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Ban Ki-moon

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Ban Ki-moon
반기문 (潘基文)

Incumbent
Assumed office 
January 1, 2007
DeputyAsha-Rose Migiro
Preceded byKofi Annan
In office
January 17, 2004 – November 10, 2006
PresidentRoh Moo-hyun
Prime MinisterGoh Kun
Lee Hae Chan
Han Duck-soo
Han Myeong-sook
Preceded byYoon Young Kwan
Succeeded bySong Min-soon
Born13 June 1944 (1944-06-13) (age 65)[1]
Eumseong County, Chungcheongbuk-do, Korea, Empire of Japan
NationalitySouth Korean
Spouse(s)Yoo Soon-taek
Alma materSeoul National University

Harvard University

Religionprivate[2][3]
Signature
Korean name
Hangul반기문
Hanja潘基文
Revised RomanizationBan Gi-mun
McCune–ReischauerPan Kimun
Korean pronunciation: [panɡimun]
This is a Korean name; the family name is Ban.

Ban Ki-moon (Hangul: 반기문; born 13 June 1944) is the current Secretary-General of the United Nations succeeding Kofi Annan in 2007. Before becoming Secretary-General, Ban was a career diplomat in South Korea's Ministry of Foreign Affairs and in the United Nations. He entered diplomatic service the year he graduated from college, accepting his first post in New Delhi, India. In the foreign ministry he established a reputation for modesty and competence.

Ban was the Foreign Minister of the Republic of Korea from January 2004 to November 2006. In February 2006 he began to campaign for the office of Secretary-General. Ban was initially considered to be a long shot for the office. As foreign minister of Korea, however, he was able to travel to all of the countries that were members of the United Nations Security Council, a maneuver that turned him into the front runner.

On 13 October 2006, he was elected to be the eighth Secretary-General by the United Nations General Assembly. On 1 January 2007, he successfully succeeded Kofi Annan, and passed several major reforms regarding peacekeeping and UN employment practices. Diplomatically, Ban has taken particularly strong views on Darfur, where he helped persuade Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir to allow peacekeeping troops to enter Sudan; and on global warming, pressing the issue repeatedly with former U.S. President George W. Bush.

Contents

Background of Ban Ki-moon

Childhood and education

Ban was born in Eumseong in a small farming village in North Chungcheong, in 1944, at the end of Japanese rule of Korea. His family moved to the nearby town of Chungju, where he was raised.[4] During Ban's childhood, his father had a warehouse business, but the warehouse went bankrupt and the family lost its middle-class standard of living. When Ban was six, his family fled to a remote mountainside for the duration of the Korean War.[1] After the war ended, his family returned to Chungju. Ban has mentioned meeting U.S. military troops at this time.[5]

In secondary school, Ban became a star pupil, particularly in his studies of English. According to local stories, Ban would regularly walk 6 miles (9.7 km) to a fertilizer plant to practice English with the factory's American advisors.[4] In 1952, he was selected by his class to address a message to then UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld, but it is unknown if the message was ever sent. In 1962, Ban won an essay contest sponsored by the Red Cross and earned a trip to the United States where he lived in San Francisco with a host family for several months.[6] As part of the trip, Ban met U.S. President John F. Kennedy.[1] When a journalist at the meeting asked Ban what wanted to be when he grew up, he said, "I want to become a diplomat."[5]

Ban received a B.A. in International Relations from Seoul National University in 1970, and earned a Master of Public Administration from the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University in 1985.[5] At Harvard, he studied under Joseph Nye who remarked that Ban had "a rare combination of analytic clarity, humility and perseverance."[6] Ban was awarded the degree of Doctor of Laws (Honoris Causa) by the University of Malta on 22 April 2009.[7] He further received an honorary degree of Doctor of Laws from the University of Washington in October 2009. [7]

In addition to his native Korean, Ban speaks English, French, German, and Japanese. There have been questions, however, regarding the extent of his knowledge of French, one of the six working languages of the United Nations Secretariat.[8]

Personality

In the Korean Foreign Ministry his nickname was Ban-jusa, meaning "the Bureaucrat" or "the administrative clerk." The name was used as both positive and negative: complimenting Ban's attention to detail and administrative skill while deriding what was seen as a lack of charisma and subservience to his superiors.[9] The Korean press corps calls him "the slippery eel" for his ability to dodge questions.[5] His demeanor has also been described as a "Confucian approach."[10]

