|Current season, competition or edition:|
2020 XFL season
|Founded||January 25, 2018|
|Owner(s)||Alpha Acquico, LLC|
|No. of teams||8|
The XFL is a professional American football league. Consisting of eight teams divided equally between an East and West division, seasons run from February to April, with each team playing a ten-game regular season, and four progressing to the playoffs to crown a season champion.[a] The company is headquartered in Stamford, Connecticut.
The league was founded by professional wrestling executive Vince McMahon in 2018, as a reboot and successor to the league of the same name he founded in 2001. McMahon re-founded the XFL to create a league with fewer off-field controversies and faster, simpler play compared to the National Football League (NFL), as well as one without the professional wrestling-inspired features and entertainment elements of its predecessor. The league and its teams were originally owned by McMahon's Alpha Entertainment. The teams are spread across the United States in markets currently or recently represented by an NFL franchise.
After five weeks of play in its inaugural 2020 season, the league's operations slowly came to a close due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and filed for bankruptcy on April 13. On August 2, 2020, actor and producer Dwayne Johnson and longtime business partner Dany Garcia led a consortium with Gerry Cardinale's RedBird Capital to purchase the XFL for $15 million, hours before an auction could take place. On October 1, 2020, the league announced it would return to the field for the 2022 season.
The original XFL ran for a single season in 2001, as a joint venture between the World Wrestling Federation (WWF) and NBC spearheaded by Vince McMahon and NBC executive Dick Ebersol. The league attempted to be a competitor to the National Football League—the predominant professional league of American football in the United States (and where NBC had lost its broadcast rights to CBS three years earlier), running during the late winter and early spring to take advantage of lingering desire for football after the end of the NFL season. It featured various modifications to the rules of football in order to increase its intensity, as well as on-air innovations such as Skycams, placing microphones on players, and in-game interviews with players. The league was criticized for relying too heavily on "sports entertainment" gimmicks similar to professional wrestling. Despite strong ratings for its first games, viewership eventually nosedived, and the league folded after the conclusion of the inaugural season. Both partners lost $35 million on the XFL, and McMahon eventually conceded that the league was a "colossal failure".
In the 2017 ESPN 30 for 30 documentary This Was the XFL, McMahon openly mused about reviving the XFL, noting that changes would need to be made compared to 2001 in order to make it viable and relevant in the modern era. McMahon had purchased the trademarks of the defunct United Football League and an alternative brand, "UrFL" (Your Football League), in early 2017. The following year, the director of the documentary, Charlie Ebersol (son of Dick Ebersol), would go on to help form the Alliance of American Football (AAF) in 2018, hoping to beat the revived XFL in being the first to play (they did by a year). While the league was able to launch in 2019, a year before the XFL's first season, it went bankrupt before its first season finished after it twice lost its major investors. On December 15, 2017, Bleacher Report columnist Brad Shepard reported that McMahon was seriously considering a revival of the XFL, with an expected announcement on January 25, 2018. In a statement to Deadspin, WWE did not confirm or deny the rumors, but did state that McMahon was establishing a new company known as Alpha Entertainment, which would "explore investment opportunities across the sports and entertainment landscapes, including professional football." On December 21, 2017, WWE issued a filing to the Securities and Exchange Commission, stating that McMahon had sold $100 million worth of WWE stock to fund Alpha Entertainment. Alpha Entertainment is headquartered next door to WWE headquarters in Stamford, Connecticut.
On January 25, 2018, Alpha Entertainment announced a new incarnation of the XFL, which would begin with a 10-week inaugural season beginning in January or February 2020. In a press conference, McMahon stated that the new XFL would be dissimilar to its previous incarnation, stating that "There's only so many things that have 'FL' on the end of them and those are already taken. But we aren't going to have much of what the original XFL had." McMahon stated that the league would feature eight teams as a single entity owned by Alpha (the previous XFL was also a single-entity league), which had been revealed in 2019. Alpha Entertainment was established in order to keep the league's management and operations separate from that of WWE. McMahon is prepared to invest as much as $500 million, five times as much as his investment in the 2001 XFL. He liquidated an additional $270 million in WWE stock (representing a 4% stake in WWE) in March 2019 to provide additional funding for the league.
The XFL discourages political gestures by players during games such as, for example, taking a knee in protest. McMahon also planned to forbid any player with a criminal record from participating (Commissioner Oliver Luck later walked back the latter decision, noting that the policy had not yet been finalized, and stated in April 2019 that it would allow its teams to sign Johnny Manziel, who was convicted of domestic violence in 2016. Manziel nonetheless was excluded from the inaugural draft and player allocations, with the league later stating that it had "no interest" in him.) Felony convictions are still a disqualification. McMahon justified his intentions by stating that the XFL would be "evaluating a player based on many things, including the quality of human being they are", and that "people don't want social and political issues coming into play when they are trying to be entertained". He suggested that players who wish to express political opinions should do so on their personal time. Luck stated in October 2018 that the ban on protesting during the national anthem would be written into player contracts as a condition of employment and that the stipulation was McMahon's idea; Luck agreed that the league aimed to be as non-political as possible. Players are not barred from using cannabis, as the league will not test for the drug.
McMahon did not initially reveal any specific details on rule changes that the new XFL would feature but did state that he aimed to reduce the length of games to around two hours (in contrast to the standard in American football, which generally runs slightly over three hours). The league later revised this to a two-and-a-half-hour target length. Later, when announcing new changes to overtime rules, it was implied that television broadcasts would have three-hour time slots, into which the entire game and overtime would fit. Test games resulted in an average game time of 2 hours and 40 minutes with a comparable number of plays to an NFL game. Halfway through the first season, the average length of a regular season game clocked in at 2 hours, 50 minutes, exactly the same as the Canadian Football League. He also noted that by announcing it two years in advance (unlike the original XFL, which was only announced one year in advance), there would also be more time to prepare the league in order to deliver a more desirable product.
McMahon denied that the timing of the announcement was meant to coincide with a recent ratings downturn being experienced by the NFL, explaining, "What has happened there is their business, and I'm not going to knock those guys, but I am going to learn from their mistakes as anyone would if they were tasked with re-imagining a new football league."
On June 5, 2018, Oliver Luck was named the league's commissioner and chief executive officer. Luck left his previous positions with the NCAA to take over the operations of the XFL. Doug Whaley, most recently general manager of the Buffalo Bills, was hired as the league's senior vice president of football operations on November 8, 2018. On January 22, 2019, Jeffrey Pollack was named the president and chief operating officer, coming from his previous role as the chief marketing and strategy officer and special adviser for the Los Angeles Chargers.
McMahon stated that he wanted to play in existing NFL markets but did not identify potential cities specifically and did not rule out any specific cities. McMahon also did not rule out playing on artificial turf. The original XFL avoided artificial playing surfaces (as most such surfaces then were more carpet-like); however, the technology has advanced considerably since 2001, with modern artificial turfs mimicking real grass more closely. John Shumway from KDKA-TV in Pittsburgh and local media from Orlando and San Diego both inquired about potential teams in their respective cities, but McMahon (while stating that "I love Pittsburgh") declined to name any cities for teams. McMahon also stated that teams would have new identities compared to recycling old identities from the old league. The league sent solicitations to thirty metropolitan areas as potential locations for a team.
