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COVID-19 pandemic in Mexico

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COVID-19 pandemic in Mexico
COVID-19 Outbreak Cases in Mexico.svg
COVID-19 Outbreak Active Cases in Mexico.svg
COVID-19 Outbreak Cases in Mexico per 100,000 inhabitants.svg
COVID-19 Outbreak Active Cases in Mexico per 100,000 inhabitants.svg
Confirmed cases (as of June 1)
COVID-19 Outbreak Deaths in Mexico.svg
Number of confirmed deaths by state
DiseaseCOVID-19
Virus strainSARS-CoV-2
LocationMexico
First outbreakWuhan, Hubei, China
(via Italy and the United States)[1]
Index caseMexico City and Los Mochis[2]
Arrival dateFebruary 28, 2020
(3 months and 6 days)
Confirmed cases97,326
Active cases16,940
Suspected cases42,151
Recovered70,308 Estimated[3]
Deaths
10,637
Government website
coronavirus.gob.mx
Suspected cases have not been confirmed as being due to this strain by laboratory tests, although some other strains may have been ruled out.

The COVID-19 pandemic in Mexico is part of the ongoing worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was confirmed to have reached Mexico in February 2020. However, the National Council of Science and Technology (CONACYT) reported two cases of COVID-19 in mid-January 2020 in the states of Nayarit and Tabasco, one case per state.[4] As of June 2, there had been 97,326 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Mexico and 10,637 reported deaths,[5][6] although the Secretariat of Health estimated in early May 2020 that there were more than 104,562 cases in Mexico, because they were considering the total number of cases confirmed as a statistical sample.[7]

Background

On January 12, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed that a novel coronavirus was the cause of a respiratory illness in a cluster of people in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China, which was reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) on December 31, 2019.[8][9]

The case fatality ratio for COVID-19 has been much lower than SARS of 2003,[10][11] but the transmission has been significantly greater, with a significant total death toll.[12][10]

Timeline

COVID-19 cases in Mexico  ()
     Deaths        Recoveries        Active cases

Feb Feb Mar Mar Apr Apr May May Jun Jun Last 15 days Last 15 days

Date
# of cases
# of deaths
2020-02-28
3(--) --
2020-02-29
4(+33%) --
2020-03-01
5(+25%) --
5(=)
2020-03-06
6(+20%) --
2020-03-07
7(+16%) --
7(=)
2020-03-11
11(+57%) --
2020-03-12
15(+36%) --
2020-03-13
26(+73%) --
2020-03-14
41(+58%) --
2020-03-15
53(+29%) --
2020-03-16
82(+55%) --
2020-03-17
93(+13%) --
2020-03-18
118(+27%) --
2020-03-19
164(+39%) 1
2020-03-20
203(+24%) 2(+100%)
2020-03-21
251(+24%) 2(0%)
2020-03-22
316(+26%) 2(0%)
2020-03-23
367(+16%) 4(+100%)
2020-03-24
405(+10%) 5(+25%)
2020-03-25
475(+17%) 6(+20%)
2020-03-26
585(+23%) 8(+33%)
2020-03-27
717(+22%) 12(+50%)
2020-03-28
848(+18%) 16(+33%)
2020-03-29
993(+17%) 20(+25%)
2020-03-30
1,094(+10%) 28(+40%)
2020-03-31
1,215(+11%) 29(+3.6%)
2020-04-01
1,378(+13%) 37(+28%)
2020-04-02
1,510(+9.6%) 50(+35%)
2020-04-03
1,688(+11%) 60(+20%)
2020-04-04
1,890(+12%) 79(+32%)
2020-04-05
2,143(+13%) 94(+19%)
2020-04-06
2,439(+14%) 125(+33%)
2020-04-07
2,785(+14%) 141(+13%)
2020-04-08
3,181(+14%) 174(+23%)
2020-04-09
3,441(+8.2%) 194(+12%)
2020-04-10
3,844(+12%) 233(+20%)
2020-04-11
4,219(+9.8%) 273(+17%)
2020-04-12
4,661(+10%) 296(+8.4%)
2020-04-13
5,014(+7.6%) 332(+12%)
2020-04-14
5,399(+7.7%) 406(+22%)
2020-04-15
5,847(+8.3%) 449(+11%)
2020-04-16
6,297(+7.7%) 486(+8.2%)
2020-04-17
6,875(+9.2%) 546(+12%)
2020-04-18
7,497(+9.0%) 650(+19%)
2020-04-19
8,261(+10%) 686(+5.5%)
2020-04-20
8,772(+5.6%) 712(+3.8%)
2020-04-21
9,501(+8.3%) 857(+20%)
2020-04-22
10,544(+11%) 970(+13%)
2020-04-23
11,633(+10%) 1,069(+10%)
2020-04-24
12,872(+11%) 1,221(+14%)
2020-04-25
13,842(+7.5%) 1,305(+6.9%)
2020-04-26
14,677(+6.0%) 1,351(+3.5%)
2020-04-27
15,529(+5.8%) 1,434(+6.1%)
2020-04-28
16,752(+7.9%) 1,569(+9.4%)
2020-04-29
17,799(+6.3%) 1,732(+10%)
2020-04-30
19,224(+8.0%) 1,859(+7.3%)
2020-05-01
20,739(+7.9%) 1,972(+6.1%)
2020-05-02
22,088(+6.5%) 2,061(+4.5%)
2020-05-03
23,471(+6.3%) 2,154(+4.5%)
2020-05-04
24,905(+6.1%) 2,271(+5.4%)
2020-05-05
26,025(+4.5%) 2,507(+10%)
2020-05-06
27,634(+6.2%) 2,704(+7.9%)
2020-05-07
29,616(+7.2%) 2,961(+9.5%)
2020-05-08
31,522(+6.4%) 3,160(+6.7%)
2020-05-09
33,460(+6.1%) 3,353(+6.1%)
2020-05-10
35,022(+4.7%) 3,465(+3.3%)
2020-05-11
36,327(+3.7%) 3,573(+3.1%)
2020-05-12
38,324(+5.5%) 3,926(+9.9%)
2020-05-13
40,186(+4.9%) 4,220(+7.5%)
2020-05-14
42,595(+6.0%) 4,477(+6.1%)
2020-05-15
45,032(+5.7%) 4,767(+6.5%)
2020-05-16
47,144(+4.7%) 5,045(+5.8%)
2020-05-17
49,219(+4.4%) 5,177(+2.6%)
2020-05-18
51,633(+4.9%) 5,332(+3.0%)
2020-05-19
54,346(+5.3%) 5,666(+6.3%)
2020-05-20
56,594(+4.1%) 6,090(+7.5%)
2020-05-21
59,567(+5.3%) 6,510(+6.9%)
2020-05-22
62,527(+5.0%) 6,989(+7.4%)
2020-05-23
65,856(+5.3%) 7,179(+2.7%)
2020-05-24
68,620(+4.2%) 7,394(+3.0%)
2020-05-25
71,105(+3.6%) 7,633(+3.2%)
2020-05-26
74,560(+4.9%) 8,134(+6.6%)
2020-05-27
78,023(+4.6%) 8,597(+5.7%)
2020-05-28
81,400(+4.3%) 9,044(+5.2%)
2020-05-29
84,627(+4.0%) 9,415(+4.1%)
2020-05-30
87,512(+3.4%) 9,779(+3.9%)
2020-05-31
90,664(+3.6%) 9,930(+1.5%)
2020-06-01
93,435(+3.1%) 10,167(+2.4%)
2020-06-02
97,326(+4.2%) 10,637(+4.6%)
Sources:


January 2020

On January 22, 2020, the Secretariat of Health issued a statement saying that the novel coronavirus COVID-19 did not present a danger to Mexico. 441 cases had been confirmed in China, Thailand, South Korea, and the United States, and a travel advisory was issued on January 9.[14]

On January 30, 2020, before the declaration of a pandemic by the World Health Organization the Government of Mexico designed a Preparation and Response Plan that was made by the National Committee for Health Safety, a working group led by Secretariat of Health composed by different health entities aiming to act upon the imminent arrival of the pandemic. This group carried out a series of alert measures, rehabilitation and updating of epidemiological regulations based on the International Health Regulations, being the first Latam country that deployed a mathematical modelling of infectious disease.[15]

February 2020

The cruise ship Grand Princess docked in Puerto Vallarta (February 15), Manzanillo (February 16), Mazatlán (February 17) and Cabo San Lucas (February 18), spending 9 to 12 hours in each port. The first COVID-19 death in California was a man who had been on this ship on an earlier cruise. This ship was later quarantined off San Francisco and docked in Oakland March 11 with 21 onboard who tested positive for the coronavirus.[16]

The cruise ship MSC Meraviglia, which was not allowed to dock in the Cayman Islands or Jamaica, docked in Cozumel, Quintana Roo, on February 27. Three passengers were diagnosed with influenza A virus, but no cases of coronavirus were found.[17]

On February 28, Mexico confirmed its first three cases. A 35-year-old man and a 59-year-old man in Mexico City and a 41-year-old man in the northern state of Sinaloa tested positive and were held in isolation at a hospital and a hotel, respectively. They had travelled to Bergamo, Italy, for a week in mid-February.[18][19][2][20] On February 29, a fourth case was detected and confirmed in the city of Torreón, in the state of Coahuila, from a 20-year-old woman who traveled to Italy.[21]

