List of countries by GDP (nominal) - Wikipedia

List of countries by GDP (nominal)

Largest economies by nominal GDP in 2020[1]

Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.[2] Countries are sorted by nominal GDP estimates from financial and statistical institutions, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates. Nominal GDP does not take into account differences in the cost of living in different countries, and the results can vary greatly from one year to another based on fluctuations in the exchange rates of the country's currency.[3] Such fluctuations may change a country's ranking from one year to the next, even though they often make little or no difference in the standard of living of its population.[4]

Countries by nominal GDP in 2019[n 1]
  >$20 trillion
  $10–$20 trillion
  $5–$10 trillion
  $1–$5 trillion
  $750 billion–$1 trillion
  $500–$750 billion
  $250–$500 billion
  $100–$250 billion
  $50–$100 billion
  $25–$50 billion
  $5–$25 billion
  <$5 billion

Comparisons of national wealth are also frequently made on the basis of purchasing power parity (PPP), to adjust for differences in the cost of living in different countries. PPP largely removes the exchange rate problem, but has its own drawbacks; it does not reflect the value of economic output in international trade, does not take into account the differences of quality of goods and services among countries, and it also requires more estimation than nominal GDP.[5] On the whole, PPP per capita figures are less spread than nominal GDP per capita figures.[6]

The United States is the world's largest economy with a GDP of approximately $20.513 trillion, notably due to high average incomes, a large population,[7] capital investment, low unemployment,[8] high consumer spending,[9] a relatively young population,[10] and technological innovation.[11] Tuvalu is the world's smallest national economy, with a GDP of about $45 million, because of its very small population, a lack of natural resources, reliance on foreign aid, negligible capital investment, demographic problems, and low average incomes.[12]

Although the rankings of national economies have changed considerably over time, the United States has maintained its top position since the Gilded Age, a time period in which its economy saw rapid expansion, surpassing the British Empire and Qing dynasty in aggregate output.[13][14] Since China's transition to a market-based economy through controlled privatisation and deregulation,[15][16] the country has seen its ranking increase from ninth in 1978 to second to only the United States in 2016 as economic growth accelerated and its share of global nominal GDP surged from 2% in 1980 to 15% in 2016.[14][1] India has also experienced a similar economic boom since the implementation of economic liberalisation in the early 1990s.[17] When supranational entities are included, the European Union is the second largest economy in the world. It was the largest from 2004, when ten countries joined the union,[18] to 2014, after which it was surpassed by the United States.[19]

The first list includes estimates compiled by the International Monetary Fund's World Economic Outlook, the second list shows the World Bank's data, and the third list includes data compiled by the United Nations Statistics Division. The IMF definitive data for the past year and estimates for the current year are published twice a year in April and October. Non-sovereign entities (the world, continents, and some dependent territories) and states with limited international recognition (such as Kosovo, the State of Palestine and Taiwan) are included in the list in cases in which they appear in the sources. Non-sovereign entities are marked in italics.