Commissioner Luck announced the eight host cities and stadiums for the first franchises on December 5, 2018, and also announced the starting date of February 8, 2020, the weekend after Super Bowl LIV, the date on which its first two games were later played. Its first head coach and general manager, Dallas's Bob Stoops, was announced February 7, 2019, with the coaches for Seattle (Jim Zorn), Washington (Pep Hamilton), and Tampa Bay (Marc Trestman) following later in the month. The last of the inaugural head coaches, Houston's June Jones, was hired May 13 and introduced May 20. The emergence of the Alliance of American Football created issues selecting cities to host XFL teams, as many potential candidates became home to AAF teams (notably Orlando, the next largest city without an NFL team and an acceptable stadium. Orlando was also one of the original XFL's most successful markets and second in attendance for the 2019 AAF season). Not wanting teams to compete against other spring football teams in the same market, the XFL chose different cities than the AAF.
The league chose to focus on placing teams in large media markets, selecting five of the top seven largest media markets in the U.S.; based on 2017 census bureau estimates, all eight XFL markets have over 2.9 million residents each (the smallest being St. Louis). This was seen as a stark contrast to the other emerging spring football league, the Alliance of American Football, which primarily chose markets without NFL teams, seen as a decision to avoid competing with existing fan bases; three of the AAF's markets (Birmingham, Memphis, and Salt Lake, the first two of which had teams in the first XFL) had populations less than half that of St. Louis's. The only XFL market which does not currently host an NFL team is St. Louis, which in 2015 saw its NFL team (the Rams) return to Los Angeles.
In May 2019, the XFL placed a bid on some of the AAF's former assets as part of that league's bankruptcy proceedings. The league was outbid by former Arena Football League executive Jerry Kurz. Several months earlier in December 2018, Charlie Ebersol asked Vince McMahon about merging the AAF (which had then yet to start its ultimately-aborted sole season) with the XFL. McMahon turned him down.
The league signed its first player, quarterback Landry Jones, on August 15, 2019. The XFL revealed team names and logos on August 21, 2019. Players were assigned to each team in the 2020 XFL Draft from October 15 to 16, with schedules released October 22 and ticket sales opening to the general public October 24. Uniforms were revealed December 3. The XFL did not hold a preseason.
In the week leading up to the kickoff, the XFL secured sponsorships from Gatorade and Anheuser-Busch. The Anheuser-Busch sponsorship is used to promote Bud Light Seltzer; the "seltzer chug" became a postgame locker room tradition in part because of the product placement deal. After averaging 3.1 million viewers in its first week, average ratings for the XFL would drop to 1.5 million viewers during its fifth and final week.
Premature end of 2020 season and bankruptcy
On March 12, 2020, the league canceled the remainder of its regular season games over concerns related to the COVID-19 pandemic; similar concerns led other major sports leagues, including the NBA, NHL, MLS, MLB, MLR seasons and NCAA to suspend or cancel games. The announcement came after a Seattle Dragons player, who self-reported symptoms to his team's medical staff, had been tested for coronavirus but had not yet received his results (the unnamed player eventually tested positive). Although teams only played five games, the league announced it would pay all players their base salary for the rest of the season; players who receive legitimate offers from the NFL or CFL would be allowed to sign with those teams but with a clause requiring them to return to their XFL teams if the league were able to hold its championship game. At the time, the league still planned on having a 2021 season; it was exploring relocating as many as three of its teams, with the league contacting authorities in San Antonio, Texas, in early April about potentially placing a franchise there. Other potential 2021 actions included moving the Tampa Bay Vipers to Orlando and the New York Guardians to a smaller New Jersey stadium, Red Bull Arena.
On April 10, 2020, league president Jeffrey Pollack informed employees on a conference call that the league was suspending operations and that all employees would be terminated. Three days later, on April 13, the league filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection, stating that the coronavirus pandemic had deprived the league of tens of millions of dollars in revenue. With the bankruptcy filing, the league put itself up for sale and began the process of seeking a buyer in order to maximize the value of its assets to pay off creditors. Luck, who had returned home to Indiana March 13, was fired from his position before the bankruptcy filing, which led him to sue McMahon personally for wrongful termination on April 21.
On May 20, 2020, the league made its first actions toward resuming operations by asking authorities in St. Louis, Houston and Seattle to reinstate stadium lease agreements that it had previously been attempting to discharge in the bankruptcy.
On May 26, 2020, court filings in the XFL bankruptcy case revealed key dates surrounding the possible sale of the league. As part of the bankruptcy agreement, McMahon agreed not to buy back the XFL. The deadline to file as a bidder was set for July 30, the auction was scheduled to take place August 3 and the sale hearing was set for August 7 at 10am. However, court documents which were made public on July 28, 2020, revealed that the XFL would not sell unless they successfully negotiated a new broadcasting agreement.
On July 1, 2020, ESPN filed a motion in court stating that they would be willing to consider broadcasting the XFL again under new ownership, but also made clear they would not hold any stake in XFL assets. ESPN even stated that the XFL's "services, skills and talents are not fungible.” On July 23, 2020, Fox also filed a motion in court which signaled a willingness to broadcast the XFL as well, but only under the condition that a new league owner could negotiate a new broadcasting agreement. Fox described the XFL as a "Debtor." On July 28, 2020, it was revealed that ABC had joined Fox and ESPN in calling for new television deals via the court system. It was also reported that ESPN, which is also connected to ABC, wanted to sever ties with the XFL. However, Fox was still open to continuing negotiations with the XFL, but wanted new terms for any future broadcasting agreement and was noncommittal.
Sale to RedBird Capital, Johnson and Garcia
On August 2, 2020, it was reported that a consortium led by Dwayne Johnson, Dany Garcia and Gerry Cardinale (through Cardinale's fund RedBird Capital Partners) purchased the XFL for $15 million just hours before an auction could take place; the purchase received court approval on August 7. The XFL's parent company originally listed the league with assets and liabilities in the range of $10 million to $50 million. Johnson, who previously worked for McMahon as WWE wrestler The Rock, briefly played collegiate football with the Miami Hurricanes in the 1990s and as a professonal with the Calgary Stampeders of the Canadian Football League; he and Garcia were married from 1997 to 2007 and have remained business partners since their divorce. Cardinale's previous investments included the New York Yankees' side projects (such as YES Network and Legends Hospitality) and Suddenlink Communications. On August 21, 2020, the transition of ownership was completed, with Johnson stating "The deal is officially closed and 'the keys' to the XFL have been handed over." On October 1, 2020, the XFL announced its return in spring 2022. Johnson and Garcia both stated that they would rescind the policy forbidding kneeling during the national anthem and would instead openly support and encourage such behavior in an October 14 interview with Vice.
The XFL ran test games with community colleges in Mississippi, Your Call Football, and The Spring League during their spring 2019 seasons, to experiment with rule changes. It hired Dean Blandino as its head of officiating.
These are rule changes the league officially confirmed in the January 7, 2020 release of the official rule book:
The league has an active interest in reviving the kickoffs as an element of the game. This is in contrast to the former AAF, which eliminated kickoffs outright, and the NFL and college football, both of which imposed rules minimizing the impact of the kickoff in the mid-2010s to improve player safety. Many of these kickoff rules were adapted from rules created by The Spring League's predecessor, the Fall Experimental Football League.
- The spot of the kickoff is set at the kicking team's 30-yard line. (The NFL and college standard is the 35-yard line.) However, members of the kicking team (excluding the kicker) line up at the receiving team's 35-yard line and blockers on the receiving team must line up at their 30-yard line. Only the kicker and returner(s) can move until the ball is either caught or three seconds after it hits the ground.
- Kickoffs that go out of bounds, or fall short of the receiving team's 20-yard line, come to the kicking team's 45-yard line. (The NFL and NCAA only require a kick travel 10 yards; kicks out of bounds are placed at the receiving team's 40 yard line.)