March 2020

March 1 to 15

On March 1, a fifth case was announced in Chiapas in a student who had just returned from Italy.[22] On March 6, a sixth case was confirmed in the State of Mexico in a 71-year-old man who had returned from Italy on February 21.[23]

COVID-19 was the topic of conversation at the meeting of the National Governors' Conference (Conago) held on March 5, 2020. In addition to governors from different states (or state health representatives), the directors of Instituto de Salud para el Bienestar (INSABI), IMSS, and ISSSTE participated.[24]

On March 6 during the first session of National Council of Health, Hugo López-Gatell Ramírez, one of the main strategists and spokespersons of Mexican Government on pandemics, led the first daily press conference on Covid-19.[25]

On March 7, a seventh case was also confirmed in Mexico City in a 46-year-old male who had previously had contact with another confirmed case in the United States.[26]

On March 10, an eighth case was reported in Puebla, a 47-year-old German man who had returned from a business trip to Italy.[27] On the same date, 40 members of a dance company in Puebla, returning from a tour in Italy, were quarantined.[28] The Mexican Stock Exchange fell to a record low on March 10 due to fears of the coronavirus and because of falling oil prices. The Bank of Mexico (Banxico) stepped in to prop up the value of the peso, which fell 14% to 22.929 per US dollar.[29]

On March 11, a ninth case was confirmed in the city of Monterrey, Nuevo León. A 57-year-old man, who had recently come back from a trip all across Europe, was placed under quarantine. The man, who has remained anonymous, came back from his trip a week before and had contact with eight other people who have also been placed under quarantine in their houses. The man has been confirmed to reside in the city of San Pedro Garza García.[30]

On March 12, Mexico announced it had a total of 15 confirmed cases, with new cases in Puebla and Durango.[31] A day later, senator Samuel García Sepúlveda [es] accused the federal government of hiding the true number of confirmed cases.[32]

On March 13, it was confirmed that the Mexican Stock Exchange Chairman, Jaime Ruiz Sacristan, tested positive as an asymptomatic case.[33] Later, the Secretariat of Health announced in press conference that the number of confirmed cases had risen to 26.[34] Several universities, including the UNAM and Tec de Monterrey, switched to virtual classes. Authorities announced to be considering the cancellation of the Festival Internacional de Cine de Guadalajara. In Mérida, the Tianguis Turístico was postponed to September. Several major sporting events were also canceled.[35]

As part of the suspension of academic activities decreed by the SEP, students of all levels began taking classes online.

On March 14, Fernando Petersen, the secretary of health of the state of Jalisco, confirmed the first two cases of COVID-19 were detected in Hospital Civil de Guadalajara.[36] Two new cases were confirmed in Nuevo León, and the Secretariat of Public Education (SEP) announced that all sporting and civic events in schools would be canceled.[37] The same day, the Secretariat of Education announced that Easter break, originally planned from April 6 to 17, would be extended from March 20 to April 20 as a preventive measure.[38] The Secretariat of Finance and Public Credit (SCHP) announced it was taking measures to prevent a 0.5% fall in gross domestic product (GDP).[39] Drugstores in Cuernavaca report shortages of masks, antibacterial gel, and other items.[40] On the same day the Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon, (UANL) (the country's third largest university in terms of student population) suspended classes for its more than 206,000 students starting on March 17 and ending on April 20.[41][42]

Businessman José Kuri was reported in critical condition on March 14 after a trip to Vail, Colorado, United States, although early reports of his death were false.[43] As of March 14, there have been 41 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Mexico.[44]

The March 14 and 15 Festival Vive Latino (rock and Latin music) in Mexico City opened according to schedule, in spite of fears of contagion. Temperatures of the 70,000 people who attend each day were taken at the door and anti-bacterial gel was widely distributed.[45] Organizers said that the Passion Play of Iztapalapa would continue as scheduled in Holy Week. Tito Domínguez, vice president of the organizing committee, noted that a miracle had saved Iztapalapa during the cholera outbreak in 1833.[46]

On March 15, mayor Claudia Sheinbaum told reporters that an additional MXN $100 million (US$4.4 million) would be reassigned from an undefined allocation of the City's budget, citing road maintenance as an example.[47] The first confirmed case of coronavirus in Acapulco, Guerrero, was reported.[48] Querétaro reported two new cases, bringing the total to six.[49] Nuevo León reported its fifth case.[50] The Norteño group Los Tres Tristes Tigres released a song on March 15 titled "El corrido del coronavirus".<Miguel Ceballos (March 15, 2020). "Los Tres Tristes Tigres compose 'El corrido del coronavirus'". El Sol de Puebla (in Spanish).</ref>

March 16 to 22

Number of cases (blue) and number of deaths (red) on a logarithmic scale.

As of March 16, President López Obrador continued to downplay the impact of coronavirus. "Pandemics ... won't do anything to us," and accused the press and the opposition for its reportage.[51] On March 16, lawyer Marco Antonio del Toro petitioned the federal courts to cease all but essential activities for a period of 30 to 40 days because of the coronavirus outbreak.[52] The total of confirmed cases reached 82.[53] The Autonomous University of the State of Morelos, (UAEM) suspended classes for its 22,000 students.[54] A diplomatic incident arose between the governments of Mexico and El Salvador, concerning 12 Salvadorean citizens wearing face masks on a plane departing from Mexico City to San Salvador. Nayib Bukele, president of El Salvador denounced as "irresponsible" that they were allowed to board the plane along with other passengers and offered to send a plane to transport them without contact with other people. The claim was supported by Avianca airline[55] while the Mexican government said that there were no reasons to assume that they were positive for COVID-19. Eventually, the flight was cancelled. Marcelo Ebrard, head of Foreign Affairs announced after negative results of COVID tests of that Salvadorean passengers.[56]

On March 17, 11 new cases were confirmed, raising the national total to 93, with Campeche being the only state with no confirmed cases.[57] Mexico's limited response, including allowing a large concert and the women's soccer championship, as well as a lack of testing, have been criticized. Critics note that president López Obrador does not practice social distancing but continues to greet large crowds, and the borders have not been closed. Of particular concern is the health of thousands of migrants in temporary camps along the border with the United States. The former national commissioner for influenza in Mexico during the 2009 flu pandemic, Alejandro Macías, said the problem is compounded by the fact that Mexico lacks sufficient intensive care unit beds, medical care workers and ventilators.[58]

On March 18, 25 more cases were confirmed raising the total to 118 cases and 314 suspected cases.[59][60] Authorities in Jalisco are concerned about a group of 400 people who recently returned from Vail, Colorado; 40 people have symptoms of COVID-19.[61][62] The same day, the Mexican government announced that they will allocate 3.5 billion pesos (approx. 146 million US dollars[63]) to buy medical and laboratory equipment, washing and disinfection material, and ventilators.[64] During the night the first COVID-19 related death in the country was confirmed, a 41-year-old man without a travel history outside the country who was hospitalized at the National Institute of Respiratory Diseases (INER).[65] Colima Governor José Ignacio Peralta declared a state of emergency after the state's first case, a man who had recently returned from Germany, was reported on March 17.[66] Ford, Honda, and Audi closed their manufacturing plants in Mexico.[67] Hundreds of hotel employees in Cancún were fired.[68]

Authorities announced on March 18 that they were looking for hundreds of citizens who may be carriers of the coronavirus, especially in the states of Puebla, Jalisco, Aguascalientes, and Guerrero. A four-member family in Puebla who had traveled to the United States kept their symptoms secret as they visited neighbors in La Vista and visited a gym. Authorities were still trying to track down the 400 people in Jalisco and Nayarit who recently traveled to Vail, Colorado. In Aguascalientes they were looking to track down passengers of Flight 2638 who traveled with a sick man from New York. The Autonomous University of Guerrero (UAGRO) in Chilpancingo closed after a female student tested positive for the virus. The Technical Institute of Guerrero and the state Supreme Court also closed.[69]

Morelos had its first two confirmed cases on March 19—a 54-year-old woman from Cuautla and a 37-year-old man from Cuernavaca.[70] Sinaloa announced its third case, a 20-year-old woman from Culiacán.[71]

U.S Secretary of State Mike Pompeo announced on March 20 there would be restrictions on travel across the Mexico–United States border. Said restrictions would not apply to cargo.[72] The National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH) announced that the archaeological zones Teotihuacán, Xochicalco, and El Tepozteco will be closed on March 21–22. Chichén Itzá will close indefinitely starting March 21. Guachimontones will close 21, 22, and March 23. Palenque, Tula and Tingambato will close March 21.[73] Alsea, which operates restaurants such as Starbucks, VIPS, and Domino's Pizza offered its employees unpaid leave.[74] Mayor Juanita Romero (PAN) of Nacozari de García Municipality, Sonora, declares a curfew, in effect until April 20. Only the President of Mexico has the legal authority to declare such a declaration.[75] During the night, 38 more cases and one more death were confirmed raising the total to 203 cases, 2 deaths, and 606 suspected cases.[76]

On March 21 the total confirmed cases were 251.[77] One day later 65 more cases were confirmed and the total of suspected cases grew to 793.[78]

On March 22, bars, nightclubs, movie theaters, and museums were closed in Mexico City.[79] Governor Enrique Alfaro Ramírez of Jalisco announced that beginning Thursday, March 26, Jalisco and seven other states in the Bajío and western Mexico will block flights from areas such as California that have a high rate of coronavirus. He also said that they will purchase 25,000 testing kits.[80]

March 23 to 31

People entering a special respiratory illness symptom assessment area at the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City. The hospital was converted into a special care area for COVID patients.

