesn‟t like working with educated likes family. enjoys spending time with kids. apply for the vacant post. Suggested answers a. Purna Laxmi would like to apply for the vacant post. b. Purna Laxmi prefers working with educated family. c. Purna Laxmi doesn‟t like earning little money. d. Purna Laxmi likes spending time with kids. e. Purna Laxmi enjoys spending time with kids. f. Purna Laxmi doesn‟t like being dependent. 211


Additional exercise: Paragraph writing  This is a writing exercise and can be given as homework.  Ask the students to list down all the words that express preference, and then write a couple of paragraphs about their likes and dislikes.  When they submit, mark their answers. Sample answer My Likes and Dislikes Like every human being I have many likes and dislikes. When I talk about my likes, I like to talk about my favourite color, TV shows, movies, actors, food, books, pets, games and sports and music. My favourite color is light blue. If given a choice, I always choose light blue colour because I find it soothing. I like to wear light blue coloured clothes. My favourite TV show is “Meri Bassai” because I find this show very funny. My favourite movie is “Nai Nabhannu La” because the characters have done full justice to the movie with the roles they have played. My favourite actors are Rajesh Hamal and Keki Adhikari. Chicken momo is my favourite food because I like its taste and the sauce that comes with it. My favourite book is “Cheena Harayako Manche” written by Hari Bamsha Acharya. I could not help laughing while reading it. I love pets. My favourite pet is dog. I like Labrador a lot because they are well behaved dogs. Football is my favourite sport. I play football with my friends at school. My favourite music is folk music. I have some dislikes too. When I talk about my dislikes, I like to talk about the color I hate most, pets that I hate and the food that I avoid to eat. Generally, I like all the colours except brown because I find it very dull. I never wear anything brown and I never choose brown colour for anything. I hate cats because I don‟t find them friendly at all. I would never keep cats as pets and would never advise anyone to have cats as pets. I eat all kinds of vegetarian and non-vegetarian food, but I hate noodles. I always avoid eating noodles. Time for grammar (2)  Before getting into this exercise, it is necessary to explain the use of definite and indefinite articles.  Visit the site https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/540/01/ for a clear explanation on the use of articles.  After having explained about the use of the articles, ask the students to fill in the blanks with „a‟, „an‟, or „the‟ where necessary to complete the given story.  You can give this exercise as homework. Suggested answer Once there lived an Emperor, who was very fond of wearing x new shoes. He had a set of new shoes for every hour. He used to go riding on his horse merely to show off his shoes. He told all, “I think the best way a man can spend money is by buying shoes!” People used to think him to be a bit ridiculous. One day he wished to get the most magnificent shoes with a remarkable quality. People had never heard of such a thing before. He called a cobbler and gave a large sum of gold coins from the royal treasury to buy the finest materials. A few days passed the cobbler did not turn up. Then, he sent the Prime Minister to examine the progress. After an hour, the Prime Minister came with an empty hand. The poor emperor could not believe that he had such a liar in his kingdom. Follow-up activity  This is a writing exercise. Get the students to do this exercise in the class.

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Have a brief talk about the classroom. Talk about its location in the school building, its size, capacity, doors and windows, lights and fans, desk and benches, white/black board and soft board, cleanliness, etc. Now ask the students to write. Move around the class to help the students with their work. My Classroom A classroom is the place where classes are held for facilitating the students to learn. My class room is in the left of the school building. It is very spacious and well ventilated. It can accommodate fifty students comfortably. It has two doors and four wide windows, so we get sufficient air and light. The room has two fans and four tube lights. We use the fans when it is necessary. There are twenty-five two-seater desks and fifty chairs, one for each student. There is a raised platform for the teachers. A big whiteboard is fixed at the front wall. The walls and the ceiling are nicely white washed. There are four soft boards for students and teachers to display their work. We keep the classroom neat and clean. We feel comfortable in the classroom. (137 words approx)

Extended activity Give the following tasks to the students: a. Write a paragraph about the food you dislike. b. Write a paragraph about the TV shows you like. Reflection How do you reflect yourself in your today‟s class? How actively did the students participate? What technique did you use to teach them writing? Did the students get you easily?

Lesson Five Listening Content from the textbook  Listening activities (Engage yourself, Study time, Follow-up activity) (p.125-126) Materials required  Audio file or audio script of telephone conversation between Amar and Nikita about holiday plan.  Related pictures Engage yourself  This is a listening exercise with the objective of stating ones preference, and predicting information likely to appear in the text through pictures and simple questions.  Ask the students to look at the given pictures carefully, and then give answers to the given questions. Encourage them to guess answers to the given questions.

a. Which profession do you prefer, teaching or business? Why? b. What are the opportunities and challenges of the teaching profession? 213


c. Which profession does Bibash prefer? Why?  Write their answers on the board. Do not comment on the students‟ answers or say which is right or wrong.  Now play the audio file or read the audio script. Ask them to check if their answers were correct.  Play the audio file or read the audio script one more time so that they can correct their answers. Suggested answers a. I prefer business to teaching because it is better than teaching. b. A good teacher can earn prestige and international recognition. However, s/he has to deal with a lot of paper work, class activities, new children and many more. c. He prefers teaching because he thinks it is a prestigious job and one can get international recognition too. Study time (1)  This is a listening comprehension exercise which requires the students to choose the correct answer from the given alternatives after listening to the conversation.  Tell the students to listen to the sound file/audio carefully, and to choose the correct answer from the given alternatives.  Play the audio file or read the audio script aloud. Let the students listen to the audio, and tick the correct answer. Play the audio file or read the audio script more than once if necessary. Suggested answers a. Bibash has recently left his college. b. Bibash has a choice between teaching and business. c. Bibash thinks that teaching is a prestigious job. d. In the past, payment was not attractive in teaching. e. Seema prefers business because there is variety in it. Study time (2)  Tell the students to listen to the audio carefully and write True against true statements, and False against false statements.  Play the audio file or read the audio script. Students listen to the audio and write True or False.  Play the audio file or read the audio script more than once, if necessary. Suggested answers a. In the past the teachers' salary was not high. True b. Business is not as risky as teaching. False c. Teaching requires a great sense of responsibility. True d. Seema prefers teaching. False e. Seema believes that we need to choose the job which we enjoy doing. True Follow-up activity  This is a writing exercise, and can be set as homework.  Hold a brief discussion about different professions. Some are listed below. Accountant : a person that works with the money and accounts of a company Actor /Actress : a person that acts in a play or a movie Architect : a person that designs building and houses Astronomer : a person who studies the stars and the universe Chef/Cook : a person that prepared food for others, often in a restaurant or café Dentist : a person that can fix problems you have with your teeth 214


Designer Doctor



: a person who has the job of designing things : a person you go to see when you are ill or have some type of health problem Electrician : a person that works with electric circuits Engineer : a person who develops solutions to technical problems. They sometimes design, build, or maintain engines, machines, structures or public works Farmer : a person that works on a farm, usually with animals Journalist : a person that makes new reports in writing or through television Judge : a qualified person that decides cases in a law court Lawyer : a person that defends people in court and gives legal advice Lecturer : a person that gives lectures, usually in a university Model : a (usually attractive) person that works in fashion, modeling clothes and accessories Newsreader : a person that reads the news, normally on television Nurse : a person trained to help a doctor look after the sick or injured Optician : a person that checks your eyes and try and correct any problems your sight Pharmacist : a qualified person that works with and dispenses medicine Photographer : a person that takes photos Pilot : a person who flies a plane Scientist : a person that works in the science industry. They do many experiments Secretary : a person employed in an office who types letters, keeps records, etc. Teacher : a person that passes knowledge to students, usually at school. Translator : a person that translates from one language to another Traffic warden : a person that patrols areas to check that people do not park in the wrong place Travel agent : a person that organizes and sells holidays and flights for others Veterinary doctor : a qualified person that looks after sick animals Ask the students to write a couple of paragraphs explaining which profession they would like to pursue in the future. Sample paragraph My future profession I would like to pursue my career as an astronomer because I can study planets and the sun in our own solar system, as well as other stars, solar systems, galaxies, and the whole universe. I can get to understand how the universe works. I can study the evolution of stars in an attempt to understand how our own star, the sun, and our solar system of planets were created and what will happen to them as they age. The job of an astronomer is quite challenging as s/he has to learn physics, chemistry, computer science, and mathematics. All these subjects help an astronomer understand what s/he sees in all the pretty pictures that come off the telescopes. It is the astronomer who helps the physicists discover all kinds of exciting things like relativity, black holes, nuclear fission, and many more.

215


Extended activity Ask the students to write a couple of paragraphs about the advantages and disadvantages of being a teacher. Reflection How actively did the students participate? In which activity were they more active? Do you want to continue it in the future? Lesson Six Speaking Content from the textbook  Speaking activities (Engage yourself, Time for speaking, Follow-up activity) (p.126-128) Lesson activities Engage yourself  By this time the students must have been familiar with different expressions/exponents that express preferences.  Ask them to look at the pictures, and examine what different people say.  Make the students read out the sentences in the bubbles aloud, and understand them.  Organize the students into pairs, and ask each pair to substitute the profession in each statement with the profession of their choice. You can talk about the professions listed under „Follow up Activity‟, Lesson Six. Example: I prefer to be a doctor to a nurse. I prefer to be an astronaut to an architect. Time for speaking (1)  Organize the students into pairs, and tell each pair to go through the examples given. Example 1: cold drinks/coffee A: Do you like cold drinks? B: Yes, but I prefer coffee to cold drinks. Example 2: cricket/basketball A: Do you like playing cricket? B: Sure. But I can play basketball better than cricket.  After they finish, ask them to go through the clues in the box, and make similar conversations, asking and answering questions taking turns. city/country English movies/Nepali movies vegetarian dishes/non-vegetarian dishes reading books/sight seeing motor bike/car homeopathy/allopathy 

Move around the class to make sure that each pair is engaged in the activity. Sample conversations a. city/country A: Do you like to live in a country? B: Yes, but I prefer to live in a city to a country. b. English movies/Nepali movies A: Do you like to watch English movies? B: Yes, I do but I prefer Nepali movies to English movies. 216


c. vegetarian dishes/non-vegetarian dishes A: Do you like to have non-vegetarian dishes? B: Yes, but I prefer vegetarian dishes to non-vegetarian dishes. d. reading books/sight seeing A: Do you like reading books? B: Definitely, but I prefer sightseeing to reading books. e. motor bike/car A: Do you like to ride on a motor bike? B: Yes, but I prefer to ride on a car to a motor bike. f. homeopathy/allopathy A: Do you like to have homeopathy medicine? B: Yes, but I prefer allopathy medicine to homeopathy medicine. Time for speaking (2)  Organize the class into groups, and ask the students in each group to take it in turns to tell how each feels about different sorts of people.  Tell them to go through the example before they start.  Move around the class to facilitate the students with their work. Example: a farmer A: I like harvesting better than planting. B: I don‟t mind helping my fellow farmers in need. C: I don‟t like being cheated by the fake businessmen. D: I prefer terrace farming to low lands. E: I don't approve of using wrong pesticides. F: I like being praised by people. a teacher a scientist a writer a journalist a politician a business woman a vendor a dishwasher a sweeper a typist a driver a head teacher a traffic police officer Possible answer A teacher A: I like teaching high school students better than primary school students. B: I don‟t mind teaching primary school students. C: I don‟t like being disturbed by the students. D: I prefer teaching literature to language. E: I don't approve of giving physical punishment to the students. F: I like being praised by my students. (Ask the students to complete the exercise in the same way. Assist them if they need.) Follow-up activity  Pair up the students, and ask them to take it in turns to play the game. Ask each student to show her/his preference to her/his favourite pastime activity by responding to each clue. 217


Now tell each students to note down what his/her partner tells about him or her, and then compare it with other partners to find the similarities and differences.  Also tell them to change their roles.  Finally ask them to write about their favourite pastime activity in their exercise book. Possible answer I love travelling in long holidays. I‟m crazy about taking pictures of beautiful landscapes. I can‟t stand beggars who look healthy but come and ask for money. I don‟t mind giving money to physically handicapped beggars. I just can‟t see the difficulties they face to keep themselves alive. I like trekking better than riding on vehicles. I hate people who try to cheat the travellers. I am fond of telling other people about my experiences of travelling. Extended activity Pair up the students, and ask them to have a short conversation on the profession of their choice. Reflection How actively did the students take part in the activities? Are there any areas that you could improve upon? If yes, make a note of them. Lesson Seven Writing Content from the textbook  Before you write (p. 128)  Time for writing (1) (p. 130) Materials required  Few samples of CV‟s Lesson activities Before you write  Ask the students to read the CV given carefully, and to note the particulars included.  Encourage them to notice different parts of CV such as personal information, academic qualification, work experience.  Explain them briefly how information has to be organized in a CV.  Tell them that this is one of the major component of a job application and that without the CV the job application is incomplete.  Ask the students to write a similar CV of their own. Time for writing (1)  Before you ask the students to arrange the given scrambled sentences, give them details about the format of the job application letter. Job Application Letter Format Use this formatting information as a guideline when writing job application, so you know what information goes where. Employer Contact Information Title (The Director/General Manager/Principal…) Company/institution/organization Address Salutation Dear Sir /Madam Body of Application Letter The body of your application letter lets the employer know what position you are applying 218


for, why the employer should select you for an interview, and how you will follow up. First Paragraph The first paragraph of your letter should include information on why you are writing. Mention the job you are applying for and where you found the job listing. Include the name of a mutual contact, if you have one. You might conclude by briefly and concisely saying why you think you are an ideal candidate for the job. Middle Paragraph/s The next section of your application letter should describe what you have to offer the employer. It can be a single paragraph, or you can break it up into a couple of paragraphs. If the section gets lengthy, you may use bullet points to break up the text. Remember, you are interpreting your resume, not repeating it. Mention specifically how your qualifications match the job you are applying for. In this portion of the letter, make your case for your candidacy. It can be helpful to spend some time researching the company - when you know a lot about the company, it helps you make an informed and persuasive argument for your candidacy. Use specific examples whenever possible. For example, if you say that you have lots of experience working successfully on team projects, provide an example of a time you worked in a group and achieved success. Final Paragraph Conclude your application letter by thanking the employer for considering you for the position. Include information on how you will follow up. Complimentary Close Sincerely, Signature (Full name) (Source-https://www.thebalance.com/job-application-letter-format-2061567)

 

Now tell the students that the sentences given go together to form a complete letter of application, but they are in the wrong order. Make sure that the students know the meanings of the words in the given sentences. Now ask them to put them in the right order. Move round the class to ensure that all the students are engaged with the work. Answer: Right Order: [d, f, e, c, a, b, g, h]

Extended activity Ask the students to write a job application for the job of their choice. Reflection Was the given job application format useful? Is there any other way of writing a CV? What remarkable strategy did you use in class today? Do you want to continue it in the future? Write a few lines. Lesson Eight Writing (Contd.) Content from the textbook  Time for writing (2) and (3) (p. 130)  Follow-up activity ( p. 131) Materials required  Sample job application letter 219


 Few samples of CV‟s Lesson activities Time for writing (2)  Ask the students to rewrite the sentences given in Exercise 1 to form the job application. Also tell them to divide the application into three paragraphs.  Tell them that they can add any appropriate sentence/s of their own to the application, if they want to. Suggested answer The Director XYZ Institution Dear Sir, With reference to your advertisement in the News Express of 28 January, I would like to apply for the post of an Assistant Librarian. I am single, 24 years of age, and I have completed my training on library management from Future Star Institution. I have been working as an Assistant Librarian at my own school. My duties here include the general supervision of different sections, as well as looking after the Periodical Section. Moreover, on numerous occasions I have had to take the duties of a librarian, since the librarian has had several prolonged bouts of illness. I therefore feel confident that I can fulfill my duties and responsibilities. If I am given the post, I can assure you I will do my best to give you satisfaction. I have enclosed all the required testimonials along with CV with this application. Yours sincerely, Phurli Waiba Time for writing (3)  Ask the students to refer to the activity „Before you write‟ above, and prepare a CV for the application in Exercise 2. Curriculum Vitae Personal information Name : Phurli Waiba Address : Madhyapur 2, Bhaktapur Telephone : 015573003 Mobile : 977-9841652211 Email : pwaiba@gmail.com Education and qualifications 2013- 2016 : Master's Degree in Business Administration, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, 2011-2013 : Bachelor's Degree in Business Administration, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu 2010-2011 : Intermediate in Management, Higher Secondary Education Board, Bhaktapur 2008-2009 : School Leaving Certificate, SOS HGS Sanothimi Work experience April 2013 - Present : Assistant Librarian SOS HGS, Sanothimi. Has been supervising different sections, as well as looking after the Periodical Section. 220


March 2011 - April 2013: Secretary, Mt. View Academy, Bhaktapur. Skills Languages : Nepali (native); English near native-speaker fluency; Hindi Computer skills : Good keyboard skills; Familiarity with Word, Excel and PowerPoint Driving : Two-wheeler driving license Training/ workshop/conference attended 3-9 February 2015: Participated in the 21st National Conference of School Librarians organized by Little Angles School Interests Singing (was member of university choral society); playing violin. References Mr. B. Baral, Principal, SOS HGS Sanothimi Mrs. S. Karki, Professor, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu Follow-up activity  Organize the students into pairs.  Ask each student in the pair to look at the given advertisement, and tell you which job s/he prefers- Sales Representative or Service Technician.  After s/he answers, ask her/him to write a job application for one of the posts s/he likes.  Move around the class to make sure that each student is engaged in the task.  When finished, ask each student to compare the work with the partner.  Ask each student to edit spelling, punctuation, format and layout, before submitting to you for marking.  Mark their works and provide suggestion, if need be.  Now ask the whole class to take this application as homework and tell them to rewrite it by making necessary improvements.  Put the best application on the classroom notice board the next day. Sample answer The Manager Horizon Enterprises Dipayal Silgadhi, Doti Subject: Job Application Letter for the post of Sales Representative Dear Sir/Madam In response to your advertisement in today‟s „The Himalayan Times‟ for a Sales Representative, I would be grateful if you could consider me an applicant for the position. I passed the BBS examination with Marketing as one of the major subjects from Nepal College of Commerce, affiliated to Tribhuvan University, in the year 2016. Since then, I have been employed with P&P Marketing Agency as an Assistant Sales Representative. My work has been highly appreciated here but I feel that your enterprises can offer me a greater scope for my abilities. You may refer to my present employer if you wish to make any enquiries regarding my capability, honesty and work. I have every hope that you will consider my application favourably and call me for an interview where I can give you more details about myself. I have enclosed all the required testimonials along with CV with this application. Yours sincerely, 221


Poonam Chaudhary Dated: 29th March, 2017 Curriculum Vitae Personal Information Name : Poonam Chaudhary Address : Dang 5 Date of Birth : January 17th, 1997 Marital Status : Single Father‟s Name : Ram R. Chaudhary Mother‟s Name : Durga D. Chaudhary Nationality : Nepali Mobile number : 9808080987 Academic Qualifications: Level BBS

Board/University Tribhuvan University

High School

Nepal Education Board

School/College Passed year Chanakya College of 2016 Management, Thimi Bhaktapur Acadamy, 2014 Madhyapur Thimi

GPA 3.5 3.6

Work Experience : 3 years as a Sales Representative, Chaudhary Group, Sanepa. Skills : Can speak English, Nepali and Hindi fluently Training attended Participated in a three-day trainings for Sales representative organized by Chaudhary Group, Sanepa. Interests Singing and playing violin. References Mr. Y. Chaudhary, Manager Sales, CG group, Bhaktapur Mrs. S. Chhetri, Principal, Bhaktapur Academy, Madhyapur Lesson Nine Project Work Content from the textbook  Project Work (p. 131) Materials required  Daily used materials Lesson activities Project work  Ask the students to collect a few job advertisements from different daily newspapers.  Next tell them to select any five advertisements, and fill the table below.  Now, design an advertisement for the post of a secondary level English teacher for your school. S. N.

Job title/ position

No. of position Required

Academic qualification

Required Required experience skills

1

Secondary Level

1

MA At least 3 (not (English) or years mentioned) 222

Preference given to

Vacancy announced by

energetic, experienced,

Janata Madhyamik


English Teacher

equivalent

qualified Vidyalaya and self- Tansen, oriented Palpa personnel

2 3

Sample advertisement VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT Janata Ma. Vi. Tansen seeks energetic, experienced, qualified and self-oriented personnel for the following post. Post : Secondary Level English Teacher Qualification : MA (English) or equivalent Age : Above 25 not exceeding 30 Experience : At least 3 years Salary : As per schoolâ€&#x;s rules and regulations Qualified candidates are informed to send their applications and CVs to jmvi@gmail.com on or before 6th April, 2017. Only shortlisted candidates will be called for an interview. Telephone enquiries will not be entertained. The Principal Janata Madhyamik Vidyalaya Tansen, Palpa Extended activity Ask the students to cut a vacancy announcement notice from any English newspaper, and then write a job application on the basis of that announcement. Reflection Are you satisfied with the way you dealt with the lesson today? Write a few lines. Fun corner  Make the students play the games as instructed.

Part 3: Additional Resources 1. Exponents for expressing preferences A. Questions about preferences: a. Which do you prefer, football or volleyball? b. Which do you like better, tea or coffee? c. Do you prefer hot coffee or ice coffee? d. Would you prefer to go for a walk or see a movie? e. Would you rather have dinner with me? B. Expressing preferences: a. I prefer tea to coffee. 223


b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j.

I‟d prefer to have some water. I like tea better than coffee. I prefer reading books. I prefer jogging to running. I‟d prefer living in a city to living in the country. I would rather go home. I‟d rather stay at home than go out. I‟d rather take a nap than go for a walk. I‟d rather play football than golf.

C. There is more than one way to express likes and preferences: Examples a. I would rather work inside than (work) outside. b. I would rather get paid hourly than be on salary. a. I like to work outside. b. I like working outside. a. I prefer getting paid hourly. b. I prefer to get paid hourly. a. I prefer working inside to (working) outside. b. I prefer getting paid hourly to being on salary.

Construction would rather + base form of the verb verb (Note: would rather is used with than)

like + gerund or infinitive prefer + gerund or infinitive Note: 1. When two things are compared using prefer, to should be used. 2. If the same verb is used in both phrases, it doesn‟t need to be repeated.

2. Some useful sites: 1. https://www.thebalance.com/job-application-letter-format-2061567 2. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/540/01/ 3. Script of the audio You will hear a conversation between two friends about their preference between different jobs. Seema: Hello, Bibash! Bibash: Hi Seema! Seema: You‟ve just left college, haven‟t you? Bibash: Yes. Seema: What are you going to do? Bibash: Er…well, it …er …looks like a choice between teaching or …going into business and… Seema: Ah! Bibash: I think I‟d much prefer teaching… Seema: Great! Bibash: Because … er … well, it‟s a prestige job. You will get international recognition too. Seema: But, Bibash, teachers‟ pay is not similar to business. Bibash: No....It‟s …it used to be … teaching pay used to be very bad, but it‟s much improved now. Seema: Really? Bibash: Of course. 224


Seema: Oh ! But I mean, wouldn‟t …wouldn‟t you get bored with the same routine year after year teaching … teaching the same material to children and… Bibash: And that‟s another thing! It wouldn‟t be anything as risky as … as business. Teaching is extremely stimulating. It‟s … it‟s new every day-I‟m sure you‟d enjoy it. Seema: But I mean, there‟s so much variety in business! I mean, look at my job: I‟m …dealing with people and their problems. There are new situations to cope with all the time. Bibash: Well …maybe, but … take responsibility: the … the …you don‟t need as great a sense of responsibility for your kind of work as you do in teaching-all those children, all those parents, not to mention the other teachers. Seema: I think there‟re a tremendous number of differences between teaching and business and Bibash, really it‟s just up to you to sort out which one you‟re going to enjoy doing more. Bibash: Ah … yes, well, I prefer teaching because of the … the global prestige - that really does attract me. Seema: Great! I think you should follow your heart! I have an appointment with a doctor. I've gotta go See you, Bibash. Bibash: OK. Bye, Seema.

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UNIT: TWELVE TALKING ABOUT PERSONAL EXPERIENCE

Part 1: Unit Outline Curriculum reference: Language function no. 13 under scope and sequence Things to teach Language function and forms/exponents: Talking about personal experience  I've visited Pokhara twice.  I have tasted the sea food. Reading: 1. I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud (Poem) 2. Typhoid fever (An interview)  Reading comprehension followed by extended activities  Text based vocabulary items Grammar: 1. Personal experience (present perfect tense) 2. Subject Verb Agreement Listening: Personal Experience about the Meaning of 'Ring'  Identifying different meanings of the gesture of "ring"  Listening comprehension followed by extended activities Speaking: 1. Experience of different cultural practices  Talking about etiquette  Talking about personal experience on different cultural practices Writing:  Writing a poem about nature  Preparing a poster  Writing an exciting or thrilling experience  Writing a couple of paragraphs on 'Memorable Experience of My Life' Content themes/topics  Nature and its beauty  Typhoid fever  Exciting or thrilling experience  Body language  Etiquette  Memorable experience of life Expected achievements of the students By the end of this unit, the students will have:  recited the poem appropriately.  told the meanings of the new words used in the texts.  completed the comprehension tasks based on the reading the texts.  summarized the poem.  composed a poem about nature.  designed a poster to create public awareness about typhoid. 226


      

written and shared an exciting or thrilling experience with the class. used the subject- verb- agreement appropriately. completed the comprehension activities listening to the audio. made a list of socially accepted and not accepted behaviours in their community. shown a proper etiquette in the given situation. written a couple of paragraphs on 'memorable experience of my life'. organized an interaction programme, written report on it and presented it to the class.

Integrated Soft Skills  Thinking skills  Inter- cultural skills  Cultural skills  Inter- personal skills  Working in a team  Problem solving skills Teaching Resources  Audio of the poem 'I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud'  Flash cards of the words  A picture of the sign of ring  Audio file containing the meanings of 'ring'  A video showing body language (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OpGGQiC2HFI)  A video showing Japanese eating etiquette (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fSqTRMG_h64)  A poster on typhoid fever  A video on brainstorming (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rorgTqfb4TQ) Estimated periods: 9

Part 2: Learning Facilitation Process Lesson One Reading Content from the textbook  Engage yourself (p. 133)  Study time Reading I (I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud) (p. 133 - 134) Materials required  A picture showing the beauty of nature  Audio of the poem 'I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud'  Flash cards of the difficult words from the poem Lesson Activities Engage yourself  Ask the students to look at the picture, and say what they see there. (They may talk about flowers, sea, clouds, etc.)  Then ask the questions given in this section of the lesson. Accept any possible answers. 227


Tell them that we all enjoy the beauty of nature and also that they are going to study a poem about the beauty of nature.

Study Time: Reading I (I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud)  Write the title of the poem on board and ask the students to guess about the poem. Like: a. What is the poem about? (beauty of nature) b. Who is the speaker? (the poet) c. Who has composed the poem? (William Wordsworth)  Collect their answers, and discuss in the class.  Give them a brief introduction to the poet. William Wordsworth was born on 7 April, 1770 in the Lake District of northern England, the second of five children of a modestly prosperous estate manager. He lost his mother when he was 7 and his father when he was 13. He was a major English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their joint publication Lyrical Ballads (1798). Wordsworth also showed his affinity for nature with the famous poem "I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud." He became England's poet laureate in 1843, a role he held until his death in 1850. He died on 23 April 1850. 

Now ask the students to read the first stanza of the poem and guess its theme. Accept any possible response of the students. Then provide a brief background of the poem including its theme in very brief. William Wordsworth's "I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud” is a lyrical poem focusing on the poet's response to the beauty of nature. (A lyrical poem presents the deep feelings and emotions of the poet rather than telling a story or presenting a witty observation.) The poem was inspired by an event on 15 April 1802, in which Wordsworth and his sister Dorothy came across a "long belt" of daffodils. The main theme of the poem is that of bliss, or a certain state of natural happiness. Adjacent themes are:  Man‟s relationship with nature  The effect memories have on people. The poem is mainly about the state of bliss or inner happiness. The poet experiences thanks to a group of daffodils which impress him deeply. This inner state of bliss happens almost instantly, even if the poet started off “lonely as a cloud” The setting of the poem is very important, as it helps develop the theme of the relationship between man and nature. The poet‟s blissful state is not triggered by any event, but by being in nature. The importance of memories and the influence of the past is suggested in the last stanza, in which the poet finds himself in a habitual present, recollecting the image of the daffodils.

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Ask the students to read the poem silently, and mark the new words. Teach the meaning and pronunciation of the words as marked by the students using appropriate techniques. Use the flash cards too.  Tell the students that they are going to listen to the audio of the poem. Play the audio and ask them to listen to it. (Recite the poem yourself if the audio is not available.)  Ask the class to recite the poem with the audio or with you.  Ask the whole class to recite the poem without audio.  Now ask the half of the class to recite the poem. Turn by turn. Vocabulary in use (i)  Ask the students to read the poem silently, and fill in the cross word puzzle working in pairs.  While they are working move around the class and assist them.  When they finish, ask them to share their answers with the class, and provide necessary feedback. Suggested answers Across 3. bliss 4. glance 7. wander 9. solitude Down 1. jocund 2. toss 3. breeze 5. pensive 6. gaze 8. flutter Vocabulary in use (ii)  Ask the students to read the poem again and math the words with their meanings. They can use the dictionary if necessary. Move around the class and assist them as required.  Once they complete the task, correct their answers. Suggested answers Words Meanings a. vacant vii. empty b. sprightly vi. lively; full of life and energy c. couch v. sofa; a long comfortable seat d. gaze iv. to look steadily e. sparkling viii. shining and flashing with light f. bay iii. a broad inlet of the sea where the land curves inwards g. stretched ii. extended h. gay i. cheerful Extended activity  Ask the students to paraphrase the poem ' I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud. Possible answer Simply, the author is walking near a lake when he comes upon a "host," or large bed, of daffodils. "Vale" is another word for "valley." There are as many daffodils as there are stars in the sky-so many, they can't be counted. He says in one glance he can see "ten thousand," which is a large number used to express how large the bed of flowers is. They seem to be dancing in the breeze. The waves of the lake lap at the shore, but the sound the daffodils make as they dance in the wind outdoes the sound of the water. The poet can't help being happy when he is in such a joyful 229


(jocund) company. He looks at them for a long time, but he doesn't yet appreciate what these flowers has done for him. Now, in the final stanza, the poet knows how much the flowers have affected him. Often, when he is lying on his couch or when he is in a thoughtful (pensive) mood, an image of the daffodils will come to him, and then his heart will fill with pleasure and "dances with the daffodils." (Source: https://www.enotes.com/homework-help/need-paraphrase-poem-daffodils-by-william-75457)

Reflection Write a diary entry explaining what you did and what you made your students do in today's lesson. Lesson Two Reading Content from the textbook  Reading comprehension (p. 135)  Follow up activity ( p. 136) Materials required  Collections of poetry in the library Lesson Activities 2. Reading comprehension (i) • Get the students into pairs. • Tell them to work with their partners to answer the questions. • Ask them to go through the poem, and mark the area that contains the answer of each question. • Go around the class and help the pairs answer questions. Pay special attention to the students who find difficulty. • Ask them to compare their answers with the immediate pairs. • Provide feedback. Add ideas, or help students improve their responses. Possible answers a. The poet/the speaker in the poem is compared with the cloud. b. The person in the poem saw the daffodils beside the lake and beneath the trees. c. The poet uses the word 'star' to compare with the daffodils. d. The speaker dances with the daffodils because he got much pleasure even in the solitude seeing the daffodils and his heart filled with pleasure. e. The theme of the poem is that even when you are by yourself and lonely and missing your friends, you can use your imagination to find new friends in the world around you. f. No, the loneliness of the first stanza is different from the solitude of the last stanza. Reading comprehension (ii)  Divide the class into groups of four to six.  Tell them that each paragraph in the exercise is related to a particular stanza from the poem.  Ask them to match the paragraph with the appropriate stanza of the poem.  Ask them to arrange the given passages in the order of the stanzas of the poem.  After they finish, ask each group to share their answers with the class and provide feedback to them. Suggested answer b, a, d, c

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Follow-up activity  Take the students out of the classroom.  Ask them to look around, and write down the things they see. For example: river, forest, flowers, etc.  Ask them to describe how those things are in their own sentences. For example: beautiful river, deep and green forest, etc.  Then ask them to close their eyes and listen to the different sounds they hear.  Ask them to list down what they heard after listening for a while. For example: chirping of birds, blow of air etc.  Now get them to write as many sentences as they can using the information they have collected.  Ask them to group similar ideas in a paragraph.  Now tell them to write a poem changing the position of the sentences, words or pattern of the sentences to bring rhythm and rhyme as in the poem in the book.  Help them if they feel any difficulty.  Ask them to share their poem with their partner who will provide his/her feedback.  Then ask them to edit their poem.  After all the students complete the task, take them in the class, and conduct a poem recitation competition and award the best performers along with your suggestion. A sample poem I wonder why the grass is green And why the wind is never seen? Who taught the birds to build a nest, And told the trees to take a rest? O, when the moon is not quite round, Where can the missing bit be found? Who lights the stars, when they blow out, And makes the lightning flash about? Who paints the rainbow in the sky, And hangs the fluffy clouds so high? Why is it now, do you suppose, That Dad won't tell me, if he knows? - Jeannie Kirby Extended activity Ask the students to go to the literature section of your school library and collect any three poems written on nature.

