Janet Yellen - Wikipedia
Thu, 14 Oct 2021 18:43
78th United States secretary of the treasury
"Yellen" redirects here. For other people with this surname, see
Assumed office January 26, 2021PresidentJoe BidenDeputyWally Adeyemo Preceded by Steven Mnuchin In office February 3, 2014 '' February 3, 2018PresidentBarack ObamaDonald TrumpDeputyStanley FischerRandal Quarles Preceded by Ben Bernanke Succeeded by Jerome Powell In office October 4, 2010 '' February 3, 2014PresidentBarack Obama Preceded by Donald Kohn Succeeded by Stanley Fischer In office October 4, 2010 '' February 3, 2018PresidentBarack ObamaDonald Trump Preceded by Mark W. Olson Succeeded by Vacant In office August 12, 1994 '' February 17, 1997PresidentBill Clinton Preceded by Wayne Angell Succeeded by Edward Gramlich In office June 14, 2004 '' October 4, 2010 Preceded by Robert T. Parry Succeeded by John C. Williams In office February 18, 1997 '' August 3, 1999PresidentBill Clinton Preceded by Joseph Stiglitz Succeeded by Martin Neil BailyBornJanet Louise Yellen
( 1946-08-13 ) August 13, 1946 (age 75) Brooklyn, New York, U.S.Political partyDemocraticSpouse(s)Children1ResidenceSan Francisco, California, U.S.EducationOccupationEconomisteducatorgovernment officialSignatureAcademic careerInstitutionFieldMacroeconomicsLabor economicsSchool ortraditionNew Keynesian economicsDoctoraladvisorJames TobinAcademicadvisorsWilliam BrainardJoseph StiglitzInfluencesJohn Maynard KeynesInformation at IDEAS / RePEcThesisEmployment, Output and Capital Accumulation in an Open Economy: A Disequilibrium Approach (1971)Janet Louise Yellen (born August 13, 1946) is an American economist, educator and government official who has served as the 78th United States secretary of the treasury since January 26, 2021. A member of the Democratic Party, she previously served as the 15th chair of the Federal Reserve from 2014 to 2018. She is the first woman to hold either role. She is also a professor emerita at Haas School of Business at the University of California, Berkeley, and formerly a distinguished fellow in residence at the Brookings Institution.
Yellen was a member of the Federal Reserve Board of Governors from 1994 to 1997 and again from 2010 to 2018. She chaired the Council of Economic Advisers under President Bill Clinton from 1997 to 1999 and was the president of the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco from 2004 to 2010. She served as vice chair of the Federal Reserve from 2010 to 2014. Yellen was nominated by President Barack Obama to succeed Ben Bernanke as chair of the Federal Reserve from 2014 to 2018. She served one term and was not re-appointed by President Donald Trump.
Early life and education [ edit ] Yellen was born on August 13, 1946, to a family of Polish Jewish ancestry in the Bay Ridge neighborhood of New York City's Brooklyn borough, where she also grew up. Her mother was Anna Ruth (n(C)e Blumenthal; 1907''1986), an elementary school teacher, and her father was Julius Yellen (1906''1975), a family physician, who worked from the ground floor of their home. Her mother quit her job to take care of Janet and her older brother, John. Yellen graduated from local Fort Hamilton High School in 1962; she was the class valedictorian.
Yellen graduated summa cum laude and Phi Beta Kappa from Pembroke College in Brown University in 1967 with a bachelor's in economics. At Brown, she switched her planned major from philosophy to economics and was particularly influenced by professors George Borts and Herschel Grossman. She received her MA and PhD in economics from Yale University in 1971. Her dissertation was titled Employment, Output and Capital Accumulation in an Open Economy: A Disequilibrium Approach under the supervision of (later to be) Nobel laureate James Tobin. As a teaching assistant, Yellen was so meticulous in taking notes during Tobin's macroeconomic class that they ended up as the unofficial textbook circulated among generations of graduate students, and known as the "Yellen Notes". Her former professor Joseph Stiglitz, another Nobelist, has called her one of his brightest and most memorable students. Yellen was the only woman among the two dozen economists who earned their doctorates from Yale in 1971.
Academic career [ edit ] After receiving her Ph.D, Yellen was appointed as an assistant professor of economics at Harvard University, where she taught from 1971 to 1976. In 1977, she was recruited to become an economist with the Federal Reserve Board of Governors by Edwin M. Truman, who had known Yellen from Yale. Truman was a junior professor and heard her oral exam, and had recently taken over the Fed's Division of International Finance. She was assigned to research international monetary reform.
While at the Fed, she met her husband George Akerlof in the bank's cafeteria; they wed in 1978, less than a year later. By the time of their marriage, Akerlof had already accepted a teaching position at the London School of Economics (LSE). Yellen left her post at the Fed to accompany him, and was employed as an economics lecturer by LSE. They remained in London for two years, then returned to the United States.
In 1980, Yellen joined the faculty at the Berkeley's Haas School of Business to conduct macroeconomics research and teach undergraduate and MBA students for more than two decades, also held a joint appointment with the University of California, Berkeley's Department of Economics from 1999 to 2003. She was just the second woman at Berkeley-Haas to earn tenure in 1982, as well as the title of full professor in 1985. Yellen was the Bernard T. Rocca, Jr. Professor of International Business and Trade from 1992 to 1994 and was named the Eugene E. and Catherine M. Trefethen Professor of Business Administration and Professor of Economics in 1999. During her time as active faculty member, Prof. Yellen earned the Haas School's outstanding teaching award twice. She subsequently became professor emeritus at UC Berkeley.
Yellen has also served as an adviser to the Congressional Budget Office, the Brookings Panel on Economic Activity and the National Science Foundation's Panel in Economics. She was a research associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research.
Research and publications [ edit ] Yellen has had a remarkable academic career largely focused on analysis of the mechanisms of unemployment and labor markets, monetary and fiscal policies, and international trade. She's written a few of widely cited papers, often collaborating with her husband professor George Akerlof on their research. Here are some principal ideas of Dr. Yellen's academic studies:
Since 1980s, Yellen with Akerlof address what's known in the economics literature as "efficiency wage theory" '' the idea that paying people more than the market wage does, in fact, increase their productivity. Their 1990 paper entitled "The Fair-Wage Effort Hypothesis and Unemployment," christen "the fair wage-effort hypothesis," considered by economists a significant contribution to the topic: "is a precursor to the efficiency wage literature", "It had an influence, although the work on efficiency wage theory has had a bigger influence." Akerlof and Yellen introduced the gift-exchange game, a model in which argue that workers who receive less than what they perceive to be a fair wage will purposely work less hard as a way to take revenge on their employer.
Another important work, "An Analysis of Out-of-Wedlock Childbearing in the United States" co-written with Akerlof and Michael Katz and published in 1996, aims to explain why out of wedlock births had grown considerably in previous decades in the United States. Research study led to a theory called "reproductive technology shock," arguing that the increased availability of both abortion and contraception in the late 1960s and early 1970s eroded the social norms surrounding sex, pregnancy and marriage, leading to a sharp decline in the stigma of unwed motherhood.
Federal Reserve (1994''1997) [ edit ] In August 1994, Yellen took leave from Berkeley for five years. President Bill Clinton appointed her as a member of the Federal Reserve Board of Governors. The Senate Banking Committee approved Yellen's nomination by a vote of 18 to 1. The only vote against her came from Senator Lauch Faircloth, Republican of North Carolina, who had told that her concerns should be limited to "inflation, inflation and inflation". Nomination was confirmed by the United States Senate by a vote of 94''6. Yellen succeeded Republican Wayne Angell on August 12, 1994, alongside Alan Blinder, who served as vice chairman, the first Democratic appointees to the Board since 1980.
In July 1996, the Federal Reserve under Chairman Alan Greenspan, resisted pressure to raise interest rates as unemployment declined. But Yellen marshaled academic research to dissuade Greenspan from committing the Fed to a zero inflation policy and demonstrate that the central bank should seek to moderate inflation rather than eliminate it. The study showed that a little inflation rate in the 2-4 percent range actually was better basis to minimize unemployment and increase economic growth than the goal of zero.
On February 17, 1997, Yellen left the Federal Reserve to become chair of the Council of Economic Advisers.
Council of Economic Advisers (1997''1999) [ edit ] Yellen chaired President Clinton's Council of Economic Advisers (CEA) from February 18, 1997, replacing Joseph Stiglitz in office. She was confirmed unanimously by the Senate, the second woman to hold the job, following Laura Tyson. While at the CEA, she also chaired the Economic Policy Committee of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development from 1997 to 1999.
During her time with the Council of Economic Advisors, Yellen oversaw a landmark report "Explaining Trends in the Gender Wage Gap" focused on the gender pay divide in June 1998. Within this study, the Council analyzed data from 1969 to 1996 to determine the cause for women to earn substantially less than men. By observing trends attributable to issues like occupation/industry as well as familial status, it was determined that while the Equal Pay Act of 1963 was a step forward, there was no explanation as to why there was a 25 percent difference between average pay for women and men '' an improvement from the 40 percent gap two decades earlier. It was concluded that this gap had no correlation with differences in productivity and, as such, was the repercussions of discrimination within the workforce.
In June 1999, Yellen announced that she was resigning from the CEA for personal reasons and would return to teaching at UC Berkeley.
Return to the Federal Reserve (2004''2018) [ edit ] Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco [ edit ] On June 14, 2004, Yellen was assigned as president of the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, the first woman to hold those position. She was a voting member of the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) on a rotating basis once every three years. During her time at the twelve Federal Reserve District Fed, she spoke publicly and in meetings of the Fed's monetary policy committee, regarding her concerns about the potential consequences of the boom in housing prices. However, Yellen did not lead the San Francisco Fed to "move to check [the] increasingly indiscriminate lending" of Countrywide Financial, the largest lender in the U.S. She served from 2004 to 2010, and left to take appointment as vice chair of the Federal Reserve Board of Governors.
In July 2009, Yellen was mentioned as a potential successor to Chairman Ben Bernanke when his term set to expire, before he was re-nominated by President Barack Obama.
Vice Chair of the Federal Reserve [ edit ] Yellen was sworn in by Fed Chairman
Ben Bernanke in October 2010.
On April 28, 2010, President Obama nominated Yellen to succeed Donald Kohn as vice chair of the Federal Reserve. In July, the Senate Banking Committee voted 17''6 to confirm her, though the top Republican on the panel, Senator Richard Shelby of Alabama, voted no, saying he believed Yellen had an "inflationary bias". At the same time, on the heels of related testimony by Fed Chairman Bernanke, FOMC voting member James B. Bullard of the St. Louis Fed stated that the U.S. economy was "at risk of becoming 'enmeshed in a Japanese-style deflationary outcome within the next several years. ' "
Bullard's statement was interpreted as a possible shift within the FOMC balance between inflation hawks and doves. Yellen's pending confirmation, along with those of Peter A. Diamond and Sarah Bloom Raskin to fill vacancies, was seen as possibly furthering such a shift in the FOMC. All three nominations were seen as "on track to be confirmed by the Senate".
On September 29, 2010, Yellen confirmed by the Senate on a voice vote, to be both a Member of the Board of Governors, and Vice Chairman of the Federal Reserve System. On October 4, 2010, Yellen was sworn in as vice chair for a four-year term that ended on October 4, 2014. Simultaneously she began a 14-year term as a member of the Federal Reserve Board filling a vacant seat last held by Mark W. Olson. Yellen was the second woman to hold the No. 2 post at the Fed, after Alice Rivlin, who had that role from 1996 to 1999.
Yellen as vice chair, by contrast with her predecessors, has acted more as an independent force within the institution. She has trying to persuade Bernanke and the rest of the committee to adopt her preferred course for monetary policy, advocating more aggressive steps to pump money into the economy to bring down unemployment. In January 2012, the Fed announced its own inflation target of two percent a year, after a long campaign by Bernanke and Yellen, who was an early supporter of inflation targeting in the face of opposition from Chairman Greenspan since 1990s.
Yellen was considered as the front-runner to succeed Bernanke as chair of the Federal Reserve when his second term ceased. The other leading candidate to the post was Lawrence Summers, a former President Clinton's treasury secretary and director of President Obama's National Economic Council. During the race, Summers has come under fire for his support for deregulating parts of the banking sector while he served in the Clinton administration, he also sparked controversy for his comments on women's aptitude in math and science when he was the president of Harvard University in 2005. In July 2013, Senate Democrats were circulating a letter that has been signed by roughly a third of the 54 Democratic and allied senators, largely represent the liberal wing of the Senate Democratic Caucus, urging President Barack Obama to appoint Yellen as chairwoman of the central bank. In addition, more than 500 professional economists from more than 200 colleges and universities across the United States signed an open letter in support of Yellen for Fed chair and sent it to the White House. On September 15, 2013, after weeks of opposition to his candidacy, Summers withdrew his name from consideration for the position.
Chair of the Federal Reserve [ edit ] Yellen delivers opening statement at the
FOMC press conference in December 2014.
Yellen during a weekly meeting with Treasury Secretary
Jack Lew in February 2014
On October 9, 2013, Yellen was officially nominated to replace Bernanke as chair of the Federal Reserve, the first vice chair to be elevated to that post; via announcement, President Obama called her "one of the nation's foremost economists and policymakers", and "exceptionally well-qualified for this role". During the nomination hearings held on November 14, 2013, Yellen defended the more than $3 trillion in stimulus funds that the Fed had been injecting into the U.S. economy.
On December 20, 2013, the U.S. Senate voted 59''34 for cloture on Yellen's nomination. On January 6, 2014, she was confirmed as chair of the Federal Reserve by a vote of 56''26, the narrowest margin ever for the position. In addition to being the first woman to lead U.S. central bank, or any major central bank, Yellen is also the first Democratic nominee to hold the job since Paul Volcker became chairman in 1979 (via President Jimmy Carter). She is notable also for being arguably the most liberal Fed leader since Marriner S. Eccles, who was appointed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt during the Great Depression. Until her appointment there has been only one female head of the central bank in history of Group of Eight ("G8") countries '' Russia's Elvira Nabiullina. After being unanimously elected by the Federal Open Market Committee as its chair on January 30, 2014, she took office on February 3, 2014. In her 2014 semiannual testimony on monetary policy, Yellen said that while real estate, equities, and corporate bond prices "have risen appreciably and valuation metrics have increased" they were "generally in line with historical norms"; Yellen noted some concerns about valuations of "lower-rated corporate debt" (i.e., junk bonds), and noted that she and the Fed were monitoring trends, but did not believe that a so-called "everything bubble" was forming.
With Yellen as chair, the Federal Reserve increased its key interest rate on December 16, 2015. This was the first time the key interest rate was increased since 2006. During her tenure, the Fed has gradually raised rates four additional times, leaving its key rate in a still-low range of 1.25 percent to 1.5 percent '' well low by historical standards. However, Fed policymakers once again have the ability to cut the rates to stimulate growth in case if the economy slows.
After the election of President Donald Trump in November 2016, Yellen argued that it would be inappropriate to weaken or repeal the Dodd''Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act.
Trump considered renominating Yellen for another term, but instead picked Fed Governor Jerome Powell, a Republican, to run the Federal Reserve once her term ended on February 3, 2018. After Trump's decision, Yellen announced that she would leave the Fed at the end of her term as chair. She was the briefest-serving Fed chair since G. William Miller from 1978 to 1979, and first in nearly 40 years to not receive a second term.
On February 2, 2018, her last day in office, Chair Yellen enforce unprecedented sanctions placed on Wells Fargo, the third largest U.S. bank, with a consent order that restrict the firm from future growth until the organisation fixes its internal problems. The move came in response to a string of "widespread consumer abuses and compliance breakdowns" at the company, including a fake accounts scandal. It marks the first time the Federal Reserve has imposed a cap on the entire assets of a financial institution.
Yellen has been called one of the most successful chairs of the Federal Reserve System from the perspective of the labor markets. During her term, the unemployment rate has dropped from 6.7 percent to 4.1 percent, the lowest in 17 years. It marks the first time the economy has added jobs throughout every month of any Fed chair's tenure. Yellen completed her time at the Fed with the lowest final unemployment rate of any Fed chair since William McChesney Martin in 1970. Under her tenure, the U.S. unemployment rate fell more than during any other chair's term in modern history when compared to the beginning of her term to its end. It has declined 2.6 percentage points, maximum in the post-World War II era. Meanwhile, inflation remains below the Fed's annual two percent target, which also led to suggestion that the Federal Reserve could have done more to bolster the economy without the risk of price increases.
Dr. Yellen holds a unique place in Federal Reserve history. In addition to being the first woman to lead the institution, she was also the first person ever to have served at the nation's central bank system with stints as a Fed Reserve chair (from 2014 to 2018), vice chair (from 2010 to 2014), president of the regional Federal Reserve Bank (at the San Francisco Fed, from 2004 to 2010), Fed governor (from 1994 to 1997), as well as Fed staff economist (from 1977 to 1978).
After the Federal Reserve (2018''2020) [ edit ] Yellen delivers her farewell speech to Federal Reserve staff in 2018.
On February 2, 2018, the Brookings Institution announced that Yellen would be joining the think tank as a distinguished fellow in residence with the Economic Studies program, effective February 5, 2018. She's been affiliated with the Hutchins Center on Fiscal and Monetary Policy at Brookings. Yellen was on a leave from position since selected as nominee to head the Treasury Department.
On June 27, 2017, Yellen stated that she did not expect another financial crisis "in our lifetime". Yellen explained that this assumption can be made due to her belief that banks are "very much stronger" as a result of Federal Reserve oversight. On December 11, 2018 Yellen later warned of the possibility of a financial crisis by citing "gigantic holes in the system" after her departure from the Federal Reserve.
On February 25, 2019, Yellen criticized President Trump's economic policies. When asked if she believes Trump has "a grasp of economic policy", Yellen said "No, I do not." In an interview with Marketplace, Yellen explained that she doubts that Trump could articulate the Federal Reserve's explicit goals of "maximum employment and price stability". Yellen pointed out Trump's claims that the Federal Reserve's goals involve trade, which she explains to be objectively false. This interview was a change in tone for Yellen, who traditionally handled her differences with Trump in a neutral manner.
On July 17, 2020, at the hearing of a select coronavirus subcommittee that was set up by the House Committee on Oversight and Reform, former Fed Chairs Bernanke and Yellen testifying to the United States Congress about the economic-policy response to the negative impact of the coronavirus pandemic. They urged lawmakers to act aggressively with fiscal stimulus on three areas: extending the supplementary unemployment payments; providing additional financial assistance to hard-hit states and local governments; and investing in the medical response to the pandemic.
On August 13, 2020, it has been reported that Yellen was among a handful of economists who briefed the Biden-Harris team on economic issues, but not officially joined the presidential campaign. The meeting made headlines for being one of the first times the Biden campaign announced who it was turning to for economic expertise. But few at the time predicted Yellen for any president's Cabinet posts. In the end, however, she edged out other top contenders to become the Biden's Treasury chief, including Fed Board Gov. Lael Brainard and Roger W. Ferguson Jr., a former vice chairman at the central bank.
Between 2018 and 2020, Yellen had received over $7 million in speaking fees from financial companies such as Barclays, Citigroup, Goldman Sachs, and the hedge fund Citadel after leaving the Federal Reserve. She's pledged to get official permission before taking part in any federal regulatory decisions involving companies that had paid speaking fees to her to avoid any conflicts of interest.
Secretary of the Treasury (2021''present) [ edit ] Nomination and confirmation [ edit ] On November 30, 2020, President Joe Biden announced he would nominate Yellen to serve as secretary of the treasury in his Cabinet. All living former U.S. treasury secretaries from George Shultz to Jack Lew endorsed Yellen to the position in bipartisan letter calling on Senate to swiftly confirm her. The Senate Finance Committee unanimously approved Yellen's candidature by a 26''0 vote on January 22, 2021. The full U.S. Senate confirmed her nomination with a vote of 84''15 (with one abstention) on January 25, 2021. With her oath of office administered by Vice President Kamala Harris the next day, Secretary Yellen became the first woman to serve as U.S. secretary of the treasury, and the first person in American history to lead the three most powerful economic bodies in the Federal government of the United States: the Treasury Department, the Federal Reserve, and the White House Council of Economic Advisers.
Yellen was appointed as the first female treasury secretary of the United States, and only two other women '' France's Christine Lagarde and Canada's Chrystia Freeland '' have held similar positions within the Group of Seven ("G7") nations.
Tenure [ edit ] Official portrait as secretary of the treasury, 2021
Proposed international tax reform [ edit ] In April 2021, Yellen proposed a global minimum corporate tax rate, to prevent profit shifting used by multinational companies for purpose of tax avoidance. On June 5, 2021, finance ministers from the Group of Seven (G7) '' the major advanced economies '' have reached a historic agreement to reform the global tax system, agreed to back a minimum global corporate tax rate of at least 15%; while French Finance Minister Bruno Le Maire calling it "a starting point" that could be increased in the future. On June 10, 2021, Treasury Secretary Yellen joined with four foreign counterparts in penned op-ed that described the new accord as "a historic opportunity to end the race to the bottom in corporate taxation, restoring government resources at a time when they are most needed". On July 1, 2021, a US-backed measure to create wider global tax parity won support from a group of 130 nations, representing more than 90 percent of global GDP, establishing a new framework for international tax reform. Historic plan was prepared in negotiations within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) which has been pushed by the Biden Administration. On July 10, 2021, financial leaders from the G20 countries come to an agreement on plans to put an end to global tax havens and force multinational corporations to pay an appropriate share of tax wherever they operate and create a "more stable and fairer international tax architecture".