Lists

Per the International Monetary Fund (2020 estimates)[1] Per the World Bank (2019)[20] Per the United Nations (2019)[21]
Rank Country/Territory GDP
(US$million)
   World[19] 83,844,988
1   United States 20,807,269
2   China[n 2][n 3] 14,860,775
3   Japan 4,910,580
4   Germany 3,780,553
5   United Kingdom 2,638,296
6   India 2,592,583
7   France 2,551,451
8   Italy 1,848,222
9   Canada 1,600,264
10   South Korea 1,586,786
11   Russia[n 4] 1,464,078
12   Brazil 1,363,767
13   Australia 1,334,688
14   Spain 1,247,464
15   Indonesia 1,088,768
16   Mexico 1,040,372
17   Netherlands 886,339
18    Switzerland 707,868
19   Saudi Arabia 680,897
20   Turkey 649,436
21   Taiwan[n 5] 635,547
22   Iran 610,662
23   Poland 580,894
24   Sweden 529,054
25   Thailand 509,200
26   Belgium 503,416
27   Nigeria 442,976
28   Austria 432,894
29   Ireland 399,064
30   Israel 383,425
31   Argentina 382,760
32   Philippines 367,362
33   Norway 366,386
34   Egypt 361,875
35   United Arab Emirates 353,899
36   Hong Kong (China)[n 6] 341,319
37   Vietnam 340,602
38   Denmark 339,626
39   Singapore 337,451
40   Malaysia 336,330
41   Bangladesh 317,768
42   Pakistan (2019) 284,200
43   South Africa 282,588
44   Finland 267,856
45   Colombia 264,933
46   Romania 248,624
47   Chile 245,414
48   Czech Republic 241,975
49   Portugal 221,716
50   Peru 195,761
51   Greece 194,376
52   New Zealand 193,545
53   Iraq 178,112
54   Kazakhstan 165,730
55   Hungary 149,939
56   Qatar 147,791
57   Algeria 147,323
58   Ukraine 142,250
59   Morocco 112,220
60   Kuwait 108,656
61   Slovakia 101,892
62   Kenya 101,048
63   Ethiopia 95,588
64   Puerto Rico (United States) 93,968
65   Ecuador 93,078
66   Sri Lanka 81,120
67   Dominican Republic 77,883
68   Guatemala 76,191
69   Myanmar 70,890
70   Luxembourg 68,613
71   Bulgaria 67,917
72   Ghana 67,337
73   Tanzania 64,123
74   Angola 62,724
75   Oman 62,305
76   Côte d'Ivoire 61,502
77   Panama 60,286
78   Uzbekistan 59,771
79   Costa Rica 59,645
80   Belarus 57,708
81   Croatia 56,768
82   Lithuania 55,064
83   Uruguay 54,135
84   Serbia 51,999
85   Slovenia 51,802
86   Venezuela 48,610
87   Turkmenistan 47,986
88   Congo, Democratic Republic of the 46,062
89   Jordan 42,609
90   Azerbaijan 41,666
91   Tunisia 39,226
92   Cameroon 39,036
93   Bolivia 38,938
94   Uganda 37,733
95   Paraguay 35,606
96   Bahrain 34,624
97   Latvia 33,015
98   Sudan 32,576
99     Nepal 32,158
100   Estonia 30,468
101   Cambodia 26,316
102   Macau (China)[n 7] 26,348
103   El Salvador 24,784
104   Senegal 24,409
105   Honduras 23,984
106   Papua New Guinea 23,283
107   Cyprus 23,246
108   Trinidad and Tobago 22,718
109   Libya 21,805
110   Yemen 20,948
111   Iceland 20,805
112   Afghanistan 19,006
113   Zambia 18,909
114   Bosnia and Herzegovina 18,893
115   Lebanon 18,734
116   Laos 18,653
117   Mali 17,685
118   Georgia 16,316
119   Burkina Faso 16,082
120   Botswana 15,872
121   Benin 15,292
122   Gabon 15,145
123   Palestine[n 8] 14,750
124   Mozambique 14,557
125   Malta 14,290
126   Guinea 14,238
127   Jamaica 14,228
128   Madagascar 14,199
129   Albania 14,034
130   Zimbabwe 14,002
131   Mongolia 13,385
132   Niger 12,971
133   Armenia 12,813
134   North Macedonia 12,510
135   Nicaragua 11,905
136   The Bahamas 11,560
137   Mauritius 11,341
138   Moldova 11,241
139   Brunei 10,647
140   Chad 10,510
141   Rwanda 10,428
142   Namibia 10,252
143   Equatorial Guinea 10,028
144   Congo, Republic of the 9,964
145   Haiti 8,347
146   Malawi 8,330
147   Tajikistan 7,898
148   Kosovo 7,484
