Ethnologue

List of Philippine Dialects/Languages

Source: SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics)

STATISTICS:

Population: 69,922,000 (1995). Official name: Republic of the Philippines. Literacy rate 88% to 89%. Also includes: Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, Arabic. Information mainly from SIL 1991. Data accuracy estimate: A1, A2. Christian, Muslim, secular, traditional religion. Blind population 1,144,500. Deaf population 100,000 (1986 Gallaudet University). Deaf institutions: 17. The number of languages listed for Philippines is 171. Of those, 168 are living languages and 3 are extinct.

For a quick reference guide, choose: 1. Philippine Dialects List or 2. Philippine Dialects Chart Statistics

1. ADASEN (ADDASEN TINGUIAN, ADDASEN, ADASEN ITNEG) [TIU] 4,000 (NTM). Luzon, northeastern Abra Province. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Ibanagic, Isnag. Dialects: EASTERN ADDASEN, WESTERN ADDASEN. Very bilingual in Ilocano. Comprehension of Isnag 74%. NT 1990.

2. AGTA, ALABAT ISLAND (ALABAT ISLAND DUMAGAT) [DUL] 50 (1979 SIL). East of Quezon Province, Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Dumagat, Southern. Tagalog is the second language. Survey needed.

3. AGTA, CAMARINES NORTE (MANIDE, AGIYAN) [ABD] 200 (1979 SIL). Luzon, Santa Elena and Labo, Camarines Norte. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Dumagat, Southern. 67% lexical similarity with Alabat Agta, 35% with Mt. Iriga Agta. Needs bilingualism testing in Tagalog. Survey needed.

4. AGTA, CASIGURAN DUMAGAT (CASIGURAN DUMAGAT) [DGC] 1,000 (1979 SIL). East coast of Luzon, north Quezon Province. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Dumagat, Northern. Negrito. Intelligibility of Paranan: 83%. 2.4% literate. Hunter-gatherers. NT 1979. Bible portions 1967.

5. AGTA, CENTRAL CAGAYAN [AGT] 600 to 700 (1993 SIL). Northeast Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Dumagat, Northern. Negrito. 3% literate. Christian. NT 1992. Bible portions 1962-1980.

6. AGTA, DICAMAY (DICAMAY DUMAGAT) [DUY] Luzon, Isabela Province, near Jones. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Dumagat, Northern. Extinct.

7. AGTA, DUPANINAN (EASTERN CAGAYAN AGTA) [DUO] 1,200 (1986 SIL). Northeast Luzon, from below Divilacan Bay in the south to Palaui Island in the north. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Dumagat, Northern. Dialects: YAGA, TANGLAGAN, SANTA ANA-GONZAGA, BARONGAGUNAY, PALAUI ISLAND, CAMONAYAN, VALLEY COVE, BOLOS POINT, PEÑABLANCA, ROSO (SOUTHEAST CAGAYAN), SANTA MARGARITA. Central Cagayan Agta and Tanglagan have 51% lexical similarity; Yaga and Central Cagayan Agta are 63% intelligible, 66% lexically similar; Yaga has 70% comprehension of Ilocano. Below 1% literate. Hunter-gatherers. Bible portions 1986. Work in progress.

8. AGTA, ISAROG [AGK] (1,000 in ethnic group; 1984 SIL). Mt. Isarog east of Naga City, Bicol Province, Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Coastal, Naga. Nearly extinct.

9. AGTA, MT. IRAYA (INAGTA OF MT. IRAYA, RUGNOT OF LAKE BUHI EAST, LAKE BUHI EAST, ITBEG RUGNOT) [ATL] 200 (1979 SIL). East of Lake Buhi, Bicol Province, Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Coastal, Naga. Four dialects 93% lexically similar with each other. Heavy borrowing from Legaspi (Central) Bicolano. 85% to 90% lexical similarity with Bicolano. 54% and 86% comprehension of two test tapes (average of samples) of Naga (Central) Bicolano. 94% comprehension and 70% lexical similarity with Mt. Iriga Agta, Iriga City dialect. 45% comprehension of Tagalog. Survey needed.

10. AGTA, MT. IRIGA (SAN RAMON INAGTA, LAKE BUHI WEST, MT. IRIGA NEGRITO) [AGZ] 1,500 (1979 SIL). East of Iriga City, west of Lake Buhi, Bicol Province, Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Inland. 86% intelligibility of Iriga City Bicolano, 76% lexical similarity; 82% intelligibility of Mt. Iraya, 66% lexical similarity; 73% intelligibility of Tagalog; 72% intelligibility of Central Bicolano (Naga), 66% lexical similarity. Iriga City Bicolano has higher prestige. Iriga City inhabitants regard Naga as true Bicolano. It is doubtful whether Naga Bicolano is adequately understandable to Mt. Iriga Agta speakers. Survey needed.

11. AGTA, REMONTADO (HATANG-KAYEY, SINAUNA) [AGV] 1,000 to 2,000 (1977 SIL). Luzon; Santa Inez, Rizal Province; Paimohuan, General Nakar, Quezon Province. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Bashiic-Central Luzon-Northern Mindoro, Central Luzon, Sinauna. Fairly bilingual in Tagalog. No schools. 73% lexical similarity with Tagalog, 37% with Umiray Dumaget. Survey needed.

12. AGTA, UMIRAY DUMAGET (UMIREY DUMAGAT, UMIRAY AGTA) [DUE] 5,000 (1981 SIL). Quezon Province, Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Dumagat, Southern. Dialects: PALAUI ISLAND AGTA, ANGLAT AGTA. Fairly fluent in Tagalog. 5% to 10% literate. Hunter-gatherers. NT 1977. Bible portions 1968.

13. AGTA, VILLAVICIOSA [DYG] Luzon, Abra Province. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Ibanagic, Ibanag. Needs intelligibility testing with Isnag, Adasen Itneg; bilingualism testing with Ilocano. Survey needed.

14. AGUTAYNEN (AGUTAYNON, AGUTAYNO) [AGN] 8,000 (1993 SIL). Agutaya Island, five smaller surrounding islands, and the municipalities of Roxas, San Vicente, and Brooke's Point, Palawan. A few also in Taytay, Linapacan, on Mindoro, and in Manila. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Kalamian. 52% lexical similarity with Cuyonon; 71% with Calamian Tagbanwa. Limited bilingual proficiency by most speakers in Cuyonon, Tagalog, or English. Culturally lowland. 90% literate. Subsistence agriculturalists: rice; fishermen. Bible portions 1989-1993. Work in progress.

15. AKLANON (AKLAN, AKLANO, PANAY, AKLANON-BISAYAN) [AKL] 350,000 (1982 SIL). Aklan Province, northern Panay. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, Aklan. 66% intelligibility, 68% lexical similarity with Hiligaynon. 69.7% literate. Bible portions 1990-1993. Work in progress.

16. ALANGAN [ALJ] 6,000 to 7,000 (1991 SIL). North central Mindoro. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Bashiic-Central Luzon-Northern Mindoro, Northern Mindoro. NT 1989. Bible portions 1962-1981.

17. ALTA, NORTHERN (EDIMALA, BALER NEGRITO, DITAYLIN ALTA, DITAYLIN DUMAGAT) [AQN] 240 speakers; 60 families (1992 L. Reid). Eastern Luzon, Aurora Province, Bayanihan, San Luis; Diteki, the first settlement along the road after coming through the mountains from Cabanatuan. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Alta. 34% lexical similarity with Southern Alta. Not close to other languages (Laurence Reid). Survey needed.

18. ALTA, SOUTHERN (KABULUEN, KABULUWEN, KABULUWAN, KABULOWAN, KABOLOAN, BALUGA, PUGOT, ITA) [AGY] 1,000 (1982 SIL). Eastern Nueva Ecija, Sierra Madre and coast areas of Quezon Province, town of San Miguel, and a large community in a remote part of San Miguel, Bulacan Province. North of the Umiray Dumaget. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Alta. A distinct language from Northern Alta (34% lexical similarity). Not close to other languages. Speakers at Angat Dam in Bulacan are mixed with Umiray Dumaget Agta and call themselves 'Kaboloan'. Tagalog is used as second language. Agriculturalists: maize. Bible portions 1970. Survey needed.

19. ARTA [ATZ] 16 or 17 speakers; 12 in Villa Santiago, 1 in Villa Gracia, 3 or 4 in Nagtipunan (1992 L. Reid). Quirino Province, town of Aglipay, Villa Santiago and Villa Gracia, and town of Nagtipunan. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Arta. Geographically isolated. Not linguistically close to any other language (Lawrence Reid). Three families speak Arta in the home. Others are intermarried with Ilocano speakers or are bilingual in Casiguran Dumagat Agta. Negrito.

20. ATA [ATM] Nine or more families (1973 SIL). Mabinay, Negros Oriental. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Unclassified. No recent information. Probably very bilingual in Cebuano. Distinct from Ata Manobo or the Atta languages. May be extinct. Nearly extinct.

21. ATI (INATI) [ATK] 1,500 (1980 SIL). Panay Island, small groups in all provinces. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Peripheral. Dialects: MALAY, BAROTAC VIEJO NAGPANA. Negrito. Hiligaynon is used for school, contact with outsiders, outside culture topics, jobs, religion. Ati is used in the home and with close friends. The Malay people mainly speak Malaynon; the Malay Ati dialect is nearly extinct. Barotac Viejo Nagpana is the prestige dialect. Levels of bilingualism in Hiligaynon, Kinaray-a for Hiligaynon: 1-3:5%, 3+:11%, 4:50%, 4+:32%, 5:2%; Kinaray-a: 1-3:9%, 3+:30%, 4:61%.