Economic philosophy [ edit ] Yellen is widely considered to be a "dove" on monetary policy (i.e., more concerned with unemployment than with inflation) and as such generally favoring lower, rather than higher, Federal Reserve interest rates. However, on fiscal policy, publications often referred to her as "somewhat" of a deficit hawk. Prior to the COVID-19 recession, she expressed concern about the U.S. fiscal path, especially on U.S. debt; in 2018, Yellen said, "If I had a magic wand, I would raise taxes and cut retirement spending"; the following year, she again suggested that she favored both raising revenue and making changes to the Medicare, Medicaid and Social Security programs to control spending. In September 2021, she expressed support for complete removal of the debt ceiling, which she argued was necessary to avoiding government default in October 2021.
She has supported tighter financial regulation to reduce systemic risks arising from vulnerabilities in the financial system. As chair of the Group of 30 Working Group on Climate Change and Finance, she addressed climate risks, supporting a phase-in carbon pricing to accelerate a shift to net zero carbon emissions.
Yellen is a Keynesian economist and has been described as a "Keynesian to her fingertips"; during the Great Recession, she "warned against an over-hasty removal of stimulus"; "insisted that the Fed pay as much attention to unemployment as to inflation"; and "believes the state has a duty to tackle poverty and inequality". When her appointment as Treasury secretary was announced in December 2020, Yellen was viewed by Wall Street "as a Treasury secretary who will push hard for expansionary policies aimed at boosting growth, profits and share prices", although the ability of Yellen to push through her preferred fiscal policies was seen as likely to be constrained by congressional gridlock.
Honors and awards [ edit ] Dr. Yellen, has received numerous honors in recognition of her career in academia and politics. These include:
Scholastic [ edit ] Honorary degreesLocationDateSchoolDegreeGave Commencement Address Rhode IslandMay 25, 1998Brown UniversityDoctor of Laws (LL.D.)Yes New YorkMay 27, 2000Bard CollegeDoctor of Humane Letters (DHL)No New YorkMay 21, 2014New York UniversityDoctor of Commercial Science (DCSc)Yes EnglandMay 15, 2015London School of EconomicsDoctor of Science (DSc)No ConnecticutMay 15, 2015Yale UniversityDoctor of Social Science (DSSc)No EnglandNovember 19, 2015University of WarwickDoctor of Laws (LL.D.)No MarylandDecember 19, 2016University of BaltimoreDoctor of Laws (LL.D.)Yes IsraelJune 5, 2019Tel Aviv UniversityDoctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)No MichiganDecember 15, 2019University of MichiganDoctor of Laws (LL.D.)No PennsylvaniaMay 17, 2021University of PennsylvaniaDoctor of Laws (LL.D.)NoMemberships and fellowships [ edit ] Awards [ edit ] LocationDateOrganisationAward ConnecticutMay 26, 1997Yale UniversityWilbur Cross Medal District of ColumbiaOctober 11, 2010National Association for Business EconomicsAdam Smith Award New YorkJanuary 22, 2015Hobart and William Smith CollegesElizabeth Blackwell Award MassachusettsMay 27, 2016Radcliffe Institute for Advanced StudyRadcliffe Medal Rhode IslandMay 5, 2017Brown UniversityThe President's Medal IllinoisNovember 7, 2017Institute of Government and Public AffairsThe Paul H. Douglas Award for Ethics in GovernmentAwarded with Ben Bernanke CaliforniaFebruary 2, 2019University of California, Santa CruzThe Foundation Medal ConnecticutMarch 20, 2019Chief Executive Leadership InstituteThe Legend in Leadership Award MassachusettsSeptember 21, 2019Brandeis International Business SchoolDean's Medal MissouriOctober 10, 2019Truman Library InstituteTruman Medal for Economic PolicyRankings [ edit ] Other recognition [ edit ] In March 2018, The Janet L. Yellen professorship was endowed by Charles D. Ellis at the Yale School of Management, named in honor of Yellen. Professor Andrew Metrick has been invested as the inaugural Janet L. Yellen Professor of Finance and Management at the School.In December 2018, Federal Reserve Board presented an annual Janet L. Yellen Award for Excellence in Community Development to recognize the exemplary work of Federal Reserve System staff, and intended as honor of former chair Yellen's commitment to public service. Ariel Cisneros of the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, has been named the first recipient of the newly created Award.Personal life [ edit ] Yellen is married to George Akerlof, an economist, 2001 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences laureate, professor at the McCourt School of Public Policy at Georgetown University, and professor emeritus at the University of California, Berkeley. Yellen and Akerlof first crossed paths at the Fed in the fall of 1977 and married in June 1978, less than a year after meeting. They have one child, a son named Robert, who was born in 1981. Robert Akerlof, an economist by training himself, earning an AB degree in economics and mathematics, summa cum laude with special distinction, from Yale University in 2003 and received a PhD in economics from Harvard University in 2009, where he was a presidential scholar. He works as an associate professor of economics at the University of Warwick. Yellen and Akerlof have often collaborated on research, including topics such as poverty, unemployment and a paper on the costs of out-of-wedlock childbearing. One of their most talked-about papers at Berkeley, on why lower wages do not always lead to higher employment, came from the personal experience of hiring a nanny for the first time. Yellen says Akerlof (along with, as she cited "lifelong mentors," James Tobin and William Brainard) has been her biggest intellectual influence. Both frequently state that their lone disagreement is that she is a bit more supportive of free trade than he is.
Yellen has an estimated net worth of $20 million, accrued from stock holdings, speaking engagements and various government and academic positions. In February 2021, she divested holdings in corporations including Pfizer, ConocoPhillips and AT&T, among others when appointed to public office at U.S. Treasury.
Yellen is a philatelist, having reported a collection of postage stamps valued between $15,000 and $50,000 in her OGE financial disclosures released in 2014 and 2021.
In popular culture [ edit ] "Who's Yellen Now?" is a song by musician Dessa, commissioned by Marketplace, following the joking suggestion by then President-elect Biden that Lin-Manuel Miranda should write a Hamiltonesque musical about Yellen, reflecting the historic nature of her nomination as nation's first female secretary of the Treasury, on December 1, 2020.
On the NBC sketch comedy show Saturday Night Live, Yellen has been parodied by an actress Kate McKinnon since 2021.
Selected works [ edit ] Books [ edit ] Akerlof, George A.; Yellen, Janet L., eds. (October 31, 1986). Efficiency Wage Models of the Labor Market . Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/cbo9780511559594. ISBN 978-0-521-31284-4. Blinder, Alan S.; Yellen, Janet L. (2001). The Fabulous Decade: Macroeconomic Lessons from the 1990s . New York: The Century Foundation Press. ISBN 0-87078-467-6. OCLC 47018413. Articles [ edit ] Adams, William James; Yellen, Janet L. (August 1976). "Commodity Bundling and the Burden of Monopoly". The Quarterly Journal of Economics. 90 (3): 475''498. doi:10.2307/1886045. JSTOR 1886045. Akerlof, George A.; Yellen, J. L. (January 1985). "A Near-Rational Model of the Business Cycle, with Wage and Price Inertia". The Quarterly Journal of Economics. 100: 823''838. doi:10.1093/qje/100.Supplement.823. ISSN 0033-5533. Akerlof, George A.; Yellen, Janet L. (May 1990). "The Fair Wage-Effort Hypothesis and Unemployment". The Quarterly Journal of Economics. 105 (2): 255''283. doi:10.2307/2937787. JSTOR 2937787. See also [ edit ] Greenspan putList of female United States Cabinet membersReferences [ edit ] ^ a b c d e Mui, Yian (February 2, 2014). "New Fed Chief Janet Yellen lets a long career of breaking barriers speak for itself". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on December 23, 2015 . Retrieved February 3, 2014 . ^ a b Cox, Jeff (November 2, 2017). "Trump picks Jerome Powell to succeed Yellen as Fed chair". CNBC. Archived from the original on November 2, 2017 . Retrieved November 3, 2017 . ^ "Dr. Janet L. Yellen, Chair - Council of Economic Advisers". The White House. August 3, 1999. Archived from the original on April 7, 2021 . Retrieved January 21, 2001 . ^ a b "Obama to nominate Jewish economist Janet Yellen as new Fed chief". World Jewish Congress. October 9, 2013. Archived from the original on February 8, 2014 . Retrieved January 10, 2013 . ^ Smialek, Jenna (November 23, 2020). 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''Firms are not always willing to cut wages, even if there are people lined up outside the gates to work. So why don't they?'' asks Yellen. The couple's conclusion: some employers set pay higher to demonstrate that they value employees in a way that motivates them to do good work, even when markets are ready to undercut those wages. As any parent paying more than market rates for a nanny knows, child care is a labor market in which the conventional wisdom doesn't always hold. ^ Alexander, Dan (June 15, 2021). "Here's How Much Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen Is Worth". Forbes. Archived from the original on June 18, 2021 . Retrieved June 16, 2021 . ^ Allcot, Dawn (January 21, 2021). "How Rich Are Biden's Cabinet Picks? Check Out the Finances of These Notable Nominees". Yahoo Finance. Archived from the original on January 22, 2021 . Retrieved January 22, 2021 . ^ Udland, Myles (August 29, 2014). "Janet Yellen Owns A Very Expensive Collection Of Stamps". Business Insider. 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UP CLOSE AND PERSONAL, 111021 '' Credence ECHN extra pages
Thu, 14 Oct 2021 14:46
SITUATION REPORT PART 68 '' DON'T BE COERCED. IT CAN'T BE REVERSED
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** Good afternoon, everyone **
Welcome to the most comprehensive weekly WW3 situation report ANYWHERE IN THE WORLD!
LOGLINEAnd welcome to World War 3. At present, an attempted global coup d'(C)tat of the nation-states is underway, in which globalist 'Cabal/Deep State' (DS) powers are making their play to establish global governance (The New World Order/Great Reset). Here is the Great Reset explained in five minutes. The evil ones are attempting this under cover of a bogus viral pandemic so deadly, you have to take a fake test to find out if you've got it.
As usual we'll get into everything, but first, you won't want to miss'...
THE WEEKLY WISDOM (from everyone, everywhere) ''Stop trying to be liked by everybody. You don't even LIKE everybody.''
''I blocked CNN at my mom's home using parental controls. Now she keeps calling me saying she can't watch the news. This is how you save America.''
Sign: ''Ivermectin will only be sold to horse owners. Must show a pic of you and your horse.''
''You will never be criticised by someone who is doing more than you. You will only be criticised by someone doing less.''
''1% control the world. 4% are their puppets. 90% are asleep. 5% know and are trying to wake the 90%. The 1% use the 4% to prevent the 5% from waking the 90%.''
''Nearly 100,000 healthcare workers in New York have refused the vaccine. 100,000. HEALTHCARE WORKERS. Choosing to be unemployed rather than take the vaccine. That should tell you all you need to know.''
''So'... I'm a 'conspiracy theorist' because you won't research.''
''The reason the DOJ/FBI is considering labelling ''angry parents at school board meetings'' as domestic terrorists is because school boards and town councils are folding under the pressure of a furious public. Battles are being won and momentum is gathering. The Feds fear this. Keep going.''
''By the end of the year we won't need vaccines. So why are you getting jabbed?''
''Civilised societies don't murder their young.''
''Treating people who are NOT SICK as if they ARE SICK by forcing them to ACT SICK (social distancing, mask-wearing, quarantine, isolation, etc.) is a mental illness called Munchausen Syndrome.''
''Question everything.'' ''Why?''
''And then we told them, 'Stand on your special dot in the store. It could save lives!'''
''Not a single government in the world has used the COVID crisis as an opportunity to massively educate their populations on how to live healthily.''
''In what pandemic would you fire doctors and healthcare workers? In one that doesn't exist, of course.''
''The face you make when your $10,000 Wayfair pillow arrives'... and it's just a pillow.''
''Apparently, putting Alka-Seltzer in my mouth and staggering into a store while shouting, ''The virus has mutated!'' is legally NOT funny.''
''At my local store there's this big 'X' by the till for me to stand on. I've seen too many Road Runner cartoons to fall for that crap.''
''What's this? 'Public Health England' has been dropped, and from 1 October 2021 it's called the 'UK Health SECURITY Agency'. This sounds very sinister, and after reading this official link we should be very wary of it. We were never asked about this, and why has it been sneaked through with no public fanfare via MSM?''
''Remember the plague that wiped out the Amish because they don't vaccinate their children? Yeah, me neither.''
''I don't always blindly trust things when it comes to my child's health. But when I do, it's an experimental, deadly injection from a giant, profit-driven corporation with a horrible track record which has immunity from prosecution.''
''When I'm done, it will be like you were never even here.''
''World War 3 is upon us.''
''The sooner I give up my rights, the sooner I'll get them back'....''
''Remember, the day you plant the seed is not the day you harvest the fruit.''
''Imagine there were a 99.7% chance you wouldn't get cancer, but you were forced to go on chemotherapy just in case. WAKE UP.''
''So kids, what did we learn during lockdown?''
''I have a medical condition. I'm allergic to tyranny. It makes me break out in rebellion.''
THOUGHT FOR THE WEEK You cannot comply your way out of tyranny. You either fight or succumb.
BOOMS Here are some of the leading WW3 stories hitting the research wires this week:-
How to effectively wake up your friends and familyReality is so very unyieldingly real . How do you deal with family that has lost touch with reality? GENERAL
Depopulation and transhumanism : More and more people are now awakened to the harsh reality of global depopulation by vaccine. DO NOT REMAIN SILENT Peak Gaslighting: Impenitent profiteer Albert Bourla of Pfizer makes the most ludicrous claim yetThe ultimate 'Do Not Take The Vaccine' videoFall of the Cabal '' Part 18 by Janet Ossebaard & Cyntha Koeter. The full series hereWHO database reports over 2 million potential COVID jab injuries in 2021, vast majority in women '' The world is now witnessing a pandemic of N-STEMI heart attacks caused by blood clots'' Last Chance '-- VT Vault : If you are thinking about getting the COVID injection, this is your last chance to get the accurate information 'they' are censoring What was the Holodomor ? Nations could soon find out firsthand Connect the dots Will your insurance cover you in the event that you experience an adverse reaction to the COVID vaccine which results in injury or death? Better check before you get the prickIvermectin has new application fighting cancer cell growthIvermectin '' the witch hunt The research is clear: Ivermectin is a safe, effective treatment for COVID. So why isn't it being used? Pfizer's inside manGraphene Oxide: Look what pops up when typing those two words into the DuckDuckGo search engineMarket meltdown and recession : What action do you take? MONOPOLY '' Who owns the world? Microfliers , the next surveillance nightmare Tucker and Candace Owens : What drives George Soros Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is working on a crypto currency system that's connected to the digital passport system and blockchain On the shocking 2025 'Deagel' forecast : War, population reduction and the collapse of the West lites grandstand while the children stand muzzled BRITAIN
UK judge orders government to provide evidence in court that justifies COVID-19 vaccination of children in legal challenge to halt roll-out of the jabs to kids 81% of COVID-19 deaths in September were people who had been vaccinated: Public Health data ' If any of these children are jabbed , we'll see you in court': Parents accuse school of GBH; threaten to sue if their teenagers are given COVID jabs without permission The new UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA ) says it is aware some schools have received campaign letters and emails with 'misinformation' about the vaccine programme COVID vaccine kill-shots '' it's worse than you think British lawyer Anna de Buisseret: FDA document admits COVID PCR test was developed without isolated samples for test calibration, effectively admitting it's testing something elseFinally, the truth is coming OUT in the halls of WestminsterEx police officer Mark Sexton calls on all whistleblowers to come forward '' police/NHS anyone who knows this is not rightLocalised LOCKDOWNS coming for UK this winter?UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson's father on GB News: ''You cannot be too ruthless in making sure that people get vaccinated'' The UK has fallen : 81% of COVID-19 deaths are among the vaccinated. Male teen deaths have risen by 63% since they were offered the jab. COVID-19 deaths are 12 times higher than this time last year Schools told to stock up on tinned food Fluoride '' The toxic chemical about to be added to the nations drinking water, thanks to the recommendation of Professor Chris Whitty GOVT UK says PASSPORTS by mid-December 2021 ' No further action will be taken': Met Police reveals it has DROPPED its investigation into claims Virginia Roberts was 'sex-trafficked into London by Jeffrey Epstein when she was 17 and forced to have sex with Prince Andrew'. This outcome is no surprise when you consider how the Cabal covers for its own. See this next item ''Tim Fortescue from 'Westminster's Secret Service' BBC 1995Carrie Johnson says Boris is 'completely committed' to gay rights as she makes her Tory conference speaking debut at an LGBT+ Pride reception (with the PM in the audience) The real-life Terminator looks like a very possible future, according to a former Google Chief Business Officer Mo Gawdat, who reveals what he saw being developed World War 3 MAPPED: The SIX places where WW3 could break out in 2021 AMERICA
Black Americans, listen up! Dan Bongino '' Project Veritas coup Harvard Business School shuts down after massive COVID-19 outbreak despite almost all students being fully vaccinated Los Angeles City Council approves one of the strictest COVID-19 vaccination mandates in the country, requiring proof of vaccination to enter indoor restaurants, movie theaters, salons, shopping centers, and many more indoor venues Dr. Fauci: Giving up freedom for ''the greater good of society'' Reports of serious US injuries after COVID vaccines near 112,000, as Pfizer asks FDA to green-light shots for kids 5 to 11 Court sides with unvaccinated Michigan athletes in mandate case Indiana: COVID vaccines given to family, including small kids, instead of flu shotsLA Sheriff refuses to enforce vaccine mandate on his officers DoD Documents : Over 70% 'COVID' hospitalizations are 'fully vaccinated' over 65 Healthy young mother dies of vaccine-induced blood clot. Then Twitter censors her obituary Lawsuit alleges Merck hid Gardasil HPV vaccine adverse events in clinical trialsLarge New York healthcare system fires 1,400 unvaccinated workers (because that's what you do when you're in the middle of a deadly pandemic)871 L.A. city firefighters file notice of intent to sue over City of Los Angeles COVID vaccine mandate seeking $2 million per plaintiff.NY Times pens major correction after overstating child COVID hospitalizations'Up to half the border patrol/US military are potentially being stood down for not taking the vaccine'Six scandals the media won't tell you about outgoing NIH Director Francis Collins Another Pfizer scientist spills the beans Pfizer scientists : 'Your [COVID] antibodies are better than the [Pfizer] vaccination.' Pfizer NAILEDMore Pfizer leaks : Whistleblower reveals internal emails from Chief Scientific Officer and Senior Director of Worldwide Research discussing COVID vaccine: 'We want to avoid having the information on the fetal cells floating out there' Joe Biden's vaccine mandate doesn't exist. It's just a press releaseMost vaccinated state in America now seeing massive surge in COVID hospitalizationsTwo children in the U.S. were accidentally given the COVID-19 vaccine instead of flu shots and are now both suffering from heart issues, according to the a pediatric cardiologistSouthwest Airlines cancels 1,000 more flights as disruptions increaseSouthWest Airlines has now cancelled over 1,800 flights in 2 days amid rumours of employee 'sickout' due to COVID-19 vaccine mandateNIH Director Francis Collins resigns after documents reveal he lied about his involvement with gain-of-function research in Wuhan labTrump holds another rally, this time in Des Moines, IowaTrump soundbites from the Iowa rally: One '' Two '' Three '' Four '' FiveBiden admin to send the Taliban millions in US dollars after arming them with $83 billion in us military weaponsFeds must disclose 'identities of any unnamed co-conspirators' to Ghislaine Maxwell, trial judge rulesSenator Ed Markey to Mark Zuckerberg: ''Your time of invading privacy, promoting toxic content, and preying on children and teens is over. Congress will be taking action''Facebook, Instagram and WhatsApp go DOWN worldwide for FOUR hours and counting in catastrophic outage '' as experts suggest internal error is to blame and staff 'are locked out of offices at California HQ'MSM reports on Biden's polling : ''The President's numbers have fallen off a cliff'' Senate leaders announce short-term deal to raise debt ceiling Nancy Pelosi's district : This is what Democrats do to their areas Democrats off the rails EUROPE
Who launched COVID global hysteria? Sweden, Denmark pause Moderna's COVID vaccine for younger age groups citing reports of myocarditis Finland pauses use of Moderna's COVID-19 vaccine for young men due to risk of heart inflammation. Now Iceland tooFrance : (With implications for Britain): Administrative judge overturns suspension of sick-leave worker. Pass Sanitaire for workers is not enforceable under the law France : 216,000 children were allegedly abused in the Catholic Church during the last decades France : Nuns used crucifixes to rape girls during decades of abuse carried out by clergy in France's Catholic Church that saw attacks on 330,000 children covered up 'by a veil of silence', damning report finds Switzerland : Police behaving like tyrants to protesters opposing health apartheid CANADA
Trudeau mandates COVID jabs for all travellers, federal workers Trudeau has given all federal employees until the end of October to get the jab or risk being put off work with no pay. He also announces anybody 12 and older will be required to be vaccinated to travel on a public train or plane within Canada: ''Testing is not an option'' AUSTRALIA
All doctors in Australia are receiving this '' a pamphlet to entice them into administering the COVID jab MP Craig Kelly is censured at the Australian parliament for mentioning Ivermectin. His response! MP Craig Kelly : ''In the years ahead, those vax cultists pushing this stuff to be injected into young Australian boys are going to be brought before for the courts and face justice for the crime they have committed'' New South Wales Premier resigns , accused of taking bribes to push vaccines Victoria premier Daniel Andrews now the subject of corruption probe '' There is a big court case underway in Australia right now about vaccine safety and mandates. These questions were asked and answered in court today UNDER OATH, and it's the FIRST time I have heard globalist health officials and politicians give us truthful information about COVID'' BOMBSHELL REVELATION from the court filings in the NSW Supreme Court case on mandatory vaccination. The lead vaccine researchers driving all government policy in Australia received $65,330,038 in government grants covering 2020-2023. Grants of this size are unprecedentedNew law passed in New South Wales : If employers are mandating the shot, THEY WILL BE LIABLE for all injuries and adverse reactions for the rest of the worker's life, even after termination Bombshells in NSW case : Govt and expert admit jabs not mandatory, dangerous and ineffective Plan to bring thousands of nurses and doctors into 'Fortress Australia'CHY-NA virus passport to be rolled out on Monday in New South Wales AustraliaProf. Delores Cahill and Riccardo Bosi '' Next plandemic is on its wayPetition EN3350 '' Stop mandatory COVID-19 vaccinations and passports in Australia '' PLEASE SIGNSenior cop sensationally QUITS after explosive interview slamming heavy-handed lockdown enforcement; says even she is scared of police when walking around Melbourne out of uniformAustralian medical manufacturer recalls nearly 200,000 COVID-19 tests in US over 'false positive' resultsHands up who can see what's going on here : ''Vaccinated people are 11 times more likely to die from COVID and 10 times more likely to be hospitalized'' The Strong Cities horror show continues for Melbourne (expletives) Did China fire nuclear-capable missile directly over Sydney, Australia? Australia . ''Am I hearing this right?'' Aussies who test positive from the thousands of fake COVID tests, must immediately stop working and quarantine at home for two weeks. Police will confirm they remain in 'home detention' via a special phone app that will match facial recognition metadata with the criminal's person's 'approved location'! A million DIY COVID-19 tests land in Australia Australian patriot Aussie Cossack arrested REST OF THE WORLD
China: Massive tensions '' China/TaiwanChina: War being talked up'...China: Water released from Three Gorges Dam last weekLithuania: A tale of COVID oppressionLebanon BLACKOUT: Whole country without powerBrazen China steadily ramps up warplane flights in Taiwan's airspaceNew Zealand physicians demand immediate termination of COVID injections New Zealand: Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern of New Zealand will drop 'zero COVID' strategy: announces the plan two days after thousands of New Zealanders took to the Auckland streets to protest the city's strict seven-week lockdown New Zealand PM : ''Dismiss all others, we will be your single source of truth'' Trinidad : ''My son is dead. He took the vaccine. They're killing us.'' '' Pastor mourns after son died one day after receiving COVID-19 shot Mexico : 538 teachers have died, already vaccinated for COVID COVID AND THE ULTERIOR AGENDAThis week has seen a ramping-up of food and fuel shortage fearmongering, at least in Britain. Also the potential for regional lockdowns coming up across the nation in the lead-up to Christmas.