Ban's work ethic is well documented. His schedule is reportedly broken into five-hour blocks; Ban claims to sleep for only five hours a night and never to have been late for work. During the nearly three years he was foreign minister for South Korea, the only vacation he took was for his daughter's wedding.[6] Ban has said that his only hobby is golf, and he plays only a couple of games a year.[1]A major aim of Ban's campaign for UN Secretary-General and a focus of his early days in office was allaying concerns that he was too dull for the job.[11]

Diplomatic career

Ban Ki-moon with former US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice

After graduating from university, Ban received the top score on Korea's foreign service exam. He joined the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in May 1970, and worked his way up the career ladder during the years of the Yusin Constitution.[6]

His first overseas posting was to New Delhi where he served as vice consul and impressed many of his superiors in the foreign ministry with his competence. Ban reportedly accepted a posting to India rather than the more prestigious United States, because in India he would be able to save more money, and send more home to his family.[12][13] In 1974 he received his first posting to the United Nations, as First Secretary of the South Permanent Observer Mission (South Korea became a full UN member-state on 17 September 1991).[14] After Park Chung-hee's 1979 assassination, Ban assumed the post of Director of the United Nations Division.

In 1980 Ban became director of the United Nation's International Organizations and Treaties Bureau, headquartered in Seoul.[13] He has been posted twice to the Republic of Korea embassy in Washington, D.C. Between these two assignments he served as Director-General for American Affairs in 1990–1992. In 1992, he became Vice Chairman of the South-North Joint Nuclear Control Commission, following the adoption by South and North Korea of the Joint Declaration of the Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula.[12] From 1993–1994 Ban was Korea's deputy ambassador to the United States. He was promoted to the position of Deputy Minister for Policy Planning and International Organizations in 1995 and then appointed National Security Advisor to the President in 1996.[13] Ban's lengthy career overseas has been credited with helping him avoid South Korea's unforgiving political environment.[10]

Ban was appointed Ambassador to Austria in 1998, and a year later he was also elected as Chairman of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO PrepCom). During the negotiations, in what Ban considers the biggest blunder of his career, he included in a public letter a positive statement about the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty with Russia in 2001, not long after the United States had decided to abandon the treaty. To avoid anger from the United States, Ban was fired by President Kim Dae-jung, who also issued a public apology for Ban's statement.[1]

Ban was unemployed for the only time in his career and was expecting to receive an assignment to work in a remote and unimportant embassy.[1] In 2001, during the 56th Session of the United Nations General Assembly, the Republic of Korea held the rotating presidency, and to Ban's surprise, he was selected to be the chief of staff to general assembly president Han Seung-soo.[15] In 2003, the new Korean President Roh Moo-hyun selected Ban as one of his foreign policy advisors.[13]

Foreign Minister of Korea

In 2004, Ban replaced Yoon Young Kwan as foreign minister of Korea under president Roh Moo-hyun.[5] At the beginning of his term, Ban was faced with two major crises: in June 2004 Kim Sun-il, a Korean translator, was kidnapped and killed in Iraq by Islamic extremists; and in December 2004 dozens of Koreans died in the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Ban survived scrutiny from lawmakers and saw an upturn in his popularity when talks began with North Korea.[13] Ban became actively involved in issues relating to inter-Korean relationships.[12] In September 2005, as Foreign Minister, he played a leading role in the diplomatic efforts to adopt the Joint Statement on resolving the North Korean nuclear issue at the Fourth Round of the Six-party talks held in Beijing.[16][17]

As foreign minister, Ban oversaw the trade and aid policies of South Korea. This work put Ban in the position of signing trade deals and delivering foreign assistance to diplomats who would later be influential in his candidacy for Secretary-General. For example, Ban became the first senior South Korean minister to travel to the Congo since its independence in 1960.[18]

Campaign for Secretary-General: 2007

2007 Secretary-General candidates[19]
NamePosition
Ban Ki-moonSouth Korean foreign minister
Shashi TharoorUnder-Secretary-General of the United Nations
for public information; from India
Vaira Vīķe-FreibergaPresident of Latvia
Ashraf GhaniChancellor of
Kabul University, Afghanistan
Surakiart SathirathaiDeputy prime minister
of Thailand
Prince Zeid bin Ra'adJordan's ambassador
to the United Nations
Jayantha DhanapalaFormer Under-Secretary-General
for disarmament; from Sri Lanka