22. ATTA, FAIRE (SOUTHERN ATTA) [ATH] 400 to 550 or 136 families (1981 SIL). Near Faire-Rizal, Cagayan Province, Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Ibanagic, Ibanag. Lexical similarity relationships: Pudtol Atta 81%; Isnag 60%; Central Cagayan Agta 66%; Pamplona Atta 82%; Rizal Atta 90%; Ibanag 72%. Literacy work needed for Sinundungan Valley: 100 families. Fairly bilingual in Ibanag and Pamplona Atta. Negrito. Survey needed.

23. ATTA, PAMPLONA (NORTHERN CAGAYAN NEGRITO) [ATT] 500 to 700 (1993 SIL). Northwestern Cagayan Province, Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Ibanagic, Ibanag. Intelligibility of Ibanag North 97.6%, 91% lexical similarity; comprehension of Ilocano 85.1%, 63% lexical similarity; Itawit 52% intelligibility, 69% lexical similarity. 15% to 20% literate. NT in press (1996). Bible portions 1969-1980.

24. ATTA, PUDTOL [ATP] 500 to 700, or 171 families (1991 SIL). Pudtol, Kalinga-Apayao Province, Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Ibanagic, Ibanag. Lexical similarity relationships: Pamplona Atta 86%; Ibanag 75%; Isnag 63%; Faire Atta 81%; Ilocano 42%. Fairly bilingual in Ibanag and Pamplona Atta. Negrito. Survey needed.

25. AYTA, ABENLEN (ABENLEN, AYTA ABENLEN SAMBAL, ABURLIN NEGRITO) [ABP] 6,850 (1985 SIL). Luzon, Tarlac Province, Maontoc, Labnay, Maamot, San Pedro, Dalayap, Pilyen, Tangan-Tangan. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Bashiic-Central Luzon-Northern Mindoro, Central Luzon, Sambalic. 66% lexical similarity with Botolan Sambal, 49% with Tina Sambal, 38% to 44% with Ilocano, Pangasinan, Tagalog, Pampanga. 28% intelligibility with Botolan Sambal, 48% with Tina Sambal. Some in remote areas are nearly monolingual. Accessible by road during dry season, helicopter in rainy season. 3% literate. Mountain slope. Work in progress.

26. AYTA, AMBALA (AMBALA AGTA, AMBALA SAMBAL) [ABC] 1,657 (1986 SIL). A few barrios of San Marcelino, Zambales, several of Subic City, Zambales, a few of Olongapa, Zambales, a few of Castillejos, Zambales, a few of Dinalupinan, Bataan Province, Luzon. Affected by Mt. Pinatubo eruption. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Bashiic-Central Luzon-Northern Mindoro, Central Luzon, Sambalic. Intelligibility of Botolan Sambal 60%, 54% with Ayta Indi Sambal, 60% with Ayta Anchi Sambal, 70% with Bataan Sambal. 70% lexical similarity with Botolan Sambal, 55% with Tagalog. They do not mix with other Ayta groups. 25% literate. Work in progress.

27. AYTA, BATAAN (MARIVELES AYTA, BATAAN SAMBAL, BATAAN AYTA) [AYT] 572 (1986 SIL). Mariveles, Bataan Province, Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Bashiic-Central Luzon-Northern Mindoro, Central Luzon, Sambalic. Fairly bilingual in Tagalog. 63% lexical similarity with Botolan Sambal and Tagalog. Negrito. Survey needed.

28. AYTA, MAG-ANCHI (MAG-ANCHI SAMBAL) [SGB] 4,166 (1986 SIL). East side of mountain, Botolan Sambal area, close to Tarlac-Pampanga border, several barrios of Capas, Tarlac, several of Bamban, Tarlac, several of San Marcelino, Zambales, 2 of Castillejos, Zambales, 2 of Mabalacat, Pampanga, several of Sapang Bato, Angeles City, central Luzon. People affected by Mt. Pinatubo eruption. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Bashiic-Central Luzon-Northern Mindoro, Central Luzon, Sambalic. 76% lexical similarity with Botolan Sambal, 50% with Tagalog, 46% with Pampangan. 77% intelligibility with Ayta Indi Sambal, 65% with Ayta Ambala Sambal, 46% with Pampangan. People scattered because of Mt. Pinatubo eruption. 1% literate. Bible portions 1995. Work in progress.

29. AYTA, MAG-INDI (BALOGA, MAG-INDI SAMBAL, INDI AYTA) [BLX] 2,483 (1986 SIL). A few barrios of Florida Blanca, several of Porac, Pampanga Province, several of San Marcelino, Zambales, Luzon. People affected by Mt. Pinatubo eruption. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Bashiic-Central Luzon-Northern Mindoro, Central Luzon, Sambalic. 66% to 73% lexical similarity with Botolan Sambal, 44% with Tagalog, 73% to 81% with Ayta Anchi Sambal, 46% intelligibility with Botolan Sambal, 50% with Ayta Ambala Sambal, 59% with Pampangan, 32% with Ayta Anchi Sambal. Below 10% literate. Mountain slope. Work in progress.

30. AYTA, SORSOGON [AYS] 40 (1984 SIL). Prieto Diaz, Sorsogon Province. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Unclassified. Frequent intermarriage with other groups. Nearly extinct.

31. AYTA, TAYABAS [AYY] Tayabas, Quezon Province, Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Unclassified. No longer a distinct dialect; completely assimilated to Tagalog. Negrito. Extinct.

32. BALANGAO (BALANGAO BONTOC, BALANGAW, FARANGAO) [BLW] 6,560 (1975 census). Eastern Bontoc Province, Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Balangao. 42.2% literate. Agriculturalists: rice. Traditional religion, Christian. NT 1982. Bible portions 1966.

33. BANTOANON (BANTON, BANTUANON, ASIQ, SIMARANHON, CALATRAVANHON) [BNO] 65,000 (1985 SIL). Banton, Simara, Maestro de Campo, and Tablas Islands, Romblon Province, between Masbate and Mindoro. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Banton. Dialects: SIBALENHON (SIBALE), ODIONGANON. Speakers are bilingual in Tagalog. 63% intelligibility of Hiligaynon; 92% of Loocnon. 83% lexical similarity with Romblomanon (Zorc 1977). Over 95% of Bantuanon people use the vernacular in the majority of social situations; with family, friends, at work, and with Bantuanon officials and school teachers. Tagalog is used for some politics, education, and with non-Bantuanon speakers. Odionganon dialect is preferable for literature. 80% to 90% literate. Agriculturalists, forestry, fishermen. Bible portions 1992. Work in progress.

34. BATAK (BABUYAN, TINITIANES, PALAWAN BATAK) [BTK] 300 (1984 NTM). North central Palawan. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Palawano. Negrito. Typology: VOS. Bible portions 1972. Survey needed.

35. BICOLANO, ALBAY [BHK] 480,000 (1975 census). Western Albay Province and Buhi, Camarines Sur, Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Inland, Buhi-Daraga. Dialects: BUHI (BUHI'NON), DARAGA, LIBON, OAS, LIGAO. Somewhat bilingual in Central Bicolano. Work in progress.

36. BICOLANO, CENTRAL (BIKOL) [BKL] 2,500,000; about 7% of the population speak Bikol languages; 4,000,000 all Bikol languages (1995 WA). Southern Catanduanes, Northern Sorsogon, Albay, Camarines Norte and Sur, Luzon. Naga City and Legaspi City are centers. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Coastal, Naga. Dialects: NAGA, LEGASPI. Trade language. Braille Bible portions. Bible 1915, in press (1992). NT 1909-1987. Bible portions 1898-1987.

37. BICOLANO, IRIGA (RINCONADA BICOLANO) [BTO] 180,000 (1975 census). Iriga City, Baao, Nabua, Bato, Camarines Sur, Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Inland, Iriga. Bilingual in Central Bicolano and Tagalog; further testing needed. Survey needed.

38. BICOLANO, NORTHERN CATANDUANES (PANDAN) [CTS] 65,000 (1975 census). Luzon, Northern Catanduanes, east of Bicol. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Pandan. Comprehension of Central Bicolano of Naga 68%; Tagalog 66%. Need to test intelligibility of Southern Catanduanes, further bilingualism in Central Bicolano. Survey needed.

39. BICOLANO, SOUTHERN CATANDUANES (VIRAC) [BLN] 85,000 (1981 Newell SIL). Luzon, Southern Catanduanes, east of Bicol. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Coastal, Virac. Bilingual in Central Bicolano, 85% comprehension; Tagalog 85%; Northern Catanduanes 91%. Virac dialect is preferable for literature. Survey needed.

40. BINUKID (BINUKID MANOBO, BINOKID, BUKIDNON) [BKD] 100,000 (1987 SIL). North central Mindanao, southern Bukidnon, northeastern Cotabato, Agusan del Sur. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Manobo, North. Literature should serve Kalabugao, Bukidnon, Minalowang, Esperanza, and Agusan del Sur. Closely related to Higaonon. 63% literate. Lowland, mountain slope. NT 1986. Bible portions 1956-1979.

