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blabla blabla blabla blabla blabla blabla blabla blabla blabla blabla blabla blabla blabla Paris From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about the capital of France. For other uses, see Paris (disambig uation). This is a good article. Click here for more information. Paris Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: "It is tossed by the waves, but does not sink") Paris montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load t he appropriate article. About this image Clockwise: Pyramid of the Louvre, Arc de Triomphe, Palace of Versailles, Skyline of Paris on the Seine river with the Pont des Arts bridge, and the Eiffel Tower - clickable image Flag of Paris Coat of arms of Paris City flag City coat of arms Paris is located in France Paris Location within le-de-France region [show] Administration Country France Region le-de-France Department Paris Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Mayor Bertrand Delano (PS) (200814) Statistics Land area1 [1] 105.4 km2 (40.7 sq mi) Population2 2,243,833 (2010[2])

- Ranking 1st in France - Density 21,289 /km2 (55,140 /sq mi) Urban area 2,844.8 km2 (1,098.4 sq mi) (2010) - Population 10,413,386[3] (Jan. 2009) Metro area 17,174.4 km2 (6,631.1 sq mi) (2010) - Population 12,161,542[4][5] (Jan. 2009) Time zone CET (UTC +1) INSEE/Postal code 75056/ 75001-75020, 75116 Website 1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., stud ents and military personnel) only counted once. Coordinates: 485124N 22103E Paris (English /prs/, Listeni/prs/; French: [pai] ( listen)) is the capital and most p pulous city of France. It is situated on the River Seine, in the north of the co untry, at the heart of the le-de-France region. Within its administrative limits (the 20 arrondissements), the city had 2,234,105 inhabitants in 2009 while its m etropolitan area is one of the largest population centres in Europe with more th an 12 million inhabitants. An important settlement for more than two millennia, by the late 12th century Pa ris had become a walled cathedral city that was one of Europe's foremost centres of learning and the arts and the largest city in the Western world until the tu rn of the 18th century. Paris was the focal point for many important political e vents throughout its history, including the French Revolution. Today it is one o f the world's leading business and cultural centres, and its influence in politi cs, education, entertainment, media, science, fashion and the arts all contribut e to its status as one of the world's major cities. The city has one of the larg est GDPs in the world, 607 billion (US$845 billion) as of 2011, and as a result o f its high concentration of national and international political, cultural and s cientific institutions is one of the world's leading tourist destinations. Most major French companies are headquartered in Paris or its inner suburbs. Centuries of cultural and political development have brought Paris a variety of museums, theatres, monuments and architectural styles. Many of its masterpieces such as the Louvre and the Arc de Triomphe are iconic buildings, especially its internationally recognized symbol, the Eiffel Tower. Long regarded as an interna tional centre for the arts, works by history's most famous painters can be found in the Louvre, the Muse d'Orsay and its many other museums and galleries. Paris is a global hub of fashion and has been referred to as the "international capita l of style", noted for its haute couture tailoring, its high-end boutiques, and the twice-yearly Paris Fashion Week. It is world renowned for its haute cuisine, attracting many of the world's leading chefs. Many of France's most prestigious universities and Grandes coles are in Paris or its suburbs, and France's major n ewspapers Le Monde, Le Figaro, Libration, and Le Parisien are based in the city. Paris is home to the association football club Paris Saint-Germain FC and the ru gby union club Stade Franais. The 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located in Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open G rand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris played host to the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics, the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cup, and the 2007 Rugby World Cup. The city is a major rail, highway, and air-transport hub, served by the two international airports Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly. Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Mtro, serves 9 million passe ngers daily. Paris is the hub of the national road network, and is surrounded by three orbital roads: the Priphrique, the A86 motorway, and the Francilienne motor way in the outer suburbs. Contents [hide] 1 Toponymy 2 History 2.1 Origins 2.2 Merovingian and Feudal eras

2.3 Middle Ages to 18th century 2.3.1 French Revolution 2.4 19th century 2.5 20th century 2.6 21st century 3 Geography 3.1 Climate 4 Administration 4.1 City government 5 Demographics 5.1 Population evolution 5.2 Density 5.3 Income 5.4 Migration 6 Economy 7 Cityscape 7.1 Architecture 7.2 Landmarks by district 7.3 Parks and gardens 7.4 Water and sanitation 7.5 Cemeteries 8 Culture 8.1 Art 8.1.1 Painting and sculpture 8.1.2 Museums 8.1.3 Photography 8.2 Literature 8.3 Entertainment and performing arts 8.3.1 Theatre 8.3.2 Music 8.3.3 Cinema 8.4 Cuisine 8.5 Fashion 8.5.1 Festivals 9 Religion 10 Sports 11 Education 12 Libraries 13 Media 14 Healthcare 15 Transport 16 See also 17 References 17.1 Footnotes 17.2 Bibliography 18 Further reading 19 External links Toponymy[edit source | editbeta] See Wiktionary for the name of Paris in various languages other than English and French. The name "Paris" derives from that of its earliest inhabitants, the Gaulish trib e known as the Parisii. The city was called Lutetia (more fully, Lutetia Parisio rum, "Lutetia of the Parisii"), during the Roman era of the 1st to the 4th centu ry AD, but during the reign of Julian the Apostate (3603), the city was renamed P aris.[6] It is believed that the name of the Parisii tribe comes from the Celtic Gallic word parisio, meaning "the working people" or "the craftsmen".[7] Paris has many nicknames, like "The City of Love", but its most famous is "La Vi lle-Lumire" ("The City of Light"),[8] a name it owes first to its fame as a centr e of education and ideas during the Age of Enlightenment. The sobriquet's "light

" took on a more literal sense when Paris became one of the first European citie s to adopt gas street lighting: the Passage des Panoramas was Paris' first gas-l it throughfare from 1817.[9] Since the mid-19th century, Paris has been known as Paname ([panam]) in the Pari sian slang called argot (Ltspkr.pngMoi j'suis d'Paname, i.e. "I'm from Paname"). [10] The singer Renaud repopularised the term among the younger generation with his 1976 album Amoureux de Paname ("In love with Paname").[11] Inhabitants are known in English as "Parisians" and in French as Parisiens ([paiz j] ( listen)) and Parisiennes. Parisians are often pejoratively called Parigots ([ paio] ( listen)) and Parigotes, a term first used in 1900 by those living outside the Paris region.[12] History[edit source | editbeta] Main article: History of Paris The frigidarium of the Gallo-Roman baths Thermes de Cluny Origins[edit source | editbeta] The earliest archaeological signs of permanent settlements in the Paris area dat e from around 45004200 BC,[13] with some of the oldest evidence of canoe-use by h unter-gatherer peoples being uncovered in Bercy in 1991[14] (The remains of thre e canoes can be seen at the Carnavalet Museum[15] [16]). The Parisii, a sub-trib e of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the area near the river Seine from around 250 BC,[17][18] building a trading settlement on the island, later the le de la Cit, the easiest place to cross.[19] The Romans conquered the Paris basin around 52 B C,[13] with a permanent settlement by the end of the same century on the left ba nk Sainte Genevive Hill and the le de la Cit. The Gallo-Roman town was originally c alled Lutetia, or Lutetia Parisorum but later Gallicised to Lutce.[20] It expande d greatly over the following centuries, becoming a prosperous city with a forum, palaces, baths, temples, theatres, and an amphitheatre.[21] The collapse of the Roman empire, along with the Germanic invasions of the 5th-c entury, sent the city into a period of decline. By 400 AD, Lutce was largely aban doned by its inhabitants, little more than a garrison town entrenched into a has tily fortified central island.[13] The city reclaimed its original appellation o f "Paris" towards the end of the Roman occupation, around 360 AD, when Julian th e Apostate, Prefect of the Gauls, was proclaimed emperor.[22] The proclamation w as made on the le de la Cit. Julian remained based there for three years, making P aris the de facto capital of the Western Empire.[23] Merovingian and Feudal eras[edit source | editbeta] Clovis I, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty The Paris region was under full control of the Salian Franks by the late 5th cen tury. The Frankish king Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dyna sty, made the city his capital from 508 and was responsible for converting the c ity back to Christianity.[24] The late 8th century Carolingian dynasty displaced the Frankish capital to Aachen; this period coincided with the beginning of Vik ing invasions that had spread as far as Paris by the early 9th century.[24] One of the most remarkable Viking raids was on 28 March 845, when Paris was inva ded by some 200 Norse ships along the Seine and sacked and held ransom,[25] prob ably by Ragnar Lodbrok, who left only after receiving a large bounty paid by the crown. Repeated invasions forced Eudes, Count of Paris, to build a fortress on the le de la Cit in 885 AD. However, the city soon suffered a siege lasting almost a year, eventually relieved by the Carolingian king, Charles "The Fat", who ins tead of attacking allowed the besiegers to sail up the Seine and lay waste to Bu rgundy.[24] Eudes then took the crown for himself, plunging the French crown int o dynastic turmoil lasting over a century until 987 AD when Hugh Capet, count of Paris, was elected king of France. Paris, under the Capetian kings, became a ca pital once more, and his coronation was seen by many historians as the moment ma rking the birth of modern France.[24]

Middle Ages to 18th century[edit source | editbeta] The Chteau de Vincennes, built between the 14th and 17th centuries Paris became prosperous and by the end of the 11th century, scholars, teachers a nd monks flocked to the city to engage in intellectual exchanges, to teach and b e taught; Philippe-Auguste founded the University of Paris in 1200.[24] The guil ds gradually became more powerful and were instrumental in inciting the first re volt after the king was captured by the English in 1356.[26] Paris' population w as around 200,000[27] when the Black Death arrived in 1348, killing as many as 8 00 people a day; 40,000 died from the plague in 1466.[28] During the 16th and 17 th centuries, plague visited the city for almost one year out of three.[29] Pari s lost its position as seat of the French realm during the occupation by the Eng lish-allied Burgundians during the Hundred Years' War, but when Charles VII of F rance reclaimed the city from English rule in 1436, Paris became France's capita l once again in title, although the real centre of power remained in the Loire V alley[30] until King Francis I returned France's crown residences to Paris in 15 28. During the French Wars of Religion, Paris was a stronghold of the Catholic party . In August 1572, under the reign of Charles IX, while many noble Protestants we re in Paris on the occasion of the marriage of Henri of Navarrethe future Henri I Vto Margaret of Valois, sister of Charles IX, the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre occurred; beginning on 24 August, it lasted several days and spread throughout t he country.[31][32] In 1590 Henri IV unsuccessfully laid siege to the city in the Siege of Paris, bu t, threatened with usurpation from Philip II of Spain, he converted to Catholici sm in 1594, and the city welcomed him as king.[26] The Bourbons, Henri's family, spent vast amounts of money keeping the city under control, building the Ile St -Louis as well as bridges and other infrastructure.[26] But unhappy with their l ack of political representation, in 1648 Parisians rose in a rebellion known as the Fronde and the royal family fled the city. Louis XIV later moved the royal c ourt permanently to Versailles, a lavish estate on the outskirts of Paris,[26] i n 1682. The following century was an "Age of Enlightenment"; Paris' reputation g rew on the writings of its intellectuals such as the philosopher Voltaire and Di derot, the first volume of whose Encyclopdie was published in Paris in 1751.[33] French Revolution[edit source | editbeta] Main article: French Revolution Left: Storming of the Bastille, by Jean-Pierre Houl (1789); right: Map of Paris a nd its vicinity c. 1735. At the end of the century, Paris was the centre stage for the French Revolution; a bad harvest in 1788 caused food prices to rocket and by the following year th e sovereign debt had reached an unprecedented level.[34] On 14 July 1789, Parisi ans, appalled by the king's pressure on the new assembly formed by the Third Est ate, took siege of the Bastille fortress, a symbol of absolutism,[35] starting r evolution and rejecting the divine right of monarchs in France. Jean-Sylvain Bai lly, the first Mayor, was elected on 15 July 1789,[36] and two days later the na tional tricolour flag with the colours of Paris (blue and red) and of the King ( white) was adopted at the Htel de Ville by Louis XVI.[37] The Republic was declared for the first time in 1792. In 1793, Louis XVI and Que en Marie Antoinette were executed on the Place de la Rvolution, in Paris, the sit e of many executions. The guillotine was most active during the "Reign of Terror ", in the summer of 1794, when in a single month more than 1,300 people were exe cuted. Following the Terror, the French Directory held control until it was over thrown in a coup d'tat by Napoleon Bonaparte. Napoleon put an end to the revoluti on and established the French Consulate, and then later was elected by plebiscit e[38] as emperor of the First French Empire.[39] 19th century[edit source | editbeta] For more details on this topic, see Haussmann's renovation of Paris. Paris was occupied by Russian and Allied armies upon Napoleon's defeat on 31 Mar

ch 1814; this was the first time in 400 years that the city had been conquered b y a foreign power.[40] The ensuing Restoration period, or the return of the mona rchy under Louis XVIII (181424) and Charles X, ended with the July Revolution Par isian uprising of 1830.[41] The new constitutional monarchy under Louis-Philippe ended with the 1848 "February Revolution" that led to the creation of the Secon d Republic.[42] Cholera epidemics in 1832 and 1850 ravaged the population of Par is: the 1832 epidemic alone claimed 20,000 of the population of 650,000.[43] The greatest development in Paris' history began with the Industrial Revolution creation of a network of railways that brought an unprecedented flow of migrants to the capital from the 1840s. The city's largest transformation came with the 1852 Second Empire under Napoleon III; his prfet, Baron Haussmann, levelled entir e districts of Paris' narrow, winding medieval streets to create the network of wide avenues and neo-classical faades that still make up much of modern Paris. Th e motivation for this transformation was twofold: to create wide boulevards that beautified and sanitised the capital and to increase the effectiveness of troop s and artillery against any further uprisings and barricades, for which Paris wa s so famous.[44] Drilling (opening/alignment/widening) of numerous streets under the Second Empir e and the Third Republic The Second Empire ended in the Franco-Prussian War (187071), and a besieged Paris under heavy bombardment surrendered on 28 January 1871. The discontent of Paris ' populace with the new armistice-signing government seated in Versailles result ed in the creation of the Paris Commune government. It was supported by an army created in large part of members of the city's former National Guard, which cont inued to resist the Prussians and opposed the army of the "Versaillais" governme nt.[45] The Paris Commune ended with the Semaine Sanglante ("Bloody Week"), duri ng which roughly 20,000 "Communards" were executed before the fighting ended on 28 May 1871.[46] The ease with which the Versaillais army gained control of Pari s owed much to Baron Haussmann's renovations.[47] France's late 19th-century Universal Expositions made Paris an increasingly impo rtant centre of technology, trade, and tourism.[48] The most famous were the 188 9 Exposition universelle to which Paris owes its "temporary" display of architec tural engineering progress,[49] the Eiffel Tower, which remained the world's tal lest structure until 1930,[50] and the 1900 Universal Exposition, which saw the opening of the first Paris Mtro line.[51] 20th century[edit source | editbeta] During the First World War Paris was at the forefront of the war effort, having been spared a German invasion by the French and British victory at the First Bat tle of the Marne in 1914, within earshot of the city.[52] In 191819 it was the sc ene of Allied victory parades and peace negotiations. In the inter-war period, P aris was famed for its cultural and artistic communities and its nightlife. The city became a gathering place of artists from around the world, including the ex iled Russian composer Stravinsky, Spanish painters Picasso and Dal, and American writer Hemingway.[53] The Liberation of Paris, August 1944 On 14 June 1940, five weeks after the start of the Battle of France, an undefend ed Paris fell to German occupation forces.[54] The Germans marched past the Arc de Triomphe on the 140th anniversary of Napoleon's victory at the Battle of Mare ngo.[55] German forces remained in Paris until the city was liberated in August 1944 after a resistance uprising, two and a half months after the Normandy invas ion.[56] Central Paris emerged from the Second World War practically unscathed, as there were no strategic targets for Allied bombers (railway stations in centr al Paris are terminal stations; major factories were located in the suburbs), an d despite orders to destroy the city and all historic monuments the German comma nder Dietrich von Choltitz refused, gaining the popular title "Saviour of Paris" for his defiance of the Fhrer.[57]