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Reflection Were your students able to do the task when you facilitated them as suggested by the TG? Or did you follow some different techniques? Lesson Three Reading Content from the textbook  Reading II: An Interview about Typhoid Fever (pp.136-138) Materials required  A poster on typhoid fever Lesson activities Reading II: An Interview about Typhoid Fever  Show the poster like the one given below to the class.  Ask them read the poster, and ask the following questions: a. What is the poster about? (typhoid fever) b. What is the purpose of this poster? (to create public awareness about typhoid fever) c. How can you prevent yourself from typhoid? (by improving personal hygiene and sanitation)

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(Source: https://www.unicef.org/uganda/Revised_Typhoid_poster.pdf)

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Ask the students to discuss the causes, symptoms, cure and preventive measures of typhoid. Make some of them share their answers with the class. Ask the students to read the text silently, and pick up the words which they are not familiar with. For example; fatal, infectious, bacteria, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, sanitation, pathogenic, microorganisms, socio-economic, appetite, constipation, abdomen, rose spots, delirious, antibiotic, coma, transmitted, contaminated,

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ingestion, preventive measures, dreadful, purification, hygiene, diagnosis, vaccination, attenuated, booster, parenteral vaccine, beverages, public awareness, etc. Collect the words from the students. Some of the students may be familiar with the pronunciation and the meaning of those words. If someone knows, let him/her share with the class. After this divide the class into groups of four or five. Provide different words from the list to the groups. They will write the word and their pronunciation in one flash card and the meaning in another (use different colours if possible). Collect the cards from them. Now get them to play a game.  Give one word card to one student, and disperse the meaning cards without showing the meaning. Ask each of the students to read the word first with correct pronunciation and then the other will read too.  Now the students will go around, and find the meaning card that matches the word they have. The student who comes with the correct meaning card will be the winner.  Once all the students find the meaning cards that match the words they have, they will display the word and meaning in their hands, and the other will read. Now divide the class into pairs and ask them to play the role of the doctor and the interviewer. Let them decide their role themselves. Move around the class and ensure the active participation of all the students. Ask them swap their roles after some time.

Extended activity Ask the students to create a poster to make people aware of personal hygiene. The poster in the earlier activity can be taken as a sample. Reflection Did the above activities help you make your students learn more easily? Why? Why not? Lesson Four Reading Content from the textbook  Reading activities (Vocabulary in use, Question answer, Follow-up activity) (p. 138) Materials required  Daily used materials Lesson activities 1. Vocabulary in use (i)  Divide the class into pairs and ask the students to read the meanings given in the exercise. Be sure that they understand the meanings.  Ask each pair to go through the text silently, and find the word in the text for each meaning.  Once they complete, ask them to share their answers with the class. Then provide your feedback. Suggested answers a. potential b. sanitation 234


c. resume d. constipation e. contaminated f. diagnosis g. preventive Reading comprehension  Ask the students to read the questions. Make sure that the students understand them.  Ask the students to go through the text and, mark the lines where the answers to these questions are likely to be found.  Ask them to write the answers in their exercise book. Move around the class assisting the needy students and correcting their answers. Suggested answers a. Typhoid fever is a fatal infectious disease caused by bacteria called Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Parathtyphi A and B. b. An infectious disease is a disease that is caused by pathogenic microorganism such as bacteria, virus, parasites and fungi etc. c. The symptoms of typhoid fever are high grade fever, headache, body ache, loss of appetite, constipation, diarrhoea, vomiting, etc. d. The typhoid fever transmits through excreta, direct contact to the infected ones, contaminated food, water, milk and through flies. e. The preventive measures of typhoid fever are washing hands with clean water and soap, having hygienic foods, improved sanitation and protection and purification of drinking water. Follow- up activity  Ask the students to work in pairs and list out the symptoms and preventive measures of typhoid fever.  Now ask them to design a colourful poster about typhoid fever using the information they have listed out.       

 

Guidelines for designing a poster Provide the students with either A4 size paper or newsprint. Get them to decide the place to keep the content and illustration (picture) Ask them to write a suitable title. For example: "Keep Typhoid Away" Make them aware about borders, letter size, colour, picture for illustration, etc. Ask them to use different colour to decorate the picture. Get them to write the symptoms in one section and the preventive measures in another section. Ask them to label the pictures if necessary.

Collect their work, and award the best one. (Consider the message, colour combination, clarity and attractiveness, etc. while evaluating the poster.) Ask them to paste their posters on the wall magazine of the school. Note: Sample (A poster is shown in Engage yourself section.)

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Extended activity  Ask the students to write some healthy habits which prevent them from diseases. Possible answer a. Wash your hands properly. b. Take bath regularly. c. Drink lots of water. d. Say 'no' to junk food. e. Eat lots of fruits and vegetables. f. Don't share personal items like teeth brush, handkerchief, towel, etc. g. Be physically active everyday. h. Be screened or tested regularly. Reflection Write a reflective note on this lesson in your personal diary. Lesson Five Grammar Content from the textbook  Grammar activities (Engage yourself, Time for grammar, Follow-up activity (pp. 138140) Materials required  A video on subject verb agreement  A set of questions for quiz on subject verb agreement Lesson activities Engage yourself  Ask the students few questions that elicit their thrilling or exciting experiences. For example: a. Have you ever been praised by the principal in the school assembly? When? Why? b. Have you ever won a match? What? When? c. Have you ever had your teeth x-rayed? When? Why? d. Have you ever been trapped in a toilet? When? Who trapped you? etc.  Make sure that everyone gets chance to share his/her answer with the class.  Then share any thrilling or exciting experience of your own with your students (It can be either real or imaginary).  Now ask the students to recall any exciting or thrilling experience that they ever have and share it with a friend sitting next to him/her. Get five/six of them to share their experience with the class. Encourage the shy students to do it. Time for grammar (1)  Ask the students to read (silently) the experience of Marsha Sue Ivins given in the textbook under this section.  Then get them to find out the structure of the sentences used in the very text.  First two sentences are written in the present perfect tense.  In other sentences simple present tense has been used.  Two sentences are written using a modal auxiliary 'can'.

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Tell your students that we generally use the present perfect tense to talk about our experience.  Now ask each student to write his/her similar experience (i.e., thrilling or exciting experience) in a paragraph as in the book.  For this, help them choose the right topic first. For example, they could choose their favorite after-school activity (e. g. playing volleyball), being a champion in a competition etc.  Suggest beginning with a memorable detail from the event's climax, and then go back chronologically in the body to show readers how you got there. For example, if they're writing about doing speech competitions in school, they might start with a description of receiving a trophy at a tournament. This creates suspense by making readers question how the writer got to that point of success.  Get them to give the vivid details of the moment. If they are writing about paragliding for example, they might describe the view from the sky and the exhilaration and fear of being high in the air.  Make them reflect on how the event affected them. This can include development of character traits like maturity, leadership and compassion, important life lessons they have learned and so on.  Ask the students to read their draft to find any errors regarding grammar, spelling and punctuation. If they find any, ask them to edit.  Get them to share their writing with their partners and exchange feedback.  Go through their writing and provide feedback. Time for grammar (2)  Ask the students to read the sentences given under this section, and observe the agreement between the subjects and the verbs.  Ask them to find the rules of agreement in each pairs of sentences.  First two pairs -a singular subject takes a singular verb (helps, likes) and a plural subject takes a plural verb (help, like).  Pair in number 'c' - with 'either …….or' and 'neither ………..nor', the verb agrees with the last subject. In the first sentence 'she' is the last subject which agrees with a singular verb 'has'. In the second sentence the last subject is 'his friends' which is plural and agrees with the plural verb 'have'.  Pair in number 'd'- when two singular nouns are connected with 'and', and the first one is preceded by 'the' and the second one is not, it is considered to be a singular subject and agrees with a singular verb. If both the nouns are preceded by 'the', it is considered to be a plural subject and agrees with a plural verb.  Pair in number 'e'- 'none of + uncountable noun' agrees with a singular verb, whereas 'none of + plural noun' agrees with a plural verb.  Pair in number 'f' - 'one of + plural noun' agrees with a singular verb, whereas some of + plural noun agrees with a plural verb.  Pair in number 'g' - in interrogative form the verb 'does' is used with a singular subject and 'do' with a plural subject.  Pair in number 'h' - though the word cattle looks like a singular subject, it is always plural and agrees with a plural verb.  Pair in number 'i' - 'a lot of + uncountable noun' agrees with a singular verb and 'a lot of + plural noun' agrees with plural verb. 237


Give students some sentences and ask them to decide the subject-verb agreement working in pairs. For example: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i.

Annie and her brothers (is, are) at school. (are) Either my mother or my father (is, are) coming to the meeting. (is) The dog or the cats (is, are) outside. (are) Either my shoes or your coat (is, are) always on the floor. (is) George and Tamara (doesn't, don't) want to see that movie. (don't) Benito (doesn't, don't) know the answer. (doesn't) One of my sisters (is, are) going on a trip to France. (is) The man with all the birds (live, lives) on my street. (lives) The movie, including all the previews, (take, takes) about two hours to watch. (takes) j. The players, as well as the captain, (want, wants) to win. (want) k. Either answer (is, are) acceptable. (is) l. Every one of those books (is, are) fiction. (is) m. Nobody (know, knows) the trouble I've seen. (knows) n. (Is, Are) the news on at five or six? (is) o. Mathematics (is, are) John's favorite subject, while Civics (is, are) Andrea's favorite subject. (is) p. Eight dollars (is, are) the price of a movie these days. (is) q. (Is, Are) the tweezers in this drawer? (Are) r. Your pants (is, are) at the cleaner's. (are) s. There (was, were) fifteen candies in that bag. Now there (is, are) only one left! (were & is) t. The committee (debates, debate) these questions carefully.( debates) u. The committee (leads, lead) very different lives in private. (lead) v. The Prime Minister, together with his wife, (greets, greet) the press cordially. (greets) w. All of the CDs, even the scratched one, (is, are) in this case. (are) Follow-up activity  Ask the students to work in pairs and to decide the correct verb from the bracket.  Then ask them to write the text supplying the correct verb from the bracket.  Once they finish, correct their answer using a mass correction technique. Suggested answers started, is, goes, is, have, hear, drives, are, tells, have, are Extended activity Ask the students to meet the eldest person in their locality and interview him/her about his/her most thrilling or exciting experience. Get them to report it to the class. This task can be assigned as home assignment. Reflection If you had the opportunity to teach the lesson again to the same group of students, would you do anything different? What? Why?

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Lesson Six Listening Content from the textbook  Listening activities (Engage yourself, Study time, Follow-up activity) (p. 140-141) Materials required  A picture of gesture of ring  Audio file containing the meanings of the sign of 'ring'  A video showing body language Lesson activities Engage yourself  Display the picture of gesture of ring, and then ask the following questions to the students: a. What does the gesture of ring refer to in Nepal? (good) b. Do you think it has the same meaning in all the parts of the world? (no) c. How may the Europeans perceive it? (OK) d. Can this sign be used in all the parts of the world? (no)  Have discussion on their answers without judging the correctness of their answers.  Ask the students to guess what they are going to listen to. (Different meanings of the gesture 'ring') Study time (1)  Ask the students to go through the incomplete sentences given.  Ask them to listen to the audio file, and complete the given sentences with correct alternatives given in the brackets.  Play the sound file or read the audio script aloud. You can play it more than once if necessary.  After they finish, correct their answers. Suggested answers a. - money b. - OK c. - insult d. - insult e. - zero Study time (2)  Ask the students to read the questions given. Make sure that they understand each question.  Ask them to listen to the audio file, and find the answers to the questions.  Play the sound file or read the audio script. You can play it more than once if necessary.  After they finish, correct their answers. Suggested answers a. a traveller or a wanderer b. bribe c. The writer showed the 'ring' to her to say that the table as OK but the waitress understood that the writer didn't like the table. d. in 1950s. e. an insult 239


Follow-up activity  Display the video that shows the use of body language, or perform yourself some activities using body language. (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OpGGQiC2HFI)  Ask the students what kind of body language the character uses.  Ask some of the students to express five meanings using only body language. Encourage shy students to participate. Examples a. Nodding head: accepting something b. Frowning: showing surprise c. Making the 'ring': like or appreciate something d. Joining palms together as in a pray: greeting e. Pointing finger at people: wait and I'll have something against you Extended activity Ask the students to perform the role of a doctor and a patient in the class without using verbal language. Reflection Write a reflective journal of today's lesson. Lesson Seven Speaking Content from the textbook  Speaking activities (Engage yourself, Time for speaking, Follow-up activity) (p.141-143) Materials required  A video showing Japanese eating etiquette (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fSqTRMG_h64) Lesson activities Engage yourself  Discuss in the class some good manners and some bad manners in the students' culture. For example: Good practices Bad practices  Respecting elders  Clearing throat in public  Covering nose while sneezing  Belching after meal  Ask the students to look at the picture and discuss what manner is shown in each of them, and decide whether they are good or not. For example: Picture 'a' a. What manner is shown in the picture? (pointing finger at someone ) b. Is it considered good in your culture? (no)  Discuss other pictures in the same way. b. hugging c. peeping at other's mobile phone d. sitting with crossed legs e. standing in a queue f. having meal together with all family members

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Time for speaking (1)  If possible display the video that contains the dining etiquette of Japanese people with the help of a projector. (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fSqTRMG_h64)  Ask the questions based on the video like: a. What do the Japanese do before they begin to eat? b. How do they hold the chopsticks? c. What do they eat first? etc.  Then get the students to read the dining etiquette of Japanese people given in the text.  Now divide the students into groups of four or five, and ask them to prepare a list of dining etiquette of their own. Try to keep the students of the same caste or religion in a group.  Ask them to share their list with the class after they prepare, and give feedback to them.

      

Dining in Nepalese Culture Once you‟ve touched something to your lips, it‟s polluted (jutho) for everyone else. If you want to take a sip from someone else‟s water bottle, try not to let it touch your lips (and the same applies if it‟s your own). Don‟t eat off someone else‟s plate or offer anyone food you‟ve taken a bite of, and don‟t touch cooked food until you‟ve bought it. If eating with your hands, use the right one only. The left hand is reserved for washing after defecating; you can use it to hold a glass or utensil while you eat, but don‟t wipe your mouth, or pass food with it. Give and receive everything with the right hand. Offer food with both hands or with the right hand while the left touches the wrist. Tell them that they have to follow the Japanese etiquette when they go to Japan and Nepalese etiquette when they are in Nepal.

Time for speaking (2)  Tell the students to read the list of different practices. Make sure they understand them.  Ask them to decide which they have been practicing and which they have not been practicing.  Now ask the student to read the example. Tell them that they have to explain each of the practices in the same way in 4/5 utterances to the class. First ask a bit more talented students and then to others. Ask a student for a practice. Possible answers a. say 'Excuse me!'  I have been practising this since I came to the town. I generally use this to attract people's attention. Moreover, I say this, whenever I make mistakes. Even if I sneeze, I say excuse me to myself. b. take off shoes  I have been practising this since my childhood. My parents taught me to do so whenever I had to enter the kitchen, the bedroom and so on. I keep my shoes by the side of the door as I enter the room. This has helped me to keep my room clean. c. switch off cell phone in a cinema hall 241


I have been practising this for five years as I came to the town from my village. I switch off it as soon as I take my seat in the cinema hall. If I have an android set, I will keep it in the flight mode so that no one contacts me. This helps me to pay keen attention on the story of the film. d. allow people to exit first  I have been practising this for about six years. I learnt this when I got a training conducted by Red Cross. I always allow old people, women, disabled people and elderly people when I have plenty of time. I get self-satisfaction when I do this. e. say 'Sorry'  I have been practising this since my childhood. Our school teachers taught us to say so when we had made mistakes initially. But now, it has become my permanent habit. Sometimes, I catch my ears to show that I'm really sorry. f. say 'Thank you'  I have been practising this since I appeared my SLC. I was taught to say so by one of the teachers who took our practical examination of English in SLC. Whenever I get favour, I say it. People become happy if I say so. g. greet people  I have been practising this from the day I learn socialization. My elders made me greet people whenever they came home. I used to greet people with Namaste or Namaskar, but I have learn different forms now like good morning, good evening, how do you do, etc. Moreover, we join hands together to greet each other. h. inform the seniors about a decision  I always inform the seniors about a decision which I learnt when I was cheated by a thug. My parents and other seniors always inspire me to be in the right track. This is a matter of obedience to the seniors as well. i. wear formal outfit/clothes  I have learnt to wear formal clothes as soon as I started going to parties. Often, I wear them during the festivals. If I am to choose any dress, I always choose a formal dress. j. use both hands  I have learnt to use my hands as per the situation; that is I use my right hand to eat, whereas I use my left hand to write. I use both my hands while playing, washing, giving something to someone and doing other activities. Time for speaking (3)  Divide the whole class into five groups (You can make more groups depending upon the class size or sitting arrangement of the students).  Assign each group a situation from the exercise for which they will discuss and find a proper etiquette. Ask each group to present their answer to the class. Make rest of the groups provide feedback to them. Provide your feedback too. Possible answers a. I will say, "I'm sorry. I've no appetite." b. I will say, "Thank you very much." c. I will say, "Excuse me! Can I have the meal myself?" d. I will say, "Excuse me! May I have your attention for a few minutes please?" e. I will say, "Excuse me! I didn't notice you were here."

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Follow-up activity  Invite two students in front of the class. Tell them that one of them will act to blow the nose while eating and other will advise him as in the example.  There are four situations for the practice given in the exercise, so make four pairs play the role as done by the first pair.  After this you can ask them to practise in private pairs. Possible answers a. talking loudly on the phone  It is an impolite manner. We are not supposed to speak loudly on the phone because that disturbs others. If we have to speak loudly, we must make sure that it does not disturb others. We must behave the way we expect others to behave with us. b. talking with mouthful of food  It is also an impolite manner. As far as possible we should not speak at all while eating and if we have to do it while eating, we must not speak with mouthful of food. On the one hand, people do not understand us and on the other hand, the food may enter the wind pipe. c. inviting people over and then cancel just the day before  It is an impolite manner to call people and cancel just the day before. People may feel humiliated. So, if we need to cancel, we must cancel timely and apologize with the reason why you need to cancel it. d. borrowing things but not returning them on time  It is also an impolite manner. Often people borrow things but they are not interested to return them. If they fail to return the borrowed things on time, they must feel sorry about that and try to return them as soon as possible. If the borrowed items are lost, they should be replaced with other ones. Extended activity  Ask the students to list down some impolite manners which have been practised in your community. a. Blowing nose in public b. Clearing throat in public c. Opening the gift in the presence of the giver d. Not being punctual e. Improper use of cell phone f. Not listening to other people g. Interrupting others h. Using foul language i. Biting nails j. Not covering face while coughing and sneezing Reflection Many teachers say that their students do not actively participate in speaking lessons. Have you encountered similar problem? If yes, how do you deal with such a problem?

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Lesson Eight Writing Content from the textbook  Writing activities (Engage yourself, Time for writing, Follow-up activity) (page 143) Materials required  A video on brainstorming (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rorgTqfb4TQ) Lesson activities Engage yourself  If possible, show the students the video on brainstorming. (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rorgTqfb4TQ)  After they finish watching the video, ask them the following questions. a. What is brainstorming? b. What techniques of brain storming are suggested in the video?  Now tell them what brainstorming is and how it is done (take help from the textbook).  Ask them to observe the example of brainstorming given in the textbook. Time for writing  Ask the students to brainstorm on the topic 'Memorable Experience of my Life'.  Assign it as an individual task. Move around the class and assist the students. visit to eastern Nepal

winter vacation

visit different places

Memorable Experience of my Life

lunch time some friends not seen

all worried about them

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Now ask the students to write a couple of paragraphs on the topic using the information generated through brainstorming. After the first draft is prepared, ask them to revise and edit it. Go round the class and facilitate them.

A sample Memorable Experience of my Life Travelling is a great passion of mine. Whenever I have leisure, I try to visit new places. Once, during our winter vacation, the students of class ten made a plan to visit different places of eastern Nepal, including Kanyam, Ilam. For three days outing, we collected money and made other preparations. We hired a bus from Biratnagar and started our journey. On the way, we stopped frequently and visited different places we liked. 244


On the very first day, we went to the Mechi River, the eastern border of Nepal. We returned to the hotel and started to have lunch. After lunch we were ready to start our journey. But, Rajiv and Bashu were not seen around. We got out of the bus and started searching but could not find them. We became anxious since none of us was familiar with the place. We waited and waited being worried. After an hour or so, they turned up. All of us scolded them but thanked the God. Whenever someone talks about visiting, I get remembered of the incident. Follow-up activity  When the students complete the editing task, ask them to exchange their works with their friends and collect feedback.  Now ask them to edit their writing on the basis of the feedback they have received, and prepare a final draft. Extended activity  Ask the students to recall how their first day in grade ten was. Ask some of the questions like: a. How did you feel when you reached the school ? b. What was your first class and how was it? c. What did you at the school? d. What things did you enjoy ? e. What were the things you didn't enjoy ?  Now ask them to write on "My First Day in Grade Ten” in about 120 words. Reflection Most of the teachers teach writing following product approach. The writing tasks in this lesson focus on process approach. After you taught this lesson from process oriented approach, did you notice any change in the behaviour of the students? Did this approach help them write easily? Write a short note in your diary. Lesson Nine Project Work Content from the textbook  Project work (p. 144)  Fun corner (p. 144) Materials required  Diary for note taking Lesson activities  Prepare the students for conducting an interaction programme.  The following steps may help you. A. Planning 1. Discuss and decide time and venue. 2. Assign the responsibility among the students like inviting the head teacher and others, sitting arrangements, chairing the programme, anchoring, facilitating, etc. 3. Make each student prepare in advance to suggest the ways to improve their English. For example:  Watching television and film in English  Reading English books/newspapers

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Labelling things in your house (buy a pack of labels and then write the name of items in your home on them, such as phone, window, mirror, etc.)  Making notes of new vocabulary  Surrounding oneself with English speakers  Listening to English music  Practising English whenever you can  Recording yourself and your lesson  Changing the language on your social media or smart phone, etc. B. Acting/conducting and observing 1. Let all the students present their opinions on the ways of improving English one by one. They cannot repeat the ideas. 2. When one presents, rest of the participants will listen, and at the end they will comment on those opinions. 3. After the students finish their ideas, the English teachers and the head teacher will also put their opinions on the ways of improving their students' English. C. Reporting 1. Ask the students to prepare report a of the programme working in small groups of five to six. 2. Ask them to present the report to the class the next day. Sample report A Report on Interaction Programme on the Ways of Improving English Background An Interaction with class ten students and teachers to discuss the ways of improving English was organized on 19th of December 2017. The overall objective of the program was to make students familiar with the ways of improving English. Chief Guest of the program was Mr./Mrs./Ms …….., the Head Teacher of our school. The programme was participated by over ……… persons including the students of class ten and English teachers of the school. The programme was chaired by Mr./Ms …….. Activities done Welcoming the chief guest, the English teachers of the school and the participants, Mr./Ms ………… highlighted the importance of the English language and also expressed his/her hope that the programme would bring a fruitful result to improve the English language of students of the school. Starting the interaction Mr. /Ms …….... put his/ her view on the necessity of improving English language. S/he also suggested that the English class should be more interactive and less or no use of Nepali language/mother tongue should be ensured. Another participant, Mr./Ms. ………… opined that the students must be fear-free when they speak English. Students need more exposure to English language, and for this they need to read English books, newspapers, etc. All the students as well as the English teachers put their views on the ways of improving the English language. They also made an agreement that from that day they would begin to talk to their friends and teachers using the English language.

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The Head Teacher thanked the students for organizing such an interaction programme, and assured all that he would provide necessary support for the improvement of English language. The chairman of the programme Mr./Ms …….. thanked all the students and the teachers for their active participation in the programme at the end. Conclusion If we really follow the ways suggested in the interaction for the improvement of our English our English will certainly be improved. The school administration too must provide necessary support for this. Fun corner Ask the students to read the joke, and if they don't understand, help them. Extended Activity Ask the students to form a committee in the class which will help to implement the conclusion of the interaction programme in the classroom for improving English. Reflection Did you or students face any problem while conducting the interaction programme? If so, what will you do next time to avoid those problems?

Part 3: Additional Resources 1. Useful links  http://www.oecd.org/edu/school/44568106.pdf ( for teacher's self evaluation)  https://books.google.com.np/books?id=QAGTBgAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=bo dy+language+in+communication&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiMlrjX0M3SAhVL0m MKHSucCRMQ6AEIJDAC#v=onepage&q=body%20language%20in%20communicatio n&f=false ( For body language communication)  http://www.japan-guide.com/e/e2005.html (for Japanese table manners)  http://www.shmoop.com/wandered-lonely-cloud-daffodils/poem-text.html for line to line interpretation of the poem 'I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud'. 2. Script of the audio You will hear a traveler sharing his personal experience about different meanings of the sign of "Ring" in different cultures. Hello everyone! It‟s me Robert Lara. I love to call myself a wanderer or a traveller. Today, in front of you all, I‟m going to share my experience about one of the body languages that is almost universal language. It‟s none other than the „Ring‟. Do you know about it? Of course, you are familiar with this as it is one of the gestures of a hand that means „perfect‟ to you all. Am I right ? Ladies and gentleman, the „Ring‟ is very popular in all the cultures. Whenever I visited and talked with local people I found it common. But, to my surprise, it doesn‟t mean the same thing to everyone. Do you want to know more about it? Yes! Firstly, in Japan the sign „the ring‟ refers to „money‟. It also refers to a „bribe‟ in business matter. Secondly, when I visited Europe, this simply meant „ok‟. Or at times it is understood as „all correct‟. I guess you people are also familiar with this meaning as you all watch English movies, if I‟m not wrong. Thirdly, in France and Belgium, the „Ring‟ refers to „zero‟ or „nothing‟. Here, I‟d like to share a funny incident when I was in France. Would you like to hear? It‟s the story of a year back. One evening, while I 247


was sitting at a table in a restaurant, there came a girl. She was a waitress. She showed me to my table and asked me, “Is the table ok?” Without giving second thought, I made the sign of the „Ring‟. Then, do you know what happened? Immediately she responded, “Well, if you don‟t like it here, we‟ll find you another table.” This was misunderstanding between us. For the French, the „Ring‟ refers to „zero‟ or „worthless‟ neither „ok‟ nor „perfect‟. Next, there is another meaning of the „Ring‟. It is „insulting‟ to Turks and Brazilians. I‟ve heard a story of Richard Nixon and misunderstanding of the „Ring‟. It‟s an incident in the 1950‟s. Nixon visited Latin America before he became President on a goodwill tour to try to patch up strained relations with the locals. As he stepped out of his plane he showed the waiting crowds the American „Ok‟ signal. Immediately he was stunned as they began booing and hissing at him. He was completely unaware of insulting meaning of the „Ring‟. Well, friends, there may be other possible meanings of the sign the „Ring‟. I‟ll share them with you next time. Lastly, I‟d like to give you a tip. Whenever you travel internationally, you have to ask the locals to show their insult signals so that you can avoid possible embarrassing circumstances. In the end, I‟d like to thank everyone present here for patiently listening. Hope to see you again!

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UNIT THIRTEEN TALKING ABOUT THE PAST (I): NARRATING PAST EVENTS

Part 1: Unit Outline Curriculum reference: Language function no. 14 under scope and sequence Things to teach Language Function and forms/exponents: Past simple and past perfect  Maya lived in Kathmandu twenty years ago.  I had done my homework before I went to bed.  Ram woke up early in the morning. Reading The Chimney Sweeper  Retrieve specific information from texts to analyze and synthesize by means of a variety of reading techniques and by working with others (pair, group, whole class) to find/locate information and give/receive feedback  Reading for fluency and comprehension  Text based vocabulary items Grammar Past simple and Past Perfect  Past simple and past perfect tenses Listening A Conversation between two Friends (Sony and Lila)  Listen to the spoken text, understand the gist and retrieve specific information from it  Record in note or make summary from the main points of spoken messages Speaking Creating and Reporting Conversations  Present information, ideas and express feelings clearly and coherently  Engage in pairs discussions, expressing opinions effectively Writing: Story Writing  Developing a story based on given pictures  Creating a story from the given skeleton Content themes/topics  The Chimney Sweeper (A poem by William Blake)  Talking about past experience  Imagination and creation  Driving the car and driving license  Road accident Expected achievements of the students By the end of this unit, the students will have:  recited the poem ‘the chimney sweeper’.  guessed the meanings of the unfamiliar words from the context.  completed the comprehension tasks based on the reading texts.  summarised the poem.  used the past simple and past progressive verb forms appropriately.  completed the comprehension activities listening to the conversation.  narrated past events using past tense structures. 249


 

written a story based on picture clues. prepared a report about the academic status of local people.