41. BLAAN, KORONADAL (KORONADAL BILAAN, BILANES, BIRAAN, BARAAN, TAGALAGAD) [BIK] 100,000 (1981 SIL). South Cotabato Province, Mindanao. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, South Mindanao, Bilic, Blaan. The people have limited bilingualism in Cebuano. 20% literate. Traditional religion, Christian. NT in press (1996). Bible portions 1955-1986.

42. BLAAN, SARANGANI (BILAAN, BALUD, TUMANAO) [BIS] 200,000 (1991 SIL). South Cotabato Province, Sarangani Peninsula, Mindanao. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, South Mindanao, Bilic, Blaan. 28% literate. Traditional religion, Christian. NT 1981. Bible portions 1968.

43. BOLINAO (BOLINAO SAMBAL, BOLINAO ZAMBAL) [SMK] 50,000 (1990). West Pangasinan Province, Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Bashiic-Central Luzon-Northern Mindoro, Central Luzon, Sambalic. High literacy rate in Ilocano and Tagalog. Half the people have some bilingual proficiency in Tagalog, Ilocano, and Pangasinan. 86.8% literate. Bible portions 1963-1984. Work in progress.

44. BONTOC, CENTRAL (BONTOK, IGOROT) [BNC] 30,000 (1987 SIL). Central Mountain Province, Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Bontok-Kankanay, Bontok. Dialects: SADANGA, GUINAANG BONTOC, BAYYU. Intelligibility of Ilocano 58%, Eastern Bontoc 56%. 35% literate. NT 1992. Bible portions 1908-1992.

45. BONTOC, EASTERN (SOUTHERN BONTOC, KADAKLAN-BARLIG BONTOC) [BKB] 6,000 (1986 SIL). Central Mountain Province, Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Bontok-Kankanay, Bontok. Dialects: LIAS, BARLIG, KADAKLAN. Intelligibility of Ilocano 53%; Balangao 49%. 67% literate. Traditional religion. Bible portions 1977-1986. Work in progress.

46. BUHID (BUKIL, BANGON, BATANGAN) [BKU] 8,000 (1991 OMF). Southern Mindoro. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, South Mangyan, Buhid-Taubuid. NT 1988. Bible portions 1981.

47. BUTUANON [BTW] Butuan City, Mindanao. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, South, Butuan-Tausug. Fairly bilingual in Cebuano. 70% lexical similarity with Kamayo; 69% with Surigaonon. Survey needed.

48. CALUYANUN (CALUYANEN, CALUYANHON) [CAU] 20,000 (1981 SIL). Caluya Islands, Antique. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, Unclassified. Dialect: SEMIRARA. A sample of speakers scored 69% on Hiligaynon text comprehension; 62% on Cuyonon. 67% literate. NT 1990. Bible portions 1981.

49. CAPIZNON (CAPISANO, CAPISEÑO) [CPS] 445,716 (1975 census). Northeast Panay. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Peripheral. 91% intelligibility with Hiligaynon, and bilingual in it and Tagalog. Survey needed.

50. CEBUANO (SUGBUHANON, SUGBUANON, VISAYAN, BISAYAN, BINISAYA, SEBUANO) [CEB] 15,230,000 in the Philippines (1993 Johnstone); about 24.4% of the population. Negros, Cebu, Bohol, Visayas and parts of Mindanao. Also in USA, including Hawaii. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Cebuan. Dialects: CEBU, BOHOLANO, LEYTE, MINDANAO VISAYAN. Boholano is sometimes considered a separate language. Language of wider communication. Christian. Braille Bible portions. Bible 1917-1981. NT 1908-1988. Bible portions 1902-1956.

51. CHAVACANO (ZAMBOANGUEÑO, CHABAKANO) [CBK] 280,000 (1981 SIL),

including:

155,000 Zamboangueño (1989 J. Holm),

27,841 Caviteño,

3,750 Ternateño (1975 census),

5,473 Cotabato Chavacano (1981 Wurm and Hattori).

 

Spoken in:

Zamboanga City, Basilan, Jolo, Kabasalan, Siay, Margosatubig, Ipil, Malangas, Lapuyan, Buug, Tungawa, Alicia, Isabela, Lamitan, Maluso, Malamawi, Cotabato City, Mindanao; Cavite, Ternate, and Ermita near Manila.

 

The 1970 census listed speakers in 60 of the 66 provinces.

 

Also, spoken in one village in Sabah, Malaysia ( village name: Semporna - News ).

 

Creole, Spanish based. 

 

Dialects:

CAVITEÑO, TERNATEÑO (TERNATEÑO CHAVACANO), ERMITAÑO (ERMITEÑO), DAVAWENYO ZAMBOANGUENYO (ABAKAY SPANISH, DAVAO CHAVACANO, DAVAOEÑO, DAVAWEÑO), COTOBATO CHAVACANO, ZAMBOANGUEÑO (CHAVACANO).

 

A creole with predominantly Spanish vocabulary and Philippine-type grammatical structure. Ermiteño is extinct, and Davaweño Zamboangueño may be. Nearly all Caviteño speak Tagalog, but many still speak Caviteño. The major language of Zamboanga City; used in radio, newspapers, and primary education. 80% literate. NT 1981. Bible portions 1977.

 

Languages of Special Interest: CREOLE AND PIDGIN LANGUAGES (79)

CHAVACANO: Philippines

52. CHINESE, MANDARIN [CHN] 500 to 600 or 0.1% of Chinese population, including Chaochow dialect of Min Nam (1982 CCCOWE); 885,000,000 in all countries. All Chinese are 1.3% of the population (1993 Johnstone). Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Bible 1874-1983. NT 1857-1981. Bible portions 1864-1986.

53. CHINESE, MIN NAN (MIN NAN) [CFR] 493,500 to 592,200 or 98.7% of Chinese population in Philippines (1982 CCCOWE); 49,000,000 in all countries (1991 WA). Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Dialect: CHAOCHOW. Bible 1933. NT 1896-1974. Bible portions 1875-1916.

54. CHINESE, YUE [YUH] 6,000 to 7,200 or 1.2% of Chinese population (1982 CCCOWE); 66,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Braille Bible portions. Bible 1894-1981. NT 1877, in press (1996). Bible portions 1862-1903.

55. CUYONON (CUYONO, CUYUNON, CUYO, KUYUNON, KUYONON) [CYO] 93,000 (1983 UBS). Palawan coast, Cuyo Islands between Palawan and Panay. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, Kuyan. Close to Ratagnon. Trade language. NT 1982. Bible portions 1939-1966.

56. DAVAWENYO (MATINO, DAVAOEÑO, DAVAWEÑO) [DAW] 124,486 (1975 census). Davao Oriental, Davao del Sur, Mindanao. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Davawenyo. Synthesis of Tagalog, Cebuano, other Visayan dialects. Some Spanish words. Not Spanish Creole. Different from Davaweño which is dialect of Chavacano. Two dialects: East Coast with 90% of speakers, and Davao City and environs (Whinnom 1956). Lowland Davaweño is bilingual in Cebuano 91% to 97%, highland Davaweño has much lower comprehension of Cebuano; 89% intelligibility of Kamayo. Survey needed.

57. ENGLISH [ENG] 15,371 in Philippines (1975 census); 52% claimed they could speak it as a second language (1980 census); 322,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Indo-European, Germanic, West, North Sea, English. National language. Braille Bible. Bible 1535-1989. NT 1525-1985. Bible portions 1530-1987.

58. GA'DANG (BALIWON, GINABWAL, KALINGA) [GDG] 17,500 (1993 SIL). Paracelis, foothills, Mt. Province, Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Ibanagic, Gaddang. An upland group. Distinct from Gaddang. Not very bilingual. Related to Itawit, Yogad, Gaddang, Ibanag. 40% literate. Traditional religion. Bible portions 1976-1981. Work in progress.

59. GADDANG (CAGAYAN) [GAD] 30,000 (1984 M. Walrod SIL). Central Isabela, and Bagabag, Solano, and Bayombong in Nueva Vizcaya, Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Ibanagic, Gaddang. A lowland group. Gaddang refers to those in Nueva Vizcaya, Cagayan to those in central Isabela. 80% lexical similarity with Ga'dang, less than 80% intelligibility. Christian. Survey needed.

60. GIANGAN (BAGOBO, JANGAN, GUANGA, GULANGA, CLATA, ETO, ATTO) [BGI] 17,000 (1975 census). Davao City, Mindanao; eastern slopes of Mt. Apo, Davao del Sur. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, South Mindanao, Bagobo. Distinct from Manobo. Marginally bilingual in Cebuano; 69% intelligibility and 34% lexical similarity with Tagabawa Manobo; 79% intelligibility and 35% lexical similarity with Obo Manobo; 43% lexical similarity with Blaan.

61. HANUNOO (HANONOO) [HNN] 10,000 to 12,000 (1991 OMF). Southern Oriental Mindoro. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, South Mangyan, Hanunoo. Dialects: GUBATNON (GUBAT, SORSOGONON), BINLI, KAGANKAN, WAIGAN, WAWAN, BULALAKAWNON. NT 1985. Bible portions 1963-1981.

62. HIGAONON (MISAMIS HIGAONON MANOBO) [MBA] 30,000 (1996 NTM). Misamis Oriental, south of Ginoog City, north central Mindanao. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Manobo, North. Related to Binukid; 77% to 81% intelligibility. Comprehension of Cebuano is limited. Bible portions 1987. Work in progress.