Mexico entered Phase 2 of the coronavirus pandemic on March 23, according to the World Health Organization, with 367 confirmed cases. Phase 2 includes cases where the sick individuals did not have direct contact with someone who had recently been in another country.[81] On the same day it was confirmed that two more people died from COVID-19, raising the total to 4 reported deaths.[82] That day was announced on President López Obrador's daily press conference the realization of the National Campaign of Healthy Distancing (Jornada Nacional de Sana Distancia [es]) a national program of non-pharmaceutical measures based on social distancing among the behavioral changes suggested by WHO as hand washing, covering one's mouth when coughing, maintaining distance from other people, and monitoring and self-isolation for people who suspect they are infected.[83] On that same day in the daily press conference was announced also a media campaign led by "Susana Distancia" (wordplay of a healthy distance) a fictional female superhero aiming to promote social distancing into the people.[84]

Meanwhile, a Mitofsky poll showed that 63% of Mexicans feared contracting Covid-19 and 25.5% feared dying from it. 28% said they were not willing to stay in their homes. 38.6% believed President López Obrador was handling the situation well, and 37% disapproved.[85] Access to supermarkets in Coahuila was limited to one person per family, and the temperature of that person was taken before entering. The same rule applies to drugstores and convenience stores in the state, which has 12 confirmed cases of Covid-19.[86]

At his morning news conference on March 24, President López Obrador announced that Mexico entered Phase 2 of the coronavirus pandemic, in effect until April 30. Gatherings of more than 100 people are prohibited, and both the army and the navy will participate. The armed forces have 1,738 doctors, 1,727 nurses, 100 intensive therapy ambulances, and 400 ambulances for transportation. The military also has 5 high specialty hospitals, 36 second-level hospitals, and 272 first-level hospitals with 262 health brigades across the country. Four deaths, 367 confirmed cases, and 826 suspected cases of COVID-19 have been reported.[87] The first Mexican woman died from COVID-19 on March 24, raising the total to 5 reported deaths in the country.[88] On the same day 405 total cases of COVID-19 were confirmed.[89]

On March 25, Dr. Abelardo Ávila, researcher at the Salvador Zubirán National Institute of Health Sciences and Nutrition warned that Mexico was particularly vulnerable to the COVID-19 pandemic because of underlying chronic illnesses such as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension.[90] Also on March 25 President López Obrador ordered the Mexican Air Force to rescue Mexicans trapped in Argentina.[91] In Baja California, PROFECO closed two businesses in Tijuana for price-gouging.[92] In Mexico City, Head of Government Claudia Sheinbaum announced financial support for families and micro industries affected by the pandemic. She also announced that automobile verification would be suspended through April 19. Movie theaters, bars, nightclubs, gyms, and other entertainment centers will remain closed.[93] The same day it was reported that one man died from COVID-19 in San Luis Potosí, raising the total to 6 reported deaths in Mexico and 475 confirmed cases.[94][95] Governor Miguel Barbosa Huerta (Morena) claimed that only the wealthy were at risk, since the poor are immune to COVID-19.[96]

On March 26, President López Obrador revealed he asked the G20 to ensure that wealthy countries cannot take control of the world's medical supplies. He also called for assurances that borders would not be closed to commerce and that tariffs would not be unilaterally increased. Lastly, he called for an end to racism and discrimination.[97] The Mexican government announced it would suspend most sectors' activities starting March 26 until April 19, with the exception of health and energy sectors, the oil industry; and public services such as water supply, waste management and public safety.[98] Protesters in Sonora insisted that the government limit border crossings with the United States.[99] Chihuahua announced, "in the next few days" it will start to quarantine migrants who are returned to the Ciudad Juárez border crossing. About 65 migrants are deported from El Paso, Texas daily, about 5,200 this year.[100] Two more deaths were reported on this day; 585 cases were confirmed, and there were 2,156 suspected cases.[101] Human Rights Watch accused AMLO of endangering lives by not providing accurate information about the pandemic.[102] The government of San Luis Potosi reported the death of a 57-year-old man on March 26, bringing the total number of deaths in the country to nine. He had hypertension and diabetes.[103] Citizens of Nogales, Sonora, blocked border crossing from Nogales, Arizona, in order to prevent the entrance of individuals with the virus infection and to prevent shortages of food, bottled water, toilet paper and cleaning supplies in local stores.[104]

According to the Secretary of Health, a plurality of the 585 people infected in Mexico, 70, are between 30 and 34 years old. People over 65 are second, followed by those 25 to 29 and 45 to 49. The states with the most incidents are Mexico City (83), Jalisco (64) and Nuevo León (57).[105]

On March 27 the federal government bought 5,000 ventilators from China as the government prepares for Phase 3 of the pandemic.[106] The total confirmed cases rose to 717; twelve deaths were reported, and there were 2,475 suspected cases.[107] PROFECO (Office of the Federal Prosecutor for the Consumer) said it will fine merchants who unfairly raise the prices on household goods.[108] The governors of Nuevo León, Tamaulipas and Coahuila asked the federal government to close the border with the United States.[109]

On March 28, Governor Omar Fayad of Hidalgo announced in a tweet that he tested positive for the virus and said that he was in self-quarantine.[110] The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Mexico said services should be held indoors with no more than twenty people present. They may cancel all Holy Week celebrations if things do not improve.[111] In the evening the Secretariat of Health reported 131 new confirmed cases and four more deaths, raising the total to 848 confirmed cases and 16 deaths.[112] Governor Cuauhtémoc Blanco of Morelos announced the seventh case and first death due to COVID-19 in the state, a 37-year-old man who had recently traveled to the United States.[113][114] San Luis Potosi suspended wakes and funerals; the dead should be taken directly from the hospital to the crematorium.[115]

Tabasco Governor Adán Augusto López Hernández tested positive for COVID-19 on March 29.[116] Two tunnels with disinfectant spray were installed in the subways system of Escobedo, Nuevo León.[117] The government of Yucatán threatens fines of $86,000 pesos and up to three years in prison for individuals who have tested positive for coronavirus and do not self-quarantine.[118] The state of Querétaro registered its first death from COVID-19, a 56-year-old man.[119] The same day 993 cases of COVID-19 and 20 deaths from the disease were confirmed.[120] Between 27 and March 29, 566 Mexicans were brought home from other countries: 62 from Colombia, 53 from Ecuador, 299 from Peru, 28 from Guatemala (via land), and 134 from Cuba. In turn, the Mexican government helped 86 people return to Ecuador, 99 to Peru, and 49 to Cuba.[121]

On March 30, the total number of cases of COVID-19 surpassed one thousand with 1,094 confirmed cases and 28 reported deaths in the country. In the evening, a national health emergency was declared by Secretary Marcelo Ebrard; all sectors in the country are urged to stop most of their activities.[122]

In the early morning of March 31, 50,000 test kits, 100,000 masks and five ventilators (donated by Jack Ma and the Alibaba Foundation of China) arrived at the Mexico City International Airport.[123] Nurses in Jalisco have been forced to get off public transportation and physically attacked by people fearful of COVID-19. Medical workers there and elsewhere have been advised not to wear their uniforms outside the hospital.[124] The same day the total confirmed cases of COVID-19 reached 1215 and one more death was reported. The government of Mexico City announced that 90% of the businesses in Mexico City would have to close because of the national health emergency declaration of the day before.[125] In Austin, Texas, Public Health officials started investigating an apparent cluster of COVID-19 after 28 of 70 "spring breakers" (students at the University of Texas at Austin) tested positive following their trip to Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, in early March.[126] The Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS) in Monclova, Coahuila, reported that 29 medical and nursing staff tested positive for COVID-19. No patients have been infected.[127]

April 2020

April 1 to 15

People wearing face masks at the Monterrey International Airport due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

It was reported on April 1 that seven migrants from Puebla residing in New York have died of COVID-19.[128] Authorities reported 46% of cases as recoveries, which represents approximately 634 recoveries.[129] In Coahuila, 21 health workers contracted the virus and one doctor died from it, bringing the number of deaths among doctors employed by IMSS to four. Nineteen of the 21 cases in Coahuila are mild and the individuals are ambulatory.[130] Later the same day, 1,378 cases and 37 deaths of COVID-19 were reported in Mexico.[131]

On April 2, 1,510 cases of COVID-19 and 13 more deaths related to the disease were confirmed by Mexican authorities.[132] In Mexico City, as hotels are forced to close, hotel guests are evicted from their rooms.[133]That same day President López Obrador gave a press conference in which he downplayed the crisis and, after vaguely linking it with his reiterated promise to erradicate corruption, said the situation "vino como anillo al dedo"[134] (literally, fit like a ring to the finger), which is equivalent to the idiom "fit like a glove to the hand" in that it expresses timeliness and adequateness.[135]

On April 3, 1,688 cases and 60 deaths were confirmed by the Secretariat of Health.[136] The following day, 202 more cases and 19 more deaths were confirmed by Mexican authorities.[137]