In the post-war era, Paris experienced its largest development since the end of the Belle poque in 1914. The suburbs began to expand considerably, with the const ruction of large social estates known as cits and the beginning of La Dfense, the business district. A comprehensive express subway network, the RER, was built to complement the Mtro and serve the distant suburbs. A network of roads was develo ped in the suburbs centred on the Priphrique expressway encircling the city, which was completed in 1973.[58] Since the 1970s, many inner suburbs of Paris (especially those in the north and east) have experienced deindustrialisation, and the once-thriving cits have gradu ally become ghettos for immigrants and experienced significant unemployment. At the same time, the city of Paris (within its Priphrique expressway) and the wester n and southern suburbs have successfully shifted their economic base from tradit ional manufacturing to high-value-added services and high-tech manufacturing, ge nerating great wealth for their residents whose per capita income is the highest in France and among the highest in Europe.[59][60] The resulting widening socia l gap between these two areas has led to periodic unrest since the mid-1980s suc h as the 2005 riots, which were concentrated for the most part in the north-east ern suburbs.[61] 21st century[edit source | editbeta] Provisional map of the future Grand Paris metro A massive urban renewal project, the Grand Paris, was launched in 2007 by Presid ent Nicolas Sarkozy. It consists of various economic, cultural, housing, transpo rt and environmental projects to reach a better integration of the territories a nd revitalise the metropolitan economy. The most emblematic project is the 26.5 b illion construction by 2030 of a new automatic metro, which will consist of 200 kilometres (120 mi) of rapid-transit lines connecting the Grand Paris regions to one another and to the centre of Paris.[62] Nevertheless, the Paris metropolita n area is still divided into numerous territorial collectivities;[63] an ad-hoc structure, Paris Mtropole, was established in June 2009 to coordinate the action of 184 "Parisian" territorial collectivities.[64] Geography[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Topography of Paris Map showing location in relation to London and Calais Paris is located in northern central France. By road it is 450 kilometres (280 m i) south-east of London, 287 kilometres (178 mi) south of Calais, 305 kilometres (190 mi) south-west of Brussels, 774 kilometres (481 mi) north of Marseilles, 3 85 kilometres (239 mi) north-east of Nantes, and 135 kilometres (84 mi) south-ea st of Rouen.[65] Paris is located in the north-bending arc of the river Seine an d includes two islands, the le Saint-Louis and the larger le de la Cit, which form the oldest part of the city. Overall, the city is relatively flat, and the lowes t point is 35 m (115 ft) above sea level. Paris has several prominent hills, of which the highest is Montmartre at 130 m (427 ft),[66]. The rivers mouth on the E nglish Channel (La Manche) is about 233 mi (375 km) downstream of the city, esta blished around 7600 BC. The city is spread widely on both banks of the river.[67 ] It gained its name from the martyrdom of Saint Denis, first bishop of Paris at op the "Mons Martyrum" (Martyr's mound) in 250. Excluding the outlying parks of Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes, Paris oc cupies an oval measuring about 87 km2 (34 sq mi) in area, enclosed by the 35 km (22 mi) ring road, the Boulevard Priphrique.[68] The city's last major annexation of outlying territories in 1860 not only gave it its modern form but also create d the twenty clockwise-spiralling arrondissements (municipal boroughs). From the 1860 area of 78 km2 (30 sq mi), the city limits were expanded marginally to 86. 9 km2 (33.6 sq mi) in the 1920s. In 1929, the Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vince nnes forest parks were officially annexed to the city, bringing its area to abou t 105 km2 (41 sq mi).[69] The metropolitan area of the city is 2,300 km2 (890 sq

mi).[67] Climate[edit source | editbeta] Left: Paris, with the Eiffel Tower in the foreground and the skyscrapers of La Df ense in the background; right: Paris as seen from the Spot Satellite.. Paris has a typical Western European oceanic climate (Kppen climate classificatio n: Cfb ) which is affected by the North Atlantic Current. The overall climate thro ughout the year is mild and moderately wet.[70] Summer days are usually moderate ly warm and pleasant with average temperatures hovering between 15 and 25 C (59 a nd 77 F), and a fair amount of sunshine.[71] Each year, however, there are a few days where the temperature rises above 30 C (86 F). Some years have even witnessed some long periods of harsh summer weather, such as the heat wave of 2003 where temperatures exceeded 30 C (86 F) for weeks, surged up to 39 C (102 F) on some days and seldom cooled down at night.[72] More recently, the average temperature for July 2011 was 17.6 C (63.7 F), with an average minimum temperature of 12.9 C (55.2 F ) and an average maximum temperature of 23.7 C (74.7 F). Spring and autumn have, on average, mild days and fresh nights, but are changing and unstable. Surprisingly warm or cool weather occurs frequently in both seaso ns.[73] In winter, sunshine is scarce; days are cold but generally above freezin g with temperatures around 7 C (45 F).[74] Light night frosts are however quite co mmon, but the temperature will dip below 5 C (23 F) for only a few days a year. Sno wfall is uncommon, but the city sometimes sees light snow or flurries with or wi thout accumulation.[75] Rain falls throughout the year. Average annual precipitation is 652 mm (25.7 in) with light rainfall fairly distributed throughout the year. The highest recorde d temperature is 40.4 C (104.7 F) on July 28, 1948, and the lowest is a 23.9 C (11.0 F ) on December 10, 1879.[76] [hide]Climate data for Paris (19812010) Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high C (F) 16.1 (61) 21.4 (70.5) 25.7 (78.3) 30.2 (86.4) 34.8 (94.6) 37.6 (99.7) 40.4 (104.7) 39.5 (103.1) 36.2 (97.2) 28.4 (83.1) 21 (70) 17.1 (62.8) 40.4 (104.7) Average high C (F) 6.9 (44.4) 8.2 (46.8) 11.8 (53.2) 14.7 (58.5) 19.0 (66.2) 22.7 (72.9) 25.2 (77.4) 25.0 (77) 20.8 (69.4) 15.8 (60.4) 10.4 (50.7) 7.8 (46) 15.5 (59.9) Average low C (F) 2.5 (36.5) 2.8

(37) 5.1 (41.2) 6.8 (44.2) 10.5 (50.9) 13.3 (55.9) 15.5 (59.9) 15.4 (59.7) 12.5 (54.5) 9.2 (48.6) 5.3 (41.5) 3.6 (38.5) 8.5 (47.3) Record low C (F) 14.6 (5.7) 14.7 (5.5) 9.1 (15.6) 3.5 (25.7) 0.1 (31.8) 3.1 (37.6) 6 (43) 6.3 (43.3) 1.8 (35.2) 3.1 (26.4) 14 (7) 23.9 (11) 23.9 (11) Precipitation mm (inches) 53.7 (2.114) 43.7 (1.72) 48.5 (1.909) 53 (2.09) 65 (2.56) 54.6 (2.15) 63.1 (2.484) 43 (1.69) 54.7 (2.154) 59.7 (2.35) 51.9 (2.043) 58.7 (2.311) 649.6 (25.575) Avg. precipitation days 10.2 9.3 6.9 8.5 9.5 9.7 10.7 Mean monthly sunshine hours 55.8 238.7 220.1 171.0 127.1 75.0 Percent possible sunshine 21 49 50 45 38 27 Source: Meteo France[77] Administration[edit source | editbeta]

10.4 111.5 86.8 49.6 30 20



8.6 201.5 43

8 219.0 45

130.2 174.0 1,748.8 35 42 37.1

Main articles: Administration of Paris and Arrondissements of Paris The lyse Palace, residence of the French President As the capital of France, Paris is the seat of France's national government. For the executive, the two chief officers each have their own official residences, which also serve as their offices. The President of France resides at the lyse Pal ace in the 8th arrondissement,[78] while the Prime Minister's seat is at the Htel Matignon in the 7th arrondissement.[79][80] Government ministries are located i n various parts of the city; many are located in the 7th arrondissement, near th e Matignon.

The two houses of the French Parliament are located on the left bank. The upper house, the Senate, meets in the Palais du Luxembourg in the 6th arrondissement, while the more important lower house, the Assemble Nationale, meets in the Palais Bourbon in the 7th arrondissement. The President of the Senate, the second-high est public official in France (the President of the Republic being the sole supe rior), resides in the "Petit Luxembourg", a smaller palace annex to the Palais d u Luxembourg.[81] The Conseil d'Etat France's highest courts are located in Paris. The Court of Cassation, the highes t court in the judicial order, which reviews criminal and civil cases, is locate d in the Palais de Justice on the le de la Cit,[82] while the Conseil d'tat, which provides legal advice to the executive and acts as the highest court in the admi nistrative order, judging litigation against public bodies, is located in the Pa lais Royal in the 1st arrondissement.[83] The Constitutional Council, an advisor y body with ultimate authority on the constitutionality of laws and government d ecrees, also meets in the Montpensier wing of the Palais Royal.[84] Each of Pari s' twenty arrondissements has its own town hall and a directly elected council ( conseil d'arrondissement), which, in turn, elects an arrondissement mayor.[85] A selection of members from each arrondissement council form the Council of Paris (conseil de Paris), which, in turn, elects the mayor of Paris. Paris and its region host the headquarters of many international organisations i ncluding UNESCO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the International Chamber of Commerce, the Paris Club, the European Space Agency, t he International Energy Agency, the Organisation internationale de la Francophon ie, the European Union Institute for Security Studies, the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, the International Exhibition Bureau and the Internation al Federation for Human Rights. Paris is today one of the world's leading busine ss and cultural centres and its influences in politics, education, entertainment , media, science, and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world' s major global cities.[86] Paris has numerous partner cities,[87][88] but accord ing to the motto "Only Paris is worthy of Rome; only Rome is worthy of Paris";[8 7][89] the only sister city of Paris is Rome[88] and vice-versa. City government[edit source | editbeta] Main articles: Paris mayors and Arrondissements of Paris Map of the arrondissements of Paris Paris has been a commune (municipality) since 1834 (and also briefly between 179 0 and 1795). At the 1790 division (during the French Revolution) of France into communes, and again in 1834, Paris was a city only half its modern size, compose d of 12 arrondisements,[90] but, in 1860, it annexed bordering communes, totally enclosing the surrounding towns (bourgs) either fully or partly, to create the new administrative map of 20 arrondissements (municipal districts) the city stil l has today. Every arrondissement has its own mayor, town hall, and special char acteristics. Demographics[edit source | editbeta]

Extent of the urban and metropolitan areas of Paris at the 1999 census. City proper, urban area, and metropolitan area population from 1800 to 2008. 2009 Census Paris Region[91][92] Country/territory of birth Population France Metropolitan France 9,052,085 Algeria Algeria 279,579 Portugal Portugal 242,850