63. HILIGAYNON (ILONGGO, HILIGAINON) [HIL] 7,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA); about 10% of the Philippine population. Iloilo and Capiz provinces, Panay, Negros Occidental, Visayas. Also in USA, including Hawaii. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Peripheral. Dialects: HILIGAYNON, KAWAYAN, BANTAYAN. Language of wider communication. Christian. Braille Bible portions. Bible 1912-1982. NT 1903-1960. Bible portions 1900-1953.

64. IBALOI (IBALOY, IBADOY, INIBALOI, NABALOI, BENGUET-IGOROT, IGODOR) [IBL] 87,750 (1975 census). Central and southern Benguet Province, western Nueva Vizcaya Province, Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, Pangasinic, Benguet, Ibaloi-Karao. Dialects: DAKLAN, KABAYAN, BOKOD. 75% to 100% literate. NT 1978. Bible portions 1965.

65. IBANAG (YBANAG) [IBG] 500,000 (1990 SIL). Isabela and Cagayan provinces, Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Ibanagic, Ibanag. Dialects: NORTH IBANAG, SOUTH IBANAG. The people's second language is Ilocano. 69% intelligibility of Itawit. Speakers have pride in their language. 75% to 100% literate. Typology: VSO, genitives after nouns, adjectives and numerals before nouns, CV, CVC, non-tonal. Levels of bilingualism in Ilocano, Tagalog are 0:5%, 1:25%, 2:30%, 3:25%, 4:10%, 5:5%. NT 1911-1989. Bible portions 1907-1989.

66. IBATAN (BABUYAN, IBATAAN, IVATAN) [IVB] 900 (1993 SIL). Babuyan Island, north of Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Bashiic-Central Luzon-Northern Mindoro, Bashiic, Ivatan. Intelligibility of Itbayaten Ivatan 64%, 72% lexical similarity; Basco Ivatan 31% intelligibility, 74% lexical similarity. 60% literate. NT in press (1996). Bible portions 1981-1986.

67. IFUGAO, AMGANAD (AMGANAD) [IFA] 27,000 (1981 SIL). Ifugao Province, Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Ifugao. Dialects: BURNAY IFUGAO, BANAUE IFUGAO. Burnay has 81% intelligibility of Amganad, 83% lexical similarity. 65% literate. Traditional religion, Christian. NT 1980-1987. Bible portions 1962-1987.

68. IFUGAO, BATAD (BATAD) [IFB] 43,000 (1987 SIL). Ifugao Province, Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Ifugao. Dialects: AYANGAN IFUGAO, BATAD IFUGAO, DUCLIGAN IFUGAO. Intelligibility of Batad: Ayangan 87%; Mayoyao 86% to 94%; lexical similarity with Batad: Ayangan 81%; Ducligan 89%; Mayoyao 79%. 55% to 60% literate. Dictionary. Traditional religion, Christian. NT 1977. Bible portions 1962-1965.

69. IFUGAO, MAYOYAO (MAYOYAO, MAYAOYAW) [IFU] 17,000 (1993 SIL). Ifugao Province, Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Ifugao. 79% lexical similarity with Batad Ifugao, 85% with Ayangan; 86% to 94% intelligibility of Batad. Grammatical markers are different. Secondary schools. 50% to 60% literate. Mountain slope. Agriculturalists: wet rice. Traditional religion, Christian. Bible portions 1994. Work in progress.

70. IFUGAO, TUWALI (KIANGAN IFUGAO, QUIANGAN, GILIPANES, TUWALI) [IFK] 25,000 (1981 SIL). Ifugao Province, Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Ifugao. Dialects: HAPAO IFUGAO, HUNGDUAN IFUGAO, LAGAWE IFUGAO. 77% intelligibility of Amganad Ifugao, 80% lexical similarity; 78% intelligibility of Batad, 72% lexical similarity. Hapao has 88% intelligibility of Kiangan, 78% lexical similarity. Hungduan has 85% intelligibility of Kiangan, 86% lexical similarity. Some speakers are bilingual in English, Ilocano, Tagalog, or Amganad Ifugao. Those over 35 are more bilingual in English than others. Kiangan is the place, Tuwali is the language. 60% literate. Typology: VSO, prepositions; genitives, relatives after noun heads; articles, adjectives, numerals before noun heads; question word initial; one suffix, two infixes; passives, causatives, comparatives; V, CV, CVC. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Peasant agriculturalists, intensive agriculturalists. Altitude: 500 to 900 meters. Traditional religion, Christian. NT 1991. Bible portions 1915-1993.

71. ILOCANO (ILOKO, ILOKANO) [ILO] 8,000,000 (1991 UBS); about 11.1% of the population. Northwestern Luzon, La Union and Ilocos provinces, Cagayan Valley, Babuyan, Mindoro, Mindanao. Also in USA, including Hawaii. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Ilocano. Roman alphabet. Language of wider communication. Christian. Braille NT. Bible 1909, in press (1996). NT 1903-1906. Bible portions 1899-1965.

72. ILONGOT (BUGKALUT, BUKALOT, LINGOTES) [ILK] 6,121 (1975 census). Eastern Nueva Vizcaya, Western Quirino, Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, Ilongot. Dialects: ABAKA (ABACA), EGONGOT, IBALAO (IBILAO), ITALON, IYONGUT. NT 1982. Bible portions 1964-1965.

73. INONHAN (LOOCNON, LOOKNON, "UNHAN") [LOC] 65,000 to 80,000 (1991 E. Talamisan TAP). Southern Tablas Island, Romblon Province, Mindoro Oriental and Mindoro Occidental. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, North Central. Dialects: BULALAKAW, DISPOHOLNON, LOOKNON, ALCANTARANON. Speakers are fairly bilingual in Hiligaynon. 70% lexical similarity with Odionganon (Bantuanon), 93% with Aklanon, 86% with Caluyanun. Loocnon is the name of a town. "Unhan" is derogatory. Work in progress.

74. IRAYA [IRY] 10,000 (1991 OMF). Northern Mindoro. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Bashiic-Central Luzon-Northern Mindoro, Northern Mindoro. Dialects: ABRA-DE-ILOG, ALAG-BAKO, PAGBAHAN, PALAUAN-CALAVITE, PAMBUHAN, SANTA CRUZ. Many speak Tagalog in the home. NT 1991. Bible portions 1966-1981.

75. ISINAI (INSINAI, ISINAY, ISNAY, INMEAS) [INN] 5,650 (1975 census). Luzon: Bambang, Dupax, and Aritao, Nueva Vizcaya. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Isinai. Not close to other languages. 47% lexical similarity with Ilocano. Speakers appear to have general bilingual proficiency in Ilocano. People prefer Isinai for all purposes except speaking to outsiders. Survey needed.

76. ISNAG (DIBAGAT-KABUGAO-ISNEG, ISNEG) [ISD] 10,000 (1993 SIL). Northern Apayao, Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Ibanagic, Isnag. Dialects: BAYAG, DIBAGAT-KABUGAO, CALANASAN, KARAGAWAN (DARAGAWAN), TALIFUGU-RIPANG (TAWINI). Intelligibility testing: Calanasan: 94% of Dibagat, 88% of Ilocano; Talifugu-Ripang: 89% of Dibagat, 71% of Ilocano. 50% literate. NT 1980. Bible portions 1961.

77. ITAWIT (ITAWIS, TAWIT, ITAWES) [ITV] 105,556 including 93,395 Itawit, 12,161 Malaweg (1975 census). Luzon, southern Cagayan. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Ibanagic, Ibanag. Dialects: MALAWEG (MALAUEG), ITAWIS. Related to Ibanag. Bilingual in Ilocano. 72% intelligibility of South Ibanag; 68% of Ilocano, 53% lexical similarity. NT 1992. Bible portions 1978-1981.

78. ITNEG, BINONGAN (TINGUIAN, TINGGUIAN) [ITB] 7,000 (1982 SIL); 50,402 in all countries Itneg (1975 census). Ba-ay Valley and Licuan Abra Province, Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Itneg. 69% lexical similarity with Ilocano, 86% with Masadiit Itneg. Bilingual in Ilocano. Bible portions 1967. Survey needed.

79. ITNEG, INLAOD [ITI] Northern Luzon, southwest of Binongan Itneg, northwest of Masadiit Itneg. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Itneg. Reported to be bilingual in Ilocano. Survey needed.

80. ITNEG, MASADIIT [TIS] 7,500. Sallapadan and Bucloc, Abra Province, Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Itneg. 62% lexical similarity with Ilocano, 70% with Guinaang Kalinga, 86% with Binongan Itneg. Reported to be bilingual in Ilocano. Needs survey. Survey needed.

81. ITNEG, SOUTHERN (LUBA-TIEMPO ITNEG) [ITT] Luzon, southern Abra Province. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Itneg. Needs survey. May be bilingual in Ilocano or Northern Kankanay. Survey needed.

82. IVATAN [IVV] 30,000 (1981 SIL). Basco, Batanes Islands. About 1,000 relocated on Mindanao near boundary of Bukidnon, Lanao del Sur, and Cotabato; some in Manila, Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Bashiic-Central Luzon-Northern Mindoro, Bashiic, Ivatan. Dialects: ITBAYAT (ITBAYATEN), BASCO IVATAN. 91.8% literate. Christian. NT 1984. Bible portions 1960.