On April 5, President López Obrador presented his plan to reactivate the economy. He said he did not want to increase fuel prices or taxes, and he was looking to hire more medical professionals for the armed forces. He said there was sufficient money to build the proposed thermoelectric plants that are needed in Yucatán, Baja California and elsewhere. He stated that he had support from the private sector and he expressed his confidence that Mexico would soon overcome the current crisis.[138] On the same day , the total number of cases surpassed two thousand with 2143 cases and 94 deaths.[139]

President López Obrador and Governor Blanco of Morelos dedicated the ISSSTE hospital "Carlos Calero" in Cuernavaca that was going to be set aside to care for patients with COVID-19.[140] Fifteen new deaths were registered on April 5, bringing the total to 94. The age range of the deceased was from 26 to 91 years old with a median age of 56.5. Of the 94 dead, 79% were males and 21% were females.[141]

On April 6, 2,439 cases were confirmed and the total number of deaths surpassed one hundred with 125 deaths reported.[142]

The Mexican Consulate in Shanghai, China, announced on April 7 that the Aeroméxico Misionero de Paz, a Boeing 787-8 filled with emergency medical supplies was en route to Mexico.[143] That same day, 2785 cases and 141 deaths related to COVID-19 were confirmed.[144]

On April 8, twenty medical and nursing schools withdrew their students from social service in hospitals due to the lack of adequate protection.[145] Hugo López-Gatell Ramírez, head of the Undersecretariat of Prevention and Health Promotion at the Mexican Secretariat of Health, estimated there were unconfirmed 26,519 cases of COVID-19 in the country.[146] In the evening it was announced that Mexico surpassed the three thousand confirmed cases with 3,181 cases and 174 deaths.[147] The following day, 260 more cases and 20 more deaths were reported by Mexican authorities.[148] José Ignacio Precaido Santos of the General Health Council announced that at least 146 private hospitals will make beds available to treat COVID-19 patients on a non-profit basis.[149]

Two pregnant women are among the 119 deaths reported as of April 9. These are the first two cases of pregnant women in Mexico to die from COVID-19; both had problems with obesity and diabetes.[150]

On April 10, the total confirmed deaths surpassed two hundred with 233 deaths and 3,844 cases confirmed by Mexican authorities.[151] The government of Baja California closed a plant belonging to the multinational giant Smiths Group after the firm refused to sell ventilators to the Mexican government.[152] On the same day, Mexican consulates in the United States announced the deaths of 181 Mexican nationals due to the COVID-19 pandemic. One hundred forty-nine of those cases were in New York.[153] The national network of women shelters reports a 60% increase in calls for help since the coronavirus pandemic began.[154]

On April 11, 375 more cases and 40 more deaths were confirmed.[155] Nineteen Mexican agricultural workers in Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada, have contracted the disease but none are reported as serious.[156]

On April 12, the government established the "National Contingency Center" (CNC) to fight COVID-19. It will be led by the military and will have scientists and health technicians advising about steps to combat the pandemic.[157]

On April 13, the number of COVID-19 infections in the country passed 5,000; there were 332 deaths.[158] The Mexican Navy announced it would open ten voluntary self-isolation units to shelter 4,000 COVID-19 victims in Mexico City, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacan, Sinaloa, Tamaulipas and Veracruz.[159] Sonora became the first state in the country to declare a curfew.[160]

On April 14, Governor Antonio Echevarría García of Nayarit said he wanted to close the state's borders to visitors from Jalisco and Sinaloa, noting that young, apparently healthy people from other areas have visited their elderly relatives in the state. "Y son las personas que han fallecido y estas personas que vienen del otro lado traen el virus, no presentan ningún síntoma y hacen la contaminadera," ("And they are the people who have died and these people who come from the other side bring the virus, do not present any symptoms and cause the contamination,") said Echevarría.[161] Oaxaca Governor Alejandro Murat Hinojosa reported the theft of more than 20 kits of medical supplies used for treatment of COVID-19 were stolen from the Aurelio Valdivieso General Hospital. A week earlier, seven ventilators had been stolen from the IMSS hospital.[162] Baja California Governor Jaime Bonilla Valdez said that doctors in Tijuana are "falling like flies" as 21 medical workers at IMSS clinic #20 have been diagnosed with COVID-19 and 15 others are suspected of having it; one doctor at the IMSS general hospital has been infected and six have suspected cases.[163]

An April 15 report by Quinto Elemento Lab showed that 30% of Mexicans cannot get local information about COVID-19 infections. Mexico City does not break down statistics for its 16 boroughs, and the State of Mexico, Querétaro, Tlaxcala, and Yucatán do not reveal information on the municipal level. Governments said revealing the information would violate patients' privacy.[164] The National Guard began providing security support for hospitals run by the IMSS in nineteen states on April 15.[165]

April 16 to 30

A clothes store in Plaza Río Tijuana closed due to COVID-19.

The first death attributed to COVID-19 of a minor under 25 is reported in Tabasco on April 16, a two-year-old girl with Down syndrome and congenital heart disease.[166] The government announced on April 16 that it will restrict transportation between areas of the country that are infected with COVID-19 (mostly large cities) and areas that are not infected, without specifying what areas are included or how it will be enforced.[167] President López Obrador also said that based upon current projections, the 979 municipalities that have not had reported cases of coronavirus will be able to reopen schools and workplaces on May 17; the date is June 1 for the 463 municipalities that have. The elderly and other vulnerable groups will still be requested to stay home, and physical distancing should remain in place until May 30. It is expected that the pandemic will end in the metropolitan area on June 25.[168]

TV Azteca called for the public to ignore information and warnings from Hugo López-Gatell Ramírez on April 17: "Like every night, the Undersecretary of Health, Hugo López-Gatell led the conference on COVID-19 in Mexico. But his numbers and conferences have already become irrelevant. Moreover, we tell him with all his words, no longer pay attention to Hugo López-Gatell."[169] President López Obrador′s proposal for a United Nations General Assembly resolution to prevent price gouging or hoarding of medical supplies by wealthy countries has 161 co-sponsors. The proposal was first made during a video conference of the G20.[170] Pemex reports 10 deaths, 92 cases, and 1,052 suspected cases of COVID-19. 17 have recovered.[171]

On April 18, Alonso Pérez Rico, Health Secretary for Baja California, reported that at least 30 doctors in the state, principally in Mexicali, have tested positive for COVID-19. None is critical.[172]

On April 20 the Secretariat of National Defense (Sedena) announced that it had hired 3,158 of the 4,572 health professionals it needs.[173] A Venezuelan YouTuber residing in Mexico City broke quarantine after being diagnosed with COVID-19 on April 20. Authorities had to sanitize the grocery store he contaminated and his immigration status was being investigated. His girlfriend similarly broke quarantine a few days earlier.[174]

Mexico entered Phase 3 of its contingency plan on April 21. 712 deaths and 8,772 confirmed cases were reported.[175] The Mexico City General Hospital delivered the wrong body to the widow of Ángel Dorado Salinas, 52. She discovered the mistake when she saw a photograph of the corpse.[176]

Recently[when?] it has come to media attention that the Mexican drug cartels, in an effort to boost their own popularity and in response to poor efforts by the Mexican presidency, have been distributing supplies to impoverished citizens in the street.[177] The president of Mexico has since called on the cartels to stop distributing supplies and "end violence" instead.[178]

The number of coronavirus cases surges past 10,000 to 10,544 with 970 deaths on April 21.[179]

Six people were arrested in San Pedro Tlaquepaque and Tlajomulco de Zúñiga, Jalisco, for violating the state's quarantine orders on April 22. Another six people were denied permission to enter the state.[180] Two women were arrested in Querétaro for attacking a health worker. They face up to three years in prison and a fine of 24,644 pesos (US $977).[181] A field hospital with 854 beds is inaugurated in Mexico City; it should be fully operational on June 1.[182]

On April 26, the Mexican Council of Businessmen (CMN) and IDB Invest announce a US$12 billion plan to provide credit to 30,000 micro-, small-, and medium-sized industries.[183] AMLO opposes the plan, likening it to Fobaproa, the 1995 bank-rescue plan that cost taxpayers billions.[184] PAN supports the plan.[185]

The death toll surpassed the 1,000 figure on April 23.[186] Tijuana expects its hospitals to run out of space over the weekend.[187]

On April 29, eight public and three private hospitals in Mexico City stopped accepting COVID-19 patients due to a lack of space and ventilators. Mexico City Head of Government Claudia Scheinbaum said there were 54 hospitals with 1,500 beds available.[188] On the same day, Iñaki Landáburu, president of the National Association of Wholesale Grocers (ANAM), threatened to stop the supermarkets' supply chain in the State of Mexico, Tabasco, Guerrero, Morelos, and Veracruz if safety measure are not enforced and if they are not provided with safety on highways. Landáburu said he believes food trucks are robbed by the organized crime who then redistribute the food for free in an attempt to demonstrate a false sense of solidarity among the population.[189]

May

May 1–17

On May 1, Mexico surpassed 20,000 infections of COVID-19.[190] Mexicanos contra la corrupción (Mexicans against corruption) alleged that Léon Manuel Bartlett, son of Manuel Bartlett the head of the Comisión Federal de Electricidad (CFE), fraudulently tried to sell overpriced ventilators to the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) in Hidalgo.[191]

