List of countries by GDP (nominal) - WikiMili, The Best Wikipedia Reader

List of countries by GDP (nominal)

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List of countries by GDP (nominal)
Largest economies by nominal GDP in 2021 [1]
Countries by nominal GDP in 2019
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>$20 trillion
$10-$20 trillion
$5-$10 trillion
$1-$5 trillion
$750 billion-$1 trillion
$500-$750 billion
$250-$500 billion
$100-$250 billion
$50-$100 billion
$25-$50 billion
$5-$25 billion
<$5 billion Nominal GDP of Countries.svg
Countries by nominal GDP in 2019
  >$20 trillion
  $10–$20 trillion
  $5–$10 trillion
  $1–$5 trillion
  $750 billion–$1 trillion
  $500–$750 billion
  $250–$500 billion
  $100–$250 billion
  $50–$100 billion
  $25–$50 billion
  $5–$25 billion
  <$5 billion

Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year. [2] Countries are sorted by nominal GDP estimates from financial and statistical institutions, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates. Nominal GDP does not take into account differences in the cost of living in different countries, and the results can vary greatly from one year to another based on fluctuations in the exchange rates of the country's currency. [3] Such fluctuations may change a country's ranking from one year to the next, even though they often make little or no difference in the standard of living of its population. [4]

Comparisons of national wealth are also frequently made on the basis of purchasing power parity (PPP), to adjust for differences in the cost of living in different countries. PPP largely removes the exchange rate problem, but has its own drawbacks; it does not reflect the value of economic output in international trade, does not take into account the differences of quality of goods and services among countries, and it also requires more estimation than nominal GDP. [5] On the whole, PPP per capita figures are less spread than nominal GDP per capita figures. [6]

Although the rankings of national economies have changed considerably over time, the United States has maintained its top position since the Gilded Age, a time period in which its economy saw rapid expansion, surpassing the British Empire and Qing dynasty in aggregate output. [7] [8] Since China's transition to a market-based economy through controlled privatisation and deregulation, [9] [10] the country has seen its ranking increase from ninth, in 1978, to second, in 2016. Economic growth accelerated and its share of global nominal GDP surged from 2% in 1980 to 15% in 2016. [8] [1] Among others, India has also experienced an economic boom since the implementation of economic liberalisation in the early 1990s. [11]

The first list includes estimates compiled by the International Monetary Fund's World Economic Outlook, the second list shows the World Bank's data, and the third list includes data compiled by the United Nations Statistics Division. The IMF definitive data for the past year and estimates for the current year are published twice a year in April and October. Non-sovereign entities (the world, continents, and some dependent territories) and states with limited international recognition (such as Kosovo, the State of Palestine and Taiwan) are included in the list where they appear in the sources.


The table is initially ranked by the average of the available estimates for each country or territory, and can be reranked by either of the sources.