- The XFL uses two different types of touchbacks. A major touchback occurs when a kick travels into the endzone in the air, which results in the receiving team taking possession at the 35. A minor touchback occurs when the ball bounces into the endzone, which results in the receiving team taking possession at the 15. These rules discourage either team from purposefully taking a touchback.
- Teams can request to attempt an onside kick under more conventional kickoff rules. If a team opts for an onside kick, the ball must travel at least ten yards before it can be recovered by the kicking team (as with other leagues) but may not travel more than 20 yards downfield in the air from the spot of the kick, to prevent the formation from being used as a loophole.
- The XFL does not allow gunners; all players on a punting team must remain on or behind the line of scrimmage until the ball is kicked. (This is a carryover from the original XFL, although that league had scrapped the rule midway through its only season).
- The coffin corner punt is treated as a touchback and brought to the 35-yard line. The attempts to neutralize punt coverage are made with the intention of encouraging more fourth-down conversions; Luck conceded halfway through the inaugural season that the effort was largely unsuccessful, as coaches continued to punt as usual.
- The same touchback rules for kickoffs also applies to punts.
Points after touchdown
The conventional extra point kick was replaced with a scrimmage play, varying in point value depending on how far the touchdown-scoring team chooses to take the snap from the goal line: a two-yard attempt scores a single point, a five-yard attempt two points, and a ten-yard attempt three points. (This rule is also a carryover from the original XFL, which added the rule only for the playoffs. The Stars Football League also used the rule during its existence.) In the event the defense secures a turnover and returns the ball for a touchdown, the defensive team scores the same number of points as the offense was aiming to score.
Teams are able to attempt two forward passes on the same play, so long as the ball never crosses the line of scrimmage before the second pass.
Overtime is decided by a five-round shootout of two-point conversions similar to a penalty shootout in soccer or ice hockey. Such a shootout had never been attempted in organized football at the time the rule was proposed; in April 2019, the NCAA adopted a similar concept for games that reach a fifth overtime starting with the 2019 FBS season. Unlike other football leagues, a coin toss is not used to determine who is on offense first; instead, the visiting team is on offense first and home team on defense first for each round, similar to baseball. The defense is not able to score, as should a turnover occur, the play would be dead. Defensive penalties result in the ball moving up to the 1-yard line, while any subsequent defensive penalty on any play, even in future rounds, result in a score awarded to the offensive team. Pre-snap offensive penalties result in the ball being respotted pursuant to regular rules, while post-snap offensive penalties result in a loss of down and no score. If both teams remain tied after five rounds, multiple rounds of conversions will be played until one team succeeds, thus ensuring that no game can end in a draw.
- Outside of the two-minute warning, the clock runs continuously. During this time, the clock only stops during a change of possession. This reverses after the two-minute warning (which the XFL uses), after which the clock stops after all plays from scrimmage until the ball is spotted and reverts to NFL timing rules otherwise, stopping after incomplete passes, advancing the ball out of bounds and spiking the football. (Arena football has long used a continuous clock with even fewer stoppages; Canadian football does not use a continuous clock, but stops the clock after all plays from scrimmage following that code's three-minute warning.)
- The play clock is 25 seconds long measured from the spotting of the ball, roughly the same as the NCAA rule for plays when the clock is stopped. (This is five seconds longer than the CFL rule, which is 20 seconds from the spotting of the ball. The XFL's efforts to speed up spotting are aimed to make the two lengths of time nearly the same, 30 to 32 seconds overall.) The NFL standard is 40 seconds from the end of the previous play, also used during the NCAA during plays when the clock is running; the former AAF and previous XFL measure was 35 seconds from the end of the previous play. In conjunction with this rule, the XFL has a one-way radio in all offensive players' helmets to allow the offensive coordinator to run a no-huddle offense and call plays directly to all of the players from the sidelines. This eliminates the need for a huddle.
- Teams are given two time-outs per half instead of three.
- Instant replay reviews are limited to 60 seconds. There are no coach's challenges; the sky judge originates all reviews automatically.
- The XFL expands on the NCAA system of eight on-field officials (which includes the center judge not used professionally in either the NFL or CFL) including a ninth official — a specialized "ball judge" whose only duty is to quickly spot the ball after the end of the previous play. By utilizing the ball judge, who wears a red hat to differentiate themselves from the other officials, the league aims to have a ball-spotting time of between five and seven seconds.
- A new rule proposal would add a "tap penalty", imposed on individual players instead of entire teams. Players who commit a foul which is not serious enough to warrant a penalty flag will be sent off the field for one play. This type of enforcement will keep the game moving quickly without allowing players to break the rules. Unlike the almost-analogous power play used in ice hockey, the offending team would be allowed to substitute another player.
- The defunct Alliance of American Football introduced the sky judge, an additional official in the press booth for the sole purpose of reviewing on-field decisions. Luck had said he thought this was a great innovation to the game and, in December 2019, confirmed the XFL would use the sky judge. Robert Lu, who served as the AAF's sky judge in 2019, continues in that capacity with the XFL.
- Penalty enforcement places priority on fouls that pose a threat to player safety, with less emphasis on procedural violations so as not to slow down the game with unnecessary penalty calls. Officials would also have access to both teams' play calls. The sky judge would also have full access to the officials' microphones.
- All six of the XFL's officiating crews have at least one woman.
- The league uses Lazser Down chain crew equipment, which uses wideband radio waves to precisely measure the spotting of the ball.
The football used in XFL games is the traditional brown color used in most other leagues, but a unique feature is that each team has their own balls for use in home games, marked with the XFL logo and team's name in their respective colors. (This is in contrast to the black ball with red adornments used by the original XFL.) Another distinctive mark is at each end of the ball, where a two-tone "X" in the home team's colors adorns each point and runs through the middle of each panel of the ball, intended to allow the receivers to track the ball easily. Five balls, each with a different texture of leather, were tested during the Summer Showcases and The Spring League. The winning texture, a custom patent-pending design known as "X-Pebble," was released November 25, 2019. The design was created and is manufactured by Team Issue of Dallas, Texas, in what became their first professional football contract.
The league uses the amateur football (high school and college) and CFL standard of one foot in bounds for a complete forward pass.
- Offensive linemen are allowed to advance up to two yards downfield on a forward pass.
- The designated home team automatically gets, at the start of the game, to choose to kick off, receive or defer to the second half. There is no coin toss traditionally seen in other football leagues, or any opening scramble that was a hallmark of the original XFL. In the event of overtime, the visiting team will be given the choice of going first or second or selecting which end zone to attack (with the home team getting the other choice).
- Players are allowed to wear colored or decorated visors.
- There is a 10-minute halftime.
These are rule changes which the league has considered using, though they were either not officially tested or were discarded in preseason testing:
- Previous proposals for the kickoff had the ball moved as far back as the 15-yard line, to make touchbacks all but impossible.
- The original proposal for the multiple forward pass rule would have treated any pass behind the line of scrimmage as a lateral pass. Luck stated that this would also have the added benefit of simplifying officiating, as he surmised it would be easier to judge whether a person was behind a fixed line of scrimmage compared to whether a pass thrown by a moving player was traveling along a parallel line. The XFL ran test plays with double forward passes during its rules testing in Mississippi. Under this rule, all players behind the line of scrimmage would have been eligible receivers, including those on the offensive line, and thus it would eliminate the "illegal touching of a forward pass" penalty at other levels of the game. Offensive linemen would still have been prohibited from advancing downfield before a forward pass that crosses the line of scrimmage is in the air. (McMahon had proposed a similar but broader rule change during the run of the original XFL, which would have made all players eligible receivers, but the league's coaches rejected the proposal as too radical of a change to make mid-season.) It also would have had the intended consequence of providing employment to utility players who play multiple positions and have a broader range of skills. In November 2019, an ESPN.com article noted that the rule had been thrown out before the season began, and that offensive linemen would still not be allowed to touch forward passes, regardless of where the ball was.