On May 2, Mexico surpassed 2,000 deaths due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[192] At least forty Mexican and Guatemalan farm workers in Canada contracted coronavirus, that according to the United Food and Commercial Workers.[193]

On May 3, IMSS published videos of the progress made on the construction of a field hospital in Autódromo Hermanos Rodríguez racetrack in Mexico City. The hospital is expected to go into operation on May 13.[194] The same day, Undersecretary López-Gatell estimated that there were 104,562 cases of COVID-19 in Mexico, 80,000 more than the ones confirmed.[7]

The former presidential mansion Los Pinos opened as a shelter for IMSS health providers in Mexico City on May 4.[195]

The Instituto de Verificación Administrativa (Invea) announced it had closed eight non-essential businesses on May 4 and 5 that were in violation of the lockdown orders in Mexico City. This was in addition to the 58 that had been suspended between March 26 and April 30.[196]

According to estimates by Undersecretary López-Gatell, at least 250,000 people may eventually be infected and the death toll may reach 8,000.[197] A group from Médecins Sans Frontières arrived in Tijuana, Baja California, on May 6. Baja California is third only to Mexico City and the State of Mexico in the number of COVID-19 infections reported.[198] The Regent Seven Seas Splendor from Los Angeles has been allowed to dock in Puerta Vallarta for thirty days for "humanitarian reasons". The ship does not currently carry any passengers and is scheduled to sail for La Paz, Baja California Sur, on June 6.[199]

A nursing home in Nuevo León was closed on May 7 after an outbreak was reported on May 4.[200]

An article published on The New York Times on May 8 assured that both the federal government and the state government of Mexico City ignored the wave of coronavirus deaths in the capital city. The article criticized the way that President Andrés Manuel López Obrador has been handling the pandemic citing the lack of testing done and the fact that the government has been hiding the real number of COVID-19 cases and deaths. It was also mentioned that despite the fact that Undersecretary Hugo López-Gatell has been saying that "We [Mexico] have flattened the curve" and that only 5% of those infected will show symptoms, and only 5% of those patients with symptoms will go to the hospital, experts say that "their model is wrong" and that "there's a very good consensus on that".[201]

More than 100 health workers (doctors, nurses, orderlies, etc.) are among the 3,573 dead from the virus on May 12.[202] Also that a 40-year-old man who works in the President's office has died.[203]

On May 13, Mexico registered more than 2,000 new cases in 24-hours for the first time. The four entities with the most confirmed cases At the time were Mexico City, the State of Mexico, Tabasco, and Veracruz. The country had a total of 42,595 confirmed cases and 4,447 confirmed deaths.[204] President López Obrador presented a four-phased plan beginning May 18 for a gradual, orderly economic reopening of the country.[205]

Between May 9 and May 15, 13,000 new cases were confirmed. The totals were 42,595 cases, 10,057 active cases, and 4,477 deaths on May 15.[206]

May 18-31

It was reported on May 18 that in the outskirts of Mexico City more than 3.5 tons of infectious waste were piling up and being illegally dumped.[207]

On May 19, Mexicans Against Corruption (Mexicanos contra la corrupción in Spanish) said that the authorities of Mexico City were hiding the real number of COVID-19 deaths. The organization claimed that the actual number of deaths in the city was 4,577, as opposed to the 1,332 confirmed at the time by the authorities.[208] The same day, fourteen health workers were kidnapped and released from a hotel in Tacubaya, Mexico City.[209]

On May 20, the government of the State of Mexico said that they were going to use refrigerated trucks and trailers to store the corpses coming from 16 hospitals for periods of 48 to 72 hours in order to avoid the overcrowding of morgues and to support families that want to cremate the bodies.[210] The same day, the government of Mexico City appointed a Comisión Científico Técnica para el Análisis de la Mortalidad (″Scientific Technical Commission for Mortality Analysis″) headed by Arturo Galindo Fragua of the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición ("National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition″) to investigate whether the official number of COVID-19 deaths is lower than the actual number. Doctor Christopher Edward Ormsby, of the Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias ("National Institute of Respiratory Diseases,″ INER) is also working on the commission.[211] The same day, Claudia Sheinbaum presented her "Gradual Plan towards the New Normality in Mexico City", and said that Mexico City will be at a red light until at least June 15.[212]

On May 22, the number of new cases and deaths reported in 24-hours reached a record high of 2,973 and 420 respectively.[213] General Motors partially reopened two of its four plants—a motor plant in Ramos Arizpe, Colima, and a motor and transmission plant in Silao, Guanajuato.[214]

It was reported on May 23 that Mexico's 10.8% mortality rate from COVID-19 is the eighth highest in the world, most likely due to a lack of testing. Globally the mortality rate was about 6.7% at the time.[215]

The Instituto de Salud para el Bienestar (INSABI) announced on May 25 it paid MXN $60,435,000 for 300,000 COVID-19 tests in June and July. An individual test costs $204.[216]

On May 26, the number of new cases and deaths reported in 24-hours reached another record high with 3,455 new cases and 501 new deaths in twenty-four hours.[217]

On May 27, a 55-year-old nurse who heads the intensive care unit at the ISSSTE hospital in Mérida, Yucatán, denounced death threats and the burning of her house and car.[218]

Cars line up for miles at the Tijuana-San Diego County, California border crossing, despite restrictions on non-essential travel.[219] Baja Calfornia reports a 33% shortfall of hospital beds on May 28.[220] Fake news about toxic substances being spread by drones leads to disturbances in Venustiano Carranza, Chiapas, including the burning of city hall.[221]

Thirty states and CDMX are classified as ′′Rojo′′ (Red: Maximum Risk); the only exception is the State of Zacatecas, which is Orange: High Risk, after 81,400 confirmed cases and 9,044 deaths are reported on May 28.[222]

June

On Day 1 (June 1) of the "New Normality," AMLO motors to Cancun and inaugurates construction of the Mayan train.[223] The first foreign tourists since imposition of the quarantine arrive in Loas Cabos, Baja California Sur.[224] Rules about safe-distancing, use of a facemask, and against overcrowded public transportation were largely ignored.[225]

Statistics

SALUD reported Mexico totals

As of June 1
State Cumulative cases Active cases Deaths Recoveries
93,435 16,303 10,167 67,491
 Mexico City 25,787 3975 2713 19,612
 State of Mexico 15,210 1921 1168 11,707
 Baja California 5127 555 871 3726
 Tabasco 4323 853 533 2968
 Veracruz 4008 634 537 2851
 Sinaloa 3580 593 522 2504
 Puebla 3117 685 359 2091
 Sonora 2142 386 116 1639
 Guerrero 1951 261 272 1430
 Quintana Roo 1951 264 355 1300
 Michoacán 1950 387 169 1409
 Chiapas 1928 664 136 1136
 Yucatán 1863 387 164 1330
 Jalisco 1802 602 151 1071
 Hidalgo 1769 425 318 1072
 Guanajuato 1680 576 112 994
 Tamaulipas 1646 323 109 1230
 Chihuahua 1627 122 328 1188
 Oaxaca 1512 366 162 1009
 Nuevo León 1481 309 96 1081
 Morelos 1397 216 270 920
 Coahuila 1088 173 81 842
 Tlaxcala 1064 210 150 719
 San Luis Potosí 957 291 54 620
 Querétaro 933 230 108 615
 Aguascalientes 841 210 35 601
 Baja California Sur 643 93 35 515
 Nayarit 620 181 59 392
 Campeche 608 136 91 400
 Durango 400 153 37 213
 Zacatecas 301 64 35 208
 Colima 154 38 21 98
Source:

Secretaría de Salud (2020).[226]
Geological and Atmospheric Research Institute[227]

Cases per 100,000 inhabitants

As of June 1
State Cumulative cases[a] Active cases[a] Population[b]
78.2 12.8 119,530,753
 Mexico City 289.1 44.1 8,918,653
 Tabasco 180.5 33.2 2,395,272
 Baja California 154.6 15.3 3,315,766
 Quintana Roo 129.9 16.5 1,501,562
 Sinaloa 120.7 18.8 2,966,321
 State of Mexico 94.0 11.0 16,187,608
 Baja California Sur 90.3 11.6 712,029
 Yucatán 88.8 17.1 2,097,175
 Tlaxcala 83.6 15.2 1,272,847
 Sonora 75.1 12.6 2,850,330
 Morelos 73.4 10.6 1,903,811
 Campeche 67.6 13.6 899,931
 Aguascalientes 64.1 14.6 1,312,544
 Hidalgo 61.9 13.8 2,858,359
 Guerrero 55.2 7.1 3,533,251
 Nayarit 52.5 14.0 1,181,050
 Puebla 50.5 10.3 6,168,883
 Veracruz 49.4 7.4 8,112,505
 Tamaulipas 47.8 8.8 3,441,698
 Querétaro 45.8 10.1 2,038,372
 Chihuahua 45.7 3.2 3,556,574
 Michoacán 42.5 8.0 4,584,471
 Oaxaca 38.1 8.8 3,967,889
 Chiapas 36.9 11.6 5,217,908
 Coahuila 36.8 5.4 2,954,915
 San Luis Potosí 35.2 10.2 2,717,820
 Nuevo León 28.9 5.5 5,119,504
 Guanajuato 28.7 9.2 5,853,677
 Jalisco 23.0 7.2 7,844,830
 Durango 22.8 8.2 1,754,754
 Colima 21.7 4.8 711,235
 Zacatecas 19.1 3.8 1,579,209
Source:

Secretariat of Health (2020).[226]
Geological and Atmospheric Research Institute[227]
National Institute of Statistics and Geography[228]

Curves of infection and deaths

On April 20, the Secretariat of Health started to report active cases at the daily press conference.[229]

New cases and deaths per day

Graphs based on daily reports from the Mexican Secretariat of Health on confirmed cases of COVID-19.[13]

Chart of hospitalized cases

Number and categorization of hospitalized cases presented by the Secretariat of Health at the daily press conference.[230] After April 20 the Secretariat of Health stopped reporting this type of classification of hospitalized cases. This chart is left here for historical purposes.