GDP (US$ million) by country
Country or territory Region IMF [1] UN [12] World Bank [13]
Flag of the United States.svg United States (more) Americas 22,675,271202121,433,226202020,936,6002020
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China (more) Asia 16,642,318 [n 2] 202114,342,933 [n 3] 202014,722,7312020
Flag of Japan.svg Japan (more) Asia 5,378,13620215,082,46520205,064,8732019
Flag of Germany.svg Germany (more) Europe 4,319,28620213,861,12320203,806,0602020
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom (more) Europe 3,124,65020212,826,44120202,707,7442020
Flag of India.svg India (more) Asia 3,049,70420212,891,58220202,622,9842020
Flag of France.svg France (more) Europe 2,938,27120212,715,51820202,603,0042020
Flag of Italy.svg Italy (more) Europe 2,106,28720212,003,57620201,886,4452020
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Canada (more) Americas 1,883,48720211,741,49620201,643,4082020
Flag of South Korea.svg South Korea (more) Asia 1,806,70720211,646,53920201,630,5252020
Flag of Russia.svg Russia (more) Europe 1,710,73420211,692,93020201,483,4982020
Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil (more) Americas 1,491,77220211,847,79520201,444,7332020
Flag of Australia (converted).svg Australia (more) Oceania 1,617,54320211,380,20720201,330,9012020
Flag of Spain.svg Spain (more) Europe 1,461,55220211,393,49020201,281,1992020
Flag of Mexico.svg Mexico (more) Americas 1,192,48020211,256,44020201,076,1632020
Flag of Indonesia.svg Indonesia (more) Asia 1,158,78320211,119,19020201,058,4242020
Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands (more) Europe 1,012,5982021907,0502020912,2422020
Flag of Switzerland.svg Switzerland (more) Europe 824,7342021731,4252020747,9692020
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg Saudi Arabia (more) Asia 804,9212021792,9662020700,1182020
Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey (more) Asia 794,5302021761,4252020720,1012020
Flag of the Republic of China.svg Taiwan (more) Asia 759,104 [n 4] 2021669,0342020574,9052017
Flag of Poland.svg Poland (more) Europe 642,1212021595,8622020594,1652020
Flag of Sweden.svg Sweden (more) Europe 625,9482021530,8832020537,6102020
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium (more) Europe 578,9962021533,0972020515,3332020
Flag of Thailand.svg Thailand (more) Asia 538,7352021542,0162020501,7952020
Flag of Iran.svg Iran (more) Asia 682,8592021603,7792020491,7182020
Flag of Nigeria.svg Nigeria (more) Africa 514,0492021474,5162020432,2942020
Flag of Austria.svg Austria (more) Europe 481,7962021445,0752020428,9652020
Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland (more) Europe 476,6632021398,5902020418,6222020
Flag of Argentina.svg Argentina (more) Americas 418,1502021449,6632020383,0672020
Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg United Arab Emirates (more) Asia 401,5132021421,1422020421,1422019
Flag of Israel.svg Israel (more) Asia 446,7082021395,0982020401,9542020
Flag of Norway.svg Norway (more) Europe 444,5192021403,3362020362,0092020
Flag of the Philippines.svg Philippines (more) Asia 402,6382021359,3542020361,4892020
Flag of Denmark.svg Denmark (more) Europe 392,5702021350,1042020355,1842020
Flag of Malaysia.svg Malaysia (more) Asia 387,0932021364,6842020336,6642020
Flag of Singapore.svg Singapore (more) Asia 374,3942021372,0732020339,9982020
Flag of Hong Kong.svg Hong Kong (more) Asia 368,633 [n 5] 2021365,7102020346,5862020
Flag of Egypt.svg Egypt (more) Africa 394,2842021317,3592020363,0692020
Flag of Bangladesh.svg Bangladesh (more) Asia 352,908 [14] 2021317,4652020324,2392020
Flag of South Africa.svg South Africa (more) Africa 329,5292021351,4302020301,9242020
Flag of Vietnam.svg Vietnam (more) Asia 354,8682021261,9212020271,1582020
Flag of Chile.svg Chile (more) Americas 307,9382021282,3182020252,9402020
Flag of Finland.svg Finland (more) Europe 300,4842021269,2962020271,2342020
Flag of Colombia.svg Colombia (more) Americas 295,6102021323,8022020271,3472020
Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistan (more) Asia 286,3402021263,0002020263,6872020
Flag of Romania.svg Romania (more) Europe 289,1302021250,0752020248,7162020
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Czech Republic (more) Europe 276,1092021250,6802020243,5302020
Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal (more) Europe 257,3912021238,7852020231,2562020
Flag of New Zealand.svg New Zealand (more) Oceania 243,3322021206,9362020212,4822020
Flag of Venezuela.svg Venezuela (more) Americas 42,5302021134,9602020482,3592014
Flag of Peru.svg Peru (more) Americas 225,9182021226,8502020202,0142020
Flag of Greece.svg Greece (more) Europe 209,8572021205,3262020189,4102020
Flag of Iraq.svg Iraq (more) Asia 190,7332021225,2322020167,2242020
Flag of Kazakhstan.svg Kazakhstan (more) Asia 187,8362021181,6672020169,8352020
Flag of Qatar.svg Qatar (more) Asia 166,0312021183,4662020146,3742020
Flag of Hungary.svg Hungary (more) Europe 176,5432021163,4692020155,0132020
Flag of Ukraine.svg Ukraine (more) Europe 164,593 [n 6] 2021153,781 [n 6] 2020155,5822020
Flag of Algeria.svg Algeria (more) Africa 151,4592021171,1572020145,1642020
Flag of Kuwait.svg Kuwait (more) Asia 126,9302021134,6232020136,1972019
Flag of Morocco.svg Morocco (more) Africa 124,0032021119,700 [n 7] 2020112,8712020
Flag of Slovakia.svg Slovakia (more) Europe 117,6642021105,0792020104,5742020
Flag of Cuba.svg Cuba (more) Americas N/A105,3542018103,1312019
Flag of Puerto Rico.svg Puerto Rico (more) Americas 100,6842021104,9882020103,1382020
Flag of Ecuador.svg Ecuador (more) Americas 100,5952021107,435202098,8082020
Flag of Kenya.svg Kenya (more) Africa 106,041202195,501202098,8432020
Flag of Ethiopia.svg Ethiopia (more) Africa 93,966202192,7502020107,6452020
Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg Dominican Republic (more) Americas 83,917202188,941202078,8452020
Flag of Sri Lanka.svg Sri Lanka (more) Asia 84,532202184,008202080,7072020
Flag of Guatemala.svg Guatemala (more) Americas 81,402202176,710202077,6052020
Flag of Myanmar.svg Myanmar (more) Asia 76,195202176,784202076,1862020
Flag of Oman.svg Oman (more) Asia 74,115202176,331202076,3322019
Flag of Luxembourg.svg Luxembourg (more) Europe 84,077202171,104202073,2642020
Flag of Bulgaria.svg Bulgaria (more) Europe 77,782202167,925202069,1052020
Flag of Angola.svg Angola (more) Africa 66,493202185,000202062,3072020
Flag of Ghana.svg Ghana (more) Africa 74,260202166,999202072,3542020
Flag of Panama.svg Panama (more) Americas 59,377202166,787202052,9382020
Flag of Tanzania.svg Tanzania (more) Africa 65,919202161,136 [n 8] 202062,4102020
Flag of Cote d'Ivoire.svg Ivory Coast (more) Africa 70,991202158,539202061,3492020
Flag of Costa Rica.svg Costa Rica (more) Americas 61,178202161,773202061,5212020
Flag of Belarus.svg Belarus (more) Europe 60,725202163,080202060,2582020
Flag of Croatia.svg Croatia (more) Europe 65,217202160,415202055,9672020
Flag of Uzbekistan.svg Uzbekistan (more) Asia 61,203202157,921202057,7072020
Flag of Lithuania.svg Lithuania (more) Europe 62,198202154,627202055,8872020
Flag of Slovenia.svg Slovenia (more) Europe 59,132202154,174202052,8802020
Flag of Uruguay.svg Uruguay (more) Americas 55,459202156,045202053,6292020
Flag of Serbia.svg Serbia (more) Europe 60,435202151,475202052,9602020
Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg DR Congo (more) Africa 55,088202147,319202049,8692020
Flag of Macau.svg Macau (more) Asia 39,449 [n 9] 202153,859202055,1542019
Flag of Turkmenistan.svg Turkmenistan (more) Asia 54,218202148,276201845,2312019
Flag of Azerbaijan.svg Azerbaijan (more) Asia 49,914202148,047202042,6072020
Flag of Jordan.svg Jordan (more) Asia 44,979202144,502202043,6982020
Flag of Lebanon.svg Lebanon (more) Asia 19,126202056,409202033,3832020
Flag of Bolivia.svg Bolivia (more) Americas 43,110202140,895202036,6892020
Flag of Cameroon.svg Cameroon (more) Africa 44,893202138,861202039,8022020
Flag of Tunisia.svg Tunisia (more) Africa 44,265202138,797202039,2362020
Flag of Syria.svg Syria (more) Asia 60,043201020,379202040,4052007
Flag of Bahrain.svg Bahrain (more) Asia 37,503202138,574202038,4752019
Flag of Paraguay.svg Paraguay (more) Americas 37,836202138,086202035,3042020
Flag of Uganda.svg Uganda (more) Africa 41,271202132,609202037,3722020
Flag of Libya.svg Libya (more) Africa 24,267202132,600202025,4182020
Flag of Latvia.svg Latvia (more) Europe 37,720202134,102202033,5052020
Flag of Sudan.svg Sudan (more) Africa 35,827202134,895202026,1112020