149   Kyrgyzstan 7,480
150   Mauritania 7,428
151   Guyana 6,806
152   Togo 5,719
153   Montenegro 4,943
154   Somalia 4,918
155   Maldives 4,712
156   Barbados 4,630
157   South Sudan 4,177
158   Sierra Leone 4,140
159   Fiji 3,932
160   Eswatini 3,848
161   Djibouti 3,408
162   Burundi 3,131
163   Liberia 3,068
164   Bhutan 2,587
165   Suriname 2,538
166   Central African Republic 2,321
167   Aruba (Netherlands) 2,288
168   Eritrea 2,075
169   Timor-Leste 1,920
170   Lesotho 1,906
171   Cabo Verde 1,870
172   The Gambia 1,806
173   Saint Lucia 1,770
174   Belize 1,556
175   Solomon Islands 1,551
176   San Marino 1,410
177   Guinea-Bissau 1,392
178   Antigua and Barbuda 1,389
179   Comoros 1,200
180   Seychelles 1,198
181   Grenada 1,074
182   Saint Kitts and Nevis 871
183   Vanuatu 864
184   Samoa 829
185   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 777
186   Dominica 545
187   Tonga 503
188   São Tomé and Príncipe 417
189   Micronesia, Federated States of 395
190   Palau 251
191   Marshall Islands 225
192   Kiribati 194
193   Nauru 114
194   Tuvalu 45
  Syria N/A
Rank Country/Territory GDP
(US$million)
   World 87,751,541
1   United States 21,427,700
2   China[n 9] 14,342,903
3   Japan 5,081,770
4   Germany 3,845,630
5   India 2,875,142
6   United Kingdom 2,827,113
7   France 2,715,518
8   Italy 2,001,244
9   Brazil 1,839,758
10   Canada 1,736,426
11   Russia[n 4] 1,699,877
12   South Korea 1,642,383
13   Spain 1,394,116
14   Australia 1,392,681
15   Mexico 1,258,287
16   Indonesia 1,119,191
17   Netherlands 909,070
18   Saudi Arabia 792,967
19   Turkey 754,412
20    Switzerland 703,082
21   Poland 592,164
22   Taiwan (2017) 574,905
23   Thailand 543,650
24   Sweden 530,833
25   Belgium 529,607
26   Argentina 449,663
27   Nigeria 448,120
28   Austria 446,315
29   Iran (2017) 445,345
30   United Arab Emirates 421,142
31   Norway 403,336
32   Israel 395,099
33   Ireland 388,699
34   Philippines 376,796
35   Singapore 372,063
36   Hong Kong (China) 366,030
37   Malaysia 364,702
38   South Africa 351,432
39   Denmark 348,078
40   Colombia 323,803
41   Egypt 303,175
42   Bangladesh 302,571
43   Chile 282,318
44   Pakistan 278,222
45   Finland 268,761
46   Vietnam 261,921
47   Romania 250,077
48   Czech Republic 246,489
49   Portugal 237,686
50   Iraq 234,094
51   Peru 226,848
52   Greece 209,853
53   New Zealand 206,929
54   Qatar 183,466
55   Kazakhstan 180,162
56   Algeria 169,988
57   Hungary 160,967
58   Ukraine 153,781
59   Kuwait 134,761
60   Morocco[n 10] 118,725
61   Ecuador 107,436
62   Slovak Republic 105,422
63   Puerto Rico (United States) 104,989
64   Cuba (2018) 100,023
65   Ethiopia 96,108
66   Kenya 95,503
67   Angola 94,635
68   Dominican Republic 88,941
69   Sri Lanka 84,009
70   Oman 76,983
71   Guatemala 76,710
72   Myanmar 76,086
73   Luxembourg 71,105
74   Bulgaria 67,927
75   Ghana 66,984
76   Panama 66,801
77   Tanzania[n 11] 63,177
78   Belarus 63,080
79   Costa Rica 61,774
80   Croatia 60,416
81   Cote d'Ivoire 58,792
82   Uzbekistan 57,921
83   Uruguay 56,046
84   Lithuania 54,219
85   Macau (China) 53,859
86   Slovenia 53,742
87   Lebanon 53,367
88   Libya 52,076
89   Serbia 51,409
90   Azerbaijan 48,048
91   Congo, Democratic Republic of the 47,320
92   Jordan 43,744
93   Bolivia 40,895
94   Turkmenistan (2018) 40,761
95   Tunisia 38,798
96   Cameroon 38,760
97   Bahrain 38,574
98   Paraguay 38,145
99   Uganda 34,387
100   Latvia 34,117
101   Estonia 31,387
102     Nepal 30,641
103   Cambodia 27,089
104   El Salvador 27,023
105   Honduras 25,095