In February 2006, Ban declared his candidacy to replace Kofi Annan as UN Secretary-General at the end of 2006, becoming the first South Korean to run for the office.[20] Though Ban was the first to announce a candidacy, he was not originally considered a serious contender.[6]

Over the next eight months, Ban made ministerial visits to each of the 15 countries with a seat on the Security Council.[5] Of the seven candidates, he topped each of the four straw polls conducted by the United Nations Security Council: on 24 July,[21] 14 September,[22] 28 September,[23] and 2 October.[24]

During the period in which these polls took place, Ban made major speeches to the Asia Society and the Council on Foreign Relations in New York.[25][26] To be confirmed, Ban needed not only to win the support of the diplomatic community, but also to be able to avoid a veto from any of the five permanent members of the council: People's Republic of China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Ban was popular in Washington for having pushed to send South Korean troops to Iraq. But Ban also opposed several U.S. positions: he expressed his support for the International Criminal Court and favoured an entirely non-confrontational approach to dealing with North Korea.[5] Ban said during his campaign that he would like to visit North Korea in person to meet with Kim Jong-il directly.[17] Ban was viewed as a stark contrast from Kofi Annan, who was considered charismatic, but perceived as a weak manager because of problems surrounding the UN's oil-for-food program in Iraq.[9]

Ban also struggled to win the approval of France. His official biography states that he speaks both English and French, the two working languages of the UN Secretariat. He has repeatedly struggled to answer questions in French from journalists.[8] Ban has repeatedly acknowledged his limitations at French, but assured French diplomats that he was devoted to continuing his study. At a press conference on 11 January 2007, Ban remarked, “My French perhaps could be improved, and I am continuing to work. I have taken French lessons over the last few months. I think that, even if my French isn't perfect, I will continue to study it.”[27]

As the Secretary-General election drew closer, there was rising criticism of the South Korean campaign on Ban's behalf. Specifically, his alleged practice of systematically visiting all member states of the Security Council in his role as the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade to secure votes in his support by signing trade deals with European countries and pledging aid to developing countries were the focus of many news articles.[28] According to The Washington Post, "rivals have privately grumbled that Republic of Korea, which has the world's 11th-largest economy, has wielded its economic might to generate support for his candidacy." Ban reportedly said that these insinuations were "groundless." In an interview on 17 September 2006 he stated: "As front-runner, I know that I can become a target of this very scrutinizing process," and "I am a man of integrity."[29]

In the final informal poll on 2 October, Ban received fourteen favorable votes and one abstention ("no opinion") from the fifteen members of the Security Council. More importantly, Ban was the only one to escape a veto; each of the other candidates received at least one "no" vote from among the five permanent members.[30] After the vote, Shashi Tharoor, who finished second, withdrew his candidacy[31] and China's Permanent Representative to the UN told reporters that "it is quite clear from today's straw poll that Minister Ban Ki-moon is the candidate that the Security Council will recommend to the General Assembly."[32]

On 9 October, the Security Council formally chose Ban as its nominee. In the public vote, he was supported by all 15 members of the council.[33] On 13 October, the 192-member General Assembly acclaimed Ban as Secretary-General.[15]

Term as Secretary-General

Ban Ki-moon with then President of Russia Vladimir Putin in Moscow on 9 April 2008.

When Ban became Secretary-General, The Economist listed the major challenges facing him in 2007: "rising nuclear demons in Iran and North Korea, a haemorrhaging wound in Darfur, unending violence in the Middle East, looming environmental disaster, escalating international terrorism, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, the spread of HIV/AIDS. And then the more parochial concerns, such as the largely unfinished business of the most sweeping attempt at reform in the UN's history."[34] Before starting, Kofi Annan shared the story that when the first Secretary-General Trygve Lie left office, he told his successor, Dag Hammarskjöld, "You are about to take over the most impossible job on earth."[15]