- The league proposed using a wider one-yard neutral zone used by the CFL. (The NFL, college, and high school standard is the length of the football, approximately 11 inches.) This rule became less likely after testing, as the league feared it would make short-yardage situations too easy to convert for the offensive team.
- The original XFL allowed for forward motion by a single backfield player (normally, American football allows for only lateral or backward motion by one backfielder, and the CFL allows all backfielders to move wherever they desire). The XFL had briefly mentioned they may use this rule again.
- During the announcement of the league, McMahon suggested the XFL may eliminate halftime completely. This was eventually abandoned, and instead there is, as mentioned in the rules above, a ten-minute halftime period.
- A proposed rule would prohibit offensive linemen (excluding the snapper) from putting their hand on the ground, outlawing the three-point stance used at all other levels of the game.
- The XFL had announced that there would be no fair catches and that a five-yard halo rule would instead be used; both of these rules are used in the CFL and were prominent rules in the original XFL. The XFL legalized the fair catch in the official rulebook while noting that the other rule changes were intended to make its use uncommon. (The league's rules did not indicate whether or not the esoteric fair catch kick option would be offered.)
Names and logos for the XFL teams were to be revealed in early June but were delayed over two months from that date. The XFL filed trademarks for five potential team names for its Seattle-based franchise in late June, including one for the eventually chosen name Seattle Dragons, but not for any of the other seven teams. The names, logos and colors for all eight teams were revealed on August 21, 2019, in a livestreamed special. The 2020 XFL Draft was held on October 15 and 16, 2019. Training camps began in November.
Besides the eight competitive teams, the XFL had operated a centralised practice squad and farm team, which operated as a full team with a coaching staff and a 40-man roster (encompassing offensive and defensive players but no special teams) but didn't play any on-the-record games against the other eight teams. The team shared practice facilities with the Dallas Renegades and was internally known as "Team 9". Team 9 replenished itself after Week 5 when the team's members were assigned to rosters when it expanded to 57 players each; but the season ended abruptly.
|Dallas Renegades||Arlington, Texas||Globe Life Park in Arlington||Grass||25,000||Bob Stoops|
|Houston Roughnecks||Houston, Texas||TDECU Stadium||Turf||40,000||June Jones|
|Los Angeles Wildcats||Carson, California||Dignity Health Sports Park||Grass||27,000||Winston Moss|
|Seattle Dragons||Seattle, Washington||Lumen Field||Turf||69,000||Jim Zorn|
|DC Defenders||Washington, D.C.||Audi Field||Grass||20,000||Pep Hamilton|
|New York Guardians||East Rutherford, New Jersey||MetLife Stadium||Turf||82,500||Kevin Gilbride|
|St. Louis BattleHawks||St. Louis, Missouri||The Dome at America's Center||Turf||66,965||Jonathan Hayes|
|Tampa Bay Vipers||Tampa, Florida||Raymond James Stadium||Grass||65,618||Marc Trestman|
|Team 9||Arlington, Texas||Globe Life Park in Arlington||Grass||25,000||Bart Andrus|
- Although one season has been played, the league's sale to Alpha Acquico, LLC indicates future seasons may continue.
Full stadium capacity. The large stadiums with multiple decks only open the lower bowl for XFL games, similar to the former AAF games and MLS matches played in large stadiums. The XFL has a target stadium size of 30,000 seats, so that in the event of playoff games, the upper decks can be opened to increase capacity.
Team 9 is a specialized team that acts as a hybrid farm team and practice squad for the league, and was inspired by a similar scheme employed by NFL Europe. It holds a maximum of 40 players at a time and is meant to prepare players for call up to one of the XFL's 8 teams to fill roster vacancies due to injuries of other players or if the teams see a player as a "hidden gem". The team shares practice facilities and support staff with the Dallas Renegades but maintains its own coaching staff; its head coach is Bart Andrus and is assisted by Pete Kuharchek and Peter Vaas.
During the first two weeks of the season, teams are encouraged to use players from Team 9 to fill roster spots, but are not required to do so, as they may prefer to sign a player unaffiliated with the XFL or re-sign a player who participated in their preseason camps but was cut. After Week 2, exclusively using Team 9 players to fill rosters will become a requirement, with Team 9 constantly replenishing itself by adding new players from outside the XFL.
On March 10, each team's maximum roster size increased from 52 to 57 players and the majority of Team 9 was dispersed. Team 9 was to reload to approximately 36 players. Team 9 does not include the specialist positions of kicker, punter, or long snapper, who are instead reserved in a separate "player pool."
The inaugural draft took place on October 15, 2019, with the second part of the draft taking place the following day. A supplemental draft was held November 22 of that same year.
The XFL has a 10-week regular season, with each team hosting 5 home games, and no bye week. This is followed by a two-week post-season, featuring the top two teams in each division competing in a single elimination bracket. The league is split into two divisions of four teams. Each team plays all three teams in their division twice, once each of home and road. Each team also plays the remaining teams in the league once. This is the same schedule model used by the original XFL and by the former AAF. Both leagues followed an Eastern/Western division, which the XFL also confirmed during its Summer Showcase in Dallas. The XFL East includes New York, DC, Tampa and St. Louis while the West includes Seattle, Los Angeles, Dallas and Houston.
Four games are played per-week during the regular season, consisting mainly of afternoon/primetime doubleheaders played on Saturdays and Sundays. One game per-week in the final two weeks of the regular season is tentatively scheduled to be played on Thursday night instead of Saturday. The playoffs, despite initial reports stating they would use the same crossover approach used by the 2001 XFL, with each division's regular-season winner facing the other division's runner-up, instead use a division championship model, with the top two teams in the division playing each other. The 2020 XFL Championship Game was scheduled to be played at TDECU Stadium, the home of the Houston Roughnecks.
Luck has denied any plans to move the schedule to the fall and does not intend to either compete with the NFL in the fall (as the USFL attempted to do), or attempt to fill any void that a potential lockout might cause in 2021 (as the United Football League attempted to do in 2011).
Players and compensation
The XFL use a standard form contract paying $2,725 per week for each player on the active roster, $1,040 of which is guaranteed. A $2,222 victory bonus is paid to the players on each game's winning team; this feature is a carryover from the original XFL. The contracts expire at the end of the season, freeing players to sign with any other league. Players are also paid $1,040 per week during the preseason and through the playoffs if their team does not qualify. Starting quarterbacks make an annual salary of up to $495,000, with the average XFL quarterback earning $125,000. 52 players are on each team's regular-season roster, far more than the 38 in the original XFL and comparable to the size of the 53-man NFL rosters; 46 of those 52 are active on any given game day.
Plans were for the league to offer contracts between one and three years in length. Signing for a longer-term would make the player eligible for a loyalty bonus above and beyond their tiered salary; in return, the player would not be allowed to play in any other league during the spring, summer or autumn months, nor is the contract guaranteed. The overall salary cap will be approximately $4,000,000 per team. The XFL chose a more flexible salary structure so as not to overpay for the lower ends of the roster and to be more competitive for better starting quarterbacks.