Integrated soft skills  Creative and critical thinking skills  Inter- personal skills  Diverse communication and collaboration  Problem solving skills     

Teaching Resources Pocket chart Flashcards containing words An audio file Laptop A YouTube video on how to create stories out of outline and pictures Estimated periods: 8

Part 2: Learning Facilitation Process Lesson One Reading Content from the textbook  Engage yourself, Study time (Reading: The Chimney Sweeper) (pp.145-146) Materials required  Flashcards containing the following vocabulary items and their meanings: scarcely, weep, chimney, sweep, soot, curled, shaved, bare, locked up, angel, coffin, naked, awoke Engage yourself  Invite the students to study the given carefully.  Ask them to think about the questions given below the picture. Give some clues to help them answer the questions, if needed. For example: Who do you think these boys are? What do you think made the speaker cry in the poem?  Encourage them to guess the answers freely.  Possible answers a. b. c. d.

A group of boys and girls. They look deserted, careless, serious and gloomy. The speaker cried because of lonely feeling. The angel helped the speaker by giving food.

Study time: The Chimney Sweeper  Present the following vocabulary items on flashcards highlighting their pronunciation and spelling. Present their meanings contextually. Keep the flash cards pasted visibly/or you can write them on the board. (scarcely, weep, chimney, sweep, soot, curled, shaved, bare, locked up, angel, coffin, naked, awoke) scarcely: hardly, none chimney: smoke tract, pipe soot: dirt, stain shaved: cut off, clear 250 locked up: confined, caged coffin: tomb, box to keep a dead body awoke: wakened, not sleeping

weep: cry, tear down sweep: clean, clear curled: bend, twist bare: empty, vacant angel: a spiritual being naked: nude, exposed


Present the words and their meanings in a jumbled order; ask the students to match words/chunks and their meanings correctly.  Ask the students to read the poem, and underline the vocabulary items that are still new for them.  Clarify the meanings of the words as marked by the students.  Give a model loud reading of the poem. In the meantime, ask the students to attend to the lines carefully as you read aloud.  Read the poem and ask the students to drill after you in choral form at first. Then get the students to recite the poem sitting in small groups. Finally, ask 2-3 students to recite the poem for the class.  Ask the students to read the poem aloud individually. Help those who find difficulty in pronouncing and reading.  After reading, ask them to use the vocabulary items in meaningful sentences. Example: Scarcely: The boy could scarcely speak when he was sold.  Monitor and support while the students are working. Reflection Was the instructional objective met? How did you make sure that the students learned what they were expected to learn from this lesson? Extended activity Ask the students to find out some information about the poet William Blake by using the internet or visiting a library. Reflection Did your students recite the poem with rhyme? How can the reciting of a poem be made more effective? Lesson Two Reading Content from the textbook  Reading activities (Vocabulary in use, Reading comprehension, Follow-up activity (p. 148) Materials required  Usual classroom materials Lesson activities Finding out rhyming words  Divide the class into small groups of three to five, and ask them to read the poem aloud in groups. Encourage them to share with their partners what they understand.  Ask the groups to find out the rhyming words in the poem. Make sure that students understand what a rhyme is (A rhyme is a repetition of similar sounding words occurring at the end of lines in poems or songs.). Ask the groups to share their findings. 251


Suggested answers

a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i.

a. young- tongue

b. weep- sleep

c. head- said

d. bare- hair

e. night- sight

f. Jack- black

g. key- free

h. run- sun

i. behind- wind

j. boy- joy

k. dark- work

l. warm- harm

Vocabulary in use  Ask the students to read the definitions in 1. Ask them to find out the single words for the definitions from among the words given in bold face in the poem. Meanwhile, monitor walking around and provide assistance as needed.  Once they complete, correct their answers. Suggested answers a. chimney b. soot c. lock up d. bare e. coffin f. angel Reading comprehension (1)  Ask the students to read the questions. Ask them to read the poem again, and find out the answers of the given questions. Ask them to underline the lines containing the possible answers and then write in their exercise book.  Move around the class assisting the needy students, and correcting their answers. Suggested answers: a. William Blake composed the poem. b. The speaker cried because his mother died early, and his father sold him into a chimney sweeping business. c. The expression „That curled like a lamb‟s back‟ means the curly fur of the lamb. d. The angel opened the black coffins with the bright key. e. If Tom became a good boy, he would get joy. f. I think the tools needed for chimney sweeping were there in their bags. g. The angel told Tom to be a good boy and he would send a god for his father. h. The morning was dark and cold. i. Tom was given the message that if we are honest in our jobs and responsibilities, we don‟t need to be worried because no one can harm us. Reading comprehension (2)  Ask the students to go through the „Gap-filling‟ activity. Ask them to read the text as well as the word options given in the box.  Make sure that the students are familiar with meaning of the words in the box. When they finish filling in the spaces, correct their answers. Suggested answers The speaker of the poem is a small boy, who was sold into the chimney- sweeping business when his mother died. He recounts the story of a fellow chimney sweeper, Tom Dacre, who cried when his hair was shaved to prevent vermin and soot from infesting it. The speaker comforts Tom, who falls asleep and has a dream or vision of several chimney sweepers all locked in black coffins. An angle arrives with a special key that opens the 252


locks on the coffins and sets the children free. The newly freed children run through a green field and wash themselves in river, coming out clean and white in the bright sun. the angel tells Tom that if he is a good boy, he will have this paradise for his own. When Tom awakens, he and the speaker gather their tools and head out to work, thinking that one day they would have a better life. Follow-up activities (1)  Ask the following questions to the students orally: a. Who is the speaker in this poem? b. How is he? c. Why is the boy sad? d. How is Tom Dacre?  Ask this question to the class: How did you feel when you read the poem? Invite the responses freely. Encourage them to speak up openly. You might also share your feelings on it. Follow-up activities (2)  Ask these questions to the class: Have you seen a child like Tom Dacre in your locality? If yes, when and where? What does he/she do for his/her living?  Encourage the students to share their ideas freely. Listen to them actively, and add your opinion or experience on it. Students might come up as follows: Sample answer Yes, I have seen a child like Tom Dacre when I was on the way to my uncle‟s house. He was wearing ragged clothes and begging for money nearby the bridge. I saw him sleeping at corner where there was little space under the bridge while returning back after three days.

 

Extended activity  Divide the class into four groups, and assign the following tasks to each group, and arrange a presentation session the following day. Group 1: Illustrate the poem in pictures. Group 2: Rewrite the poem in prose (paragraphs). Group 3: Summarize the poem in your own words. Group 4: Write the theme/moral of the poem. Reflection If you had an opportunity to teach the lesson again to the same group of students, would you do anything different? What? Why? Lesson Three Grammar Content from the textbook Grammar activities (Engage yourself, Time for grammar (pp. 148-149) Materials required  Usual classroom materials Lesson activities Engage yourself Write some sentences containing past forms of the verb on the board e.g. I went to school yesterday. I was happy when I won the medal. She danced with joy when she heard that news. Ask them to identify all the verbs in those sentences. If they cannot, you might show underlining them. 253


 

Now, divide the class into pairs. Then, ask the pairs to read the poem quickly, and find the verbs in the past forms therein. Suggested answer curled, shaved, said, was, were, locked, came, had, opened, left, awoke, got Time for grammar (1) Ask the students to read the paragraph individually. Ask them to underline the verbs which are in the past simple and past continuous forms. When the students finish the task, check their answers. Suggested answers woke up, looked at, said, wasn’t, thought, became, hurried, reached, saw, was, cursed, remembered, had, ashamed, returned Time for grammar (2)  Ask individual students to share what special they did the previous day/on the day of recent holiday. Encourage them to share activities apart from the usual routine activities.  Now ask the students to write a paragraph including their past activities. Ask them to write the complete event from starting to the end in detail.  When the first draft of the writing is over, ask the students to go through their own work again to make sure all the events are included and events are in order. Then invite some students to share their writing with the class. Time for grammar (3)  Ask the students to read the words given in the box, as well as the paragraph given in the textbook.  Now ask them to fill in the blanks with the appropriate verbs from the box.  Once they complete, correct their answer, and provide them feedback. Suggested answer Once upon a time, there was a king who lived in a palace. He had three beautiful daughters but no sons. He wanted his daughters to get married before he died. He found three princes. But his daughters didn‟t like them. They refused to marry the princes, so the king became very angry. He said they had to get married when they were twenty years old. The three daughters ran away during the night and found work on a farm. They fell in love with the farmer‟s sons while they were working there. They married the farmer‟s sons as soon as they were twenty. Follow-up activity Divide the class into the groups of four or five. Ask the students to read the questions given in this section, and write the possible answers to those questions discussing in groups.  Ask them to draft a couple of paragraphs to continue the previous section‟s story based on their answer. Accept varieties of responses. You might assign this activity as a home engagement task as well. Suggested answer After some days of marriage, all three daughters went to the palace along with their husbands. When the king knew that his daughters married the sons of farmers, he could not stand it. He was so angry that he did not want to see their daughters‟ faces. 

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But the queen requested him to spit the anger, and welcome their daughters and sonin-laws. Slowly the news spread in the kingdom about the princesses‟ marriage with the sons of a farmer. Some of them liked it, while some started to backbite. Some of them even talked about the curse on King. But the farmer‟s sons were unknown about the case. They were amazed to see the beautiful palace with dazzling chambers. They could not trust their eyes that they were inside the palace as king‟s son-in-laws. At last, the daughters were able to convince the king. He also realized whatever had happened, it had happened for the good. After that all of them lived happily ever in the same palace. Extended activity Irregular past tense verbs  Distribute copies of the following worksheet to the students or write the sentences on the board.  Ask the students to read the verbs given at the top, and decide the past forms. Then, ask them to fill in the blanks with the correct past tense forms of the verbs.  Move around the class, and monitor the students. When they complete it, invite them for sharing. Fill in the blank spaces using the given verbs appropriately. bend/ cut/ hurt/ light/ slide/ burn/ dream/ leap/ rise/ stink/ cost/ fit/ lend/ shake/ stick (1) Last night, I _________________ I was flying. (2) The garbage _________________ so I took it outside. (3) The new bridge _________________ a lot of money. (4) The smoke _________________ high into the sky. (5) During the earthquake, the ground _________________ for several minutes. (6) She _________________ over the puddles as she ran to school. (7) He _________________ the cake into eight pieces. (8) The cars _________________ on the ice. (9) My friend needed some money so I _________________ him Rs. 200,00. (10) The shirt _________________ perfectly so I bought it. (11) I _________________ some pictures on the wall. (12) We _________________ a fire to cook hotdogs and stay warm. (13) He _________________ himself when he fell off his bike. (14) She _________________ down to pick up the ball. (15) The fire alarm went off when I _________________ the toast. Suggested answers Item

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

Answe r

dream t

stan k

cos t

ros e

shoo k

leap t

cu t

sli d

len t

fitte d

stuc k

1 2 lit

13

14

15

hur t

ben t

burn t

Reflection How do you adjust your teaching to fit the diverse learning styles of the students?

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Lesson Four Listening     

Content from the textbook Listening activities (Engage yourself, Study time-1 (pp. 149-150) Materials required Audio file Lesson activities Engage yourself Set the scene for the listening task engaging the students in the picture-guessing activity. You can ask: What do you see in the given picture? Listen to their responses. (Possible answer: a car, driver, a friend, etc.) Again ask them how many of them have driven/travelled in a car. Share your experience if you have driven, or ever tried to drive a car. Ask them to answer these questions orally: a. Do you notice L plate on the taxi? b. What does this refer to? c. Who is learning to drive a car? Listen to their responses and add if needed. Suggested answers a. Yes, I notice the L plate on the taxi. b. L refers to learner. c. (Name) is learning to drive a car. Study time (1)  Ask the students to go through the task. Ask them to listen to the audio, and tick the correct alternatives.  Play the audio (or read the audio script aloud. You may play the audio another time if required.  Once they complete the task, correct their answers. Suggested answers a. Ireland b. car c. laugh d. pavement e. post office f. seventy three Extended activity Ask the students to share their experience of a tour. Reflection Teaching for listening comprehension in the classroom is a daring task for most teachers. It is mainly because of the nature of audio input- its tempo, accent and pronunciation. What difficulties have you faced in this respect? What attempts have you made to fit the listening activities for the students?

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Lesson Five Listening  

Content from the textbook Listening activities (Study time - 2, Follow-up activity) (p. 150-151) Materials required Audio file Lesson activities Study time (2)  Ask the students to read the questions given in 2 in pairs. Make sure that they understand what the questions demand for.  Play the audio and ask the students to find the answers in pairs.  Meanwhile, move around the class to make sure that the students‟ are engaged in the activity.  When they finish, arrange for a public sharing of the responses. Provide feedback if needed. Suggested answers a. Sony moved to Ireland with her family. b. Sony‟s father was feeling agitated when he was learning to drive a car. c. Sony‟s father became more and more uncomfortable because everywhere he drove, people looked at him and laughed. d. Sony‟s father stopped the car to ask a group of women who were standing on the pavement. e. No. He has never taken a driving test. Follow-up activity  Ask the students to work individually. Tell them that they are going to take notes of interesting things in the audio.  Now, play the audio (or read the script aloud), and ask the students to note down the interesting things in the conversation. You can play the audio more than once if necessary.  Then, ask them to write a paragraph based on the points taken as note while listening to the audio.  Invite sample students to share their response with the class. Provide feedback if necessary. Suggested answer Sony‟s father went to the post office to buy the driving license at the age of seventy three which is very interesting for me for several reasons. First reason is that I have never seen any person buying a driving license at an old age. Extended activity  Assign students to listen to or watch a mystery story from YouTube (www.youtube.com).  You can find it by typing „mystery story‟ in the search section. Stories are excellent techniques to teach past simple and past continuous tenses.  After the story watching activity, ask the students to rewrite the story in their own words.

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Reflection What opportunities do you avail of for the ELT professional improvement? Who and what helps you improve? What resources do you have access to? How do you collaborate with others? Lesson Six Speaking Content from the textbook  Speaking activities (Engage yourself, Time for speaking, Follow-up activity (p. 151) Materials required  Daily used materials Lesson activities Engage yourself  Ask the students to read the two conversations carefully.  Ask them to look at the structures of both the questions and answers.  Tell the class that a specific question word demands for a specific theme of response (e.g. who/ whose= person; when= time; where= place; why= reason, etc.). Make sure that students have got the idea of converting the clues into questions and answers.  Ask some structure-focused questions to some students: Who taught you English in grade nine? Where did you go on a New Year's Eve? When did you go to bed last night? Time for speaking (1)  Divide the class into pairs, and ask the students to carry out similar conversations as in „Engage yourself‟ above. Also tell them to switch the turn when one‟s first round of asking is over.  Give a model of how to do it. Then engage the students in simultaneous pair work activity. Monitor and provide necessary support as the pairs engage in the task. . Suggested responses a. a. who/help you in trouble/my mother A: Who helped you in trouble? B: My mother helped me in trouble. b. b. who/sing a song kun mandir ma janchhau yatri/ Rabin Sharma A: Who sang the song Kun mandir ma janchhau yatri? B: Rabin Sharma sang the song Kun mandir ma janchhau yatri. c. c. when/win chess match/in 2015 A: When did she win the chess match? B: She won the chess match in 2015. d. d. why/go to hospital yesterday/to treat my back pain A: Why did you go to hospital yesterday? B: I went to hospital yesterday to treat my back pain. Time for speaking (2)  Ask the students to work in pairs. Ask one sample pair to perform the conversation given in the example.  Then, ask them to read the clues and have a conversation between the pairs as in the example.  Move around the class, and assist the students as required. 258


Suggested answers a. Iron your clothes/no/be power cut A: Did you iron your clothes yesterday? B: No, I didn‟t iron my clothes yesterday as the power was cut. b. gthe tickets for concerts/no/book A: Did you get the tickets for concerts? B: No, I didn‟t get the tickets for concerts as all the tickets were booked. c. meet your friends at the airport/no/leave for hotel A: Did you meet your friends at the airport yesterday? B: No, I didn‟t meet my friends at the airport yesterday; they had left for the hotel. d. join the wedding party at the party/no/be over A: Did you join the Wedding Party yesterday? B: No, I didn‟t join the Wedding Party as it was over. Follow-up activity  Ask some probing questions to the students: Have you ever seen a child crying on the way? Did you try to know why that child was crying? What are child rights?  Invite responses from the students, and listen to them attentively.  Now, ask the students to think, and write a paragraph imagining that they did something to a six year child when they saw him/her crying on the road the previous day.  Encourage the students to be imaginative. Meanwhile, move around the class and support the students as required.  When they finish, ask them to share their answer with the class, and provide your feedback. Possible answer Yesterday, while I was returning from school, I saw a child crying on the road. She seemed to be about six years old. I looked around her, but nobody was there. I asked her why she was crying and where her mother was, but she did not answer. She kept on crying, so I thought of giving her some chocolates. I tried to give her but she remained indifferent. I stayed there for about an hour. Nobody came to pick her up. So, I decided to take her to the police office nearby. When I was about to take her, I heard a woman screaming behind me, “Leave my child.” She said, “Why are you taking my daughter?” I tried to tell her the whole story but she was not ready to listen to me. Extended activity Ask the students to write a reflective diary of a day. Reflection How do you balance fluency and accuracy in a speaking lesson ? Lesson Seven Writing Content from the textbook  Writing activities (Engage yourself, Time for writing) (p. 152) Materials required  A short video on how to write a picture story (source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JIw3BAYUcIU)  Pictures of a crow and a pitcher

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Lesson activities Engage yourself  Ask the students in pairs to observe the pictures and arrange them in order. The last picture at the bottom is the first one in order of the events. Then comes the one on the left bottom. After that the one on the top left comes, and the one on the top right is the last one. 

Ask them to describe the pictures orally: What is happening in each picture? Students might come up as follows:    

In the first picture, a man is driving a motorbike, and a micro-bus is coming from another direction. In the second picture, the bike bumps into the bus. In the third picture, some passengers from the micro-bus come out, and help the bike rider, who has fallen on the street. In the last picture, the injured bike rider is being taken to hospital in an ambulance.

If possible, present the short video on how to write a picture story. (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JIw3BAYUcIU). This video contains a scene for which students can imagine sentences. Just show a picture of a scene (e.g. a forest), and ask the students to imagine what happened there. Display the two pictures (a crow and a pitcher). Show an example that the pictures can be developed into a story. Focus on the basic parts of a story: title, setting, character, plot, conflict, ending, moral. Share the story based on the pictures as an example: Suggested answer Once there was a very thirsty crow exhausted of searching for water here and there. When the crow was about to give up, it saw a pitcher nearby the playground. It flew to the pitcher and found little water at the bottom of the pitcher. It tried hard to drink but all the attempts turned futile. The crow saw pebbles near-by and started to drop them one by one into the pitcher. It gradually raised the level of water in the pitcher. When the water level rose up to the neck of the pitcher, the crow drank the water and satisfied its thirst.

Time for writing  Divide the class into pairs. Ask them to follow similar steps as shown in the video or as explained by you to create a story out of the pictures.  As the pairs are engaged working and discussing, move around the class and monitor their progress.  Ask them to think of a good title and moral for the picture-based story. Invite some pairs to share their product with the class.  Arrange for a feedback and reflection session. You can share your version of the story in the end. Suggested answer There was a man who always used to ride a bike. One day he got an urgent call from his friend, so he set out from his home quickly. He was speeding his bike ignoring the turns on the road. Suddenly, he realized that there was a bend on the road and a van was also approaching very near from the opposite direction. He failed to control over the bike due to his over speed. He collided with the van and he was badly injured. Some people gathered at the spot, someone in the crowd called the ambulance and took him to hospital. 260


Lesson Eight Writing Content from the textbook  Writing activity: Follow-up (p. 152) Materials required  A short video on how to write a picture story (source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JIw3BAYUcIU)  Pictures showing a parrot, a forest and a river Lesson activities Follow-up activity  Begin the class revising the activities of the previous class.  Now, elicit from the students their understanding of creating a story following an outline. Listen to their responses.  Check their understanding and confidence; lead a discussion on how to write a story using an outline.  Divide the class into groups having four-six members in each.  Ask the groups to read the outline/clues in „Follow- up activity‟.  Lead a focused discussion on the elements of a story.  Display the pictures (a parrot, a forest and a river). Ask the students to attempt narrating the events based on the pictures and the clues in the book. Encourage them to speak up freely.  Write a starting sentence or two on the board: Long ago, a little grey parrot lived in a green forest. She was a happy bird, and loved to fly. One day, a dark storm hovered over the forest. It was a stormy time. There was a big thunder and lightning. The storm uprooted an old dead tree. Soon the forest caught a fire………  Ask the groups to continue from the starter. Keep them reminding of the elements of a story. Meanwhile monitor the engagement of students, and assist those who need help.  When the task is over, invite some groups to present their stories. Provide constructive feedback on their writing. Ask the students as well to comment on their friends‟ stories. Sample story A Brave Little Parrot Long ago, a little grey parrot lived in a green forest. She was a happy bird, and loved to fly. One day, a dark storm hovered over the forest. It was a stormy time. There was a big thunder and lightning. The lightning struck an old dead tree. Soon the forest caught fire. The parrot, smelling smoke, flapped her wings and rose up. As she flew, she cried out, “Fire! Fire! Run! Run to the river!”. She flew to the river and dipped her body and wings in the cool water. Then she flew back over the raging fire. Suddenly an eagle appeared and said “Stop, little parrot! Turn back before it‟s too late. Turn back and save yourself, lest you will fall into the flames!” But the little parrot only panted, “I don‟t need such advice. All I need is help!” And she flew. Seeing the parrot's deed, the eagle realized how great the parrot‟s opinion was, so he also joined in. After a while, all the birds joined the parrot and the eagle. They extinguished the forest fire. All the creatures praised the parrot and other birds for their great patience and heroic deed. Moral: Nothing is impossible to accomplish if you devote yourself to work.

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Extended activity Ask the students to write a story which they have heard or read recently. Reflection In what ways are you supporting the struggling learners, and challenging the clearly successful ones? How do you make a balance while teaching a writing lesson, such as „story writing‟? Lesson Nine Project Work and Fun Corner Content from the textbook  Project work and Fun corner (p. 153) Materials required  Daily used materials Lesson activities Project Work  Ask the students to prepare a set of questionnaire in order to collect information about the academic status of people in their locality.  Prepare the students for the project work, and clarify the task. This project work demands students to carry out a research activity to collect data about the academic status of people in their locality for two consecutive years: 2015 and 2016. For this they have to visit the concerned local offices, authorities and households; interview with the people and collect data. The variables for the data range from the number of people who are under SLC to PhD holders. After the collection of data, they have to process it mathematically, and of course, using descriptive methods, such as pie charts and bar diagrams. Finally, they have to describe the data and give a presentation on their findings.   

Divide the students into groups. Assign about a week‟s time to complete this project work activity. Once they have collected the required data, ask them to process them and write a plain description of their findings and arrange for the presentation session. You can invite audience from other classes as well, or presentations can be made in the assembly. Congratulate the students on their hard work. Sample answer Project work Academic Status of People in my Locality Year Under SLC Intermediate Bachelor's Master's M. Ph.D. SLC degree degree Phil. 2015 5 14 10 8 2 0 1 2016 5 17 12 10 3 1 1 This table presents information about the academic status of people in our locality. It presents figures about the different levels of qualification people had in the years 2015 and 2016. Seven types of educational level are presented here: Under SLC, SLC, Intermediate, Bachelor, Master, M. Phil. and Ph.D. According to the table, in the year 2015, there were five people having Under SLC level education. In the same year, there were fourteen people with SLC, ten people with Intermediate, eight people with Bachelor's degree and two people with Master's degree of qualification. There were no one having M. Phil. degree; but there was one person holding Ph. D. degree. The situation was similar in the year 2016 as well. There were five, seventeen, twelve, ten and three people having Under SLC, SLC, Intermediate, Bachelor's degree and Master's degree level of 262 education, respectively. That year, one person had M. Phil. degree, and the number of people with Ph. D. degree was also similar to that of last year, i.e. one. The data shows that educational status of people in our community is good.


Fun corner  Sing the song aloud, and ask the students to listen to you carefully.  Ask the students to follow you to sing the song.  Ask the students to sing the song together.  Ask the students to sing the song in their own.  Provide a chance to sing the song in small groups and individually.  Lead an open discussion on the way passive voice is formed in English (You can present some example sentences on the board as well). Discuss what the specific words/ forms used in the song mean, e.g. inversion (change), Pp (past participle), insertion (adding in the middle), be verb (is/am/are/was/were/be/been/being) Reflection How can project-based learning be made a feature of mainstream language classroom? What are the advantages of a project based-learning ? What challenges does it pose? What does your experience suggest?

Part 3: Additional Resources 1. Video on story writing using an outline https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R1ahI0K22Hs 2. A story about A Brave Parrot (source:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uPnY9_l8AEw) 3. How to change active voice into passive Tense

Active voice Passive voice

Simple present keep

is kept

Present continuous

is keeping

is being kept

Simple past

kept

was kept

Past continuous

was keeping

was being kept

Present perfect have kept

have been kept

Past perfect

had been kept

had kept

Active sentence

Passive equivalent The butter is kept in the I keep the butter in the fridge. fridge. John is keeping my house My house is being kept tidy. tidy. Mary kept her schedule Mary's schedule was kept meticulously. meticulously. The theater was keeping a A seat was being kept for seat for you. you. I have kept all your old All your old letters have letters. been kept. He had kept up his training His training regimen had regimen for a month. been kept up for a month. Mark will keep the focus. The focus will be kept. If you told me, I would keep If you told me, your secret your secret. would be kept. I would have kept your Your bicycle would have bicycle here if you had left it been kept here if you had with me. left it with me.

Simple Future will keep Conditional would keep Present

will be kept

Conditional Past

would have kept

would have been kept

to keep

to be kept

She wants to keep the book.

to have kept

to have been kept

Judy was happy to have kept The puppy was happy to the puppy. have been kept.

Present Infinitive Perfect Infinitive

would be kept

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The book wants to be kept.


Tense Present Participle & Gerund Perfect Participle

Active voice Passive voice

Active sentence

Passive equivalent

keeping

being kept

I have a feeling that you may I have a feeling that a secret be keeping a secret. may be being kept.

having kept

having been kept

Having kept the bird in a cage The bird, having been kept for so long, Jade wasn't sure it in a cage for so long, might could survive in the wild. not survive in the wild.

4. Script of the audio You will hear a conversation between two friends, Sony and Lila. Sony: Hello, Lila. Lila:Hi, Sony. Sony: Did I ever tell you about the … time that I moved to Ireland with my family? Lila: No. Sony: Well, my father was still … learning to drive a car at the time … er … so he wasn‟t feeling too confident …[mm] when the … the ferry docked in Belfast and the car was unloaded. Lila: Then? Sony: Anyway, we set off and … er… haha ... he became more and more uncomfortable because … well, what happened was … er … everywhere we went, people started to point at the car and laugh. Well, my dad was getting more and more agitated really. Lila: Why? Sony: You can guess … how he felt, trying to drive in a … in a strange city when he … wasn‟t too sure what he was doing or … or where he was going … [mm] or indeed why everyone was laughing at him. He wanted to know what the fuss was all about, so … eventually he stopped the car … er … got out and spoke to a group of women who were standing on the pavement and asked them just what was so amusing. Lila: In fact, what was it? Sony: Well, the explanation was really quite simple … um … at that time they didn‟t have a… a driving test in Ireland.[Oh!] So no one was used to seeing L plates … [haha] stuck all over a car- foreigners and their … and their funny ways, you see.[yah … yeah] So, well, to cut a long story short, my dad went straight down to the post office and bought himself a driving license. Lila: Bought a driving license? Sony: Yes. I mean you could just pay the money over the counter and walk away with a license. Lila: Good heavens! Sony: And … er… he never has taken a test- he‟s seventy-three now… [Mm] he‟s still happily driving his car. [Yeah] Mind you, he‟s never … he‟s never been a very good driver! Lila: Haha. Sony: Haha.

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UNIT FOURTEEN U TALKING ABOUT THE PAST (II): INTERRUPTED CONTINUOUS ACTIONS

Part 1: Unit Outline Curriculum reference: Language function no. 15 under scope and sequence Things to teach Language function and forms/exponents: Talking about the past  Past simple He completed his homework an hour ago. She left for Pokhara yesterday.  Past continuous We were watching TV by this time yesterday. When the lights went off, I was doing my homework. Reading: Reunion of the Family  Reading comprehension followed by extended activities  Text based vocabulary items Grammar: Use of past simple and past continuous tense forms of verb Listening: A conversation on past activities  Listening comprehension followed by extended activities Speaking: Activities that focus on the use of past simple and past continuous forms of verbs.  Describing the picture using past simple and continuous tenses.  Completing the table and narrating the past events  Narrating a memoir about the recent travel to an interesting place. Writing: A biography  Writing a biography of Swar Samrat Narayan Gopal using the given hints.  Collecting the information of one‟s role model and writing a biography on the basis of information collected. Content themes/topics  Reunion of the family  Travel memoir  Biography of Swar Samrat Narayan Gopal  Biography of students‟ role model Expected achievements of the students By the end of this unit, the students will have:  guessed the meaning of the unfamiliar words from the context.  completed the comprehension activities of the given reading text.  prepared a list of difficult words from the reading text and used them in sentences of their own. 265


     

used the past simple and past continuous tense forms of verbs correctly in a conversation. completed the comprehension activities after listening to the conversation. narrated the past activities of their family members. written their travel memoir. written biographies of swar samrat narayan gopal and their role model. written a description of a place of historical/natural significance.