On 23 January 2007 Ban took office as the eighth Secretary-General of the United Nations. Ban's term as Secretary-General opened with a flap. At his first encounter with the press as Secretary-General on 2 January 2007, he refused to condemn the death penalty imposed on Saddam Hussein by the Iraqi High Tribunal, remarking that “The issue of capital punishment is for each and every member State to decide.”[35] Ban's statements contradicted long-standing United Nations opposition to the death penalty as a human-rights concern.[36] He quickly clarified his stance in the case of Barzan al-Tikriti and Awad al-Bandar, two top officials who were convicted of the deaths of 148 Shia Muslims in the Iraqi village of Dujail in the 1980s. In a statement through his spokesperson on 6 January, he “strongly urged the Government of Iraq to grant a stay of execution to those whose death sentences may be carried out in the near future.”[11][37] On the broader issue, he told a Washington, D.C., audience on 16 January 2007 that he recognized and encouraged the “growing trend in international society, international law and domestic policies and practices to phase out eventually the death penalty.”[38]

On the tenth anniversary of Khmer Rouge leader Pol Pot's death, 15 April 2008, Ban Ki-moon appealed for the senior leaders of the regime to be brought to justice. The Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia-tribunal, which was established by both the United Nations and Cambodia and which became operational in 2006, is expected to continue until at least 2010.[39]

Cabinet

In early January, Ban appointed the key members of his cabinet. As his Deputy Secretary-General, he selected Tanzanian foreign minister and professor Asha-Rose Migiro – a move that pleased African diplomats who had concerns of losing power without Annan in office.[40]

The top position devoted exclusively to management, Under-Secretary-General for Management, was filled by Alicia Bárcena Ibarra of Mexico. Bárcena was considered a UN insider, having previously served as Annan's chief of staff. Her appointment was seen by critics as an indication that Ban would not make dramatic changes to UN bureaucracy.[41] Ban appointed Sir John Holmes, the British Ambassador to France, as Under-Secretary-General for humanitarian affairs and coordinator of emergency relief.[41]

Ban initially said that he would delay making other appointments until his first round of reforms were approved, but he later abandoned this idea after receiving criticism.[11][42] In February he continued with appointments, selecting B. Lynn Pascoe, the U.S. ambassador to Indonesia, to become Under-Secretary-General for political affairs.Jean-Marie Guéhenno, a French diplomat, who had served as Under-Secretary-General for peacekeeping operations under Annan, remained in office. Ban selected Vijay K. Nambiar as his chief of staff.[43]

The appointment of many women to top jobs was seen as fulfilling a campaign promise Ban had made to increase the role of women in the United Nations. During Ban's first year as Secretary-General, more top jobs were being handled by women than ever before. Though not appointed by Ban, the president of the General Assembly, Haya Rashed Al-Khalifa, is only the third woman to hold this position in UN history.[44]

Early reforms

During his first month in office, Ban proposed two major restructurings: to split the UN peacekeeping operation into two departments and to combine the political affairs and disarmament department. His proposals were met with stiff resistance from members of the UN General Assembly who bristled under Ban's request for rapid approval. The proposed merger of the disarmament and political affairs offices was criticized by many in the developing world, partially because of rumours that Ban hoped to place American B. Lynn Pascoe in charge of the new office. Alejandro D. Wolff, then acting American ambassador, said the United States backed his proposals.[11][42]

After the early bout of reproach, Ban began extensive consultation with UN ambassadors, agreeing to have his peacekeeping proposal extensively vetted. After the consultations, Ban dropped his proposal to combine political affairs and disarmament.[45] Ban nevertheless pressed ahead with reforms on job requirements at the UN requiring that all positions be considered five-year appointments, all receive strict annual performance reviews, and all financial disclosures be made public. Though unpopular in the New York office, the move was popular in other UN offices around the world and lauded by UN observers.[46] Ban's proposal to split the peacekeeping operation into one group handling operations and another handling arms was finally adopted in mid-March 2007.[47]

According to The Washington Post, "some U.N. employees and delegates" expressed resentment at Ban's perceived favoritism in the appointment of South Korean nationals in key posts. Previous U.N. chiefs such as Kurt Waldheim (Austria), Javier Pérez de Cuéllar (Peru) and Boutros Boutros-Ghali (Egypt) brought small teams of trusted aides or clerical workers from their country's Foreign Ministry. But according to "some officials" in the Post story, Ban has gone further, boosting South Korea's presence in U.N. ranks by more than 20 percent during his first year in office. In response, Ban and his aides have claimed that allegations of favoritism are wrong, and that some of the harshest criticisms against him have undercurrents of racism. He said that the South Korean nationals he had appointed — including Choi Young-jin, who has served as a high-ranking official in the United Nation's peacekeeping department — are highly qualified for their positions.[48]