Charts of COVID-19 progression by top states

Cases

Deaths

Mortality rate

Phases of contingency

According to the Secretariat of Health, there are three phases before the disease (COVID-19) can be considered as an epidemic in the country:[231]

Phase Time period Description
Start End
Viral Import February 28, 2020 March 23, 2020[232]
  • People with the virus caught the disease outside Mexico and there are no cases of local transmission.
  • A limited number of people are infected with the virus.
  • There are no restrictions on greetings between people.
  • Public events remain permitted in all settings.
Community Transmission March 24, 2020[232] April 20, 2020
  • Community transmission: cases are reported between people who have not had contact with foreigners.
  • The number of confirmed cases has increased rapidly.
  • Large public events are no longer permitted.
  • Classes are suspended and people are encouraged to work from home.
Epidemic April 21, 2020[175] TBA
  • Widespread transmission: thousands of cases would have been reported in multiple locations across the country.
  • Schools and workplaces with active outbreaks would be shuttered.
  • Implementation of stricter health protocols would occur.
  • A general quarantine of the population may become necessary.

Recovery phases

On May 13, 2020, the Secretary of Economy Graciela Márquez Colín announced the «Plan for the return to the new normality» (Plan para el regreso a la nueva normalidad in Spanish). The purpose of the plan is to progressively resume productive, social and educational activities that were halted during the phases of contingency in order to reopen the economy:[233]

Phase Time period
Description
Start End
Phase 1 May 18, 2020
  • Reopening of the 269 «hope municipalities» (municipios de la esperanza in Spanish). The "hope municipalities" are municipalities that have zero confirmed cases of COVID-19 and don’t neighbor a municipality with confirmed cases.
Phase 2 May 18, 2020 May 31, 2020
  • Preparations are being made for the reopening of the country.
  • The manufacturing of transportation equipment, mining, and construction industries are considered essential activities.
Phase 3 June 1, 2020
  • A "traffic light" coding system is implemented for the gradual reopening of the country. Consisting of four colors (green, yellow, orange, and red) that represent the severity of the pandemic in each state, the "traffic light" will be updated weekly and each color indicates which activities are safe to resume.
Sources:[234]

Traffic light color system

The "traffic light" status of each state as of May 28, 2020.

The "traffic light" color system will be implemented for the gradual reopening of the country starting June 1, 2020. It will consist of four colors (green, yellow, orange, and red) that represent the severity of the pandemic in each state. The "traffic light" will be updated weekly and each color will indicate which activities are safe to resume.[233]

Color Health alert
Description
Green Zero
  • Classes may resume.
  • Every aspect of the everyday life will return to normal.
Yellow Normal
  • Non-essential activities may resume at a normal rate without any kind of restriction.
  • Public gatherings will only have minor restrictions.
  • Restaurants, churches, movie theaters, and museums may reopen.
Orange High
  • Non-essential activities and public gatherings may resume but at a small scale.
  • Vulnerable workers, such as pregnant women, older adults and people with a compromised immune system, may return to work but should be given maximum protection.
Red Maximum
  • Only the essential activities will operate.
Sources:[235]

Effects

Finance

The INEGI says the unemployment rate increased from 3.6% in January 2020 to 3.7% in February 2020. The informal sector increased to 56.3% in February compared to 56.0% in February 2019.[236]

The Mexican Stock Exchange fell to a record low on March 10 due to fears of the coronavirus and because of falling oil prices. The Bank of Mexico (Banxico) stepped in to prop up the value of the peso, which fell 14% to 22.929 per US dollar.[29] World markets are seeing falls similar to those of 1987.[237] Moody's Investors Service predicted that the economy will contract 5.2% during the first trimester of the year and 3.7% by the end of the year.[238] Banxico announced on April 1 that foreign investors have withdrawn MXN $150 billion (US $6.3 billion) from Mexico, mostly in Certificados de la Tesorería (Treasury Certificates, Cetes) since February 27 when the first COVID-19 case in Mexico was diagnosed. The problem is compounded by the low oil price, only US $10.37 per barrel, a 20.29% drop since the beginning of the 2020 Russia–Saudi Arabia oil price war.[239]

Some financial analysts say there has been too little, too late. Carlos Serrano of BBVA México predicts a 4.5% economic contraction in 2020, while analysts at Capital Economics in London argue that the government has to do more to support the economy. They forecast a 6% contraction this year. HR Ratings, Latin America's first credit rating agency, said that the performance of the economy this year will depend on the government's response to the COVID-19 crisis.[240] Inflation slowed to 2.08% during the first half of April, the lowest figure in four years.[241]

In May, BBVA predicted that 58.4% of the Mexican population would live below the poverty line by the end of 2020, an increase of 12 million people. Extreme poverty is expected to grow by 12.3 million people, 26.6% of the population. The bank predicts GDP will fall by 12%.[242] Citibanamex predicts a 7.6% decline in GDP.[243]

Industries

Beer products limited to 3 per customer during COVID-19 pandemic shortly after beer brewing was suspended in Mexico.

The Consejo Nacional Empresarial Turístico (National Tourism Business Council, CNET) sent two letters in March to Alfonso Romo, Chief of Staff to the President, outlining the importance of tourism to the economy and asking for government support for the sector. Tourism provides 4 million jobs in Mexico, and 93% of the companies have ten or fewer employees. COVID-19 has forced the closure of 4,000 hotels (52,400 rooms) and 2,000 restaurants, while the airline industry has lost MXN $30 billion (US $1.3 billion).[244] Tourism accounts for 10% of Gross domestic product (GDP) in the world.[245]

The association of car dealers, ADMA, predicts a decrease in sales in Mexico between 16% and 25% this year.[246] J.D. Power estimated a 20% decrease, 264,000 vehicles, in Mexico and a 15% drop across the world.[247] The Employers Confederation of the Mexican Republic (COPARMEX) criticized the government on March 29 for not suspending the payment of taxes, saying the government does not care about unemployment. Fernando Treviño Núñez, president of the organization, explained that businesses cannot afford to pay salaries for more than three months without receiving income.[248] Gasoline and diesel fuel importers have not noted a decrease in demand since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, and they fear that health precautions could cause fuel delays at ports of entry. Watco Companies said that cargo on the Houston Ship Channel for delivery to San Luis Potosí increased 25% in March compared to January. Mexico imports 65% of its gasoline.[249]

On March 24, Grupo Modelo, makers of Corona beer, promised to donate 300,000 bottles of antibacterial gel to the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS).[250] The Canacintra (National Chamber of the Processing Industry) announced on April 2 they were suspending all beer production in the country, as breweries are not an essential industry and there was sufficient supply in the country for a month.[251] Tequila producers plan to stay open.[252]

As of April 22, Grupo Salinas with its 70,000 employees, continues to operate as if the pandemic were nonexistent. Even after the rest of the country entered Phase 3 in late April, its stores remain open, social distancing is not enforced, and employees do not use face masks.[253] The United States pressed Mexico in late April to reopen factories that are key to the U.S. supply chain, including those with military contracts, as employees staged walkouts and expressed fear of contracting COVID-19. Lear Corporation acknowledges there have been coronavirus-related deaths among its 24,000 employees in Ciudad Juárez, but won't say how many.[254]

General Motors (GM) announced that by late April 2020 its Toluca plant would start producing 1.5 million surgical face masks per month for use in hospitals in the states of Mexico, San Luis Potosí, Coahuila, Guanajuato, and Mexico City.[255]

A team of medical experts and veterinarians led by Pedro Guillermo Mar Hernadez of Hermosillo Technological Center (CTH) and Pedro Ortega Romero of Sonora State University (UES) developed a ventilator that can be used by six COVID-19 patients at a time.[256]

Gasoline sales fell 70% between April 10 and 18, threatening the financial future of gas stations. Meanwhile, the port of Veracruz is saturated and tankers are stranded off the coast due to low prices.[257]Airbnb offers free accusations for health care workers.[258]

The ′′Unión de Retailers de México ("Union of Retailers of Mexico, URM") said that between 1,500 and 2,500 businesses in shopping centers, between 9.3% and 18% of the 14,000 stores in Mexico City, were forced to close in April 2020 because they could not pay their rent.[259]

On May 27, film director Alfonso Cuarón plead employers to continue to pay the wages of more than 2.3 million housekeepers that have been left without wages because of the outbreak stating that "It is our responsibility as employers to pay their wages in this time of uncertainty".[260]

Panic buying

Panic buying of toilet paper at a Soriana supermarket in Ensenada, Baja California.