There's even more data quantifying how the COVID kill-shot continues to murder the gullible. We're also seeing more Cabal rodents brought out into the harsh light of scrutiny and identified to the masses.
Something called the 'Pandora Papers' dropped this week '' we'll take a look in the later Geopolitical section. James O'Keefe of Project Veritas has been earning his chops too across the pond with more Pfizer insiders either squealing truth bombs or ensnaring themselves in compromising positions.
The greatest crime ever committed against humanity continues to roll out '' not only the attempted genocide of billions via biomedical terrorism, but also the implementation of a bizarre Satanic transhuman agenda, which appears also to involve the mysterious substance graphene.
More millions than you think are not taking the shot. High-profile celebrities are coming out in opposition. Foolhardy airlines gulp. But as it's currently shaping up, millions worldwide may not survive the cull to come. And prepare yourself for the sick spectacle of thousands more eagerly lining up at the local kill-clinic for their 'booster shots', permitting their kids to get the same at school, all the while rubbishing even the official warnings to which the world awakens.
The fact that the UK and Australia have started producing propaganda campaigns to normalize heart failure in young people is totally lost on the sheep. That would be a conspiracy theory .
In the midst of all the madness, however, I'm pleased to report progress towards victory continues, especially with the help of those doctors, professionals, and other organising bodies speaking out with new information, dramatically expanding their audience platforms. So first, let's look at ''
REVOLTING MEDICAL PERSONNELDr Peter McCullough: Just say no'...Whistleblower sonographerDr Zev Zelenko '' Quercetin, Vitamin C and D-3Dr Mike Yeadon, ex chief science officer for Pfizer: Lockdown is epidemiologically irrelevantDr. Johnston, a Victorian-based GP with over 50 years' experience, has witnessed firsthand the terrible effects of these injectionsDr. Zandre Botha is shocked after studying the blood of patients coming to her with serious illness after being injected with these 'vaccines'. Self-assembling, symmetrical objects at the six-minute markMolecular Biologist Gina Gold speaks at Dawson Creek City Council meetingDr Nathan Thompson: Tests the blood of one of his patients before and after the injections. Blood results show the patient's adaptive immune system has 'tanked' after receiving the shotDr Naomi Wolf: Covid doesn't even exist in fully normal Sweden, while deaths are skyrocketing in fully vaccinated IsraelOntario doctor Dr. Rochagn(C) Kilian resigns over forced vaccines, says 80% of ER patients with mysterious issues had both shotsDr Scott Jensen gives an update on the pausing of Moderna COVID vaccine programs for young people in Sweden and Denmark because of myocarditis concernsDr. Mercola to CNN: ''You have the power to save lives '-- Why won't you use it?''Another brave doctorVIDEO captures 'organism' from vaxxed soldier's body Dr Christopher Rake: ''They want to force a vaccination or medication or treatment into my body that I don't want, so they're telling me, 'Take the jab or we take your job!'''Dr Ryan Cole: ''Doctors are now seeing irregular cancer patterns in those who've been injected with the 'vaccine'ORGANISATIONS AND EXPOSS Things are not going smoothly for Satan's vax roll-out in many countries since employers are coming to realise that governments are compelling them to enforce vax mandates as a condition of an employee's continued employment. This has zero basis in law and is a flagrant breach not only of the Nuremberg Code, but also other national statutes, for example the Equality Act 2010 in Britain.
So business owners, this is for you . And here are letter templates for employees to challenge masks and decline testing and vaccines compelled upon them.
Then there's Police for Freedom International : ''Our international movement is growing, as more and more members of police and security forces contact us and start chapters in their countries. We already have 17 chapters around the world. We are uniting!''
In Britain, a judge has ordered the Boris government to provide evidence in court that justifies the COVID-19 vaccination of children, in a legal challenge to halt roll-out of the jabs to kids. It's a timely intervention, even as those maniacs at Pfizer apply to the FDA in America to green-light their jabs for all 5 to 11 y/o's.
Parents too are getting united, organised and mightily horsed-off: ' If any of these children are jabbed , we'll see you in court!' bellow parents in one Cornish community. Parents across Britain are accusing schools of threatening grievous bodily harm upon their children, and are putting head-teachers and governors on legal notice if their teenagers are given the COVID kill-shots without parental permission.
Government has also put the schools in the spotlight by telling heads that even 12 y/o's can make the call to have the jab regardless of parents' wishes '' the so-called Gillick Competency . All this while insurance companies continue to baulk at paying out on claims for vaccine injury or death. Will your insurance cover you in the event that you experience an adverse reaction to the COVID injection? Might be a good idea to find out and get any communications in writing.
Parents in the US have gone one better. They've so traumatised school boards in open-session confrontations that the school board group has applied to Biden to consider labelling obstreperous parents 'domestic terrorists' .
Elsewhere, a video has emerged of Anthony Fauci and the Health and Human Services Dept (HHS) plotting to stage a massive health scare using a 'new virus'.
This week, Sweden and Denmark pause administering Moderna's COVID vaccine for younger age groups, citing reports of myocarditis. Finland follows a day or two later . Then Iceland .
In France , an administrative judge has overturned the suspension of a sick-leave worker, and ruled that the French Pass Sanitaire (vax passport) for workers is not enforceable under the law.
Down Under, where the rubber really meets the road in World War 3, all doctors in Australia are receiving this '' a pamphlet attempting to entice them into administering the COVID jab for cash.
MP Craig Kelly gets censured at the Australian Parliament for mentioning Ivermectin, and absolutely explodes at the malnourished little Andrew Leigh in response. Kelly is a legend.
Last week we reported that the New South Wales premier resigned. Gladys Reptilian is accused of taking bribes to push vaccines. Now we learn that Victoria Premier 'Dictator Dan' Andrews is also the subject of a corruption probe and could soon be gone. Keep the champagne on ice for now. There is an inexhaustible supply of Cabal clowns. This is either the Deep State rotating rodents to bring you fresh annoyance, or it could be a genuine deep clean. Stay tuned. Things are on the move.
There's a court case currently underway in Australia about vaccine safety and mandates. Questions were asked and answered in court UNDER OATH, and it's the first time we've heard a globalist health official cough up the truth about COVID '' that the jabs are also not mandatory , but dangerous and ineffective.
Also, a surprising new law passes in New South Wales , viz: If employers are mandating the kill-shot as a condition of employment, they will be liable for all injuries and adverse reactions for the rest of the worker's life, even after termination.
And yet more scandal: '' Vaccinated people are 11 times more likely to die from COVID and 10 times more likely to be hospitalized.''
But the absolute cherry on the COVID cake this week? '' Australia , am I hearing this right?'' Aussies who test positive from the thousands of fake COVID tests , must immediately stop working and quarantine at home for two weeks. During this time, Police will confirm they remain in 'home detention' via a special phone app that will match facial recognition metadata with the person's 'approved location'.
Across the Tasman Sea, while New Zealand physicians demand the immediate termination of the COVID injection roll-out due to harm, New Zealand's Marxist Prime Minister, the equine Jacinda Ardern intends dropping her 'zero COVID' strategy. He/she/they announces the plan two days after thousands of New Zealanders took to Auckland's streets to protest the city's strict seven-week lockdown.
OPERATIONAL NIGHTMARES But the reality everywhere is that companies large and small don't want the hassle, but are attempting to force mandates upon their staff on government's behalf on pain of fines, threats and other illegal interventions to the detriment of their operation. Companies just want to trade and make money. Losing a chunk of the workforce to this idiocy is a guaranteed recipe for insolvency.
Not only are many staff refusing the jab, they're also refusing to quit, bringing on potentially ruinous dismissal issues for the employers. The Cabal wants all this chaos to further their plans of crashing economies to bring in their Great Reset . I can't think of a better excuse to spill the military onto the streets to plug up the shortfalls, and even import thousands of foreign 'nurses and doctors' into 'Fortress Australia', while sending home thousands of healthcare workers without pay who 'selfishly' refuse to take the jab.
But you'll be delighted to hear ''
THE LIONS are fighting back magnificently, sometimes disgracefully : hundreds of millions of ordinary citizens worldwide . Mass, non-violent, non-compliance is the secret weapon. Oh, and paint . Citizens must take back their own nations with God's help and maintain law and order. YOU ARE NOT ALONE. Be encouraged! ORGANISE. JOIN GROUPS. FIGHT FOR YOUR FREEDOM. Stop complying. NO SURRENDER . Let's see who's been up to what this week:
Last Chance '-- VT Vault : If you are thinking about getting the COVID injection, this is your last chance to get accurate information the bad people are censoring The ultimate 'Do Not Take The Vaccine' videoBUSINESS OWNERS '' THIS IS FOR YOU . ''Employers are under tremendous pressure from governments to comply with mandates intended to force medical interventions on their employees. This has no basis in law, thereby exposing owners or directors to risk of liability. Visit our resource centre'' ''If you are feeling defeated and alone then please look at these images . People are coming together to fight for you. Please don't give up. We have much more to do regardless of the reports on mainstream news that it's too late and everyone must be vaccinated'' Police for Freedom International : ''Our International movement is growing as more and more members of police and security forces are contacting us and starting chapters in their countries. We already have 17 chapters around the world. It is happening people! We are uniting!'' BRITISH LIONS
Shoppers in John Lewis, Edinburgh had to stop and think as they were flashmobbed British lawyer Anna de Buisseret: FDA document admits COVID PCR test was developed without isolated samples for test calibration, effectively admitting it's testing something elseProtesters outside the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, London England ' If any of these children are jabbed , we'll see you in court': Parents accuse school of GBH and threaten to sue if their teenagers are given COVID jabs without permission Ex police officer Mark Sexton calls on all whistleblowers to come forward '' police/NHS anyone who knows this is not right V for Vendetta movie, best scene '' the turning-point? Absolute LEGEND (bloodhound) Exeter over the weekend AMERICAN LIONS
Olympia, Washington rise up against vaccine mandates US Air Force civil engineers upset Katie Hopkins in NYC Las Vegas : ''We will not bow down to tyranny. We will not comply!'' Amazing Polly: Experiments in good and evilLA Sheriff refuses to enforce the vaccine mandate on his officers People gather at the Australian consulate in New York City to protest COVID-tyranny. A similar protest occurred in London just a few days ago. Placing an international spotlight on Australia's criminal communist leaders is the aim Staten Island diners burst out in spontaneous acclaim for their presidentAmerican pilot's impassioned speech about vaccine mandates American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and activist Ted Nugent is asked what he would say to the people who believe it's a worthwhile vaccine and saving lives Trump holds another rally, this time in Des Moines, Iowa. Trump soundbites from the Iowa rally: One '' Two '' Three '' Four '' FiveAUSTRALIAN LIONS
MAJOR NATIONAL DEMO ON OCTOBER 16! Australian MP Craig Kelly : ''In the years ahead, those vax cultists pushing this stuff to be injected into young Australian boys are going to be brought before for the courts and face justice for the crime they have committed'' Aussie Cossack '' what a national gem he is'... Holding the police to account and being cheeky and funny, without being rude or belligerent. Later arrestedPAPERS PLEASE : Police try new tactic to STOP free press in Melbourne '' ''I'm here to discuss your right to be here.'...'' What's wrong with that sentence in a free society? Senior cop sensationally QUITS after explosive interview slamming heavy-handed lockdown enforcement '' and says even she is scared of police when walking around Melbourne out of uniformQantas captain Graham Hood with a valuable message. And another here BONGINO : Something big is happening in Australia, folks'... EURO LIONS
Athens, Greece rising up to protest Draconian mandates The Polish government calls out the Australian government for the totalitarianism dictatorship it is Miss Netherlands sacrifices her dreams to maintain her right to free choice; gets smeared by UK media Paris, France : HUGE crowds call for the resignation of Macron. The people have had enough! Switzerland : Anti-Coronavirus passport protesters hit the streets of Bern, Switzerland for the fifth consecutive week; met once again by heavy policing. Here's GenevaItaly, Rome: Huge protests. Italian police forced to flee as anti-tyranny protesters fight back. Fighting fascism on the front lineCANADIAN LIONS
Police and first responders standing together in unity A letter from a Toronto police officer to Chief of Police
GEOPOLITICAL Let's turn our attention to the wider war.
The US presidential election fraud drama is hotting up. After receiving a subpoena from the AZ Senate, Maricopa County officials now admit that they did in fact delete election data. Arizona Senator Wendy Rogers reads this huge announcement, indicating the way the process is headed.
At some point, when this investigation reaches the point of critical mass, a re-running of the 2020 election on paper (no machines) may well be considered. Many believe handing the presidency back to Trump, the true 2020 winner, would create too many problems. Other macro events, however, may intervene in the meantime. For example, the imminent crashing of the markets, a war triggered, perhaps China making its move on Taiwan, among other hotspots. How much of this will be pure optics in this strange, psychological conflict we are going through will have to be gauged as events unfold. The markets are definitely shot though.
PAUCITYThe shortages storyline continues to unfold. In Britain, schools have been told to stock up on tinned food. Last week we looked at how hundreds of container ships are being corralled offshore at ports around the world for various nonsensical reasons, further disrupting supply chains. The general shortage of manpower due to vax mandates is becoming more serious in many areas.
People still line up for fuel across Britain at the time of writing, though matters seem to be easing. Lebanon is without power at present. Elsewhere, over 1,000 crew members are stranded on cargo ships worldwide without pay, food or fuel; abandoned to fend for themselves by their feckless, debt-ridden employers, along with their luckless, rusty ships.
Shortages, paucity, food lines, supplies failing, no nurses or doctors because of the mandates ('their fault'), empty food shelves, the toilet roll thing all over again, compromised military, too few truck drivers ('Brexit's fault'). Sheesh, it's like it's been orchestrated. Throw in too much carbon dioxide, too many people, too little time, ''Flash, we've only 24 hours to save the world!'' I'm expecting Prince Charles to chime in at any moment, backed up by peek-a-boo, black goo puppet, Greta. You can never have too many actors. And you can never have too much theatre.
In our rigged society you have the producers '' people who work hard and keep the world going, both at home and at work. Then we have those who can't work due to infirmity, or won't work (unsustainable welfare state, contumacious indolence, etc.). These we know about. Then we have the professional parasites: politicians, lobbyists, quango executives, bureaucrats and other ne'er-do-wells who prey upon us, and herein lies the problem.
Both local and national government should only comprise competent bean-counters, clerks and chief clerks as well as non-professional, term-limited people's representatives to run our country/counties efficiently while we the citizens engage in life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.
There should be no-one else.
Instead, a dark, predatory army of bureaucrats, politicians and a whole host of miscellaneous cash-hungry cockroaches has swollen into a bloated, grotesque behemoth run by a sulphurous oligarchy, which has invaded every aspect of our lives, conspired to bilk us of our hard-earned income, cast chains around us, and begun to squeeze.
By now, our 21st century productivity/technology should have resulted in a single breadwinner necessary to provide a decent lifestyle for their family. Instead, today's existence for many has become a debt-ridden, pride-swallowing struggle for survival, with all hands to the plough, while an ever-increasing chunk of the world's wealth has been siphoned off into the hands of the unholy few.
And in return? We get abused, plotted against, preyed upon.
The extent to which this has been happening over the decades has passed the average citizen by, resigned as most are in getting by day after day, paying exorbitant taxes which make no sense, and obeying laws and diktats for a quiet life. Not hard to see how most have bought the current charade.
No more. This week ''
THE PANDORA PAPERS broke cover. Here's a one-minute summary . For those unable to access links, here is The Guardian summary :
Pandora papers: biggest ever leak of offshore data exposes financial secrets of rich and powerful
''The secret deals and hidden assets of some of the world's richest and most powerful people have been revealed in the biggest trove of leaked offshore data in history.
''Branded the Pandora Papers, the cache includes 11.9m files from companies hired by wealthy clients to create offshore structures and trusts in tax havens such as Panama, Dubai, Monaco, Switzerland and the Cayman Islands.
''They expose the secret offshore affairs of 35 world leaders, including current and former presidents, prime ministers and heads of state. They also shine a light on the secret finances of more than 300 other public officials such as government ministers, judges, mayors and military generals in more than 90 countries.
''The files include disclosures about major donors to the Conservative party, raising difficult questions for Boris Johnson as his party meets for its annual conference.
''More than 100 billionaires feature in the leaked data, as well as celebrities, rock stars and business leaders. Many use shell companies to hold luxury items such as property and yachts, as well as incognito bank accounts. There is even art ranging from looted Cambodian antiquities to paintings by Picasso and murals by Banksy.
''The Pandora papers reveal the inner workings of what is the shadow financial world of Earth's most wealthy (C)lite criminals, providing a rare window into the hidden operations of a global offshore economy that enables some of the world's richest people to hide their wealth and in some cases pay little or no tax.''
So here are the questions: Who leaked them? And why now? We're not told. This is the third major leak of such information on those who own the world, preceded by the Panama Papers (2016) and the Paradise Papers (2017). The Pandora Papers comprise 2.94 terabytes of information leaked to the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ) in Washington DC.
At first glance, the papers may cause embarrassment to the most wealthy and powerful on Earth, but would they care? There are a couple of possibilities:
The Pandora Papers are a genuine white-hat operation to expose Earth's predators, perhaps preparing the world for further, more damning revelations
The Pandora Papers are further evidence of the Cabal exercising 'karma clearance' '' essentially bragging to the surfs about how much power they wield, and how little can be done about it. Remember, for Satanists of any persuasion, the helplessness of their victims only increases their own dark power
Here are two further treatments on the subject:
The Pandora Papers : how and where the world's predator class hide and invest their money while avoiding taxes:
The Pandora Papers have exposed the 'for sale' sign hanging over Britain
Stay tuned on this one too.
FACEBOOK GOES DARKAnother major event in the past week was Facebook, Instagram and WhatsApp disappearing worldwide for six hours in what some are calling a catastrophic outage. Experts suggested an internal error was to blame, and staff 'were locked out of offices at California HQ'. At least, that's how it was reported at the time.