Key issues

The Secretary-General of the United Nations has the ability to influence debate on nearly any global issue. Although unsuccessful in some areas, Ban's predecessor Annan had been successful in increasing the UN peacekeeping presence and in popularizing the Millennium Development Goals. UN observers were eager to see on which issues Ban intends to focus, in addition to reform of the United Nations bureaucracy.[34]

On several prominent issues, such as proliferation in Iran and North Korea, Ban has deferred to the Security Council.[47] Ban has also declined to become involved on the issue of Taiwan's status. In 2007, the Republic of Nauru raised the issue of allowing the Republic of China (Taiwan) to sign the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Ban referenced the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758, and refused the motion. On 19 July 2007, the President of the Republic of China wrote to request admission into the UN by the name Taiwan. Ban immediately rejected the request.[49]

Global warming

Former U.S. President George W. Bush talks with United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon of the Republic of Korea. In their early meetings, Ban stressed the importance of confronting global warming.

Ban early on identified global warming as one of the key issues of his administration. In a White House meeting with U.S. President George W. Bush in January, Ban urged Bush to take steps to curb greenhouse gas emissions. On 1 March 2007 in a speech before the UN General Assembly, Ban further emphasized his concerns about global warming. Ban stated, "For my generation, coming of age at the height of the Cold War, fear of nuclear winter seemed the leading existential threat on the horizon. But the danger posed by war to all humanity — and to our planet — is at least matched by climate change."[50]

Middle East

On Thursday, 22 March 2007, while Ban was taking part in the first stop of a tour of the Middle East, a mortar attack hit just 80 meters (260 ft) from where the Secretary-General was standing, interrupting a press conference in Baghdad's Green Zone, and visibly shaking Ban and others. No one was hurt in the incident.[51] The United Nations had already limited its role in Iraq after its Baghdad headquarters was bombed in August 2003, killing 22 people. Ban said, however, that he still hoped to find a way for the United Nations to "do more for Iraqi social and political development."[52]

On his trip, Ban visited Egypt, Israel, the West Bank, Jordan, Lebanon and Saudi Arabia, where Ban attended a conference with leaders of the Arab League and met for several hours with Omar Hassan al-Bashir, the Sudanese president who had resisted UN peacekeepers in Darfur.[47] While Ban met with Mahmoud Abbas, the Palestinian president, he declined to meet with Ismail Haniya of Hamas.[53]

Ban Ki-moon criticized Israel on 10 March 2008 for planning to build housing units in a West Bank settlement, saying the decision conflicts with "Israel's obligation under the road map" for Middle East peace.[54]

During a meeting of the UN Security Council on Wednesday, 7 January 2009, Ban called for an immediate end to fighting in the Gaza Strip. He criticized both sides, Israel for bombarding Gaza and Hamas for firing rockets into Israel.[55]

Although the 2009 Iranian presidential election was widely disputed, Ban Ki-moon sent a traditional congratulation message [56] to Iranian president upon his inauguration. He kept silent over the request of Shirin Ebadi to visit[57] Iran after the crackdown on peaceful post-election protests by the Iranian police – an event that was perceived by some as a crime against humanity [58]. More than 4000 people were arrested and nearly 70 were killed, some while being held in prison.[59] In another incident, several prominent intellectuals including Akbar Ganji, Hamid Dabashi, Noam Chomsky went on a three-day hunger strike [60] in front of the UN. The incident was followed by an official request[61] by more that 200 intellectuals, human rights activists and reformist politicians in Iran for the UN reaction. Ban Ki-moon however did not take any action to stop the violence in Iran.

Darfur

Ban took the first foreign trip of his term to attend the African Union summit in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, in January 2007 as part of an effort to reach out to the Group of 77.[34] He repeatedly identified Darfur as the top humanitarian priority of his administration.[47] Ban played a large role, with several face-to-face meetings with Sudanese President Omar Hassan al-Bashir, in convincing Sudan to allow UN peacekeepers to enter the Darfur region. On 31 July 2007 the United Nations Security Council approved sending 26,000 UN peacekeepers into the region to join 7,000 troops from the African Union. The resolution was heralded as a major breakthrough in confronting the Darfur conflict (although the United States labeled the conflict a "genocide," the United Nations has declined to do so). The first phase of the peacekeeping mission began in October 2007.[62]