Morocco Morocco 221,438 Tunisia Tunisia 103,443 GuadeloupeFlag.png Guadeloupe 79,471 Flag of Martinique.svg Martinique 74,898 Turkey Turkey 66,954 Italy Italy 56,849 China China 55,199 Mali Mali 52,870 Spain Spain 47,773 [show]Other countries/territories Main article: Demographics of Paris As of 2010, the population of Paris proper stood around 2.25 million,[93] while that of Paris unit urbaine, roughly corresponding to the city and the surrounding built-up area was about 10.5 million. Though substantially lower than at its pe ak in the early 1920s, the density of the city proper is one of the highest in t he developed world. Compared to the rest of France, the main features of the Par isian population are a high average income, relatively young median age, high pr oportion of international migrants and high economic inequalities. Similar chara cteristics are found in other large cities throughout the World. Population evolution[edit source | editbeta] The population of the city proper reached a maximum shortly after World War I, w ith nearly 3 millions inhabitants, and then decreased for the rest 20th century to the benefit of the suburb. Most of the decline occurred in the 1960s and 1970 s, when it fell from 2.8 to 2.2 million.[94] This trend toward de-densification of the centre was also observed in other large cities like London and New York C ity. Since the beginning of 21th century, the population of Paris has tended once aga in to rise, regaining more than 100,000 inhabitants between 1999 and 2009 despit e a persistent migratory deficit.[95] and a fecundity rate well below 2.[96] The population growth is explained by the high proportion of people in the 18-40 ag e range who are most likely to have children.[97] Density[edit source | editbeta] Paris population density reaches 22,000 inhabitants per square kilometer - 25,00 0 if the outlying Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes are excluded. It is one of the highest in the developed world, only slighly lower than Manhattan. The r esidential density tends to be higher in the Eastern part of the city, while the centre-West contains more offices.[98] Paris urban unit (built-up area) extends well beyond the city limits, and comprises all of the surrounding dpartements of Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, and Essonne, as well as substantial portions of Yvelines, Val-d'Oise, Seine-et-Marne and Essonne. It includes heavily builtup inner suburbs, with densities comparable to those of Paris itself, as well as more distant and more sparsely populated areas. The average density for the who le urban unit is below 4,000 /km2. Income[edit source | editbeta] Though low wages are relatively similar in all Metropolitan France, high wages a re higher and more numerous in the Paris region.[99] The median income for 2011 was around 25,000 euros in Paris against 22,200 for le-de-France and 19,200 for t he whole Metropolitan France.[100] It ranges from 16,400 in the 19th[101]arrondis sement to 41,800 in the 7th.[102] Generally speaking, incomes are higher in the Western part of the city and in the Western suburbs than in the Northern and Eas tern parts of the urban area. Migration[edit source | editbeta] About one third of foreign immigrants to France settle in the le-de-France region , about a third of which in Paris proper. Twenty percent of Paris population eit her is a foreigner or was a foreigner at birth, and 40% of children have at leas t one immigrant parent. Most immigrants come from Europe or Africa: out of the 3 00,000 foreigner officially living in Paris in 2010, 29,000 were Algerians, 28,0 00 were Portuguese and 21,000 were Moroccans.[103] Recent immigrants tend to be more diverse in terms of qualification: more of them have no qualification at al l and more or them have tertiary education.[104]

Though international migration rate is positive, population flows from the rest of France are more intense, and negative. They are heavily age dependent: while many retired people leave Paris for the Southern and Western parts of France, mi gration flows are positive in the 18-30 age range.[105] About one half of le-de-F rance population was not born in the region. Economy[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Economy of Paris The Paris Region is France's premier centre of economic activity, and with a 201 1 GDP of 607 billion[106] (US$845 billion), it is not only the wealthiest area of France, but has one of the highest GDPs in the world, after Tokyo, New York, Lo s Angeles and London, making it an engine of the global economy. Were it a count ry, it would rank as the seventeenth-largest economy in the world, larger than t he Turkish and Dutch economies and almost as large as Indonesia's.[107] While it s population accounted for 18.8 per cent of the total population of metropolitan France in 2011,[108] its GDP accounted for 31.0 per cent of metropolitan France 's GDP.[106] Wealth is heavily concentrated in the western suburbs of Paris, not ably Neuilly-sur-Seine, one of the wealthiest areas of France.[109] This mirrors a sharp political divide, with political conservatism being much more common to wards the western edge, whilst the political spectrum lies more to the left in t he east.[110] La Dfense, the largest dedicated business district in Europe.[111] The Parisian economy has been gradually shifting towards high-value-added servic e industries (finance, IT services, etc.) and high-tech manufacturing (electroni cs, optics, aerospace, etc.). However, in the 2009 European Green City Index, Pa ris was still listed as the second most "green" large city in Europe, after Berl in.[112] The Paris region's most intense economic activity through the central H auts-de-Seine dpartement and suburban La Dfense business district places Paris' ec onomic centre to the west of the city, in a triangle between the Opra Garnier, La Dfense and the Val de Seine. While the Paris economy is largely dominated by ser vices, it remains an important manufacturing powerhouse of Europe, especially in industrial sectors such as automobiles, aeronautics, and electronics. The Paris Region hosts the headquarters of 33 of the Fortune Global 500 companies.[113] Disneyland Paris The 1999 census indicated that, of the 5,089,170 persons employed in the Paris u rban area, 16.5 per cent worked in business services; 13.0 per cent in commerce (retail and wholesale trade); 12.3 per cent in manufacturing; 10.0 per cent in p ublic administrations and defence; 8.7 per cent in health services; 8.2 per cent in Transport and communications; 6.6 per cent in education, and the remaining 2 4.7 per cent in many other economic sectors. In the manufacturing sector, the la rgest employers were the electronic and electrical industry (17.9 per cent of th e total manufacturing workforce in 1999) and the publishing and printing industr y (14.0 per cent of the total manufacturing workforce), with the remaining 68.1 per cent of the manufacturing workforce distributed among many other industries. Tourism and tourist related services employ 6.2 per cent of Paris' workforce, a nd 3.6 per cent of all workers within the Paris Region. Unemployment in the Pari s "immigrant ghettos" ranges from 20 to 40 per cent, according to varying source s.[114] Paris receives around 28 million tourists per year,[115] of which 17 million are foreign visitors,[116] which makes the city and its region the world's leading tourism destination, housing four UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Its museums and m onuments are among its highest-esteemed attractions; tourism has motivated both the city and national governments to create new ones. The city's most prized mus eum, the Louvre, welcomes over eight million visitors a year, being by far the w orld's most-visited art museum.[117] The city's cathedrals are another main attr action: Notre Dame de Paris and the Basilique du Sacr-Coeur receive 12 million an

d eight million visitors, respectively. The Eiffel Tower, by far Paris' most fam ous monument, receives on average over six million visitors per year[118] and ha s received more than 200 million since its construction. Disneyland Paris is a m ajor tourist attraction for visitors to not only Paris but also the rest of Euro pe, with 14.5 million visitors in 2007. Much of Paris' hotel, restaurant and nig ht entertainment trades have become heavily dependent on tourism. Cityscape[edit source | editbeta]

Panorama of Paris as seen from the Eiffel Tower as full 180-degree view (river f lowing from north-east to south-west, right to left) Architecture[edit source | editbeta] See also: Haussmann's renovation of Paris and List of tallest buildings and stru ctures in the Paris region

Boulevard Montmartre, by Camille Pissarro (1897) Much of contemporary Paris is the result of the vast mid-19th century urban remo delling. For centuries, the city had been a labyrinth of narrow streets and half -timber houses, but, beginning in 1853, under the direction of Napolean III's prf et de Seine Georges Eugne Haussmann, entire quarters were levelled to make way fo r wide avenues lined with neo-classical stone buildings of bourgeoisie standing. The building code has seen few changes since the 1850s, and the Second Empire p lans are in many cases still followed. The "alignement" law is still in place, w hich regulates building faades of new constructions according to a pre-defined st reet width. A building's height is limited according to the width of the streets it borders, and under the regulation, it is almost impossible to get an approva l to build a taller building.[119] Churches are the oldest intact buildings in the city, and show high Gothic archi tecture at its bestthe Notre Dame cathedral and the church of Sainte-Chapelle are two of the most striking buildings in the city.[120] The latter half of the 19t h-century was an era of architectural inspiration, with buildings such as the Ba silique du Sacr-Cur, built in 1871, revealing a combination of Romanesque and neoByzantine design.[121] Paris' most famous architectural piece, the Eiffel Tower, was built as a temporary exhibit for the 1889 World Fair and remains an endurin g symbol of the capital with its iconic structure and position, towering over mu ch of the city.[122] Many of Paris' important institutions are located outside t he city limits; the financial business district is in La Dfense, and many of the educational institutions lie in the southern suburbs. Disneyland Paris, one of F rance's top tourist destinations, is located mostly in the commune of Chessy, 30 .6 km (19.0 mi) north-east of the city centre. Landmarks by district[edit source | editbeta] Main articles: Landmarks in the City of Paris, Paris districts, and List of visi tor attractions in Paris The 1st arrondissement forms much of the historic centre of Paris. The line of m onuments begins with the Louvre museum and continues through the Tuileries Garde ns, the Champs-lyses, and the Arc de Triomphe, centred in the Place de l'toile circ us. Les Halles were formerly Paris' central meat and produce market, and, since the late 1970s, have been a major shopping centre.[123] Place Vendme is famous fo r its deluxe hotels such as Htel Ritz, Htel de Rambouillet, The Westin Paris Vendme , Htel de Toulouse, Htel du Petit-Bourbon, Htel Meurice, and Htel Regina.[124] The 2nd arrondissement lies to the north of the 1st. The Boulevard des Capucines , Boulevard Montmartre, Boulevard des Italiens, Rue de Richelieu and Rue Saint-D enis are major roads running through the district. The 2nd arrondissement is the theatre district of Paris,[125] overlapping into the 3rd, and contains the Thtre des Capucines and Thtre-Muse des Capucines, Opra-Comique, Thtre des Varits, Thtre d fes-Parisiens, Thtre du Vaudeville and Thtre Feydeau. Also of note are the Acadmie Ju lian, Bibliothque nationale de France, Caf Anglais and Galerie Vivienne.[126]

The National Archives building of the Museum of French History, The 3rd arrondissement is located to the north-east of the 1st. Le Marais is a t rendy district spanning the 3rd and 4th arrondissements. It is architecturally v ery well preserved, and some of the oldest houses and buildings of Paris can be found there, with museums and theatres such as the Museum of French History, Muse Picasso, and Thtre du Marais.[127] It is a very culturally open place, known for its Chinese, Jewish and gay communities. The Place des Vosges, established in 16 12 to celebrate the wedding of Louis XIII to Anne of Austria lies at the border of the 3rd and 4th arrondissements and is the oldest planned square in Paris,[12 8] and the Place de la Rpublique was named after the constitutional change in Fra nce. The 4th arrondissement is located to the east of the 1st. Place de la Basti lle (4th, 11th and 12th arrondissements, right bank) is a district of great hist orical significance, for not just Paris, but also all of France. Because of its symbolic value, the square has often been a site of political demonstrations, an d it has a tall column commemorating the final resting place of the revolutionar ies killed in 1830 and 1848.[129] Bibliothque de l'Arsenal, La Force Prison, Cent re Georges Pompidou and Lyce Charlemagne are notable institutions here. The 12thcentury cathedral Notre Dame de Paris on the le de la Cit is one of the best-known landmarks of the 4th arrondissement, and there are numerous other churches loca ted here.[130]

Place de la Bastille The 5th arrondissement contains the Quartier Latin (also spanning the 6th), a 12 th-century scholastic centre formerly stretching between the left bank's Place M aubert and the Sorbonne campus of the University of Paris, its oldest and most f amous college.[131] It is known for its lively atmosphere and many bistros. Vari ous higher-education establishments, such as Collge de France, Collge Sainte-Barbe , Collge international de philosophie, cole Normale Suprieure, and others make it a major educational centre in Paris. The Panthon church is where many of France's illustrious men and women are buried.[132] The 6th arrondissement, to the south of the centre and Seine has numerous hotels and restaurants and also educational institutions. Hotels located in the district include Htel Au Manoir Saint Germai n des Prs, Htel de Chimay and Htel de Vendme, cafs such as Caf de Flore and Caf Procop , and academies and schools include the Acadmie franaise and the medical Acadmie Na tionale de Mdecine. A symbol of the Revolution are the two Statues of Liberty loc ated on the le aux Cygnes[133] in the Luxembourg Garden of the 6th arrondissement and on the Seine between the 15th and 16th arrondissements.[134] A larger versi on of the statues was sent as a gift from France to the United States in 1886 an d now stands in New York City's harbour.[135] The Odon-Thtre de l'Europe is located in this district, as is the Luxembourg Palace. The 7th arrondissement lies to the south-west of the centre, across the Seine. T he Eiffel Tower is the most famous landmark of the 7th arrondissement and of Par is itself, built as "temporary" construction by Gustave Eiffel for the 1889 Univ ersal Exposition but was never dismantled and is now an enduring symbol of Paris . The Axe historique (Historical axis) is a line of monuments, buildings, and th oroughfares that run in a roughly straight line from the city centre westwards.[ 136] Many hotels are located in this district including Htel Biron and Htel de Con ti. The Invalides museum is the burial place for many great French soldiers, inc luding Napoleon, and the 18th-century military school, Ecole Militaire, is also located here.[137] Avenue des Champs-lyses during Christmas The Champs-lyses is a 17th-century avenue connecting the Place de la Concorde and the Napoleonic Arc de Triomphe, which straddles the 8th, the 16th and 17th arron disements. Avenue Montaigne is a major tourist attraction and shopping street, h osting labels such as Christian Lacroix,[138] Sephora, Lancel, Louis Vuitton and Guerlain, as well as Renault, Toyota and numerous small souvenir outlets, and i