106   Papua New Guinea 24,970
107   Cyprus[n 12] 24,565
108   Iceland 24,188
109   Trinidad and Tobago 24,100
110   Senegal 23,578
111   Zambia 23,065
112   Zimbabwe 21,441
113   Bosnia and Herzegovina 20,048
114   Afghanistan 19,101
115   Sudan 18,902
116   Botswana 18,341
117   Laos 18,174
118   Georgia[n 13] 17,743
119   Mali 17,510
120   Gabon 16,658
121   Jamaica 16,458
122   Burkina Faso 15,746
123   Albania 15,278
124   Mozambique 14,934
125   Malta 14,786
126   Palestine (2018)[n 8] 14,616
127   Benin 14,391
128   Mauritius 14,180
129   Madagascar 14,084
130   Mongolia 13,853
131   Armenia 13,673
132   Guinea 13,590
133   Brunei 13,469
134   Niger 12,928
135   Bahamas, The 12,827
136   North Macedonia 12,695
137   Nicaragua 12,521
138   Namibia 12,367
139   Moldova[n 14] 11,955
140   Chad 11,315
141   Equatorial Guinea 11,027
142   Congo, Republic of the 10,821
143   Rwanda 10,122
145   Haiti 8,499
146   Kyrgyzstan 8,455
147   Tajikistan 8,117
148   Kosovo 7,926
149   Malawi 7,667
150   Mauritania 7,594
151   Maldives 5,729
152   Fiji 5,536
153   Montenegro 5,495
154   Togo 5,460
155   Barbados 5,209
156   Eswatini 4,405
157   Guyana 4,280
158   Suriname 3,985
159   Sierra Leone 3,941
160   Djibouti 3,319
161   Andorra 3,154
162   Liberia 3,071
163   Burundi 3,012
164   Lesotho 2,460
165   Bhutan (2018) 2,447
166   Central African Republic 2,220
167   Saint Lucia 2,122
168   Cabo Verde 1,982
169   Belize 1,880
170   Gambia, The 1,764
172   Antigua and Barbuda 1,728
173   Seychelles 1,699
174   Timor-Leste 1,674
175   San Marino (2018) 1,638
176   Solomon Islands 1,425
177   Guinea-Bissau 1,340
178   Grenada 1,228
179   Comoros 1,186
180   Saint Kitts and Nevis 1,051
181   Vanuatu 917
182   Samoa 851
183   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 825
184   Dominica 596
185   Tonga (2018) 450
186   Sao Tome and Principe 429
187   Micronesia, Federated States of (2018) 402
188   Palau (2018) 284
189   Marshall Islands (2018) 221
190   Kiribati 195
191   Nauru 118
192   Tuvalu 47
Rank Country/Territory GDP
(US$million)
   World[22] 87,445,260
1   United States 21,433,226
2   China[n 9] 14,342,933
3   Japan 5,082,465
4   Germany 3,861,123
5   India 2,891,582
6   United Kingdom 2,826,441
7   France 2,715,518
8   Italy 2,003,576
9   Brazil 1,847,795
10   Canada 1,741,496
11   Russia[n 4] 1,692,930
12   South Korea 1,646,539
13   Spain 1,393,490
14   Australia 1,380,207
15   Mexico 1,256,440
16   Indonesia 1,119,190
17   Netherlands 907,050
18   Saudi Arabia 792,966
19   Turkey 761,425
20    Switzerland 731,425
21   Iran 603,779
22   Poland 595,862
23   Thailand 542,016
24   Belgium 533,097
25   Sweden 530,883
26   Nigeria 474,516
27   Argentina 449,663
28   Austria 445,075
29   United Arab Emirates 421,142
30   Norway 403,336
31   Ireland 398,590
32   Israel 395,098
33   Singapore 372,073
34   Hong Kong (China) 365,710
35   Malaysia 364,684
36   Philippines 359,354
37   South Africa 351,430
38   Denmark 350,104
39   Colombia 323,802
40   Egypt 317,359
41   Bangladesh 301,051
42   Chile 282,318
43   Finland 269,296
44   Vietnam 261,921
45   Pakistan 256,996
46   Czech Republic 250,680
47   Romania 250,075
48   Portugal 238,785
49   Peru 226,850
50   Iraq 225,232
51   New Zealand 206,936
52   Greece 205,326
53   Qatar 183,466
54   Kazakhstan 181,667
55   Algeria 171,157
56   Hungary 163,469
57   Ukraine 153,781
58   Venezuela 134,960
59   Kuwait 134,623
60   Morocco 119,700
61   Ecuador 107,435
62   Cuba 105,354
63   Slovakia 105,079
64   Puerto Rico (United States) 104,988
