List of countries by continents

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This article consists of a list of countries by continent, along with their capitals.

There are multiple continent classification systems in use. The first continent system is the seven continent system consisting of Europe, Asia, Africa, Oceania/Australia, North America, South America and Antarctica.

The six continent system is essentially the same as the seven continent system, the only difference being two continents are merged. There are two versions of the six continent system, one merging Europe and Asia to create Eurasia, and the other merging North and South America to create The Americas

The five continent system is applying Eurasia and The Americas together, all other continents remain the same.

Finally the four continent system is the same as the prior, however Africa joins Eurasia to become Afro-Eurasia, leaving only Oceania and Antarctica as separate continents.

The only variable in these systems is Antarctica. As Antarctica has no permanent population it isn't uncommon for it to be removed from these classification systems.

The most common system used varies from country to country.

There is no universally accepted answer as to how many countries in the world there actually are. The minimum answer is the 193 United Nations member states. However, there are many more constituent, de facto and self-proclaimed independent states that are typically added to that list. Additionally certain highly autonomous first level administrative divisions fall under the definition of the word country.

The list below follows the seven continent system and predominantly includes only U.N member states unless otherwise stated.

Africa[change | change source]

Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent. At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its land area, accounting for about a fifth of the world's land. With 1.3 billion people as of 2018, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. It is surrounded by large areas of water. There are 54 fully recognized and independent countries in Africa, and 14.7% (1.216 billion) of the world's population lives there. It is thought to be the continent where the first humans evolved.

  1. Algeria - Algiers
  2. Angola - Luanda
  3. Benin - Porto Novo, Cotonou
  4. Botswana - Gaborone
  5. Burkina Faso - Ouagadougou
  6. Burundi - Gitega
  7. Cameroon (also spelled Cameroun) - Yaoundé
  8. Cape Verde - Praia
  9. Central African Republic - Bangui
  10. Chad (Tchad) - N'Djamena
  11. Comoros - Moroni
  12. Republic of the Congo - Brazzaville
  13. Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire) - Kinshasa
  14. Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) - Yamoussoukro
  15. Djibouti - Djibouti
  16. Equatorial Guinea - Malabo
  17. Egypt (Misr) - Cairo
  18. Eritrea - Asmara
  19. Ethiopia (Abyssinia) - Addis Ababa
  20. Gabon - Libreville
  21. The Gambia - Banjul
  22. Ghana - Accra
  23. Guinea - Conakry
  24. Guinea-Bissau - Bissau
  25. Kenya - Nairobi
  26. Lesotho - Maseru
  27. Liberia - Monrovia
  28. Libya - Tripoli
  29. Madagascar - Antananarivo
  30. Malawi - Lilongwe
  31. Mali - Bamako
  32. Mauritania - Nouakchott
  33. Mauritius - Port Louis
  34. Morocco (Al Maghrib) - Rabat
  35. Mozambique - Maputo
  36. Namibia - Windhoek
  37. Niger - Niamey
  38. Nigeria - Abuja
  39. Réunion (territory of France)
  40. Rwanda - Kigali
  41. São Tomé and Príncipe - São Tomé
  42. Senegal - Dakar
  43. Seychelles - Victoria
  44. Sierra Leone - Freetown
  45. Somalia - Mogadishu
  46. South Africa - Pretoria
  47. South Sudan - Juba
  48. Sudan - Khartoum
  49. Swaziland (Eswatini) - Mbabane
  50. Tanzania - Dodoma
  51. Togo - Lome
  52. Tunisia - Tunis
  53. Uganda - Kampala
  54. Western Sahara - El Aaiún (disputed)
  55. Zambia - Lusaka
  56. Zimbabwe - Harare


Western Sahara (Listed in Sl No.53 above /*Africa*/) is not a UN Member as on 18/07/2021

Antarctica[change | change source]

Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle. It is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14,000,000 square kilometres (5,400,000 square miles), it is the fifth-largest continent. For comparison, Antarctica is nearly twice the size of Australia.

About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice. However, there is a large part where the ice does not cover land: the ice shelves. There are important geographical features covered by the ice. The huge Lake Vostok has been covered by ice for at least 15 million years. There is a massive rift valley and a huge mountain range, both of which are covered at present.

Asia[change | change source]

Asia is the largest and most populous continent and is a continent in the seven continent system. Asia consists of forty-nine countries as per the United Nations along with many other highly autonomous regions and disputed areas that are often generalised as countries of their own.