Head coaches are eligible for up to a $500,000 salary, with each team having a football operations staff of 25 people. The XFL explicitly wants to avoid any minor league developmental partnership with the NFL or any other league, so as not to lose control of its personnel decisions. In contrast to the original XFL, players' health insurance is covered by the league. Players did not form a labor union by the time play commenced, thus league policies are not subject to collective bargaining, which could help prevent work stoppages like a lockout or strike.
XFL does not have the same eligibility requirements for players as the NFL. Currently the NFL requires all players to be at least 3 years removed from high school to be eligible for a team's roster. Almost all prospects then participate in NCAA football for the 3-year waiting period. This eligibility requirement is an agreement between the NCAA and the NFL. The NFL, in exchange for not signing young players who would ordinarily play in the NCAA, is allowed nearly unlimited access to scout and recruit college players. With the XFL not using the same set of requirements for players, there is the possibility the league will sign players who are less than 3 years out of high school. The XFL has also not ruled out signing players who play college football in 2019, something the NFL has not done since 1925, which Luck says will be considered on a case-by-case basis; the league's primary target for players will be veteran backups (such as the kind Luck developed in his time in NFL Europe, citing Kurt Warner, Brad Johnson and Jake Delhomme as examples) who may not be getting the repetitions needed to develop properly on NFL scout teams and practice squads. Due to budget concerns and an unwillingness to antagonize the NFL, it does not get into bidding wars for marquee players.
Unlike other alternative football leagues, the XFL does not use a territorial draft and teams were not restricted to the locations from which they could select players.
In February 2020, the XFL announced that DraftKings would be the official daily fantasy sports provider of the league and an "authorized gaming operator". McMahon has a minority investment in the company.
Luck stated he anticipated mobile sports betting to be legal in many states by the 2020 launch date, much like it is in New Jersey, and hoped to integrate legal sports betting as part of the XFL. Every state hosting an XFL team, except Florida which has an existing law banning sports betting, has either introduced or passed legislation for the legalization of sports betting. "California also has a pending voter referendum that could legalize sports betting." In December 2019, Luck stated he was cooperating with the Las Vegas sportsbooks in providing official information for betting purposes.
Both of the XFL's broadcast partners have official partnerships with gambling operators, with ESPN partnered with Caesars Entertainment to use its sportsbook information during telecasts (including displaying lines and the over/under directly on the score bug in-game), and Fox Corporation owning a minority stake in The Stars Group — which operates sports betting services in the U.S. under the Fox Bet brand. Fox Bet, like DraftKings (but not Caesars) receives official live feeds from the XFL
The XFL also has an in-house gaming app service called PlayXFL where fans can win cash prizes for correctly predicting the exact score of select XFL games each week. Additionally, fans attending an XFL game can opt-in to play a 4-Question Pick’em contest pertaining to the game they are attending for the chance to win prizes, including merchandise and tickets, from the applicable home team.
In January 2019, Sports Business Journal reported that the XFL was desiring that the majority of games air on broadcast television, and was in preliminary talks with ABC/ESPN and Fox Sports as potential broadcast partners. The XFL officially confirmed these arrangements on May 6, 2019, under a three-year deal. XFL games were split primarily among ABC, Fox, ESPN, and FS1. ESPN would broadcast the western division championship and the XFL championship, while one game each was scheduled for ESPN2 and FS2.
The Wall Street Journal reported via inside sources that neither the broadcasters or the league are making any upfront payments, but that the XFL sells the in-game sponsorship inventory. The networks will cover the production costs, hold the digital rights to their telecasts, and the right to sell the conventional commercial inventory during their games. Although the networks have ultimate control over the game presentation, McMahon and his longtime media man Joe Cohen brought back many of the features from the original XFL such as the skycam and the on-field "Bubba Cams," along with some innovations introduced in the AAF. The broadcast partners are given access to all on-field microphones, including the coach-to-player radios, referees and the sky judge. As with the original XFL, sideline reporters are given full access to coaches and players for interviews at all times. In terms of financial investment into the telecast, ESPN lead play-by-play man Steve Levy described it as "not getting the Monday Night Football treatment (...) but it's pretty close."Levy was eventually named the new Monday Night Football play-by-play announcer for the NFL’s 2020 season.
Upon the announcement of the new XFL, McMahon stated that he aimed to leverage streaming media as part of broadcasting arrangements, and argued that fans wanted "totally different ways" to see the game, rather than having digital streams be only a straight simulcast of the television broadcast. The XFL will not consider viewership to be a metric of its success; McMahon argued that "to me the landscape has changed in so many different ways. Just look at technology and companies like Facebook and Amazon bidding for sports rights. Even if ratings go down, there's no denying that live sports rights continue to be valuable and continue to deliver." Luck stated that broadcasts would not feature the same sports entertainment gimmicks as the original XFL, explaining that "in football, you don't need that bravado and swagger and flair, because it's always there."
Curt Menefee (host of Fox NFL Sunday) and Joel Klatt (lead analyst for Fox’s Big Noon Saturday) served as Fox's lead XFL broadcast team. Fox also auditioned Greg Olsen for the second XFL broadcast team in October 2019 by having him call play-by-play for an NFL contest during his bye week from the Carolina Panthers and eventually hired him as color commentator for the second broadcast team, which features Kevin Burkhardt on play-by-play. Brock Huard was the sideline reporter for FOX's lead broadcast while Jenny Taft covered the sidelines for their second broadcast team. In week 5, New Orleans Saints star Cameron Jordan served as a guest sideline reporter for FOX's lead broadcast. ESPN and ABC's top team features Steve Levy (ESPN/ABC College Football play-by-play announcer at the time, now Monday Night Football lead play-by-play announcer), former Alabama Crimson Tide quarterback Greg McElroy, Tom Luginbill, and Dianna Russini, and their second team included Tom Hart (lead announcer for ESPN’s SEC Network) and Joey Galloway. Former Indianapolis Colts punter Pat McAfee served as week 1 sideline reporter for the second team but withdrew after the first week out of discomfort in the role; he was replaced on the sidelines by Cole Cubelic (who works with Hart on SEC Network as a sideline reporter) and Molly McGrath in weeks 2–5. In lieu of network-employed rules analysts, Dean Blandino (Fox’s NFL and College Football rules expert), head of officiating for the XFL is made available to analyze replay reviews and officials' rulings.
On February 6, 2020, the XFL announced a partnership with iHeartMedia and Vegas Stats & Information Network (VSiN), under which iHeartRadio streams gambling-centric "BetCast" coverage of two games per-week.
ESPN Latin America simulcasts select ESPN Deportes games. ESPN International's ESPN Player service streams XFL games in the Europe and MENA continents. Fox Sports broadcasts in Hong Kong, Macau, Papua New Guinea, and Southeast Asia. ESPN's British partner BT Sport, and Canada's TSN (which is minority-owned by ESPN) also air XFL games, as does Sony ESPN in India.
The XFL received mostly positive reviews on opening weekend. Conor Orr of Sports Illustrated credited the league with generating positive social media buzz without relying on a single viral event (as the Alliance of American Football, which Orr had eviscerated in a three-part series for SI less than a year prior, had done with a singular hit on AAF quarterback Mike Bercovici). Orr summarized the XFL as "on-the-rails, appropriately-quirky spring football." Michael David Smith of Profootballtalk.com noted that "there was a lot to like" about the league.
In a mixed review for USA Today, Lorenzo Reyes wrote that "There will be much that the league will want to learn from as it tries to grow." Another mixed review from Ben Kercheval at CBS Sports stated "while Saturday provided fans with the type of excitement they were hoping to get from the league, Sunday was evidence that start-up leagues still face uphill battles getting watchable football on television."