Integrated soft skills  Diverse communication and collaboration  Problem solving skills  Creative thinking skills Teaching Resources  Flash cards of the words from 'Vocabulary in use' from the text 'Reunion of the Family'.  A chart showing the use of past simple and past continuous tense forms of verbs  Audio file of the assigned listening script. Estimated periods: 7

Part 2: Learning Facilitation Process Lesson One Reading Content from the textbook  Reading activities (Engage yourself, Study time: Reading (Reunion of the Family) (pp. 154) Materials required  The reading text  Flash cards of the words from 'Vocabulary in use' and their meanings Lesson activities Engage yourself  Before asking the students to look at the given picture, ask them the following questions: - How many members are there in your family? - Who is the senior member in the family? Listen to their answers. Encourage them to speak.  Now group the students, and ask them to go through the set of questions given below the picture. Make sure that the students understand each questions.  Thereafter, ask the students to look at the given picture carefully and answer these questions from the textbook. a. How many persons can you see in the picture? b. Do you have grandma? c. Does she love you?  Ask each group to give answers. Suggested answers a. There are three persons in the picture (Answers to b and c may vary) b. No, I don‟t. / Yes, I do. 266


c. Yes, she used to. /Yes, she does. Additional activities Study time: Reading I (Reunion of the family p. 154 and 155)  Write the following questions on the board, and then ask the students to read the text on pages 154 and 155 quickly but carefully to find out the answer to the questions. Check the students‟ answers. a. Why was Dinesh confused? b. Why did Dinesh go into his room when his mother looked at him? c. Who is a good story teller? d. Who is Binita? e. Why did Pabitra leave home and come back again? Suggested answers (Accept any other relevant answers.) a. Dinesh was confused because he saw his grandma packing so many bags. b. Dinesh went into his room when his mother stared at him because he was scared of his mother when she used to be in a serious mood. c. Grandma is a good story teller. d. She is a housekeeper in Dinesh’s house. e. She left home because she felt that she was not paid attention to, and she came back again because of her love for her grandson. Study time: Reading II (Reunion of the family Pp. 156 and 157)  Write the following statements on the board, and then ask the students to read the text on pages 156 and 157 quickly but carefully to find out whether the statements are true or false. If false, correct it/them. a. Naani’s own family was a happy family. b. Dinesh’s father and mother used to be busy during the day. c. Grandma remained completely out of touch from Dinesh after she left home. d. Jayaram was upset with Dinesh’s final exam’s results. e. Dinesh did not like the gift his parents had bought for him. f. When adults behave like children, God teaches them a lesson.  While the students are reading, move around the class and assist them.  Check the students‟ answers. Suggested answers: a. false b. true c. false d. false e. true f. false Note: Tell the students that the next lesson would be finding the word meanings so each one should bring his/her dictionary in the class. Reflection Did the students enjoy the activities done in this lesson? How did your class go on the whole? Write a reflection of it in few sentences. Lesson Two Reading (contd.) Content from the textbook  Vocabulary in use (157) Materials required  The reading text  Flash cards of the words from 'Vocabulary in use' and their meanings 267


Lesson activities Vocabulary in use (i)  Matching words/phrases from the text to their meanings is a very useful exercise for teaching vocabulary. Divide the students into groups. Ask them to go through the meanings under the heading “Vocabulary in use” (p. 157) carefully.  Now ask them to write the word/phrase in bold (yelled, staring, scared, vanished, passed away, heed and cuddled) in the text next to the correct meanings. Encourage them to guess the meaning from the context.  When the students do the activity, move around the class to see that each member in the group is engaged. If any group finds difficulty, help it get the word. Suggested answers a. looking at something/somebody for a long time- staring b. shouted- yelled c. disappeared- vanished d. died- passed away e. attention- heed f. held each other tightly- cuddled g. afraid- scared Vocabulary in use (ii)  Ask the students to underline unfamiliar words, other than the ones in bold, in the reading text “Reunion of the family”.  Now ask them to copy these words in their exercise book, and then ask them to write the meaning against each word consulting a dictionary.  After they write the meanings of the words, ask them to use each of the word into meaningful/sensible sentence of their own. One example has been given in the activity. List of words (students can write other than the ones given here) 1. stressed: tense / too anxious and too tired to be able to relax - He was feeling very stressed and tired. 2. squeezed: embraced / pressed someone tightly - Mother squeezed her little daughter against her breast and smiled at her. 3. anxious: feeling worried - Parents are naturally anxious for their children. 4. caressing: patting / touching something/somebody gently - Mother was gently caressing her child‟s cheek. 5. wrinkled: crumpled - I gently kissed my grandmother‟s wrinkled face. 6. fascinating: extremely charming/attractive - Our trip to Pokhara was absolute fascinating. 7. innocent: not guilty / not have done something wrong - They have imprisoned an innocent man. 8. envied: be jealous of - She has always envied my success. 9. quick-tempered: likely to become angry very quickly - Mr. Doran is a quicktempered man. 10. pay attention: listen- I always pay attention to teacher when in class. 11. nuisance: annoyance/trouble - I don‟t want to be a nuisance so tell me if you want to be alone. 12. gestured: signaled/motioned - The teacher gestured for the students to come in. 13. furious: violent/very angry - She was absolutely furious at having been deceived. 268


14. desperately: badly - They desperately wanted a child. 15. strange: unusual/odd/ peculiar - There was something strange about her eyes. 16. grumble: complain/protest - She always grumbles to me about how badly she is treated at work. Extended activity Ask the students to make meaningful sentence of their own using each of these word/phrase. a. yell b. stare c. scare d. vanish e. pass away f. heed g. cuddle Reflection Have the students enjoyed doing the activities? What difficulties have you faced while doing these activities? What do you think would be a better way to do such kind of activities in the class? Make a note of it. Lesson Three Reading (contd.) Content from the textbook  Reading comprehension (Reunion of the Family) and Follow up activity (p. 154) Required materials  The reading text Lesson activities Reading comprehension (i)  By this time the students have already read the story several times, and have learned the meanings of the difficult words as well.  Now ask the students to read the story once again, and answer the questions given under the exercise “Reading comprehension”.  Ask each student to do the work on his own in the class. Move around the class while the students are working.  Assist the students who find difficulty to answer the questions. Suggested answers: (Accept any other correct answers.) a. Pabitra, Dinesh‟s grandma, was leaving the house. b. There were five members in his family. They were Jayaram himself; his mother, Pabitra; his wife, Junakiri; his son, Khanchuu and the housekeeper, Naani. c. Dinesh‟s parents realised that their son was not happy at all when Dinesh didn‟t show any interest at the tablet, which was brought for him as a gift. d. Yes, we do have a housekeeper like Naani at our home. All the family members in our house treat her like the member of the house, and all of us help her with her work. e. Pabitra left the house because some misunderstanding arose between her and her son and daughter-in-law. f. When they saw the reaction of both grandma and grandson when they met after some time, they realized how badly they had missed each other. This made Naani, Jayaram and Junakiri‟s eyes filled with the tears of happiness. g. Dinesh was able to unite his family by showing his intense desire to be with his grandma. h. When adults sometimes behave like children, God uses little ones to teach them a lesson. Reading comprehension (ii)  Tell the students that the given sentences have been taken out from the reading text (Reunion of the family), but they are not in the correct order. 269


Pair up the students, and ask them to arrange the sentences in the order as they appear in the text. Correct order: (g, c, d, b, a, e, f) 1. Dinesh asked his grandma where she was going. 2. Pabitra continued packing her things. 3. She would quickly change the topic and start talking about something else. 4. Jayaram congratulated his son for being the second in the class. 5. There was a tablet on the table in his room. 6. Junakiri took a half day leave from her office to welcome her mother-in-law at home. 7. As he talked about Kanchhu, she hurried to come home back. Follow-up activity  This activity can be set as homework.  Tell the students that a paragraph must have the following: o A topic o A topic sentence (topic + controlling idea) o Supporting sentences o Conclusion Specimen of a Paragraph A paragraph is a group of sentences about one topic. It contains a topic sentence, supporting details and sometimes a concluding sentence. The sentences follow one another from the beginning to the end of the paragraph is usually part of a longer piece of writing, such as a letter or essay The topic sentence The topic sentence is usually the first sentence of the paragraph. It states the main idea of the paragraph. A good topic sentence tells the reader exactly what the rest of the paragraph will be about

The supporting sentences The supporting sentences are the middle sentences of the paragraph. They provide details such as explanations or examples that expand on or support the topic sentence supporting sentences are sometimes connected by transition words or phrases. The concluding sentence A concluding sentence is sometimes used in longer paragraphs to sum up the idea presented. It expresses the same idea as the topic sentence but in different words. It can start with a transition such as clearly or in conclusion.

Terry Fox was a Canadian who suffered from bone cancer and raised awareness for cancer research by trying to run across Canada. He attracted a lot of attention by running the distance of a marathon daily on one prosthetic leg. He also challenged each Canadian citizen to contribute one dollar for cancer research. Unfortunately, Fox was forced to end his run near Thunder Bay because of health complications. The CTV network organized a nation-wide run to continue Fox’s fundraising efforts. Clearly, Terry Fox had an impact on both cancer research and the millions of Canadians who participate in the Terry Fox Run every year.

(source: http://settlementatwork.org/lincdocs/linc5-7/academic.skills)

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Ask the students to write a similar paragraph about their grandmother. Tell them they can write about:  Her physical appearance  Her age  What she likes doing  How much you love her, etc. There may be some students in the class who might not have seen their grandmothers, so ask them to find about her from their parents, and write a paragraph on „My Grandmother‟.

Sample answer My Grandmother My grandmother is quite an old lady. She has already crossed sixty. Her years have now bent her back a little but have not affected her activities. She is tall and thin. She is gray haired and her humble and affectionate face is full of wrinkles. Her eye-sight, however, is quite good and she can read without spectacles. Even at this age, she is very active and hard-working. At times, we are surprised at her alertness. She supervises all-important jobs in the family. Some she does herself. I am very fond of her, and I love her very much. Extended activity Ask the students to write a paragraph about their grandfather or about the person in the family whom they admire most. Reflection Was the given format and the specimen for paragraph writing helpful? Have the students written the paragraph following the format? Lesson Four Grammar Content from the textbook  Engage yourself, Study time (pp.159) Materials required  A chart showing different forms of the verbs required to do the activity, such asbe, do, have, drive, make, throw, eat and so on Verb 1 Verb 2 Verb 3 Verb 4 Verb 5 be was, were been being is, am do

did

done

doing

does

have

had

had

having

has

drive

drove

driven

driving

drives

make

made

made

making

makes

throw

threw

thrown

throwing

throws

eat

ate

eaten

eating

eats

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Lesson activities Engage yourself  Explain the students about the use of past simple and past continuous tense forms of the verbs.  Then ask the students to go through the given text, and find out how past simple and past continuous tenses are used. Time for grammar (1)  Now ask the students to read the story under “Time for grammar (p. 159)” and complete it by filling in the blank spaces with the correct form of the verbs in the brackets. Suggested answer Yesterday Bikash was driving his car when he saw a calf sitting in the middle of the street. The calf was watching the car. He stopped his car and got out of it. As he was getting out, the calf ran away. He went back to his car. When he got into the car, the calf appeared and sat down on the road. He started the engine but the calf did not move. He jumped out of the car and shouted at the calf. The calf chased him instead of moving away from him. Bikash found green maize and threw it at the calf. The calf was happy and started to munch it. While the calf was eating the maize, he drove his car away. Time for grammar (2)  This activity is also similar to the one done above.  Ask the students to complete the sentences with the past simple or past continuous form of the verbs in the brackets. One has been done for them. Suggested answers a. A: What was that terrible noise last night? B: Sorry, it was my brother. He was practising for a singing competition. b. A: How was the game? B: Terrible! We lost by 6-0. c. Do you like my cell phone? My friend gave it to me for my birthday. d. My son was sleeping when I left for work this morning. e. A: What happened to you? Did you hurt yourself? B: Yes! When I was playing football. Follow-up activity  This activity can be set as homework.  Ask the students to write a paragraph describing what they did yesterday.  Explain the ways on how to write a good paragraph once again.  After the students write, ask them to share their work with friends. Specimen paragraph How I Spent my Yesterday! Just like the saying goes “Yesterdays are memories”, the time once gone is gone. It is how well we spend time and what productive work we could do that counts each day and marks a great difference in our yesterdays. In fact, yesterdays are guidelines for our tomorrows. To make this clearer, I could explain how I spent my yesterday. I woke up at six in the morning, brushed my teeth, took a shower, got myself fresh and came to the breakfast table along with my parents. Mom had already made a lovely breakfast, and we all enjoyed it. Since yesterday was a holiday, I thought I would 272


spend time with my friends, and I went over to my friend‟s place after breakfast. There we played a lot and enjoyed, and some of his other friends also joined us later for playing. After some time I left for home. Back at home, the lunch was ready. I had my lunch and then sat down to watch a movie on TV. By the time the movie was over, mom had prepared some light snacks. After having the snacks, I sat down to do my homework and did some studies that I had to complete. When I was done with my work, it was dinner time. After dinner, I wished my parents goodnight and had a wonderful sleep. When the day is good, it feels like being blessed and great. Extended activity Ask the students to write a paragraph on how they spent their summer/winter vacation. Reflection What were the strengths/weaknesses in today‟s lesson? What strategies do you want to continue or discontinue? Write down in four lines. Lesson Five Listening Content from the textbook  Listening activities (Engage yourself, Study time, Follow-up activity) (pp.160-161) Materials required  Audio file or audio-script containing the causes and effects of smoking  Pictures showing different adventurous sports and expedition Engage yourself  Ask the students to look at the given pictures carefully.

 Now ask them to guess the answers to the questions given. Questions a. What can you see in the pictures? b.Have you ever gone rafting? c. How far is Charaudi from Kathmandu?  Write their answers on the board. Don‟t comment on the guesses.  Play the audio or read the script. Ask them to check if their guesses were correct.  Play the audio or read the script again so that they can correct their answers. Suggested answers a. We can see people enjoying some adventurous sports, such as rafting, mountain climbing, bunjee jumping and para gliding. b. Yes, I have. /No, I haven‟t c. It‟s three hour ride/drive from Kathmandu. Study time (1)  Tell the students to go through the sentences carefully. Make sure that they understand each of the sentences. 273


 Now ask them to listen to the conversation, and write „True‟ against the correct statements and „False‟ against the wrong ones.  Play the audio or read the script once again. Ask them to listen to the audio carefully, and do the task.  You can play the audio more than once.  After they finish, play the audio or read the script again, and make them check their answers. Suggested answers a. false

b. false

c. true

d. true

e. false

Study time (2)  Tell the students that they will tick (√) the correct answer while listening the text.  Tell the students to go through the questions and the answer options for each carefully. Make sure that they understand what they are supposed to do.  Now ask them to listen to the conversation, and tick (√) the correct answer. Suggested answers a. three-hour drive b. 10 c. the guide d. 10.30 am e. terrible Follow-up activity  Pair up the students, and ask them to create a conversation between them about rafting or swimming or any other adventurous trip.  Move around the class while they are working. Assist the pair that needs your help.  Once they finish writing the conversation, ask them to exchange their exercise book with another pair and give and receive feedback on their writing. Sample conversation A: Have you taken any adventurous trip? B: Yes, I have gone for a rafting. A: Oh really! Which river did you go to? B: We went to the Trishuli River. A: Who did you go with? B: I went with my cousins who came to visit us. A: When did you? B: Last Saturday. A: Did you enjoy rafting? B: Oh, Yes. We had a very good time. Extended activity Pair up the students, and ask them to create a conversation between them about their visit to any place of historical or religious significance in their village/town/country. Reflection How did the lesson go? Are you satisfied with the way the lesson go today? Any improvement needed?

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Lesson Six Speaking Content from the textbook  Speaking activities (Engage yourself, Time for speaking, Follow-up activity) (p.161162) Materials required  Picture showing different members of a family engaged in one or the other work. Lesson activities Engage yourself  Tell the students that the given picture is the room of Mr. Thapa in which his wife, children and their pet dog spend most of the time.  Then tell them that one day after his work when he came home he saw each member of the house doing one or the other thing.  Now ask the students to look at the given picture carefully, and say what was happening in Mr. Thapa‟s room when he arrived home. Tell them to describe using past continuous tense.  You can ask the students to give their answer in turn.

Possible answer When Mr. Thapa arrived home from work, he saw that his family members were doing one or the other thing. His wife was reading a newspaper, his children were playing a game on the carom board, and his pet dog was chewing a piece of bone. Time for speaking (1)  Ask the students to remember the activities that his/her family members were busy in when s/he reached home yesterday.  Now ask the students to fill in the table with the activity that each member was doing. Suggested answers: (Answers may vary) Members’ Activities Members Activities grandfather listening to the radio grandmother watching television mother cooking food in the kitchen father feeding the cattle sister doing her homework brother playing with his toy car aunt helping mother in the kitchen uncle helping sister with her homework 275


After they have filled in the table, ask each of them to use the content in the table and tell the class what his/her family members were doing when he/she reached home yesterday. Ask them to make sentences as shown in the example. Example: Bhusan: When I reached home, my mother was cooking food in the kitchen. Suggested answer Student A: When I reached home, my grandfather was listening to the radio. Student B: When I reached home, my grandmother was watching television. Student C: When I reached home, my father was feeding the cattle. Student D: When I reached home, my sister was doing her homework. Student E: When I reached home, my brother was playing with his toy car. Student F: When I reached home, my aunt was helping mother in the kitchen. Student G: When I reached home, my uncle was helping my sister with her homework. Time for speaking (2)  This is a very creative activity. The students will enjoy doing this.  First write the sentence “Far away in the village there lived a poor man.” on the board.  Now tell the students that you will speak out one more relevant sentence to it, and then one by one the students will go on adding similar sentences so as to make a beautiful story. Don‟t allow them to write. They need to speak out the sentences in past simple and past continuous tense only.  Here we go The first sentence on the board: Far away in the village there lived a poor man.

 

You: One day he fell ill. Student A: He had no money to buy the medicine. Student B: He asked his neighbour to lend him some money. Student C: His neighbour was a stingy man. Student D: He did not give him money. Student E: The old man‟s health was getting worse. Student F: ………… Carry on until the story ends. After the story ends, ask the students to go through the instruction of Ex. 2 under time for speaking (p.162) and complete the story.

Follow-up activity  Ask the students to follow the example to write a memoir about their recent travel to an interesting place.  Also tell them that they will have to read out their memoir to the class the next day. Sample An Unforgettable trip My visit to Pokhara last year was unforgettable. I went there with my friends. We were five altogether. We reached there in the evening and booked a hotel at the lakeside. After we got ourselves freshened up, we left the hotel for an evening walk. We all were amazed to see the surrounding at that hour of the day. There were bright lights everywhere and the tourists were seen moving here and there. We walked past the shops and the restaurants for some time. We wanted to spend some more time, but since it was dinner 276


time we returned to our hotel. After we had our dinner we planned for the next day‟s trip and went to bed. The next day was full of fun. We woke up very early in the morning and left for Sarangkot to view the sunrise. The scenic view at the time of sunrise was mesmerizing. After spending some time there, we left for Fewa Lake. On reaching the lake, we took a boat to Tal Barahi Temple. Boating on the lake to reach the temple and back was memorable. We had our breakfast at a street hotel nearby the lake, and then left for the Davi‟s falls. We had some nice moments there. We had our lunch at a hotel nearby and then went to the Mahendra cave. We all were eager to go into the cave. We bought the tickets and got in. It was really exciting. We didn‟t spend much time there as we were getting late. We returned back to the hotel. We talked about the day‟s trip until dinner time. There were so many places to visit in Pokhara, but we were short of time. After having our dinner, we went to our room to take rest. As we all were tired and had to return home the next day, we went straight to bed. The next morning, after having our breakfast we got into the bus and left for home. The places we visited in Pokhara and the time we spent together are still fresh in my mind. Extended activity Ask the students to write a story of their own beginning with, “Once upon a time in a certain village lived a poor man and his wife………………, and ending with, “then they lived their lives happily ever after.” Reflection How actively did the students participate? In which activity were they more active? Do you want to continue it in future? Lesson Seven Writing Content from the textbook  Writing activities (Engage yourself, Time for writing, Follow-up activity (p.163) Materials required  Usual classroom materials Lesson activities Engage yourself  Tell the students that a biography is a written account of the series of events that make up a person's life. It includes the basic details of a person, such as,  Date and place of birth  Family information  Lifetime accomplishments  Major events of life  Effects/impact on society, historical significance  Date and place of death (if dead)  Ask the students to go through the biography of Ernest Hemingway given in the textbook, and check if the above details are included or not.  Explain to the students to adopt the procedures as shown in the specimen below so that they can write a good biography.

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Specimen of a biography The writer includes the name of the person he or she is writing about. The writer explains whom the biography is about and what the person is known for.

The writer uses Jemison’s education as an example to show how she worked hard to achieve her goals.

Mae Jemison: Space Star Have you ever dreamed of flying freely through outer space, surrounded by a sea of stars? Mae Jemison fulfilled that dream. On September 12, 1992, aboard the spaceship Endeavour, she became the first African-American woman to blast into the outer space. This wasn’t the only time, however, that Jemison had reached for the stars and realized her dreams. Jemison was born on October 17, 1956, in Decatur, Alabama, but she grew up in Chicago, Illinois. There weren’t many well-known African-American female role models while Jemison was growing up, but she didn’t let that stop her from achieving her goals. She was especially interested in anthropology, archaeology and astronomy. Luckily, her parents encouraged those interests. That encouragement drove her to excel. She graduated from high school at 16! Then she earned degrees in chemical engineering and African- American studies at Stanford University. Later, she graduated from Cornell University’s medical school. No challenge was too great for Jemison to take on. Jemison’s accomplishments did not end there. In 1981, she joined NASA’s space program in Houston, Texas. And in 1988, Jemison realized her biggest dream: She finally became an astronaut just four years later, she was named science mission specialist (another NASA first) on an Endeavour flight.

The conclusion lets the reader know why Jemison is an important person to learn about.

The first sentence grabs the reader’s attention with a question.

The writer provides information about Jemison’s childhood.

The writer gives examples of Jemison’s accomplishments.

Today, Jemison encourages young people – especially women and girls – to study the sciences. Her life example teaches us to follow our dreams, no matter how great.

(Source: http://www.timeforkids.com/files/2011-07/biosampler.pdf)

Time for writing  Tell the students to go through the given hints very carefully.  Now ask them to write a biography of Swar Samrat, Narayan Gopal Guruvacharya using the hints. After they finish, collect their work for marking.  Mark their work and provide them feedback.

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Sample biography Narayan Gopal Guruvacharya Narayan Gopal Guruvacharya is the most prominent and popular singer and composer in the history of Nepali music. He is popularly referred to as "Swar Samrat" (Emperor of Voice) in Nepali music. He is also known as “Tragedy King.” He was born on October 4, 1939 to a Newar family in Kathmandu. His father was Asha Gopal Guruvacharya and mother was Ram Devi Guruvacharya. He had six brothers and four sisters. He married Pemala Lama in 1971. He has sung over 500 songs for films, operas, dramas and others. Most of his songs are melodies. It is said that he was very selective about which songs he sang. Some of his most popular songs include Euta manchey ko mayaley kati, Yo samjhiney man cha, Kehi mitho baata gara and several others. Narayan Gopal, who has enthralled millions of listeners by his immortal melodies has been awarded several national honors. He received the Radio Nepal Best Singer Award in 1967, Gorkha Dakshin Bahu IV in 1976, Indra Rajya Laxmi Award in 1983, Chhinalata Award for vocals in 1987, Trishakti Patta third (awarded posthumously) in 1990 and many more. In his singing career, he sang for eighteen movies and recorded over one hundred and fifty-seven songs. On December 5, 1990, at the age of 51, he died from complications of diabetes in Bir Hospital, Kathmandu. Extended activity Ask the students to write a biography of a popular sportsman/actor/politician/writer of Nepal. Reflection In your personal diary, make a list of five points that you did to your satisfaction today. Lesson Eight Writing (contd.), Project Work and Fun Corner Content from the textbook  Follow-up activity, Project work, Fun corner (p.163-164) Materials required  Usual classroom materials Lesson activities Follow-up activity  Ask the students to collect information about their role model or the person they admire the most.  Now ask them to write the biography in line with the steps/procedures taught to them.  Get the students to write the biography in the class so that you can assist them in their work when they come across any difficulty.  When they finish, ask them to go through their writing and revise and edit it. Move around the class and assist them in this process.  Finally ask them to prepare the final version of their writing.  Collect their work for marking, mark it and provide feedback.

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Project work  Ask the students to watch any English movie or video, and to prepare an attractive and colourful poster about the movie or video representing the major events. Tips to design a movie poster Part 1 – STYLE When you set out to design your movie poster, you need to first decide what kind of movie your poster is going to represent. You should try to convey the general mood of your film to its design. For example, if you work on an action or horror movie poster, you should create an intense or dark atmosphere – if it‟s a comedy, it would be better to choose a funny and light style. Your poster should be striking, memorable and focused on a single, clear message. Always make sure you think about your target audience! Part 2 – TEXT The next thing to focus on is the text. Apart from the movie title, your film poster must also contain a striking sentence or branding slogan that the conveys the movie‟s message, the name of the director, names of main actors or characters, the release date. If you need to emphasize a presence of someone famous in your movie, or highlight some other particular aspect of the film, you may write it on your poster Part 3 – IMAGES The most difficult step when you design your movie poster is choosing images. Have any good pictures of your actors or movie scenes.

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Specimen of movie posters A movie poster by Laurent Durieux

 

A movie poster by Grzegorz Domaradzki

If you‟d like more information on how to design your movie poster, reach out <http://www.howdesign.com/design-business/design-news/26-great-movie-posters/> Ask the students to submit their works in a week time. When they submit, mark their works, give feedback, and put them on display.

Extended activity Ask the students to design a poster of a recently released Nepali movie. Reflection How did the lesson go? Did the students write the biography of the person they admire most? Were you satisfied with it? Write a journal reflecting your teaching of this lesson. Fun corner  Ask the students to answer the given riddles.  Assist them as required. a. If you look at the mirror on my face, you won‟t find thirteen any place. Who am I? b. What room can no one enter? c. What is it that‟s always coming but never arrives? d. What kind of tree can you carry in a hand? e. Feed me and I live, yet give me a drink and I die. Who am I? (Source: brainden.com/logic-riddles.htm) 281


Answers of the riddles a. A Clock b. Mushroom c. Tomorrow d. Palm e. Fire

Part 3: Additional Resources 1. Some useful sites http://www.howdesign.com/design-business/design-news/26-great-movie-posters/ https://blog.hubspot.com/marketing/professional-bio-examples https://www.themuse.com/advice/the-professional-bio-template-that-makes-everyonesound-accomplished http://www.wikihow.com/Write-a-Personal-Bio 2. Script of the audio You will hear a conversation between Bikash and Roshani. Roshani: Hello Bikash! Long time no see. Where have you been? Bikash: Hi Roshani. Yea, we've been out of touch. I was on a holiday and I enjoyed rafting this time. Have you ever gone rafting? Roshani: Oh , yes! Bikash: Tell me about it. Roshani: I can never forget the time I first went, actually. Um…I set off to Charaudi, 3 hours drive from Kathmandu. Bikash: When? Roshani: 3 July, 2015. Bikash: Oh, what did you do? Roshani: As soon as our 10 members‟ team arrived at Charaudi, a guide came and briefed us about rafting. Bikash: Then? Roshani: We started rafting at 10:30. Scenic valleys and impressive gorges, exhilarating rapids and easier sections as well as the right amount of time made it the perfect trip. But…. Bikash: Oh! what hap…what happened next? Roshani: I couldn‟t swim actually. And I didn‟t know what to do…um…as far as I remember, I remember, I …I started shouting and whistling when we were drowning in the whirlpool. Bikash: How did you feel? Roshani: Oh terrible! And I‟d never been rafting before! Luckily the guide shifted us gently and cleverly. Bikash: Yes, yes. Roshani: And …er… Bikash: What would you have done if there hadn‟t been anyone to help you? Roshani: I don‟t know! I‟d have tried my best to get out of the whirlpool.

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UNIT FIFTEEN TALKING ABOUT THE PAST (III): COMPARING PAST AND PRESENT

Part 1: Unit outline Curriculum reference: Unit 16 (under the scope and sequence) Things to teach Language function and forms/exponents: Talking about the past: comparing past and present  When I was in class five, I used to watch cartoon. But now I watch news.  I used to play more when I was in grade nine. But now I study more than I play. Reading: Past and Present (Poem)  Reading comprehension followed by extended activities  Text based vocabulary items Grammar: Comparing past and present (used to) Listening: Biography of Ram Raja Prasad Singh  Listening comprehension followed by extended activities Speaking: Comparing past and present  Talking about the past and comparing that with present Writing:  Writing a biography  Writing childhood experiences  Writing about the changes in a place Content themes/topics  Comparison between past and present  Childhood experiences  Ram Raja Prasad Singh  Etiquette  Changes taking place at present in different sectors Expected achievements of the students By the end of this unit, the students will have:  guessed the meaning of the unfamiliar words from the context.  recited the poem appropriately.  completed the comprehension activities based on the poem.  pronounced the new words from the poem correctly and said their meanings.  identified the rhyming words in the poem.  summarized the poem.  compared present conditions with that of the past.  expressed their past habits using 'used to' (both in oral and written form).  completed comprehension tasks listening to the audio related to ram raja prasad singh.  written a biography of a popular politician or social reformist of their locality.  written about their childhood experience/habits and compared it with the present habits. 283


prepared a report the changes taken place in their locality.

Integrated soft skills  Thinking skills  Inter-cultural skills  Cultural skills  Inter-personal skills  Working in team, problem solving skills Teaching resources  Video of the poem 'Past and Present' (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H3LaiDYvks)  Picture of violets, lily, lilacs, robin, laburnum and fir  Flash cards of the words containing the words: peep, morn, borne, violets, lilacs, robin, laburnum, rush, spirit, slender, ignorance, etc.  An old picture and recent picture of a place (e. g. Kathmandu)  Picture/photo of Ram Raja Prasad Singh  An audio file about the biography of Ram Raja Prasad Singh  A video showing the history of communication (Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v94EH_cE7GY)  Some pieces of chart paper and a few permanent markers of different colour Estimated periods: 7

Part 2: Learning Facilitation Process Lesson One Reading Content from the textbook  Reading activities (Engage yourself, Study time: Past and Present Vocabulary in use) (p. 165 - 167) Materials required  Video of the poem "Past and Present"  Flash cards containing the following words: morn, borne, violets, lilacs, robin, laburnum, rush, spirit, slender, ignorance, etc.  Pictures of violets, lily, lilacs, robin, laburnum and fir Lesson activities Engage yourself  Ask the students to recall their childhood experience. (For example; playing marbles, crying for toys, watching cartoons, etc.)  Ask them to interpret the picture in the textbook given in this section.  Then ask them the questions given in this section of the lesson. Possible answers a. I generally go on a swing during Dashain and Tihar. b. The birds I have seen in my locality are pigeon, dove, crow, sparrow and parrot. (Different birds are found in the different parts of the country). c. The poet remembers the house where he was born, the window from which the sun rays came, etc. in the first stanza. 284


Study Time: Past and Present (poem)  Write the title of the poem on the board and ask the students the following questions: a. Can you guess what the poem is about? (childhood memories) b. Who is the speaker in the poem ? (the poet) c. Who has composed the poem?, etc. (Thomas Hood)  Show them the picture of violets, lily, lilac, robin, laburnum and fir (use coloured picture as far as possible), and ask them to identify the names of the pictures, if they cannot, help them.  Provide them a brief introduction to the poet. For example: Thomas Hood (23 May, 1799 - 3 May, 1845) was born in London. His father was a bookseller. He worked as an editor, publisher, poet and humorist. Thomas Hood wrote Odes and Addresses with his brother-in-law, J.H. Reynolds. His publications include Whims and Oddities (1826 and 1827), National Tales (1827), a collection of stories, and The Plea of the Midsummer Fairies (1827). Hood was associated with a number of magazines throughout his life: the London Magazine and New Monthly Magazine as an editor, and the Athenaeum as a contributor. He also published a magazine called Hood’s Own, or, Laughter from Year to Year and released the Comic Annual series. 