The sceptics among us might be forgiven for thinking that this had something to do with Senator Ed Markey publicly warning Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg: ''Your time of invading privacy, promoting toxic content, and preying on children and teens is over. Congress will be taking action.''
The questions being asked on this one? Was this another white hat operation demonstrating to the evil ones the power the good guys wield over the Cabal and Big Tech? Or did Facebook in fact shut themselves down to clean house due to impending litigation on the trafficking front?
I'm certain there will be further Big Tech ructions in the not-too-distant future, which I am dutifully bound to report to you. In the meantime ''
THE FAKE BIDEN ADMINISTRATION , like the vainglorious Cabal , lurches onward to its own inevitable destruction, not unlike a dented Austin Allegro with 150,000 miles on the clock, squeaking over the edge of Beachy Head. Speaking of cliffs, amid a backdrop of catastrophic polling figures owned up to even by the media ( along with a mysterious explosion at the Homeland Security building), Biden was just branded the largest child trafficker in the world .
Things are building, folks, I can feel it in my water.
Do check out the exit briefings for further information.
IT'S GOING TO BE BIBLICAL Here's a slightly updated reprint of last week's list. I get numerous requests for my take on what might be coming up. I don't usually do this but these are extraordinary times, so here's my by-no-means-exhaustive, informal list of forthcoming maybes in no particular order:
Cyber-attacks and Internet outages: Download all your valuable photos, files, videos, etc. from the cloud and store them on your local drives, Seagate, etc. Food shortages '' Do you have one-month's worth of supplies in yet, including food, water and pet food? Fuel/energy shortages '' store limited extra supplies SAFELY Ten days of [cyber?] darkness are apparently coming up. Internet taken down. Could be literal power outages. How will you cope with no shopping, no credit cards working, no food, etc. for a few weeks? Buy candles, tealights and matches too The US military, after proving widespread voter fraud in 2020, may require the US presidential election to be re-run, this time the ole-fashioned way '' on paper '' overseen by the US patriot military Once Trump is officially acknowledged the winner, massive civil disobedience will take place across America, triggered by Antifa, BLM and other Soros-backed Marxist groups. This insurrection will be swiftly stamped upon by the US military Advance notification: We're told the COVID-19 narrative kill date is Election Day + 1. Make of that what you will Meanwhile, the new Marburg variant, currently getting 'bigged up' in the media, will see burgeoning death rates worldwide, to be blamed on the unvaxxed. The blame narrative has already begun. 'COVID Marburg deaths' will in fact be caused by the roll-on effects of the bioweapon (jab), antibody dependent enhancement, clots, lung issues, etc. There will be more attempted lockdowns as the Cabal struggles to maintain control Many more citizen protests worldwide More cataclysmic weather, earthquakes and aerial phenomena The world moves to the brink of [nuclear] war '' for optics only to awaken the sheep. (If I'm wrong, bury me in an egg cup) Patriots in control. Theatre of ops: Russia/China/ Taiwan /Japan/Ukraine/NK A major part of Chyna's industrial infrastructure meets a watery fate when the Yangtze's Three Gorges Dam fails. Rods from God? Stock market crash. Financial wipe-out An attempted assassination of a very high-profile person The child sex trafficking horror breaks into the open . The truth about the tunnels, the DUMBS, the children, Satanism and paedophilia among the (C)lite, and what's been living in the tunnels will be explained Probably aliens at some point to divert the news cycle '' the media can't seem to shut up about them. Research Project Bluebeam also here, and Deep Fakes. For the uninitiated, if millions of people suddenly vanish from the Earth, this is not David Copperfield or a mass alien abduction, it's the harpazo Get your heart right before God. Seek His face. WW3 is a spiritual war Satan's Hollywood will be exposed and eviscerated ''The Deep State play their final cards. These will be painful cards'' The Storm, followed by military tribunals and punishments A remedy brought forward to treat the jabbed A nice new Cabal-free, fair-dealing, righteous world with Tesla energy WHAT COMES AFTER? NOTE: If the world which replaces our current corrupt system is to be a truly free world, it will have attributes that enshrine individual freedom and freewill:
This new world will permit untrackable cash in addition to current, convenient, digital transactions. You can't be free under an all-encompassing, centralised, trackable, enslavable, digital money system This new world will insist on the continued existence of the nation state as a check-and-balance system to prevent further attempts to form an unaccountable one-world government/order This new world will permit ALL CITIZENS henceforth to bear arms to defend themselves and their families, to prevent any repeat of the current situation where governments enforce their will on the people with impunity This new world will enforce strict term limits on public servants, governors, etc. No professional politicians permitted, only bean-counters in service to the people This new world will ensure unbreakable safeguards are in place to render government henceforth as a function to serve the people, not the reverse This new world will forever educate the world peoples on the evils of Marxism, Socialism, Communism, Illuminism and Satanism This new world will permit thousands of withheld cures to be freely used by the people This new world will permit free energy and forbid the criminal extortion of trillions of dollars/pounds from the people Etc. Etc. Make your own list on the sort of world you need to pass on to your children ONCE AGAIN: The proof of the pudding will be in the kind of system that comes after, and how it is administered. Meanwhile, be patient. A worldwide deep-clean of Earth has been underway for two years now. Earth 2.0 is loading ''
EXIT BRIEFINGS Maria Zack: The Shadow Government is being taken down Ann Vandersteel & Charlie Ward: The 300, social media blackouts, Pandora files COVIDLAND: The Lockdown Fall of the Cabal '' Part 18 by Janet Ossebaard & Cyntha Koeter. The full series here Catch up next week, Rapscallions xx
PS: Please say a prayer for, and a huge thank-you to the hundreds of patriots, anons, citizens, military types and their long suffering families around the world who work tirelessly to research much of the information contained in these reports. I'd like to single out Credence-affiliated researchers in particular. Warriors all. Carry on. We salute you.
* * * * * * * * * * *
'' The light of a lamp shall not shine in you anymore, and the voice of bridegroom and bride shall not be heard in you anymore. For your merchants were the great men of the earth, for by your sorcery [Greek: pharmakeia ] all the nations were deceived. '' '' Revelation 18:23
PREVIOUS REPORTS IN PHILLIP DAY'S WW3 SERIES
(Due to censorship on many social media platforms, some links contained in previous reports may no longer work)
SITUATION REPORT PART 1 '' COVID SUMMARY
SITUATION REPORT PART 2 '' DEEP STATE SUMMARY
SITUATION REPORT PART 3 '' THE ENEMY BECOMES DESPERATE
SITUATION REPORT PART 4 '' OPERATIONS ONGOING: EYES ON
SITUATION REPORT PART 5 '' THE DAM IS BREAKING, ENOUGH MUST SEE
SITUATION REPORT PART 6 '' AUGUST WILL BE 'HOT' '' MASKS AT THE READY!
SITUATION REPORT PART 7 '' WELCOME TO THE RECKONING. IT'S GOING TO BE BIBLICAL
SITUATION REPORT PART 8 '' AUGUST ON FIRE. DEEP STATE IN TOTAL PANIC
SITUATION REPORT PART 9 '' BOOMS ARE JUST THE BEGINNING. THE WORLD IS WATCHING
SITUATION REPORT PART 10 '' THE ELECTION INFECTION. THE SILENT MAJORITY IS SILENT NO MORE
SITUATION REPORT PART 11 '' THE GREAT AWAKENING. NEVER STOP YOUR ENEMIES WHEN THEY ARE DESTROYING THEMSELVES
SITUATION REPORT PART 12 '' THE BATTLE COMMENCES. TWO ROCKY MONTHS AHEAD, THEN 'E' DAY!
SITUATION REPORT PART 13 '' ALL IT TAKES FOR EVIL TO TRIUMPH IS FOR GOOD MEN TO DO NOTHING
SITUATION REPORT PART 14 '' IF YOU'RE NOT TAKING FLAK YOU'RE NOT OVER THE TARGET
SITUATION REPORT PART 15 '' CHERRIES ON THE CAKE. WHAT KIND OF FREAK SHOW IS THIS?
SITUATION REPORT PART 16 '' RED CASTLE! ALL ASSETS DEPLOYED!
SITUATION REPORT PART 17 '' THE SILENT MAJORITY WATCHES. THE WORLD IS RIGGED FOR RED!
SITUATION REPORT PART 18 '' MORE BOOMS THAN FIREWORKS NIGHT. MOVING INTO THE END-PLAY!
SITUATION REPORT PART 19 '' THE NEXT TWO WEEKS WILL BE WRITTEN ABOUT IN HISTORY BOOKS
SITUATION REPORT PART 20 '' ONLY AT THE PRECIPICE WILL PEOPLE FIND THE WILL TO CHANGE
SITUATION REPORT PART 21 '' FROM DARKNESS TO LIGHT '' THE VEGAS CRAP SHOOT
SITUATION REPORT PART 22 '' THE STENCH OF PANIC NOW HUMS THE AIR. ONE BY ONE, THE LIES OOZE OUT
SITUATION REPORT PART 23 '' SOMETIMES YOU MUST WALK THROUGH THE DARKNESS BEFORE YOU CAN SEE THE LIGHT
SITUATION REPORT PART 24 '' BE SURE YOUR SINS WILL FIND YOU OUT
SITUATION REPORT PART 25 '' BY GOD'S GRACE THE BATTLE IS WON. BUT THE HAMMER MUST FALL
SITUATION REPORT PART 26 '' CHINA OUTED FOR THE WORLD TO SEE. WELCOME TO THE LAIR OF THE BEAST
SITUATION REPORT PART 27 '' THE FOG OF WAR. THE WORLD WATCHES. COUNTDOWN TO THE STORM. THE CURE RIPPLES OUT FROM AMERICA
SITUATION REPORT PART 28 '' MOVE SLOWLY, CAREFULLY, THEN STRIKE LIKE THE FASTEST ANIMAL ON EARTH
SITUATION REPORT PART 29 '' HAVING EXHAUSTED ALL CIVIL OPTIONS TO THWART TREASON, THE CONSTITUTION PROVIDES FOR SOMETHING ELSE
SITUATION REPORT PART 30 '' WELCOME TO ZERO WEEK. HERE COMES THE THUNDER
SITUATION REPORT PART 31 '' SOMETHING SEISMIC THIS WAY COMES. LIGHTS, CAMERA, ACTION!
SITUATION REPORT PART 32 '' BRINGING THE PUBLIC INTO THE FOLD. THE COMING PUPPY SHOW AND IMPEACHMENT
SITUATION REPORT PART 33 '' THE SHEEP ARE TAKEN TO THE PRECIPICE. ELECTION FRAUD RESURFACES
SITUATION REPORT PART 34 '' LIKE A DYING ANIMAL TRAPPED IN THE CORNER
SITUATION REPORT PART 35 '' WHEN YOU CAN'T MAKE THEM SEE THE LIGHT, MAKE THEM FEEL THE HEAT
SITUATION REPORT PART 36 '' KEEP YOUR HEAD UP. GOD GIVES HIS HARDEST BATTLES TO HIS STRONGEST SOLDIERS
SITUATION REPORT PART 37 '' THE VACCINE WASN'T BROUGHT IN FOR COVID. COVID WAS BROUGHT IN FOR THE VACCINE
SITUATION REPORT PART 38 '' VAXAGEDDON: YOU CAN'T TALK BUTTERFLY LANGUAGE TO CATERPILLAR PEOPLE
SITUATION REPORT PART 39 '' DON'T HURRY A WORK IN PROGRESS. CHECK OUT THE GREAT AWAKENING
SITUATION REPORT PART 40 '' A GOVERNMENT ONLY DISARMS A PEOPLE IF THEY INTEND DOING SOMETHING THE PEOPLE WOULD SHOOT THEM FOR
SITUATION REPORT PART 41 '' YOU'D BEST START BELIEVING IN CONSPIRACIES. YOU'RE LIVING ONE
SITUATION REPORT PART 42 '' FREE PEOPLE DON'T ASK POLITICIANS' PERMISSION TO GO ANYWHERE. THEY ARE YOUR SERVANTS
SITUATION REPORT PART 43 '' WAKEY WAKEY, HUMAN RACEY
SITUATION REPORT PART 44 '' HISTORY TEACHES US THAT IT IS NOT THE LIES THAT ARE CENSORED
SITUATION REPORT PART 45 '' THE WICKED SEE THEIR END BEFORE THEM. PUSH HARD, THEN TEN TIMES HARDER
SITUATION REPORT PART 46 '' ALWAYS DO THE RIGHT THING. TAKE A STAND. EVEN IF YOU THINK YOU'RE STANDING ALONE
SITUATION REPORT PART 47 '' THE TIDE TURNS! IMAGINE A NEW WORLD IN WHICH THE CITIZEN RULES, AND THE EVILDOER FEARS THEIR PUNISHMENT
SITUATION REPORT PART 48 '' IMAGINE A VACCINE SO SAFE YOU HAVE TO BE THREATENED TO TAKE IT
SITUATION REPORT PART 49 '' THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HUMANS AND ANIMALS: ANIMALS WOULD NEVER LET THE DUMBEST OF THE HERD LEAD THEM
SITUATION REPORT PART 50 '' IT'S GOING TO BE A HOT SUMMER
SITUATION REPORT PART 51 '' IF YOU'RE NOT ON A GOVERNMENT WATCH LIST BY NOW, YOU SHOULD BE ASHAMED OF YOURSELF
SITUATION REPORT PART 52 '' ONLY ONE SPECIES ON EARTH WILL VOLUNTARILY LINE UP FOR ITS OWN EXECUTION
SITUATION REPORT PART 53 '' THE REASON YOU DON'T BELIEVE YOU HAVE BEEN LIED TO AND BRAINWASHED IS BECAUSE YOU HAVE BEEN LIED TO AND BRAINWASHED
SITUATION REPORT PART 54 '' THE ENORMITY OF WHAT IS COMING WILL SHOCK THE WORLD. PRAY
SITUATION REPORT PART 55 '' WHEN YOU ARE TOLD TO TAKE MEDICINE FOR YOUR FREEDOM, ALARM BELLS SHOULD RING. LOUDLY
SITUATION REPORT PART 56 '' ' WE ARE SAYING FAREWELL TO AN OLD WORLD. SOMEDAY WE WILL TELL STORIES OF ITS INIQUITIES AND WONDER HOW ANYONE LIVED THERE'
SITUATION REPORT PART 57 '' WHAT A TIME TO BE ALIVE. IT'S LIKE THE COLLAPSE OF ROME, ONLY WITH WIFI
SITUATION REPORT PART 58 '' THIS IS NOT THE END OF THE WORLD. IT'S THE END OF THE ILLUSION
SITUATION REPORT PART 59 '' YOU CAN'T BE AN ANTI-VAXXER IF IT'S NOT A VACCINE
SITUATION REPORT PART 60 '' BLIND TRUST IN AUTHORITY IS THE GREATEST ENEMY OF TRUTH
SITUATION REPORT PART 61 '' WHEN IT DAWNS ON THE PUBLIC WHAT THESE LUNATICS HAVE DONE, PRAY FOR THEIR SOULS BECAUSE THEY WON'T FIND MERCY IN THIS WORLD
SITUATION REPORT PART 62 '' THIS WAS NEVER ABOUT ANY VIRUS. IT'S ABOUT TOTALITARIAN GOVERNMENT CONTROL OF THE PEOPLE
SITUATION REPORT PART 63 '' A SLAVE IS ONE WHO WAITS FOR SOMEONE TO COME AND FREE HIM. WE ARE THE ONES WE HAVE BEEN WAITING FOR
SITUATION REPORT PART 64 '' BECOME UNGOVERNABLE
SITUATION REPORT PART 65 '' HERE'S THE PLAN: IT IS THE PEOPLE WHO WILL TAKE BACK THE WORLD WITH GOD'S GRACE
SITUATION REPORT PART 66 '' NEVER AGAIN SURRENDER YOUR GUNS TO THE GOVERNMENT. UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES
SITUATION REPORT PART 67 '' WELCOME TO RED OCTOBER: IF YOU ARE STILL ASLEEP NOW, YOU ARE A DANGER TO THE REST OF US
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''YIKES'': Fresh Fauci E-Mails Show NIAID Chief & Wife's Flippancy Over Vaccine Deaths, More Interested in ''Immortalizing'' Him.
Thu, 14 Oct 2021 13:01
Previously unseen e-mail correspondence between Anthony Fauci and his wife Christine Grady show the couple celebrating how Fauci had been ''immortalized'' by an action figure, and reveal a callous reaction to vaccine-related deaths, The National Pulse can exclusively reveal.
In an e-mail sent on January 15th 2021, Fauci flagged a New York Post article highlighting 23 people who died in Norway after being administered the Pfizer vaccine.
''Yikes,'' Grady simply replies after being forwarded the article with a note that simply read ''fyi''.
The tone is markedly different from other e-mails between the couple who work together '' an issue that has raised questions over the propriety of their roles and whether or not a conflict of interest exists. While Grady was overseeing ''bioethics'' for the U.S. government, Fauci was doling out cash to Wuhan Lab collaborators like Peter Daszak among others.
Another email seen by The National Pulse displays her reaction to the launch of an action figure in the image of her husband, Fauci.
''It is endless'...'' she writes before adding:
''You have been immortalized''
Fauci originally shared an article from The Hill '' Fauci Gets His Own Action Figure '' that was flagged by Greg Folkers, the Chief of Staff in the Office of the Director at Fauci's National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID).
The back and forths shed some light into the day-to-day working relationship between Fauci and Grady, who often exchange e-mails, with Fauci even sharing some messages not meant for Grady to his wife.
It is also an insight into the pair's priorities and their flippancy regarding vaccine-related deaths.
The National Pulse has further e-mails between the pair, many of which have been curiously redacted following a Freedom of Information Act request.
President Biden Issues COVID-19 Executive Order '' Vaccine Mandate
Thu, 14 Oct 2021 12:44
Several of the policies may directly affect employers and require action.
On September 9, 2021, President Joseph Biden announced an Executive Order and related actions implementing new policies to address the COVID-19 pandemic. Several of the policies may directly affect employers and require action:
The Executive Order will require all federal executive branch workers to be vaccinated and directed that this standard be extended to employees of contractors that do business with the federal government. All private -sector employers with 100 or more employees will be required to ensure that their workers are either vaccinated or are tested weekly for COVID-19. The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) will issue an Emergency Temporary Standard (ETS) to implement this requirement. The OSHA rule will also require employers with 100 or more employees to provide paid time off for the time it takes for workers to get vaccinated or to recover from any ill effects of the vaccination. Vaccination requirements will also apply to health-care workers at Medicare and Medicaid participating hospitals and other health-care settings that receive Medicare or Medicaid reimbursement. Many details will not be available regarding these requirements '--including the effective date '--until the OSHA ETS or other guidance is issued. Typically, such mandates involve appropriate time for implementation, although addressing the COVID-19 pandemic may be viewed as urgent.
The Biden Administration also announced other provisions focused on economic recovery, including the following:
Economic Injury Disaster Loan Program: The announcement included enhancements to the Economic Injury Disaster Loan (EIDL) program, which provides long-term, low-cost loans to small businesses, generally increasing the amount of funding a small business can borrow through this program from $500,000 to $2 million. Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) Loan Forgiveness: The Administration announced improvements to the PPP loan forgiveness process. The Small Business Administration (SBA) will send a pre-completed application form to borrowers, who can then review, sign, and return the application to the SBA to initiate the review and forgiveness process. May 2021 EEOC Vaccination Guidance May Be Adjusted
The September 9, 2021 White House announcements may necessitate changes to guidance issued by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) for employers regarding COVID-19 vaccinations in May 2021. This guidance covered four areas:
(1) Mandatory vaccination policies;
(3) Information about employee vaccination status; and
(4) Vaccination incentives.
Brief highlights follow.
Mandatory Vaccination Policies In its May 2021 guidance, the EEOC reaffirms that employers can require that their employees receive the COVID-19 vaccine as a condition of accessing the workplace. However, it stresses that employers must comply with their obligation to explore reasonable accommodations for employees who cannot be vaccinated due to disabilities or religious beliefs.
Accommodations Employers have options to meet their accommodations obligations under Title VII and the ADA, which were explained in the EEOC guidance, for example:
Providing personal protective equipment (PPE); Ensuring the employee is able to work at a safe social distance; Offering modified or staggered shifts; Subjecting the employee to periodic COVID-19 tests; Permitting teleworking; and Exploring reassignment. Information About Employee Vaccination Status The guidance clarified that information about an employee's COVID-19 vaccination status is considered confidential medical information under the ADA. Therefore, while employers are allowed to request or require confirmation of vaccination from employees, employers are also required to keep such documentation or other confirmation confidential. In addition, this information must be kept separate from an employee's personnel file.
Vaccination Incentives The EEOC clarified that employers are allowed to promote vaccination in several ways. Incentives may be offered to employees to voluntarily confirm their vaccination status or to receive a vaccination. However, any incentives must not be so substantial as to be coercive.
The May 2021 EEOC guidance may need to be adjusted based on the September 9 White House Executive Orders and announcements.
Planning and Possible Actions for Employers
Employers should generally consult with appropriate Legal, Human Resources, and other professionals to consider possible actions that may be warranted, such as:
' Vaccination and weekly testing requirements;
' The use of masks in employer facilities;
' Daily employee self-assessment health checks;
' Visitor entry screenings;
' Domestic and international travel policies; and
' Daily office cleanings.