Viewership for the first week of play averaged 3.1 million, but by Week 4 the average had decreased to 1.4 million. This led Smith of Profootballtalk.com to conclude that if "the XFL settles into the range of around 1 million to 2 million viewers per game and stabilizes over the course of the season, the league would seem to be viable. If ratings continue to drop as the season progresses, that would spell trouble for the upstart league."
- Perry, Mark (August 3, 2020). "More Details On The Rock Purchase Of The XFL, How Many Bidders". XFL News Hub. Retrieved August 3, 2020.
- Littleton, Cynthia (April 13, 2020). "Vince McMahon's XFL Files for Bankruptcy Amid Pandemic Shutdown". Variety. Retrieved May 17, 2020.
- "XFL suspends operations, lays off employees and has no plans for 2021 season". ESPN.com. April 10, 2020. Retrieved April 10, 2020.
- "XFL Files for Bankruptcy, Up for Sale". The Hollywood Reporter. April 13, 2020. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
- "THE ROCK BUYS THE XFL FOR $15 MILLION". RingsideNews.com. August 2, 2020. Retrieved August 2, 2020.
- Kerr, Jeff (August 2, 2020). "Dwayne 'The Rock' Johnson buys XFL for $15 million with partners RedBird Capital and Dany Garcia". CBSSports.com. Retrieved August 2, 2020.
- Press Release (October 1, 2020). "XFL Announces Return to the Field in 2022". XFLBoard. Retrieved October 3, 2020.
- ""This Was The XFL" Director Charlie Ebersol On Why The XFL Failed–But Might Work Now". Fast Company. February 2, 2017. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
- "Will the XFL actually be making a return? WWE is not exactly denying the rumors". CBSSports.com. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
- "XFL stops going to extremes". NY Daily News. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
- "XFL ends ratings slide – just barely". ESPN. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
- "Monday Night Wrong: Vince McMahon fumbles with the XFL". Sporting News. December 21, 2017. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
- "XFL Is Down for the Count". ABC News. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
- Johnson, Mike (May 16, 2013). "5/16 This day in history". PWInsider. Retrieved January 18, 2015.
- Draper, Kevin (2018). "Vince McMahon Says He Will Revive the X.F.L., With a Very Different Look". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
- Holloway, Daniel (February 3, 2017). "'This Was the XFL' Director on Vince McMahon, Concussions and Whether League Could Make a Comeback". Variety. Retrieved January 26, 2018.
- Bixenspan, David (December 19, 2017). "Timing Of Trademarks Suggests "New XFL" May Be A Response To NFL Protests". Deadspin.com. Retrieved February 1, 2020.
- Eight-Team XFL Competitor Plans to Launch in February 2019, Dan Gartland, Sports Illustrated, March 20, 2018
- "AAF operations suspended, future of Alliance in doubt with two weeks left in inaugural regular season". CBSSports.com. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
- "Vince McMahon sells $100 million of WWE stock as XFL reboot plan continues". ProFootballTalk. NBC Sports. December 21, 2017. Retrieved January 27, 2018.
- "411MANIA". XFL CEO Recalls First Meeting With Vince McMahon, Says XFL Won’t Compete With NFL.
- "Vince McMahon: XFL to return in 2020 without gimmicks". ESPN.com. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
- "Vince McMahon expects to spend $500 million on XFL". ESPN.com. June 29, 2018.
- "Form 8-K". Securities and Exchange Commission. March 27, 2019. Retrieved March 28, 2019.
- "Oliver Luck leaves XFL door open for John Manziel". Pro Football Talk. April 9, 2019. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
- Seifert, Kevin (November 21, 2019). "Can the XFL really make spring football work? How its draft showed the way". ESPN.com. Retrieved November 21, 2019.
Several more radical ideas were shelved, including one that would have made every offensive player an eligible receiver.
- Greene, Dan (May 6, 2019). "The XFL: A Second-Chance League and Its Not-My-First-Rodeo Commish". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved May 7, 2019.
- Florio, Mike (May 7, 2019). "XFL may not test for marijuana". Profootballtalk.com. Retrieved May 7, 2019.
- We've got a need for speed. XFL official Facebook page (December 21, 2018). Retrieved January 3, 2019.
- "274: Oliver Luck, XFL Commissioner". ART19. Retrieved April 12, 2019.
- Maese, Rick (May 10, 2019). "The XFL doesn't just want to avoid the AAF's fate. It wants to change football". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 10, 2019.
- Seifert, Kevin (March 9, 2020). "What have we learned about the XFL? Six midseason takeaways". ESPN.com. Retrieved March 9, 2020.
- "CFL pass interference replay hasn't been a problem". Profootballtalk.com. March 28, 2019. Retrieved March 28, 2019.
- "WWE's Vince McMahon looks to start professional football league". ESPN.com. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
- "Oliver Luck named commissioner and CEO of XFL". Retrieved June 5, 2018.
- "Former Bills GM Whaley hired as XFL senior VP". WIVB-TV. Nexstar Media Group. November 8, 2018. Retrieved November 8, 2018.
- "Jeffrey Pollack Named XFL President & COO". XFL.com. Archived from the original on January 23, 2019. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
- XFL. "Official XFL Announcement with Vince McMahon" – via YouTube.
- "Oliver Luck Q&A: On the XFL, changing football and Houston - HoustonChronicle.com". www.houstonchronicle.com. June 6, 2018.
- Baysinger, Tim (December 5, 2018). "LA Among the 8 Cities to Launch Vince McMahon's New XFL League". www.thewrap.com. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
- "XFL Schedule". ESPN. February 9, 2020. Retrieved February 15, 2020.
- "Bob Stoops will coach the Dallas XFL team". WFAA. February 6, 2019. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
- McClain, John (May 13, 2019). "June Jones to coach Houston's XFL team". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved May 13, 2019.
- Konuwa, Alfred. "WWE's Vince McMahon, Commissioner Oliver Luck Officially Announce 8 XFL Cities". Forbes. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
- "What is the AAF? Notable players, coaches, teams, schedule for new Alliance of American Football league". CBSSports.com. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
- Nocera, Joe (January 15, 2016). "In Losing the Rams, St. Louis Wins". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
- Danner, Patrick (May 23, 2019). "XFL wants to score bankrupt football league's assets stored in San Antonio warehouse". San Antonio Express-News. Retrieved May 24, 2019.
- Danner, Patrick (July 3, 2019). "Bankrupt football league's gear sold at San Antonio court auction". San Antonio Express-News. Retrieved July 11, 2019.
- Kaplan, Daniel (April 8, 2019). "XFL rejected merger with AAF, takes lessons from failed league". www.sportsbusinessdaily.com. Sports Business Journal. Retrieved February 12, 2020.
In mid-December 2018, Charlie Ebersol and his nascent Alliance of American Football was two months away from the kickoff of its inaugural season — and it was already running out of money. Ebersol had secured limited funding from venture capital firms when he unveiled the league nine months earlier, but the AAF was on life support. So Ebersol approached WWE chairman and XFL kingpin Vince McMahon about a merger, a key source said. McMahon, who is relaunching the XFL next year, turned him down, the source said. The XFL declined to comment.
- "XFL reveals names, logos for its eight teams". ESPN. August 21, 2019.
- "XFL uniforms ranked: Will the L.A. Wildcats be the best dressed team in the league?". Los Angeles Times. December 4, 2019.
- "XFL draft: What we learned about the Tampa Bay Vipers". Tampa Bay Times.
- "XFL Brings On Gatorade, A-B InBev As Sponsors Ahead Of Launch". www.sportsbusinessdaily.com.