65   Kenya 95,501
66   Ethiopia 92,750
67   Dominican Republic 88,941
68   Angola 85,000
69   Sri Lanka 84,008
70   Myanmar 76,784
71   Guatemala 76,710
72   Oman 76,331
73   Luxembourg 71,104
74   Bulgaria 67,925
75   Ghana 66,999
76   Panama 66,787
77   Belarus 63,080
78   Costa Rica 61,773
79   Tanzania 61,136
80   Croatia 60,415
81   Côte d'Ivoire 58,539
82   Lebanon 56,409
83   Uruguay 56,045
84   Uzbekistan 57,921
85   Lithuania 54,627
86   Slovenia 54,174
87   Macau (China) 53,859
88   Serbia 51,475
89   Turkmenistan 48,276
90   Azerbaijan 48,047
91   Congo, Democratic Republic of the 47,319
92   Jordan 44,502
93   Bolivia 40,895
94   Cameroon 38,861
95   Tunisia 38,797
96   Bahrain 38,574
97   Paraguay 38,086
98   Sudan 34,895
99   Latvia 34,102
100   Uganda 32,609
101   Libya 32,600
102   Estonia 31,471
103     Nepal 30,714
104   Cambodia 27,097
105   El Salvador 27,022
106   Honduras 25,095
107   Papua New Guinea 24,969
108   Yemen 24,935
109   Cyprus 24,565
110   Iceland 24,188
111   Senegal 23,664
112   Trinidad and Tobago 23,208
113   Zambia 23,085
114   Zimbabwe 21,440
115   Syria 20,379
116   Bosnia and Herzegovina 20,164
117   Laos 18,822
118   Botswana 18,340
119   Afghanistan 17,876
120   Georgia 17,742
121   Mali 17,432
122   Palestine 17,058
123   Gabon 16,887
124   Korea, North 16,331
125   Burkina Faso 15,990
126   Jamaica 15,830
127   Mozambique 15,296
128   Albania 15,278
129   Malta 14,863
130   Benin 14,403
131   Mauritius 14,180
132   Madagascar 14,104
133   Mongolia 13,852
134   Armenia 13,672
135   Bahamas, The 13,578
136   Brunei 13,469
137   Niger 12,927
138   North Macedonia 12,694
139   Nicaragua 12,520
140   Congo, Republic of the 12,397
141   Namibia 12,366
142   Guinea 12,354
143   Moldova 11,955
144   Chad 11,271
145   Equatorial Guinea 11,024
146   Rwanda 10,355
147   New Caledonia (France) 9,879
148   Kyrgyzstan 8,454
149   Tajikistan 8,333
150   Malawi 8,099
151   Haiti 8,051
152   Kosovo 7,952
153   Mauritania 7,593
154   Monaco 7,423
155   Bermuda (United Kingdom) 7,361
156   Togo 7,270
157   Liechtenstein 6,797
158   French Polynesia (France) 6,023
159   Cayman Islands (UK) 6,020
160   Maldives 5,642
161   Montenegro 5,542
162   Fiji 5,504
163   Barbados 5,209
164   Guyana 5,173
165   South Sudan 4,959
166   Eswatini 4,594
167   Sierra Leone 4,121
168   Suriname 3,697
169   Aruba (Netherlands) 3,293
170   Djibouti 3,166
172   Andorra 3,154
173   Curaçao (Netherlands) 3,101
174   Greenland (Denmark) 3,023
175   Burundi 3,002
176   Liberia 2,582
177   Bhutan 2,564
178   Lesotho 2,460
179   Central African Republic 2,220
180   Saint Lucia 2,122
181   Timor-Leste 2,017
182   Eritrea 1,981
183   Cape Verde 1,981
184   Belize 1,906
185   Gambia, The 1,822
186   Zanzibar (Tanzania) 1,805
187   Seychelles 1,698
188   Antigua and Barbuda 1,661
189   Somalia 1,626
190   San Marino 1,602
191   Guinea-Bissau 1,322
192   Solomon Islands 1,302
193   British Virgin Islands (United Kingdom) 1,296
194   Grenada 1,211
195   Turks and Caicos Islands (United Kingdom) 1,197
196   Comoros 1,165
197   Saint Kitts and Nevis 1,050
198   Sint Maarten (Netherlands) 1,009
199   Vanuatu 906
200   Samoa 844
201   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 825
202   Dominica 582
203   Tonga 508
204   São Tomé and Príncipe 421
205   Micronesia, Federated States of 414
206   Cook Islands (New Zealand) 379
207   Anguilla (United Kingdom) 379
208   Palau 280
209   Marshall Islands 237
210   Kiribati 194
211   Nauru 132
212   Montserrat (United Kingdom) 67
213   Tuvalu 47