Flag of Estonia.svg Estonia (more) Europe 35,187202131,471202031,0302020
Flag of Nepal.svg Nepal (more) Asia 36,084202130,714202033,6572020
Flag of Cambodia.svg Cambodia (more) Asia 27,239202127,097202025,2912020
Flag of El Salvador.svg El Salvador (more) Americas 26,277202127,022202024,6392020
Flag of Honduras (darker variant).svg Honduras (more) Americas 26,161202125,095202023,8282020
Flag of Cyprus.svg Cyprus (more) Asia 26,479202124,565 [n 10] 202023,8042020
Flag of Senegal.svg Senegal (more) Africa 27,927202123,664202024,9112020
Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg Papua New Guinea (more) Oceania 24,536202124,969202023,5922020
Flag of Yemen.svg Yemen (more) Asia 25,095202124,935202023,4862018
Flag of Iceland.svg Iceland (more) Europe 24,155202124,188202021,7152020
Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg Trinidad and Tobago (more) Americas 22,161202123,208202021,5302020
Flag of Zimbabwe.svg Zimbabwe (more) Africa 26,085202121,440202016,7692020
Flag of Zambia.svg Zambia (more) Africa 18,955202123,085202019,3202020
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg Bosnia and Herzegovina (more) Europe 21,953202120,164202019,7882020
Flag of Laos.svg Laos (more) Asia 20,440202118,822202019,1362020
Flag of Afghanistan.svg Afghanistan (more) Asia 19,938202117,876202019,8072020
Flag of Botswana.svg Botswana (more) Africa 18,726202118,340202015,7822020
Flag of Mali.svg Mali (more) Africa 19,912202117,432202017,3942020
Flag of Gabon.svg Gabon (more) Africa 18,362202116,887202015,5932020
Flag of Georgia.svg Georgia (more) Asia 16,163202117,742202015,892 [n 11] 2020
Flag of Burkina Faso.svg Burkina Faso (more) Africa 18,853202115,990202017,3692020
Flag of North Korea.svg North Korea (more) Asia N/A16,3312020N/A
Flag of Palestine.svg Palestine (more) Asia 16,481 [n 12] 202117,058 [n 12] 202015,5612020
Flag of Albania.svg Albania (more) Europe 17,138202115,278202014,8002020
Flag of Jamaica.svg Jamaica (more) Americas 14,600202115,830202013,8122020
Flag of Malta.svg Malta (more) Europe 16,476202114,863202014,6472020
Flag of Benin.svg Benin (more) Africa 17,327202114,403202015,6522020
Flag of Haiti.svg Haiti (more) Americas 22,43120218,051202013,4182020
Flag of Mozambique.svg Mozambique (more) Africa 13,957202115,296202014,0212020
Flag of Madagascar.svg Madagascar (more) Africa 14,746202114,104202013,7212020
Flag of Brunei.svg Brunei (more) Asia 15,278202113,469202012,0162020
Flag of Mongolia.svg Mongolia (more) Asia 14,233202113,852202013,1372020
Flag of Niger.svg Niger (more) Africa 15,899202112,927202013,6782020
Flag of Guinea.svg Guinea (more) Africa 16,339202112,354202015,6812020
Flag of Mauritius.svg Mauritius (more) Africa 12,212202114,180202010,9142020
Flag of Armenia.svg Armenia (more) Asia 12,251202113,672202012,6452020
Flag of North Macedonia.svg North Macedonia (more) Europe 13,821202112,694202012,2672020
Flag of the Bahamas.svg Bahamas (more) Americas 11,706202113,578202011,2502020
Flag of Nicaragua.svg Nicaragua (more) Americas 12,283202112,520202012,6212020
Flag of the Republic of the Congo.svg Congo (more) Africa 12,022202112,397202010,8852020
Flag of Namibia.svg Namibia (more) Africa 11,381202112,366202010,7002020
Flag of Moldova.svg Moldova (more) Europe 11,998 [n 13] 202111,955 [n 13] 202011,9142020
Flag of Chad.svg Chad (more) Africa 12,531202111,271202010,0932020
Flag of Equatorial Guinea.svg Equatorial Guinea (more) Africa 11,726202111,024202010,0222020
Flag of Rwanda.svg Rwanda (more) Africa 10,633202110,355202010,3342020
New Caledonia flags merged (2017).svg New Caledonia (more) Oceania N/A9,87920202,6822000
Flag of Malawi.svg Malawi (more) Africa 9,26820218,099202011,9622020
Flag of Kosovo.svg Kosovo (more) Europe 8,81020217,95220207,6112020
Flag of Mauritania.svg Mauritania (more) Africa 9,23920217,59320207,7792020
Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg Kyrgyzstan (more) Asia 7,47020218,45420207,7362020
Flag of Tajikistan.svg Tajikistan (more) Asia 7,82520218,33320208,1942020
Flag of Bermuda.svg Bermuda (more) Americas N/A7,36120207,4842019
Flag of Monaco.svg Monaco (more) Europe N/A7,42320207,4242019
Flag of Togo.svg Togo (more) Africa 8,62720217,27020207,5752020