Provide a brief theme of the poem to the students. In this poem Thomas Hood seems to be expressing how he is looking back on to his past. This poem is the recollection of his childhood. Each stanza of the poem contrasts innocence with experience, the lost world of childhood, idealized by memory, with an adult world marked by regrets and a sense of loss. When people grow up they begin to wonder and think about things that happened during their youth. In the beginning, the poem has a happy feeling but the last few lines seem depressing.

Ask the students to read the poem silently and underline the new words. Write down the words on the board, and teach them the pronunciation and meaning of those words using flash cards and appropriate techniques. Now provide a model reading of the poem to the students, and ask them to listen to you carefully. If you have an audio or video of the poem, play it and ask them to listen to or watch it. You can play the video/audio more than once. Now ask the class to recite the poem and observe how they do it. You can ask half of the class to recite the poem turn by turn. Encourage them to use the gestures too. After this, ask the students to recite the poem in small groups. Finally, ask some individual students randomly to recite the poem. Now divide the students into the groups of four or five, and make them discuss how the narrator feels the difference between present and past. Provide them a table as shown below.

     

Past

Present

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After they complete the discussion, ask them to share their conclusion of discussion with the whole class. Provide your feedback too. Possible answer Past Present  He used to get up late and go to bed  He doesn't get a good sleep. early.  He has a heavy heart now.  He was very happy.  He feels he even doesn't have the energy to lift his brows.  He was energetic.  He used to feel he was near to the  He realizes he is far away from the heaven. heaven. Vocabulary in use (i)  Ask the students to work in pair to find the rhyming words from the poem.  Have them share their answers with the class, and provide necessary feedback. Suggested answers a. morn b. … c. away d. yet e. wing f. sky g. boy Vocabulary in use (ii)  Ask the students to go through the poem and list out the words in bold face.  Then get them to fill in the blanks with the appropriate word from the list looking their meaning in the context. Suggested answers a. laburnum b. peep c. rush d. slender e. spirit Vocabulary in use (iii)  Divide the class into pairs and ask each pair to go through the poem, and do the matching task.  Encourage them to look at the word in context to find out the meaning. Also encourage them to use a dictionary if required.  Move around the class and assist them.  When they complete the task, conduct a public sharing and feedback session. Suggested answers Column A Column B peep to look quickly and secretly at something violets a small plant with purple or white flowers with a sweet smell that appear in spring lily a large white or brightly coloured flower with petals that curl back from the centre laburnum a small tree with hanging bunches of yellow flowers slender thin or narrow spirit the part of a person that includes their mind, feeling and character lilac a bush or small tree with purple or white flowers with a sweet smell that grow closely together in the shape of a cone Extended activity Ask the students to draw a picture that shows their childhood activities, and to write a narrative about their childhood.

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Reflection Poetry is often neglected in the classroom teaching but it can help the students learn in the ways that they cannot learn from prose. Write a short note on how the students are benefitted from the teaching poetry. Lesson Two Reading Content from the textbook  Reading comprehension i and ii, Follow up activity (pp. 135-136) Materials required  Work sheets containing the gap filling text from reading comprehension (ii) Lesson activities Reading comprehension (i)  Ask the students to go through the questions. Make sure that they understand the questions.  Ask them to go through the poem, and mark the lines where the answers to the given questions are likely to be found.  Ask them to work in pairs to finalize the answer to each question.  Go around the class and help the pairs. At the mean time keep on correcting their answers and providing them feedback. Possible answers a. Thomas Hood composed the poem. b. The poem is about childhood memories of the poet which he compares with his old age. c. The poet remembers the house where he was born and the window through which the sun light entered in the house in the first stanza. d. The poet wishes the night had carried his breath away in the first stanza. e. The poet, in the second stanza, remembers beautiful colours of roses, lilies, lilacs and a tree that he and his brother spent days even on his brother‟s birthday day. f. The poet describes his childhood as happy, energetic and high in sprits. g. Yes, the poet was really closer to heaven when he was a child. He thinks so because of his childhood ignorance. Reading comprehension (ii) 

Ask the students to read the task. Make sure that they know the meaning of the words given in the list.  Divide the class into small groups (with equal number of students in each group), and conduct a game called 'Cross Cut Kabaddi". Procedure 1. Ask the members of each group to stand in one side of the ground (in different rows) and place the worksheets containing the exercise in reading comprehension (ii) in the other side. 2. Now first the members in each row will go towards the worksheets uttering "kabaddi, kabaddi" and fill the gaps in the worksheet with the suitable word from the list. S/he can work till s/he utters "kabaddi". If s/he can't continue s/he must go back and stand at the end of the queue. 3. The students will continue to work in the same way until they complete the task. 4. After all the teams complete the task, ask the group leaders to share their answers with the class and provide feedback. 287


The group which completes the task first with all the correct answers will be the winner. Suggested answer born, in the morning, childhood, brother, present, swing, spirit, cool, fir, slender, joy Follow-up activity  Ask the students to work individually.  First ask them to recall their childhood. Then ask them to list the activities they used to do. For example:  I used to watch cartoons.  I used to cry.  Now ask them to list the activities they do at present. For example:  I watch movies on the television.  I do not cry.  After they list their present activities and childhood activities, make them write a couple of paragraphs comparing their present life with their childhood.  Choose some students randomly, and ask them to present their writing to the class. Provide your feedback wherever necessary. Sample answer 5.

My childhood days were filled with joy and happiness. I was the youngest member of my family, and I had freedom to do whatever I wanted. I used to go to bed early and get up late. I used to cry loudly if I wasn't given the things I wanted. I used to watch cartoons a lot. But now, everything has changed. I have to get up early, do home work, help my parents in their household chores and involve in different social activities. I read novels and watch sports on the television when I am free. My days at present are hectic and tiresome.

Extended activity Ask the students to write a similar poem comparing their past life and present life. Reflection Reflection Sheet 1. Which students participated actively and which did not? Why? 2. What could have been more effective? What was missing or needed? 3. What worked really well today? 4. What is important for me to do tomorrow? This week? Lesson Three Grammar Content from the textbook  Grammar activities (Engage yourself, Time for grammar, Follow-up activity (pp.168170) Materials required  A picture of a place of the old time and another picture of the same place at present (e.g. picture of the Kathmandu valley)

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Lesson activities Engage yourself (1)  Display a picture which shows the old time and a picture of the same place which shows the present time, and ask the students compare the pictures.  Ask them to identify what changes have taken place.  Ask the students to look at the pictures given in this section, and mark the differences there. For example: a. There used to be small houses thirty years ago but now there are big houses. b. There used to be narrow streets but now there are wide streets. Engage yourself (2)  Ask the students to read the comparison that Preeti has noticed.  Then ask them to find out the structure and meaning of the sentences.  Tell them that to talk about the past we use 'used to + verb infinitive' and simple present tense to talk about the present. Time for grammar (1)  Ask the students to go through the task. Do the first one with them. e.g. I used to play with a doll. Now I pay volleyball.  Ask the students to work in pairs and to do the rest of the task.  Once they finish, correct their answers using a mass correction technique. Suggested answers a. Now I play volleyball. b. Now I sing modern songs. c. Now I sleep alone. d. Now I drink coffee. e. Now I prepare meal by myself. f. Now I listen to music. g. Now I put on school uniform. h. Now I write stories myself. Time for grammar (2)  Ask the students to work in the groups of four or five. Tell them to write at least ten changes that have taken place in the city nearest to their locality. For example: a. Concrete buildings have replaced the small houses with thatched roofs. b. The streets have been widened and black topped. c. A large hospital has been set up. d. People have become more educated.  Ask them to read the beginning of the paragraph given in the book, and advise them to start in the same way.  Ask them to present their answers to the class while rest of the students will listen and give feedback. Provide your feedback too. Sample answer I live at Shankapokhari in Parbat. Last Saturday I went to Kushma. I found lots of changes there. There used to be small houses with thatched roofs, but now there are big concrete buildings. There were very few houses but now the city has become bigger. There are many houses. There used to be small streets around the small city but now they are widened and black topped. Very few people used to go to school, but now every child goes to school. There used to be only one school in the city but there are many private schools around the city with boarding facilities. The hospital used to be of poor facility but different modern equipments have been added and people get advanced health services nowadays. People had more leisure time, but now everyone seems to be busy. New plants have been grown making 289


the city green. People used to throw the garbage everywhere in the street, but now the streets are clean. People used to be familiar with each other since the city was small, but they are indifferent with each other now. ... Time for grammar (3)  Ask the students to work in the groups again. They have to imagine themselves to be Wangden, and report the changes that have taken place in the company.  Suggest them to begin with the sentence given in the textbook.  Ask them to share their answers with the class, and provide your feedback. Sample answer When I joined the office, there used to be only 20 staff. Now there are 50. The company used to have only one office here in Kathmandu, but there are 10 other branches in different districts now. Nearly 2,000 tourists used to come to the company annually, but now the number has exceeded to10,000 every year. The company used to hire many employees on seasonal basis, but now most of the employees are made permanent. The company used to focus on business only, but now it has been involved in different social and altruistic activities to uplift common people's life standards. Now it has become one of the leading companies in the field of trekking service in Nepal Follow-up activity  Ask the students to draw the table given in the textbook in their exercise books or provide them a sheet of paper with the very table.  Divide the class into the groups of five to seven. They will collect the information from their group members about their past habits. Remind them to use 'used to + verb infinitive'.  Once they finish, ask them to share their answers with the class. Provide your feedback. Suggested answers S.N. Name of the friend The activities they used to do 1. Alim Shah He used to play the flute. He used to work in the field. 2. Niru Tamang She used to dance in the Tamang selo. She used to wear frocks. 3. Muskan Subedi He used to play dandi-biyo. He used to stay with his maternal uncle in the city. 4. Joe Shrestha He used to eat a lot of ice-cream. He used to go swimming every Saturday. 5. Mohita Sunar She used to listen to the folk songs. She didn't use to tell lies. Extended Activity Ask the students to write an essay describing the changes that have taken place in their community in the last five years. Reflection Write down what worked for you today, what did not work and what you want to improve in your diary.

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Lesson Four Listening Content from the textbook  Listening activities (Engage yourself, Study time, Follow-up activity (pp. 170-171) Materials required  A photograph of Ram Raja Prasad Singh  Audio file containing the biography of Ram Raja Prasad Singh Lesson activities Engage yourself  Display the photograph of Ram Raja Prasad Singh to the class, and then ask the questions to the students given in the textbook under this section.  Accept any possible answers. Possible answers a. This is Ram Raja Prasad Singh's picture. b. He is popular in Nepal because he was in favour of republic. c. He was born on 16th October, 1935  Ask the students guess what they are going to listen to. (Biography of Ram Raja Prasad Singh) Study time (1)  Tell the students that they are going to listen to the biography of Ram Raja Prasad Singh.  Explain them the task, i.e. they have to note down the date when the major events in the life of Ram Raja Prasad Singh took place, and put the date in the table after each event.  Play the audio or read the audio script. You can play the audio more than once.  After they complete the task, ask them to share their answer with the class and provide feedback. Suggested answers Events Date Ram Raja Prasad Singh was born: on 16th October, 1935 Quit India movement take place: in 1942 He contested in the Rastriya Panchayat in 1971 Election: He was released: on 26 August 1971 Study time (2)  Ask the students to listen to the audio file, and find the answers to the questions given in this exercise.  Play the sound file or read the audio script aloud. You can play it more than once if necessary.  After they finish, play the audio once again, and ask them to correct their answers. Suggested answers Questions Answers a. What was the name of Ram Raja Chandrakala Devi Singh Prasad Singh's mother? b. How old was Ram Raja Prasad Singh when two Indian socialist Nine leaders came to his house? c. Where did the complete his MA in at Delhi University 291


d. e.

English at? Why didn't he help his father in the election? Where were his funeral rites performed?

because he thought that his father was not representing entire Nepal at Pashupati Aryaghat

Follow-up activity  Ask the students to work in pairs. First get them to find out the person who they think is a popular social or political reformist of their locality or country.  Ask them to collect the following information about the person. a. Date of birth and place b. Parents c. Childhood d. Education e. Profession f. Contributions to the society or country g. Awards/honours h. Death  Now ask them to write a paragraph using the collected information.You can show them the biography of Ram Raja Prasad Singh as a model.  Move around the class and assist them to write.  When all of them finish, go through their answers, and provide your feedback. Sample answer Shukra Raj Shastri Shukra Raj was born in Varanasi (India) in 1950 B.S. Madhav Raj and Ratna Maya were his parents. He got his early education from Gurukul Sanskrit from his father and got the degree of Shastri in Sanskrit from Punjab University. Thereafter, he was called Shukra Raj „Shastri‟. He served as Head Pandit of Dayananda Anglo-Vedic High School in Allahabad for four years. He worked with the Indian social reformer, Madan Mohan Malabiya for two years. He also worked for Hindu Mahashabha in Darjeeling. He wrote several books like Nepal Ko Jhalak, Satyartha Prakash, Sanskrit Pradeep, Satya Kalpana, Brahmansutra, Swarga Ko Dwar. He had good knowledge of English, Hindi, Nepali and Newari languages. In those days, Nepal was ruled by the Ranas. Many underground revolutionary groups were trying to overthrow the Rana regime. Shukra Raj met some leaders at Kathmandu and encouraged them. He went to Kolkota many times for the publication of his books. During one of his visits to Kolkota, he met Mahatma Gandhi. The Ranas considered this a crime, and arrested him. In Mangsir 1995 B.S., he gave a lecture at Indra Chowk on the essence of Gita. During his lecture, he also spoke indirectly against the Rana rulers. A huge crowd was gathered there. He was immediately arrested along with some leaders of the Praja Parishad. On Magh 10, 1997 B.S., at midnight he was hanged beside the Jaisi Dewal Pachali on the bank of the Bagmati river, Kathmandu. (Source: http://nepaldestination.blogspot.com/2010/03/famous-martyrs-of-nepal.html)

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Extended activity Ask the students to write a couple of paragraphs describing how they can contribute for the nation when they grow-up into adult. Reflection Many students are found to be better in reading and writing skills than in listening and speaking skills. What might be the reasons for this? How can we develop all the language skills equally in them? Write a short note in your diary. Lesson Five Speaking Content from the textbook  Speaking activities (Engage yourself, Time for speaking, Follow-up activity (pp.171172) Materials required  A video showing the history of communication (Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v94EH_cE7GY) Lesson activities Engage yourself  Show a video that shows the changes that have taken place in the history of communication. (Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v94EH_cE7GY)  Conduct a discussion on the changes shown in the video.  Divide the class into groups of four or five.  Ask them to discuss the recent changes that have taken place in the field of communication. Give the following clues to the students.  Internet  Smart phones  Social networks  4G network, etc.  Ask each group to present the summary of their discussion to the class. For example: Many changes have taken place in the field of communication in recent years. People have easy access to mobile phones. The number of people using smart phones is increasing rapidly. Nepal Telecom has been providing 4G network service these days. Moreover, wireless internet facility has been wide spread. Nearly every literate person has been connected with social networks like facebook, twitter, etc. and these forums have been fruitful to exchange sorrows, pains and even sources of information. Moreover, people can quench their thirst of knowledge with the help of Google and other search engines. Time for speaking (1)  Ask the students to work in pairs: one member in a pair compares the past and present looking at each picture, and tells it to his partner. Then the other again makes the similar comparison and tells his partner. They will do it turn by turn.  You can do the first one with the whole class. For example: Picture 'a' - Animals used to be the means of transportation in the past, but now there are many vehicles which are faster than animals.  Then ask the students do remaining two pictures with their pairs in the same way.  Move around the class and ensure that everyone is actively participating, facilitate them wherever necessary.

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Suggested answers a. People used to transport goods using the horse, bull cart and so on in the past. This was costly and only little amount was transported at once. But now there are heavy trucks and other vehicles that transport massive amount of goods at once since the road facilities have been available in most of the parts. b. People used to plough fields with oxen or buffaloes. It used to take a long time to plough the field. But now, there are hand tractors and tractors that are cost effective, easy to handle and faster to plough the field. c. People in the past used to deliver letters via post, but nowadays people can send any information using their computer if they are connected with the internet. It is faster, cheaper and more reliable. Time for speaking (2)  Ask the students to read the example first, then to identify the pattern of the sentence used in the example. ( I used to + verb infinitive …… when I was ……. but now I + simple present.)  Tell them the pattern if they cannot.  Now ask them to work in pairs. First, one student will tell the sentence as in the example then their turn will change.  Move around the class and facilitate them. Possible answers a. I used to buy dolls for me when I was a child, but now I buy a cricket bat. b. I used to go to market with my parents when I was a child, but now I go to market with my friends. c. I used to cry for a long time to fulfill my demands when I was a small child, but now I convince my parents. d. I did not use to drink tea when I was a small kid, but now I drink it twice a day. e. I used to swim in the river when I was a child, but now I go to swimming pool. Follow-up activity  Ask the students to write five things which they have experienced on the first day at present school. Then make them list how they feel at present about those things.  After this, ask them to compare the past and present experience using 'used to + V1 (verb infinitive)' for the past experience and, 'But now…+ simple present' for the present experience.  Suggest them to follow the pattern given in the example.  Ask some of them to share their answers with the class, and provide your feedback. Sample answer Sabita: In the beginning days of my school, I used to be shy and nervous. But now I am frank and friendly to everyone. There used to be only three small buildings, but now there are two big buildings with many rooms. And the rooms are well furnished now. There did not use to be a play ground, but now there is one. We used to play indoor games only, but now we play different indoor and outdoor games. There used to be very few teachers but there are sufficient teachers now. The teachers did not use to be familiar with modern technologies, but now they use multimedia and computers in teaching. There did not use to be a hostel, but now there is a hostel facility for those who want to stay.

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Extended activity Ask the students to write a couple of paragraphs comparing their activities in class nine with those of class ten. Reflection Write a reflective note on this lesson. Lesson Six Writing Content from the textbook  Writing activities (Engage yourself, Time for writing, Follow-up activity (p.172) Materials required  Daily used materials Lesson activities Engage yourself  Ask the students to recall the days of their primary education.  Ask them to speak out, and write their answers on the board. For example: a. I used to go to school with my parents. b. I used to ask anything I liked with my parents. c. I used to write with a pencil. d. I used to carry very few books. Time for writing  Ask each student to list out their childhood habits and memories which they remember till now. For example: a. Crying for a long time until my demands were met b. Eating a lot of chocolate c. Playing with dolls d. Going to school with parents e. Drinking a glass of milk every morning f. Playing with a baby dog, etc.  Now get them to decide which of those habits they still have and which ones they don't practise anymore. For example: Habits I still have Habits I don't practise anymore Eating a lot of chocolate Playing with dolls Drinking a glass of milk every morning Going to school with parents Playing with a baby dog Crying for a long time to meet the demands ……………………………… …………………………………. 

After this, ask them to write a paragraph using the above points describing their childhood experience.

Sample answer My Childhood Experience As I was a member of a joint family, my desires were not fulfilled much. Thus I used to quarrel to make my dreams come true. Only during Dashain, my parents used to buy new clothes for me. During Dashain time, we used to wear new clothes and play swing for the whole day. We often used to go to Deusi and Bhailo in Tihar. My grandfather used to love me very much and my grandma used to tell good bedtime stories. Frequently, I used to sleep 295


on the lap of my grandmother and my auntie used to bathe me. My mother used to help me do my homework but I used to be lazy to accomplish without her help. Thus, I used to be punished very frequently. But I never used to tell lies. During that time, I did not play dust, marbles and other such games as many of my colleagues did. But my life has completely changed now. I have become a responsible person and careful about my future. I cannot be indifferent to my duties and career as I was before. Follow-up activity  Ask the students to recall their habits when they were at a primary school. Make them prepare a list of ten things. For example: 1. When I was eight years old, I used to play skipping with my friends at school. 2. When I was at primary school, I used to steal guava from a farm of my neighbor. 3. During my childhood days I did not use to drink milk at all, but now I love to drink milk twice a day. 4. When I was seven years old, I used to mimic my teacher's voice and behaviours. 5. My mother used to take me to school and bring back home. 6. I did not use to play chess until I was ten. 7. When I was at primary level, I used to call every friend with a nick name. 8. When I was in class four, I used to be the laziest student of the class. 9. At primary level, I did not use to participate in dance competition. 10. When I was nine years old, I used to live at my maternal uncle's home.  Ask some students to share their answers and provide your feedback to them. Extended activity Ask the students to write a couple of paragraphs on ' My First Day in Grade Ten'. Reflection Write your reflection on this lesson. Lesson Seven Project Work and Fun Corner Content from the textbook  Project work and Fun Corner (p. 173) Materials required  Some pieces of chart papers and a few permanent markers of different colour Lesson activities  Ask the students to visit a place of historical or religious importance, and write some sentences about the place focusing on the changes that have taken place within the last ten years.  Follow the procedure give: 1. Planning a visit  Divide the class into small groups.  In collaboration with the students, decide the site to visit, the time of visit and the people they visit. Ask the students to consult 5 men and 5 women (who are above 60) from whom they can obtain the information.  Talk to the principal for permission.  Talk to the students about the aim and the tasks they need to do.  Inform the students to collect information about the changes that have taken place there. 296


Help the students to make questions to be asked to collect the information. For example: a. How long have you been living in this place? b. How many people used to live here 10 years ago? c. How were the rivers and forest 10 years ago? d. How were the houses at that time? e. What was the main occupation of the people? f. How was the facility of education, health, electricity, drinking water, communication and transportation?

2. Organising a visit  Take the students to the site on scheduled day and time.  Make the students visit the elderly people and take the information about the changes.  Ask them to note down the points told by the elderly people. 3. Reporting     

Ask the students to compile the points that they have collected during the field visit working in their respective groups. Provide them a chart paper and some permanent markers of different colours. Get them to write the points on the chart papers. Make each group present their list to the class. Choose the best one and paste it on the wall magazine of the school.

Sample answer Changes Taken Place in my Locality  A new concrete bridge has been built replacing the older one.  The only primary school has been upgraded to higher secondary school.  The bare land in the village/town has been afforested.  Some private boarding schools have been established.  The remains of the earthquake stricken cultural assets have been protected.  All the graveled roads have been black topped.  Most of the habitants of the village have become literate.  A well facilitated hospital has been built.  A tea garden has been established in the barren area.  Inclusiveness has been practised in all social activities.

Fun corner  Ask the students if they know what a pun is. If they don't know, tell them what it is ( a humorous way of using a word or phrase so that more than one meaning is suggested).

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Inform the students that each sentence has a word which has double meanings. Now ask them to find the word and the double meaning the word has in each sentence.  Ask them to work in pair, and after they discover, ask them to share their answers with the class. Suggested answers a. interest i. S/he didn't want to work in the bank. ii. S/he didn't get the charge for the money deposited in the bank. b. patience i. S/he lost ability to remain calm and not annoyed. ii. The number of people visiting him/her for treatment decreased. c. future i. The subject history doesn't include the content about future. ii. S/he didn't see his/her academic future or good career in the field of teaching history. d. drive i. S/he didn't have the desire to sell the computer parts. ii. S/he lost a part of a computer called drive. e. heart i. S/he wasn't interested in his work of transplanting organs. ii. S/he used to transplant other's hearts but not his/her own heart. f. stick i. S/he couldn't continue to work in the factory. ii. The glue didn't stick him/her. g. shocking i. The money s/he was paid was surprising. ii. S/he couldn't earn but got electric shock.

Extended activity Ask the students the following questions: a. Are you satisfied with the changes that have taken place in your community? What other changes do you want to bring in your community? Reflection Could the students accomplish the task assigned to them when you facilitated them as suggested here ? Or did you followed some different techniques? Mention them in your diary.

Part 3- Additional Resources 1. Pictures of violets, lily, lilacs, robin, laburnum and fir (lesson one)

Violets

Lily

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Lilacs

Robin

Laburnum

Fir

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2. Old pictures of Kathmandu valley (Lesson Seven)

3. Recent pictures of Kathmandu valley (Lesson Seven)

4. Script of the audio You will hear a man talking about one of the great leaders of the republic Nepal - Ram Raja Prasad Singh. Ram Raja Prasad Singh was a famous Nepalese politician who had dreamed to make Nepal, a republic country. He was born in a wealthy landowner family on 16th of October 1935 in Saptari district. His father, Jaya Mangal Prasad Singh and mother Chandrakala Devi Singh hired a teacher at home for his early education. He completed Matric from North Brook English High School, Darabhanga, IA and BA from Banaras University and MA in English from Delhi University. He also graduated in Law from Bihar University, Muzaffarpur. Singh's first encounter with the realities of political life came abruptly at the age of about nine when Indian socialist leaders Jayaprakash Narayan and Ram Manohar Lohia came to Nepal to mobilize support for the Quit India Movement in 1942. Later he contested one of the four graduate seats in the 1971 Rastriya Panchyat election and won. Though he was elected in the Rastriya Panchyat election, he was arrested by plain clothes policemen inside the lobby of the assembly. A special tribunal sentenced him. On 26 August 1971 he was released due to public pressure and could later be sworn in as a member of the Rastriya Panchayat. When late King Mahendra asked him to support him, he said, “I am not goods for a sale. My aim is to end monarchy but not to be the prime minister of Nepal.� Ram Raja Prasad Singh was a farsighted leader with generous feelings and a broad chest. He never raised his voice only for 300


the sake of Madhesh. Whenever leaders from Madhesh used to ask him to lead the Madhesh revolution, he used to say there was problem in Pahad and Himal too. He was a true Nepalese leader. He even did not help his father to ask vote for him when he contested in 1958 from Terai Congress in parliament representation thinking that he was not representing the entire Nepal. Singh passed away on 12th of September 2012 during the course of his treatment at the Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital (TUTH) in the capital Kathmandu. His funeral rites were performed at Pashupati Aryghat with full state honours. He was honoured – “Rastriya Gurav,” too.

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UNIT SIXTEEN CONFIRMING AND DENYING

Part 1: Unit Outline Curriculum Reference: Language function no. 14 under scope and sequence Language function and forms/exponents Confirming and Denying  They come from London. So do I/So does Bill.  She didn't wear jeans then. Neither did I/Neither did Anju.  I don't agree. I'm not sure (that) I agree/I don't think so.  Prema had a bath yesterday, didn‟t she? No one is ready, are they? Reading Jitiya Festival  Identifying the structure and the organization of paragraphs by developing an awareness of connectives  Constructing meaning from written, printed and digital forms for detailed understanding  Reading for fluency and comprehension  Developing text based vocabulary items Grammar Structures of Confirming and Denying  So/ Neither+ Auxiliary+ Noun Phrase  Question tags Listening A Conversation between Hari, Raj and Ramila about Watching Movie  Listen to the spoken text, understand the gist and retrieve specific information from it.  Use information from an oral text to answer the given questions. Speaking Confirming and Denying  Communicate appropriately in a variety of formal and informal situation  Give a simple speech to reflect own ideas Writing  Create paragraphs based on the given topic sentences  Revise and edit writing  Practice thinking skills while writing  Plan and organize ideas and information while writing Content themes/topics  Jitiya Festival  Different festivals celebrated in Nepal  Culture beliefs  Advantages and disadvantages of computers in education Expected achievements of the students By the end of this unit, the students will have:  guessed the meanings of unfamiliar words from the context and used them in speaking and writing.  completed comprehension tasks based on the reading texts. 302


       

written about a local festival. drafted paragraphs with topic sentences. participated in the debate for or against the motion „cultural understanding strengthen the unity‟ used the language functions 'conforming' and 'denying' according to the context using appropriate structures. completed the comprehension tasks listening to the conversation. enacted situational role plays. written an essay on "advantages and disadvantages of computers in education. found the "5 w and 1 H" information from the news stories.

Integrated soft skills  Critical thinking and creativity  Diverse communication and collaboration  Information management skills  Learning skills Teaching resources  Pictures or a video of people celebrating Jitiya festival  Flashcards containing words  Flash cards of topic sentence of each paragraph  A short audio clip of debate on an issue  Audio file  A video on how to write basic topic sentences and paragraphs (ESLhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IqxuNrhKhMc)  A video on writing a five- paragraph essay (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vs4MutZh4vM)  A sample of a five-paragraph essay Estimated periods: 9

Part 2: Learning Facilitation Process Lesson One Reading 

Content from the textbook Reading activities (Engage yourself, Study time) (pp. 174-175)

 

Materials required Pictures or a video of people celebrating Jitiya festival Flashcards of the difficult words from the text including their meaning for example: luck, harmony, statues, renowned, poured FRONT

BACK

Nepal is renowned as the country of the Buddha‟s birthplace.

renowned Synonym: famous, high reputation Antonym: unknown, inferior

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Lesson activities Engage yourself Ask the students to study the given picture carefully. The picture shows a group of peoplemen and women-performing a cultural/religious activity. Ask them to guess about the picture following some directed probes: What celebration the shows; What the people are doing; Which festival it is; Who celebrate it, etc. If there is anyone in the class who celebrates Jitiya Festival, welcome him/her to share about the festival; time of celebration, process of celebration, etc. If students are unfamiliar with it, supply the following concepts: a. This picture shows that a group of people are gathered together to celebrate a festival. Different festivals are celebrated in our community. Some of them are: Dashain, Tihar, Lhosar, Udhauli/Ubhauli, Maghee, Teej, etc. This picture is about Jitiya festival.

 Ask them the questions set below the pictures. Invite the students for answers. Accept any response. Possible answers a. This picture reveals that a group of people are gathered together to celebrate a festival. b. Different festivals are celebrated in our community. Some of them are: Dashain, Tihar, Lhosar, Udhauli/Ubhauli, Maghee, Teej, etc. c. Yes, I celebrate the Jitiya festival/No, I don‟t celebrate it. Study time Vocabulary in use  Ask the students to read the text quickly, and underline the new words.  Introduce the new words as identified by the students to the class focusing on their meaning and pronunciation. For this you can use the flash cards and appropriate techniques.  Divide the class into pairs. Ask the pairs to read the text silently, and find out the synonyms for the given words.  When the students are engaged in the activity, move around the class and monitor their engagement. When the task is over, call for a public sharing time. Suggested answers luck = fortune harmony = good relationships statues = idol renowned = popular poured = flow Extended activity Ask the students to write a couple of paragraph on the festival they celebrate and present it to the class in the next class. Reflection ...................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................