ADP will continue to monitor and advise on this important topic. Employers should watch for possible further announcements and details.
To get further updates on this Order, register for our special edition webcast, COVID-19 Vaccination Guidance: Top Considerations for Employers.
ADP Compliance Resources
ADP maintains a staff of dedicated professionals who carefully monitor federal and state legislative and regulatory measures affecting employment-related human resource, payroll, tax and benefits administration, and help ensure that ADP systems are updated as relevant laws evolve. For the latest on how federal and state tax law changes may impact your business, visit the ADP Eye on Washington Web page located at www.adp.com/regulatorynews.
ADP is committed to assisting businesses with increased compliance requirements resulting from rapidly evolving legislation. Our goal is to help minimize your administrative burden across the entire spectrum of employment-related payroll, tax, HR and benefits, so that you can focus on running your business. This information is provided as a courtesy to assist in your understanding of the impact of certain regulatory requirements and should not be construed as tax or legal advice. Such information is by nature subject to revision and may not be the most current information available. ADP encourages readers to consult with appropriate legal and/or tax advisors. Please be advised that calls to and from ADP may be monitored or recorded.
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Updated on September 10, 2021
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ESG Retirement Investing Proposal Tilts Toward Climate Goals (1)
Thu, 14 Oct 2021 12:39
The U.S. Labor Department proposed a rule Wednesday that would allow workplace retirement investors to focus on environmentally friendly funds and cash in on companies combating climate change.
DOL's Employee Benefits Security Administration's proposal would reverse former President Donald Trump's regulations on the use of environmental, social, and corporate governance factors in retirement portfolios and fiduciaries' use of proxy voting powers in favor of social or political goals. Trump's rules limited investments and related decisions to ''pecuniary'' factors, sowing doubt among industry practitioners about whether climate change and environmental factors would qualify.
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President Joe Biden has taken a hard-line approach to his predecessor's ESG and proxy voting rules, issuing executive orders that required a review of Trump's climate-related rules and later calling on the DOL to propose a rule that would ''suspend, revise, or rescind'' the ESG regulations. EBSA in March said it wouldn't enforce either Trump rule.
Wednesday's proposed rule would amend the Trump regulations to remove barriers that may limit fiduciaries from considering climate change and other environmental, social, and governance factors when selecting investments or exercising proxy voting rights.
'Investment Horizons'Unlike the Trump rules, the Biden proposal specifically uses the term ''ESG'' and states that climate change and other ESG factors may be considered when assessing a fund's projected return. Failure to consider any factor that is financially material could put plan participants and beneficiaries at risk, the rule states.
''Climate change is particularly pertinent to the projected returns of pension plan portfolios that, because of the nature of their obligations to their participants and beneficiaries, typically have long-term investment horizons,'' the proposed rule states. ''The effects of climate change such as sea level rise, changing rainfall patterns, and more severe droughts, wildfires, and flooding are expected to continue to pose a threat to investments far into the future.''
The proposal would eliminate special standards for qualified default investment alternatives'--the types of funds participants are invested in when their employers automatically enroll them in a plan. The proposed rule would establish the same financially material analysis for those types of investment decisions as it would for all other types of funds.
The Trump rule required fiduciaries to determine that otherwise equal funds, or ''tie-breakers,'' be economically indistinguishable, but the Biden proposal would revert that standard to a prudent determination that competing investment courses of action equally serve financial interests. It also would eliminate special documentation requirements for those decisions.
The proposal also seeks to undo safe harbors Trump had established for fund managers who chose not to participate in shareholder voting. It would eliminate onerous documentation requirements proxy voters would have to provide under the prior rules when casting ESG-related votes.
''The bias that the previous administration's rules created was to really favor not voting and not taking action, but these are assets that are owned ultimately by the participants and beneficiaries and the obligations that fiduciaries have in other contexts don't stop when you're talking about proxy voting,'' said Acting EBSA Assistant Secretary Ali Khawar during a press briefing Wednesday. ''They need to be thinking about what is the financially material best outcome for participants and beneficiaries and use that really as the north star and guide for how they're thinking about these questions.''
The public has 60 days after the rule is formally published in the Federal Register to comment on the proposal.
Michigan charges three women with election fraud during 2020 election | Just The News
Thu, 14 Oct 2021 11:33
The Facts Inside Our Reporter's NotebookMichigan Attorney General Dana Nessel has charged three women with crimes related to attempted voter fraud in the 2020 general election.
Secretary of State Jocelyn Benson and Nessel argued the charges show that when ''rare'' election fraud happens, the current safeguards stop it.
''These cases highlight the scrutiny applications and ballots undergo throughout the election process, as well as the thorough investigative process that ensues when instances of attempted fraud are suspected,'' Nessel said in a statement.
Procedurally, reports of voter fraud are often first reported to local law enforcement or the Michigan Bureau of Elections (BOE) for initial investigation and then routed to the Michigan State Police (MSP) or Department of Attorney General (DAG) if investigators believe a crime occurred.
''These charges also send a clear message to those who promote deceitful claims about widespread fraud: the current protocols we have in place work to protect and ensure the integrity of our elections. It's time to share that truth and stop spreading lies to the contrary,'' Benson said in a statement.
In October 2020, the Centerline Clerk contacted the BOE after roughly two dozen absentee voter applications were dropped off for processing. The clerk said the application signatures didn't match voter signatures in the Qualified Voter File (QVF). In Nov. 2020, investigators found the applications came from the Father Muray Nursing Home and were for residents who hadn't told staff they wanted to vote in the 2020 General Election.
Investigators determined Trenae Myesha Rainey, 28, a facility employee, did not contact residents as set by procedure and instead filled out the applications and forged the resident's signature to each application. Rainey is charged with six felonies in Macomb County's 37th District Court. Arraignment isn't yet scheduled.
In April 2021, the BOE reported a case of double voting. A signature review of a returned absentee ballot to the Detroit City Clerk determined the signature did not match the signature in the QVF. That registered voter also voted at his polling location on Election day. An investigation determined the grandmother of the registered voter, Carless Clark, 59, returned his absentee ballot by mail despite her grandson deciding to vote in person. Clark admitted to signing her grandson's absentee ballot because she was concerned he would not have time to vote on Election Day. Clark is charged with two felonies in Wayne County's 36th District Court:
In October 2020, BOE became concerned about possible election fraud after receiving similar inquiries from local election administrators through the QVF Help Desk. The inquiries centered on applications for absentee ballots signed with an ''X'' and requesting that the ballot be mailed to the business address of Guardian and Associates in Oak Park. BOE referred the review to MSP for a criminal investigation.
Investigators determined Nancy Juanita Williams, 55, planned to control absentee ballots for legally incapacitated persons under her care by fraudulently submitting 26 absentee ballot applications to nine identified city and township clerks. Williams sought to have absentee ballots for those individuals mailed directly to her. She also submitted separate voter registration applications for each person '' all without knowledge, consent, or understanding of the person under her care. MSP ultimately referred the case to DAG in May 2021 for charges.
Williams is charged with 14 misdemeanors and 28 felonies across five courts. Williams' arraignment is scheduled in Redford's 17th District Court on Nov. 2 at 8:45 a.m.
The charges of election fraud follow an argument in Lansing where Republicans are pushing what they say are election security bills, but Democrats decry as voter suppression. The bills aim for stricter voter ID measures. Of the above three charges, only the double-vote counted in the 2020 election. ''The other two were caught during the absentee ballot application processing and never issued actual ballots,'' Nessel spokeswoman Lynsey Mukomel told The Center Square in an email.
Biden's bid to woo Moscow shows US is tired of conflict with Russia over Ukraine, and is more worried about war with China instead '-- RT Russia & Former Soviet Union
Thu, 14 Oct 2021 11:04
By Fyodor Lukyanov, the editor-in-chief of Russia in Global Affairs, chairman of the Presidium of the Council on Foreign and Defense Policy, and research director of the Valdai International Discussion Club.
Victoria Nuland, US President Joe Biden's envoy for European and Eurasian affairs, is in Moscow as part of an unprecedented, yet highly symbolic, move, with Russia waiving sanctions against her to allow the meeting to go ahead.
Nuland is well-known on this side of the world for her uncompromising criticisms of Russia and her active role in the mid-2010s events that took place in Ukraine. She had been entered onto a blacklist and barred from crossing the border. The sanctions were lifted reciprocally: Russia let Nuland in, and Washington gave the green light for one of Moscow's diplomats stuck in a similar position.
While it's good to see it all work out in the end, it is a fairly baffling case. In the past, diplomats could do their jobs without their respective capitals needing to strike deals and make concessions. Centuries of rules and norms seem to have been ignored.
Also on rt.com 'The Americans aren't listening to us,' Russia says as major Moscow talks between Biden's envoy and Kremlin's diplomats break down These are strange times indeed, and I often think that during the Cold War things were somewhat easier. Back then, everyone seemed to have a clearer awareness of responsibility to keep the channels of communication open to make sure you could know what the other country was up to. Today, posturing and rhetoric take precedence.
In Russia, Nuland is close to a legend. Captured on camera while handing out cookies to Ukraine's Euromaidan protesters in 2014, she became the personification of Washington's foreign policy in the region. In reality, her role has likely been blown out of proportion. Nuland, married to prominent neoconservative thinker Robert Kagan, must have a particular worldview and genuinely believe in promoting democracy and combating perceived Russian imperialism.
However, first and foremost, she's an experienced and competent diplomat toeing the official line. Currently, as we can see, the approach is businesslike and pragmatic, and this visit was meant to help the White House pursue the specific goals that it's working towards.
Nuland's push to visit Moscow is likely driven by the Biden administration's attempt to gauge the chances for a real and risky escalation between Russia and Ukraine. It is simply not in the interest of the White House for such a conflict to happen, given Washington has a list of other priorities.
Priority number one '' far ahead of anything else '' is to contain China. The US-China relations keep deteriorating, while the tensions, or at least the intensity of showdowns, keep rising.
The focus is again on Taiwan, arguably the most explosive issue and the only one on the agenda with Beijing that could genuinely lead to a war. With no solution in sight, both countries are gearing up for a long-term full-scale standoff.
This does not mean, though, that Russia has been pushed to the back burner. The Pentagon often shares concerns over Russia's military prowess. The upshot was strategic consultations in Geneva, launched after the meeting between Biden and Russian President Vladimir Putin.
However, in many aspects, Russia is seen through the lens of the US-China confrontation, including in those areas where it could emerge as a distraction.
Apparently, President Biden and his administration are seeking to secure the Russia''Ukraine status quo, avoiding escalation, especially when it comes to Donbass. I would even go as far as to say the White House is ready to exercise its leverage with Kiev, particularly since President Volodymyr Zelensky's recent change of political character has come as a surprise even to the US, which had high hopes for him as a liberal reformer.
In the meantime, political developments in Kiev are picking up pace. Zelensky is fixated with consolidating his personal power and cracking down on numerous centres of influence, which until recently has been a notorious and persistent trend in Ukrainian politics.
However, without a strong footing, he has embarked on building a complex system based on bluff. He is appealing to the West, exploiting it as a bogeyman for domestic tycoons, on a promise to fight corruption with Washington's assistance. He is also teasing Russia, because the ''Russian threat'' can force the West to back Kiev despite any tangible progress in the fight against corruption, at least in the form that would make Washington happy.
It is a shaky and risky venture. It is risky because this rationale might prompt you to escalate the Donbass crisis purely for domestic considerations. Russia does not have too much thick skin, either. Judging by the publications of Russian leaders, Putin's op-ed on shared historical routes over the summer and former president Dmitry Medvedev's recent criticism of rising nationalism, the Kremlin has got only so much patience.
This is unnerving for Washington, let alone the fact that it has been tired of Ukraine for quite some time. Victoria Nuland knows the ins and outs of Ukrainian politics and the quality of its leadership like nobody else. Deep mistrust of Russia, combined with skepticism towards the capacity of Kiev's elites, is pushing the US towards some kind of a failsafe system.
Over the last 10 months in the White House, the Biden administration has shown consistency in matters that it cares for, a big advantage over its predecessor. Also, when it deems necessary it can ignore ideological burdens (unlike all post-Cold War administrations '' from Clinton to Obama) '' or rather, set them aside for the time being.
Figuring out the parameters of multilateral mutual containment for the Ukrainian crisis was probably the purpose of the current visit. Comments from both Russia and the US are sparing, whereas the state of the dialogue is such that any public display would only make things worse. This is exactly the case where confidentiality is the best option.
It is unlikely to result in any 'deals' or long-term agreements that commentators instantly start speculating about for some reason immediately after any high-level contact.
In today's world, politics is not long-term at all. Also, there are no feasible settlement options. The Minsk agreements remain a framework with no serious prospects, yet they must be kept in place because they represent at least some kind of quasi-legal regime. Dismantling the accords would mean returning to the previous phase, very likely, a war. But implementing the Minsk agenda does not seem in any way realistic.
Also on rt.com US senators want to boot out 300 Russian diplomats over embassy row, but Moscow says it doesn't even have that many in Washington As Nuland emphasized, the common interests of Russia and the United States are reduced to the need for predictability, nothing more. But compared to what we've grown used to in our relations with America, this is quite a lot.
So this visit should be considered a successful one, regardless of how it ends. And the Biden administration should be given credit for being serious about communications on fundamental issues, rather than minor matters such as domestic political considerations or spats about the numbers of diplomats in embassies.
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Chicago police union head urges cops to defy vaccine mandate
Thu, 14 Oct 2021 11:01
CHICAGO (AP) '-- The head of the Chicago police officers union has called on its members to defy the city's requirement to report their COVID-19 vaccination status by Friday or be placed on unpaid leave.
In the video posted online Tuesday and first reported by the Chicago Sun-Times, Fraternal Order of Police President John Catanzara vowed to take Mayor Lori Lightfoot's administration to court if it tries to enforce the mandate, which requires city workers to report their vaccine status by the end of the work week. After Friday, unvaccinated workers who won't submit to semiweekly coronavirus testing will be placed on unpaid leave.
Catanzara suggested that if the city does enforce its requirement and many union members refuse to comply with it, ''It's safe to say that the city of Chicago will have a police force at 50% or less for this weekend coming up.''
In the video, Catanzara instructs officers to file for exemptions to receiving the vaccine but to not enter that information into the city's vaccine portal.
He said that although he has made clear his vaccine status, ''I do not believe the city has the authority to mandate that to anybody, let alone that information about your medical history.''
During a news conference Wednesday, Lightfoot accused Catanzara of spreading false information and dismissed most of his statements as ''untrue or patently false.'' She said COVID-19 vaccines are proven to be effective and that getting vaccinated would protect city workers and their families.
''What we're focused on is making sure that we maximize the opportunity to create a very safe workplace,'' Lightfoot said. ''The data is very clear. It is unfortunate that the FOP leadership has chosen to put out a counter narrative. But the fact of the matter is, if you are not vaccinated, you are playing with your life, the life of your family, the life of your colleagues and members of the public.''
She said the city is prepared to deal with any fallout related to the vaccination requirement.
Violent crime has spiked in the city this year, from expressway shootings to a rise in carjackings. Chicago police reported 629 homicides this year through early October, compared with 605 during the same period last year and 402 in the same time frame in 2019.
First responders around the country have been hit hard by the virus but have been resisting vaccine mandates. More than 460 law enforcement officers have died of COVID-19, including four members of the Chicago Police Department, according the Officer Down Memorial Page. On Tuesday, Dean Angelo, who once held Catanzara's union position, died of the disease.
Los Angeles police and county sheriff, and Seattle police are among the departments either under vaccine mandates or facing one.
Catanzara has clashed with the mayor over a host of issues. After the city announced the vaccine mandate in August, the union head compared it to something that might happen to Nazi Germany, telling the Sun-Times, ''This ain't Nazi ... Germany (saying) 'Step into the ... showers, the pills won't hurt you.'''
Lightfoot blasted Catanzara for his ''offensive outburst'' and Catanzara posted a video on the union's YouTube channel apologizing for his choice of words, saying he was not trying to link vaccinations to what happened during the Holocaust.
Associated Press writer Sophia Tareen contributed to this report.
Mark Zuckerberg 'gave $419.5MILLION to nonprofits to help turn out likely Democratic voters' | Daily Mail Online
Thu, 14 Oct 2021 10:43
Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg and his wife gave nearly $420million into nonprofits that aided in the administration and infrastructure of the 2020 election - and heavily favored Democrat counties, according to a new report.
Zuckerberg, 37, and his wife Priscilla Chan, 36, donated $419.5million to The Center for Technology and Civic Life (CTCL) and The Center for Election Innovation and Research (CEIR), nonprofits that provided grants to counties and helped fund the administration of the election.
CTCL and CEIR provided funds to local governments and helped implement administrative practices, voting methods, data-sharing agreements, and outreach programs, according to a report published in the Federalist.
The Chan Zuckerberg Initiative gave an eye-watering $350 million to CTCL in 2020 - while the nonprofit's budget in 2018 was just $1.4 million.
But Biden-winning counties were three times more likely to get funding than Trump ones, and the Democrat was reportedly given a significant boost in swing states.
Zuckerberg's funds may have helped get more voters to the polls in Arizona, which Biden won by 10,000 and Georgia, which he won by 12,000, according to an analysis by the Caesar Rodney Election Research Institute in Irving, Texas.
'We have good reason to anticipate that the results of our work will show that CTCL and CEIR involvement in the 2020 election gave rise to an election that, while free, was not fair,' wrote Dr. William Doyle, the principle researcher behind the analysis.
'The 2020 election wasn't stolen '-- it was likely bought with money poured through legal loopholes,' he concludes in the report.
CTCL reportedly demanded the promotion of mail-in voting practices - which was heavily supported by the Democrats - and also helped fund poll workers and temporary staff, and the quick increase of unmonitored private drop boxes for mail-in votes.
And in Wisconsin the money funded 'vote navigators' who 'assist voters, potentially at their front doors, to answer questions ... and witness absentee ballot signatures.'
Zuckerberg's contributions to the groups nearly matched the federal and state funding for COVID-19 related election expenses, which totaled $479.5million during the 2020 election.
Mark Zuckerberg, 37, and his wife Priscilla Chan, 36, funneled $419.5million into two nonprofits that largely funded Democratic areas in the 2020 election
CTCL grants, which largely went to Democrat-heavy counties, boosted the dollar per vote value of a Biden voter. A Biden-wining county was 3.5 times more likely to be funded by CTCL and Trump, and on average the dollar per vote for Biden was $2.85 compared to only $0.59 for Trump. In Philadelphia, the highest funded Biden county, the average dollar per vote was $6.32 compared to Berks, the highest funded Trump county, which was only $1.12
Zuckerberg's contributions to the groups nearly matched the federal and state funding for COVID-19 related election expenses, which totaled $479.5million during the 2020 election.
Despite CTCL and CEIR being registered as non-partisan organizations, the Institute's analysis found that groups allocated their money in mainly Democratic areas.
CTCL provided 25 counties with $1million or higher grants in Arizona, Georgia, Michigan, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Virginia, totaling $87.5million in grants. Biden won 23 of those counties in the election.
Brown County in Wisconsin, which Trump won, received a $1.1million grant from the nonprofit, which totaled only a mere 1.2 per cent of the grants offered within the 25 counties.
But within the county, funding disparities were stark.
The Wisconsin legislature gave the city of Green Bay roughly $7 per voter to manage the election, while rural areas received $4 per voter.
But CTCL boosted resources in Green Bay, a Democrat-heavy area, to $47 per voter, while rural counties typically stayed at the $4 mark.
Similar disparities were found in Detroit, Atlanta, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Flint, Dallas, and Houston, among others that received large grants from the nonprofit, according to the report.
CTCL provided 25 grants that were worth more than $1million a piece during the election, totally $87.5million, in Arizona, Georgia, Michigan, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Virginia. Out of the 25 counties, Biden won 23. Brown County in Wisconsin, which Trump won, received a $1.1million grant from the nonprofit, which totaled only a mere 1.2 per cent of the grants offered within those 25 counties.
Preliminary studies of CTCL spending showed states like Texas received large amounts of money per vote in Democratic counties, such as Dallas, Webb, Cameron, and Harris - all of which Hillary Clinton won in the 2016 election.
The most money per vote a Republican county was allocated by the CTCL group was under $2 in Hays county compared to the highest Democratic county, which received $10 in Webb county.
Republican strongholds, like Denton and Collin counties, were not included in the Institute's study as they did not receive CTCL funding.
The Institute also found that Biden counties were 3.5 more likely to receive funding from CTCL. In addition, Trump counties received on average $0.69, whereas Biden counties received an average of $2.85 per capita.
In Georgia, the average Trump counties received an average of $1.91, whereas Biden counties received over $7. Similarly, in Philadelphia - the most richly funded Biden county - received an average of $6.32 per capita compared to only $1.12 in Berks - the most heavily funded Trump area.
Zuckerberg (pictured with his wife) donated money to The Center for Technology and Civic Life (CTCL) and The Center for Election Innovation and Research (CEIR), nonprofits that provided grants to counties and helped fund the election
Similar analyses of Georgia and Wisconsin resulted in similar effects, according to the Institute's report.
A total of $64.2million of Zuckerberg's money was distributed by CEIR to 22 states and the District of Columbia.