83. I-WAK (IWAAK) [IWK] 2,000 to 3,000 (1987 SIL). Reported to live in the following villages: Tojongan, Bakes, Lebeng, Domolpos, Bujasjas, Kayo-ko, Salaksak (in Kayapa), extreme eastern Itogon, Benguet Province, Luzon. I-wak people also live in Capintalan in Nueva Ecija, but speak only Kallahan. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, Pangasinic, Benguet, Iwaak. Related to Karao, Ibaloi, and Kallahan. Less acculturated to outside culture than other mountain groups. Mountain slope. Survey needed.

84. KAGAYANEN (CAGAYANO CILLO, CAGAYANCILLO) [CGC] 30,000 (1982 SIL). Cagayan Island, between Negros and Palawan, and communities on the coast of Palawan. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Manobo, North. Lowland. 75% literate. Bible portions 1983. Work in progress.

85. KALAGAN [KQE] 20,000 to 60,000 (1990 SIL). Along east and west shores of Davao Gulf in Davao del Sur and Davao Oriental. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Western. Dialects: ISAMAL, PISO, TUMUAONG, LACTAN. Piso dialect may be the prestige dialect. Piso has 91% intelligibility and 72% lexical similarity with Kagan; 65% intelligibility of Tagakaulu; 87% intelligibility of Cebuano; 92% intelligibility, 74% lexical similarity with Mansaka; 83% lexical similarity with Sangab Mandaya. 80% literate. Typology: VSO. Muslim. Work in progress.

86. KALAGAN, KAGAN (KAAGAN, KAGAN KALAGAN) [KLL] 6,000 (1981 SIL). Davao City, Mindanao. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Western. Related to Kalagan; 82% intelligibility of Piso dialect. Strong ethnic identity. Preference is for Kalagan language. Perhaps 60% literate. Bible portions 1980. Survey needed.

87. KALAGAN, TAGAKAULU (TAGAKAOLO) [KLG] 37,830 (1975 census). Southern Mindanao, South Cotabato, south of Kalagan. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Western. Related to Mandaya. 84% intelligibility of Piso dialect (Kalagan); 78% of Cebuano; 54% of Kagan Kalagan. 25% literate. Bible portions 1964-1981. Work in progress.

88. KALINGA, BUTBUT (BUTBUT) [KYB] 4,000 (1981 PBS). Luzon, Butbut, Tinglayan, Kalinga-Apayao Province. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga. 72% intelligibility of Limos; 44% of Ilocano; 70% of Guinaang, 78% lexical similarity; 47% intelligibility of Tanudan, 78% lexical similarity; 74% intelligibility of Bangad (Southern), 82% lexical similarity. Work in progress.

89. KALINGA, LIMOS (LIMOS-LIWAN KALINGA, NORTHERN KALINGA) [KMK] 20,000 (1977 SIL). Luzon, Kalinga-Apayao Province. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga. 55% literate. Bible portions 1977-1985. Work in progress.

90. KALINGA, LOWER TANUDAN (LOWER TANUDAN) [KML] 5,500 (1981 SIL). Luzon, southern Kalinga-Apayao Province. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga. Intelligibility of Limos 79%, Guinaang 66%; 87% lexical similarity with Pangul; 80% lexical similarity with Madukayang. Literature may serve Pangul. 50% literate. Bible portions 1980. Work in progress.

91. KALINGA, LUBUAGAN [KNB] 40,000 (1981 SIL). Eastern Abra and Kalinga-Apayao provinces, Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga. Dialects: GUINAANG, BALBALASANG, BANAO ITNEG, LUBUAGAN, ABLEG-SALEGSEG. Intelligibility of Balbalasang 81%, lexical similarity 81%; Sumadel 82% intelligibility; Limos 70% intelligibility, 81% lexical similarity; Ilocano 48% average comprehension. 70% literate. Bible portions 1970-1984. Work in progress.

92. KALINGA, MABAKA VALLEY (MABAKA ITNEG, KAL-UWAN) [KKG] Luzon, southeastern Kalinga-Apayao Province. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga. Bilingual in Limos Kalinga; 79% average comprehension among the speakers tested. Survey needed.

93. KALINGA, MADUKAYANG (MADUKAYANG) [KMD] 1,500 (1990 SIL). Southern Mountain Province, Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga. 80% lexical similarity with Tanudan Kalinga. 83% intelligibility of Limos, 68% lexical similarity; 83% intelligibility of Balangao, 65% lexical similarity; 86% intelligibility of Mangali, 80% lexical similarity; 68% comprehension of Ilocano (mean of test sample). Work in progress.

94. KALINGA, SOUTHERN (SUMADEL-TINGLAYAN KALINGA) [KSC] 12,000 (1981 SIL). Southern Kalinga-Apayao Province, Luzon. About 12 villages. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga. Dialects: MALLANGO, SUMADEL, BANGAD. Intelligibility of Guinaang Kalinga 63%; Mangali 51%, Ilocano 42%. 65% literate. Mountain slope. NT 1986. Bible portions 1977.

95. KALINGA, UPPER TANUDAN (UPPER TANUDAN) [KGH] 3,000 (1991 S. Brainard SIL). Luzon, Kalinga-Apayao Province, southern end of the Tanudan Valley. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga. Language attitudes require separate literature from Lower Tanudan Kalinga. 52% literate.

96. KALLAHAN, KAYAPA (KAYAPA) [KAK] 15,000 (1991 UBS). Western Nueva Vizcaya, northeastern Pangasinan, western Ifugao, Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, Pangasinic, Benguet, Kallahan. NT 1983. Bible portions 1970-1984.

97. KALLAHAN, KELEY-I (ANTIPOLO IFUGAO, KELEYQIQ IFUGAO, KELEY-I) [IFY] 5,000 (1980 SIL). Napayo, Kiangan Ifugao Province, northwest of Aritao, Nueva Vizcaya, Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, Pangasinic, Benguet, Kallahan. Dialect: BAYNINAN. NT 1980. Bible portions 1970-1993.

98. KALLAHAN, TINOC (TINOC KALANGOYA) [TNE] Tinoc, a barrio of Hungduan in Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, Pangasinic, Benguet, Kallahan. Intelligibility of Akab 95%, Tinoc 89%. Literature from other areas is probably not acceptable to the people. Survey needed.

99. KAMAYO [KYK] Surigao del Sur between Marihatag and Lingig, Mindanao. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Northern. Dialects: NORTH KAMAYO, SOUTH KAMAYO. Fairly bilingual in Cebuano. Surigaonon intelligibility 92%, 66% lexical similarity; intelligibility of Butuanon 87%, 70% lexical similarity; intelligibility of Mansaka 82%. Survey needed.

100. KANKANAEY (CENTRAL KANKANAEY, KANKANAI, KANKANAY) [KNE] 150,000 (1991 SIL). Northern Benguet Province, southwestern Mountain Province, southeastern Ilocos Sur, northeastern La Union, Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Bontok-Kankanay, Kankanay. Dialects: MANKAYAN-BUGUIAS, KAPANGAN, BAKUN-KIBUNGAN, GUINZADAN. 75% literate. Mountain slope. Agriculturalists: rice. Traditional religion, Christian. NT 1990. Bible portions 1960-1986.

101. KANKANAY, NORTHERN (SAGADA IGOROT, WESTERN BONTOC) [KAN] 70,000 (1987 SIL). Western Mountain Province, southeastern Ilocos Sur, Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Bontok-Kankanay, Kankanay. 65% to 70% literate. NT 1984. Bible portions 1967-1980.

102. KARAO (KARAW) [KYJ] 1,300 (1987 SIL). Karao and Ekip, Bokod, eastern Benguet Province, Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, Pangasinic, Benguet, Ibaloi-Karao. 90% lexical similarity with Ibaloi. Limited comprehension testing showed Kayapa Kallahan 85%; Ilocano 78%. 80% to 90% literate. Levels of bilingualism in Ibaloi are 1-2:47%, 3:18%, 3+:22%, 4:13%. Work in progress.

103. KAROLANOS [KYN] Mid-central Negros. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Unclassified. Present size, location, and bilingualism in Cebuano and Hiligaynon need investigation. Survey needed.

104. KASIGURANIN [KSN] 10,000 (1975 SIL). Quezon Province, Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Dumagat, Northern. Fairly bilingual in Tagalog; 52% lexical similarity; comprehension of Paranan 82%, 75% lexical similarity. Survey needed.

105. KATABAGA [KTQ] Bondoc Peninsula, Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Unclassified. An assimilated group. Speak Tagalog. Negrito. Extinct.

106. KINARAY-A (HINARAY-A, KINIRAY-A, KARAY-A, ANTIQUEÑO, HAMTIKNON, SULUD, ATI, PANAYANO) [KRJ] 350,000 (1991 TAP). Iloilo and Antique provinces, western Panay. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, Kinarayan. Dialects: PANDAN, HAMTIK, ANINI-Y, POTOTAN, LAMBUNAO, MIAG-AO, GUIMARAS ISLAND (GIMARAS). Antique has 67% comprehension of Tagalog; 61% of Hiligaynon; Iloilo has 78% of Hiligaynon; 85% of Antique. Bible portions 1982-1985. Work in progress.

107. MAGAHAT (BUKIDNON, ATA-MAN) [MTW] Southwestern Negros, Mt. Arniyo near Bayawan. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Unclassified. Speakers may be bilingual in Cebuano or Hiligaynon. Survey needed.