  1. Afghanistan - Kabul
  2. Armenia - Yerevan
  3. Azerbaijan - Baku
  4. Bahrain - Manama
  5. Bangladesh [1](বাংলাদেশ) - Dhaka (ঢাকা)
  6. Bhutan - Thimphu
  7. Brunei - Bandar Seri Begawan
  8. Cambodia (Kampuchea) - Phnom Penh
  9. China - Beijing
  10. East Timor (Timor Leste) - Dili
  11. Georgia - Tbilisi
  12. India - New Delhi
  13. Indonesia - Jakarta
  14. Iran - Tehran
  15. Iraq - Baghdad
  16. Israel - Jerusalem
  17. Japan - Tokyo
  18. Jordan (Al Urdun) - Amman
  19. Kazakhstan - Nur-Sultan
  20. Kuwait - Kuwait City
  21. Kyrgyzstan - Bishkek
  22. Laos - Vientiane
  23. Lebanon (Lubnan) - Beirut
  24. Malaysia - Kuala Lumpur
  25. Maldives - Malé
  26. Mongolia - Ulaanbaatar
  27. Myanmar (Burma) - Naypyidaw
  28. Nepal - Kathmandu
  29. North Korea - Pyongyang
  30. Oman - Muscat
  31. Pakistan - Islamabad
  32. Palestine - Ramallah
  33. Philippines - Manila
  34. Qatar - Doha
  35. Russia - Moscow (Russia is a part of Asia geographically, but, politically, it is a part of Europe)
  36. Saudi Arabia - Riyadh
  37. Singapore - Singapore
  38. South Korea - Seoul
  39. Sri Lanka - Sri Jayawardenapura Kotte (administrative), Colombo (commercial)
  40. Syria - Damascus
  41. Tajikistan - Dushanbe
  42. Thailand (Muang Thai) - Bangkok
  43. Turkey (Türkiye) - Ankara
  44. Turkmenistan - Aşgabat
  45. Taiwan - Taipei
  46. United Arab Emirates - Abu Dhabi
  47. Uzbekistan - Tashkent
  48. Vietnam - Hanoi
  49. Yemen - Sana'a

Europe[change | change source]

Europe is the second smallest continent, but the third most populous. It is a continent in one of the seven continent systems and the seven continent system. In other systems it is part of Asia, Eurasia or Eurafrasia. Below is the list of fully sovereign or de facto countries that are indisputably either entirely or partially situated within Europe. The 49 countries are:

  1. Albania (Shqipëria) - Tirana
  2. Andorra - Andorra la Vella
  3. Austria (Österreich) - Vienna
  4. Belarus (Беларусь) - Minsk
  5. Belgium (Dutch: België, French: Belgique, German: Belgien) - Brussels
  6. Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosna i Hercegovina) - Sarajevo
  7. Bulgaria (България) - Sofia
  8. Croatia (Hrvatska) - Zagreb
  9. Cyprus (Κύπρος) - Nicosia
  10. Czech Republic (Česko) - Prague
  11. Denmark (Danmark) - Copenhagen
  12. Estonia (Eesti) - Tallinn
  13. Finland (Suomi) - Helsinki
  14. France - Paris
  15. Georgia - Tbilisi
  16. Germany (Deutschland) - Berlin
  17. Greece (Ελλάδα) - Athens
  18. Hungary (Magyarország) - Budapest
  19. Iceland** (Island) - Reykjavik
  20. Republic of Ireland (Éire) - Dublin
  21. Italy (Italia) - Rome
  22. Kosovo** - Pristina (Serbia continues to maintain its sovereignty claim over Kosovo. Not a UN member till date(18/07/2021))
  23. Latvia (Latvija) - Riga
  24. Liechtenstein - Vaduz
  25. Lithuania (Lietuva) - Vilnius
  26. Luxembourg - Luxembourg City
  27. North Macedonia (Македонија) - Skopje
  28. Malta - Valletta
  29. Moldova - Chisinau
  30. Monaco - Monte Carlo Quarter
  31. Montenegro (Crna Gora, Црна Гора) - Podgorica
  32. Netherlands (Nederland) - Amsterdam (Capital), The Hague (Government)
  33. Norway (Norge) - Oslo
  34. Poland (Polska) - Warsaw
  35. Portugal - Lisbon
  36. Romania - Bucharest
  37. Russia** Moscow (Europe up to the Ural Mountains; Asia: the rest to Vladivostok)
  38. San Marino - San Marino
  39. Serbia (Србија) - Belgrade
  40. Slovakia (Slovensko) - Bratislava
  41. Slovenia (Slovenija) - Ljubljana
  42. Spain (España) - Madrid
  43. Sweden (Sverige) - Stockholm
  44. Switzerland (German: Schweiz, French: Suisse, Italian: Svizzera, Romansh: Svizra) - Bern
  45. Turkey (Türkiye) - Ankara
  46. Ukraine (Україна) - Kyiv
  47. United Kingdom - London
  48. Vatican City** (Italian: Città del Vaticano, Latin: Civitas Vaticana) - Vatican City