The Post report was blasted by Republicans, who accused Zuckerberg of influencing the outcome of the election.
Senator Ron Johnson of Wisconsin said: 'I continue to question whether Mark Zuckerberg's highly partisan 2020 election spending was even legal.'
And Senator Rand Paul of Kentucky tweeted: 'Are our elections for sale? Did Mark Zuckerberg purchase the Wisconsin Presidential election?'
The nonprofits defended their roles.
'These grants helped states inform voters about changes to election procedures, polling locations, and recruit poll workers in response to the pandemic,' David Becker, the founder and executive director of CEIR said.
CTCL spokesman Ben LaBolt told the Post: 'While Mark and Priscilla provided an overall grant to CTCL [to] ensure funding was available, they did not participate in the process to determine which jurisdictions received funds, and as a [nonprofit organization] CTCL is prohibited from engaging in partisan activities.'
Funding and managing election is typically a government function, not a private one. Private organizations, such as CTCL and CEIR, do not have to follow the same regulations as public institutions.
They are not required to hold public hearings, cannot be monitored through open-records requests, or are subject to governmental checks and balances.
Biden won the popular election with 81,283,098 votes (51.3 per cent), while Trump had 74,222,958 (46.8 per cent).
Facebook has repeatedly come under scrutiny for the impact it has on democracy.
Last year, U.S. intelligence officials warned House lawmakers that Russia was interfering in the 2020 campaign to get then-president Donald Trump re-elected, while there was also a well-documented campaign to interfere in 2016 as well.
The social media behemoth - and its ability to police misinformation - has been at the centre of discussions around such election meddling, with Mark Zuckerberg himself saying his company has shut down attempts from Russia to interfere.
In another example, a data leak from Trump's 2016 presidential campaign revealed that it targeted millions of black Americans with a 'deterrence' campaign using Facebook ads - that critics calling voter suppression.
The leak, reported by Britain's Channel 4 News, described the deterrence element of the campaign voter file, which included information on 200 million Americans that the campaign sliced and diced for potential electoral benefit.
A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: Systemic Collapse and Pandemic Simulation - The Philosophical Salon
Wed, 13 Oct 2021 22:25
A year and a half after the arrival of Virus, some may have started wondering why the usually unscrupulous ruling elites decided to freeze the global profit-making machine in the face of a pathogen that targets almost exclusively the unproductive (over 80s). Why all the humanitarian zeal? Cui bono? Only those who are unfamiliar with the wondrous adventures of GloboCap can delude themselves into thinking that the system chose to shut down out of compassion. Let us be clear from the start: the big predators of oil, arms, and vaccines could not care less about humanity.
In pre-Covid times, the world economy was on the verge of another colossal meltdown. Here is a brief chronicle of how the pressure was building up:
June 2019: In its Annual Economic Report, the Swiss-based Bank of International Settlements (BIS), the 'Central Bank of all central banks', sets the international alarm bells ringing. The document highlights ''overheating ['...] in the leveraged loan market'', where ''credit standards have been deteriorating'' and ''collateralized loan obligations (CLOs) have surged '' reminiscent of the steep rise in collateralized debt obligations [CDOs] that amplified the subprime crisis [in 2008].'' Simply stated, the belly of the financial industry is once again full of junk.
9 August 2019: The BIS issues a working paper calling for ''unconventional monetary policy measures'' to ''insulate the real economy from further deterioration in financial conditions''. The paper indicates that, by offering ''direct credit to the economy'' during a crisis, central bank lending ''can replace commercial banks in providing loans to firms.''
15 August 2019: Blackrock Inc., the world's most powerful investment fund (managing around $7 trillion in stock and bond funds), issues a white paper titled Dealing with the next downturn. Essentially, the paper instructs the US Federal Reserve to inject liquidity directly into the financial system to prevent ''a dramatic downturn.'' Again, the message is unequivocal: ''An unprecedented response is needed when monetary policy is exhausted and fiscal policy alone is not enough. That response will likely involve 'going direct''': ''finding ways to get central bank money directly in the hands of public and private sector spenders'' while avoiding ''hyperinflation. Examples include the Weimar Republic in the 1920s as well as Argentina and Zimbabwe more recently.''
22-24 August 2019: G7 central bankers meet in Jackson Hole, Wyoming, to discuss BlackRock's paper along with urgent measures to prevent the looming meltdown. In the prescient words of James Bullard, President of the St Louis Federal Reserve: ''We just have to stop thinking that next year things are going to be normal.''
15-16 September 2019: The downturn is officially inaugurated by a sudden spike in the repo rates (from 2% to 10.5%). 'Repo' is shorthand for 'repurchase agreement', a contract where investment funds lend money against collateral assets (normally Treasury securities). At the time of the exchange, financial operators (banks) undertake to buy back the assets at a higher price, typically overnight. In brief, repos are short-term collateralized loans. They are the main source of funding for traders in most markets, especially the derivatives galaxy. A lack of liquidity in the repo market can have a devastating domino effect on all major financial sectors.
17 September 2019: The Fed begins the emergency monetary programme, pumping hundreds of billions of dollars per week into Wall Street, effectively executing BlackRock's ''going direct'' plan. (Unsurprisingly, in March 2020 the Fed will hire BlackRock to manage the bailout package in response to the 'COVID-19 crisis').
19 September 2019: Donald Trump signs Executive Order 13887, establishing a National Influenza Vaccine Task Force whose aim is to develop a ''5-year national plan (Plan) to promote the use of more agile and scalable vaccine manufacturing technologies and to accelerate development of vaccines that protect against many or all influenza viruses.'' This is to counteract ''an influenza pandemic'', which, ''unlike seasonal influenza ['...] has the potential to spread rapidly around the globe, infect higher numbers of people, and cause high rates of illness and death in populations that lack prior immunity''. As someone guessed, the pandemic was imminent, while in Europe too preparations were underway (see here and here).
18 October 2019: In New York, a global zoonotic pandemic is simulated during Event 201, a strategic exercise coordinated by the Johns Hopkins Biosecurity Center and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
21-24 January 2020: The World Economic Forum's annual meeting takes place in Davos, Switzerland, where both the economy and vaccinations are discussed.
23 January 2020: China puts Wuhan and other cities of the Hubei province in lockdown.
11 March 2020: The WHO's director general calls Covid-19 a pandemic. The rest is history.
Joining the dots is a simple enough exercise. If we do so, we might see a well-defined narrative outline emerge, whose succinct summary reads as follows: lockdowns and the global suspension of economic transactions were intended to 1) Allow the Fed to flood the ailing financial markets with freshly printed money while deferring hyperinflation; and 2) Introduce mass vaccination programmes and health passports as pillars of a neo-feudal regime of capitalist accumulation. As we shall see, the two aims merge into one.
In 2019, world economy was plagued by the same sickness that had caused the 2008 credit crunch. It was suffocating under an unsustainable mountain of debt. Many public companies could not generate enough profit to cover interest payments on their own debts and were staying afloat only by taking on new loans. 'Zombie companies' (with year-on-year low profitability, falling turnover, squeezed margins, limited cashflow, and highly leveraged balance sheet) were rising everywhere. The repo market meltdown of September 2019 must be placed within this fragile economic context.
When the air is saturated with flammable materials, any spark can cause the explosion. And in the magical world of finance, tout se tient: one flap of a butterfly's wings in a certain sector can send the whole house of cards tumbling down. In financial markets powered by cheap loans, any increase in interest rates is potentially cataclysmic for banks, hedge funds, pension funds and the entire government bond market, because the cost of borrowing increases and liquidity dries up. This is what happened with the 'repocalypse' of September 2019: interest rates spiked to 10.5% in a matter of hours, panic broke out affecting futures, options, currencies, and other markets where traders bet by borrowing from repos. The only way to defuse the contagion was by throwing as much liquidity as necessary into the system '' like helicopters dropping thousands of gallons of water on a wildfire. Between September 2019 and March 2020, the Fed injected more than $9 trillion into the banking system, equivalent to more than 40% of US GDP.
The mainstream narrative should therefore be reversed: the stock market did not collapse (in March 2020) because lockdowns had to be imposed; rather, lockdowns had to be imposed because financial markets were collapsing. With lockdowns came the suspension of business transactions, which drained the demand for credit and stopped the contagion. In other words, restructuring the financial architecture through extraordinary monetary policy was contingent on the economy's engine being turned off. Had the enormous mass of liquidity pumped into the financial sector reached transactions on the ground, a monetary tsunami with catastrophic consequences would have been unleashed.
As claimed by economist Ellen Brown, it was ''another bailout'', but this time ''under cover of a virus.'' Similarly, John Titus and Catherine Austin Fitts noted that the Covid-19 ''magic wand'' allowed the Fed to execute BlackRock's ''going direct'' plan, literally: it carried out an unprecedented purchase of government bonds, while, on an infinitesimally smaller scale, also issuing government backed 'COVID loans' to businesses. In brief, only an induced economic coma would provide the Fed with the room to defuse the time-bomb ticking away in the financial sector. Screened by mass-hysteria, the US central bank plugged the holes in the interbank lending market, dodging hyperinflation as well as the 'Financial Stability Oversight Council' (the federal agency for monitoring financial risk created after the 2008 collapse), as discussed here. However, the ''going direct'' blueprint should also be framed as a desperate measure, for it can only prolong the agony of a global economy increasingly hostage to money printing and the artificial inflation of financial assets.
At the heart of our predicament lies an insurmountable structural impasse. Debt-leveraged financialization is contemporary capitalism's only line of flight, the inevitable forward-escape route for a reproductive model that has reached its historical limit. Capitals head for financial markets because the labour-based economy is increasingly unprofitable. How did we get to this?
The answer can be summarised as follows: 1. The economy's mission to generate surplus-value is both the drive to exploit the workforce and to expel it from production. This is what Marx called capitalism's ''moving contradiction''. While it constitutes the essence of our mode of production, this contradiction today backfires, turning political economy into a mode of permanent devastation. 2. The reason for this change of fortune is the objective failure of the labour-capital dialectic: the unprecedented acceleration in technological automation since the 1980s causes more labour-power to be ejected from production than (re)absorbed. The contraction of the volume of wages means that the purchasing power of a growing part of the world population is falling, with debt and immiseration as inevitable consequences. 3. As less surplus-value is produced, capital seeks immediate returns in the debt-leveraged financial sector rather than in the real economy or by investing in socially constructive sectors like education, research, and public services.
The bottom line is that the paradigm shift underway is the necessary condition for the (dystopian) survival of capitalism, which is no longer able to reproduce itself through mass wage-labour and the attendant consumerist utopia. The pandemic agenda was dictated, ultimately, by systemic implosion: the profitability downturn of a mode of production which rampant automation is making obsolete. For this immanent reason, capitalism is increasingly dependent on public debt, low wages, centralisation of wealth and power, a permanent state of emergency, and financial acrobatics.
If we 'follow the money', we will see that the economic blockade deviously attributed to Virus has achieved far from negligible results, not only in terms of social engineering, but also of financial predation. I will quickly highlight four of them.
1) As anticipated, it has allowed the Fed to reorganise the financial sector by printing a continuous stream of billions of dollars out of thin air; 2) It has accelerated the extinction of small and medium-sized companies, allowing major groups to monopolise trade flows; 3) It has further depressed labour wages and facilitated significant capital savings through 'smart working' (which is particularly smart for those who implement it); 4) It has enabled the growth of e-commerce, the explosion of Big Tech, and the proliferation of the pharma-dollar '' which also includes the much disparaged plastic industry, now producing millions of new facemasks and gloves every week, many of which end up in the oceans (to the delight of the 'green new dealers'). In 2020 alone, the wealth of the planet's 2,200 or so billionaires grew by $1.9 trillion, an increase without historical precedent. All this thanks to a pathogen so lethal that, according to official data, only 99.8% of the infected survive (see here and here), most of them without experiencing any symptoms.
Doing capitalism differently
The economic motif of the Covid whodunit must be placed within a broader context of social transformation. If we scratch the surface of the official narrative, a neo-feudal scenario begins to take form. Masses of increasingly unproductive consumers are being regimented and cast aside, simply because Mr Global no longer knows what to do with them. Together with the underemployed and the excluded, the impoverished middle-classes are now a problem to be handled with the stick of lockdowns, curfews, mass vaccination, propaganda, and the militarisation of society, rather than with the carrot of work, consumption, participatory democracy, social rights (replaced in collective imagination by the civil rights of minorities), and 'well-earned holidays.'
It is therefore delusional to believe that the purpose of lockdowns is therapeutic and humanitarian. When has capital ever cared for the people? Indifference and misanthropy are the typical traits of capitalism, whose only real passion is profit, and the power that comes with it. Today, capitalist power can be summed up with the names of the three biggest investment funds in the world: BlackRock, Vanguard and State Street Global Advisor. These giants, sitting at the centre of a huge galaxy of financial entities, manage a mass of value close to half the global GDP, and are major shareholders in around 90% of listed companies. Around them gravitate transnational institutions like the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the World Economic Forum, the Trilateral Commission, and the Bank for International Settlements, whose function is to coordinate consensus within the financial constellation. We can safely assume that all key strategic decisions '' economic, political and military '' are at least heavily influenced by these elites. Or do we want to believe that Virus has taken them by surprise? Rather, SARS-CoV-2 '' which, by admission of the CDC and the European Commission has never been isolated nor purified '' is the name of a special weapon of psychological warfare that was deployed in the moment of greatest need.
Why should we trust a mega pharmaceutical cartel (the WHO) that is not in charge of 'public health', but rather of marketing private products worldwide at the most profitable rates possible? Public health problems stem from abysmal working conditions, poor nutrition, air, water, and food pollution, and above all from rampant poverty; yet none of these 'pathogens' are on the WHO's list of humanitarian concerns. The immense conflicts of interest between the predators of the pharmaceutical industry, national and supranational medical agencies, and the cynical political enforcers, is now an open secret. No wonder that on the day COVID-19 was classified as a pandemic, the WEF, together with the WHO, launched the Covid Action Platform, a ''protection of life'' coalition run by over 1,000 of the world's most powerful private companies.
The only thing that matters for the clique directing the health emergency orchestra is to feed the profit-making machine, and every move is planned to this end, with the support of a political and media front motivated by opportunism. If the military industry needs wars, the pharmaceutical industry needs diseases. It is no coincidence that 'public health' is by far the most profitable sector of the world economy, to the extent that Big Pharma spends about three times as much as Big Oil and twice as much as Big Tech on lobbying. The potentially endless demand for vaccines and experimental gene concoctions offers pharmaceutical cartels the prospect of almost unlimited profit streams, especially when guaranteed by mass vaccination programmes subsidised by public money (i.e., by more debt that will fall on our heads).
Why have all Covid treatments been criminally banned or sabotaged? As the FDA candidly admits, the use of emergency vaccines is only possible if ''there are no suitable, approved and available alternatives''. A case of truth hidden in plain sight. Moreover, the current vaccine religion is closely linked to the rise of the pharma-dollar, which, by feeding on pandemics, is set to emulate the glories of the 'petro-dollar', allowing the United States to continue to exercise global monetary supremacy. Why should the whole of humanity (including children!) inject experimental 'vaccines' with increasingly worrying yet systematically downplayed adverse effects, when more than 99% of those infected, the vast majority asymptomatic, recover? The answer is obvious: because vaccines are the golden calf of the third millennium, while humanity is 'last generation' exploitation material in guinea pig modality.
Given this context, the staging of the emergency pantomime succeeds through an unheard-of manipulation of public opinion. Every 'public debate' on the pandemic is shamelessly privatised, or rather monopolised by the religious belief in technical-scientific committees bankrolled by the financial elites. Every 'free discussion' is legitimised by adherence to pseudo-scientific protocols carefully purged from the socio-economic context: one 'follows the science' while pretending not to know that 'science follows the money'. Karl Popper's famous statement that ''real science'' is only possible under the aegis of liberal capitalism in what he called ''the open society'', is now coming true in the globalist ideology that animates, among others, George Soros's Open Society Foundation. The combination of ''real science'' and ''open and inclusive society'' makes the Covid doctrine almost impossible to challenge.
For COVID-19, then, we could imagine the following agenda. A fictitious narrative is prepared based on an epidemic risk presented in such a way as to promote fear and submissive behaviour. Most likely a case of diagnostic reclassification. All that is needed is an epidemiologically ambiguous influenza virus, on which to build an aggressive tale of contagion relatable to geographical areas where the impact of respiratory or vascular diseases in the elderly and immunocompromised population is high '' perhaps with the aggravating factor of heavy pollution. There is no need to make much up, given that intensive care units in 'advanced' countries had already collapsed in the years preceding the arrival of Covid, with mortality peaks for which no one had dreamed of exhuming quarantine. In other words, public health systems had already been demolished, and thus prepared for the pandemic scenario.
But this time there is method in madness: a state of emergency is declared, which triggers panic, in turn causing the clogging up of hospitals and care homes (at high risk of sepsis), the application of nefarious protocols, and the suspension of medical care. Et voil , the killer Virus becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy! The propaganda raging across the main centres of financial power (especially North America and Europe) is essential to maintaining the 'state of exception' (Carl Schmitt), which is immediately accepted as the only possible form of political and existential rationality. Entire populations exposed to heavy media bombardment surrender through self-discipline, adhering with grotesque enthusiasm to forms of 'civic responsibility' in which coercion morphs into altruism.
The whole pandemic script '' from the 'contagion curve' to the 'Covid deaths' '' rests on the PCR test, which was authorised for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 by a study produced in record time on commission from the WHO. As many will know by now, the diagnostic unreliability of the PCR test was denounced by its inventor himself, Nobel laureate Kary Mullis (unfortunately passed away on 7 August 2019), and recently reiterated by, among others, 22 internationally renowned experts who demanded its removal for clear scientific flaws. Obviously, the request fell on deaf ears.
The PCR test is the driving force behind the pandemic. It works through the infamous 'cycle thresholds': the more cycles you make, the more false positives (infections, Covid-deaths) you produce, as even guru Anthony Fauci recklessly admitted when he stated that swabs are worthless above 35 cycles. Now, why is it that during the pandemic, amplifications of 35 cycles or more were routinely carried out in laboratories all over the world? Even the New York Times '' certainly not a den of dangerous Covid-deniers '' raised this key question last summer. Thanks to the sensitivity of the swab, the pandemic can be turned on and off like a tap, allowing the health regime to exert full control over the 'numerological monster' of Covid cases and deaths '' the key instruments of everyday terror.
All this fearmongering continues today, despite the easing of some measures. To understand why, we should return to the economic motif. As noted, several trillions of newly printed cash have been created with a few clicks of a mouse by central banks and injected into financial systems, where they have in great part remained. The aim of the printing-spree was to plug calamitous liquidity gaps. Most of this 'magic-tree money' is still frozen inside the shadow banking system, the stock exchanges, and various virtual currency schemes that are not meant to be used for spending and investment. Their function is solely to provide cheap loans for financial speculation. This is what Marx called 'fictitious capital', which continues to expand in an orbital loop that is now completely independent of economic cycles on the ground.
The bottom line is that all this cash cannot be allowed to flood the real economy, for the latter would overheat and trigger hyperinflation. And this is where Virus continues to come in handy. If it initially served to ''insulate the real economy'' (to quote again from the BIS paper), it now oversees its tentative reopening, characterized by submission to the vaccination dogma and chromatic methods of mass regimentation, which may soon include climate lockdowns. Remember how we were told that only vaccines would give us back our 'freedom'? All too predictably, we now discover that the road to freedom is littered with 'variants', that is to say, iterations of Virus. Their purpose is to increase the 'case count' and therefore prolong those states of emergency that justify central banks' production of virtual money aimed at monetizing debt and financing deficits. Rather than returning to normal interest rates, the elites opt to normalize the health emergency by feeding the contagion ghost. The much-publicised 'tapering' (reduction of monetary stimulus) can therefore wait '' just like Pandexit.
In the EU, for instance, the European Central Bank's '¬1.85 trillion 'pandemic emergency purchase program', known as PEPP, is currently set to continue until March 2022. However, it has been intimated it might need to be extended beyond that date. In the meantime, the Delta variant is wreaking havoc on the travel and tourism industry, with new restrictions (including quarantine) disrupting the summer season. Again, we seem to be caught within a self-fulfilling prophecy (especially if, as Nobel laureate Luc Montagnier and many others have intimated, variants, however mild, are the consequence of aggressive mass vaccination campaigns). Whatever the case, the fundamental point is that Virus is still needed by senile capitalism, whose only chance of survival depends on generating a paradigm shift from liberalism to oligarchic authoritarianism.
While their crime is far from perfect, the orchestrators of this global coup must nevertheless be credited with a certain sadistic brilliance. Their sleight of hand succeeded, perhaps even beyond expectations. However, any power aiming at totalisation is destined to fail, and this applies also to the high priests of the Covid religion and the institutional puppets they have mobilised to roll out the health emergency psyop. After all, power tends to delude itself about its omnipotence. Those sitting in the control room fail to realise the extent to which their dominance is uncertain. What they do not see is that their authority depends on a 'higher mission', to which they remain partly blind, namely the anonymous self-reproduction of the capitalist matrix. Today's power lies with the profit-making machine whose only purpose is to continue its reckless journey, potentially leading to the premature extinction of Homo sapiens. The elites who have conned the world into Covid-obedience are the anthropomorphic manifestation of the capitalist automaton, whose invisibility is as cunning as that of Virus itself. And the novelty of our era is that the 'locked-down society' is the model that best guarantees the reproducibility of the capitalist machine, irrespective of its dystopian destination.
