Cambridge IGCSE Geography - Case Studies
Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Loading in …3
1 of 40

Cambridge IGCSE Geography - Case Studies



Download to read offline

Related Audiobooks

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all

Cambridge IGCSE Geography - Case Studies

  1. 1. NIGER – RAPID POPULATION GROWTH LEDC – One of the poorest countries in the world Population Growth Rate of 2.9% (very high) Almost half of the population is under 15 years old Fertility Rate of 7.1 children per mother Population Growth is due to falling death rates -Reliable, clean water supply -Babies are inoculated against disease -Better diets are eaten -More clinics + hospitals -Better health education -Women are becoming more educated
  2. 2. RUSSIA – FALLING BIRTH RATES + HIV Population decline from 143m (2007) to a predicted 111m (2050) Due to: -High death rate (Low life expectancy – Male = 59y/o) -High level of alcohol related deaths -More than 1,000,000 Russians with AIDS -Low birth rate (1.1 children per woman) -Russian women are well educated and so do not want to have large numbers of children -Low level of immigration -High level of emigration to other European countries, in search of a better lifestyle
  3. 3. CHINA – BIRTH CONTROL POLICIES L A T E R , L O N G E R , F E W E R ( 1 9 7 0 - 7 9 ) China realised that there would not be enough food, jobs etc. and so introduced this policy Encouraged: - delay before 1st child - longer interval between children - fewer children overall O N E C H I L D P O L I C Y ( 1 9 7 8 - P R E S E N T D A Y ) The rapid population growth seemed to be stalling China’s development and so they introduced this policy One child per family Population growth has slowed down – China has avoided having an extra 300,000,000 births However: - there are many female orphans - much pressure is place on the child to succeed - too many boys/not enough girls
  4. 4. SINGAPORE – PRENATAL POLICIES In the 1980s, the Singaporean government decided that it needed a young, vibrant work force to develop its economy - encouraged rapid population growth through natural growth and immigration - even though Singapore already has a high population density - encouraged more educated women to have more children Introduced ‘Stop at Two’ in 1970 to slow down birth rates (successful) - gave grants of US$7000 to less well educated women who agreed to be sterilized after 2 children Introduced ‘Have Three or More, if you can afford it’ in the mid 1980s to raise the birth rate - tax rebates for the 3rd child - subsidies for day-care - priority in enrolling in the best schools
  5. 5. EU - MIGRATION Almost 500m people are able to travel freely between the EU countries - no need for a visa or even show a passport Lots of movement between the EU countries Advantages - mixing of culture - job vacancies are filled quickly - EU funds can improve infrastructure Disadvantages - loss of distinctive culture - racism - conflict - over migration in some places Polish Workers in the UK -Perform many unskilled jobs -Boomerang Migrants - work hard in UK - then return to Poland to set up a business
  6. 6. READING – CBD AND INNER CITY PLANNING Construction of The Oracle Shopping Centre (late 1999) revitalised Reading’s shopping facilities, providing more and larger modern shops, attracting more shoppers (wide sphere of influence), to support Reading’s economy Encouraged by the local authority by making the planning easy for the developers Pedestrianised Broad St., the road just outside the Oracle to make it more attractive to shoppers and to raise the footfall in these areas, benefitting local shops -Added street furniture (benches and public art) to make the area more aesthetically pleasing to the shoppers -Because of these developments it turns into a secondary high order shopping area, but still manages to keep a traditional high street, which compliments the Oracle
  7. 7. ATLANTA – URBAN SPRAWL Fastest growing metropolitan city in USA Population increase from 1.4m to over 5m in 36 years – results in urban sprawl (expanding into rural areas – RURAL-URBAN FRINGE Problems Created - air + noise pollution is the 4th worst in the US – 90% of residents drive to work – respiratory illnesses are common (bronchitis, asthma etc.) - suburbs along Chattahoochee river increase run-off and contaminate drinking water – septic tanks are necessary - farmland has been bought up and replaced with shopping malls etc. – farmers’ livelihoods taken - 125 hectares of trees are lost per day by deforestation in the city - concrete and asphalt mean that surface water cannot drain away – FLASH FLOODS + CONTAMINATION - Hotlanta: concrete and removal of trees leads to a heating effect – 10ºC higher than in the countryside
  8. 8. CAIRO – POLLUTION, SHANTY TOWNS + CONGESTION P R O B L E M S - lack of housing - 80% of Cairo covered by illegally built brick houses on farmlands by the Nile - 2-3m people set up homes amongst the tombs of Old Cairo - congestion - in the last 30 years, no. of cars rose from 100,000 to >1m - slow journeys to work - pollution - burning of fuel leading to heavily polluted air - leaking sewers - illegally dumped waste contaminating ground water S O L U T I O N S - satellite + dormitory towns built around the city - ring road built around the city - people with donkey carts licensed to collect + recycle rubbish - the Greater Cairo Waste Water Project extended and repaired the sewage system - modern metro system was built - homes + public services were upgraded in the most run down parts of the city 1950-2000: Population rose from 2m to 18m - Infrastructure not able to cope