Myanmar

Ban Ki-moon flew to Myanmar on 25 May 2008 to guide a conference with international agencies aimed at boosting donations for the nation, which was struck by Cyclone Nargis on 2 May 2008. The conference was initiated after Ban had met with Than Shwe, the leading figure of Myanmar's government 23 May 2008. Ban toured the devastation—especially in the hard-hit Irrawaddy Delta—23 May 2008 and 24 May 2008. Myanmar officials agreed to allow the Yangon International Airport to be used as a logistical hub for aid distribution.[63]

Sri Lanka visit

The Secretary-General inspected refugee camps in Sri Lanka on May 2009, to ensure the 300,000 refugees were being taken care of properly. The people were uprooted by the intense fighting that ended Sri Lanka’s 25-year civil war. The Secretary-General also met with the President of Sri Lanka, who declared victory a few days earlier against the rebels who call themselves the Tamil Tigers.[64] The war started in 1972 with the demands of Tamil Eelam coming from the LTTE or Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. After an unsuccessful six-year truce, the fighting began again. Civilians fled from the fighting.[65]

His work on SriLankan ethnic issue is strongly criticized by NGOs and Medias. The eye witness to the final war between Srilankan armed force and LTTE, Damilvany Gnanakumar who is an UK citizen describes about Ban's visit to Refugee Camp in Srilanka as, "I was there when the UN secretary Ban Ki-moon came in; He stayed there for about 10 minutes and just went. Why didn't he go into the camp and talk to the people and spend some time asking them what their problems were? I thought he has a responsibility and people were expecting something from him. They expected much from him and he just spent 10 minutes and that's it."[66]

Family

Ban Ki-moon met Yoo Soon-taek in 1962 when they were both high school students. Ban was 18 years old, and Yoo Soon-taek was his secondary school's student council president. Ban Ki-moon married Yoo Soon-taek in 1971. They have three adult children: two daughters and a son. His eldest daughter, Seon-yong (born 1972), works for the Korea Foundation in Seoul. His son, Woo-hyun (born 1974) received MBA from Anderson School of Management at University of California, Los Angeles and works for an investment firm in New York.[67] His youngest daughter, Hyun-hee (born 1976), is a field officer for UNICEF in Nairobi, Kenya.[1] After his election as Secretary-General, Ban became an icon in his hometown, where his extended family still resides. Over 50,000 gathered in a soccer stadium in Chungju for celebration of the result. In the months following his election, thousands of practitioners of feng shui went to his village to determine how it produced such an important person.[4] Ban himself is not a member of any church or religious group[2] and has declined to expound his beliefs: "Now, as Secretary-General, it will not be appropriate at this time to talk about my own belief in any particular religion or God. So maybe we will have some other time to talk about personal matters."[3] His mother is reportedly Buddhist.[4]

Honors and Awards

  • He was awarded the Order of Service Merit by the Government of the Republic of Korea on three occasions: in 1975, 1986 and 2006.[16]
  • For his accomplishments as an envoy, he received the Grand Decoration of Honour from the Republic of Austria in 2001.
  • He was bestowed the Grand Cross of Rio Branco by the government of Brazil .
  • He was bestowed the Gran Cruz del Sol by the government of Peru
  • He was honored with James A. Van Fleet Award by the Korea Society in New York City for his contributions to friendship between the United States and the Republic of Korea.[68]