108. MAGINDANAON (MAGUINDANAO, MAGINDANAW) [MDH] 1,000,000 (1995 WA) including 674,000 in Magindanaon, 241,000 in Iranun (1981 SIL); 1.7% of the population. Maguindanao, North Cotabato, South Cotabato, Sultan Kuderat, and Zamboanga del Sur provinces; Iranun also in Bukidnon, Mindanao. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Danao, Magindanao. Dialects: LAYA, ILUD, BIWANGAN, SIBUGAY, IRANUN (ILANON, ILLANON, ILANUM, IRANON), TAGAKAWANAN. 84% intelligibility of Iranun, 60% of Maranao. Iranun has 98% intelligibility of Maguindanaon; 96% of Illanun of Sabah, Malaysia and 95% of Maranao. Subdialects of Iranun: Iranun and Isebanganen. Comprehension of Tagalog is low. 60% literate. Trade language. Muslim, Christian. Bible portions 1946-1995. Work in progress.

109. MALAYNON [MLZ] 8,500 (1973 SIL). Malay, northwest Aklan Province, lowland, Panay. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, Aklan. 93% lexical similarity with Aklanon. Vigorous language use. Survey needed.

110. MAMANWA (MAMANWA NEGRITO, MINAMANWA) [MMN] 1,500 (1981 SIL). Agusan del Norte and Surigao provinces, Mindanao. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Mamanwa. 7% literate. NT 1982. Bible portions 1966-1967.

111. MANDAYA, CATAELANO (CATEELENYO) [MST] 19,000 (1980 census). Town of Cateel, Davao Oriental, Mindanao. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Eastern, Mandayan. Fairly bilingual in Mansaka. Survey needed.

112. MANDAYA, KARAGA (CARRAGA MANDAYA, MANAY MANDAYAN, MANGARAGAN MANDAYA) [MRY] 3,000 (1982 SIL). Lamiyawan area, Davao Oriental, Mindanao. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Eastern, Caraga. Fairly bilingual in Mansaka; 89% lexical similarity. Survey needed.

113. MANDAYA, SANGAB (SANGAB) [MYT] Head of Carraga River, Banlalaysan area, highland, Davao del Norte, Mindanao. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Eastern, Mandayan. 77% intelligibility of Mansaka, limited bilingualism in Cebuano; 83% lexical similarity with Tumuwaong (Kalagan), 79% with Boston, 72% with Boso. Survey needed.

114. MANOBO, AGUSAN (AGUSAN) [MSM] 40,000 (1981 SIL). Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Surigao del Sur, Mindanao. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Manobo, Central, East. Dialects: UMAYAM, ADGAWAN, SURIGAO. Omayamnon has 80% lexical similarity with the other dialects. Agusan has 83% intelligibility of Dibabawon, 85% lexical similarity; 80% lexical similarity with Cebuano. 54.3% literate. Bible portions 1962-1992. Work in progress.

115. MANOBO, ATA (ATAO MANOBO, ATA OF DAVAO, LANGILAN) [ATD] 15,000 to 20,000 (1981 SIL). Mindanao, northwestern Davao. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Manobo, Central, South, Ata-Tigwa. Distinct from Ata of Mabinay, Negros Oriental, and Atta languages. A Negrito people. 25% literate. Bible portions 1974-1981. Work in progress.

116. MANOBO, CINAMIGUIN (CINAMIGUIN, KINAMIGIN, KAMIGIN) [MKX] 60,000 (1973 SIL). Camiguin Island, north of Mindanao. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Manobo, North. Speakers use Cebuano as second language. Survey needed.

117. MANOBO, COTABATO [MTA] 15,000 (1991 SIL). South Cotabato, Limulan Valley, Mindanao. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Manobo, South. Dialects: TASADAY, BLIT. 15% to 20% literate. NT 1988. Bible portions 1964-1979.

118. MANOBO, DIBABAWON (MANDAYA, DIBABAON, DEBABAON) [MBD] 10,000 (1978 SIL). Manguagan, Davao del Norte, Mindanao. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Manobo, Central, East. Dialect: MANGUAGAN MANOBO. 23% literate. NT 1978. Bible portions 1967.

119. MANOBO, ILIANEN (ILIANEN) [MBI] 10,000 (1981 SIL). Northern Cotabato, Mindanao. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Manobo, Central, West. Dialects: LIVUNGANEN, PULENIYAN. 15% to 20% literate. NT 1989. Bible portions 1961-1981.

120. MANOBO, MATIGSALUG (MATIG-SALUG MANOBO) [MBT] 30,000 (1989 SIL). Davao del Norte, southeast Bukidnon, Mindanao. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Manobo, Central, South, Ata-Tigwa. Dialects: KULAMANEN, TIGWA, TALA INGOD, MATIG-SALUD. People are basically monolingual. Tigwa has marginal intelligibility with Matig-Salug. Tala Ingod may have adequate intelligibility with Matig-Salug. 10% literate. Mountain slope. Bible portions 1972-1984. Work in progress.

121. MANOBO, OBO (OBO BAGOBO, BAGOBO, KIDAPAWAN MANOBO) [OBO] 10,000 (1985 SIL). Northeastern slope of Mt. Apo, between Davao del Sur and North Cotabato, Mindanao. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Manobo, Central, South, Obo. 69% intelligibility of Tigwa (Matig-Salug Manobo; closest); 60% of Tagabawa Manobo, 63% lexical similarity; 13% intelligibility of Ilianen Manobo, 63% lexical similarity; 35% lexical similarity with Cebuano. Limited bilingualism in Cebuano. Bible portions 1941-1993. Work in progress.

122. MANOBO, RAJAH KABUNSUWAN (RAJAH KABUNGSUAN MANOBO) [MQK] Southern Surigao del Sur. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Manobo, Central, East. Low comprehension of Cebuano. Intelligibility of Dibabawon Manobo 80%, 82% lexical similarity; Sagunto Agusan 76% lexical similarity; San Miguel Calatugan Agusan 81% intelligibility, 76% lexical similarity. Survey needed.

123. MANOBO, SARANGANI [MBS] 35,000 (1987 SIL). Southern and eastern Davao, Mindanao. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Manobo, South. Dialect: GOVERNOR GENEROSO MANOBO. 44% literate. NT 1982. Bible portions 1967-1985.

124. MANOBO, TAGABAWA (TAGABAWA, TAGABAWA BAGOBO) [BGS] 40,000 (1987 SIL). Mindanao, Davao City, slopes of Mt. Apo. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Manobo, South. 45% intelligibility of Tigwa Manobo; low comprehension of Cebuano; 62% lexical similarity with Sarangani Manobo; 34% lexical similarity with Bagobo (Giangan). The official name is Tagabawa. Bible portions 1952-1992. Work in progress.

125. MANOBO, WESTERN BUKIDNON [MBB] 10,000 to 15,000 (1981 SIL). Mindanao, southern Bukidnon Province. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Manobo, Central, West. Dialects: ILENTUNGEN, KIRIYENTEKEN, PULANGIYEN. 45% literate. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Formerly swidden agriculturalists: upland rice; hunter-gatherers. Presently peasant agriculturalists: maize. NT 1978. Bible portions 1959-1965.

126. MANSAKA (MANDAYA MANSAKA) [MSK] 30,000 to 35,000 (1975 SIL). Eastern Davao and Davao Oriental Provinces, Mindanao. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Eastern, Mandayan. 80% lexical similarity with Bislig-Mati, 89% with Karaga Mandaya, 84% with Mati, 74% with Piso (Kalagan). NT 1975. Bible portions 1959-1968.

127. MAPUN (SAMA MAPUN, JAMA MAPUN, CAGAYAN DE SULU, CAGAYANON, KAGAYAN, BAJAU KAGAYAN, ORANG CAGAYAN, CAGAYANO) [SJM] 15,000 in Philippines (1981 SIL). Cagayan de Sulu and Palawan islands. Also in Sabah, Malaysia. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Borneo Coast Bajaw. Somewhat bilingual in Tausug. 59% intelligibility of Central Sama. 65% to 70% literate. Muslim. Bible portions 1979-1985. Work in progress.

128. MARANAO (RANAO, MARANAW) [MRW] 602,613 (1975 census); 1.4% of the population. Mindanao, Lanao del Norte and Lanao del Sur provinces. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Danao, Maranao-Iranon. 87% intelligibility of Iranun (see Magindanaon); 52% of Magindanaon. 20% literate. Muslim, Christian. NT 1981. Bible portions 1937-1967.

129. MASBATENYO (MINASBATE, MASBATEÑO) [MSB] 332,828 first language speakers, 150,000 to 200,000 second language speakers (1986 E. Wolfenden SIL). Masbate Province, three islands. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Peripheral. Related to Hiligaynon and Capiznon; 79% lexical similarity with Capiznon, 76% with Hiligaynon. 65% to 70% literate. Masbatenyo used in the home, market, at work, on the street. 86.8% literate. Language of wider communication. NT 1993. Bible portions 1972-1991.

130. MOLBOG (MOLBOG PALAWAN) [PWM] 5,640 in all countries (1987 SIL). Balabac Island, southern Palawan, and Banggi Island, Sabah, Malaysia. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Palawano. Quezon Palawano (Central) 69% lexical similarity; Brooke's Point Palawano 27% intelligibility; South Palawano 55% intelligibility. 5% literate. Muslim. Bible portions 1977. Work in progress.

131. PALAWANO, BROOKE'S POINT (PALAWAN, BROOKE'S POINT PALAWAN) [PLW] 6,000 (1993 SIL). Southeastern Palawan. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Palawano. Dialect: SOUTH PALAWANO (BUGSUK PALAWANO). Comprehension of Tagalog is low; Quezon Palawano (Central) 76% intelligibility, 82% lexical similarity; Southwest Palawano 68% intelligibility, 85% lexical similarity; South Palawano 87% intelligibility, 83% lexical similarity. 15% literate. Muslim. Bible portions 1992. Work in progress.