- Steinberg, Brian (February 18, 2020). "XFL, Bud Light Work To Shake Up Football Advertising". Variety. Retrieved March 1, 2020.
- Zucker, Joseph (March 3, 2020). "XFL's Week 4 Games Average 1.4M Viewers as Ratings Drop for 3rd Straight Week". Bleacher Report.
- Millitzer, Joe (August 3, 2020). "XFL purchased by a group including Dwayne 'The Rock' Johnson". Fox 2 Now. Retrieved August 3, 2020.
- "XFL 2020: Coronavirus forces start-up league to suspend play, but players can sign with NFL teams before FA". CBSSports.com. Retrieved March 13, 2020.
- Vrentas, Jenny. "A Seattle Dragons XFL Player Has Tested Positive for Coronavirus". si.com. Sports illustrated. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
- Florio, Mike (March 13, 2020). "XFL will release to NFL or CFL players with a credible contractual offer". Profootballtalk.com. Retrieved March 14, 2020.
- Miketniac, Chuck (April 13, 2020). "SOURCES: XFL called about relocating team to San Antonio days before suspending operations". WOAI-TV. Retrieved April 18, 2020.
- Fischer, Ben (April 17, 2020). "Last Call for the XFL". Sports Business Journal. Retrieved April 18, 2020.
- Williams, Charean (May 13, 2020). "Vince McMahon lists reasons for Oliver Luck's firing from XFL in court filing". Profootballtalk.com. Retrieved May 13, 2020.
- Florio, Mike (April 21, 2020). "Oliver Luck sues Vince McMahon". Pro Football Talk. NBC Sports. Retrieved April 21, 2020.
- Franklin, Tom (May 20, 2020). "REPORT: XFL asks St. Louis about possibly reinstating lease agreement". KMOX. Retrieved May 21, 2020.
- Willeke, Becky (May 20, 2020). "Is the XFL coming back? League looking at reinstating St. Louis Dome lease". KTVI. Retrieved May 21, 2020.
- Seifert, Kevin (May 26, 2020). "Vince McMahon says in court filing that he won't try to buy back XFL". ESPN. Retrieved July 29, 2020.
- Rachuk, Stephan (May 27, 2020). "Recent Court Filing Reveal Key XFL Sale Dates". XFL Newsroom. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
- Cadeaux, Ethan (July 28, 2020). "Report: ESPN and FOX noncommittal about future involvement with XFL". NBC Sports. Retrieved July 28, 2020.
- Perry, Mark (July 1, 2020). "ESPN Open To Working With New XFL Ownership, But Not Part Of XFL Assets". XFL News Hub. Retrieved July 24, 2020.
- Perry, Mark (July 23, 2020). "FOX Wants To Work With The XFL 3.0, With A Modified Agreement". XFL News Hub. Retrieved July 24, 2020.
- Florio, Mike (July 26, 2020). "As XFL sale approaches, ABC/ESPN and FOX seek revised TV deals". NBC Sports. Retrieved July 28, 2020.
- Hart, Torrey (July 28, 2020). "Without McMahon at Helm, ESPN Reportedly Wants Out of XFL Deal". Front Office Sports. Retrieved July 29, 2020.
- Seifert, Kevin (August 3, 2020). "Dwayne 'The Rock' Johnson, investor group agree to buy XFL for $15M". ESPN. Retrieved August 3, 2020.
- "THE ROCK XFL DEAL HAS CLOSED... I've Got The Keys Now". TMZ Sports. August 21, 2020. Retrieved August 22, 2020.
- "XFL Announces Return to the Field in 2022". www.xfl.com. Retrieved October 3, 2020.
- Amore, Samson (October 14, 2020). "The Rock Supports XFL Players Kneeling During the National Anthem (Video)". TheWrap.com. Retrieved October 14, 2020.
- Florio, Mike (January 4, 2020). "Dean Blandino is the XFL's head of officiating". Pro Football Talk. Retrieved January 4, 2020.
- Gartland, Dan. "XFL Announces Set of Rules Designed to Increase Action". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved January 12, 2020.
- "XFL Hoping Time To Prepare Is A Benefit". Associated Press. May 10, 2019. Retrieved May 10, 2019.
- Seifert, Kevin (October 8, 2014). "Inside Slant: FXFL set to debut, ready or not". ESPN.com. ESPN. Retrieved October 8, 2014.
- Seifert, Kevin (January 7, 2020). "XFL rule changes to focus on faster pace, more excitement". ESPN.com. Retrieved January 7, 2020.
- "XFL Rules". XFL.com. Retrieved January 7, 2020.
- Traina, Patricia. "Why Former Giants Offensive Coordinator Kevin Gilbride Joined The XFL". Forbes.
- Rachuk, Stephan (April 24, 2019). "Oliver Luck talks TV deals, Draft and XFL's "Team 9" | XFL2k". XFL2K.com. Retrieved April 25, 2019.
- McAfee, Pat. The #XFL said they’re going to reimagine football.. @CJ1two breaks down some of the changes #PatMcAfeeShowLIVE. November 21, 2019
- Florio, Mike (April 8, 2019). "XFL to use one-, two-, three-point conversions". ProFootballTalk. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
- Florio, Mike (April 7, 2019). "Spring League returns with revolutionary overtime idea". Profootballtalk.com. Retrieved April 7, 2019.
- Johnson, Greg. "Targeting protocols approved for football". NCAA. Retrieved July 11, 2019.
- Rachuk, Stephan (April 12, 2019). "WWE issues fan survey asking fans what they would like to see in the XFL | XFL2k". XFL2K.com. Retrieved April 12, 2019.
- Bassinger, Thomas (July 1, 2019). "How the XFL will be different from the NFL". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved July 1, 2019.
- "Can XFL 2.0 succeed where the AAF couldn't? Why it already has a jump start". ESPN.com. June 13, 2019. Retrieved June 15, 2019.
- "XFL QB Oliver Luck on lessons learned, Colin Kaepernick and sports betting". Tampa Bay Times. December 12, 2019. Retrieved December 12, 2019.
- "Spring League tests XFL "tap" rule that sends players to sideline". sports.yahoo.com. Retrieved April 8, 2019.
- Cohen, Andrew (March 2, 2020). "The Future of the Replay Booth Is Under Review". SportTechie.com. Retrieved March 3, 2020.
- THE STORY BEHIND THE XFL'S FEMALE OFFICIALS by Art Garcia, XFL.com, retrieved March 6, 2020
- Lawrence, Andrew (January 30, 2020). "Forward Progress? NFL Chain Gangs Are So Low-Tech They Belong in a GEICO Commercial". SportTechie.com. Retrieved March 3, 2020.
- Hoyt, Joseph (November 26, 2019). "Dallas manufacturer Team Issue unveils official XFL football designed to increase ball security, enable tighter spirals". Dallas Morning News. Retrieved December 16, 2019.
Each of the eight teams in the XFL will have their own custom footballs, but they’ll all have one thing in common. The official game balls, revealed by the XFL on Monday, were created by Team Issue, a football manufacturer in Dallas. Each team will have their own custom balls, featuring the team’s name and a color scheme that matches their logo.
- XFL Testing New Footballs That Look Noticeably Different From NFL Balls, FanDuel, June 9, 2019
- "XFL'S OFFICIAL FOOTBALL ARRIVES WITH 8 CUSTOM LOOKS". XFL. November 25, 2019. Retrieved November 25, 2019.