s perhaps the most well-known street in France.[139] The Canadian and American e mbassies and many hotels lie in the 8th arrondissement, including Htel de Crillon , Htel Le Bristol Paris, Htel de la Marine, Htel de Marigny as well as the Les Amba ssadeurs, Ledoyen, and Taillevent restaurants. The 9th arrondissement lies north of the centre and is a continuation of the the atre and museum district with theatres including the den-Thtre, Thtre du Vaudeville, and Thtre de Paris, museums such as Muse Grvin, Muse du Parfum, and Muse national Gust ave Moreau. Avenue de l'Opra is the area around the Opra Garnier and the location of the capital's densest concentration of department stores and office buildings including the Printemps and Galeries Lafayette department stores, and the Paris headquarters of BNP Paribas and American Express.[140] The Palais Garnier, buil t in the later Second Empire period, houses the Paris Opera and the Paris Opera Ballet.[141] The 10th arrondissement lies north-east of the centre and is a continuation of t he theatre district with many theatres including Thtre Antoine-Simone Berriau, Thtre des Bouffes du Nord and Thtre de la Renaissance. Also of note is Muse de l'ventail, Hpital Saint-Louis, The Kurdish Digital Library, Lariboisire Hospital, Lyce EdgarPoe, Prison Saint-Lazare and the Saint Laurent and Saint-Vincent-de-Paul churche s.[142] The Alhambra music hall opened in 2008. The 11th arrondissement is locat ed in the east, west of the 20th arrondissement. It contains the squares Place d e la Nation, Place de la Rpublique, Place du 8 Fvrier 1962, the theatres Bataclan, Thtre des Folies-Dramatiques, Thtre de l'Ambigu-Comique, Thtre des Dlassements-Comiqu s, and Thtre des Funambules, the museums Muse du Fumeur and Muse dith Piaf,[143] and La Roquette Prisons. Opra Bastille The 12th arrondissement in the south-eastern suburbs of Paris is separated from the 13th by the Seine with several bridges. The district contains the Place de l a Bastille and Place de la Nation (bordering the 11th), Picpus Cemetery and Parc de Bercy, and the Boulevard de la Bastille runs through it. A 12th-century conv ent was located here, Saint-Antoine-des-Champs, and today the Buddhist temples K agyu-Dzong and Pagode de Vincennes are located in the 12th arrondissement.[144] Opra Bastille, the main facility of the Paris National Opera, was inaugurated in 1989 under the Uruguayan architect Carlos Ott as part of President Franois Mitter rands Grands Travaux.[145] The 13th and 14th arrondissements lie in the southern suburbs of Paris. The 13th , to the south-east contains the neighbourhoods of Chinatown, Floral City, Butte -aux-Cailles, and the Italie 2 shopping centre with some 130 stores.[146] Instit utions such as the Bibliothque nationale de France and cole Estienne are located h ere. In the 14th is Montparnasse a historic left bank area famous for artists' s tudios, music halls, and caf life.[147] The Montparnasse Cemetery, large Montparn asse Bienvene Mtro station, Thtre Montparnasse, and the lone Tour Montparnasse skysc raper are located there. The 15th arrondissement marks the south-western part of the city. The Boulevard du Montparnasse passes through here and it is has several bridges such as Pont a val, Pont du Garigliano, and Pont Mirabeau. A number of institutions are based i n the 15th arrondissement including the hospitals Hpital Europen Georges-Pompidou and Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital, the Australian embassy, and the French auto mobile company Citron had several factories along the Quai Andr-Citron and in the P arc Andr Citron area. The Palais des Sports was built in 1960 to replace the old V el dHiv and has hosted many notable music concerts over the years.[148] Val de Sei ne, straddling the 15th arrondissement and the communes of Issy-les-Moulineaux a nd Boulogne-Billancourt to the south-west of central Paris is the new media hub of Paris and France, hosting the headquarters of most of France's TV networks su ch as TF1, France 2 and Canal+.[149] Paris Saint-Germain F.C. against Borussia Dortmund at the Parc des Princes The 16th arrondissement is the largest district of Paris, marking the western si

de of the city, which extends beyond the left bank of the Seine. Paris Saint-Ger main F.C. are based here and play their home games at the Parc des Princes, and Stade Roland Garros hosts the annual French Open tennis tournament. Tennis Club de Paris, the Stade de Paris rugby club, Longchamp Racecourse, and the Auteuil H ippodrome, a horse racing venue established in 1873 and which hosted the equestr ian events of the 1924 Summer Olympics, are based in the 16th arrondissement.[15 0] A number of organizations are based in the 16th arrondissement, including Rad io France and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, and nu merous museums and theatres.[151] Place Charles de Gaulle and the Arc de Triomphe The 17th arrondissement, to the west of the 18th arrondissment marks the north-w estern suburbs of the city. It has several squares, including Place Charles de G aulle (with the Arc de Triomphe, bordering 16th and 8th), Place de Wagram, Place des Ternes and Square des Batignolles, the latter of which is in the neighbourh ood of Batignolles, which also contains the Batignolles Cemetery and Parc Clichy -Batignolles. La Dfense, beyond the 17th arrondissement (straddling the communes of Courbevoie, Puteaux, and Nanterre, 2.5 km (2 mi) west of the city proper), is a key suburb of Paris with most of the tallest skyscrapers in the Paris urban a rea. Initiated by the French government in 1958, it now hosts 3,500,000 m2 (37,6 73,686 sq ft) of offices, making it one of the largest business centres in the w orld.[152] Its most emblematic building, the Grande Arche (Great Arch), houses a part of the Ministry of Ecology.[153][154] Montmartre lies in the 18th arrondis sement on the northern suburbs of the city, a historic area on the Butte, home t o the Basilique du Sacr-Cur, and associated with artists, studios and cafs.[155] The 19th arrondissement and 20th arrondissements mark the north-east/eastern sub urbs of the city, and contain the neighbourhood of Belleville and also borders t he commune of the same name. During the first half of the 20th century, many imm igrants settled in this area: German Jews fleeing the Third Reich in 1933, and S paniards in 1939, and it became a "Jewish ghetto".[156] Many Algerians and Tunis ian Jews arrived in the early 1960s. Belleville is home to one of the largest co ngregations of the Reformed Church of France, and contains the glise Rforme de Bell eville. The 19th contains the Conservatoire de Paris, a prestigious music and da nce school, established in 1795,[157]. Several canals run through the 19th arron dissement including Canal de l'Ourcq and Canal Saint-Denis, and the Place de la Bataille-de-Stalingrad lies at their intersection, commemorating the Battle of S talingrad. The Znith de Paris, one of the largest concert venues in Paris with a capacity of 6,293 people, is located here.[158] Parks and gardens[edit source | editbeta] Main article: List of parks and gardens in Paris Jardin du Luxembourg Tuileries Garden Two of Paris' oldest and most famous gardens are the Tuileries Garden, created i n the 16th century for a palace on the banks of the Seine near the Louvre,[159] and the left bank Luxembourg Garden, another former private garden belonging to a chteau built for Marie de' Medici in 1612.[160] The Jardin des Plantes, created by Louis XIII's doctor Guy de La Brosse for the cultivation of medicinal plants , is Paris' only botanical garden.[161] Several of the gardens were created duri ng the Second Empire.[162] The former suburban parks of Montsouris, Parc des But tes Chaumont, and Parc Monceau were created by Napoleon III's engineer Jean-Char les Alphand. Another project was executed under the orders of Baron Haussmann fo r the re-sculpting of Paris' western Bois de Boulogne forest-parklands;[162] The Bois de Vincennes, on the city's opposite eastern end, received a similar treat ment in the years which followed.[162] Water and sanitation[edit source | editbeta]

A view of the Seine from the Pont Neuf Paris in its early history had only the Seine and Bivre rivers for water. From 18 09, the canal de l'Ourcq provided Paris with water from less-polluted rivers to the north-east of the capital.[163] From 1857, the civil engineer Eugne Belgrand, under Baron Haussmann, oversaw the construction of a series of new aqueducts th at brought water from locations all around the city to several reservoirs built atop the Capital's highest points of elevation.[164] From then on, the new reser voir system became Paris' principal source of drinking water, and the remains of the old system, pumped into lower levels of the same reservoirs, were from then on used for the cleaning of Paris' streets. This system is still a major part o f Paris' modern water-supply network. Today Paris has over 2,400 km (1,491 mi) o f underground passageways[165] dedicated to the evacuation of Paris' liquid wast es. In 1982, the then mayor, Jacques Chirac, introduced the motorcycle-mounted Motoc rotte to remove dog faeces from Paris streets.[166] The project was abandoned in 2002 for a new and better enforced local law, under the terms of which dog owne rs can be fined up to 500 euros for not removing their dog faeces.[167] The air pollution in Paris, from the point of view of particulate matter (pm10), is the highest in France, with 38 g/m.[168] Cemeteries[edit source | editbeta] The Paris Catacombs hold the remains of approximately 6 million people In Paris' Roman era, its main cemetery was located to the outskirts of the left bank settlement, but this changed with the rise of Catholicism, where most every inner-city church had adjoining burial grounds for use by their parishes. With Paris' growth many of these, particularly the city's largest cemetery, les Innoc ents, were filled to overflowing, creating quite unsanitary conditions for the c apital. When inner-city burials were condemned from 1786, the contents of all Pa ris' parish cemeteries were transferred to a renovated section of Paris' stone m ines outside the "Porte d'Enfer" city gate, today place Denfert-Rochereau in the 14th arrondissement.[169][170] The process of moving bones from Cimetire des Inn ocents to the Catacombs took place between 1786 and 1814;[171] part of the netwo rk of tunnels and remains can be visited today on the official tour of the Catac ombs. After a tentative creation of several smaller suburban cemeteries, the Pre fect Nicholas Frochot under Napoleon Bonaparte provided a more definitive soluti on in the creation of three massive Parisian cemeteries outside the city limitsl ,[172]. Open from 1804, these were the cemeteries of Pre Lachaise, Montmartre, Mo ntparnasse, and later Passy; these cemeteries became inner-city once again when Paris annexed all communes to the inside of its much larger ring of suburban for tifications in 1860. New suburban cemeteries were created in the early 20th cent ury: The largest of these are the Cimetire Parisien de Saint-Ouen, the Cimetire Pa risien de Bobigny-Pantin, the Cimetire Parisien d'Ivry, and the Cimetire Parisien de Bagneux. Culture[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Culture of Paris Art[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Art in Paris Painting and sculpture[edit source | editbeta] Pierre Mignard, self-portrait For centuries, Paris has attracted artists from around the world, arriving in th e city to educate themselves and to seek inspiration from its vast pool of artis tic resources and galleries. As a result, Paris has acquired a reputation as the "City of Art".[173] Italian artists were a profound influence on the developmen t of art in Paris in the 16th and 17th centuries, particular in sculpture and re

liefs. Painting and sculpture became the pride of the French monarchy and the Fr ench royals commissioned many Parisian artists to adorn their palaces during the French Baroque and Classicism era. Sculptors such as Girardon, Coysevox and Cou stou acquired a reputation were being the finest artists in the royal court in 1 7th century France. Pierre Mignard became first painter to the king during this period. In 1648, the Academy of Painting and Sculpture was established to accomm odate for the dramatic interest in art in the capital. This served as France's t op art school until 1793.[174] An 1886 Van Gogh painting "Pont du Carrousel", now in the Louvre Paris was in its artistic prime in the 19th century and early 20th century, when Paris had a colony of artists established in the city, with art schools associa ted with some of the finest painters of the times. The French Revolution and pol itical and social change in France had a profound influence on art in the capita l. Paris was central to the development of Romanticism in art, with painters suc h as Gericault.[174] Impressionism, Expressionism, Fauvism and Cubism movements evolved in Paris.[174] In the late 19th century many artists in the French provi nces and worldwide flocked to Paris to exhibit their works in the numerous salon s and expositions and make a name for themselves.[175] Painters such as Pablo Pi casso, Henry Matisse, Vincent Van Gogh, Paul Czanne, Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleiz es, Mara Blanchard, Henri Rousseau, Amedeo Modigliani and many others became asso ciated with Paris. Montparnasse and Montmartre became centers for artistic produ ction. The Golden Age of the Paris School ended with World War II, but Paris rem ains extremely important to world art and art schooling, with institutions rangi ng from the Paris College of Art to the Paris American Academy, specialised in t eaching fashion and interior design.[176] Museums[edit source | editbeta] Main article: List of museums in Paris The Louvre The Louvre is the world's largest and most famous museum, housing many works of art, including the Mona Lisa (La Joconde) and the Venus de Milo statue.[177] The re are hundreds of museums in Paris. Works by Pablo Picasso and Auguste Rodin ar e found in the Muse Picasso[178] and the Muse Rodin,[179] respectively, while the artistic community of Montparnasse is chronicled at the Muse du Montparnasse.[180 ] Starkly apparent with its service-pipe exterior, the Centre Georges Pompidou, also known as Beaubourg, houses the Muse National d'Art Moderne.[181] Art and artefacts from the Middle Ages and Impressionist eras are kept in the Mu se de Cluny and the Muse d'Orsay,[182] respectively, the former with the prized ta pestry cycle The Lady and the Unicorn. Paris' newest (and third-largest) museum, the Muse du quai Branly, opened its doors in June 2006 and houses art from Afric a, Asia, Oceania, and the Americas, including many from Mesoamerican cultures.[1 83] Photography[edit source | editbeta] Paris has attracted communities of photographers, and was an important centre fo r the development of photography. Numerous photographers achieved renown for the ir photography of Paris, including Eugene Atget, noted for his depictions of ear ly-19th-century street scenes; the early 20th-century surrealist movement's Man Ray; Robert Doisneau, noted for his playful pictures of 1950's Parisian life; Ma rcel Bovis, noted for his night scenes, and others such as Jacques-Henri Lartigu e and Cartier-Bresson.[174] Paris also become the hotbed for an emerging art for m in the late 19th century, poster art, advocated by the likes of Gavarni.[174] Literature[edit source | editbeta] Victor Hugo, one of Paris' greatest authors Countless books and novels have been set in Paris. Victor Hugo's The Hunchback o f Notre Dame, is one of the best known. The book was received so rapturously tha