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Lesson Two Reading Content from the textbook  Reading comprehension (p. 174-175) Materials required  Usual classroom materials Lesson activities Reading comprehension (i)  Ask the students to study the statements given. Ask them to go through the text, and underline the sentence which tells that the given statement in the exercise is either „true‟ or „false‟. Ask them to raise their hand if they could locate the answer. Make sure that all the students agree to the response.  Now ask them to do the exercise in their exercise book individually. Suggested answer a. a. False b. False c. True d. True e. False f. True g. False Reading comprehension (ii)  Divide the class into pairs to engage them in a close reading activity. Ask the pairs to discuss the answers of the „Comprehension‟ questions. It is desirable that pairs are formed with one having better proficiency/comprehension and another with low proficiency in reading.  Ask the students to underline the sentence/s in the passage that contain the information required to answer the questions. Then, ask them to write the answers in their exercise book. Show one sample answer to a question. Encourage them to write answer in complete sentences.  When they finish the task, correct their answers with written feedback. a. Suggested answers a. Jitiya festival is celebrated for the good fortune and long life for the husband and children. b. This festival is celebrated for three days. c. On the second day of the celebration married women fast for whole day. d. On the first day of the celebration, women scrub their house with cow‟s dung to make their house sacred. e. Masabashi is the unmarried princess and the mother of Jimutavahana. He was the blessing of the Sun. So, Masabashi and the sun are interrelated. f. Married women offer some fruits, milk and curd to Jimutavahana before they break their fast. g. The celebration of the Jitiya festival can promote the harmony among the people as „cultural understanding strengthens the unity‟. Extended activity  Write the following paragraph heading on the board: a. Overall process of celebration b. Activities on the first day c. Activities on the second day d. Activities on the third day e. Legend behind the celebration 305


Now, divide the class into pairs, and ask them to match the paragraphs with the headings. Once they complete, go further with a little deeper discussion related to the headings/topics. For example: Paragraph 1st can be understood to be about general introduction of Jitiya Festival. Sentences containing information mentioning its importance and background to its beginning can be regarded as supporting details. Similarly, in the 2nd paragraph, information is provided about the background processes of celebrating Jitiya. The topic sentence is not explicitly mentioned here, however from paragraph 3rd onwards the topics are explicit.

Lead a public discussion with probing questions such as, what different activities are performed on the first day (Celebrations on the first day becoming the topic of the 3rd paragraph), on the 2nd day (in 4th paragraph), etc.

Lesson reflection How do you guide your students for „reading beyond the text‟? Is reading really a passive and receptive skill of language? How can it be made more interactive? Lesson Three Reading  

Content from the textbook Follow-up activities (p. 176) Materials required Daily used materials Lesson activities Follow-up activity (1)  Divide the class into small groups. As far as possible keep the students of same ethnicity in the same group.  Write the title, “A Festival in Our Community” on the board, and ask all the groups to brainstorm on the topic.  Help them by providing some probes: Which festival? Who celebrates? How it is celebrated-major activities? When does it fall? How long? Elicit as much information as possible.  If the students cannot generate sufficient information, help them by providing some information.  Now ask the students to write about the festival including the points they have collected. This the first draft of their writing.  When the first draft is complete, ask them to revise and edit it and prepare the final version. Tell them to revise the content focusing on the content (its adequacy, organisation, addition, deletion, substitution, etc.) and edit the language focusing on accuracy, appropriateness, diction, mechanics, etc.  When they come up with the final draft, go through their writing and provide your feedback.  When they complete the first draft, call them for sharing it to the rest of the class. A sample of a student essay is given below. 306


Sample student essay The Saraswati Pooja Introduction - celebration place - methods of celebrating - initiation of new work - conclusion The Saraswati Pooja is one of the popular festivals in Nepal. It is especially celebrated by students, teachers and learners. It is celebrated by the devotees of Goddess Saraswati, who is regarded as the goddess of knowledge, wisdom and learning. Saraswati Pooja generally falls in Magh or Phalgun on the fifth day of the full moon. This day is also called Shreepanchami. On this day, academic institutions such as schools and colleges are decorated with the idols and pictures of Goddess Saraswati. Students seem eager to manage the Saraswati Pooja. They even collect some money and buy necessary things such as the idol of Saraswati, various types of sweets, fruits and so on. On the day of Saraswati Pooja, devotees bathe early in the morning. They do not eat nor drink anything until the Pooja is over. Some people worship her at their houses; some go to Saraswati temple to worship her. Students and teachers go to schools and colleges to worship her. At schools and colleges, special preparation is made. Everyone there worships Saraswati, and when the Pooja is over, Prasad (holy food) is distributed. Everyone takes it with great devotion. The idol of her and flowers are taken to sacred rivers or places to see her off ritually for one year. People believe that starting a new activity on the day of Saraswati Pooja leads to the success of the activity. On the day of Shreepanchami, people start teaching small children. Similarly, seeds of crops are sowed in the field to mark the beginning of farming. Thus the Saraswati Pooja is a symbolic day for starting a good deed in life. Follow-up activity (2)  Ask the students to read the question in 2. Introduce the task to them. Lead a discussion eliciting from the students opinions with probes such as: Do people follow similar cultural activities in Nepal? What different cultural communities are living in Nepal? Why is cultural diversity good? Why should we understand others’ cultures? What is social unity? Why is unity important? What happens if communities and cultures are not united? How can it be strengthened?  Open the topic: „Cultural understanding strengthens the unity‟. Divide the class into groups, and ask them to think what the topic implies.  Ask the groups to think creatively on the motion/topic. Ask them to share opinions in groups, and to jot them down. Encourage them to come up with creative ideas based on the thinking probes as introduced before.  Ask the students to compose an essay individually based on the ideas they have discussed in the class. Tell them that they can add ideas deemed relevant. Arrange for a peer feedback session for the composition they have come up with. You might ask the students to visit a neighbor/community in leisure and collect as much ideas as possible. You might as well assist the students with relevant clues: Others as important as self Cultural harmony Opens new ideas Fosters harmony Helps adjust in different places and times

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Knowledge about how others live Knowing others‟ lifestyle Respect for all cultures and customs


Extended activity Ask the students to summarise the text (Jitiya Festival). Reflection Write a reflective note on this lesson in your personal diary. Lesson Four Grammar Content from the textbook  Grammar activities (Engage yourself, Time for grammar and Follow-up activity) (pp. 176-177) Materials required  Usual classroom materials Lesson activities Engage yourself  Ask the students to read the sentences given under this section. This presents sample sentences for confirming to statements or denying them. Ask the students to read the sentences carefully, and think what they mean.  Ask the students to find the structures for the given sentences discussing with their bench partners. Ask them to decide whether they are positive (So + auxiliary+ noun phrase) or negative (Neither+ auxiliary + noun phrase). Focus their attention to the form: So/Neither+ auxiliary+ noun phrase. Time for grammar (1)  Continue engaging the students in the pair work. Ask them to go through the exercise under "Time for grammar exercise-1.  Ask them to discuss and re-write the sentences as given in the examples. Remind them to follow the structure presented before. As the students engage in the task, move around the class monitoring and helping the students.  When they finish, invite sample pairs to share their answers; ask the rest to recheck and tally the answers. Suggested answers a. Rina likes folk songs. So does Kalika. b. Binda did not buy a watch yesterday. Neither did my mother. c. Harry will come next week. So will my brother. d. We prepare delicious food. So does Shiva. e. They never read English. Neither does Santosh. f. Muslims don‟t eat pork. Neither do Jews. g. Hindus don‟t eat beef. Neither do I. h. We haven‟t been to Ilam yet. Neither has Neelam.  Arrange for a pair work activity as follows: One member in a pair utters a statement, and the other member adds a corresponding confirmation/denial. Members take a turn to utter a statement and respond. Allow about five minutes for this activity. Example: A: I live I a village. B: So does Bimal. A: Students should not leave the class. B: Neither should teachers.

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Time for grammar (2)  Ask the students to go through the examples in exercise 2.  Write some examples of question tags (similar to those given in the textbook) on the board.  Explain briefly about the rules behind those question tags and the use of them in real communication.  Now ask the students to do the matching task given in the textbook working in pairs.  When they complete the task, correct their answers using a mass correction technique. Suggested answers a. Don‟t say anything to Ananda about this, will you? b. I‟m supposed to be having lunch with Kopila, aren‟t I? c. You‟d better stop gossiping, hadn‟t you? d. She‟d rather have a cup of tea, wouldn‟t she? e. Prakash went to the market, didn‟t he? f. Dipa used to crack jokes in the class, didn‟t she? g. Junu had a wonderful dream, didn‟t she? h. You worked hard, didn‟t you? Follow-up activity Ask the students to continue working in pairs. Instruct the pairs to ask each other what they like doing/to do, and to respond accordingly. Ask them to respond to it appropriately (in positive or in negative form). Ask the members to enquire about at least ten different things about the partner. Questions should be directed to common activities, such as study, food, clothes, etc. Students might come up as follows: 1. A: What do you like playing the most?

2. A: Do you like dancing?

B: I like playing football the most.

B: No I don‟t.

A: So do I.

C: Neither do I.

Once they are over with asking and responding, call sample pairs to share their conversation with the class. Provide necessary feedback for improvement. Students might come up with following responses: 1. Ramu loves dancing in Hindi music. So do I. 2. Geeta never does her homework. Neither do I. 3. Tina eats chicken. So do I. Extended activity Ask the class to compose a paragraph about their habits (likes and dislikes). Reflection How can the teaching of grammar points be made more communicative? Do you think teaching through deductive approach can also be made more productive for language learning? What other variations did you bring while teaching this item?

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Lesson Five Listening Content from the textbook  Listening activities (pp. 178-179) Materials required  Audio file  CD player  A large picture of an airport scene Lesson activities Engage yourself  Set the scene for the listening task engaging the students in the picture-talk activity. Display the picture of an airport. Lead a discussion asking some questions: where is it/why go there/who goes there/what is found there/have they been there/do they like being there/where are airports, etc.  Engage the students directing further to the picture in „Engage yourself‟. The picture shows a scene of a cinema and people queuing for entrance tickets. Lead a discussion asking: What do you see in the picture? Where is it? What do people do there?  Ask the students to go through the questions set under „Engage yourself‟. Ask them how many of them enjoy watching films; how often they go to the cinema; where they go to watch films; which films are their favorites; which movies they prefer to watch-Hindi, Nepali or English; who are their favourite actors/actresses, etc.? You can also share your experiences.  Activate the current knowledge about the content of the listening. Ask them some text directed questions: Have you ever flown in the airplane? Have you been to an airport? Have you heard an announcement at the airport? What do they announce for boarding the passengers?  Activate the key vocabulary used in the text. Present the unfamiliar words writing on the board. You might attempt reviewing these words: watched, cinema hall, Jhola, wonderful, interesting, popular, movie. Study time ( 1)  Ask the students to read the sentences in exercise 1. This is a blank- filling activity for which students have to listen to the audio carefully, and pick up specific pieces of information.  Ask the students to work in pairs. Play the audio (or read the audio script aloud), and ask the students to fill in the blanks with appropriate words from the audio. Arrange for a public sharing feedback session after that. If the students could not catch up well, you can play the audio again. Suggested answers a. Jhola b. interesting c. Fan d. Hindi e. Ramila Study time (2)  Ask the students to read the half- sentences given in the columns (A and B) in exercise 2. Here, they have to match the halves to come to appropriate sentences. Play the audio the (or read the audio script aloud), and ask the students to do the matching task. You can play the audio more than once. 310


  

Once it is done, arrange for a public sharing and feedback session about their understanding. Suggested answers a. According to Raj, Jhola is v. an interesting social film. b. Ramila thinks she must go and watch i. Jhola. c. Hari prefers to watch iv. Nepali films. d. Raj likes to watch vi. English films. e. Ramila thinks Hindi films are iii. quite popular.

Follow- up activity Ask the students to work in groups of four/five. Refer to „Follow- up activity‟ in C. This activity demands individual students to ask each other about the kinds of films they love watching. Students can write down the questions they are going to ask, so that they feel more comfortable during interviewing with friends. Encourage even the struggling learners for speaking up. Once they are over with the task, invite sample students to share their report. Students might come up with a response as follows: The taste of watching movies is different from my friend to friend. My best friend Radhika loves watching Hindi movies as she is the fan of Salman Khan. But another friend, Divya likes to watch Nepali movie. She said that Nepali movies have also improved a lot these days.

Extended activity  Ask the students to write a paragraph about their favourite film, and present it to the class. Reflection Write a reflective note on this lesson. Lesson Six Speaking 

Content from the textbook Speaking activities (Engage yourself, Time for speaking, Follow-up activities) (pp. 179-181) Required materials  Daily used materials Lesson activities Engage yourself (1)  Ask the students to look at the pictures given in 1. Ask them to read the speech bubbles carefully.  Divide the class into pairs. Ask them to play the role according to the speech bubbles, i.e. Student A takes up the role of the boy and Student B does for the girl. Engage yourself (2)  Ask the students to work again in the same pairs for this activity.  Call all the pairs, and ask them for the role play as in 1 above. Ask them to maintain appropriate intonation for the expression while uttering it. You might as well show a sample reading of the sentences in the bubbles. 311


Time for speaking  Ask the students to study the examples in „Time for speaking‟ carefully. Ask them to go through the clues in a-e.  Allocate some time to think about possible responses for the clues. Elicit sample responses from one/two students.  Engage the students in simultaneous pair work activity. Instruct them to do as shown in the example. Monitor and provide necessary support as the pairs engage in their work.  Listen to some answers from sample pairs, and provide feedback, if needed. Students might come up with exchanges as follows.

Suggested answers a. Love classical music/so do I A: Ryan loves classical music. B: So do I. b. Don’t like playing in the rain/neither do I A: My friends don‟t like playing in the rain. B: Neither do I. c. So cold/isn’t it/yes A: Today is so cold, isn‟t it? B: Yes. d. Woman with red sari/nurse/I think so A: I think the woman in a red sari is nurse. B: I think so. e. Have lots of industries in Nepal next year/don’t think so A: I think we will have lots of industries in Nepal next year. B: I don‟t think so. Follow-up activity  Arrange for a group activity involving four members in each group. Assign the students „Follow-up activity‟ (C). Ask the groups to read the table. The table contains utterances for checking different information about people. The students have to either confirm or deny the statements in „column A‟ asking two more friends beside themselves. Member A should take up the role of „John‟; Member B of „you‟; Member C of „Friend 1‟ and Member D of „Friend 2‟. Make the instructions clear showing an example as follows: Student A: I like coffee. Student B: So do I. Student C: So does Jack. Student D: But Mary doesn’t.  Ask the students to utter sentences; move around the class and provide necessary support.  When they finish, invite sample responses. You may also invite few students in the front and, share their answers. Encourage them to speak freely, and support where necessary. Extended activity Ask the students to engage in a questioning activity. Tell them that they are going to enquire each other using as many questions as possible. Ask them to find out similarities and differences between themselves and their friends. Lesson reflection What I did? What went on successfully? What challenges I faced? 312


Lesson Seven and Eight Writing Content from the textbook  Writing activities (Engage yourself, Time for writing, Follow-up activity) (pp. 181-182) Required materials  A video on writing a five-paragraph essay  Copies of a sample essay  Daily used materials Lesson activities Engage yourself  Tell the class that they are going to learn about some techniques about writing an essay. While saying, focus that an essay has paragraphs, and each paragraph is about one specific aspect of the topic.  Write the topic „Advantages and Disadvantages of Computer‟ on the board. Lead a general discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of computer.  Divide the class into small groups. Write the following paragraph on the board (Or, alternatively, distribute a copy of this paragraph to each group). Parents can help their children be successful in school by encouraging them. Children usually enjoy playing games instead of studying their boring lessons, so parents have to take the responsibility to monitor their studying and to remind them to do their homework at home after school. Parents should also encourage their children to study by buying story books with pictures, or they can buy text books or tapes that help children learn to spell or read. The best way to encourage children to study efficiently is to reward them. So, if parents really want their children to succeed in school, they need to pay attention to their children‟s studies and encourage them. 

Tell the class that the paragraph contains five sentences in total (show them by counting and numbering the sentences). Also tell them that the first sentence here carries the main meaning of the entire paragraph. Such a sentence in a paragraph is called the „Topic Sentence‟. Also tell them that the last sentence here restates the idea of the topic sentence and concludes the expression. Such type of a sentence is called the „Concluding Sentence‟. Sentences in the middle are to support the topic sentence, i.e. the main idea of the paragraph. Note The topic sentence can appear in a number of places in a paragraph. Often, it is the first sentence of the paragraph. Writing the topic sentence at the beginning helps the writer to remember the controlling idea. It also helps the reader to focus quickly on the important information in the paragraph. The topic sentence can also appear in the middle or at the end of the paragraph. It is possible for the topic sentence not to appear in the paragraph at all; it can be implied. In this case, the writer has the topic sentence in his or her mind and uses it to control the paragraph. If the writer uses an implied topic sentence, he or she must be sure that the reader can clearly understand the writer‟s attitude or controlling idea from the flow of ideas in the paragraph. 313


Lead a focused discussion about the support of the topic sentence. Note

The support in a paragraph explains or develops the topic sentence. The supporting part can be narratives, details, facts, examples, explanations, or statistics. All of the support relates to the main idea stated in the topic sentence and shows why the topic sentence is true. Example: In the paragraph about what parents can do to help their children succeed in school, the support explains the ways that parents can encourage their children. Here, the topic sentence is:  Parents can help their children be successful in school by encouraging them. The support sentences are:  Parents can encourage children by reminding them to do their homework.  Parents can encourage children by buying them books and tapes to help them learn.  Parents can encourage children by rewarding them. 

Assign one topic sentence to each group from „Engage yourself‟. Ask the groups to think of possible support ideas/sentences to elaborate the idea given in the topic sentence. Encourage the members to think creatively and divergently. Move around; monitor their performance, and provide feedback. When the groups complete writing the possible support sentences/ideas, invite a member from each group to share their product. Offer feedback for improvement, if necessary. Sample answer a. Topic sentence: It is clear that the Internet has provided students with access to more information than ever before. Support 1: There are many open learning resources which are free for all. Support 2: Printed books are limited in scale, and are expensive to buy. Support 3: The Internet contains multiple information sources on a topic, which provide learners with plenty of information on the topic of interest. Support 4: Online resources opens up a vast range of information resources. Support 5: Internet users worldwide are contributing to the online resources. This is far more informative than reading books.

Time for writing  Ask the students to continue working in the same groups, and read the task. Make sure that they are clear about the task.  Ask each group to draft an essay on the topic following the instruction given. Help them to write an introductory paragraph, body paragraphs (by elaborating the topic sentences) and the concluding paragraph step by step. Ask them to refer back to the points that they have elaborated in the 'Engage yourself section.' Follow-up activity  Ask the groups to swap their write-ups across the groups. Ask each group to read the essay, discuss the ideas, words, language, punctuation symbols, etc.  Ask the groups to offer constructive feedback on each other‟s writing. Tell them that they can suggest for improvement in all relevant aspects of writing (content, spelling, punctuation, sentence correctness, etc.).  Ask each group to prepare the final version of the essay incorporating the suggestions/feedback received. 314


Sample answer In recent years, computers have been tremendously used in schools and colleges. Computers have given a lot of benefits both for the teachers and students. Teachers can get reference materials easily, and students can refer to readings and references in a click. While some scholars have claimed that computer is highly beneficial, some others have pin pointed its several drawbacks. It is clear that the Internet has provided students with access to more information than ever before. They can get the information they require easily with the help of computers. Children who are exposed to computers can collect more information, use them again and again and store them easily. When computers are connected to the internet, wider range of reading materials, audios, videos and additional learning materials can easily be accessed. They can download and save the materials and use them in future. Nobody can deny that the acquisition of knowledge is more fun and easier with computers. We can learn while playing games; we can watch videos on different topics, we can also read national and international news. We can do more tasks at the same time in the computers. Some students solve maths problems listening to the music in computers. Learning with the computer is more interactive and engaging. We can easily search information in it. We can install the dictionaries and other software which can be used as learning tools.

However, many disagree and feel that technology deprives people of real human interaction. People argue that over dependence on technology can make the students less creative and passive. It is said that computers affect students' creativity and stop them to think innovatively. In computers, there are so many games which make the students addictive to play. Sometimes, students simply download materials from the Internet directly without understanding them. There are also many things in the Internet that spoil the youngstersâ€&#x; mind and make them deviated from studies. Too much exposure to the computer and internet games causes mental stress, and as a result students cannot concentrate on their studies. This definitely leads to lower grades. Therefore, computers almost certainly have a negative impact on students. These negative impacts should not deter students from using computers in education. As computers are becoming an important tool for teaching, teachers should be aware of their roles in education. They should guide students to use computers for the acquisition of knowledge, not simply as a transmitter of facts. The vast knowledge sources available through computers should be used for enriching education. Teachers should instruct the students to use the resources for a good purpose. There should be a time table regarding when to study books, when to write in paper and when to use computer resources. A balanced use of multiple engagement means is important. In conclusion, there are both the advantages and disadvantages of using computer in education. If the quality and quantity of computer education are rightly balanced, it is sure that the negative consequences can be minimised and positive impacts can be maximised.

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Extended activity Ask the students to draft a paragraph on each topic sentences given under "Engage yourself section" individually. When they have completed writing, invite sample students to share their writing. Reflection How do you employ a process approach to teaching writing? How do you engage them in the revision and editing activities? Do you think it is necessary to show a model/sample before engaging the students in free writing ? Lesson Nine Project Work Content from the textbook  Project work (p. 182) Materials required  English newspapers  Graphic organizer containing „5Ws and 1H‟ of news report Who are involved in the event/story? Who? What? What is the event/story about? Where? Where did the event/story take place? When? When did the event/story take place? How did the event/story happen? How? Why did the event happen? Why? Lesson activities  Divide the class into small groups.  Distribute an English newspaper (The Himalayan Times, The Rising Nepal, The Kathmandu Post, etc.) to each group. Ask them to pick up a piece of news from the newspaper which they are interested in. Ask them to read the news thoroughly.  Draw the graphic organizer- „5Ws and 1H‟ of a news report on the board. Lead a discussion that a good news piece contains information regarding the five Ws and 1H. Tell them some ideas about the distribution of information in a news piece as follows: There are certain things common to all news stories. The first paragraph gives the answers to the most important of the 5 W's and 1 H questions. The rest of the paragraph elaborates on the information given in the opening with background information, a quotation or a statement about the news and details about the story.  Instruct the students to extract relevant pieces of information about the „5Ws and 1H‟ from the news story they have chosen. Invite sample groups to present their information.  Now, distribute a sample of a structured news story (If it is not possible, ask the students to refer to the news sample on page no. 80 in the textbook). A sample news story contains the following parts:

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The Himalayan Times Monday, March 23, 2015 Swine Flu Kills 20 in Pokhara

(The Publisher) (Date of publication) (The headline) HNS, Pokhara, by Anil Mishra. (Source, place, reporter) The infectious Mexican flu, Swine Flu has caused at least 20 deaths (what happened?) in Pokhara valley alone during this month (where and when happened?). The flu is said to have spread throughout Pokhara valley at an alarming rate. Local health personnel claim that the disease appeared there because of the inflow of Mexican tourists in Pokhara (how did it happen?). “When an infected person gets into contact with a normal person, the disease easily transfers one to another” said a medical professional (what do the witness/ participants say?). More than 70 people are at different hospitals for the treatment of the flu. Meanwhile, the District Education Office has announced a 7- day school closure due to the fear of further disaster. The administration has requested the public to wear an air-mask for health safety (what happened after the incident?).

 

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Lead a discussion centering on the parts of a news piece based on the sample. In the meantime, ask the groups to refer to the news pieces from the newspaper, and locate these different parts. Also draw a focus-chart showing the distribution of contents in a news piece as follows:

Ask the members to continue working in groups. Tell them that they are going to compose a news story following the pattern discussed before. Write the following outline-clues on the board: Ask the group members to make sure that the following pieces of information are University opened - University of Information Technology - opened among a big located appropriately: crowd at Patan - built from the grant financial support of China - project started on - The Publisher 12011 - ended in 2017 - has the capacity for 200 students a year - best wishes from the - Date of publication minister of education. - The headline - Source, place, reporter - What happened? - Where and when happened? - How did it happen? - What do the witness/participants say? 317


- What happened after the incident? When the groups complete the task, ask one or two group to present their write up to the class. Provide feedback.

Extended activity Ask the students to compose fresh news covering the events that have happened in their locality, and share it with the class. Fun Corner Lesson activities  Write the limerick on the board. Recite it to the class, and ask them to listen to you.  Invite the class to recite with you. Repeat it several times.  Now ask them to recite it themselves.  Explain the literal meaning of the poem to the students.  Give the class a brief information about limerick. A limerick is a form of poetry. It is a short poem of five lines with a rhyme scheme of AABBA. In a limerick, the first, second and fifth line rhyme, while the third and fourth lines are shorter and share a different rhyme. It is often humorous and sometimes obscene. 

Write anther limerick poem on the board. Ask the class to recite it. There was an Old Man in a tree, Who was horribly bored by a Bee; When they said, 'Does it buzz?' He replied, 'Yes, it does!' 'It's a regular brute of a Bee!' - Edward Lear

Reflection It is believed that languages can best be learnt in a relaxed and fun way, when both the content and the activities are interesting to the students. However, working with the contents and activities in the formal system of education system is not so all the time. How do make a balance in such a situation? What different fun activities do you introduce with your students?

Part 3: Additional Resources 1. Script of the audio You will hear a conversation between Hari, Raj and Ramila about watching the movie. Hari: Hi, Ramila! How are you? Ramila: Hi, guys. I‟m fine. How are you? Hari and Raj: Very well. Ramila: Where are you coming from? Hari: We are coming from the Cinema Hall. We have watched a Nepali movie. Ramila: What film is on? Raj: Jhola. You know the Nepali film! 318


Ramila: Oh yes! How's the movie? Hari: Well, it‟s a wonderful film. Don‟t you think so, Raj? Raj: Yes, it's an interesting social film. Ramila: I must go and see it one of these days! I‟ve just been to see a Hindi film at the other cinema. Raj: Oh, I watched a Hindi film, Fan last week. What do you think of Hindi films? Ramila: I think most Hindi films are more popular than any other films, so I love watching them. Raj: I don‟t agree with you. I enjoy going to the cinema but I prefer English films. Hari: And I prefer Nepali films. Ramila: Well, we should watch the films we like! It was nice talking to both of you. It's getting late. I need to go now. Bye. Hari and Raj: O.K. Bye.

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UNIT SEVENTEEN AGREEING AND DISAGREEING

Part 1: Unit Outline Curriculum reference: Language function no. 18 under scope and sequence Things to teach Language function and form/exponents: Agreeing and disagreeing  You're right.  That's a good idea.  I don't agree with that.  I don't think that's correct. Sushila‟s Determination  Reading comprehension followed by extended activities  Text based vocabulary items Use of words/phrases/expressions for agreeing and disagreeing A conversation on a holiday plan  Listening comprehension followed by extended activities Activities that focus on the use of words/phrases/ expressions to show agreement or disagreement Dialogue and paragraph writing

Reading:

Grammar: Listening:

Speaking:

Writing:

Content themes/topics  Sushila‟s Determination  Holiday plan  Dialogue and paragraph writing Expected achievements of the students By the end of this unit, the students will have:  told the meaning of the new words from the text and used them in speaking and writing.  completed the comprehension tasks of the given reading texts.  expressed their agreement and disagreement appropriately.  completed the comprehension tasks after listening to the telephone conversation.  composed a dialogue expressing agreement and/or disagreement.  written a paragraph commenting on an English radio programme. Integrated soft skills  Inter-personal skills  Information management skills  Creative thinking skills  Creative thinking and problem solving  Diverse communication and collaboration

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Teaching resources  Flash cards of the words from 'Vocabulary in use' from the text Sushila‟s Determination.  A chart having lists of expressions/phrases/words used for agreeing and disagreeing.  Audio file of the assigned listening script. Estimated periods: 7

Part 2: Learning Facilitation Process Lesson One Reading Content from the textbook  Reading activities (Engage yourself, Study time: Reading (Sushila‟s Determination pp.183-185) Materials required  The reading text  Flash cards of the words from 'vocabulary in use' Lesson activities Engage yourself  Ask the students to read the text silently and find out the answer as quickly as possible. a. What does Sushila want to do? b. What do her parents want to do? Suggested answers: a. She wants to join nursing course. /She wants to pursue her career as a nurse. b. The want to get her married. Study time: Reading I True false (added exercise)  Write the following statements on the board, and then ask the students to read the drama quickly but carefully to find out whether the statements are true or false. Check the students‟ answers. a. There are four members in Sushila’s family. b. Sushila’s parents are worried about their daughter’s future. c. Her parents want her to join the university. d. Sushila is not respectful to her father. e. Sushila was raised in a foreign country. f. Sushila’s parents are a bit superstitious. Suggested answers: a. false b. true c. false d. false e. true f. true Reading for general understanding (added exercise)  Ask these questions verbally one after the other. Give them some time to come up with the answers. a. What is Sushila‟s problem? b. Did she manage to solve her problem? How?  Listen to their answers. Encourage them to speak.

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Suggested answers a. Her problem is that she wants to join the nursing courses, but her parents want to get her married. b. Yes, she did. She told her father to spend the money for her marriage on her education. Vocabularies in use  Finding words for the given meanings is a very useful exercise for teaching vocabulary. Organize the class into groups, and then ask them to go through the meanings under the heading “Vocabulary in Use” (p. 185) carefully.  Now ask them to read the drama and find the word/phrase for the given meanings.  When the students do the activity, move around the class to see that each member in the group is engaged. If any group finds difficulty, help it get the word. Suggested answers a. concerned b. gasping c. consideration d. fortunate e. horoscope Extended activity  Ask the students to underline the following words from the drama. rudely, anxious, noble, influenced, secure, impatient  Now ask them to copy these words in their exercise book, and then ask them to write the meaning against each word consulting the dictionary.  After they write the meanings of the words, ask them to use each of the word into meaningful/sensible sentence of their own. rudely: indecently = „What do you want?‟ she asked rudely. anxious: feeling worried = Parents are naturally anxious for their children. noble: decent = Teaching is considered to be a noble profession. influenced: inspired = His speech has influenced me a lot. secure (adj): safe/protected = The future of the company looks secure. secure (v): to obtain or achieve something = She secures 20000 votes. impatient: annoyed/ irritated = The teacher was becoming increasingly impatient at the students‟ lack of interest in studies. Reflection Did the students enjoy the lesson? Were they able to do the activities well? What were the main difficulties that you faced in this lesson? Lesson Two Reading (contd.) Content from textbook  Reading comprehension i and ii  Follow up activity Materials required  The reading text  Usual classroom materials

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Lesson activities Reading comprehension (i)  Tell the students that they will tick mark the correct answer while reading the text.  Tell the students to go through the questions and the answer options for each carefully. Make sure that they understand what they are supposed to do.  Now ask them to read the drama slowly, and tick mark (√) the correct answer. Suggested answers a. marriage b. nurse c. an overseas country d. Mrs. Ojha e. let her join the nursing course Reading comprehension (ii)  By this time the students have already read the drama several times, and have learned the meanings of some difficult words as well.  Now ask the students to read the drama once again, and answer the questions. Make sure that they have understood the questions.  Ask each student to do the work on his/her own in the class. Move around the class while the students are working.  Assist the students who find difficulty to answer the questions. Possible answers: (Accept any other correct answers) a. Sushila‟s parents don‟t want to send Sushila to a university because they are not rich and want her to get married. b. No, her parents‟ marriage was not a love marriage, it was an arranged marriage. Her mother had not met her father before her marriage. She didn‟t even know his name. c. Sushila think her mother was lucky to have a caring and loving husband like her father. d. She suggests that instead of saving money for her marriage, they should spend it on her education. e. If I were Sushila‟s father, I would spend on education rather than on marriage. Follow–up activity:  Follow the instruction given. Make sure your students know how to set out a letter.  Revise the letter format if necessary. Address ……. Date …….. Salutation ………, Body • Introduction……. • Main body……… • Conclusion……..