  9. 9. CHAITEN, CHILE - VOLCANO 2 May 2008 Chaiten Volcano erupted – previously thought to be dormant Caldera volcano Formed at a convergent boundary - sits on edge of South American and Nazca plates (beneath because sea plate) - subducting plate melts and pressure builds up due to friction between plates - magma tricked through plate boundary and built up huge chamber under crater 4000 people fled homes - evacuation was difficult because of terrain - evacuated by Naval ship Ash went 20km up and settled over Chile and Argentina Town coated in ash 15cm thick Forests set on fire Schools used as shelters
  10. 10. HAITI - EARTHQUAKE Haiti lies on the Enriquillo-Plaintain Garden Fault which is a product of the transform plate boundary between the North American plate and the Caribbean plate. - these plates, after much friction, moved violently apart, creating the earthquake Death toll was so high due as the earthquake took place during the evening rush hour - lots of children coming back from school (unsupervised) - workers coming home from work - crossing unstable bridges and going past unstable buildings - unstable because there was not enough money in the country to build stable buildings as the country is nearly always in major debt due to the common nature of hazards in the country Epicentre right underneath the capital city, Port-au-Prince – most densely populated part of Haiti – many tall buildings affected by the earthquake 7 on the Richter Scale It was not the major earthquake that caused the damage, but the smaller scale aftershocks which collapsed all of the ready weakened buildings
  11. 11. MADAGASCAR - RAINFORESTS 9th poorest country in the world 78% of workers work in the primary sector Deforestation people have used land for agriculture - lots of species under threat because of deforestation (eg. flying fox) – LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY People are cutting down rainforests because countries exports rely on agriculture (70%) so need to grow fast crops like rice in more areas Woods such as ebony and rosewood can be sold worldwide at a high price Trees are burned to create farm land - ash supplies nutrients for a while - crops grow well for number of years - heavy rainfall washes away nutrients – SOIL EROSION - crops no longer grow because all nutrients used up - FARMERS MOVE ON – SHIFTING CULTIVATION Animals lose food and habitat
  12. 12. SAHARA AND THE SAHEL - DESERTS The Sahel: the transitional zone between the true desert to the north and the savanna grasslands to the south – currently moving further south - average rainfall of 300-600mm per year Desertification: the process by which fertile land becomes desert, typically as a result of drought, or inappropriate agriculture - overcultivation - overgrazing - deforestation - overpopulation - climate change Topsoil erosion by wind due to lack of rain + lack of vegetation protecting it
  13. 13. MALI - DESERTIFICATION Largest country in West Africa but one of the poorest in the world 80% of Mali’s population work in agriculture 65% of Mali’s land is desert or semi-desert - large amount of drought and food shortages in these areas Overcultivation in the areas south of the SAHEL (due to a population growth rate of 3%) leads to LAND DEGRADATION - results in topsoil erosion by wind due to a lack of vegetation + moisture to protect it - extends the SAHEL south
  14. 14. 3rd May 2008 – Cyclone Nargis hit Myanmar Wind Speeds between 200-300km/h Flooding & mudslides due to heavy rainfall. 3.6 meter storm surge flooded Irrawaddy Delta 2.4 million people affected 140,000 people killed or missing Infrastructure damage Agricultural damage LONG TERM DAMAGE - homelessness - lack of food and clean water supply - rise in food prices TROPICAL STORM – HOW IS IT FORMED Warm air from North meets warm air from South in tropics Sea temp. 27ºC and sea 60m deep, winds begin to circle anticlockwise due to the Earth’s rotation Intense low pressure creates the eye of the storm as the spiralling air rises to create low pressure along the equator. Tropical storms develop as depressions and wind speeds increase. Easterly winds at high levels move them east to west at first, as they move further from the equator it loses power as the sea temperature decreases. Die out over land as there is less heat and no water to keep them going. MYANMAR – CYCLONE NARGIS
  15. 15. AUSTRALIA - DROUGHT The Murray-Darling rivers provide over 70% of irrigation to the farming areas which produce 40% of Australia’s food (New South Wales and Victoria) Since 2002, rainfall has been well below average and rivers + reservoirs are too low to provide enough water for crops and livestock to survive - Average rainfall in outback can be 336 mm per year - very low In Goulburn, farmers cannot keep livestock in the hills as the Pejar reservoir has run dry - abattoirs and wool plants cut consumption by 30% - tap water is unfit for human consumption, so bottled water must be bought In Melbourne, residents are fined or imprisoned if they wash their cars, fill swimming pools or sprinkle gardens In Sydney, after 4 years of drought, the main reservoir is at 40% capacity + bush fires regularly occur due to the dry weather