t it inspired a series of renovations of its setting, the Notre Dame de Paris.[1 84] Another of Victor Hugo's works, Les Misrables is set in Paris, against the ba ckdrop of slums and penury.[185] Another immortalised French author, Honor de Bal zac, completed a good number of his works in Paris, including his masterpiece La Comdie humaine.[186] Other Parisian authors (by birth or residency) include Alex andre Dumas (The Three Musketeers, The Count of Monte Cristo, The Vicomte of Bra gelonne: Ten Years Later),[187] A painting detailing a Parisian literary salon The American novelist Ernest Hemingway, like many other expatriate writers, emig rated to Paris, where he was introduced to such varying cultural figures as Pabl o Picasso, Juan Gris, James Joyce, and Gertrude Stein, who became his mentor. Wh ile in Paris, he produced works including The Sun Also Rises and Indian Camp.[18 8] The Irish author James Joyce emigrated to Paris and lived there for more than 20 years, concluding his Ulysses, in the city. He also produced numerous poems while in Paris, published in collections including Pomes Penyeach, and Finnegans Wake.[189] Another Irish author to have emigrated to Paris is Samuel Beckett, r eferred to as either the last modernist or the first postmodernist.[190] Entertainment and performing arts[edit source | editbeta] The Opra Garnier Theatre[edit source | editbeta] The largest opera houses of Paris are the 19th-century Opra Garnier (historical P aris Opra) and modern Opra Bastille; the former tends towards the more classic bal lets and operas, and the latter provides a mixed repertoire of classic and moder n.[129] In middle of the 19th century, there were three other active and competi ng opera houses: the Opra-Comique (which still exists), Thtre-Italien, and Thtre Lyri que (which in modern times changed its profile and name to Thtre de la Ville). Theatre traditionally has occupied a large place in Parisian culture. This still holds true today, and many of its most popular actors today are also stars of F rench television. Some of Paris' major theatres include Bobino, the Thtre Mogador, and the Thtre de la Gat-Montparnasse.[191] Some Parisian theatres have also doubled as concert halls. Many of France's greatest musical legends, such as dith Piaf, Maurice Chevalier, Georges Brassens, and Charles Aznavour, found their fame in P arisian concert halls such as Le Lido, Bobino, l'Olympia and le Splendid. Music[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Music in Paris A musette accordion player In the late 12th century, a school of polyphony was established at the Notre-Dam e. A group of Parisian aristocrats, known as Trouvres, became known for their poe try and songs. During the reign of Francois I, the lute became popular in the Fr ench court, and a national musical printing house was established.[174] During t he Renaissance era, the French royals "disported themselves in masques, ballets, allegorical dances, recitals, opera and comedy", and composers such as Jean-Bap tiste Lully became popular.[174] The Conservatoire de Musique de Paris was found ed in 1795.[192] By 1870, Paris had become the most important centre for ballet music, and composers such as Debussy and Ravel contributed much to symphonic mus ic.[174] Django Reinhardt Bal-musette is a style of French music and dance that first became popular in Pa ris in the 1870s and 1880s; by 1880 Paris had some 150 dance halls in the workin g-class neighbourhoods of the city.[193] Patrons danced the bourre to the accompa niment of the cabrette (a bellows-blown bagpipe locally called a "musette") and often the vielle roue (hurdy-gurdy) in the cafs and bars of the city. Parisian an

d Italian musicians who played the accordion adopted the style and established t hemselves in Auvergnat bars especially in the 19th arrondissement,[194] and the romantic sounds of the accordion has since become one of the musical icons of th e city. Paris became a major centre for jazz, and still attracts jazz musicians from all around the world to its clubs and cafes.[195] Paris is the spiritual home of gypsy jazz in particular, and many of the Parisia n jazzmen who developed in the first half of the 20th century began by playing B al-musette in the city.[194] Django Reinhardt rose to fame in Paris, having move d to the 18th arrondissement in a caravan as a young boy, and performed with vio linist Stphane Grappelli and their Quintette du Hot Club de France in the 1930s a nd 40s.[196] Some of the finest manouche musicians in the world are found here p laying the cafes of the city at night.[196] Some of the more notable jazz venues include the New Morning, Le Sunset, La Chope des Puces and Bouquet du Nord.[195 ][196] Several yearly festivals take place in Paris, including the Paris Jazz Fe stival and the rock festival Rock en Seine.[197] The Orchestre de Paris was esta blished in 1967.[198] Cinema[edit source | editbeta] See also: List of films set in Paris Le Grand Rex tower Antoine Lumire launched the world's first projection, the Cinematograph, in Paris on 28 December 1895.[199] Many of Paris' concert/dance halls were transformed i nto movie theatres when the media became popular beginning in the 1930s. Later, most of the largest cinemas were divided into multiple, smaller rooms. Paris' la rgest cinema today is by far Le Grand Rex theatre with 2,800 seats,[200] whereas other cinemas all have fewer than 1,000 seats. There is now a trend toward mode rn multiplexes that contain more than 10 or 20 screens. Parisians tend to share the same movie-going trends as many of the world's globa l cities, that is to say with a dominance of Hollywood-generated film entertainm ent. French cinema comes a close second, with major directors (ralisateurs) such as Claude Lelouch, Franois Truffaut, Jean-Luc Godard, Claude Chabrol, and Luc Bes son, and the more slapstick/popular genre with director Claude Zidi as an exampl e. European and Asian films are also widely shown and appreciated.[201] On 2 Feb ruary 2000, Philippe Binant realised the first digital cinema projection in Euro pe, with the DLP CINEMA technology developed by Texas Instruments, in Paris.[202 ] Cuisine[edit source | editbeta] See also: French cuisine Caf Les Deux Magots in Saint-Germain-des-Prs Paris is renowned for its haute cuisine, food meticulously prepared and presente d, often accompanied by fine wines, served and celebrated by expensive restauran ts and hotels. A city of culinary finesse, as of 2013 Paris has 85 Michelin-star red restaurants, second in the world to only Tokyo,[203] and many of the world's leading chefs operate restaurants serving French cuisine in Paris such as Alain Ducasse and Jol Robuchon.[204] As of 2013, Paris has ten 3-Michelin-star restaur ants, the most coveted award in the restaurant business; these include Ducasse's Alain Ducasse au Plaza Athne, Alain Passards's L'Arpge, Yannick Alleno's Le Meuric e in the Htel Meurice, Eric Frechon's restaurant at Hotel le Bristol, and Pierre Gagnaire.[204] Jol Robuchon, the chef with the most Michelin stars worldwide, run s L'Atelier de Jol Robuchon and La Table de Jol Robuchon in Paris, both of which a re 2 Michelin-star restaurants.[204]Many aspiring chefs come to Paris to learn h ow to cook from the best of the best, and Paris has numerous academies and schoo ls for chefs to learn with hands-on experience.[citation needed] The growth of the railway in the late 19th century led to the capital becoming a focal point for immigration from France's many different regions and gastronomi cal cultures. As a result, cuisine in the city is diverse, and almost any cuisin e can be consumed in the city, with over 9,000 restaurants.[205] Hotel building

was another result of widespread travel and tourism in the 19th century, especia lly Paris' late-19th-century Expositions Universelles (World's Fairs). Of the mo st luxurious of these, the Htel Ritz appeared in the Place Vendme in 1898,[206][20 7] and the Htel de Crillon opened its doors on the north side of the Place de la Concorde, starting in 1909. Fashion[edit source | editbeta] IFA Paris Fashion show, 2012 Paris is a global hub of fashion and has been referred to as the "international capital of style".[208] It ranks alongside New York, Milan and London as a major centre for the fashion industry. Paris is noted for its haute couture tailoring , usually made from high-quality, expensive fabric and sewn with extreme attenti on to detail and finished by the most experienced and capable seamstresses, ofte n using time-consuming, hand-executed techniques. The twice-yearly Paris Fashion Week, an apparel trade show, is one of the most important events on the fashion calendar and attracts fashion aficionados from all around the world. Establishe d in 1976, the Paris Fashion Institute offers courses in design, manufacturing, marketing, merchandising, and retailing.[209] International Fashion Academy Pari s is an international fashion school, established in 1982 and headquartered in P aris, with branches in Shanghai and Istanbul.[210] French Republican Guard on Bastille Day Paris has a large number of high-end fashion boutiques, and many top designers h ave their flagship stores in the city, such as Louis Vuitton's store, Christian Dior's 1200 square foot store and Sephora's 1500 square foot store.[211] Printem ps has the largest shoe and beauty departments in Europe.[211] Sonia Rykel is co nsidered to the "grand dame of French fashion" and "synonymous with Parisian fas hion", with clothes which are embraced by "left bank fashionistas".[211] Petit B ateau is cited as one of the most popular high street stores in the city, and th e Azzedine Alaa store on the Rue de Moussy has been cited as a "shoe lover's have n".[211] Colette is noted for its "brick-and-click" clothing and fashion accesso ries, and Cartier the jeweller is also based in Paris. Cartier has a long histor y of sales to royalty and celebrities,[212] and King Edward VII of England once referred to Cartier as "the jeweller of kings and the king of jewellers."[213] G uerlain, one of the world's oldest existing perfumeries, has its headquarters in the north-western suburb of Levallois-Perret. Festivals[edit source | editbeta] The earliest grand festival held on 14 July 1790 was the Federation of July fest ival at the Champ de Mars. Since then many festivals have been held such as the Festival of Liberty in 1774, the Festival for the Abolition of Slavery in 1793, the festival of Supreme Being in 1794, and the 1798 funeral festival on the deat h of Hoche. On every anniversary of the Republic, the Children of the Fatherland festival is held.[214] Bastille day, a celebration of the storming of the Basti lle in 1789, is the biggest festival in the city, held every year on 14 July. Th is includes a parade of colourful floats and costumes along with armed forces ma rch in the Champs lyses which concludes with a display of fireworks.[215] The Pari s Beach festival known as the "Paris Plage" is a festive event, which lasts from the middle of July to the middle of August, when the bank of the River Seine is converted into a temporary beach with sand and deck chairs and palm trees.[215] Religion[edit source | editbeta] Left: Notre-Dame de Paris; right:Chapel of the Invalides. See also: List of religious buildings in Paris Like the rest of France, Paris has been predominantly Roman Catholic since the M iddle Ages, though religious attendance is now low. Political instability in the Third Republic was a result of disagreements about the role of the Church in so ciety.[216] The French Constitution makes no mention of the religious affiliatio

ns of its people and allows the freedom to practice any religion of their choice provided it was done as a private matter.[217] Some of the notable churches in Paris are: Notre-Dame de Paris, the most famous Gothic structure (the cathedral where Napoleon declared himself emperor in 1804) ;[218] La Madeleine (Church of St. Mary Magdalene), built in 1806 in the form of a Roman temple;[219] Sainte-Chapelle, built in 124750 in Gothic Rayonnant style and damaged in the French Revolution, it was restored in the 19th century by Vio llet-le-Duc;[220] Chapel of Les Invalides (Church of Saint-Louis), built between 167191;[221] Sacr-Coeur Basilica (Basilique du Sacr-Coeur), built from 18761912;[22 2] Saint-Sulpice (16461776); Le Panthon (175697), in Neoclassical style; and Basili que Saint-Denis (1136).[223] Sports[edit source | editbeta]

Stade de France Paris' most popular sport clubs are the association football club Paris Saint-Ge rmain FC, the basketball team Paris-Levallois Basket, and the rugby union club S tade Franais. The 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located in Saint-Denis.[224] It is used for football, rugby union and track and field athletics. It hosts annually French national rugby team's home matches of the Six Nations Championship, French national association football team for friendlies and major tournaments qualifiers, and several important matches of th e Stade Franais rugby team.[224] In addition to Paris Saint-Germain FC, the city has a number of other amateur football clubs: Paris FC, Red Star, RCF Paris and Stade Franais Paris. 2010 Tour de France, Champs Elyses Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Olympic Games and was venue for the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups and for the 2007 Rugby World Cup. Although the starting point a nd the route of the famous Tour de France varies each year, the final stage alwa ys finishes in Paris, and, since 1975, the race has finished on the Champs-Elyses .[225] The 2006 UEFA Champions League Final between Arsenal and FC Barcelona was played in the Stade de France.[226] Paris hosted the 2007 Rugby World Cup final at Stade de France on 20 October 2007.[227] Tennis is another popular sport in Paris and throughout France; the French Open, held every year on the red clay of the Roland Garros National Tennis Centre,[228] is one of the four Grand Slam ev ents of the world professional tennis tour. The city has also hosted the Paris C ity Chess Championship since 1925, and has also hosted the Paris 1867 chess tour nament and Paris 1900 chess tournament. Education[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Education in Paris Sorbonne Paris is the dpartement with the highest proportion of highly educated people. In 2009, around 40 per cent of Parisians hold a diploma licence-level diploma or h igher, the highest proportion in France,[229] while 13 per cent have no diploma, the third lowest percentage in France. In the early 9th century, the emperor Charlemagne mandated all churches to give lessons in reading, writing and basic arithmetic to their parishes, and cathedra ls to give a higher-education in the finer arts of language, physics, music, and theology; at that time, Paris was already one of France's major cathedral towns and beginning its rise to fame as a scholastic centre. By the early 13th centur y, the le de la Cit Notre-Dame cathedral school had many famous teachers, and the controversial teachings of some of these led to the creation of a separate left bank Sainte-Genevieve University that would become the centre of Paris' scholast ic Latin Quarter best represented by the Sorbonne university.[230] Twelve centur

ies later, education in Paris and the le-de-France region employs approximately 3 30,000 persons, 170,000 of whom are teachers and professors teaching approximate ly 2.9 million children and students in around 9,000 primary, secondary, and hig her education schools and institutions.[231] The Lyce Louis-le-Grand Paris is home to several of France's most prestigious high-schools such as Lyce L ouis-le-Grand, Lyce Henri-IV, Lyce Janson de Sailly and Lyce Condorcet. Other highschools of international renown in the Paris area include the Lyce International de Saint Germain-en-Laye and the cole Active Bilingue Jeannine Manuel. The Paris region hosts France's highest concentration of the prestigious grandes coles specialised centres of higher-education outside the public university stru cture. The prestigious public universities are usually considered grands tablisse ments. Most of the grandes coles were relocated to the suburbs of Paris in the 19 60s and 1970s, in new campuses much larger than the old campuses within the crow ded city of Paris, though the cole Normale Suprieure has remained on rue d'Ulm in the 5th arrondissement.[232] There are a high number of engineering schools, led by the prestigious Paris Institute of Technology (ParisTech) which comprises se veral colleges such as cole Polytechnique, cole des Mines, AgroParisTech, Tlcom Pari s, Arts et Mtiers, and cole des Ponts et Chausses. There are also many business sch ools, including INSEAD, ESSEC, HEC and ESCP Europe. The administrative school su ch as ENA has been relocated to Strasbourg, the political science school Science s-Po is still located in Paris' 7th arrondissement. The Parisian school of journ alism CELSA department of the Paris-Sorbonne University is located in Neuilly-su r-Seine.[233] Libraries[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Libraries in Paris Sainte-Genevive Library The Bibliothque nationale de France (BnF) operates public libraries in Paris, amo ng them the Franois-Mitterrand Library, Richelieu Library, Louvois, Opra Library, and Arsenal Library.[234] There are 74 public libraries in Paris, including specialised collections spread throughout the city. In the 4th arrondissement, the Forney Library is dedicated to the decorative arts; the Arsenal Library occupies a former military building , and has a large collection on French literature; and the Bibliothque historique de la ville de Paris, also located in Le Marais, contains the Paris historical research service. Designed by Henri Labrouste and built in the mid-1800s, the Sainte-Genevive Libra ry hosts a rare books and manuscripts section.[235] Bibliothque Mazarine, in the 6th arrondissement, is the oldest public library in France. The Mdiathque Musicale Mahler in the 8th arrondissement opened in 1986 and contains collections relate d to music while while the four glass towers of the Franois Mitterrand Library (n icknamed Trs Grande Bibliothque) stand out in the 13th arrondissement thanks to a design by Dominique Perrault.[235] There are several academic libraries and archives in Paris. The Sorbonne Library in the 5th arrondissement is the largest university library in Paris. In additi on to the Sorbonne location, there are branches in Malesherbes, Clignancourt-Cha mpionnet, Michelet-Institut dArt et dArchologie, Serpente-Maison de la Recherche, a nd Institut des Etudes Ibriques.[236] Other academic libraries include Interuniversity Pharmaceutical Library, Leonard o da Vinci University Library, Ecole des Mines Library, and the Ren Descartes Uni versity Library.[237] Media[edit source | editbeta]