132. PALAWANO, CENTRAL (QUEZON PALAWANO, PALAWANEN, PALAWEÑO) [PLC] 12,000 (1981 UBS; may include Southwest Palawano). Central Palawan. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Palawano. Comprehension of Tagalog low; Brooke's Point Palawano 95% intelligibility, 82% lexical similarity; Southwest Palawano 46% intelligibility, 78% lexical similarity. The existence of the group reported as Ken-ey (Taobato, Kenne, Queney, Ke'ney) has not been verified after several attempts, and is apparently a group of Palawano speakers engaged in seasonal activity in a given area. NT 1964. Bible portions 1959-1962.

133. PALAWANO, SOUTHWEST [PLV] 3,000 (1985 UBS). Southwest Palawan from Canipaan to Canduaga. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Palawano. Low comprehension of Tagalog; intelligibility of Quezon Palawano (Central) 75%, 78% lexical similarity; Brooke's Point 76% intelligibility, 85% lexical similarity. Work in progress.

134. PAMPANGAN (PAMPANGO, PAMPANGUEÑO, KAPAMPANGAN) [PMP] 2,000,000 (1995 WA); about 3.4% of the population. Pampanga, Tarlac, and Bataan provinces, Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Bashiic-Central Luzon-Northern Mindoro, Central Luzon, Pampangan. Dominant language in Pampanga Province. Language of wider communication. Braille Bible portions. Bible 1917-1994. NT 1908-1985. Bible portions 1901-1985.

135. PANGASINAN [PNG] 2,000,000 (1995 WA); 2.3% of the population. Pangasinan Province, Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, Pangasinic. Braille Bible portions. Bible 1915-1983. NT 1908-1924. Bible portions 1887-1964.

136. PARANAN (PALANENYO) [AGP] 10,000 (1981 SIL). East coast, Isabela Province, Luzon; surrounded by hills. Isolated. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Dumagat, Northern. Dialect: PALANAN DUMAGAT (PALANAN VALLEY AGTA, PALANAN VALLEY DUMAGAT). Intelligibility of Casiguran Dumagat 76%, moderate comprehension of Tagalog, comprehension of Ilocano 33%. Palanan Dumagat intelligibility of Paranan 98%, 85% lexical similarity; intelligibility of Casiguran Dumagat 94%, 87% lexical similarity; low comprehension of Tagalog and Ilocano. Lowland. Negrito. 75% literate (lowlanders), 1% to 3% (Negritos). Tropical forest. Coastal. Bible portions 1988. Work in progress.

137. PHILIPPINE SIGN LANGUAGE (LOCAL SIGN LANGUAGE) [PSP] (100,000 deaf persons; 1986 Gallaudet Univ.). Deaf sign language. Total communication is used in deaf schools, with teachers both speaking and signing. Used by USA Peace Corps. American Sign Language is well known as a second language.

138. POROHANON (CAMOTES) [PRH] 23,000. Camotes Islands. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Peripheral. Barely intelligible with Cebuano (J. Wolff); 87% lexical similarity. Closer to Masbateño and Hiligaynon. Levels of bilingualism in Cebuano are 1-3:25%, 3+:29%, 4:46%. Survey needed.

139. RATAGNON (DATAGNON, LATAGNUN, LATAN, LACTAN, ARADIGI) [BTN] Very few speakers. Southern tip of western Mindoro. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, Kuyan. Dialects: RATAGNON, SANTA TERESA. Rapidly assimilating to Tagalog. Close to Cuyonon. Survey needed.

140. ROMBLOMANON (ROMBLON) [ROL] 200,000 (1987 SIL). Romblon and Sibuyan Islands, parts of eastern Tablas Island, north of Panay. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Romblon. Dialects: SIBUYAN, ROMBLON, BASIQ. Sibuyan Island has 70% intelligibility of Aklanon; 70% of Tagalog; 73% of Hiligaynon; 94% of Romblon. Work in progress.

141. SAMA, ABAKNON (ABAKNON, INBAKNON, INABAKNON, CAPUL, CAPULEÑO, KAPUL) [ABX] 16,000 (1987 SIL), including 11,000 on Capul, 5,000 elsewhere in the Philippines. Capul Island near San Bernardino Strait, Northwest Samar. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sama-Bajaw, Abaknon. 75% to 80% literate. Christian. Bible portions 1981. Work in progress.

142. SAMA, BALANGINGI (BAANGINGI', BANGINGI SAMA, NORTHERN SAMA, NORTHERN SINAMA) [SSE] 60,000 in Philippines (1981 SIL), including 11,000 Sibuco-Vitali, 500 Sibuguey, 10,000 to 20,000 Baangingi'. Sulu Archipelago northeast of Jolo, Zamboanga coast, Basilan Island, western Mindanao. Some Balangingi may be on Luzon. Northern Sama speakers are at White Beach on Luzon near Subic Bay. Also in Sabah, Malaysia. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama. Dialects: LUTANGAN (LUTANGO), SIBUCO-VITALI (SIBUKU), SIBUGUEY (BATUAN), BALANGINGI, DAONGDUNG, KABINGA'AN. Most Lutangan speakers (2,000 to 3,000, Olutangga Island, western Mindanao) understand Balangingi. Balangingi is the prestige dialect. People have good bilingual comprehension of Tausug. Intelligibility of Central Sama is 71%. Intelligibility of Lutangan is 83%, 77% lexical similarity. Intelligibility of Tausug is 64%. Intelligibility of Sibuco-Vitali is 85%, 75% lexical similarity. Most urban men are literate. 40% to 45% literate. Coastal. Fishermen, traders, agriculturalists, professional. Muslim. Bible portions 1981-1983. Work in progress.

143. SAMA, CENTRAL (SIASI SAMA, CENTRAL SINAMA, SAMAL, SINAMA) [SML] 100,000 in all countries (1977 Pallesen SIL). Sulu Province. Also on the east coast of Sabah, Malaysia. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama. Dialect: DILAUT-BADJAO. 59% intelligibility of Tausug; 79% of Balangingi. 15% literate. Muslim, Christian. NT 1987. Bible portions 1966-1974.

144. SAMA, PANGUTARAN [SLM] 20,000 (1987 SIL). West central Sulu, west of Jolo, Mindanao. Also southern Palawan, Cagayan de Tawi-Tawi. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Western Sulu Sama. 65% intelligibility of Central Sama; moderate bilingualism in Tausug. 25% to 30% literate. Agriculturalists. Muslim. NT 1994. Bible portions 1979-1986.

145. SAMA, SOUTHERN (SAMA SIBUTU', SOUTHERN BAJAU) [SIT] 30,000 or more in Philippines; 20,000 or more in Sabah; 50,000 to 100,000 in all countries (1987 SIL). Archipelago next to Borneo, southern Sulu. Tawi-Tawi Island group includes Tawi-Tawi, Simunul, Sibutu, and other major islands. Also east coast of Sabah, Malaysia. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama. Dialects: SIBUTU' (SIBUTU), SIMUNUL, TANDUBAS, OBIAN. Inherently intelligible dialects. Sibutu intelligibility: 77% of Sama Central; 89% of Simunul. Simunul intelligibility: 77% of Sama Central; 80% of Sibutu. Moderate bilingualism in Tausug by Sibutu and Simunul speakers. Sibutu literature may not be acceptable to Simunul speakers because of marginal intelligibility. Simunul may be more intelligible to all dialects. 65% to 70% literate. Muslim. Bible portions 1979-1981. Work in progress.

146. SAMBAL, BOTOLAN (AETA NEGRITO, BOTOLAN ZAMBAL) [SBL] 31,500 (1975 census). Central Luzon, Zambales Province. People were affected by Mt. Pinatubo eruption. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Bashiic-Central Luzon-Northern Mindoro, Central Luzon, Sambalic. Limited bilingualism in Tagalog. 90% literate (lowlanders), 30% (Negritos). NT 1982. Bible portions 1966-1974.

147. SAMBAL, TINA (TINO) [SNA] 65,000 (1981 SIL); 180,377 all Sambal and Bolinao (1975 census). Luzon, northern Zambales Province. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Bashiic-Central Luzon-Northern Mindoro, Central Luzon, Sambalic. Moderate comprehension of Tagalog. Tina has 70% intelligibility of Botolan. 98% literate. Bible portions 1938-1979. Work in progress.

148. SANGIL (SANGIRÉ, SANGGIL) [SNL] 7,000 to 10,000 (1981 SIL). Balut Island, off Mindanao. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sulawesi, Sangir-Minahasan, Sangiric. Dialects: SARANGANI, MINDANAO. Speakers have limited bilingualism in Cebuano. 50% literate. Muslim, Christian. Bible portions 1979. Work in progress.

149. SANGIR (SANGIHÉ, SANGIRESE) [SAN] 55,000 in Philippines (1981 SIL); 200,000 in Indonesia (1995); 255,000 in all countries. Balut and Sarangani islands off of Mindanao. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sulawesi, Sangir-Minahasan, Sangiric. NT 1883-1994. Bible portions 1875-1980.

