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Coronavirus disease

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Structural view of a coronavirus
Symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).[1][2]

A coronavirus disease (COVID /ˈkvɪd, ˈkɒvɪd/),[3][4][5] coronavirus respiratory syndrome, coronavirus pneumonia, coronavirus flu, or any other variant, is a disease caused by members of the coronavirus (CoV) family.

Coronaviruses cause different coronavirus diseases including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS),[6] and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).[7] Some strains of coronaviruses can also cause the common cold.[8][9][10][11]

The 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak, caused by COVID-19, was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11 March 2020.[12] Local transmission of the disease has been recorded in many countries across all six WHO regions.[13] COVID-19 is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus.[7] SARS-CoV-2 is the third zoonotic coronavirus to be identified, after SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. As of September 16, 2020 WHO reported 29,444,198 confirmed cases and 931,321 COVID-19 deaths across the world.

Etymology

Corona is derived from Latin corōna, meaning "crown, garland";[14] Virus also comes from Latin, where it means "slimy liquid" or "poison".[15]

Human coronavirus diseases

Coronavirus disease was first discovered in humans in the 1930s.[16] The virus, Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) was first isolated in 1965.[16] Subsequently, six further coronaviridae were identified in humans, these being the common Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63), Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43), Human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1), as well as novel MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2.[17] HCoV-229E and HCoV-NL63 are Alphacoronavirus (α-CoV or Alpha-CoV),[17] while HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 are Betacoronavirus (β-CoV or Beta-CoV).[17]

In November 2002 an outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) was discovered. This disease originated in China and subsequently spread to Vietnam, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore and Canada.

A new coronavirus was identified in 2012 with a SARS like illness, called the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) CoV resulted in a limited number of outbreaks, mostly in Saudi Arabia and other middle eastern countries.

In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (nCoV) was identified in Wuhan, China, which was isolated on 7 January 2020.[18] The World Health Organisation recommended the interim name of the disease as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease (2019-nCoV ARD) and 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCov) as the virus.[19] However, the disease has subsequently been reclassified as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the virus as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2),[20] which is closely related to the earlier SARS-CoV and genetically clusters within Betacoronavirus with subgenus Sarbecovirus.[21]

Zoonotic coronavirus diseases

Characteristics of zoonotic coronavirus strains
MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2,
and related diseases
MERS-CoV SARS-CoV SARS-CoV-2
Disease MERS SARS COVID-19
Outbreaks 2012, 2015,
2018
2002–2004 2019–2020
pandemic
Epidemiology
Date of first
identified case
June
2012
November
2002
December
2019[22]
Location of first
identified case
Jeddah,
Saudi Arabia
Shunde,
China
Wuhan,
China
Age average 56 44[23][a] 56[24]
Sex ratio (M:F) 3.3:1 0.8:1[25] 1.6:1[24]
Confirmed cases 2494 8096[26] 40,327,407[27][b]
Deaths 858 774[26] 1,117,252[27][b]
Case fatality rate 37% 9.2% 2.8%[27]
Symptoms
Fever 98% 99–100% 87.9%[28]
Dry cough 47% 29–75% 67.7%[28]
Dyspnea 72% 40–42% 18.6%[28]
Diarrhea 26% 20–25% 3.7%[28]
Sore throat 21% 13–25% 13.9%[28]
Ventilatory use 24.5%[29] 14–20% 4.1%[30]
Notes
  1. ^ Based on data from Hong Kong.
  2. ^ a b Data as of 20 October 2020.

A zoonotic disease is an infectious disease caused by a pathogen (an infectious agent, such as a bacterium, virus, parasite or prion) that has jumped from an animal (usually a vertebrate) to a human.[31] SARS-CoV-2 is the third zoonotic coronavirus, after SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV,[32] although there is evidence that may support a zoonotic origin of HCoV-NL63 too.[33]

SARS

In 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), led to the 2002–2004 SARS outbreak. More than 8,000 people from 29 different countries and territories were infected, and at least 774 died.[34]

MERS

In 2012 Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV), causing Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), was identified.[35]

MERS-CoV is responsible for the 2012 MERS outbreak, primarily in the Middle East, the 2015 MERS outbreak in South Korea and the 2018 MERS outbreak primarily in Saudi Arabia.

COVID-19

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which in December 2019 led to a pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan, China, which developed into the COVID-19 pandemic.

Diseases in other animals

Coronaviruses have been recognized as causing pathological conditions in veterinary medicine since the 1930s.[36] They infect a range of animals such as swine, cattle, horses, camels, cats, dogs, rodents, birds, bats, and other wildlife.[37] The majority of animal-related coronaviruses infect the intestinal tract and are transmitted by a fecal-oral route.[38]

Gallery

See also

References

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  2. ^ The diagram reflects symptoms given at Coronavirus disease 2019#Signs and symptoms. References are listed there.
  3. ^ BBC News (11 February 2020). "Coronavirus officially named Covid-19, says WHO". BBC.
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  33. ^ Huynh, J.; Li, S.; Yount, B.; Smith, A.; Sturges, L.; Olsen, J. C.; Nagel, J.; Johnson, J. B.; Agnihothram, S.; Gates, J. E.; Frieman, M. B.; Baric, R. S.; Donaldson, E. F. (December 2012). "Evidence Supporting a Zoonotic Origin of Human Coronavirus Strain NL63". Journal of Virology. American Society for Microbiology. 86 (23): 12816–12825. doi:10.1128/JVI.00906-12. PMC 3497669. PMID 22993147.
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  36. ^ McIntosh K (1974). "Coronaviruses: A Comparative Review". In Arber W, Haas R, Henle W, Hofschneider PH, Jerne NK, Koldovský P, Koprowski H, Maaløe O, Rott R (eds.). Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology / Ergebnisse der Mikrobiologie und Immunitätsforschung. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology / Ergebnisse der Mikrobiologie und Immunitätsforschung. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. p. 87. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-65775-7_3. ISBN 978-3-642-65775-7.
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External links

The dictionary definition of COVID at Wiktionary