Agence France-Presse Headquarters in Paris Paris is home to numerous newspapers, magazines and publications including Le Mo nde, Le Figaro, Libration, Le Nouvel Observateur, Le Canard enchan, La Croix, Paris cope, Le Parisien, Les chos, Paris Match, Rseaux & Tlcoms, Reuters France, and L'Off iciel des Spectacles.[238] France's two most prestigious newspapers, Le Monde an d Le Figaro, are the centrepieces of the Parisian publishing industry.[239] Agen ce France-Presse is France's oldest, and one of the world's oldest, continually operating news agencies. AFP, as it is colloquially abbreviated, maintains its h eadquarters in Paris, as it has since 1835.[240] France 24 is a television news channel owned and operated by the French government, and is based in Paris.[241] Another news agency is France Diplomatie, owned and operated by the Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs, and pertains solely to diplomatic news and occurr ences.[242] The most-viewed network in France, TF1, is based in Paris, along with a plentifu l number of others, including France 2, France 3, Canal+, France 5, M6, Arte, D8 , W9, NT1, NRJ 12, La Chane parlementaire, France 4, BFM TV, and Gulli, along wit h a multitude of others.[243] Radio France, France's public radio broadcaster, a nd its various channels, are based in Paris. Radio France Internationale, anothe r public broadcaster is also based in the city.[244] The national postal carrier of France, including overseas territories, is known as La Poste. Headquartered in the 15th arrondissement, it is responsible for postal service in France and P aris.[245] Healthcare[edit source | editbeta]

The Htel-Dieu de Paris, the oldest hospital in the city Most health care and emergency medical service in the city of Paris and its subu rbs are provided by the Assistance publique - Hpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), a public hospital system that employs more than 90,000 people (including practitioners, s upport personnel, and administrators) in 44 hospitals.[246] It is the largest ho spital system in Europe. It provides health care, teaching, research, prevention , education and emergency medical service in 52 branches of medicine. It employs more than 90,000 people (including 15,800 physicians) in 44 hospitals and recei ves more than 5.8 million annual patient visits.[246] One of the most notable hospitals is the Htel-Dieu, said to have been founded in 651, the oldest hospital in the city.[247] Other hospitals include the American Hospital of Paris, Bictre Hospital, Hpital de la Charit, Hpital Cochin, the Curie In stitute, Hpital Europen Georges-Pompidou, Lariboisire Hospital, Necker-Enfants Mala des Hospital, Piti-Salptrire Hospital and Hpital Saint-Louis. Transport[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Transport in Paris See also: List of railway stations in Paris Left: Thalys trains with service to Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany; right: Gare du Nord railway station is the busiest in Europe Paris is a major rail, highway, and air transport hub. The Syndicat des transpor ts d'le-de-France (STIF), formerly Syndicat des transports parisiens (STP) overse es the transit network in the region.[248] The syndicate coordinates public tran sport and contracts it out to the RATP (operating 654 bus lines, the Mtro, three tramway lines, and sections of the RER), the SNCF (operating suburban rails, one tramway line and the other sections of the RER) and the Optile consortium of pr ivate operators managing 1,070 minor bus lines. The city's subway system, the Mtro, was opened in 1900 and is the most widely use d Transport system within the city proper, carrying about 9 million passengers d aily.[249] It comprises 300 stations (384 stops) connected by 214 km (133.0 mi) of rails, and 16 lines, identified by numbers from 1 to 14, with two minor lines , 3bis and 7bis. An additional express network, the RER, with five lines (A, B,

C, D, & E), connects to more-distant parts of the urban area, with 257 stops and 587 km (365 mi) of rails.[249] Over 26.5 billion will be invested over the next 15 years to extend the Mtro network into the suburbs.[249] In addition, the Paris region is served by a light rail network of four lines, the tramway: Line T1 ru ns from Saint-Denis to Noisy-le-Sec, line T2 runs from La Dfense to Issy-Val de S eine, line T3 runs from Pont du Garigliano to Porte d'Ivry,[250] all of which ar e run by the Rgie Autonome des Transports Parisiens,[251] and line T4 runs from B ondy RER to Aulnay-sous-Bois, which is operated by the state rail carrier SNCF.[ 249] Six new light rail lines are currently in various stages of development. Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport, the busiest of Paris' airports Paris is a central hub of the national rail network. The seven major railway sta tions Gare du Nord, Gare Montparnasse, Gare de l'Est, Gare de Lyon, Gare d'Auste rlitz, Gare Saint-Lazare and Gare de Bercy are connected to three networks: The TGV serving four High-speed rail lines, the normal speed Corail trains, and the suburban rails (Transilien). Four international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Paris-Orly, Paris-Le Bourg et and Beauvais-Till, serve the city. The two major airports are Orly Airport, wh ich is south of Paris; and the Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport, in Roissy-en-Fra nce, which is one of the busiest in the world and is the hub for the unofficial flag carrier Air France.[249] Ring roads of Paris. Paris city is surrounded by the Priphrique, in yellow. A86 is in blue and the Francilienne is in green. The city is also the most important hub of France's motorway network, and is sur rounded by three orbital freeways: the Priphrique,[68] which follows the approxima te path of 19th-century fortifications around Paris, the A86 motorway in the inn er suburbs, and finally the Francilienne motorway in the outer suburbs. Paris ha s an extensive road network with over 2,000 km (1,243 mi) of highways and motorw ays. By road, Brussels can be reached in three hours, Frankfurt in six hours and Barcelona in 12 hours. By train, London is now just two hours and 15 minutes aw ay.[252] Vlib' at Place de la Bastille There are 440 km (270 mi) of cycle paths and routes in Paris. These include pist e cyclable (bike lanes separated from other traffic by physical barriers such as a kerb) and bande cyclable (a bicycle lane denoted by a painted path on the roa d). Some 29 km (18 mi) of specially marked bus lanes are free to be used by cycl ists, with a protective barrier protecting against encroachments from vehicles.[ 253] Cyclists have also been given the right to ride in both directions on certa in one-way streets. Paris offers a bike sharing system called Vlib' with more tha n 20,000 public bicycles distributed at 1,800 parking stations,[254] which can b e rented for short and medium distances including one way trips. The Paris region is the most active water transport area in France, with most of the cargo handled by the Autonomous Port of Paris in facilities located around Paris. The Loire, Rhine, Rhone, Meuse and Scheldt rivers can be reached by canal s connecting with the Seine, which include the Canal Saint-Martin, Canal Saint-D enis, and the Canal de l'Ourcq.[255] See also[edit source | editbeta] Portal icon Paris portal Portal icon France portal C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Arts held in Paris in 1925 Megacity Outline of France

Timeline of Paris References[edit source | editbeta] Footnotes[edit source | editbeta] ^ INSEE local statistics, including Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes. ^ (French) Institut National de la Statistique et des tudes conomiques. "Chiffres cls volution et structure de la population - Commune de Paris (75056)". Retrieved 7 July 2013. ^ "Unit urbaine 2010 : Paris (00851)" (in French). INSEE. Retrieved 3 July 2012. ^ "Aire urbaine 2010 : Paris (001)". INSEE. Retrieved 21 October 2011. ^ "Aire urbaine 2010 : Paris (001)" (in French). INSEE. Retrieved 3 July 2012. ^ Tellier 2009, p. 231. ^ Dottin 1920, p. 277. ^ Robertson 2010, p. 37. ^ Marchal 1894, p. 8. ^ Oscherwitz 2010, p. 135. ^ Leclanche 1998, p. 55. ^ Dottin 1920, p. 535. ^ a b c "Paris, Roman City Chronology". Mairie de Paris. Retrieved 16 July 2006. ^ Lawrence & Gondrand 2010, p. 26. ^ (French) vido, radio, audio et publicit - Actualits, archives de la radio et de l a tlvision en ligne - Archives vido et radio. Retrieved on 2013-07-12. ^ (French) vido, radio, audio et publicit - Actualits, archives de la radio et de l a tlvision en ligne - Archives vido et radio. Retrieved on 2013-07-12. ^ Arbois de Jubainville & Dottin 1889, p. 132. ^ Cunliffe 2004, p. 201. ^ Lawrence & Gondrand 2010, p. 25. ^ Mroue 2006, p. 8. ^ "Paris, Roman City The City". Mairie de Paris. Retrieved 16 July 2006. ^ d'Istria 2002, p. 6. ^ Horne 2003, p. 2. ^ a b c d e Lawrence & Gondrand 2010, p. 27. ^ Dutton 1994, p. 142. ^ a b c d Lawrence & Gondrand 2010, p. 28. ^ Byrne 2012, p. 259. ^ Herv 1818, p. 72. ^ Harding 2002, p. 25. ^ Steves, Rick (7 March 2007). "Loire Valley: Land of a thousand chateaux". CNN. Retrieved 4 January 2013.[dead link] ^ Massacre of Saint Bartholomew's Day, Britannica Online Encyclopedia ^ Bayrou, Franois, Henri IV, le roi libre, Flammarion, Paris, 1994, pp. 12130, (Fr ench). ^ Lawrence & Gondrand 2010, pp. 30, 39. ^ Lawrence & Gondrand 2010, p. 29. ^ Social Studies School Service (1 December 2005). The French Revolution. Social Studies. p. 516. ISBN 978-1-56004-214-3. ^ Paine 1998, p. 453. ^ Marie Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert Du Motier Lafayette (marquis de), Memoirs, correspondence and manuscripts of General Lafayette, vol. 2, p. 252. ^ "Plebiscite (politics)". Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Retrieved 11 May 2013 . ^ Woolley 1915, pp. 106-7. ^ Horne 2003, p. 202. ^ Horne 2003, p. 222. ^ Horne 2003, p. 226. ^ Evans 2002, p. 68. ^ Jones 2006, pp. 318-9. ^ Byrne 1987, p. 25. ^ Haine 1998, p. 144. ^ Horne 2003, p. 271.

^ Jones 2006, p. 334. ^ Weingardt 2009, p. 15. ^ Sutherland 2003, p. 37. ^ Fraser & Spalding 2011, p. 117. ^ Lawrence & Gondrand 2010, p. 33. ^ Jones 2006, pp. 38891. ^ Lawrence & Gondrand 2010, p. 34. ^ Humphrys, Julian (June 2010). BBC History magazine. Bristol Magazines Ltd. ISS N 1469-8552. ^ Overy 2006, p. 215-6. ^ Lawrence & Gondrand 2010, p. 35. ^ Bell & de-Shalit 2011, p. 247. ^ Simmer 1997, p. 4. ^ Berg & Braun 2012, p. 85. ^ "Special Report: Riots in France". BBC News. 9 November 2005. Retrieved 17 Nov ember 2007. ^ "265bn Grand Paris metro expansion programme confirmed". Railway Gazette Interna tional. 12 March 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2013. ^ "Grand Paris : Sarkozy carte la fusion des dpartements" (in French). Le Figaro. 9 April 2009. Retrieved 13 June 2012. ^ "Paris Mtropole". Paris Mtropole. Retrieved 13 June 2012. ^ Google Maps, Retrieved 6 July 2013 ^ Blackmore & McConnachie 2004, p. 153. ^ a b "Paris". Encyclopedia Brittanica. Retrieved 4 July 2013. ^ a b Lawrence & Gondrand 2010, p. 69. ^ Mairie de Paris (15 November 2007). "Key figures for Paris". Retriev ed 5 May 2009. ^ "Climate". Retrieved 29 June 2013. ^ Lawrence & Gondrand 2010, p. 309. ^ Goldstein 2005, p. 8. ^ "Climate". Retrieved 29 June 2013. ^ "Paris in the Winter". Retrieved 29 June 2013. ^ "Weather in France". Retrieved 29 June 2013. ^ "Gographie de la capitale Le climat" (in French). Institut National de la Stati stique et des tudes conomiques, Retrieved 24 May 2006. ^ "Climatological Information for Paris, France". Meteo France. August 2011. ^ "Le Palais de L'lyse et son histoire". Retrieved 16 June 2013. ^ "Matignon Hotel". Embassy of France, Washington. 1/12/2007. Retrieved 19/06/20 13. ^ Knapp & Wright 2006, p. 934. ^ "Le "Petit Luxembourg"" (in French). Retrieved 3 May 2013. ^ "Introduction" (in French). Paris: Cour de Cassation. Retrieved 27 April 2013. ^ "Histoire & Patrimoine" (in French). Paris: Conseil d'Etat. Retrieved 27 April 2013. ^ "Le sige du Conseil constitutionnel" (in French). Paris: Conseil Constitutionne l. 16 September 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2013. ^ Shales 2007, p. 16. ^ According to :Globalization and World Cities study by the University of Loughb orough, 2010 /Global Cities Index by A.T. Kearney, 2012 /Global Power City Index by the Mori Memorial Foundation, 2011 / The Wealth Report by Knight Frank for C itiBank, 2012 ^ a b "Les pactes d'amiti et de coopration". Mairie de Paris. Retrieved 14 October 2007. ^ a b "International relations: special partners". Mairie de Paris. Archived fro m the original on 25 December 2008. Retrieved 14 October 2007. ^ "Twinning with Rome". Mairie de Paris. Retrieved 19 June 2013. ^ Papayanis 2004, p. 195. ^ (French) "Fichier Donnes harmonises des recensements de la population de 1968 20 09". INSEE. Retrieved 28 June 2013. ^ (French) "IMG1B - Les immigrs par sexe, ge et pays de naissance". INSEE. Retriev