  16. 16. MOZAMBIQUE - FLOODS February 2000: Zambezi, Limpopo and Save rivers flood Many of the country’s 19m people live on the floodplains of these rivers - most of the population are farmers, and these are the most fertile soils The banks of the Limpopo river burst, causing severe flood damage About 2 weeks later, Cyclone Eline hit the Mozambique coast near Beira, north of the areas previously affected by flooding Flash floods inundated low farmlands around Chokwe + Xai-Xai - more than 180,000 people affected Dirt roads easily turned to mud + so it took 2 days for a food lorry to travel 200 miles from the port at Beira to Caia, the town used as a food distribution centre
  17. 17. INDIA – SUBSISTENCE RICE FARMING Rice is the staple of the diet in SE Asia Grown to feed themselves and their families - labour intensive and requires the whole family The farmer would also grow a secondary crop on the same land – beans, lentils or peas. They may also keep chickens for eggs or meat Grows best in the heavy monsoon seasons or where irrigation water can be provided The floodwaters are usually useful from the Ganges however - floods can be catastrophic + destroy the rice crop - some years rainfall is lower than expected + the crop is ruined Rice gives a high yield per hectare Heavy alluvial soils provide an impervious muddy layer
  18. 18. NEW ZEALAND – COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE Warm, wet climate ideal for growing grass – great for pastoral farming HARWOOD’S FARM, NORTH CANTERBURY - over 1500 hectares in size – mostly hill country or rolling downs - special grasses planted on this land, providing high quality feed for large herds of sheep + cattle during the winter - fed on hay + silage when it snows in winter - Corriedale sheep: provide good quantity of meat + wool - Hereford cattle: sold for meat in October to save the cost of feeding them over the winter - Rabbits are regularly culled to stop them from eating large quantities of grass
  19. 19. BANGALORE – HI TECH INDUSTRY One of India’s largest industrial cities. In 1991 a Software Technology Plant was created and since then multinational IT companies have set up their offices in Bangalore Due to: - pleasant climate conditions: 900km above sea level making it cooler than most of India - dust-free environment - the state government having a long history of support of science and technology Companies OUTSOURCE to India because: - labour costs are considerably lower - many high skilled workers available - India has a large English speaking population (about 50m) 925 software companies 80,000 ICT workers 21 engineering colleges – workers taken straight from these colleges >100 electrics companies in The Electronic City
  20. 20. PAKISTAN – STEEL INDUSTRY First steel factories were built in Pakistan in 1973 in order to develop the industrial sector of their economy Built on cheap flat land at Pipri near Gharo Creek in Karachi, out of the way so no residents of the city could see it Also build downwind from Karachi so noise and air pollution would not blow into residential areas In the past few years, Pakistan steel have reforested the area around the factories and set new targets for waste and pollution reduction Water has been treated in freshwater supplies that feed lakes and reservoirs Also created a cricket ground, lakes, bird sanctuaries and a running track for employees Creates more jobs – benefits the city of Karachi
  21. 21. SEYCHELLES - TOURISM Made up of 115 islands in Indian Ocean, 1500km east of Africa Tourism industry provides the islands with 70% of total income Money raised is invested back into the country Tourism employs about 30% of the labour force – many jobs created Over-tourism results in drought + this can affect sanitation The drought is made worse by 75% of the water being lost through old and leaking pipes Due to the drought, the government are forced to take out a $25m loan to pay for a desalination plant which is not only expensive, but takes away from the natural beauty of the island Management: The minister of tourism for the Seychelles wants to limit the no. of tourists to 200,000 per year to ensure stability and sustainability in the industry
  22. 22. DUBAI - TOURISM 1 of the 7 Emirates that make up the UAE Subtropical climate – Arid – Infrequent rainfall (5 days of rain per year) – Mean daily temperature of 30ºC in January, rising to >40ºC in July Tourism makes up 30% of Dubai’s GDP Hotels and Apartments recorded 6.5m guests in 2006 with a revenue of >US$3 billion Tourism has transformed an area of desert into one of the world’s top tourist destinations of the 21st Century However tourism stretches water supply and the rapid growth could lead to the place losing some of its attractive aspect that first brought tourists there But tourism provides a medium to long term addition to Dubai’s oil and gas exports
  23. 23. D.R. CONGO - FUELWOOD 40% of the world’s population rely on fuelwood to cook and heat their homes DEFORESTATION Most of these countries burn fuelwood because they have no alternative 70% of the population rely on subsistence farming and on collecting fuelwood to survive Puts D.R. Congo’s rare species at risk Villagers have to walk 7km for 3kg of firewood 70% is transported by cart and 30% on people’s heads What is left over is sold to Kinshasa, the capital, where it’s used for bakeries and food processing Alternative is dung, but it deprives the fields of fertiliser, reducing crop yields