There is no official boundary between Europe and Asia, as a result the continental status of some countries is often disputed. However Russia is considered to be European by the United Nations. Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Cypres (Serial No.9 above) and Turkey (Serial no 45 above and listed in Serial no 43 in */Asia/*) are considered to be a part of Asia by the United Nations.

Kosovo is a highly recognised disputed territory with de facto independence.

Iceland sits on the European - North American tectonic plates. The Western half sits in North America, while the Eastern half sits on the European tectonic plate.

Vatican City State is a U.N observer state and not a U.N member.

North and Central America[change | change source]

North America is the third largest continent and the fourth most populous. It is a continent in the 7 continents system, consisting of 23 countries and 22 dependent territories which are:

  1. Canada - Ottawa
  2. Mexico - Mexico City
  3. United States of America - Washington, District of Columbia
  4. Navassa Island - Washington, D.C. (territory of U.S.)
  5. Puerto Rico - San Juan (territory of U.S.)
  6. US Virgin Islands - Charlotte Amalie (territory of U.S.)
  7. Dominican Republic - Santo Domingo
  8. Cuba - Havana
  9. Haiti - Port-au-Prince
  10. Belize - Belmopan
  11. Costa Rica - San José
  12. El Salvador - San Salvador
  13. Guatemala - Guatemala City
  14. Honduras - Tegucigalpa
  15. Guadeloupe (territory of France)
  16. Martinique (territory of France)
  17. Nicaragua - Managua
  18. Panama - Panama City
  19. Trinidad and Tobago - Port of Spain
  20. Jamaica - Kingston
  21. And many more countries and territories

South America[change | change source]

South America is the fourth largest continent and fifth most populous. It is a continent in the seven continent system. In other systems it is part of The Americas. The 12 countries and 3 dependent territories belonging to it are as follows:

  1. Brazil (Brasil) - Brasília
  2. Argentina - Buenos Aires
  3. Bolivia - Sucré
  4. Chile - Santiago
  5. Colombia - Bogotá
  6. Ecuador - Quito
  7. Falkland Islands - Stanley (territory of U.K.)
  8. French Guiana - Cayenne (territory of France)
  9. Guyana - Georgetown
  10. Paraguay - Asunción
  11. Peru - Lima
  12. South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands - (territory of U.K.)
  13. Suriname - Paramaribo
  14. Uruguay - Montevideo
  15. Venezuela - Caracas

Oceania[change | change source]

Several terms are in use to describe the region of Australia and the nations of the Pacific Ocean. The term Oceania is usually preferred, and this is the term in use by the United Nations. The term Pacific Islands generally excludes the islands of New Zealand, and the continent of Australia. The indigenous Māori of New Zealand are Polynesian people.

Historically, the region was called Australasia. This term is based more on natural history (geology, and geography) rather than on politics. This term means Australia, New Zealand and the whole of New Guinea, plus those islands which are geologically connected.

The countries (14 total) are listed below according to their UN classification:

  1. Australia - Canberra
  2. Fiji - Suva
  3. New Zealand - Wellington
  4. Federated States of Micronesia - Palikir
  5. Kiribati - South Tarawa
  6. Marshall Islands - Majuro
  7. Nauru - no capital; biggest city is Yaren
  8. Palau - Ngerulmud
  9. Papua New Guinea - Port Moresby
  10. Samoa - Apia
  11. Solomon Islands - Honiara
  12. Tonga - Nuku'alofa
  13. Tuvalu - Funafuti
  14. Vanuatu - Port Vila

Australasia is not a politically designated region. It is a natural region of islands designated by its geology, geography, botany, and zoology. It is also an ecozone.

  1. Australia
  2. Flores
  3. Lombok
  4. Melanesia
  5. New Caledonia
  6. New Guinea
  7. Sulawesi
  8. Sumbawa
  9. Timor

References[change | change source]

  1. "Bangladesh National Portal".

Other websites[change | change source]