Flag of Liechtenstein.svg Liechtenstein (more) Europe N/A6,79720206,8392018
Flag of French Polynesia.svg French Polynesia (more) Oceania N/A6,02320203,4482000
Flag of Guyana.svg Guyana (more) Americas 7,25520215,17320205,4712020
Flag of the Cayman Islands.svg Cayman Islands (more) Americas N/A6,02020205,9362019
Flag of Montenegro.svg Montenegro (more) Europe 5,65120215,54220204,7792020
Flag of Maldives.svg Maldives (more) Asia 4,53620215,64220204,0302020
Flag of Fiji.svg Fiji (more) Oceania 4,58620215,50420204,3762020
Flag of Barbados.svg Barbados (more) Americas 4,62820215,20920204,3662020
Flag of South Sudan.svg South Sudan (more) Africa 4,46120214,959202011,9982015
Flag of Eswatini.svg Eswatini (more) Africa 4,22620214,59420203,9622020
Flag of Sierra Leone.svg Sierra Leone (more) Africa 4,42020214,12120203,8652020
Flag of Somalia.svg Somalia (more) Africa 5,36720211,62620204,9182020
Flag of Djibouti.svg Djibouti (more) Africa 3,66320213,16620203,3842020
Flag of Suriname.svg Suriname (more) Americas 2,46520213,69720203,8082020
Flag of Andorra.svg Andorra (more) Europe N/A3,15420203,1552019
Flag of Curacao.svg Curaçao (more) Americas N/A3,10120203,1022019
Flag of Burundi.svg Burundi (more) Africa 3,24420213,00220203,2582020
Flag of Greenland.svg Greenland (more) Americas N/A3,02320203,0522018
Flag of Liberia.svg Liberia (more) Africa 3,37020212,58220202,9502020
Flag of Aruba.svg Aruba (more) Americas 2,58220213,29320203,2022018
Flag of Bhutan.svg Bhutan (more) Asia 2,48020212,56420202,4092020
Flag of Lesotho.svg Lesotho (more) Africa 2,45820212,46020201,8452020
Flag of the Central African Republic.svg Central African Republic (more) Africa 2,71820212,22020202,3032020
Flag of Eritrea.svg Eritrea (more) Africa 2,25020211,98120202,0652011
Flag of Saint Lucia.svg Saint Lucia (more) Americas 1,78720212,12220201,7032020
Flag of Cape Verde.svg Cape Verde (more) Africa 2,00320211,98120201,7042020
Flag of East Timor.svg East Timor (more) Asia 1,72620212,01720201,8212020
Flag of The Gambia.svg Gambia (more) Africa 2,07820211,82220201,9022020
Flag of Belize.svg Belize (more) Americas 1,70020211,90620201,7642020
Flag of Zanzibar.svg Zanzibar Africa N/A1,8052020N/A
Flag of San Marino.svg San Marino (more) Europe 1,68820211,60220181,6162019
Flag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg Antigua and Barbuda (more) Americas 1,37620211,66120201,4152020
Flag of the Solomon Islands.svg Solomon Islands (more) Oceania 1,64420211,30220201,5512020
Flag of the Seychelles.svg Seychelles (more) Africa 94820211,69820201,1252020
Flag of Guinea-Bissau.svg Guinea-Bissau (more) Africa 1,64720211,32220201,4322020
Flag of the British Virgin Islands.svg British Virgin Islands (more) Americas N/A1,2962020N/A
Flag of the Comoros.svg Comoros (more) Africa 1,30920211,16520201,2202020
Flag of the Turks and Caicos Islands.svg Turks and Caicos Islands Americas N/A1,19720209252020
Flag of Grenada.svg Grenada (more) Americas 1,04120211,21120201,0892020
Flag of Sint Maarten.svg Sint Maarten (more) Americas N/A1,00920201,1852018
Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis.svg Saint Kitts and Nevis (more) Americas 83120211,05020209272020
Flag of Vanuatu.svg Vanuatu (more) Oceania 912202190620208552020
Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.svg Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (more) Americas 798202182520208102020
Flag of Samoa.svg Samoa (more) Oceania 752202184420208072020
Flag of Dominica.svg Dominica (more) Americas 523202158220204702020
Flag of Tonga.svg Tonga (more) Oceania 508202150820205122019
Flag of Sao Tome and Principe.svg São Tomé and Príncipe (more) Africa 485202142120204732020
Flag of Federated States of Micronesia.svg Micronesia (more) Oceania 401202141420184082019
Flag of the Cook Islands.svg Cook Islands (more) Oceania N/A3792020N/A
Flag of Anguilla.svg Anguilla (more) Americas N/A3792020N/A
Flag of Palau.svg Palau (more) Oceania 229202128020202682019
Flag of the Marshall Islands.svg Marshall Islands (more) Oceania 234202123720182392019
Flag of Kiribati.svg Kiribati (more) Oceania 231202119420202002020
Flag of Nauru.svg Nauru (more) Oceania 133202113220201182019
Flag of Montserrat.svg Montserrat (more) Americas N/A672020N/A
Flag of Tuvalu.svg Tuvalu (more) Oceania 572021472020492020

