Oct. - Dec. 1898: The American Peace Commission at a conference in their council-room at the Continental Hotel, Paris. LEFT TO RIGHT: Whitelaw Reid, Sen. George Gray, John Moore (Secretary), Judge William R. Day, Sen. William P. Frye, and Sen. Cushman K. Davis.
On Oct. 1, 1898, American and Spanish delegates opened discussions in Paris to end the Spanish-American War. The American commission consisted of Judge William R. Day, Sen. Cushman K. Davis, Sen. William P. Frye, Sen. George Gray, and Whitelaw Reid.
The Spanish commission included the Spanish diplomats Eugenio Montero Ríos, Buenaventura de Abarzuza, José de Garnica, Wenceslao Ramírez de Villa-Urrutia, and Gen. Rafael Cerero, as well as a French diplomat, Jules Cambon.
The Times, Washington, D.C., issue of Oct. 2, 1898, Page 1
Filipino diplomats and leaders in Paris, 1898. SEATED, from left: F. de Almores, Felipe Agoncillo, Pedro Roxas, and Antonino Vergel de Dios. STANDING, from left: B. Villanueva, Antonio Roxas, E. Brias, and P.A. Roxas.
The snub irked Filipino leaders, whose troops effectively controlled the entire archipelago except Muslim areas in
Tension and ill feelings were growing between American and Filipino troops in Manila and the suburbs. In addition to Manila, Iloilo, the main port on the island of Panay, also was a pressure point. The Revolutionary Government of the Visayas was proclaimed there on Nov. 17, 1898, and an American force stood poised to capture the city. Upon the announcement of the treaty, the radicals, Apolinario Mabini and General Antonio Luna, prepared for war, and provisional articles were added to the constitution giving President Aguinaldo dictatorial powers in times of emergency.
Issue of Nov. 22, 1898
Issue of Dec. 3, 1898
LEFT TO RIGHT: Felipe Agoncillo, Sixto Lopez, and two other Filipinos poring over documents in Paris; they were trying to prevent the cession of the Philippines to the United States and to secure recognition of the new Philippine Republic.
Diego de los Ríos, the last Spanish Governor-General of the Philippines. He became the governor on Aug. 13, 1898, with the capital at Iloilo on Panay Island, after Governor-General Fermin Jaudenes surrendered at Manila. His term ended on Dec. 10, 1898 when the Treaty of Paris was signed.