 Karl Marx, Grundrisse (London: Penguin, 1993), 706.
 Karl Popper, The Open Society and its Enemies, 2 volumes (Princeton: Princeton UP, 2013).
Watch: 'F*ck Joe Biden' Goes Global as Protesters Shout in Rome
Wed, 13 Oct 2021 17:41
Crowds are increasingly expressing their disapproval of President Joe Biden, not only in the U.S. but across the globe as demonstrators shout ''fuck Joe Biden!'' from American college football games to protests in Rome.
During an anti-coronavirus mandate protest in Italy, protesters reportedly shouted ''fuck Joe Biden'' as they passed the American Embassy in Rome Saturday:
ð¹ðºð² Protesters in Rome chant "Fuck Joe Biden" as they march past the American Embassy ð
'-- Elisa (@JustLaElisa17) October 9, 2021
The phenomenon has swept the United States. One of the most recent scenes occurred last week during Biden's arrival to Howell, Michigan, where Trump supporters held signs reading, ''Fuck Biden,'' ''Biden is a Traitor,'' and ''China Joe Must Go!''
Demonstrators protest the visit of US President Joe Biden to Howell, Michigan, on October 5, 2021. (Jeff Kowalsky/AFP via Getty Images)
Demonstrators gathering outside the Department of Education office in New York last week also shouted ''fuck Joe Biden and de Blasio'' during a protest against coronavirus mandates:
More chants of ''F*** Joe Biden, and de Blasio!'' as the crowd mobilizes through Brooklyn #NewYork pic.twitter.com/mZgfUtZrGa
'-- Brendan Gutenschwager (@BGOnTheScene) October 4, 2021
All the while, the phrase has been erupting at college football games week after week:
FUCK JOE BIDEN ð£ðºð¸ pic.twitter.com/BUiaFw7MjG
'-- Old Row Sports (@OldRowSports) September 25, 2021
FUCK JOE BIDEN chant ð£ at the first Coastal Carolina football game@OldRowCcu pic.twitter.com/D4dwxs2sEE
'-- Old Row Sports (@OldRowSports) September 3, 2021
Another FUCK JOE BIDEN ð£ chant, this time at the Virginia Tech game
ITS NOW A MOVEMENT ð¨ð¨ð¨ @OldRowHokies pic.twitter.com/CD4ObCqTaK
'-- Old Row Sports (@OldRowSports) September 4, 2021
.@OldRowOleMiss checking in! pic.twitter.com/YOwkcRJMUQ
'-- Old Row (@OldRowViral) October 10, 2021
'-- Old Row Sports (@OldRowSports) October 10, 2021
FJB but ''¨clean''¨ pic.twitter.com/SvHUNMQyFy
'-- Old Row Sports (@OldRowSports) October 10, 2021
Earlier this month, NASCAR fans also engaged, breaking out into the chant during NASCAR's Xfinity Series at the Talladega speedway. However, the NBC reporter on site bizarrely asserted fans were shouting ''Let's Go Brandon.'' Video shows that is clearly not the case:
#FJBMovement alive and strong as it finds it way to @Nascar @TALLADEGA chanting "Fu*k Joe Biden" during race winner's interview. #NASCAR #FJB #FJoeBiden pic.twitter.com/ZRKVJOgF4A
'-- Sn00pster (@sn00pdad) October 3, 2021
Joe Biden and Hunter's shared bank accounts could make president target of FBI probe | Daily Mail Online
Wed, 13 Oct 2021 17:32
President Joe Biden could become embroiled in an FBI investigation of Hunter's finances, experts say, as emails reveal the father and son shared accounts and paid each other's bills.
Emails recovered by DailyMail.com from Hunter's abandoned laptop between Hunter and Eric Schwerin, his business partner at consultancy Rosemont Seneca, show Schwerin was working on Joe's taxes, discussing the father and son paying each other's household bills, and even fielding requests for a book deal for the then-vice president, as well as managing the donation of Joe's senate papers to the University of Delaware.
It is unclear why Schwerin had this intimate role in the vice president's affairs rather than government officials in the Office of the Vice President.
Hunter's claim that he and his father shared a bank account also raises serious questions whether funds from the alleged joint account were used for Hunter's May 2018 week-long bender with a prostitute in a Hollywood hotel.
Last December, Hunter admitted in a public statement that he was under federal investigation over his tax affairs.
A former federal prosecutor and expert on money laundering and criminal tax law tells DailyMail.com that if money was flowing between Hunter and his father, that could make Joe a target of the probe '' but that investigators would have a tough time sitting down with the president.
'Whatever transaction you're looking at, if there's a connection to a family member or a friend, sure the answer is yes [they would be investigated],' the ex-prosecutor, who asked not to be named, said.
'Obviously, if you're talking about the President of the United States, you'd better have a pretty damn good reason to talk to that person.'
Emails from Hunter Biden's abandoned laptop, obtained by DailyMail.com, reveal Joe and Hunter shared bank accounts and paid each other's bills
The claim raises serious questions whether funds from the joint accounts were used for Hunter's May 2018 week-long bender with a prostitute. This photo of him grabbing a woman's hair was recovered from his laptop
Emails between Hunter and Eric Schwerin, his business partner at consultancy Rosemont Seneca, show Schwerin was working on Joe's taxes
The FBI and IRS probe is reportedly also looking into his foreign business relationships and the potential for money laundering charges.
The Senate security committee issued a report last year raising fears that the Chinese government was attempting to influence the White House through a billion-dollar business deal between Hunter's company he co-founded with Schwerin, Rosemont Seneca, and Chinese oil giant CEFC.
John Cassara, a former U.S. Intelligence Officer and Treasury Special Agent who is an expert in money laundering investigations, said that were Joe not president, he would probably be in prosecutors' crosshairs by now along with his son.
'The information available publicly is very worrisome, particularly in the areas of corruption,' Cassara told DailyMail.com.
'They could go at this from all different avenues. Follow the corruption trail and then charge money laundering.
'Corruption is a predicate offense for money laundering. And besides corruption, it's the perception of corruption. This kind of thing should not be happening. It undermines full faith in the US government. It undermines trust and our international reputation. It's an embarrassment.'
In yet more evidence of the deep commercial relationship between Hunter's firm and the VP's office during Joe's tenure, Rosemont Seneca received special favors from the White House while Joe was in office, including dozens of tickets to exclusive 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue events and private tours for Rosemont Seneca clients or associates.
And when an aide to Senator Robert Menendez requested VP Biden host the U.S.-Spain Council's 2010 annual meeting at his official Naval Observatory residence in Washington DC, they contacted Schwerin rather than Joe's White House office.
Hunter and Schwerin then privately discussed the potential to ingratiate themselves with 'CEOs of the major banks' if they helped arrange the request.
In 2010, Danny O'Brien, then chief of staff to U.S.-Spain Council chair Senator Menendez, contacted Schwerin asking if VP Biden could host the group's annual meeting at his naval observatory official residence
Schwerin was also involved in the process of gifting Joe's senate papers to the University of Delaware. A member of the VP's office, Katherina Oyama, wrote to Schwerin in March 2010 detailing the restrictions Joe's White House attorney was recommending over the public release of the papers
Hunter complained that 'half' of his salary went to paying his father's bills while he was VP, casting doubt on Joe's previous claims that he's never benefited from his son's business dealings.
In a 2019 text to his daughter Naomi, he wrote: 'I hope you all can do what I did and pay for everything for this entire family for 30 years.
'It's really hard. But don't worry, unlike Pop [Joe], I won't make you give me half your salary.'
Bills Hunter paid for Joe included a $190-a-month AT&T phone bill and thousands in repairs on the president's lakeside home in Wilmington.
In a 2018 email to one of his own assistants, Hunter complained that he had been shut out of his own bank account and that his father had been using it.
'Too many cooks in the kitchen. Too many profile changes and such. Happened 10 days ago too...
'My dad has been using most lines on this account which I've through the gracious offerings of Eric have paid for past 11 years,' he said.
Schwerin made repeated references to Joe and Hunter paying each other's bills, in emails on Hunter's laptop.
Last December, Hunter admitted in a public statement that he was under federal investigation over his tax affairs. The FBI and IRS probe is reportedly also looking into Hunter's foreign business relationships and the potential for money laundering charges
On June 5, 2010 he wrote: 'FYI, there are a few outstanding bills that need to be paid and I am not sure which ones are a priority and which should get paid out of 'my' account and which should be put on hold or paid out of the 'Wilmington Trust Social Security Check Account.' It's unclear why he put the word 'my' in quotation marks
In June 2010 he wrote: 'Mike Christopher [builder] is hassling me so I am paying a couple of the smaller things since I haven't heard from your Dad. Know he's busy '-- so it's OK.
Penguin Random House editor at large Susan Mercandetti emailed Joe's assistant Kathy Chung in November 2015 saying the publishing house would like to 'engage in a conversation about the possibility of [Joe] writing another book'
On June 5, 2010 he wrote: 'FYI, there are a few outstanding bills that need to be paid and I am not sure which ones are a priority and which should get paid out of 'my' account and which should be put on hold or paid out of the 'Wilmington Trust Social Security Check Account.'
'There is about $2,000 extra in 'my' account beyond what is used for monthly expenses.'
It's unclear why he put the word 'my' in quotation marks.
A former federal prosecutor tells DailyMail.com that if money was flowing between Hunter and his father, that could make Joe a target of the probe
Later that month he wrote: 'Mike Christopher [a construction worker Joe hired] is hassling me so I am paying a couple of the smaller things since I haven't heard from your Dad. Know he's busy '-- so it's OK.
'But if you think he has a moment or two to review the e-mail I sent you let me know.'
The following month, he said: 'Does it make sense to see if your Dad has some time in the next couple of weeks while you are in DC to talk about it? Your Dad just called me about his mortgage . . . so it dawned on me it might be a good time [for] some positive news about his future earnings potential.'
Emails on Hunter's abandoned computer show that as early as 2010, Schwerin was involved with the vice president's tax returns.
On April 9, 2010, Schwerin wrote to Hunter: 'I was dealing all afternoon with JRB's taxes (but solved a big issue - so it was all worth it).'
On June 10 that year, he wrote: 'Your Dad's Delaware tax refund check came today. I am depositing it in his account and writing a check in that amount back to you since he owes it to you. Don't think I need to run it by him, but if you want to go ahead. If not, I will deposit tomorrow.'
It is unclear why Joe allegedly owed his son money.
Schwerin also appeared to be coordinating with other tax professionals for the tax return of Joe's wife, Jill Biden, affectionately called 'Mom-Mom' by family and close friends.
'FYI, we have a bill for approx. $800 from Bill Morgan for all the work he did for Mom-Mom on her taxes, household help, etc,' Schwerin wrote to Hunter.
'Who should pay the bill? Do you and Beau want to split it? Should I ask [Joe's sister] Val, [sister-in-law] Sara or your Dad? I'd like to get it paid sooner rather than later.'
Schwerin's involvement in Joe's personal affairs even extended to fielding requests for book deals.
Penguin Random House editor at large Susan Mercandetti emailed Joe's assistant Kathy Chung in November 2015 saying the publishing house would like to 'engage in a conversation about the possibility of [Joe] writing another book.'
'We thought that a book on living with grief is something that would be important to so many people and clearly it a subject about which he has spoken so poignantly,' the editor wrote.
Chung forwarded the email to Schwerin, saying: 'Hey, do I send these to you? If yes, can you pls email her and tell her you received, or she'll continue to email me.'
Schwerin then wrote to Mercandetti: 'Right now, we are compiling a list of all the requests that come in to the VP regarding books, etc. so that when he's ready to focus on this we'll have them all in one place.
'Fee [sic] free to reach out to me if you have any questions in the meantime.'
Schwerin also appeared to be coordinating with other tax professionals for the tax return of Joe's wife, Jill Biden, affectionately called 'Mom-Mom' by family and close friends. 'FYI, we have a bill for approx. $800 from Bill Morgan for all the work he did for Mom-Mom on her taxes, household help, etc,' Schwerin wrote to Hunter
Rosemont Seneca got dozens of tickets to White House events, which they used to woo business associates and potential clients, including '12 spots to fill for the Mexico State Dinner in May' 2010 and an estimated 20 tickets for the White House Easter Egg Roll that year, according to a March 2010 email
Schwerin was also involved in the process of gifting Joe's senate papers to the University of Delaware.
A member of the VP's office, Katherina Oyama, wrote to Schwerin in March 2010 detailing the restrictions Joe's White House attorney was recommending over the public release of the papers.
A month later, Danny O'Brien, then chief of staff to U.S.-Spain Council chair Senator Menendez, contacted Schwerin asking if VP Biden could host the group's annual meeting at his naval observatory official residence.
Schwerin wrote to Hunter about the request, suggesting the favor for the council could help them ingratiate themselves with potential future clients.
'Spanish members include CEOs of the major banks - Banco Santander, etc, Iberdrola, Spanish Rail, etc. Amb. Solomont is a big supporter and JRB [Joe] went to speak to group in Boca when a Senator,' he said.
Hunter's claim that he and his father shared a bank account also raises serious questions whether funds from the alleged joint account were used for Hunter's May 2018 week-long bender with a prostitute in a Hollywood hotel.
'Having their annual meeting in DC in July. Spanish Foreign Minister attends. Danny wants to explore with you possibility of getting VP to host event at NAVOBs [Naval Observatory] for group. Maybe even an appearance at a reception at a hotel. I'll get more info and we can discuss with Danny next week. I think Solomont mentioned your interest in Spain and that is why Danny is calling us.'
The email suggests Hunter was a target for those wanting access to his powerful father '' and was willing to benefit from his perceived influence with the VP.
That influence appeared to extend to special favors from the White House to Hunter's company.
Rosemont Seneca got dozens of tickets to White House events, which they used to woo business associates and potential clients, including '12 spots to fill for the Mexico State Dinner in May' 2010 and an estimated 20 tickets for the White House Easter Egg Roll that year, according to a March 2010 email.
In November 2015 Schwerin also wrote to Hunter noting that members of the VP's office offered 20 tickets for 'White House Holiday Tours'.
'Anne Marie and Kathy also offered up 20 tickets for Joan and I to use - separate from what you have,' he wrote. 'So it seems like between all of us we have plenty. Let us know if you have anyone specific you want to offer yours up to.'
Hunter's claim that he and his father shared a bank account also raises serious questions whether funds from the alleged joint account were used for Hunter's May 2018 week-long bender with a prostitute in a Hollywood hotel.
On May 24, 2018, a recently retired senior Secret Service officer, Robert Savage, texted Hunter warning he would 'have to assume you are in danger' and commandeer keys to the room if he didn't come out of his $470-per-night suite at The Jeremy Hotel in Los Angeles where he had been holed up with a Russian hooker to whom he wired $25,000.
The agent added: 'Come on H this is linked to Celtic's account' '' the Secret Service code name for Joe Biden. 'DC is calling me every 10. Let me up or come down. I can't help if you don't let me H.'
It is unclear whether the agent's reference to 'Celtic's account' was about charges for prostitutes on a Joe Biden bank account, or his employment by Joe Biden to monitor his son.
'Alarming' drop in life expectancy in England even before Covid pandemic hit, new university study shows '-- RT UK News
Wed, 13 Oct 2021 17:31
Life expectancy across the UK was falling even before the Covid pandemic hit, with researchers finding an ''alarming'' drop over the past decade, according to a study published by Imperial College London (ICL).
Having examined around 8.6 million death records in England from 2002-2019, ICL found that life expectancy decreased in one of five communities for women and one in nine areas for men over the past decade.
The analysis, published on Wednesday, comes after the Office for National Statistics (ONS) released a report earlier in 2021 estimating that life expectancy for men had fallen for the first time in 40 years due to the Covid pandemic.
However, ICL researchers found it had actually started to decline years before the pandemic impacted communities.
''There has always been an impression in the UK that everyone's health is improving, even if not at the same pace,'' said Professor Majid Ezzati, who led the study, but ''data show that longevity has been getting worse for years in large parts of England.''
For such declines to be seen in 'normal times' before the pandemic is alarming.
Beyond the national picture across England, the study outlined the stark difference between life expectancy in different parts of the country. At the most extreme point, there was a 20-year gap between women living in the London borough of Camden and Leeds, West Yorkshire, while there was a 27-year gap between Kensington and Chelsea and Blackpool, Lancashire.
Also on rt.com Minus 2 years of life: Study compares mortality impact of Covid pandemic to WWII aftermath, shows life expectancy drop globally The analysis, released in the peer reviewed Lancet journal, blamed the differences in life expectancy on poverty, employment issues, welfare support, and healthcare, urging the government to boost investments in areas that have the lowest life expectancies.
Prime Minister Boris Johnson and his government recently pledged to tackle inequalities between different regions, laying out his so-called 'levelling-up' agenda, which will seek to providing funding to towns, cities, and rural areas, giving local authorities greater control over how government investment is spent.
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Strange radio waves emerge from direction of the galactic centre - The University of Sydney
Wed, 13 Oct 2021 17:26
International student Ziteng Wang detected unusual signals from deep in the heart of the Milky Way using CSIRO's ASKAP radio telescope. Now astronomers are on the search for more evidence of what type object could be emitting them.
Artist's impression of ASKAP J173608.2-321635 by Sebastian Zentilomo.
Astronomers have discovered unusual signals coming from the direction of the Milky Way's centre. The radio waves fit no currently understood pattern of variable radio source and could suggest a new class of stellar object.
''The strangest property of this new signal is that it is has a very high polarisation. This means its light oscillates in only one direction, but that direction rotates with time,'' said Ziteng Wang, lead author of the new study and a PhD student in the School of Physics at the University of Sydney.
''The brightness of the object also varies dramatically, by a factor of 100, and the signal switches on and off apparently at random. We've never seen anything like it.''
Lead author and PhD student ZIteng Wang from the School of Physics.
Many types of star emit variable light across the electromagnetic spectrum. With tremendous advances in radio astronomy, the study of variable or transient objects in radio waves is a huge field of study helping us to reveal the secrets of the Universe. Pulsars, supernovae, flaring stars and fast radio bursts are all types of astronomical objects whose brightness varies.
''At first we thought it could be a pulsar '' a very dense type of spinning dead star '' or else a type of star that emits huge solar flares. But the signals from this new source don't match what we expect from these types of celestial objects,'' Mr Wang said.
The discovery of the object has been published today in the Astrophysical Journal.
Signals from ASKAP J173608.2-321635 deep inside the Milky Way Artist's impression by Sebastian Zentilomo
Mr Wang and an international team, including scientists from Australia's national science agency CSIRO, Germany, the United States, Canada, South Africa, Spain and France discovered the object using the CSIRO's ASKAP radio telescope in Western Australia. Follow-up observations were with the South African Radio Astronomy Observatory's MeerKAT telescope.
Mr Wang's PhD supervisor is Professor Tara Murphy also from the Sydney Institute for Astronomy and the School of Physics.
Professor Murphy said: ''We have been surveying the sky with ASKAP to find unusual new objects with a project known as Variables and Slow Transients (VAST), throughout 2020 and 2021.
''Looking towards the centre of the Galaxy, we found ASKAP J173608.2-321635, named after its coordinates. This object was unique in that it started out invisible, became bright, faded away and then reappeared. This behaviour was extraordinary.''
After detecting six radio signals from the source over nine months in 2020, the astronomers tried to find the object in visual light. They found nothing.
They turned to the Parkes radio telescope and again failed to detect the source.
Professor Tara Murphy from the School of Physics and Sydney Institute for Astronomy.
Professor Murphy said: ''We then tried the more sensitive MeerKAT radio telescope in South Africa. Because the signal was intermittent, we observed it for 15 minutes every few weeks, hoping that we would see it again.
''Luckily, the signal returned, but we found that the behaviour of the source was dramatically different '' the source disappeared in a single day, even though it had lasted for weeks in our previous ASKAP observations.''
However, this further discovery did not reveal much more about the secrets of this transient radio source.
''The information we do have has some parallels with another emerging class of mysterious objects known as Galactic Centre Radio Transients, including one dubbed the 'cosmic burper','' said Mr Wang's co-supervisor, Professor David Kaplan from the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.
Professor David Kaplan from the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.
''While our new object, ASKAP J173608.2-321635, does share some properties with GCRTs there are also differences. And we don't really understand those sources, anyway, so this adds to the mystery.''
The scientists plan to keep a close eye on the object to look for more clues as to what it might be.
''Within the next decade, the transcontinental Square Kilometre Array (SKA) radio telescope will come online. It will be able to make sensitive maps of the sky every day,'' Professor Murphy said. ''We expect the power of this telescope will help us solve mysteries such as this latest discovery, but it will also open vast new swathes of the cosmos to exploration in the radio spectrum.''
DeclarationResearchers received funding and support from the following bodies: Australian Research Council, US National Science Foundation, European Research Council, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and the Sydney Informatics Hub at the University of Sydney.
The ASKAP radio telescope is part of the Australia Telescope National Facility which is managed by CSIRO. Operation of ASKAP is funded by the Australian Government with support from the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy. The MeerKAT telescope is operated by the South African Radio Astronomy Observatory, which is a facility of the National Research Foundation, an agency of the Department of Science and Innovation.