  24. 24. ITAIPU DAM – HYDRO ELECTRIC POWER Located along River Paraná - second longest river in S. America - large reliable flow of water Joint venture between Brazil and Paraguay Hard impermeable rock was ideal for constructing both the dam and reservoir However 40,000 people had to be relocated because of construction Before construction there was already a reasonable amount of infrastructure in place thanks to the nearby towns of Foz de Iguaçu and Puerto Strossner The depth of the valley and the relief of the wider area flooded for the reservoir means that Itaipu has the lowest flooded area per unit of power production of all major HEP schemes in Brazil
  25. 25. DAYA BAY, CHINA – NUCLEAR POWER 4 of China’s 11 nuclear reactors are located at Daya Bay in Guangdong, south-east China Coastal location permits seawater to be used in the cooling process Hard rock in the area provides solid foundation for these large and heavy installations No major threat from earthquakes or faulting in the area Major cities not too far away (Hong Kong 50km, Shenzhen 40km) so little energy is lost in transmission, but are a reasonable distance away in case of a nuclear accident Nearby supply of labour General infrastructure is very good
  26. 26. KINGSNORTH, UK– THERMAL POWER Major 2000MW thermal power station in south-east England Located on the Hoo Peninsula on the banks of the Medway estuary - lots of water for cooling Has a port facility to allow the importation of coal and oil The station is adjacent to farmland and there are no significant residential areas nearby – lots of space Not too far away from the houses that it provides for – not much energy is lost in transmission
  27. 27. LESOTHO – WATER RESOURCES The Lesotho Highlands Water Project is the largest civil engineering project in Africa When completed it will divert about 40% of the Senqu/Orange river water through 5 large-scale damns (estimate 2027) After taking the water for its own use, much will be sold to South Africa where the demand is greater than the supply The income can be used to develop its infrastructure and economy Lots of highlands in Lesotho which receive high rainfall, so the valleys are ideal for building dams and reservoirs Able to generate HEP from the dam Lakes will attract tourism, creating jobs and benefitting the economy However Lesotho will become solely dependent on South Africa for future income
  28. 28. OPPORTUNITIES AND HAZARDS IN RAINFORESTS About 200m people live in areas that are/were covered by tropical rainforests Fertile soils for farming - for palm oil Potential for Hydro Electric Power Stations - high rainfall Tourism Fishing and Food Supply Forestry - expensive hardwoods such as mahogany But the removal of vegetation can lead to the disruption to the circulation and storage of nutrients, surface erosion and compaction of soils, sandification, increased flood levels and sediment content of rivers, climate change and a loss of biodiversity
  29. 29. OPPORTUNITIES AND HAZARDS IN DESERTS Land use in deserts is limited Farming is possible, with irrigation from rivers (e.g.. Nile) and deep aquifers (e.g.. Below Libya and south-west USA), and is profitable In semi arid areas, cattle/sheep ranching is economically viable without irrigation Tourism has great potential in countries such as Dubai However: - weathering has the ability to weaken engineering structures very rapidly - stream flow can be erratic causing flooding - there is increased soil erosion with high rates of overland runoff
  30. 30. ALBANIA - POLLUTION Tirana, the capital city, is one of the most polluted cities in the world Deaths due to illness caused by pollution have increased by 20% in the past 2 years This is due to 90% of vehicles being too old - 70% use diesel - 30% petrol - mostly petrol with lead and a huge quantity of sulphur Heavy industry, especially in Elbasan, produces pollution 15x above acceptable levels Babies are being born with deformities as well as deformed animals (4 legged roosters, 2 headed calves) Soil is so contaminated that some places have banned planting crops
  31. 31. THE MALDIVES – EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING Made up of 1200 tiny islands but highest point is only 2.4m above sea level 80% of the islands are no more than 1m above sea level Rising sea levels put these islands at threat – DUE TO GLOBAL WARMING In Male, a 3m high wall, which took 14 years to build and cost US$63m, has been constructed in an attempt to protect the capital The government has identified 5 ‘safe’ islands, designed to resist the rising sea Government has proposed to artificially raise the height of some of the islands Near Male, a land reclamation project is taking place to create a new island which could potentially house 50,000 people, most of the nations population
  32. 32. NEPAL – SOIL EROSION Deforestation occurring for the growing need for fuelwood 18% of Nepal is forested but 25% of the forest was removed between 1990 and 2005 Removing trees on steep slopes leads to soil erosion Monsoon rains between May and September increase erosion Villagers in Tadiya have easy access to the forest to collect fuel and fodder - however they are having to travel further and further Women spend 1/3 of their day collecting firewood for fuel Tourism is important – 70,000 per year – creates many jobs - using fuelwood for tourists has increased deforestation and soil erosion by 10%