ed 28 June 2013. ^ Official INSEE figures for 2010: population municipale: 2,243,833, population totale: 2,268,265, see INSEE. "75056-Paris Populations lgales 2010 de la commune" (in French). ^ EHESS. "Note communale. Paris" (in French). ^ Institut d'amnagement et d'urbanisme de la rgion d'le-de-France (june 2008). "Reg ain dmographique en proche couronne". Note rapide (in French) (449). ^ Observatoire rgional de sant dle-de-France, dpartement de Paris. Sant des mres et de s enfants de Paris (in French). pp. 2126. ^ Kvin de Biasi, Sandrine Beaufils (June 2010). "L'Ile-de-France, de plus en plus une tape dans les parcours rsidentiels". le-de-France la page (in French) (336). ^ For instance, in 2009, according to INSEE, there were 163,980 jobs for 40,278 inhabitants in the 8th arrondissement, see "Arrondissement municipal de Paris 8e Arrondissement (75108)" (in French). INSEE. Retrieved 11 August 2013. ^ Laurent Auzet, Magali Fvrier, Aude Lapinte (october 2007). "Niveaux de vie et p auvret en France : les dpartements du Nord et du Sud sont les plus touchs par la pa uvret et les ingalits". INSEE Premire (in French) (1162). ^ income by "consumption unit" as defined by INSEE, see "Revenu fiscal annuel en 2011" (in French). INSEE. Retrieved 11 August 2013. ^ "Arrondissement municipal de Paris 19e Arrondissement (75119)" (in French). IN SEE. Retrieved 11 August 2013. ^ "Arrondissement municipal de Paris 7e Arrondissement (75107)" (in French). INS EE. Retrieved 11 August 2013. ^ "Population selon la nationalit au 1er janvier 2010" (in French). INSEE. Retrie ved 11 August 2013. ^ Mariette Sagot (October 2010). "Arrives de l'tranger : l'Ile-de-France attire de s jeunes qualifis". le-de-France la page (in French) (336). ^ Kvin de Biasi, Sandrine Beaufils (June 2010). "L'Ile-de-France, de plus en plus une tape dans les parcours rsidentiels". le-de-France la page (in French) (336). ^ a b (French) "Produits Intrieurs Bruts Rgionaux (PIBR) en valeur en millions d'e uros" (XLS). INSEE. Retrieved 5 May 2013. ^ World Bank. "Gross domestic product 2011" (PDF). Retrieved 5 May 2013.[dead li nk] ^ "Estimation de population au 1er janvier, par rgion, sexe et grande classe d'ge" . Institut National de la Statistique et des tudes conomiques (in French). Retriev ed 5 May 2013. ^ "The Parisian suburb where presidents are made". The Independent. 17 April 201 2. Retrieved 29 June 2013. ^ Lawrence & Gondrand 2010, p. 19. ^ "La Dfense, Europe's largest business district". Retrieved 8 January 2013. ^ "European Green City Index". Economist Intelligence Unit for Siemens, 2009. Re trieved 29 June 2013. ^ Fortune. "Global Fortune 500 by countries: France". CNN. Retrieved 22 July 201 1. ^ "Paris Riots in Perspective". ABC News. 4 November 2005. Retrieved 26 June 201 2. ^ Martine Delassus, Florence Humbert, Christine Tarquis, Julie Veaute (February 2011). "Paris Region Key Figures". Paris Region Economic Development Agency. Ret rieved 21 July 2011. (PDF file) ^ "Une Dynamique pour Paris Capitale mondiale du tourisme" (PDF) (in French). Pa ris, France: Mairie du Paris. Retrieved 20 June 2013. ^ Dosch 2010, p. 16. ^ Harriss 2004, p. 201. ^ Ayers 2004, p. 17. ^ Lawrence & Gondrand 2010, p. 46. ^ Lawrence & Gondrand 2010, p. 163. ^ Lawrence & Gondrand 2010, p. 48. ^ Caterer & Hotelkeeper. IPC Consumer Industries Press. November 1993. p. 48. Re trieved 2 July 2013.

^ Lawrence & Gondrand 2010, p. 1478. ^ Rousseau 2004, p. 37. ^ Boogert 2012, p. 58. ^ Ayers 2004, p. 70. ^ Frommer's 2012, p. 103. ^ a b Lawrence & Gondrand 2010, p. 178. ^ Ayers 2004, p. 76. ^ Lawrence & Gondrand 2010, p. 195. ^ Lawrence & Gondrand 2010, p. 2278. ^ "Isle of Swans Statue of Liberty". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 July 2013. ^ "Jardin de Luxembourg Map". Retrieved 3 July 2013. ^ "American Statue of Liberty". National Park Service. Retrieved 3 July 2013. ^ "L'Axe historique" (in French). Retrieved 21 April 2013. ^ Vlotides 2006, p. 21. ^ Boogert 2012, p. 252. ^ Lawrence & Gondrand 2010, p. 1489. ^ Fallon & Williams 2008, p. 404. ^ Kaberry & Brown 2001, p. 46-7. ^ Rossiter & Muirhead 1968, p. 96. ^ "Muse Paris dans le 11 arrondissement". Retrieved 9 July 2013. ^ "French Tibetans Begin Own New Year Celebrations". Retrieve d 9 July 2013. ^ "Opera Bastille". Opera de Paris. Retrieved 9 July 2013. ^ "A La Line" (in French). Retrieved 9 July 2013. ^ Rynn 2009, p. 365. ^ Labourdette, Auzias & Chapalain 2009, p. 13. ^ Martin 2013, p. 408. ^ Ayers 2004, p. 320. ^ Merritt 1982, p. 23. ^ "La Defense". Ville Courbevoie. Retrieved 3 July 2013. ^ "Ministre de l'cologie, du Dveloppement durable et de l'nergie" (in French). Retri eved 18 June 2013. ^ "Grande Arch Homepage". Retrieved 3 July 2013. ^ Lawrence & Gondrand 2010, p. 15975. ^ Beevor & Cooper 2007, p. 242. ^ Clark 2008, p. 101. ^ "Znith de Paris". The Concert Database. Retrieved 4 July 2013. ^ Lawrence & Gondrand 2010, p. 125. ^ Lawrence & Gondrand 2010, p. 208. ^ "Le Jardin de Plantes". Retrieved 22 June 2013. ^ a b c Lawrence & Gondrand 2010, p. 24351. ^ "Historique des gouts" (in French). Retrieved 18 June 2013. ^ Burchell 1971, p. 93. ^ "Les gouts parisiens" (in French). Mairie de Paris. Retrieved 15 May 2006. ^ "Merde! Foul Paris goes to the dogs". The Guardian. 21 October 2001. Retrieved 29 June 2013. ^ Henley, Jon (12 April 2002). "Merde most foul". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 2 9 July 2010. ^ Air pollution in Paris according to L'internaute ^ Whaley 2012, p. 101. ^ Broadwell 2007, p. 92. ^ Andia & Brialy 2001, p. 221. ^ Ayers 2004, p. 271. ^ Montclos 2003. ^ a b c d e f g h Michelin 2011. ^ Perry 1995, p. 19. ^ "Paris American Academy School of Fashion and Interior Design". Paris American Academy. Retrieved 3 July 2013. ^ "Masterpieces, Accessible Visitor Trail". The Louvre. Retrieved 20 June 2013. ^ "From the hotel Sal to the Picasso Museum". Museo Picasso. Retrieved 20 June 20

13. ^ "The Muse Rodin". Muse Rodin. Retrieved 20 June 2013. ^ Lawrence & Gondrand 2010, p. 211. ^ Lawrence & Gondrand 2010, pp. 106-7. ^ Lawrence & Gondrand 2010, p. 236. ^ Lawrence & Gondrand 2010, p. 224. ^ "Notre Dame Renovations". Adoremus Organization. Retrieved 4 July 2013. ^ "Les Miserables". Preface (in English Translation). Gutenberg Organization. 18 62. Retrieved 4 July 2013. ^ "Balzacs Paris A Guided Tour". University of California, Riverside. Retrieved 4 July 2013. ^ "Dumas's Paris". Gutenberg Organization. Retrieved 4 July 2013. ^ "Ernest Hemingway's Memoir of Paris in the Twenties". The New York Times. 5 Ma y 1964. Retrieved 4 July 2013. ^ "In the footsteps of James Joyce Paris". New York Times. Retrieved 4 July 2013 . ^ "The Samuel Beckett Endpage". The Samuel Beckett Society. Retrieved 4 July 201 3. ^ Who's Where. 1961. p. 304. Retrieved 2 July 2013. ^ Damschroeder & Williams 1990, p. 157. ^ Dregni 2004, p. 19. ^ a b Dregni 2008, p. 32. ^ a b Mroue 2006, p. 260. ^ a b c "Best Gypsy jazz bars in Paris". The Guardian. 3 March 2010. Retrieved 3 July 2013. ^ "Rock en Seine '13". Retrieved 23 April 2013. ^ Andante (2004). "Orchestre de Paris". Archived from the original on 2013-08-09. Retrieved 2013-08-09. ^ Lester 2006, p. 278. ^ Films and Filming. Hansom Books. 1989. p. 72. Retrieved 2 July 2013. ^ "2 Tamil Films in 1st SAFF in Paris". The Times of India. 27 December 2012. Re trieved 2 July 2013. ^ Cahiers du cinma, nhors-srie, Paris, April 2000, p. 32 (cf. also Histoire des com munications, 2011, p. 10.[dead link]). ^ "Tokyo Tops Paris With More Michelin Stars and Better Food". Bloomberg. 14 May 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2013. ^ a b c "Michelin starred restaurants in Paris". Time Out. Retrieved 3 July 2013 . ^ Domin, Andr. Culinaria France. Cologne: Knemann Verlagsgesellschaft mbh. ISBN 978 -3-8331-1129-7. ^ Ryersson & Yaccarino 2004, p. 25. ^ Metzelthin 1981. ^ Steele 1998, p. 3. ^ "Paris Fashion Institute". Paris Fashion Institute. Retrieved 3 July 2013. ^ "IFA Paris". IFA Paris. Retrieved 3 July 2013. ^ a b c d "Paris Shops & Boutiques". Marie Claire. Retrieved 3 July 2013. ^ "A ball for the 'king of jewellers'". The New York Times. 19 December 2005. Re trieved 3 July 2013. ^ Prat, Vronique (28 August 2009). "Les joyaux de Cartier exposs dans la Cit interd ite" (in French). Le Figaro. Retrieved 3 July 2013. ^ Singleton1912, pp. 211-12. ^ a b Blackmore & McConnachie 2004, p. 204. ^ Tallett & Atkin 1991, p. vii. ^ Korgen & White 2008, p. 64. ^ "Notre-Dame de Paris". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 3 June 2013. ^ "glise Sainte-Marie-Madeleine". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 3 June 2013. ^ "Sainte-Chapelle". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 3 June 2013. ^ "Church of Saint-Louis". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 3 June 2013. ^ "Sacred-Heart-Basilica". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 3 June 2013. ^ "Top Paris Churches". Paris Architecture Info. Retrieved 3 July 2013.

^ a b Lawrence & Gondrand 2010, p. 3001. ^ "2013 route". Le Tour. Retrieved 21 April 2013. ^ "Arsenal aim to upset the odds". London: BBC Sport. 16 June 2006. Retrieved 21 April 2013. ^ Nevez 2010, p. 95. ^ "Roland-Garros 2013". Retrieved 21 April 2013. ^ "Indicateurs dpartementaux et rgionaux sur les diplmes et la formation en 2009". INSEE. Retrieved 29 June 2013. ^ Bell & de-Shalit 2011, p. 224. ^ (French) La Prfecture de la Rgion d'le-de-France. "L'enseignement". Archived from the original on 24 August 2007. Retrieved 9 October defg ghi ^ "Contact and Maps" (in French). cole Normale Suprieure. Retrieved 18 June 2013.a bc def ^ "Accs" (in French). Retrieved 16 June def ^ "How to find us." Bibliothque nationale de France. Retrieved 21 January 2009.ab c def ghi ^ a b Woodward, Richard B. (March 5, 2006). "At These Parisian Landmarks, Shhh I s the Word". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 July defg hi ^ "Paris-Sorbonne libraries". Paris-Sorbonne University. Retrieved 4 July 2013.a bc def ^ "French Libraries and Archives". University of Notre Dame, Hesburgh Libraries. Retrieved 5 July 2013.abcdef ^ "French and Francophone Publications". Retrieved 3 July 2013 .abc def ^ "Paris' Top Newspapers". Retrieved 3 July def ghi j kl ^ "Agence France-Presse". Agence France-Presse website. Retrieved 3 July 2013. ^ "France 24". Retrieved 3 July 2013. ^ "France Diplomatie". Retrieved 3 July 2013. ^ "French and Francophone TV Stations". Retrieved 3 July 2013. ^ "France's Radio Stations". Retrieved 3 July 2013. ^ "La Poste". Retrieved 3 July 2013. ^ a b "Rapport Annuel 2008" (in French). Rapport Activite. Retrieved 21 April 20 13. ^ "Hotel Dieu". London Science Museum. Retrieved 21 April 2013. ^ Syndicat des Transports d'le-de-France (STIF). "Le web des voyageurs francilien s" (in French). Retrieved 10 April 2006. ^ a b c d e Lawrence & Gondrand 2010, p. 27883. ^ Lawrence & Gondrand 2010, p. 278-83. ^ "RATP's tram network in le-de-France". RATP. Retrieved 24 April 2013. ^ "London-Paris". British Rail. Retrieved 3 July 2013. ^ Hart 2004, p. 355. ^ Rand 2010, p. 165. ^ Jefferson 2009, p. 114. Bibliography[edit source | editbeta] Andia, Batrice de; Brialy, Jean-Claude (2001). Larousse Paris. Larousse. ISBN 978 -2-03-585012-6. Arbois de Jubainville, Henry; Dottin, George (1889). Les premiers habitants de l 'Europe. E. Thorin. Ayers, Andrew (2004). The Architecture of Paris. Axel Mendes. ISBN 9783930698967 . Beevor, Antony; Cooper, Artemis (2007). Paris After the Liberation: 1944 - 1949: 1944 - 1949. Penguin Books Limited. ISBN 978-0-14-191288-2. Bell, Daniel A.; de-Shalit, Avner (2011). The Spirit of Cities: Why the Identity of a City Matters in a Global Age. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1-40083972-8. Berg, Leo van den; Braun, Erik (2012). National Policy Responses to Urban Challe nges in Europe. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 978-1-4094-8725-8. Blackmore, Ruth; McConnachie, James (2004). Rough Guide Paris Directions. Rough Guides. ISBN 978-1-84353-317-7.