Panic buying in mid-March is causing shortages in Mexico of Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, which U.S. President Donald Trump, with no backing from the scientific or medical communities, says is helpful in preventing COVID-19. The Comisión Federal para la Protección de Riesgos Sanitarios (Federal Commission for the Protection of Health Risks, Cofepris) has put controls on the sale of both products. Hidroxicloroquina is used in the treatment of malaria, lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. Plaquenil tablets are produced in Mexico by the French company Sanofi; the raw material comes from Hungary. Shortages of medicine for these diseases can be expected soon.[261]

In mid-March, retailers in the border city of Tijuana experienced shortages of water and toilet paper as Americans from southern California began crossing the border to panic-buy these items. Purchase limits were placed on several item categories following the first wave of panic-buying by foreigners.[262]

Crime

Authorities are concerned about supermarket robberies. A gang of 70 people robbed a grocery store in Tecámac, State of Mexico, on March 23, and a gang of 30 looted a supermarket in the city of Oaxaca on March 24. Calls for supermarket looting, warning of food shortages, are making the rounds of social media.[263] Four such social media groups in Tijuana were broken up in Baja California on March 29.[264] The number of murders has not decreased due to the coronavirus pandemic, and drug cartels are fighting each other in Guerrero and Michoacan.[265]

On April 14, José Luis Calderón, vice president of the Mexican Association of Private Security Companies (AMESP), commenting on the increase of crime, told El Informador,[266]

Taking advantage of the COVID-19 crisis, there have been opportunistic people who have sought to loot and have tried to carry out robberies... We know that cell phones, household appliances, liquor, cigarettes and merchandise that are not essential items have been stolen.

Travel restrictions are making it more difficult for Mexican drug cartels to operate, because chemicals from China, which are the raw materials for synthesizing illegal drugs, cannot be imported. As a result, the price of illegal methamphetamine has increased from 2,500 pesos (€95/$102) to 15,000 pesos per pound. Cartels are also struggling to smuggle drugs across the border to the United States, where many customers live, because border crossings have been shut down. The reduction in international air travel has made it easier for authorities to track planes used for transporting illegal drugs.[265]

In May, three different families, relatives of victims of COVID-19, were attacked in Cuajimalpa, Mexico City.[267]

Government response

  • January 9, 2020 – A travel advisory for people traveling to or from China was issued.[14]
  • January 22 – The Secretariat of Health issued a statement saying that the novel coronavirus COVID-19 did not present a danger to Mexico.[14]
  • January 30 – The Government of Mexico designed a Preparation and Response Plan that was made by the National Committee for Health Safety, a working group led by Secretariat of Health composed by different health entities aiming to act upon the imminent arrival of the pandemic. This group carried out a series of alert measures, rehabilitation and updating of epidemiological regulations based on the International Health Regulations.[15]
  • March 5 – The National Governors' Conference (Conago) met to discuss the coronavirus outbreak. The directors of INSABI, IMSS and ISSSTE also participated.[24]
  • March 6 – Hugo López-Gatell Ramírez led the first daily press conference on COVID-19.[25]
  • March 10 – As the stock market and the price of oil fell, "Banxico" stepped in to prop up the value of the peso, which had fallen 14%.[29]
  • March 13 – The National Autonomous University of Mexico suspended in-person classes. Authorities canceled or postponed major tourist events in Guadalajara and Merida.[35]
On March 14, 2020, sport events such as female football matches were open to the public. At Estadio Olímpico Universitario, authorities were pouring hand sanitizer at the entrance.
  • March 14
    • The SEP announced that all sporting and civic events in schools would be canceled[37] and that Easter break, originally planned from April 6 to 17, would be extended from March 20 to April 20.[38] On March 31 the school closings were extended through April 30.[268]
    • The SCHP announced it was taking measures to prevent a 0.5% fall in GDP.[39]
    • The "Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León" (UANL) suspended classes for its more than 206,000 students starting on March 17.[41]
  • March 15 – Mexico City mayor Claudia Sheinbaum declared that Mexico City expected to spend an extra MXN $100 million to prevent the spread of COVID-19.[47]
  • March 18 – Authorities announced that they were looking for hundreds of citizens who might be carriers of the coronavirus, especially in the states of Puebla, Jalisco, Aguascalientes and Guerrero. The Autonomous University of Guerrero (UAGRO) in Chilpancingo closed after a female student tested positive for the virus.[69]
  • March 22
    • Bars, nightclubs, movie theaters and museums were closed in Mexico City.[79]
    • Governor Alfaro Ramírez announces that Jalisco and seven other states would block flights from areas such as that had a high rate of coronavirus. He also said that they would purchase 25,000 testing kits.[80]
    • Governor Jaime Rodríguez Calderón of Nuevo León said he will not rule out the use of force to get people to stay at home.[269]
  • March 23
    • The WHO announced that Mexico had entered into the community contact phase of infection.[81]
    • The National Campaign of Healthy Distancing, a national program of non-pharmaceutical measures based on social distancing, began.[83] A media campaign led by "Susana Distancia", who is a fictional female superhero aiming to promote social distancing, was launched.[84] "Susana Distancia" is in fact a wordplay roughly meaning "(maintaining) a healthy distance".[citation needed]
    • Access to supermarkets, drugstores and convenience stores in Coahuila was limited to one person per family, and the temperature of that person was taken before entering.[86]
  • March 24 – President López Obrador announced that Mexico had entered Phase 2 of the coronavirus pandemic, in effect until April 30. Gatherings of more than 100 people were prohibited, and both the Mexican Army and the Mexican Navy would participate.[87]
  • March 25
    • President López Obrador ordered the Mexican Air Force to rescue Mexicans trapped in Argentina.[91]
    • Office of the Federal Prosecutor for the Consumer (Profeco) closed two businesses in Tijuana, Baja California, for price-gouging.[92]
    • In Mexico City, Claudia Sheinbaum announced financial support for families and micro industries affected by the pandemic, and she suspended automobile smog checks through April 19. She closed movie theaters, bars, nightclubs, gyms and other entertainment centers.[93]
    • The government announced that it would continue receiving cruise ships "for humanitarian reasons", but that passengers would be individually "fumigated" before being taken directly to airports to be returned to their home countries. The protocol will apply to the MS Europa, currently docked in Puerto Vallarta.[270]
  • March 26
    • President López Obrador addressed the Group of Twenty regarding medical supplies and trade and tariffs.[97] The federal government announced it would suspend most sectors' activities from March 26 to April 19.[98]
    • The Secretary of Health estimated that Phase 3 of the pandemic, when the number of cases reaches its peak, will be about April 19.[271]
    • Authorities in Chihuahua announced that it would start to quarantine migrants who were returned to the Ciudad Juárez border crossing.[100]
    • The Comisión Federal para la Protección de Riesgos Sanitarios (Federal Commission for the Protection of Health Risks, Cofepris) put controls on the sale of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, used in the treatment of malaria, lupus and rheumatoid arthritis, but not shown to be effective against COVID-19. Nonetheless, panic buying of these medicines is likely to soon lead to a shortage.[261]
  • March 27
  • March 28
    • Hugo López-Gatell Ramírez, Deputy Secretary of Health, said that with 16 deaths and 848 cases of infection, this is the last opportunity to prevent accelerated growth of COVID-19. He called on the population to act responsibly to prevent its spread.[274] Milenio reported that

López-Gatell said there is a legal basis for the use of force to enforce stay-at-home orders during the COVID-19 pandemic.[275]