References

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  2. ^ a b "Correction: Ban Ki-moon". The Economist. 2007-01-11. http://www.economist.com/world/displaystory.cfm?story_id=8525903. Retrieved 2007-08-02. 
  3. ^ a b "Transcript of Press Conference by Secretary-General-Designate Ban Ki-moon At United Nations Headquarters". un.org. 13 October 2006. http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2006/sg2117.doc.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-15. 
  4. ^ a b c d Martin Fackler (2006-12-22). "On His Ancestors' Wings, a Korean Soars to the U.N.". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/22/world/asia/22ban.html?ex=1324443600&en=78d0549ab6ed28c9&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Maggie Farley and Bruce Wallace (2006-10-09). "Aspiring U.N. Chief Is a Harmonizer, Not a Rock Star; South Korean career diplomat Ban Ki-moon may lack charisma, but he has many fans". The Los Angeles Times. 
  6. ^ a b c d e Anna Fifield (2006-10-10). "Relentless pursuit brings a challenge close to home; Profile Ban Ki-moon". Financial Times. 
  7. ^ University of Malta (2009-04-17). "Honoris Causa". News on Campus. 
  8. ^ a b "Is Ban Ki-moon a franco-phoney?". CBC News. 2006-12-14. http://www.cbc.ca/news/reportsfromabroad/herland/20061214.html. Retrieved 2007-08-02. 
  9. ^ a b "Enter Mr Ban; The UN's new secretary-general" (PDF). The Economist. 2006-10-07. http://www.unsgselection.org/files/Economist_EnterMrBan_7Oct06.pdf. 
  10. ^ a b "Can This Guy Run the U.N.?". Time Magazine. 2006-10-16. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1543932,00.html. 
  11. ^ a b c d Mark Turner (2007-02-01). "Ban's month of muddle: how the new UN chief is struggling to win over the doubters". Financial Times. 
  12. ^ a b c "Profile: Ban Ki-moon". BBC News. 2006-10-13. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/5401856.stm. Retrieved 2007-08-04. 
  13. ^ a b c d e Lee Joo-hee (2006-02-15). "Ban surges toward next career step". The Korea Herald. 
  14. ^ Warren Hoge (2006-10-03). "Council Backs South Korean for U.N. Secretary General". The New York Times. 
  15. ^ a b c Warren Hoge (2006-10-14). "South Korean Is Appointed Secretary General of the U.N.". The New York Times. 
  16. ^ a b "Official U.N. biography". un.org. http://www.un.org/sg/biography.shtml. Retrieved 2007-08-12. 
  17. ^ a b Lally Weymouth (2006-10-23). "A Baptism by Fire; Even before taking office, the newly elected secretary-general of the United Nations is confronted with a global crisis". Newsweek. http://www.newsweek.com/id/45039. 
  18. ^ Colum Lynch (2006-09-29). "S. Korean Contender for U.N. Post Has an Edge; Ban Ki Moon's Rivals Complain About His Role in Foreign Aid and Trade Policy". The Washington Post. 
  19. ^ Warren Hoge (2006-09-29). "South Korean Favored to Win Top Job at U.N.". The New York Times. 
  20. ^ Song-wu, Park (2006-02-14). "Minister Ban to Run for Top UN Job". The Korea Times. http://times.hankooki.com/lpage/nation/200602/kt2006021416334111990.htm. Retrieved 2006-09-28. 
  21. ^ "Ban takes 1st Straw Poll". UNSG.org. 2006-07-24. http://www.unsg.org/wordpress/archives/115. Retrieved 2006-09-28. 
  22. ^ "Ban firms up lead in second Straw Poll". UNSG.org. 2006-09-14. http://www.unsg.org/wordpress/archives/138. Retrieved 2006-09-28. 
  23. ^ "Ban slips but holds, Vīķe-Freiberga pushes into third". UNSG.org. 2006-09-28. http://www.unsg.org/wordpress/archives/164. Retrieved 2006-09-28. 
  24. ^ "Ban Ki-moon wins". UNSG.org. 2006-10-02. http://www.unsg.org/wordpress/archives/170. Retrieved 2006-10-02. 
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  26. ^ "The Quest for Peace and Prosperity in the Asia-Pacific and Beyond". Ban Ki-moon address to Asia Society (transcript). 2006-09-25. http://www.asiasociety.org/speeches/06ny_ban.html. Retrieved 2007-08-02. 
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  31. ^ "Shashi Tharoor pulls out of UN race". NDTV.com. 2006-10-02. http://www.ndtv.com/morenews/showmorestory.asp?id=94211. Retrieved 2006-10-02. 
  32. ^ "United Nations Webcast of announcement". United Nations. http://webcast.un.org/ramgen/sc/so061002pm3.rm. Retrieved 2007-08-02. 
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  34. ^ a b c "Mission impossible?—The United Nations". The Economist. 2007-01-06. 
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  37. ^ "Statement attributable to the Spokesperson for the Secretary-General on the death sentences in Iraq". United Nations. 2007-01-06. http://www.un.org/apps/sg/sgstats.asp?nid=2395. Retrieved 2007-08-02. 
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  40. ^ Julia Preston (2007-01-06). "Tanzanian Woman Is Chosen for U.N.'s 2nd Highest Post". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/06/world/06nations.html. 
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External links

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Political offices
Preceded by
Yoon Young-kwan
Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade of South Korea
2004–2006
Succeeded by
Song Min-soon
Preceded by
Kofi Annan
Secretary-General of the United Nations
2007–present
Incumbent

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