150. SORSOGON, MASBATE (NORTHERN SORSOGON, SORSOGON BICOLANO) [BKS] 85,000 (1975 census). Luzon, Sorsogon, Casiguran and Juban, Sorsogon Province. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Warayan. Fairly bilingual in Tagalog. Some bilingualism in Central Bicolano and Masbateño.

151. SORSOGON, WARAY (SOUTHERN SORSOGON, BIKOL SORSOGON, GUBAT) [SRV] 185,000 (1975 census). Southern Sorsogon Province. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Warayan, Gubat. Closely related to Waray-Waray. Bilingual in Tagalog, Central Bicolano, Masbateño. Comprehension of Masbateño: 63% to 91%; Central Bicolano (Naga): 71% to 82%; Tagalog 85% to 91%.

152. SPANISH [SPN] 4,771 (1975 census); 266,000,000 in all countries (1987 Time). Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Ibero-Romance, North, Central. Formerly the official language. Used by a few families as mother tongue, mainly in Manila. Christian. Braille Bible. Bible 1553-1979. NT 1543-1986. Bible portions 1514-1985.

153. SUBANEN, CENTRAL (SINDANGAN SUBANUN) [SUS] 80,000 (1981 SIL). Eastern Zamboanga Peninsula, Mindanao, Sulu Archipelago. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Subanun, Eastern. Dialect: EASTERN KOLIBUGAN (EASTERN KALIBUGAN). 79% lexical similarity with Siocon; 71% intelligibility of Lapuyan. High comprehension of Cebuano. 50% literate. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. NT 1992. Bible portions 1973-1983.

154. SUBANEN, NORTHERN (TUBOY SUBANON) [STB] 10,000 (1985 SIL). Tuboy: Sergio Osmeña, Mutia; Zamboanga del Norte; Salog: Misamis Occidental, Mindanao. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Subanun, Eastern. Dialects: DAPITAN, SALOG (SALUG), DIKAYU. 63% intelligibility of Sindanga, 87% lexical similarity; 40% intelligibility of Lapuyan; limited comprehension of Cebuano. Work in progress.

155. SUBANON, WESTERN (SIOCON) [SUC] 40,000 (1981 SIL). Mindanao, Zamboanga Peninsula. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Subanun, Kalibugan. Dialects: CALIBUGAN SUBANON (KALIBUGAN), WESTERN KOLIBUGAN (WESTERN KALIBUGAN). Siocon and Western Kolibugan have 89% lexical similarity. 39% literate. Muslim (Calibugan), Christian. Bible portions 1971-1974. Work in progress.

156. SUBANUN, LAPUYAN (LAPUYEN, MARGOSATUBIG, SUBANEN) [LAA] 25,000 (1978 Brichoux SIL). Sub-peninsulas of eastern Zamboanga del Sur, Mindanao. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Subanun, Eastern. Lapuyan Subanun speakers understand Sindangan (85%), but not vice versa. Low comprehension of Cebuano. NT 1982. Bible portions 1939-1967.

157. SULOD (BUKIDNON, MONDO) [SRG] 14,000 (1980 SIL). Tapaz, Capiz Province; Lambunao, Iloilo Province; Valderrama, Antique Province, Panay. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Unclassified. Bilingualism in Hiligaynon and Kinaray-a needs investigation. Survey needed.

158. SURIGAONON [SUL] Surigao, Carrascal, Cantilan, Madrid, Larosa. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, South, Surigao. Dialects: JAUN-JAUN, CANTILAN (KANTILAN), NATURALIS, SURIGAONON. 82% lexical similarity with Dibabawon Manobo, 81% with Agusan Manobo, 69% with Butuanon. Speakers are reported to have a high rate of bilingualism in Cebuano. Survey needed.

159. TADYAWAN (PULA, TADIANAN, BALABAN) [TDY] 2,000 (1982 OMF). East central Mindoro. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Bashiic-Central Luzon-Northern Mindoro, Northern Mindoro. Work in progress.

160. TAGALOG (FILIPINO, PILIPINO) [TGL] 14,850,000 first language speakers (1993 Johnstone); about 23.8% of the population; used to some degree by 39,000,000 (1991 WA); 377,000 in USA (1975 Govt. report); 20,896 in Canada (1974 Govt. report); 50,000 in United Arab Emirates (1986); 24,000 in Guam (1986); 15,322,000 in all countries. Manila, most of Luzon, and Mindoro. Also in Saudi Arabia, United Kingdom. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Tagalog. Dialects: LUBANG, MANILA, MARINDUQUE, BATAAN, BATANGAS, BULACAN, TANAY-PAETE, TAYABAS. Roman alphabet. Used in the schools. Pilipino is presently the national language. Filipino is to be developed from it to replace it. National language. Christian. Braille NT. Bible 1905, in press (1995). NT 1902-1977. Bible portions 1898-1959.

161. TAGBANWA (APURAHUANO, TAGBANWA, ABORLAN TAGBANWA) [TBW] 8,000 (1981 SIL). Central and northern Palawan, around Lamane. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Palawano. Intelligibility of Quezon Palawano (Central) 66%. Lexical similarity with Quezon Palawano 65%; Batak 71%; Cuyonon 54% lexical similarity, 77% intelligibility. The people have low comprehension of Tagalog. 36% literate. Fishermen, agriculturalists. NT 1992. Bible portions 1968-1986.

162. TAGBANWA, CALAMIAN (KALAMIAN, CALAMIANO, KALAMIANON, KARAMIANANEN) [TBK] 5,000 (1981 SIL). Coron Island, north of Palawan, northern Palawan and Busuanga. Baras is on eastern coast of Palawan opposite Dumaran Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Kalamian. Dialect: BARAS. Baras has 94% intelligibility of Calamian; 80% lexical similarity. 40% literate. Bible portions 1968-1991. Work in progress.

163. TAGBANWA, CENTRAL [TGT] 2,000 (1985 SIL), about 235 families. Northern Palawan. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Kalamian. Intelligibility of Tagbanwa (Lamane) 29%, 56% lexical similarity; intelligibility of Calamian Tagbanwa 56%, 57% lexical similarity; comprehension of Cuyonon 61%, 48% lexical similarity; low comprehension of Tagalog, 40% lexical similarity. Survey needed.

164. TAUSUG (TAW SUG, SULU, SULUK, TAUSOG, MORO JOLOANO) [TSG] 330,000 in the Philippines (1975 census); 110,000 in Sabah, Malaysia (1982 SIL); 12,000 in Kalimantan, Indonesia (1981 Wurm and Hattori); 492,000 in all countries (1981 Parshall). 500,000 others speak it as second language in the Philippines (1986 SIL). Jolo, Sulu Archipelago. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, South, Butuan-Tausug. Dictionary. 50% literate. Language of wider communication. Fishermen. Muslim, Christian. NT 1985. Bible portions 1918-1993.

165. TAWBUID, EASTERN (BANGON, BATANGAN, TABUID, TAUBUID, TIRON, SURI, BARANGAN, BINATANGAN) [BNJ] 10,000 to 12,000 including Eastern and Western Tawbuid (1991 OMF). Central Mindoro. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, South Mangyan, Buhid-Taubuid. Western Tawbuid is different enough to need separate literature. NT in press (1995). Bible portions 1980.

166. TAWBUID, WESTERN (WESTERN TAUBUID) [TWB] (10,000 to 12,000 including Eastern Tawbuid; 1991 OMF). Central Mindoro. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, South Mangyan, Buhid-Taubuid. Different enough from Eastern Tawbuid to need separate literature. Work in progress.

167. TBOLI (TIBOLI, T'BOLI, "TAGABILI") [TBL] 80,000 (1987 SIL). South Cotabato, Mindanao. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, South Mindanao, Bilic, Tboli. Dialects: SINALON, KIAMBA, UBU. The Tboli dislike the name "Tagabili" formerly used for them. They operate their own government school. 15% to 20% literate. NT 1979-1992. Bible portions 1963-1992.

168. TIRURAY (TIRURAI, TEDURAY) [TIY] 34,340 (1975 census). Upi, Cotabato, Mindanao. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, South Mindanao, Tiruray. 49% literate. NT 1983. Bible portions 1955.

169. WARAY-WARAY (SAMAREÑO, SAMARAN, SAMAR-LEYTE, WARAY, BINISAYA) [WRY] 3,000,000 (1995 WA); or about 4.6% of the population. Northern and eastern Samar-Leyte. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Warayan, Samar-Waray. Dialects: WARAY, SAMAR-LEYTE, NORTHERN SAMAR. Several dialects. Needs further survey. Language of wider communication. Braille Bible portions. Bible 1937-1984. NT 1928. Bible portions 1908-1962.

170. YAKAN (YACAN) [YKA] 60,000 to 70,000 in all countries (1987 SIL); 5,000 to 10,000 in Sabah, Malaysia (1985). Sulu Archipelago, Basilan Island, western Mindanao. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Sama-Bajaw, Yakan. 25% literate. Agriculturalists. Muslim. NT 1984. Bible portions 1959-1966.

171. YOGAD [YOG] 14,000 (1975 census). Echague, Isabela Province, Luzon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Ibanagic, Ibanag. Related to Ibanag and Gaddang. Highly bilingual in Ilocano. 52% lexical similarity with Ilocano, 66% with Itawis, 63% with Ibanag. 77% literacy in Isabela in 1955. Survey needed.

Part of the Ethnologue, 13th Edition, Barbara F. Grimes, Editor.
Copyright © 1996, Summer Institute of Linguistics, Inc. All rights reserved.

 

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