    • Health officials, accompanied by a representative of the military and Foreign Secretary Marcelo Ebrard made a video urging the populace to stay home. President López Obrador did not appear in that video, but he made a separate one with the same message.[276]
Government offices in Cuauhtémoc borough sanitized on March 30.
  • March 30 – A national health emergency was declared in Mexico and stricter measures aimed at containing the spread of the virus were introduced.[122]
  • April 1
    • Beaches throughout the country are closed.[277]
    • INEGI asked everyone who has not taken part of the 2020 census to contact them via their webpage or by calling them before April 15.[278]
    • The Governor of Nuevo León ordered a halt to production and distribution of beer in the state, beginning April 3.[279]
  • April 3
    • President López Obrador issued a decree to abolish 100 public trusts related to science and culture; the Finance Ministry (SHCP) will receive the money directly.[280] The move is expected to MXN save $250 billion (US $10 billion), which can be spent to strengthen the economy, pay for social programs and pay off the debt.[281]
    • Claudia Sheinbaum promised to donate two months of her salary (a total of MXN $156,728) to the struggle against COVID-19 and invited other officials to do so also.[282]
  • April 5
    • President López Obrador presented his plan to reactivate the economy without increasing fuel prices or taxes. He said he would increase oil production and that he had support from the private sector.[138]
    • A health official in Oaxaca was fired after spitting on doctors, nurses, and patients at the Hospital Regional del ISSSTE "Presidente Juárez" because the service was slow.[283]
  • April 7 – Governor Diego Sinhué Rodríguez Vallejo of Guanajuato announced he would donate his salary (MXN $153,000) during the contingency.[284]
  • April 8 – Cuauhtémoc Blanco Bravo of Morelos announced that he would donate his salary to support families who do not have incomes during the crisis.[285] Thirty confirmed cases and five deaths have been reported in the state.[286]
  • April 10 – José Ignacio Precaido Santos of the General Health Council announced that at least 146 private hospitals will make beds available to treat COVID-19 patients on a non-profit basis.[149]
  • April 11 – The Federal Electricity Commission (CFE) announced it would not forgive payments because of the pandemic. They reiterated their commitment to invest MXN $8 billion during the presidency of Lopez Obrador and emphasised the need to pay their 90,000 employees.[287]
  • April 12 – The government established the "National Contingency Center" (Spanish: Centro de Contingencias Nacional, CNC) to fight COVID-19. It will be led by the military and will have scientists and health technicians advising about steps to combat the pandemic.[157]
  • April 13 – The Mexican Navy announced it would open ten voluntary self-isolation units to shelter 4,000 COVID-19 victims in Mexico City, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacan, Sinaloa, Tamaulipas and Veracruz.[159]
  • April 16
    • The government announced on April 16 that it will restrict transportation between areas of the country that are infected with COVID-19 (mostly large cities) and areas that are not infected, without specifying what areas are included or how it will be enforced.[167]
    • President López Obrador also said that based upon current projections, the 979 municipalities that have not had reported cases of coronavirus will be able to reopen schools and workplaces on May 17; the date is June 1 for the 463 municipalities that have. The elderly and other vulnerable groups will still be requested to stay home, and physical distancing should remain in place until May 30. It is expected that the pandemic will end in the metropolitan area on June 25.[168]
  • April 17 – AMLO pledges MXN $60 billion (US $2.5 billion) to help small businesses in May.[288]
  • April 18 – The Health Ministry says that unclaimed bodies of the deceased related to COVID-19 should not be cremated or buried in common graves, but should be photographed, fingerprinted and buried in marked graves. In cases of suspected or confirmed cases of coronavirus, the bodies cannot be exhumed for at least 180 days after the date of death.[289]
  • April 21
    • The government announced that Mexico had entered Phase 3 of its contingency plan.[175]
    • The Secretariat of the Civil Service (SFP) announced that the deadline for public servants to declare their assets was extended from May 1 to July 31.[290]
  • May 4 – Plan DN III of Sedena and Plan Marina of SEMAR begin.[291]
  • May 13
  • May 20 – Mexico City mayor presented the "Gradual Plan towards the New Normality in Mexico City" after the health emergency and estimated that the city will be at a red light at least until June 15, although the situation may change to orange at that time.[212]
  • May 29
    • Thirty-one entities were classified as ″Maximum Risk;″ Zacatecas was the only exception.[222]
    • The SEP set August 10 as the new tentative date for reopening schools across the country.[295]

Cancellations, suspensions, and closings

Archaeological sites

Teotihuacán, Xochicalco, El Tepozteco closed March 21–22. Chichén Itzá closed indefinitely starting March 21.[73]

Educational institutions
Basic educationThe SEP announced on March 14 that all sporting and civic events in schools would be cancelled[37] and that Easter break would be from March 20 to April 20.[38]
Higher education: The UNAM and Tec de Monterrey, switched to virtual classes on March 13.[35] Autonomous University of the State of Morelos, (UAEM) suspended classes on March 16.[54] Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon, (UANL) suspended classes from March 17 to April 20.[41] Autonomous University of Guerrero (UAGRO) and Technical Institute of Guerrero (Chilpancingo) closed March 18.[69]
Entertainment

OCESA cancelled all its events until April 19.[296]

Fairs: Authorities announced on March 14 they were considering the cancellation of the Festival Internacional de Cine de Guadalajara. In Mérida, the Tianguis Turístico was postponed to September.[35]
Musical: Chicago suspended until April 17[296]
Concerts: The Magic Numbers, Los Tigres del Norte, Red Orange County [sic], Mercury Rev, María León, Sasha Sloan[296] and Ricky Martin[297]
Conference: Michelle Obama[296]
Other: Bars, nightclubs, movie theaters, and museums were closed in Mexico City on March 22.[79]
Government

President López Obrador suspended non-essential activities from March 26 to April 19. The health and energy sectors, the oil industry, and public services such as water supply, waste management and public safety continued to function.[98]

Industry

Ford Motor Company, Honda and Audi closed their manufacturing plants in Mexico on March 18.[67] Hundreds of hotel employees in Cancún were fired.[68] Alsea (Starbucks, VIPS, Domino's Pizza, Burger King, Italianni's, Chili's, California Pizza Kitchen, P. F. Chang's China Bistro and The Cheesecake Factory) offered its employees unpaid leave.[74] PROFECO closed two businesses in Tijuana Baja California, for price-gouging on March 25.[92] Cinépolis and Cinemex announced that they will temporarily close all of their theaters starting March 25.[298][299]

Ports of entry
Air: Governor Alfaro Ramírez of Jalisco announced that beginning Thursday, March 26, eight states in the Bajío and western Mexico would block flights from areas that had a high rate of coronavirus. The restrictions would apply at the Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla Guadalajara International Airport and the Licenciado Gustavo Díaz Ordaz International Airport in Puerto Vallarta.[80]
Land: The United States Department of State announced on March 20 there would be restrictions on travel across the Mexico–United States border. The restrictions would not apply to cargo.[72] On March 26, protesters in Sonora insisted that the government limit border crossings with the United States.[99] The state of Chihuahua announced that it would start to quarantine migrants who are returned to the Ciudad Juárez border crossing.[100] Citizens of Nogales, Sonora, blocked border crossing from Nogales, Arizona, in order to prevent the entrance of individuals with the virus infection and to prevent shortages of food, bottled water, toilet paper and cleaning supplies in local stores.[104]
Sea: The government announced on March 25 it would continue receiving cruise ships but that passengers would be individually "fumigated" before being taken directly to airports to be returned to their home countries.[270]
Sports

Jalisco Open (tennis tournament) and CONCACAF Champions League (soccer) cancelled March 13.[35]

Religious events

On March 17, the Passion Play of Iztapalapa in Mexico City moved to an undisclosed location indoors and televised on April 10.[300]

San Luis Potosí suspended wakes and funerals on March 29.[115]

Curfew established

Mayor Juanita Romero (PAN) of Nacozari de García, Sonora, declared a curfew in effect until April 20.[75]

Greater Mexico City transportation
Mexico City Metro:[301]
Line 1: Juanacatlán.
Line 2: Allende, Panteones, Popotla.
Line 4: Talismán, Bondojito, Canal del Norte, Fray Servando.
Line 5: Aragón, Eduardo Molina, Hangares, Misterios, Valle Gómez.
Line 6: Norte 45, Tezozómoc.
Line 7: Constituyentes, Refinería, San Antonio.
Line 8: Aculco, Cerro de la Estrella, La Viga, Obrera.
Line 9: Ciudad Deportiva, Lázaro Cárdenas, Mixiuhca, Velódromo.
Line 12: Eje Central, San Andrés Tomatlán, Tlaltenco.
Line A: Agrícola Oriental, Canal de San Juan, Peñón Viejo.
Line B: Olímpica, Deportivo Oceanía, Romero Rubio, Tepito.
Mexico City Metrobús:[301]
Line 1: San Simón, Buenavista II, El Chopo, Campeche, Nápoles, Ciudad de los Deportes, Francia, Olivo, Ciudad Universitaria, Centro Cultural Universitario
Line 2: Nicolás Bravo, Del Moral, CCH Oriente, Río Tecolutla, Álamos, Dr. Vértiz, Escandón, Antonio Maceo
Line 3: Poniente 146, Poniente 134, Héroe de Nacozari, La Raza, Ricardo Flores Magón, Buenavista III, Obrero Mundial
Line 5: Preparatoria 3, Río Guadalupe, Victoria, Río Santa Coleta, Archivo General de la Nación
Line 6: Ampliación Providencia, 482, 416 Oriente, Francisco Morazán
Line 7: Hospital Infantil La Villa, Necaxa, Clave, Glorieta Violeta, París, La Diana, Antropología
Xochimilco Light Rail:[301] Las Torres, Xotepingo, Tepepan, Francisco Goitia
Hoy No Circula: Obligatory for all vehicles.[302]
Mail

Mexico Post suspended international mail service outside the United States and Canada due to cancellation of international passenger airline flights.[303]

Misinformation and criticism

Mexico's federal government was perceived as slow to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic as of late March 2020, and it was met with criticism from certain sectors of society and the media.[304] Through April 1, the government only performed 10,000 tests, compared to 200,000 that had been completed in New York state. Therefore, official statistics are likely to greatly underestimate the actual number of cases.[305] The New York Times reported on May 8 that the federal government is underreporting deaths in Mexico City; the federal government reports 700 deaths in the city while local officials have detected over 2,500.[201]

President Andrés Manuel López Obrador has continued to hold rallies, be tactile with crowds, and downplay the threat of coronavirus to health and the economy.[304][306]

Miguel Barbosa Huerta, the governor of Puebla, claimed that only the wealthy were at risk of COVID-19, since the poor are immune. There is no evidence that wealth affects a person's vulnerability to the virus.[307][308]

Rumors about a curfew sparked the barricading of streets in San Felipe del Progreso, State of Mexico, on May 8.[309] A rumor spread via WhatsApp that authorities were spreading gas contaminated with COVID-19 provoked vandalism of police cars in San Mateo Capulhuac, Otzolotepec, on May 9.[310]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Calculated by dividing the number of cases by the total population of the state and multiplying the result by 100,000.
  2. ^ In 2015.

References

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