Boogert, Kate van der (2012). Frommer's Paris 2013. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781-118-33143-9. Broadwell, Valerie (2007). City of Light, City of Dark: Exploring Paris Below. V alerie Broadwell. ISBN 978-1-4257-9022-6. Burchell, S. C. (1971). Imperial Masquerade: The Paris of Napoleon III. Atheneum . Byrne, Jim (1987). Conflict and Change: Europe 1870-1966. Educational Company. Byrne, Joseph P. (2012). Encyclopedia of the Black Death. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-5 9884-254-8. Clark, Linda L. (2008). Women and Achievement in Nineteenth-Century Europe. Camb ridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-65098-4. Cunliffe, Barry (2004). Iron Age communities in Britain : an account of England, Scotland and Wales from the seventh century BC until the Roman conquest (4th ed .). London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-34779-2. Damschroeder, David; Williams, David Russell (1990). Music Theory from Zarlino t o Schenker: A Bibliography and Guide. Pendragon Press. ISBN 978-0-918728-99-9. Dosch, Dee Davidson (2010). A Summer in '69. Strategic Book Publishing. ISBN 978 -1-60976-878-2. Dottin, George (1920). La Langue Gauloise : Grammaire, Textes et Glossaire (in F rench). Paris: C. Klincksieck. ISBN 2051002088. Dregni, Michael (2004). Django : The Life and Music of a Gypsy Legend: The Life and Music of a Gypsy Legend. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-803743-9. Dregni, Michael (2008). Gypsy Jazz : In Search of Django Reinhardt and the Soul of Gypsy Swing: In Search of Django Reinhardt and the Soul of Gypsy Swing. Oxfor d University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-804262-4. Dutton, Paul Edward (1994). The Politics of Dreaming in the Carolingian Empire. U of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0-8032-1653-2. Evans, Graeme (2002). Cultural Planning: An Urban Renaissance?. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-203-45974-4. Fallon, Steve; Williams, Nicola (2008). Paris (7 ed.). Lonely Planet. ISBN 1-740 59-850-4. Forsyth, David (1867). Marie Antoinette in the Conciergerie, a lecture. Fraser, Benjamin; Spalding, Steven D. (2011). Trains, Culture, and Mobility: Rid ing the Rails. Lexington Books. ISBN 978-0-7391-6749-6. Frommer's (2012). AARP Paris 2012. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-26621-2. Goldstein, Natalie (2005). Droughts And Heat Waves: A Practical Survival Guide. The Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-4042-0536-9. Haine, W. Scott (1998). The World of the Paris Caf: Sociability Among the French Working Class, 1789-1914. JHU Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-6070-6. Harding, Vanessa (2002). The Dead and the Living in Paris and London, 1500-1670. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-81126-2. Harriss, Joseph (2004). The Tallest Tower. Unlimited Publishing LLC. ISBN 978-158832-104-6. Hart, Alan (2004). Going to Live in Paris: How to Live and Work in France's Grea t Capital. How To Books Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85703-985-6. Hassell, James E. (1991). Russian Refugees in France and the United States Betwe en the World Wars. American Philosophical Society. ISBN 978-0-87169-817-9. Hazan, Eric (2011). The Invention of Paris: A History in Footsteps. Verso Books. ISBN 978-1-84467-800-6. Herv, Peter (1818). A Chronological Account of the History of France. Horne, Alistair (2003). Seven Ages of Paris. Knopf. ISBN 0-679-45481-0. d'Istria, Robert Colonna (2002). Paris and Versailles. Editions Marcus. ISBN 978 -2-7131-0202-8. Jefferson, David (2009). Through the French Canals (12th ed.). ISBN 978140810381 4. Jones, Colin (2006). Paris: Biography of a City. Penguin Adult. ISBN 978-0-14-02 8292-4. Kaberry, Rachel; Brown, Amy K. (2001). Paris. Rough Guides. ISBN 978-1-85828-679 -2. Korgen, Kathleen Odell; White, Jonathan Michael (2008). The Engaged Sociologist:

Connecting the Classroom to the Community. Pine Forge Press. ISBN 978-1-4129-69 00-0. Knapp, Andrew; Wright, Vincent (2006). The Government and Politics of France. Ro utledge. ISBN 978-0-415-35732-6. Labourdette, Jean-Paul; Auzias, Dominique; Chapalain, Chlo (12 November 2009). Pe tit Fut Paris sorties. Petit Fut. ISBN 978-2-7469-2640-0. Lawrence, Rachel; Gondrand, Fabienne (2010). Paris (City Guide) (12th ed.). Lond on: Insight Guides. ISBN 9789812820792. Leclanche, Maria Spyropoulou (1998). Le refrain dans la chanson franaise: de Brua nt Renaud. Presses Univ. Limoges. ISBN 978-2-84287-096-6. Lester, Paul Martin (2006). Visual Communication: Images with Messages. Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-0-534-63720-0. Madge, Charles; Willmott, Peter (2006). Inner City Poverty in Paris and London. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-41762-4. Marchal, Henri (1894). L'clairage Paris. Librairie Polytechnique Baudry. ISBN 9781 142657048. Martin, Michel (2013). Windows 8: Le guide de rfrence. Pearson Education France. I SBN 978-2-7440-2543-3. Merritt, Giles (1982). World out of Work. Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-216634-8. Metzelthin, Pearl Violette Newfield (1981). Gourmet. Cond Nast Publications. Michelin (2011). Paris Green Guide Michelin 2012-2013. Michelin. ISBN 978-2-06-7 18220-2. Montclos, Jean-Marie Perouse De (2003). Paris, City of Art. Harry N. Abrams. ISB N 978-0-86565-226-2. Mroue, Haas (2006). Frommer's Memorable Walks in Paris. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-03712-6. Muirhead, Findlay; Monmarch, Marcel (1927). Paris and Its Environs. Macmillan & C ompany Limited. Nevez, Catherine Le (2010). Paris Encounter. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74220-503 -8. Newman, Peter; Thornley, Andy (2002). Urban Planning in Europe: International Co mpetition, National Systems and Planning Projects. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0203-42794-1. Oscherwitz, Dayna (2010). Past Forward: French Cinema and the Post-Colonial Heri tage. SIU Press. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-8093-8588-1. Overy, Richard (2006). Why the Allies Won. Pimlico. ISBN 1-84595-065-8. Paine, Thomas (1998). Rights of Man, Common Sense, and Other Political Writings. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-283557-4. Papayanis, Nicholas (2004). Planning Paris Before Haussmann. JHU Press. ISBN 978 -0-8018-7930-2. Perry, Gillian (1995). Women Artists and the Parisian Avant-garde: Modernism and `feminine Art' Art, 1900 to the Late 1920s. Manchester University Press. ISBN 9 78-0-7190-4165-5. Phillips, Betty Lou (2005). The French Connection. Gibbs Smith. ISBN 97815868552 91. Porter, Darwin; Prince, Danforth (20 August 2010). Frommer's Paris 2011. John Wi ley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-90126-7. Rand, Tom (2010). Kick the Fossil Fuel Habit: 10 Clean Technologies to Save Our World. Greenleaf Book Group. ISBN 978-0-9812952-0-6. Reeves, Tom. Paris Insights - An Anthology. Discover Paris!. ISBN 978-0-98152920-2. Robertson, Jamie Cox (2010). A Literary Paris: Hemingway, Colette, Sedaris, and Others on the Uncommon Lure of the City of Light. Krause Publications. ISBN 9781-4405-0740-3. Rodgers, Eamonn J. (1999). Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture. CRC Pre ss. ISBN 978-0-415-13187-2. Rossiter, Stuart; Muirhead, Litellus Russell (1968). Paris. E. Benn. Rousseau, George Sebastian (2004). Yourcenar. Haus Bublishing. ISBN 978-1-904341 -28-4. Ryersson, Scot D.; Yaccarino, Michael Orlando (2004). Infinite variety: the life

and legend of the Marchesa Casati. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-81 66-4520-6. Rynn, Margie (16 March 2009). Pauline Frommer's Paris. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9 78-0-470-48528-6. Shales, Melissa (2007). Paris. New Holland Publishers. ISBN 978-1-84537-661-1. Simmer (1997). Innovation Networks and Learning Regions?. Routledge. ISBN 978-011-702360-4. Singleton, Esther (1912). Paris as Seen and Described by Famous Writers .... Dod d, Mead & Company. Steele, Valerie (1998). Paris Fashion: A Cultural History. Berg. ISBN 978-1-8597 3-973-0. Sutherland, Cara (2003). The Statue of Liberty. Barnes & Noble Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7607-3890-0. Tallett, Frank; Atkin, Nicholas (1991). Religion, Society and Politics in France Since 1789. Continuum. ISBN 978-1-85285-057-9. Tellier, Luc-Normand (2009). Urban World History: An Economic and Geographical P erspective. PUQ. ISBN 978-2-7605-2209-1. Vlotides, Nina (2006). A Hedonist's Guide to Paris. A Hedonist's guide to... ISB N 978-1-905428-05-2. Weingardt, Richard (2009). Circles in the Sky: The Life and Times of George Ferr is. ASCE Publications. ISBN 978-0-7844-1010-3. Whaley, Joachim (2012). Mirrors of Mortality (Routledge Revivals): Social Studie s in the History of Death. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-81060-2. Woolley, Reginald Maxwell (1915). Coronation Rites. Cambridge University Press. Zarka, Yves Charles; Taussig, Sylvie; Fleury, Cynthia (2004). "Les contours d'un e population susceptible d'tre musulmane d'aprs la filiation". L'Islam en France. Presses universitaires de France. ISBN 978-2-13-053723-6. Further reading[edit source | editbeta] Bernard, Lon (1970). The emerging city: Paris in the age of Louis XIV.. Duke Univ ersity Press. Blum, Carol (2002). Strength in Numbers: Population, Reproduction, and Power in Eighteenth-Century France. JHU Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-6810-8. Compayr, Gabriel (2004). Abelard and the Origin and Early History of Universities . Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4179-4646-4. Cronin, Vincent (1989). Paris on the Eve, 19001914. New York: Harper Collins. ISB N 0-312-04876-9. Cronin, Vincent (1994). Paris: City of Light, 19191939. New York: Harper Collins. ISBN 0-00-215191-X. Favier, Jean (1997). Paris (in French). Fayard. ISBN 2-213-59874-6. Grimminger, Daniel Jay (2010). Paris. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4396-4101-9 . Garrioch, David (2002). The making of revolutionary Paris [electronic resource]. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-24327-9. Goodman, David C. (1999). The European Cities and Technology Reader: Industrial to Post-industrial City. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-20082-0. Hargreaves, Alec Gordon; Kelsay, John; Twiss, Sumner B. (2007). Politics and Rel igion in France and the United States. Rowman & Littlefield Pub Incorporated. IS BN 978-0-7391-1930-3. Higonnet, Patrice L. R. (2009). Paris: Capital of the World. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-03864-6. Hillairet, Jacques (2005). Connaissance du Vieux Paris (in French). Rivages. ISB N 2-86930-648-2. Jones, Colin (2004). Paris: The Biography of a City. New York: Penguin Viking. I SBN 0-670-03393-6. Marchand, Bernard (1993). Paris, histoire d'une ville : XIXe-XXe sicle (in French ). Paris: Le Seuil. ISBN 978-2-02-012864-3. Mehra, Ajay K.; Levy, Rene (2011). The Police, State and Society: Perspectives f rom India and France. Pearson Education India. ISBN 978-81-317-3145-1. Modood, Tariq; Triandafyllidou, Anna; Zapata-Barrero, Ricard (2012). Multicultur

alism, Muslims and Citizenship: A European Approach. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-2 5561-0. Perry, Marvin; Chase, Myrna; Jacob, James R.; Jacob, Margaret C.; Von Laue, Theo dore H. (2011). Western Civilization: Ideas, Politics, and Society: from 1600: I deas, Politics, and Society: From the 1600s (10th ed.). Cengage Learning. ISBN 9 78-1-111-83171-4. Robb, Graham (2010). Parisians: An Adventure History of Paris. Pan Macmillan. IS BN 978-0-330-52254-0. Wakeman, Rosemary (2009). The Heroic City: Paris, 19451958. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-87023-6. External links[edit source | editbeta] Find more about Paris at Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions and translations from Wiktionary Media from Commons Learning resources from Wikiversity Quotations from Wikiquote Source texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Official Paris website Paris at the Open Directory Project [show] Administrative structures [show] Paris in the European Union [show] v t e Summer Olympic Games host cities [show] v t e World's fifty most-populous urban areas [show] v t e Tourism in Paris Categories: Departments of FranceVisitor attractions in ParisParis3rd-century BC establishmentsCapitals in EuropeCompanions of the LiberationPrefectures in Fran ceWorld Heritage Sites in France Navigation menu Create accountLog inArticleTalkReadEdit sourceEditbetaView history Search Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact page Toolbox Print/export Languages Ach Afrikaans Alemannisch nglisc

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