- Hoyt, Joseph (November 25, 2019). "Dallas manufacturer Team Issue unveils official XFL football designed to increase ball security, enable tighter spirals". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved November 26, 2019.
- @XFLShow (June 23, 2019). "On this week's episode, @OliverLuckXFL confirms conference alignment as well as XFL goals for players invited to NFL camps after 2020" (Tweet). Retrieved June 23, 2019 – via Twitter.
- "XFL wide receiver Jeff Badet has a helmet worth keeping an eye on". ESPN.com. February 6, 2020. Retrieved February 6, 2020.
- Abdeldaiem, Alaa (April 12, 2019). "XFL Considering Allowing Multiple Forward Passes Per Play". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved April 13, 2019.
- X Years After. Sports Business Journal (May 16, 2011). Retrieved December 14, 2018.
- Inabinett, Mark (January 31, 2020). "Korren Kirven, Robenson Therezie on XFL's Team 9". al.com. Advance Local Media. Retrieved February 4, 2020.
- "FOX Sports announces 2020 XFL schedule". KMPH. January 7, 2020. Retrieved February 4, 2020.
- Barnett, Zach (January 24, 2020). "Source: XFL hires ninth head coach". Football Scoop. Retrieved January 24, 2020.
- Williams, Bob (March 1, 2020). "Oliver Luck: So far, so good in XFL – but LA and New York crowds need to improve". SportBusiness.com. Retrieved March 1, 2020.
- "XFL unveils 'Team 9'". www.xfl.com. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
- "XFL League - XFL.com - Official home of the XFL". www.xfl.com. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
- Rachuk, Stephan. Dallas XFL Summer Showcase recap. XFL2K.com. Retrieved June 28, 2019.
- Garafolo, Mike (October 11, 2019). "The @xfl2020 sent a memo to agents of prospective players. Players will be paid on a bi-weekly basis at $2,080 per paycheck starting in December. There are activation fees (i.e. game checks) during the season of $1,685 and victory bonuses of $2,222".
- Manza-Young, Shalise (October 11, 2019). XFL quarterbacks will make 10 times the salary of their teammates. Yahoo! Sports. Retrieved October 13, 2019.
- Seifert, Kevin (November 22, 2019). "Veteran backup Josh Johnson among three QBs signed by XFL". ESPN.com. Retrieved November 22, 2019.
- "Exclusive: XFL Could Target 2019 NFL Rookies With Six-Figure Bonuses | The Action Network". Action Network. February 28, 2019. Retrieved April 12, 2019.
- Rachuk, Stephen (February 2, 2019). A quick recap of Oliver Luck on radio row. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
- "XFL statement". www.bizjournals.com. Retrieved February 11, 2020.
- "XFL restates it's not restricted by eligibility rules". SI.com. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
- "The rules of the NFL Draft | NFL Football Operations". operations.nfl.com. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
- Rachuk, Stephan (December 19, 2018). "Oliver Luck Talks Locations, Coaches, QB's, Rule Changes and more | XFL2k". XFL2K.com. Retrieved April 12, 2019.
- "XFL to be broadcast on TSN in Canada, DraftKings deal announced". SportBusiness. February 5, 2020. Retrieved February 9, 2020.
- "In Merger, DraftKings Announces Plans to Go Public in First Half of 2020". SportTechie. Retrieved February 11, 2020.
- Cheddar (December 10, 2018), The XFL is Coming Back, The CEO Details Their New Strategy, retrieved February 15, 2019
- "United States of sports betting: An updated map of where every state stands". ESPN.com. June 26, 2017. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
- Silverman, Alex (January 30, 2020). "How Broadcasters Plan to Leverage Audio Access in XFL Telecasts". Morning Consult. Retrieved February 1, 2020.
- "How to bet on the XFL: What you need to know". ESPN.com. February 6, 2020. Retrieved February 9, 2020.
- Rovell, Darren (February 10, 2020). "XFL's Week 1 Games Generate 20 Times the Betting Handle of AAF". The Action Network. Retrieved February 11, 2020.
- "XFL, Boom Sports Gets Into Sports Betting With PlayXFL Mobile App". Sports Video Group. Retrieved February 12, 2020.
- "Networks seek leagues' content". Sports Business Journal. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
- "XFL 2020 Schedule". www.xfl.com. Retrieved February 11, 2020.
- Steinberg, Brian (May 6, 2019). "XFL Strikes TV-Rights Deal With Fox, Disney". Variety. Retrieved May 6, 2019.
- "XFL to broadcast games on ABC, ESPN, Fox". SI.com. Retrieved May 6, 2019.
- "Details on XFL Schedule and Financial Arrangement With Fox and Disney". The Big Lead. May 6, 2019. Retrieved May 6, 2019.
- Hoffarth, Tom (June 16, 2019). "Joe Cohen's expertise helped the WWE succeed. He hopes to do the same for the XFL". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
- Allen, Scott (February 6, 2020). "The XFL's reboot is 'made-for-TV football,' and ESPN's Steve Levy will be its lead voice". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 6, 2020.
- Marchand, Andrew (October 8, 2019). "ESPN, Fox finalize top XFL broadcast teams". New York Post. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
- Marchand, Andrew (October 21, 2019). "Greg Olsen raised his broadcasting stock as bye week fill-in".
- Stapleton, Art (January 16, 2020). "So this is cool: I'm told NJ natives Kevin Burkhardt and Greg Olsen will be in FOX broadcast booth together as a team for handful of XFL games, per source". Retrieved January 17, 2020.
- "Cam Jordan Set to Make Guest Appearance on FOX Sports' XFL Broadcast Saturday, March 7". FOX Sports PressPas. FOX Sports.
- Hofheimer, Bill (November 6, 2019). "ABC and ESPN Announce Commentator Teams for XFL 2020 Season". ESPNPressRoom.com. Retrieved November 6, 2019.
- "iHeartMedia, VSiN, XFL To Provide 'BetCasts' For Inaugural Season". Inside Radio. February 6, 2020. Retrieved February 7, 2020.
- The XFL Pregame: Week 2. XFL official YouTube account (February 15, 2020). Retrieved February 15, 2020.
- "ESPN Player to stream every single game of the 2020 XFL season". ESPN. November 5, 2019. Retrieved January 30, 2020.
- Spadafora, Anthony. "Live stream XFL: how to watch the new football league online from anywhere". TechRadar. Retrieved February 9, 2020.
- "XFL to gain international audience on ESPN Player". SportBusiness. November 5, 2019. Retrieved February 9, 2020.
- "r/xfl - XFL being telecast in India on Sony ESPN. Something the NFL does not do". reddit. Retrieved February 12, 2020.
- "ESPN International to Deliver Comprehensive Global Coverage of the XFL to More than 100 Million Households in over 200 Countries". ESPN Press Room U.S. February 5, 2020. Retrieved February 12, 2020.
- Orr, Conor (February 10, 2020). "XFL opening weekend showed promise". SI.com. Retrieved February 10, 2020.
- Smith, Michael David (February 9, 2020). "XFL draws small but enthusiastic crowds at first two games". Profootballtalk.com. Retrieved February 9, 2020.
- Reyes, Lorenzo (February 10, 2020). "XFL Week 1 winners and losers: Inaugural weekend good for TV networks, gamblers". USA Today. Retrieved February 10, 2020.
- Kercheval, Ben (February 10, 2020). "XFL 2020 Week 1 takeaways: From P.J. Walker rising to the Vipers falling flat, opening week's highs and lows". CBS Sports. Retrieved February 10, 2020.
- Smith, Michael David (March 3, 2020). "Ratings decline for three of four XFL games". Profootballtalk.com.