Subscription……… Signature……… Discuss the questions with the students and then help them in their writing.

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Possible answer Sanothimi, Bhaktapur 25th April, 2017 Dear Nisha, I am very happy today and want to share my happiness with you. My parents have agreed to let me go to university, but it was not easy. Actually, they wanted me to get married. They had already looked a boy for getting me married to. I was quite upset to know this. As you know I wanted stand on my own feet before marriage by becoming a qualified nurse. I told this to my parents. They didn‟t like my idea at first. They told me that they cannot afford for my further studies. But I managed to convince them by telling them to spend the money required for my marriage on my education so that I can secure my future. They got convinced and agreed to let me join the nursing course. Today my happiness knows no boundaries! Hope you are doing fine. Do be in touch! Your friend, Sushila Extended activity Suppose you are staying in the city and have recently passed Secondary Education Examination (SEE). You want to further your studies in the Management stream, but your parents want you to pursue your higher education in the Science stream. Write a letter to your parents so as to convince them to let you pursue your higher education in the stream of your choice. Reflection Did your students find the answers to the questions easily? What were the problems that were faced by your students? Were they able to write the letter? How can you help your students write personal letter correctly? Lesson Three Grammar Content from the textbook  Grammar activities (Engage yourself, Time for Grammar, Follow up activity (pp. 183-187) Materials required  Usual classroom materials Lesson activities Engage yourself (1)  Ask the students to read the given conversations, and observe how the speakers agree and disagree with the propositions.  Tell the students that it is always a good idea to justify their opinions. Tell them not to just say „I agree‟, but say „I agree because I think that ... (explain your reason).‟ Engage yourself (1)  Now ask the students to go through the list of expressions that they can use to agree and disagree with their partner for any given situations. Help them to understand the meanings and the situations of use for those expressions. 324


Time for grammar  Organize the class into pairs, and ask each pair to complete the give dialogues with the correct expressions that indicate agreeing or disagreeing.  Move around the class and assist the students as required. Suggested answer a. Jack: Julia, what do you think about the new classroom? Julia: For me, the classroom is quite good. It has enough space for us to move around. John: I don't agree with that./I don’t agree!/I totally disagree! The furniture is not well managed. Moreover, there is no sufficient light. b. Dipa: Hey, Look at my new T-shirt. It's quite suitable for me, isn't it? Uddhav: Yeah, That’s right!/You're right. It is quite beautiful. You look really smart in it. c. Silpa: I think we should cancel the whole project right now. Monika: I don't think that's correct. I think cancelling the project is not good for our organisation. d. Simran: Kiran, what do you think about the new constitution? Kiran: I think it's quite good. It is the constitution made by the people. Simran: You're right. It declares ending all forms of discriminations and oppression created by the feudal, autocratic, centralised and unitary system of government in the past. Follow-up activity  Organize the students into groups with 5 students in each group. Tell the students to find from the members of their respective group whether they agree or disagree to the opinion "The government should pay for everybody's education."  Ask each student to write their friends‟ opinion in his/her exercise book. Possible answers: "The government should pay for everybody's education." Agreeing: Yes, you‟re right. The government should make education free up to secondary level because this will uplift the literacy rate of the country. Disagreeing: I don‟t agree with that. The government should charge nominal amount from the people with good economic status as this will lessen the economic burden of the government to some extent. Extended activity Write a paragraph to show your agreement or disagreement, with reasons, on the topic “Students must not have Social Networking Sites Id” Reflection How did the student find the activities used in this lesson ? How can you improve these activities? Plan and write in your personal diary. Lesson Four Listening Content from the textbook  Listening activities (Engage yourself, Study time, Follow-up activity) (p.188) Materials required  Audio file or script of telephone conversation between Amar and Nikita about holiday plan 325


 Related pictures Engage yourself  This is a listening exercise with the objective of making predictions or guesses about information likely to appear in the text through pictures and simple questions.  Ask the students to look at the given pictures carefully, and then guess the answers to the given questions.  Write their answers on the board. Do not comment on the guesses or say which is right or wrong.  Now play the audio file or read the audio script. Ask them to check if there guesses were correct.  Play the audio file or read the audio script one more time so that they can correct their answers. Possible answers a. They are friends, Amar and Nikita. b. They are talking about their holiday plans. c. Amar is planning to go Pokhara for his holiday. Study time (1)  This is a listening comprehension exercise which requires the students to complete the sentences with specific information.  Tell the students to listen to the audio carefully, and complete the sentences correctly.  Play the audio file or read the audio script. Students listen and write. Play the audio file or read the script more than once if necessary. Suggested answers a. daughter‟s birthday b. Pokhara. c. bus. d. a little bit expensive but safe and fast. e. internet Study time (2)  This is a listening comprehension exercise which requires the students to replace the words in bold with correct words.  Tell the students to listen to the audio carefully and replace the words.  Play the audio file or read the audio script. Students listen and write. Play the audio file or read the audio script more than once if necessary. Suggested answers a. Nikita said that Pokhara is a fantastic place. b. According to Nikita, travelling by bus is very tiring. c. Nikita was good at giving ideas about a holiday plan. d. Nikita believes that staying at a hotel is comfortable. e. Amar can try new and interesting food there. Follow-up activity  Organize the students into pairs.  Tell them that you will play the audio once again, and that they would listen to it. carefully so as to write a similar conversation between them about their holiday plan.  Play the audio file. Students listen. When over ask each pair to do the task. Move around the class to help the pair if need be.  Upon completion of the task, ask the pair to present it to the class. 326


Suggested answers A: Hello, How are you? B: Fine. And you? A: Quite good. Is there anything new? B: Yes. I have planned to go for a holiday for this week. A: Oh really! Where do you want to go? B: I would like to go to Illam. Have you been there? A: Yes, I have. It‟s a beautiful place, full of natural beauty. You will definitely love it a lot. Who are you going with? B: I am going with my cousins who have come from village. A: Are you staying at a hotel or with relatives? B: We will be staying at relatives. A: Oh, that‟s good. How are you going there? B: We have booked tickets of a night bus. A: Great! These days there are comfortable buses for Ilam. Okay. Have a nice time with your cousins ! B: Thank you, Bye. A: Bye. Extended activity Ask the students to compose a dialogue between two friends about their holiday plans. Reflection Did the students enjoy doing this activity? Could they draft a good conversation on their own? Lesson Five Speaking Content from the textbook  Speaking activities (Engage yourself, Time for speaking, Follow- up activity (pp.189190) Materials required  Sentences cards with the expressions that express „agreement‟ and „disagreement‟ Lesson activities Engage yourself  By this time the students should have been familiar with different sorts of expressions that can be used for agreeing and disagreeing.  Ask them to complete the given list. Suggested answer: You can use the expressions given under additional resource section at the end of this lesson. Time for speaking (i)  Given are the situations, with the clue of agreeing (yes) or disagreeing (no), followed by conversations showing agreements and disagreements for each given situation.  Organize the students in pairs, and then ask each pair to practise the given conversations with the partner.  Move around the class to make sure that each pair is engaged in the activity. Time for speaking (ii)  Pair up the students.  Tell the students that some situations with clue for agreeing or disagreeing are given, and that they have to show their agreement or disagreement with reasons. 327


Move around the class to make sure that each pair is engaged in the activity.

Sample Answers: (accept any suitable answers) a. dogs/better companions than cats: no A: I think dogs are better companions than cats. B: I don‟t agree with you. Cats are much better companions because they never disturb you. b. teachers/helpful: yes A: Teachers are very helpful people. B: You are right! They are always ready to help students with their work. c. government of Nepal/address the problems of street children: yes A: The government of Nepal should address the problems of street children. B: Absolutely! The government must come up with policies and plans to uplift such children. d. students/go abroad after 10+2: no A: Students should go abroad after 10+2. B: That‟s not right. They should remain in the country and do something good for the country. Follow-up activity  Pair up the students and ask one to give his her opinion on 'Foreign Employment', and the other to show his/her agreement or disagreement.  Also tell them to change their roles. Sample answers: (accept any suitable answers) A: Foreign employment has helped people to uplift their financial status. B: You are probably right. People employed in foreign countries have been seen living a better life. Or I don‟t agree. I have seen foreign employed people facing lots of difficulties. Extended activity Ask the students to present their views verbally or in writing on the present education system of Nepal. Reflection Was this class lively? How could you further improve this sort of lesson ? Lesson Six Writing Content from the textbook  Writing activities (Engage Yourself, Time for writing, Follow-up activity ( pp. 190191) Materials required  A bigger picture of the one given in the lesson. Lesson activities Engage yourself  Ask the students to look at the picture, and guess the answers to the given questions.  Write their guesses on the board. Don not comment on the guesses or say which is right or wrong. 328


After having written down the answers, give your answers, and also correct the wrong answers, if any. Sample answers a. They have felled the tree, and now they are cutting it into pieces. b. They may be cutting it to use the wood to make furniture or to use it as house building material. c. If they go cutting trees this way, there won‟t be any trees left and several environmental problems may crop up. Time for writing  Tell the students that they are given the beginning of a dialogue, and that they need to complete it stating what may or will happen in 10 years‟ time if woodcutters continue cutting down the trees.  Ask them to work in pairs. When they are working, help them if they need your assistance. Sample answer: (Accept any other correct answer.) A: In ten years’ time there won’t be any tree left in the forest. B: You’re probably right. Woodcutters are cutting down trees indiscriminately. A: I think if this continues, we will have to face severe problems in the days to come. B: Exactly! We have already started to see the change in the climate. A: Deforestation has been one of the major causes of flash floods. B: You are right. If cutting down of trees is not checked, even the light downpour can bring havoc in the country. A: Not only this, we have now started to face the ill effects of global warming. In ten years‟ time things are going to get worst for sure. B: I totally agree! Indiscriminate cutting down of trees is one of the reasons for this. If this is not checked, we will change this beautiful place to an ugly one. Follow-up activity  Ask the pairs to share their dialogue with the other pairs in the class, and get their responses to it.  Also tell them to incorporate the response/ideas of their friends in their work before they submit for marking.  Mark their work and give them feedback, if any. Extended activity Ask the students to write five expressions each for expressing agreement and disagreement. Lesson Seven Project work and Fun corner Content from the textbook  Project work and Fun corner (p. 191) Materials required  Usual classroom materials Lesson activities Project work  Ask the students to listen to any BBC programme on the radio or Internet, and write a paragraph about that programme.  Give them two days‟ time to complete.  After they come up with the work, ask them to present it to the class. 329


Fun corner  Ask the students to find the answers to the given riddles. It can be used in the form of a class quiz or competition.  If the students cannot answer, give them the answers. Answers to the riddles a. rain b. candle/pencil c. it can have a hole in it d. an umbrella e. smile Extended activity Ask the students to write a couple of paragraphs about the causes and effects of deforestation. Reflection ...................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................

Part 3: Additional Resources 1. Exponents for agreeing and disagreeing A. Agreeing  That‟s right!  Exactly!  Me too!  Yes, I agree!  I totally agree!  I couldn‟t agree more!  I see exactly what you mean!  You're right. That's a good point. B. Disagreeing  I don‟t agree!  I totally disagree!  Absolutely not!  That‟s not right!  I‟m not sure about that. C. Partly agreeing  I agree up to a point, but ...  I see your point, but ...  That‟s partly true, but ...  I'm not so sure about that. 2. Some useful sites:  http://www.writinghelp-central.com/personal-letter-format.html  https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/992/01/  http://www.goodletterwriting.info/personal-letters.html  https://www.template.net/business/letters/personal-letter-template/  http://emilypost.com/advice/writing-personal-letters/ 330


Script of the audio You will hear a telephone conversation between Amar and Nikita about holiday plan. (Telephone ringing....) Nikita: Hello, Amar. How are you? Amar: Fine, Nikita. And you? Nikita: Quite good. Is there anything new happening? Amar: Yes. I have planned a holiday for this week for my daughter‟s birthday. Nikita: Oh really! Where do you want to go? Amar: We would like to go to Pokhara. What do you think about spending time in Pokhara? Have you been there before? Nikita: Yes, I have. Personally I think it‟s a fantastic place and full of natural beauty. You will definitely love it a lot. Do you want to go there by bus or plane? Amar: By bus. Nikita: I think it‟s very tiring. Travelling by plane is a little bit expensive but safe and fast. Amar: What about staying at a hotel or with relatives? Nikita: In my opinion, staying at a hotel will be comfortable. Amar: Yes, I agree with you. Is it ok if I book a ticket from a travel agency? Nikita: It's okay, but booking tickets from the Internet is much faster and cheaper, isn‟t it? Amar: Exactly! You‟re very good at giving ideas about a holiday plan. One more question: Is it good to eat local food there? Nikita: Sure, that‟s what I think. You can try new and interesting food. It is completely different from our culture. You can find fast food everywhere. Amar: Definitely, you‟re right. Thanks for your suggestion, Nikita! Bye. Nikita: Take care. Hope you have a great time there.

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UNIT EIGHTEEN INDICATING TIME AND MOTIONS

Part 1: Unit outline Curriculum reference: Language function no. 19 under scope and sequence Things to teach Language function and forms/exponents: Indicating Time and Motions  Prepositions of time: at, in, on, till, since, for, etc.  Prepositions of motions: through, from, off, into, along, etc. Reading: Habit Cultivation  Reading comprehension followed by extended activities  Text based vocabulary items Grammar: Prepositions of time and motion Listening: A story about the struggle of a caterpillar  Listening comprehension followed by extended activities Speaking: Indicating time and motion  Taking part in conversations using the prepositions to indicate time and motion  Playing a game of preposition of motion Writing: Describing pictures  Writing a paragraph using prepositions of motions to describe the pictures Content themes/topics  Habit cultivation  Struggle in life  Effective study skills and habits Expected achievements of the students By the end of this unit, the students will have:  told the meaning of the new words used in the reading texts and used them in speaking and writing.  completed the comprehension tasks based on the reading texts.  made a list of good habits and mentioned how a person can achieve them.  used the prepositions of time and motion appropriately.  completed the comprehension tasks based on the audio.  indicated time and motion by using preposition in their conversations, and  described pictures using prepositions of motion.  written a report on "effective study skills and habits" based on field-based information. Integrated soft skills  Cooperation skills  Leadership skills  Presentation skills  Innovation skills Teaching resources  Flash cards of the words in bold face from the text 'Habit Cultivation' 332


      

A few sheets of chart paper and a few sketch pens of different colours A video showing the use of preposition of movement ( source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oUIJN242tBw) A chart showing the use of prepositions of place A video showing life cycle of a butterfly (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O1S8WzwLPlM) Audio file containing the story of the struggle of a caterpillar A chart containing the phonemic transcription of English sounds A video on habit cultivation by Brian Tracy (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nu5I85_YAak)

Estimated periods: 10

Part 2: Learning Facilitation Process Lesson One Reading Content from the textbook  Reading activities (Engage yourse, Study Time :Habit Cultivation (pp. 192-193) Materials required  Flash cards  A video on habit cultivation by Brian Tracy (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nu5I85_YAak)  The book 'You Can Win' by Shiva Khera Lesson activities Engage yourself  Show the video on habit cultivation by Brian Tracy or any other video on habit cultivation (or share your experience on habit cultivation if the video is not available). (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nu5I85_YAak)  Ask each student to say one habit which they think is the best habit of them. (If the class size is big, make the students work in groups. Let them discuss in group and list out one habit from each member. Later the group leader will share it with the class. You may get the answers like:  Getting up early  Brushing teeth twice a day  Speaking politely  Going to bed on time, etc.  Take some of the habits that you consider to be the best ones and ask how the students have acquired them.  You may get the answers like:  We were taught by our parents.  We were taught by the teachers, etc.  Ask the students to suggest some ways to develop good habits.  The desired habit must be repeated.  We have to practise a lot.  We should develop positive attitude, etc.  Show the book 'You Can Win' by Shiva Khera, and ask the students if they have read the book or heard anything about it. If someone says 'Yes', let him/her share what s/he knows about the book to the class.  Tell them that they are going to read the excerpt from the same book. 333


Study time: Habit Cultivation  Ask the students to go through the text, and mark the new words.  Ask them to guess the meaning of the words looking at the context, if they can't help them to find the meanings using a dictionary.  The text contains so many complex sentences; make the students familiar with the structure of such sentences. For example: a. If you were to analyse the lives of lucky and unlucky individuals being commented on, you'd find that the successful person is doing something right in each transaction, and the failure is repeating the same mistake time and again. b. The ability to show courage in the face of adversity; show self-restraint in the face of hurt, show character in the face of despair, and see opportunity in the face of obstacles are all valuable traits to posses, etc.  Divide the students in the groups of four or five, and ask each group to read the text silently, and list out the ways of cultivating good habits that are suggested by the writer in the text.  Make each group present their discussion to the class, and provide feedback. Suggested response The ways of cultivating good habits a. Perfect practice b. Inspiration and motivation c. Development of positive attitude d. Constant and consistent training Extended activity  Make the students list down some habits that they think are very important for the students. Possible answer  Get organized  Develop a study plan  Think positively  Create a study group  Practice active listening  Read actively Reflection ...................................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................... Lesson Two Reading Content from the textbook  Reading activities (Vocabulary in use, Reading comprehension, Follow-up activity) (pp. 193-194) Materials required  A few sheets of chart paper and a few sketch pens of different colours Lesson activities Vocabulary in use (i)  Ask the students to read the words in the box, and to see if they are familiar with those words. If they are not, tell them to consult a dictionary and find the meaning of those words. 334


Get them to read the sentences given in the exercise. Be sure that all of them understand the sentences. If anyone has difficulty, facilitate them.  Now ask them to fill the gaps in the sentences with the correct word from the box working in pairs.  When they finish the task, ask them to share their answers with the class, and provide necessary feedback. Suggested answers a. determination b. inspiration c. traits d. automatic e. integrity f. abstain Reading comprehension (i)  Ask the students to go through the sentences given in the exercise. Make sure that they understand the sentences.  Ask them to decide whether the sentences are true or false working in pairs.  Get them to share their answers with the public, and provide necessary suggestion.  Ask the students why a particular sentence is true or false. If they can't justify, provide them the reason. Suggested answers a. True b. False c. False d. True e. True f. True g. True Reading comprehension (ii)  Ask the students to go through the questions. Make sure that they understand the questions.  Ask the students to go through the text again, and mark the lines where the answers to these questions are likely to be found.  While the students are engaged in the task go around the class and assist them. At the mean time correct their answers and provide feedback in writing. Possible answers a. The comment we often hear is that someone is lucky and everything turns out to be good to him or unlucky and everything turns out to be bad to him. b. Some people become perfect in making mistakes by repeating the mistakes so many times. c. Yes, I consider myself to be perfect because I always try to avoid making mistakes and repeating them. d. Ability to show courage, showing self restraint, being happy, trying to seek opportunity in the challenges, etc. are the valuable traits that human beings have to possess. e. We can form a habit by practising anything for a long time.

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f. I have decided to think positively and remove all bad behaviours after reading this text. Follow-up activity  Divide the class into the groups of four or five. Get each group to discuss and make the list of at least10 good habits. Also ask them to include the habits from following areas.         

 

  

Fitness habits Eating habits Thinking habits Emotional habits Personal growth habits Career habits Learning habits Self-confidence habits Friendship habits, etc. For example:  Go for a walk every day.  Substitute one unhealthy food choice for a healthy food.  Substitute fruit for a high calorie, sugary dessert.  Remove your negative thoughts during the day.  Take up a mentally challenging hobby like crossword puzzles, Sudoku, or other brain games to keep your brain active.  Begin a practice of morning or evening meditation, prayer, or contemplation, starting with just five minutes a day.  Create the habit of spending time in nature every day and mindfully appreciating the beauty around you.  Read or watch something that makes you laugh out loud every day.  Practice open and honest communication rather than passive-aggressive behaviors or words.  Write a vision for who you want to be and how you want to live, and take one action a day to make the vision real. After they make a list, ask them to write those points on a chart paper or prepare a slide using Microsoft Power Point. Now ask each group to discuss how a person can cultivate those habits, and get them to make a list of the ways of cultivating them. For example:  Commit to thirty days – Three to four weeks is all the time you need to make a habit automatic  Make it daily – Consistency is critical if you want to make a habit stick  Start simple – Don’t try to completely change your life in one day  Stay consistent – The more consistent your habit the easier it will be to stick.  Find someone who will go along with you and keep you motivated if you feel like quitting.  Spend more time with people who model the habits you want  Familiarize yourself with the benefits of making a change  Tool your habits towards your goals and the things that motivate you, etc. Again make the groups to put their ideas on chart paper or on a slide. Then invite each group for the presentation one by one. After each presentation, get other students to provide feedback on the presentation. 336


Extended activity  Ask the students to write their bad habits. After they write, suggest them to leave these habits. Possible answers Bad habits  Biting or chewing nails  Lying quite often  Staying up late  Falling asleep in class  Skipping class  Not doing homework Reflection Write a reflective note on this lesson. Lesson Three Grammar Content from the textbook  Engage yourself and Time for grammar 1 (p. 195-196) Materials required  A video showing the use of preposition of movement  A video showing the use of preposition of time  A chart with the list of preposition of time and motion Lesson activities Engage yourself (1)  If possible, show the video to the students that shows the use of preposition of movement.  Ask the students to note down the prepositions used in the video.  Ask them to share their list with the class. And ask others if they want to make any change in the list presented by their friend.  Now ask the students to look at the pictures in the book and see the use of different preposition of motion. Engage yourself (2)  Ask the students to read the pyramid and observe the use of different prepositions.  Make sensible sentences using the given prepositional phrases.  Ask the students to make their own sentences using the given prepositional phrases. Time for grammar (1)  Make the students recall the use of prepositions of time and motion displaying the chart that contains prepositions of time and motion. For example: a. Which preposition is used before days and dates? b. Which preposition is used before the name of festivals? etc.  Now ask the students to rewrite the given sentences by supplying the correct prepositions where necessary. They can work either individually or in pairs.  While the students are engaged with the task, move around the class and assist them.  Once they finish, conduct a public sharing and feedback session.

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Suggested answers a. What are you doing at the weekend? b. There was a loud noise which woke us up at midnight. c. I went to Khotang (×) last Saturday. d. I'll see you on Tuesday afternoon. e. In my home town, the shops open early in the morning. f. The party is (×) next Saturday. g. His daughter was born on the 24th of August. h. Luckily the weather was perfect on her wedding day. i. We get plenty of snow here in the winter. j. I stayed with them for three weeks. k. The students study in the library until it closes. l. It has been raining since morning. Reflection Write down what worked for you today, what did not work and what you want to improve. Four Grammar Content from the textbook  Time for grammar 2 and Follow-up activity (p. 197) Materials required  A chart with the list of preposition of time and motion Lesson activities Time for grammar (2)  Ask the students to read the prepositions given in the box and the paragraph that is to be completed.  Make them discuss in pairs and decide the correct preposition for each gap.  Get them to write the paragraph in their exercise books supplying the correct prepositions.  Ask them to exchange their work with other pairs from whom they will get feedback.  Ask them to correct their answers if they are suggested by the other pairs, and then make them share their answers with the class. Provide your feedback saying which of their answers are correct and which one they need to correct. Suggested answers in, During, to, from, From, by, at, behind, in, for, through, by, with, round Follow -up activity  Ask the students to work in pairs. Tell them that each pair of sentences is different in terms of only the preposition. Because of this, they have different meanings, and they have to find out the difference in their meanings.  Let them discuss in their pairs for a while, and then make them share their answers with the class. Make other students provide feedback and give your opinion after they finish presenting their answers. Suggested answers a. 'Walking towards' implies that Maria was going in the general direction to London, whereas 'walking to' means a direct movement to the place. 338


b. The first sentence means Lisa hit the wall with her car, whereas the second sentence means Lisa crossed the wall from one place to another. c. The first sentence implies that the couple walked on the side of the river, whereas the second sentence means they crossed the river from one side of the river to the other. d. The first sentence means the boy came long before the time specified, whereas the second sentence means the boy came exactly at the specified time. e. The first sentence implies that Linda was in the kitchen but she is not enclosed but inside the kitchen means Linda was enclosed in the kitchen. f. The first sentence means the politician crossed the room saying hello to everyone but he 'walked round' in the second sentence means he met everyone present in the room. Extended activity Write a story using the preposition of time and movement, and underline the prepositions you have used. Reflection If you had the opportunity to teach the lesson again to the same group of students, would you do anything differently? What? Why? Lesson Five Listening Content from the textbook  Listening activities (Engage yourself, Study time, Follow-up activity (pp. 198-199) Materials required  Diagram of life cycle of a butterfly  A video showing life cycle of a butterfly (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O1S8WzwLPlM)  Audio file containing the story of the struggle of a caterpillar Lesson activities Engage yourself  Display the diagram of the life cycle of a butterfly, and ask the questions given in the textbook under this section. a. Students may answer, "life cycle of a butterfly." b. Students either say 'yes' or 'no'. c. Students may say, "By breaking the cocoon."  Conduct a brief discussion session on their answers without making any judgment on the correctness of their answers.  Ask the students to guess what they are going to listen to. Study time (1)  Ask the students to study the task in 'study time (1)'. Make sure that they understand the task.  Ask the students to listen to the audio and complete the task. Assign this as an individual task.  Now play the audio file or read the script aloud. You can play the audio more than once if required.  Once all the students complete the task, conduct a public sharing and feedback session. Suggested answers a. struggle 339


b. help c. died. d. law e. deprived Study time (2)  Explain the task to the students. Make sure that they understand the task.  Ask the students to listen to the audio, and complete the task individually.  Play the audio file or read the script aloud. You can play the audio more than once if required.  After they complete the task, ask them to share their answers with the class and provide your judgment on the correctness of their answers. Suggested answers a. True b. True c. False d. False e. True Follow -up activity  Divide the class into the groups of four or five. Ask each group to discuss on the topic "The more we struggle, the stronger we become."  Ask each group to write at least ten points as conclusion of their discussion. Some points can be:  We cannot grow without struggle.  We cannot develop strength without resistance.  Pain is our friend for the evolution of our soul.  If we do not have failures, struggles and disappointments, we cannot have strength and courage.  We are given pain because we are strong enough to handle it.  We are stronger than we think about ourselves.  Every challenge we face is a new learning and we become more matured as we face one.  A child crawls slowly, begins to walk and succeeds to run at the end.  Strength comes from struggle. When you learn to see your struggles as opportunities to become stronger, better, wiser, then your thinking shifts from 'I can't do this' to 'I must do this.  Now ask each group to share their points with the class while the other students will comment on their points.  Provide your feedback too. Extended activity Ask the students to write a story about the struggle of a successful person in your locality. A sample Thomas Edision Thomas Edision, one of the famous Americans, is attributed with failing over 10,000 times to invent a commercially viable electric light bulb, but he didn’t give up. When asked by a newspaper reporter if he felt like a failure and if he should give up, after having gone through over 9,000 failed attempts, Edison simply stated “Why would I feel like a failure? And why 340


would I ever give up? I now know definitely over 9,000 ways an electric light bulb will not work. Success is almost in my grasp.” This is also the same person whose teachers said he was “too stupid to learn anything,” and fired from his first two employment positions for not being productive enough. However, Edison, through his failures, is also the greatest innovator of all time with 1,093 US patents to his name, along with several others in the UK, and Canada. This is someone who refused to ever give up no matter what. It’s said that in his early days, he attributed his success to his mother, who pulled him out of school and began to teach him herself. It’s because of his mother, and how wholeheartedly she believed in him, that he didn’t want to disappoint her. His early fascination for chemical experiments and mechanical engineering paved the way for a future that was incredible bright. His company, GE, is still one of the largest publicly-traded firms in the world, continually innovating across virtually every spectrum. (Source: https://www.wanderlustworker.com/12-famous-people-who-failed-before-succeeding/)

Reflection Do you think the four skills of language; listening, speaking, reading and writing should be taught in integration and not in isolation? Do you teach them in isolation or in an integrated way? While teaching 'listening' in this lesson, did you integrate all four language skills? Write a short reflective journal.

Lesson Six Speaking Content from the textbook  Speaking activities (Engage yourself, Time for speaking, Follow-up activity (pp. 199200) Materials required  Usual classroom materials Lesson activities Engage yourself  Ask the students to observe and study the conversation given in the textbook.  Now divide the class into pairs, and ask each pair to play the role of the boy and the girl in the conversations.  Also ask them to reverse their role, and have conversation once again. While they are engaged with the task, move around the class and observe their language, and note down the errors in your diary. But do not interrupt the students.  Give some more situation as in these exercises and ask the students to play the role. For example 1. Girl: How long have you been painting pictures? Boy: I've been painting pictures for two years. 2. Boy: How long have you been studying in this school? Girl: I've been studying in this school for five years.  Make the pairs swap the roles. Time for speaking (1)  Make the students practise the conversations given in the above exercises. Make them reverse their roles.  Give them some situations in which they will develop the conversation themselves. For example: 341


 going to dance class/once a year Student A: How long have you been going to dance class? Student B: I've been going to dance class for a year.  learning the guitar/four months  playing cricket/two years  speaking English/five years  living in (name of place where they live) /ten years  Go round the class, observe their activities and facilitate them if you realise it is necessary. Time for speaking (2)  Make the class read the example silently. Ask them to observe and study the use of preposition in the conversation.  Invite two students in front of the class and get them to play the role of A and B for the conversation given in the example, and then ask them to switch the role.  Ask the students to have the conversation for the other situations given in the exercise in the same way in their pairs. Suggested answers a. butterfly/fly over a flower A: Did you see a butterfly in the garden? What was it doing? B: Yes, I saw it. It was flying over a flower. b. bear/climb up a tree A: Did you see a bear in the zoo yesterday? What was it doing? B: Yes, I saw it. It was climbing up a tree. c. frog/dive into pond A: Did you see a frog in the garden? What was it doing? B: Yes, I saw it. It was diving into the pond in my garden. d. snake/slither across the road A: Did you see a snake on the way to school? What was it doing? B: Yes, I saw it. It was slithering across the road. Follow - up activity (1)  Ask the students to go through the procedure of the game, and make them understand the steps.  Now ask them to play the game according to the procedure. Assist them as required. Follow-up activity (2)  Explain the task to the students, i.e. one of the students in a pair will ask the question from the exercise and the other will give the answer.  Ask them to reverse their roles.  Move around the class and facilitate them. Possible answers a. A: What time did you go to the market yesterday? B: I went to the market at 10 am yesterday. b. A: Have you ever fallen off the bed? B: No, I haven't. c. A: Did you go through the park yesterday? B: Yes, I did. 342


d. A: Have you ever swum across the river? B: Yes, I have. e. A: Who jumped over the fence? B: A thug jumped over the fence. f. A: What did you see through the window? B: I saw a range of Himalayas through the window. g. A: Do you love walking along the road? B: Yes, I do. h. A: Do you like to go up or down the stairs? B: I like to go down the stairs. i. A: Did you climb up the hill or the mountain? B: I climbed up the hill. j. A: Do you enjoy walking under the bridge? B: No, I don't. Extended activity Ask the students to write a short story using the prepositions given in the box. towards out of

through up

across

into

over

around

in

Sample story The robbery The robber walked through the doors. He looked around the bank carefully before walking up to the teller’s desk. The robber looked over his shoulder nervously. He put his hand into his pocket and pulled out his gun. 'This is a robbery! Put the money in an envelope and give it to me!' he said. The teller, terrified, pushed the money towards the robber. The robber took the money and walked out of the bank calmly. He walked across the street and got into the car where his friend was waiting. (Source: http://www.onestopenglish.com/grammar/grammar-reference/nouns-and phrases/prepositions) Reflection The shy students who are afraid of speaking English are considered as a challenge for English teachers. Do you think the same? How can an English teacher overcome this challenge? Write a short reflective journal based on your context. Lesson Seven Writing Content from the textbook  Writing activities (Engage yourself, Time for writing, Follow-up activity) (p. 201) Materials required  Pictures showing different movement of a mouse

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Lesson activities Engage yourself  Ask the students to look at the pictures. Get them to discuss in pairs and decide the motion of the mouse shown in each picture using the prepositions of motion.  When the pair discussion is over, ask some of them randomly, "Where is the mouse going?" showing different pictures in the exercise. Time for writing  Divide the class into the groups of four or five. Ask them to look at the pictures and discuss them in the group and write a sentence for each picture of "Engage yourself" using the prepositions of motion. For example: a. The mouse entered into the house through a hole. b. It went round the woman. c. It climbed onto the pile of books. d. It climbed into the school bag. e. It came out of the bag. f. It went towards the rack and climbed up to the upper compartment. g. It jumped out of the cupboard with a piece of cake.  Go round the class and facilitate the students to select appropriate prepositions of motion.  After the groups make a list of sentences, ask them to make a paragraph using those sentences. For example: The mouse is seen to enter the house through a hole. As soon as it entered into the house, it went round the woman and climbed onto the pile of books. Then it climbed into the school bag but it did not find anything there. Thus it came out of the bag. After, it went towards the rack and climbed up to the top most compartments. And, finally it jumped out of the cupboard with a piece of cake. 