See also


  1. Based on IMF data. If no data is available for a country from the IMF, then data from the United Nations is used.
  2. Figures exclude Taiwan, and special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
  3. Figures exclude special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
  4. The name used in IMF's report is "Taiwan Province of China".
  5. The name used in IMF's report is "Hong Kong SAR".
  6. 1 2 Figures exclude Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol.
  7. Includes Western Sahara.
  8. Covers mainland Tanzania only.
  9. The name used in IMF's report is "Macao SAR".
  10. Data are for the area controlled by the Government of the Republic of Cyprus.
  11. Excludes Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
  12. 1 2 The name used in IMF's an the World Bank's report is "West Bank and Gaza".
  13. 1 2 Excludes data for Transnistria.

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Comparison between U.S. states and sovereign states by GDP

This is a comparison between U.S. states and sovereign states' Nominal Gross Domestic Product based on International Monetary Fund and Bureau of Economic Analysis data as many of the states of the United States have large gross domestic product which would rank highly on a list of countries' world GDP.

Comparison between U.S. states and sovereign states by GDP per capita

This is a comparison between U.S. states and countries' per capita gross domestic product. The U.S. is not counted as a whole in the overall rank because this would be double counting since the states of the U.S. are being compared to other countries. These figures are calculated using exchange rate conversions, and exchange rates fluctuate from year to year.

Historical GDP of China Overview of economic growth and decline in the East Asian country

This article includes a list of China's historical gross domestic product (GDP) values, the market value of all final goods and services produced by a nation in a given year. The GDP dollar estimates presented here are either calculated at market or government official exchange rates (nominal), or derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations. This article also includes historical GDP growth.


  1. 1 2 3 "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2021". International Monetary Fund. April 2021. Retrieved 8 May 2021.
  2. "What is GDP and why is it so important?". Investopedia . IAC/InterActiveCorp. 26 February 2009. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  3. Moffatt, Mike. "A Beginner's Guide to Purchasing Power Parity Theory". . IAC/InterActiveCorp . Retrieved 31 May 2014.
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