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Based on IMF data. If no data is available for a country from the IMF, then data from the United Nations is used.
  2. ^ Figures exclude Taiwan, and special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
  3. ^ There is a discrepancy between the data for China given by IMF's World Economic Outlook (October 2020) database and the same data given by IMF's DATAMAPPER; the number here is from the former source.
  4. ^ a b c Figures exclude Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol.
  5. ^ The official name is "Taiwan Province of China" in IMF's report.
  6. ^ The official name is "Hong Kong SAR" in IMF's report.
  7. ^ The official name is "Macao SAR" in IMF's report.
  8. ^ a b The official name is "West Bank and Gaza" in IMF and World Bank reports.
  9. ^ a b Figures exclude special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
  10. ^ Includes Western Sahara.
  11. ^ Covers mainland Tanzania only.
  12. ^ Data are for the area controlled by the Government of the Republic of Cyprus.
  13. ^ Excludes Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
  14. ^ Excludes data for Transnistria.

References

  1. ^ a b c "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2020". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. 13 October 2020. Retrieved 13 October 2020.
  2. ^ "What is GDP and why is it so important?". Investopedia. IAC/InterActiveCorp. 26 February 2009. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  3. ^ Moffatt, Mike. "A Beginner's Guide to Purchasing Power Parity Theory". About.com. IAC/InterActiveCorp. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  4. ^ Ito, Takatoshi; Isard, Peter; Symansky, Steven (January 1999). "Economic Growth and Real Exchange Rate: An Overview of the Balassa-Samuelson Hypothesis in Asia" (PDF). Changes in Exchange Rates in Rapidly Development Countries: Theory, Practice, and Policy Issues. National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  5. ^ Callen, Tim (28 March 2012). "Purchasing Power Parity: Weights Matter". Finance & Development. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
  6. ^ Callen, Tim (28 March 2012). "Gross Domestic Product: An Economy's All". Finance & Development. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  7. ^ Vo, Lam Thuy (30 May 2012). "The World's Richest Countries and Biggest Economies, In 2 Graphics". Planet Money. National Public Radio. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  8. ^ Burgen, Emily; et al. (5 April 2012). "An Elusive Relation Between Unemployment and GDP Growth: Okun's Law". Economic Trends. Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  9. ^ Vitez, Osmond. "The Importance of Consumer Spending". Houston Chronicle. Hearst Corporation. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  10. ^ Koesterich, Russ (16 May 2014). "America The Youthful? Yes, On a Relative Basis". BlackRock. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  11. ^ Landefeld, J. Steven (11 February 2008). "The Multi-Factor Productivity Residual" (PDF). Measuring Innovation’s Role in GDP & Productivity Growth. Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  12. ^ "Tuvalu". Europa. European Commission. 17 February 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
  13. ^ Matthews, Chris (5 October 2014). "5 Most Powerful Economic Empires of All Time". Fortune. Time, Inc. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  14. ^ a b Kroeber, Arthur R. (2016). China's Economy: What Everyone Needs to Know. New York, United States: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780190239053.
  15. ^ Kau, Michael Ying-mao (30 September 1993). China in the Era of Deng Xiaoping: A Decade of Reform. Studies on Contemporary China. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9781563242786. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  16. ^ Hu, Zuliu; Khan, Mohsin S. (April 1997). "Why Is China Growing So Fast?" (PDF). Economic Issues. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 26 May 2016.
  17. ^ Rodrik, Dani; et al. (March 2004). "From "Hindu Growth" to Productivity Surge: The Mystery of the Indian Growth Transition" (PDF). National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
  18. ^ "The economics of enlargement". Europa. European Commission. 30 October 2010. Retrieved 26 May 2016.
  19. ^ a b "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2020". World Economic Outlook. International Monetary Fund. October 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2021.
  20. ^ "GDP (current US$)". World Development Indicators. World Bank. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
  21. ^ "United Nations Statistics Division - National Accounts". unstats.un.org.
  22. ^ "All countries and regions/subregions (totals) for all years - sorted by region/subregion". United Nations. Retrieved 28 January 2019.