Ask each group to present their writing to the class and get the other students to give feedback to them, provide your feedback regarding the selection of preposition, use of cohesive devices and grammatical correctness of their writing. Follow -up activity  Make the students look at the pictures, and ask them to discuss in the group of four or five.  Ask each group to make sentences for each picture using the prepositions of motion. For example: a. The boy is drowning into the pool. b. The girl is going to dive into the swimming pool to help the boy. c. The girl is diving into the pool. d. The girl is bringing the boy out of the pool.  Ask them to share their answers to the class, and provide feedback. Extended Activity Give the following task to the students. Write a paragraph describing the movement of a man in the picture below.

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(Source:https://www.google.com.np/search?q=a+picture+showing+the+preposition+of+motion)

Possible answer The man got out of the bus and entered into the park. He went around the pond. He walked along the bridge over a stream. He walked out of the gate past the swing. He continued along the road. He went in through the gate. Then he walked along the road towards the office. Reflection ...................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................ Lesson Eight and Nine Project work and Fun corner Content from the textbook  Project work and Fun corner (p. 202) Materials required  Voice recorder or a diary for note taking Lesson activities 1. Planning  Divide the class into the groups of four to six.  Explain the task to the students (They are going to interview three people from their school/community, who are successful in their academic career, focusing on their study skills and habits.)  Make each group decide the people who are to be interviewed. (Ask the students to choose the people who are in the school or very close to it.) They can choose the following people:  People with Master's Degree/M. Phil./Ph. D.  Doctors  Engineers, etc.

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Ask each group to prepare the questions for interview. (Make them prepare at least 10 questions. They may use the questions given in the textbook or they can prepare their own.)  Sample questions for interview: a. What are you reading these days? b. What sorts of books do you prefer reading? c. What makes you read? d. Were you interested in your study when you were a child? e. How did you use to study at that time? f. Do you study in the same way now too or have you got different study skills and habits? g. Could you tell us the study skills that you use at present? h. Could you share your habit of study in brief? i. In your opinion, what are the basic study skills that the students like us need to develop? j. Finally, is there anything more you want to advise to the young readers like us?  Inform them about rapport building (They must greet the persons to be interviewed, inform them about the purpose of the interview, ask them for the time, and thank them after the interview…)  Take the permission from the administration to do this project. 2. Conducting  Send the students for the interview.  Get them to visit the interviewees and take the interview.  Make them take the notes of the information elicited from the interviewees or record their voice.  Ask them to analyze and interpret the information. 3. Reporting  Ask the students to sit in groups and discuss the information collected from the interview for the preparation of a report on "Effective Study Skills and Habits".  Ask them to write the first draft of the report.  Get them to exchange their draft of the report with the other groups which will provide some feedback regarding the selection of words, grammar, coherence, cohesion, etc.  Get each group to edit their writing as per the advice given by the other group members.  Make each group present their report to the class and have other group members comment on their presentation.  Provide your feedback. Sample A Report on Effective Study Skills and Habits Introduction Study skills are the skills we need to enable ourselves to study and learn efficiently. They are approaches applied to learning. They are generally critical to success in school, considered essential for acquiring good grades, and useful for learning throughout one's life.

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Study skills are techniques that can be learned, usually in a short time, and applied to all or most fields of study. Study skills are used by the individuals to locate, organize, and remember information; they may include such things as using a table of contents, outlining etc. We have presented different study skills and habits that were used by the successful people in our community after taking an interview with them as part of our project work. .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................... Persons interviewed a. ……………………………………. b……………………………………… c. ……………………………………… Effective study skills and habits After analyzing the information elicited from our interviewees we found the following skills and habits which will be very useful for us. .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......... Conclusion A good study skill used by a learner enables him/her to learn well. A learner must manage the time and must decide his/her goal of study in advance. They must develop the habit of studying at the specific planned time regularly. If the above mentioned skills are followed by a learner, s/he can learn everything effectively. ....................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................... Fun corner  Ask the students if they know what a Haiku is. (a poem with three lines and 17 syllables)  Ask if they have ever heard a Haiku before. If anyone has heard, make him/her share it with the class.  Make them read the Haikus by Basho Matsuo, a famous Japanese poet which are given in the textbook.  Ask the students to explain the meaning of the haiku given in the textbook. If they can't, tell them. Explanation of hiku 1 Basho’s haikus are meant to be dramatic, exaggerating humor, depression and other feelings. Basho also uses his haikus to emphasize human’s smallness in relief to the greatness of nature’s power. By casting the pond as ancient and “old”, Basho makes it larger than life. The pond is a b. Summary relic, something that is there and will always be there. The frog represents life and no matter how much he disturbs the water, there is still “Silence” in the end. Humans are but a splash in the ancient history of nature. Source: http://shiapenglish.blogspot.com/2009/04/old-silent-pond-by-matsuo-basho-haiku.html 347


Extended activity Ask the students to compose a haiku themselves. They can take the haikus in the textbook as samples. Reflection Each student learns differently because each has his/her own learning style. So a teacher must bring variations in classroom activities. Do you agree with this opinion? Why/Why not?

Part 3: Additional Resources 1. Useful links  http://www.lifehack.org/articles/featured/18-tricks-to-make-new-habits-stick.html (for the ways of habit cultivation)  http://liveboldandbloom.com/08/habits/list-of-habits (for good habits) 2. 'You Can Win' by Shiva Khera 3. Life cycle of a butterfly

4. Listening script You will hear a man telling a story about a struggle of a caterpillar. A biology teacher was teaching his students how a caterpillar turns into a butterfly. He told the students that in the next couple of hours, the butterfly would struggle to come out of the cocoon, but no one should help the butterfly. Then he left. The students were waiting and it happened. The butterfly struggled to get out of the cocoon and against the advice of the teacher; one of the students took pity on it and decided to help the butterfly out of the cocoon. He broke the cocoon to help the butterfly so it didn’t have to struggle anymore. But, shortly afterwards, the butterfly died. When the teacher returned, he was told what had happened. He explained to the student that it is a law of nature that the struggle to come out of the cocoon actually helps develop and strengthen the butterfly’s wings. By helping the butterfly, the boy had deprived the butterfly of its struggle and the butterfly died.

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UNIT NINETEEN INTERPRETING TABLES AND CHARTS

Part 1: Unit Outline Curriculum reference: Language function no. 20 under scope and sequence Things to teach Language function and forms/exponents: Interpreting tables and charts  The table/diagram shows that ...  According to the table/diagram ... Reading: 1. Interpretation of a Bar Diagram 2. Interpretation of table chart and graph  Reading comprehension followed by extended activities  Text based vocabulary items Grammar:

Reason, Purpose, Contrastive, Time and Condition Connectives

Listening:

A memoir review of Anne Frank  Listening comprehension followed by extended activities

Speaking:   

Stating stages of providing first aid for snake bite and of repairing a bicycle puncture Analyzing the data given in the table Demonstrating the process

Writing: Interpreting tables and pie chart Content themes/topics  Para-orthographic texts  Biography  First aid for snake bite and of repairing a bicycle puncture Expected achievements of the students By the end of this unit, the students will have:  interpreted tables, charts and diagrams.  completed the comprehension tasks of the given reading texts.  written a set of instructions for a process.  used reason, 'purpose', 'contrastive', 'time' and 'condition' connectives correctly to link sentences.  completed comprehension tasks after listening to the audio.  written a diary entry.  presented data in table, bar diagram and pie chart. 349


Integrated Soft Skills  Inter-personal skills  Inter-cultural skills  Information management skills  Learning skills  Creative thinking skills  Creative thinking and problem solving  Diverse communication and collaboration Teaching materials  Relevant Tables, Bar Diagram and Pie charts.  A chart with lists of expressions/phrases/words used for interpreting tables, diagrams and charts.  Audio file of the assigned listening scrip Estimated periods: 8

Part 2: Learning Facilitation Process Lesson One Reading I Content from textbook  Engage yourself, Study time: Reading) (Interpretation of diagram p. 203-205) Materials required  Bar diagram, table, line graph, pie chart, flow chart  Flash cards of the words from 'Vocabulary in use' Lesson activities Engage yourself (1)  Ask the students to look at the given figures, and to name them. Suggested answers Fig. a. – bar diagram Fig. b. – table Fig. c. – line graph Fig. d. – pie chart Fig. e. – flow chart Engage yourself (2)  Ask the students to look at the figure 'e', and tell what it is about to the friend sitting next to him/her. Answers: It is about the process of preparing/making potato chips. Study time (Reading I)  First tell the students that the given figure is a bar chart/diagram showing the number of students of a public school in Illam.  Next tell them that the dark shaded bars show the number of boys and the light shaded bars show the number of girls.  Then tell them that the number of students is shown at the Y axis (left of the figure) and the years (2011 to 2015) at the X axis (bottom of the figure). Also tell them that the small shaded boxes to the right of the figure are called Legends. 350


Finally ask the students to look at the figure, bar chart, very carefully and read its interpretation that follows slowly and silently. Vocabulary in use (1)  Finding words for the given meanings is a very useful exercise for teaching vocabulary.  Organize the class into groups and then ask them to go through the words under the heading “Vocabulary in use” (p. 205) carefully.  Now ask them to read the interpretation carefully and find the synonyms (similar meanings) of the words given.  When the students do the activity, move around the class to see that each member in the group is engaged. If any group finds difficulty, help it get the word. Suggested answers portrays - reveals/depicts discloses - reveals escalated - increased precisely - exactly tendency - trend stable - constant Extended activity Ask the students to make a similar flow chart like the one in „figure e‟ about the process of making any food item/dish. Reflection Did the students enjoy doing the activities? Have they become familiar with different types of diagrams? How have you planned to facilitate the students while interpreting charts and diagrams? Make a note of it. Lesson Two Reading I (contd.) Content from textbook  Reading comprehension (Interpretation of diagram p. 204) Required materials  Figures of bar diagram, table, line graph, pie chart, flow chart Lesson activities Reading comprehension (i)  Organize the class into pairs.  Tell each pair to study the bar chart or to read the interpretation carefully and to choose the best answers from the given alternatives to complete the given sentences.  Move around the class when the pairs are at work. Assist the students who find difficulty to answer the questions. Suggested answers a. was the same in all years. b. 6:5 c. more than the number of boys that decreased d. the total figure of the students did not change

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Reading comprehension (ii)  This activity asks the students to study the bar chart more carefully in order to find specific answers to questions no. a to b. and the probable answer to question no. e.  Now ask the students to study the chart, and to read the text silently once again, and answer the questions. Make sure that they have understood the questions.  Tell the students to give specific answers.  Ask each student to do the work on his/her own in the class. Move around the class when the students work.  Assist the students who find difficulty to answer the questions. Suggested answers a. The number of the boys and the girls enrolled to a public school in Ilam each year between the years 2011 and 2015 is presented in the given bar diagram. b. Six hundred girls were studying in the school in the year 2015. c. The number of boys that decreased every year was one hundred. d. About 17 % of boys decreased over a period of five years. e. Answer may vary (Accept any suitable answer) Extended activity Ask the students to interpret the given chart in their own words. Janata Higher Secondary School SEE results of the year 2016 Total no. of students appeared in the exam:-67

Reflection Did the students interpret the chart correctly? How could you make this lesson better? Note down your points in your personal diary.

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Lesson Three Reading II Content from textbook  Reading II (Table and Pie Chart, Pp. 206-207) Required materials  Figures of bar diagram, table, line graph, pie chart, flow chart  Flash cards of the words from 'vocabulary in use' Lesson activities Reading II (Table and Pie Chart) Vocabulary in use  Tell the students that the given phrases are used in the above text to describe the pie chart.  Now ask them to go through them carefully, and find out other similar expressions used to describe the pie chart. Suggested answers  The above pie chart displays - The pie chart clearly shows  According to the pie chart - As seen in the chart  The pie chart clearly shows that – The pie chart elucidates  As seen in the chart - According to the pie chart Reading comprehension (i)  Ask the students to study the table and the pie chart again, and then indicate whether the following statements are true or false. Suggested answers: a. false b. false c. false d. false e. true Reading comprehension (ii)  Ask the students to study the table and the pie chart again, and answer the given questions.  Ask each student to do the work on his/her own in the class. Move around the class when the students work.  Assist the students who find difficulty to answer the questions. Suggested answers a. 436983 students appeared in the SLC examination in the year 2072-073. b. 7.31 % of students who scored grade C+. c. Grade D was scored by the majority of the students. d. 71125students achieved the grade D+. e. No, it is not that satisfactory because more than 50% percent of the students have scored D+ (Partially acceptable), D (Insufficient) or E (Very insufficient). Follow up activity 1  Organize the students into small groups, and ask each group to fill in the gaps with the word(s) or phrase(s) given in the box to make the instruction of making rice pudding meaningful. Suggested answers Here is a process for making rice pudding. First of all pour a litre of milk in a heavy bottom saucepan and boil it. As soon as it boils, take out half of the milk from the pan. Then mix a cup of rice and stir it with a dipper for 15 minutes on a low flame. As it becomes soft, add the remaining milk and stir it for sometimes. After that add half a cup of sugar and stir it. When it looks very soft, add half a spoon of cinnamon powder, 20 grams of grated dry coconut, 20 grams of raisins and 20 grams of fresh ghee. Stir it for a minute. Now your rice pudding is ready, serve it on a flat plate and have it. 353


Follow up activity 2  This is a different kind of writing exercise where the students have to transfer the data of their parents‟ income and expenditure into a pie chart.  Students will need pencils, erasers, rulers and colour pencils to do this activity.  Consult your colleagues in other subjects if need be on how to transfer the given data into a pie chart. Total income per month : Rs. 30,000 Expenditure per month : Rs. 6,000 on rent, Rs. 10,000 on food, Rs. 5,000 on education, Rs. 3,000 on entertainment Total saving per month : Rs. 6,000  After the pie chart is made, ask the students to interpret it in the same way as done in Reading II, and mark their answers. Follow up activity 3  Organize the students into pairs, and ask them to look at the entry of the books in the school library.  Now ask each pair to interpret the data of the books in detail.  Move around the class when the students are working, and assist them as required. Possible answer There are altogether four different genres of English literature books in the library. There are 425 books in total. There are 125 books on fiction, 75 on poetry, 100 on plays and 125 books on prose. Extended activity Ask the students to write down the process of making a food item of their choice. Reflection Could the students answer the questions on their own? How did they find this lesson? Lesson four Grammar Content from textbook  Grammar activities (Engage yourself, Time for Grammar, Follow up activity ( p. 209-211) Materials required  Usual classroom materials Lesson activities Engage yourself  Pair up the students, and ask the students in pairs to go through the given sentences.  Tell them to observe how the connectives are used.  Next tell them to identify the type of connective in each sentence, and to write the type against each sentence. Suggested answers a. Manisha didn‟t go to school because of headache. (Reason) b. She helped the needy ones in spite of her poverty. (Contrastive) c. Unless you work very hard, you cannot achieve the desired success. (Condition) d. In order to be an engineer, my sister practises mathematics more at school. (Purpose) e. She went to the beauty parlour so that she could get her hair cut. (Purpose) f. While I was walking on the bank of a river, I saw a crocodile floating in the river. (Time) 354


g. She grows a lot of rice but my brother doesn‟t. (Contrastive) h. I enjoyed the weekend despite my busy schedule. (Contrastive) Time for Grammar (1)  By this time the students should know about the use of different types of connectives dealt with in this unit.  Ask each student to read the sentences carefully, and then fill in the blank spaces using the appropriate connectives from the list given.  Give them time to work on their own.  After they finish read out the answers, clarify the doubts of the students, if they show. Suggested answers a. though b. in order to c. so that d. despite e. Although f. Whenever g. as long as h. as soon as i. after j. before Time for Grammar (2)  Ask each student to read the paragraph carefully, and then fill in the blank spaces using the appropriate words from the list given.  Give them time to work on their own.  After they finish, read out the answers, clarify the doubts of the students, if they show. Suggested answers Here is the process that explains the ways in which bricks are made for the building industry. Overall, there are seven stages in the process, beginning with the digging up of clay and culminating in the final product. First, the clay which is used to make the bricks, is dug up from the ground by a large digger. This clay is then placed onto a metal grid, which is used to break up the clay into smaller pieces. A roller assists in this process. Following this, sand and water are added to the clay, and this mixture is turned into bricks by either placing it into a mould or using a wire cutter. Next, these bricks are placed in an oven to dry for 24-48 hours. In the subsequent stage, the bricks go through a heating and cooling process. They are heated in a kiln at a moderate and then a high temperature, followed by a cooling process in a chamber for 2-3 days. Finally, the bricks are packed and delivered to their destinations. Follow-up activity  Organize the students into pairs. Ask the students in each pair to make sensible sentences of their own using the given connectives.  When they finish, ask the students to compare their answers with one another.  This activity can also be set as homework. Possible answers a. He has the window open, however cold it is outside. b. Although he is rich, he never spends money to buy good clothes for him. c. He passed the test with good marks despite his negligence in studies. 355


d. While I was cleaning the room, I found a thousand rupee note. e. Let‟s wait until the rain stops. f. People tame domestic animals so that they can make money. Extended activity Give an exercise of your own so as to make the students practice the use of different connectives appropriately. Reflection How did the lesson go? Did the students manage to do the exercise on their own? Lesson five Listening Content from the textbook  Listening activities (Engage yourself, Study time, Follow-up activity) (p. 211-212) Materials required  Audio file or audio script of Anne Frank‟s memoir review  Related pictures Lesson activities Engage yourself  This is a listening exercise with the objective of making predictions or guesses about information likely to appear in the audio through pictures and simple questions.  Ask the students to look at the given pictures carefully, and then guess the answers to the given questions.

a. Who is Anne Frank? b. Why is Anne Frank popular in the world? c. Who gave a red checkered diary as a birthday present to Anne Frank?  Write their answers on the board. Do not comment on the guesses or say which is right or wrong.  Now play the audio file or read the audio script. Ask them to check if their guesses were correct.  Play the audio file or read the audio script one more time so that they can correct their answers. Possible answers a. She is a German-Jewish teenager who is forced to go into hiding during the Holocaust. b. Anne Frank is popular in the world because of her message of courage and hope in the face of adversity c. Her parents. 356


Study time (1)  This is a listening comprehension exercise which requires the students to complete the sentences with specific information. Ask the students to study the table first.  Ask them to listen to the audio carefully, and supply the missing dates.  Play the audio file or read the auido script aloud. Students listen to the audio and write the answers.  Play the audio file or read the audio script more than once, if necessary. Suggested answers Events Date Anne Frank was born on 12 June, 1929 Anne frank was given a diary by her parents on 12 June 1942 Her diary was first published in 1947 Anne Frank died in March of 1945 Study time (2)  This is a listening comprehension exercise which requires the students to complete the sentences with specific information. Ask the students to read the questions first.  Tell the students to listen to the audio carefully, and complete the sentences correctly.  Play the audio file or read the audio script aloud. Play the audio file or read the audio script more than once if necessary. Suggested answers a. Anne Frank, got a red checkered diary from her parents for her 13th birthday. b. She addressed the diary to her imaginary friend, Kitty while writing her diary. c. Her diary is available in 67 languages. d. Over 30 million copies of her diary have been sold. e. She died of typhus when she was at Bergen-Belsen concentration camp. Follow-up activity  Ask each student to write a diary entry for a day.  Move around the class to see that the students are doing the given work. Help them if need be.  Upon completion of the work, ask them to compare their work. Extended activity Ask the students to write a short note on Anne Frank. Reflection How did the students find this lesson? Did they enjoy doing the activities? Lesson Six Speaking Content from the textbook  Speaking activities (Engage yourself, Time for speaking, Follow- up activity) (pp. 212213) Materials required  Enlarged pictures like the ones given in the lesson Lesson activities Engage yourself 357


 Ask the students to look at the pictures, and discuss the stages of providing first aid for snake bite.

Answer: Get the help of the health teacher to do this activity. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………….. Time for speaking (1)  Organize the students into several groups each having four or five students. Now ask each to discuss the process of repairing a bicycle puncture.  Move around the class to help the groups in their discussion. Let them discuss for 10 to 15 minutes.  Thereafter ask each group to write the stages of repairing a bicycle puncture along with the pictures, and present it to the class. Possible answers 1. First release the brake of the flat tyre, then remove the wheel from the bicycle using levers. You need to remove only one side to change the tube. 2. Remove the valve cap (where you pump air into the tyre), then pull the tube from inside the tyre. 3. Carefully inspect the tyre for the cause of puncture. Also check the tyre tread for other cuts. 4. Now pump up the old tube until it just has some shape, then check for a leak. Dip the inflated tube into a bucket of water. If bubbles form, you‟ll know the location of the hole. 5. Next repair the tube using a bike patch kit. 6. Take your patched tube and add a few pumps of air before inserting it back into the tyre. 7. Once the tyre is attached to the wheel, it‟s ready to be completely inflated. When inflating, make sure the tyre is even and has no bulges or low spots. 8. Put the wheel back into place on the bike. 9. Finally connect the brakes. Time for speaking (2)  Organize the students into several groups each having four or five students. Now ask each to analyze the data given in the table.  Move around the class to help the groups when they analyze. Let them discuss for 5 to 10 minutes. 358


Population of Nepal in Terms of Religious groups Religious groups Percentage Hindus 81.3 Buddhists 9 Islams 4.4 Kirats 3.1 Christians 1.4 Prakritis 0.5 Others 0.3 (Source: National Census, 2068 B.S.)

Possible answer The table shows the distribution of the population of Nepal in terms of the religious groups. According to the 2068 census, majority of the population follows Hindu religion. That is 81.3% of the Nepali population is Hindu. Likewise, 9.0% of the population follows the Buddhist religion. The population following Islam, Kirati, Christian and Prakrit is 4.4%, 3.1%, 1.4%, and 0.5%, respectively. It has been recorded that 0.9% follow other religions. Follow-up activity  Organize the whole class into six groups.  Ask each group to bring some real ingredients to make some food items from home in the next class and demonstrate the process of making them with explanation.  Assist the students as required. Extended activity Ask the students to write the process of recharging balance in the cell phone. Reflection Did the students write the instructions as per your expectation? What do you think would be a better way to show them how to write instructions? Lesson Seven Writing Content from the textbook  Writing activities (Engage Yourself, Time for writing, Follow-up activity) (pp. 213-214) Materials  A specimen of a grade sheet issued by the school Lesson activities Engage yourself  Tell the students that given is the Examination grade sheet of Abina.  Ask them to go through the sheet carefully, and find the grade she scored in the different subjects.  Now divide the students into pairs, and ask each pair to write down any five sentences explaining the information in the grade sheet. Subjects English

Nepali

Math

Science

Grades

A

B+

B

A+

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Social Studies D+

HPE D

Opt Math C+

Account A


Possible answer 1. The given grade sheet shows the grades Abina has scored in her examination. 2. According to the sheet, she has scored „A+‟ is one subject, i.e. English. 3. She has scored „A‟ grade in two subjects- Nepali and Accounts. 4. Likewise her scores in Maths and Science are „B+‟ and „B‟, respectively. 5. In Optional Maths, she has got „C+‟, and in Social Studies, and HPE her scores are „D+‟ and „D‟, correspondingly. Time for writing  Organize the students into pairs and ask each pair to interpret the data given in the pie chart which shows the favourite sports events of the students of a school.

Possible answer (Accept any other suitable answer.): The above pie chart shows the favourite sports events of the students. The chart shows that soccer is the favourite game of 30% of the students. Likewise, according to the chart, 27% of the students loves swimming. The chart also shows that 20%, 12% and 11% of the students‟ favourite sports are cricket, tennis and gymnastics, respectively. Follow-up activity  Ask the students to transfer the given data into a pie chart.  Students will need pencils, erasers, rulers and colour pencils to do this activity. Number of male teachers : 25 Number of female teachers : 20 Number of girls : 450 Number of boys : 425 Extended activity After the students make the pie chart, ask them to interpret it in their own words. Reflection Write a reflective note on this lesson.

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Lesson Eight Writing Content from the textbook  Project work (p. 214)  Fun corner (p. 214) Project work  Organize the students into small groups.  Ask them to go to their own locality, and collect the information based on the given clues, and show the information in a bar chart. Name of the community: ............................... Number of males below 20 years: ................. Number of males 20 or above: ...................... Number of females below 20 years: .............. Number of females 20 or above: ...................  After they finish, mark their answers, and display their work in the class. Fun corner Ask the students to read the given joke. If they do not understand, assist them. Reflection  Are you satisfied with the activities you engaged the students in this class?  Did you realize you could involve the students differently than what you did in the class?

Part 3: Additional Resources 1. Language exponents used for interpreting tables, charts and diagrams  Interpreting tables and charts Tables, charts and diagrams are symbolic visual reading materials which contain a lot of information.  Expressions used to interpret such visual reading materials: Based on the chart/diagram….; According to the chart/table/diagram..…; The chart shows that….; It seems that……; It can be clearly seen that…..; It is obvious to note from the diagram/chart/table that ……; It is shown that…..; It is clear to note that…..; the increasing/decreasing trend of ……. proves that……, etc.  Vocabularies used to describe a number of trends from charts and diagrams:  Describing the degree of change Adjectives: slight, dramatic, sharp, huge, enormous, steep, substantial, considerable, significant, marked, moderate, small, minimal Example: There has been a slight increase in the value of the dollar. Adverbs: slightly, dramatically, sharply, enormously, steeply, substantially, considerably, significantly, markedly, moderately, minimally, gradually Example: The value of dollar has been slightly increased.  Describing the speed of change Adjectives: rapid, quick, swift, sudden, steady, gradual, slow, etc. Example: There was a rapid fall in the employment last year. Adverbs: rapidly, quickly, swiftly, suddenly, steadily, gradually, slowly, etc Example: Unemployment fell rapidly last year.  Expressing movement: Verbs and Nouns 361


Direction

Verbs

Nouns

Rose to; Increased to; Went up to; Climbed to; Boomed; Rocketed; Soared

A rise; An increase; Growth; An upward trend; A boom (a dramatic rise)

Fell to; Declined to; Decreased to; Dipped to; Dropped to; Went down to; Slumped to; Reduced to: Plunged Leveled out at; Did not change; Remained stable at; Remained steady at; Stayed constant at; Maintained the same level Fluctuated (around); Peaked at; Stood at

A decrease; A decline; A fall; A drop; A slump (a dramatic fall); A reduction

A leveling out; No change

A fluctuation; Reached a peak of

Connectives: Reasons (because; because of; as; therefore), Purpose (so that; in order to); Contrastive (though / although/even though; however; in spite of/despite, but) Time (until; after; before; when; while; since; once; whenever; as soon as; as long as; by the time) Condition (if; unless)  Describing a process: overall; first; in which; following this; which; finally; next; etc.  Some of the useful tips for Interpreting charts and diagrams  First, look at the chart/diagram very carefully to identify an overall trend.  Then, look at the chart/diagram very carefully to identify major trends.  See the title of chart and diagram to find out the subject-matter.  Observe the legends and the items presented in „X‟ and „Y‟ axis.  Compare and contrast bars or columns in relation to the items. 2. Some useful sites  https://www.liverpool.ac.uk/~cll/lskills/WN/NumeracyDiagrms.html  https://www2.open.ac.uk/students/skillsforstudy/doc/working-with-charts-graphs-andtables  http://mentalfloss.com/article/51367/10-things-know-about-anne-franks-diary-young-girl  http://www.annefrank.org/en/Anne-Frank/Anne-Franks-history-in-brief/  http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/48855.The_Diary_of_a_Young_Girl 3. Script of the audio You will hear a girl talking about Anne Frank. Born on 12 June 1929, Anne Frank was a German-Jewish teenager who was forced to go into hiding during the Holocaust. She and her family, along with four others, spent over two years during World War II hiding in an annex of rooms above her father‟s office in Amsterdam. On 12 June 1942; Frank‟s parents gave her a red checkered diary for her 13th birthday on which she wrote her first entry addressing to her imaginary friend named Kitty. The last entry of her diary was Friday, 21 July 1944. Since it was first published in 1947, Anne Frank‟s diary has become one of the most powerful memoirs of the Holocaust. Its message of courage and hope in the face of adversity has reached millions. The diary has been translated into 67 languages with over 30 million copies sold. Anne Frank‟s story is especially meaningful to young people today. For many she is their first, if not their only, exposure to the history of the Holocaust. 362


After being betrayed to the Nazis, Anne, her family, and the others living with them were arrested and deported to Nazi concentration camps. In March of 1945, nine months after she was arrested, Anne Frank died of typhus at Bergen-Belsen concentration camp. At that time she was fifteen years old.

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