The researchers gratefully acknowledge the Wajarri Yamatji as traditional owners of the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory site, on which ASKAP is located.
Power struggle intensifies within the CCP - YouTube
Wed, 13 Oct 2021 17:25
Stealing your own freight: O'Hare cargo delays force drastic measures - FreightWaves
Wed, 13 Oct 2021 17:24
Desperate logistics service providers in Chicago are resorting to a number of new tactics, including bribery and undercover extraction missions, to avoid worsening congestion that is trapping shipments for more than a week at O'Hare International Airport's cargo terminals, according to industry executives.
Shipment volumes at O'Hare have exploded in the past 18 months as businesses turn to air transport for critical imports of personal protective equipment, replenishment of depleted inventories and to overcome manufacturing and ocean supply chain disruptions. Facilities are short-staffed and don't have adequate space to swiftly process mountains of cargo offloaded from the giant freighters that have predominated since COVID devastated lower-capacity passenger flights.
Freight management companies say backlogs are so severe that warehouses are storing rows and rows of containers in parking lots and that it can take up to 10 days to retrieve a shipment. Delivery trucks often sit in line for hours waiting for a load and some local carriers are refusing to get freight at certain airlines.
The situation is so bad that one 3PL is essentially orchestrating heists of its own freight.
''We will literally bring a truck from our facility with a forklift in the back, with like six or seven guys, and we'll basically pay our way in to find our freight, break it down and use the forklift to load out trailers to get it out,'' a top company executive told FreightWaves on condition of anonymity.
The teams have to scout the floor to find the pallets and cartons, some of which are marked with bright stickers at origin.
''When you're paying people off in cash, they'll let you do it. That's the only way you can get your freight,'' he said.
C.H. Robinson, a large Minneapolis-based 3PL, sends individuals along with the trucker for established appointments so they can walk the warehouse floor and help find freight. Fully-built, dedicated units are marked with Robinson tags so they are easily recognizable, Matt Castle, the company's head of air cargo, said.
Cargo volume by weight at O'Hare grew 14.8% in 2020 to more than 2 million metric tons and freighter flights increased 25% to 30,399, according to the Chicago Department of Aviation. International imports carried on widebody jets increased much more in Chicago, a major freight hub in the center of the country, than at other large gateways.
The influx of cargo has not slowed down this year. Other airports are also experiencing cargo congestion, but none to the same degree as O'Hare. The airport experienced a 17.8% year-over-year increase in international all-cargo flights through June, with international freight volume soaring 46% to 871,000 metric tons.
Evan Rosen, president of the Americas for EFL Global, characterized air cargo logistics at Chicago O'Hare as a ''disaster,'' pointing to huge warehouses that only have a handful of dockworkers to sort cargo and load it on trucks. ''We have stuff that's stuck for six weeks and we're still trying to find it in some of these facilities. People are paying $9 to $10 per kilogram [for air because it's supposed to be faster] and six weeks later I still can't find their freight.''
Ground handling companies, which lost many workers to layoffs when airline customers sharply scaled back flight operations and health concerns over COVID, have had difficulty refilling their ranks.
Alliance Ground International, for example, is trying to fill 200 vacancies at its five facilities in and around the airport, said Warren Jones, vice president for business development, in an email message. He expressed hope that the expiration of federal extended unemployment benefits on Sept. 1 will increase the potential labor pool. Workers in certain industries, including restaurants and warehousing, have been reluctant to return to lower-paying jobs, but there are also constraints with background checks and training that take time to complete.
Most freight forwarders don't have rescue teams, but are doing whatever they can to bypass the airport terminals.
A recent practice is for logistics providers to build their own air containers, known as unit load devices (ULDs), with cartons and small pallets rather than tender multiple loose shipments for the airline to co-load in a container with other customers. There is a better chance freight will be ready soon after arrival at the destination airport if it's consolidated in a single ULD because ground handling agents that run the airside facilities don't need to break down the stacks and sort the individual shipments.
Kuehne + Nagel, the largest air freight forwarder in the world, is controlling entire ULDs bound for Chicago so they can get picked up by a trucking supplier with only one or two days' delay, said Edward DeMartini, vice president of air logistics development for North America, during a recent video update for customers.
A Nippon Cargo Airlines 747 freighter discharging containers at Chicago O'Hare International Airport in November 2019. (Photo: Eric Kulisch/FreightWaves)''We are not shipping anything into Chicago anymore that is not a full ULD of EFL freight. We will no longer tender freight loose to an airline at origin so that they can build my freight with mixed pallets because that's the stuff that just doesn't move,'' Rosen said.
The average cost per kilogram goes up if a 3PL doesn't completely fill a rented ULD, ''but at the end of the day, I can't have freight sitting at the airlines for two months waiting to go pick it up,'' he said.
Having shipper-controlled ULDs also makes it easier for logistics providers to circumvent the airport warehouses. Several freight forwarders, including San Francisco-based Flexport and EFL Global, use local cartage providers that have special permission to drive on the tarmac and directly load ULDs onto lowboy trucks with roller beds. Both companies have bonded facilities very close to the airport that can handle large, heavyweight pallets.
''The solution here is to bypass those terminals, take freight right off the airplane and move it into your own cargo freight station to do the breakdown,'' Neel Jones Shah, Flexport's executive vice president and head of airfreight, said during a company webinar in late July.
Flexport, he said, also plans to add incremental capacity to its dedicated charter network operated by Atlas Air (NASDAQ: AAWW) and is considering alternate airports that aren't congested. As previously reported, German logistics companies DB Schenker and Senator International earlier this year established freight stations at nearby Chicago Rockford International Airport and are diverting their own-controlled freighters there.
EFL, a heavy user of leased aircraft to haul customers' shipments, sends many flights to Rickenbacker International Airport, a cargo-only airport outside Columbus, Ohio, that also offers quick turn times for inbound freight.
Some forwarders are using Air Canada's cargo-only passenger flights into Toronto and then trucking the shipments to their Chicago container freight stations.
Even ground handlers are trying to get out of their own way. Alliance Ground, Maestro International Cargo and Swissport have recently opened import facilities outside airport property where containers are immediately sent as they come off freighters. By moving more freight off airport, the companies hope to free up space at existing facilities for pharmaceutical, export and other shipments and enable faster cargo collection.
But so far, according to Rosen and other sources, the facilities haven't made much of a difference because they don't have enough workers. Jones acknowledged that the 253,000-square foot building it opened in June is minimally staffed.
Click here for more FreightWaves/American Shipper stories by Eric Kulisch.
Cargo handlers move to O'Hare suburbs to escape O'Hare congestion
Maestro choreographs way around O'Hare cargo gridlock
Fed up with cargo congestion freight forwarders flee O'Hare airport
'What happens in communist countries': Trump rips de Blasio for 'confiscating' Bronx golf course | Daily Mail Online
Wed, 13 Oct 2021 15:27
Donald Trump accused New York City Mayor Bill de Blasio of working to terminate the lease for his Bronx golf course for 'no reason' on Tuesday.
De Blasio vowed to break the city's ties to Trump over the January 6 Capitol riot. Part of that includes ending his contract at Trump Golf Links at Ferry Point years before its 2035 expiry.
New York gave Trump just until November 15 to clear out.
A heated public hearing on Tuesday saw numerous people criticize the city for ending its lucrative contract over a 'political vendetta,' and a lawyer for the golf course accused de Blasio of trying to saddle New Yorkers with a $30 million tax bill 'just to get rid of the name.'
'He wants to CONFISCATE the project from me for no reason whatsoever, and terminate my long-term arrangement with the city'--and to think I just opened a beautiful $10 million clubhouse,' Trump wrote of de Blasio in an emailed statement through his Save America PAC.
'The course has received rave reviews, is considered one of the top ten open to the public facilities in the United States (could even be the best!), is designed for tournament play, and Mayor De Blasio wants to take it away after all of the work was so successfully done, and so much money was spent.'
He added, 'So unfair'--this is what happens in Communist Countries, not in America!'
Trump also lauded those who helped him get the project off the ground.
Trump is accusing New York City Mayor Bill de Blasio of 'confiscating' his Bronx golf course despite it being a source of revenue and jobs for the city
'It was an amazing effort by many people pulling together to finally revitalize this troubled part of New York City,' he said.
The 220-acre plot of land in New York's Bronx borough was a landfill for decades before former Mayor Rudy Giuliani orchestrated a deal in 2000 to develop it into a luxury golf course.
Environmental concerns and contract disputes forced the original developers to drop out and the city, desperate to complete the project, secured a deal with the Trump Organization to take it over.
After opening in 2015 the Ferry Point course has had a mostly profitable run and became a setting for professional golf tournaments, pumping money into the local economy.
But after the Capitol riot, a number of groups including the Professional Golf Association moved to sever ties with Trump - and the city of New York followed suit.
The PGA canceled its 2022 championship set for a different Trump golf course in New Jersey.
City officials said that Trump could no longer argue he can attract prestigious tournaments to the Bronx course as is required in the contract following the negative publicity surrounding the Capitol riot.
Trump's team said the contract doesn´t require it to attract tournaments, only obliging it maintain a course that is 'first-class, tournament quality.'
The Trump Organization sued the City of New York in June claiming the termination was done for purely political reasons.
Trump opened Trump Golf Links at Ferry Point in 2015 after being given a good deal by the city to take over the land
City officials said that Trump could no longer argue he can attract prestigious tournaments to the Bronx course as is required in the contract because of negative publicity surrounding the Capitol riot
Trump Organization lawyers have argued that the Capitol riot should have nothing to do with golf (pictured in 2015 at a golf tournament hosted at his Bronx course)
Trump representatives argue that the city would owe them at least $30 million - the money they put into refurbishing and building up the site - if they ended the contract. In a recent court filing, the city appeared to agree they would pay them an early contract termination penalty if necessary but disputed the figure.
In the meantime, the city is working desperately to find a new contractor to take over the course.
At a public hearing on Tuesday, representatives for the president's company, employees as well as private citizens lined up to accuse New York's mayor of putting politics ahead of New Yorkers.
Kenneth Caruso, a lawyer for Trump Ferry Point, LLC, questioned why a 'lame duck' mayor was being allowed to make decisions that would affect citywide finances.
De Blasio's second and final term as mayor is over at the end of December.
'We suggest that this Committee would not, and should not, facilitate a $30 million payment to indulge the preferences or priorities, political or substantive, of any lame duck, at any level of government in this City,' Caruso said in his planned statement.
'We submit, the taxpayers of this City should not be required to pay $30 million, or some amount (in the City's calculation) even approaching $30 million, just to get rid of the name ''Trump'' at a golf course.'
At another point in the hearing someone who identified as an employee of Trump's Bronx course said he was there from the beginning and his 'blood, sweat and tears went into the property.'
He lamented that the course was being 'taken away for something that's not our fault as employees' but rather a suspected political goal.
'I don't know how else to convey that other than it's really, really disappointing,' he said.
Another employee of the course questioned why the city was rushing to meet a self-imposed November deadline before the matter could be decided in court.
'Why are we wasting the time and energy? Because someone has a vendetta? That's not how American democracy is supposed to work,' they said.
De Blasio's fellow city officials were also part of the barrage of criticism against him.
The Trump Organization claims it spent $30 million enhancing the space, which the city would owe if it terminated the contract early. City officials dispute the figure
Albert D'Angelo, chairman of Bronx Community Board 11 said the city failed to consult local residents before the upheval.
'Before any decision is made by the City of New York, they need to talk to the people in the area,' D'Angelo said, adding that 'hasn't been done.'
He added that the financial benefit of wealthier people visiting golf course bled out into the surrounding area, pumping much-needed money into the local economy across multiple Bronx neighborhoods.
'Some of them are even going to restaurants in the Throggs Neck area,' he said. 'To destroy that because of political reasons is a disgrace.'
Veteran Gene DeFrancis, a lifelong Bronx resident who also holds a leadership post in the Bronx County American Legion, said the Trump golf course has been 'good friends' to the veterans' group.
He described how the Trump Organization agreed to donate golf carts to the group to help veterans with mobility issues better access the Veterans Affairs medical center in the nearby Kingsbridge neighborhood.
'This needs to stop. we need to come together and stop with this partisanship,' DeFrancis said.
At the Tuesday hearing a Bronx-based veteran said Trump donated golf carts from the course to the local VA hospital
A court filing in the ongoing legal battle revealed last week that de Blasio was prepared to fork over millions to get Trump out of the Bronx.
Sources close to the legal proceedings told DailyMail.com that de Blasio was more focused on satisfying his political agenda than fixing his city's burgeoning problems.
In their suit the company said the move was politically motivated by de Blasio's disdain for the former president.
The city said Trump was clearly in breach of the contract terms over the MAGA riot and it will 'vigorously defend' its decision.
But in the September 30 filing, it appears that the city is conceding that it'll pay Trump if it has to.
Lawyers for NYC argue that even if there were insufficient ties to end the contract for violations, the city could still boot Trump 'under the at-will provision.'
Terms within the contract say New York City can terminate its deal with Trump at any time without cause, but would be obligated to compensate his company for money it invested in building a clubhouse on the course.
The 'Termination Payment,' as it's referred to in the lawsuit, is $30 million, according to the company.
De Blasio booting Trump from New York was part of a larger wave of backlash as banks and other companies backed away from doing business with the former president
New York City officials have disputed the figure, claiming it's 'wholly unsupported and contrary to [city Park and Recreation Department] accounting thus far.'
When de Blasio announced he was kicking Trump off the course in January, he cited Trump´s 'criminal action' in inciting Capitol rioters, arguing that he could fire him 'for cause' and not pay him a dime.
But last week, Caruso told DailyMail.com that city officials' claims the company violated their contract were 'cover' for the mayor's 'political retaliation.'
'The Trump Organization's long-term license for this property is legally binding, enforceable, and remains in full force and effect,' the lawyer said.
'The City's alleged ''termination for breach of contract'' was a mere pretext that Mayor de Blasio used as a cover for his political retaliation.
'The City's position has no legal merit and we will continue to vigorously defend our right to possession and control of the property for the remainder of the 20-year term, against both the City and anyone to whom the City purports to issue a replacement license.'
Trump Ferry Link lawyers denied a connection between the Bronx course and the Capitol riot again in an early October court filing.
'Whatever else may be said about the events of January 6 and later events cited by the City, those events had nothing to do with golf,' the October 6 filing stated.
'And Mayor de Blasio's effort to stretch those events to reach TFP's golfing business merely reveals his pretext behind the claim of breach here: The Mayor seized upon the events of January 6 as a pretext to retaliate against President Trump.'
Trying to replace Trump by November 15 has not been easy for de Blasio.
A prominent homeless shelter operator was set to take over the space for a 13-year lease, it was announced in late September. CORE Services Group, Inc. was the company behind the move despite its CEO, Jack A. Brown, having no prior experience managing a golf course.
But CORE withdrew just two days later amid reports of Brown's shady past business dealings.
A New York Times investigation from Sunday uncovered specific accusations of what one city official called 'a disturbing pattern of ethical violations' on Brown's part.
The CEO's nonprofit has reportedly channeled $32 million worth of contracts into for-profit companies he also owns and hired relatives to lucrative positions.
Brown has already received more than $352 million from the City of New York just since 2017 as it sought to combat record-setting levels of homelessness.
Trump is an avid golfer himself and has multiple golf courses around the world (pictured at Trump National Golf Club in Virginia in November 2020)
De Blasio admitted on Monday that 'it doesn't make sense' to have picked CORE to replace Trump's contract, according to The City.
'I don't understand why CORE was in that mix,' he said in response to the New York Times's findings.
On top of not offering a concrete explanation de Blasio also sought to distance himself from blame.
'Sometimes agencies don't communicate properly and information is not shared properly. That is my suspicion here too, because it wouldn't have made sense to pursue something with this nonprofit,' he said.
An Atlanta-based company called Bobby Jones Links that specializes in managing golf courses was set to help CORE operate the course.
Bobby Jones Links will now move forward with its own contract under the brand Affiniti Ferry Point LLC.
The company is also intending to slash Trump's prices, according to a concession agreement proposal posted online by the city's Parks Department.
City residents would pay $140 on a weekday and $167 on a weekend. The current rates for the same group are currently $154 and $185.
Hundreds demand 2020 "election audit" at Michigan State Capitol in Lansing - YouTube
Wed, 13 Oct 2021 15:21
Rolling Stones retire classic rock song 'Brown Sugar'
Wed, 13 Oct 2021 15:12
The Rolling Stones retired one of their most popular rock songs due to lyrics that depict the horrors of slavery.
The Stones have not played the 1971 hit ''Brown Sugar'' on their current tour and said the blues classic has been removed from their setlist.
''You picked up on that, huh?,'' Keith Richards, 77, responded to the LA Times when asked if the Stones had cut the second-most-performed tune in their catalog amid a climate of heightened cultural sensitivity.
''I don't know. I'm trying to figure out with the sisters quite where the beef is. Didn't they understand this was a song about the horrors of slavery? But they're trying to bury it.''
The first verse of the hit song depicts slaves being sold and beaten in Louisiana, with references to a ''slaver'' who whips ''women just around midnight.''
The famous chorus portrays a non-consensual sex encounter between the violent master and a young female slave, while possibly also alluding to heroin use.
The Rolling Stones said they would retire the classic song ''Brown Sugar.'' AFP via Getty ImagesIn the next verse, the song describes the abuse suffered by slaves on a plantation. Lead singer Mick Jagger ends the tune by singing, ''How come you taste so good '... just like a black girl should.''
''We've played 'Brown Sugar' every night since 1970,'' Richards told the newspaper.
''So sometimes you think, 'We'll take that one out for now and see how it goes.' We might put it back in.''
Mick Jagger, Ronnie Wood and Keith Richards of The Rolling Stones perform during the 2021 ''No Filter'' tour opener at The Dome at Americas Center on September 26, 2021, in St Louis, Missouri. Getty ImagesThe Stones have played the song live 1,136 times, second to only ''Jumpin' Jack Flash,'' according to setlist.fm.
''At the moment I don't want to get into conflicts with all of this s''t,'' Richard said of criticism of the song. ''But I'm hoping that we'll be able to resurrect the babe in her glory somewhere along the track.''
The Stones were five shows into their ''No Filter'' tour Wednesday. The concerts marked the septuagenarians' first gigs since 2019, and the first performances without drummer Charlie Watts, who died in August at the age of 80.
Jagger is clearly not singing the song in the first person, but the danceable tune has been slammed in recent years, with some critics dubbing it ''stunningly crude and offensive.''
Other commentators have conceded it is ''gross, sexist, and stunningly offensive,'' but still rocking.
''I never would write that song now,'' Jagger told Rolling Stone in 1995. ''I would probably censor myself. I'd think, 'Oh God, I can't. I've got to stop. I can't just write raw like that.'''
Brown Sugar by Jagger/Richards
Gold coast slave ship bound for cotton fieldsSold in the market down in New OrleansScarred old slaver knows he's doing alrightHear him whip the women just around midnight
Brown sugar, how come you taste so good? Uh huhBrown sugar, just like a young girl should, uh huh, oh
Drums beating, cold English blood runs hotLady of the house wonderin' when it's gonna stopHouse boy knows that he's doing alrightYou shoulda heard 'em just around midnight
Brown sugar, how come you taste so good now?Brown sugar, just like a young girl should now (Yeah)
Ah, get on, brown sugar, how come you taste so good?Ah, got me craving the, the brown sugarJust like a black girl should, yeah
Ah, and I bet your mama was a tent show queenAnd all her boyfriends were sweet sixteenI'm no schoolboy, but I know what I likeYou shoulda heard me just around midnight
Brown sugar, how come you taste so good, baby?Ah, come down, brown sugarJust like a young girl should, yeahI said, yeah, yeah, yeah, wooHow come you, how come you taste so good?Yeah, yeah, yeah, wooJust like a, just like a black girl shouldYeah, yeah, yeah, woo
Ryanair Bans Customers Who Got Credit Card Refunds for Flights They Missed Due to COVID-19
Wed, 13 Oct 2021 15:10
Ryanair has barred passengers from flying if they received refunds from credit card companies for flights they missed during the pandemic. Reuters Ryanair said it's banned passengers who claimed refunds for flights they missed because of the pandemic. The flights were non-refundable, which the airline said was clearly stated in its terms and conditions. If customers want to fly again, they have to pay back the amount they received from the refunds, reported MoneySavingsExpert. Ryanair has banned passengers who claimed refunds from their credit card companies for flights that they missed because of COVID-19 lockdowns, the airline said Tuesday.
The crux of the dispute lies with the flights being non-refundable, which a Ryanair spokesperson said is "clearly outlined" in the airline's terms and conditions agreed by the customer at the time of booking, per The Guardian.
The airline said that these passengers "unlawfully processed chargebacks from their credit card company" and that fewer than 850 people are affected by the new measure, according to a Ryanair statement to Insider.
Banned customers who want to fly Ryanair again must first "settle their outstanding debt" before being allowed on board, said the airline.
"This regretted restriction applies to only a tiny fraction of Ryanair's 150 million passengers annually who chose to unlawfully break their booking agreements with us," the airline added.
The announcement was first reported by finance website MoneySavingsExpert, which wrote that some passengers were told they couldn't fly until they returned the costs of their refunded tickets, ranging from $545 to $857.
These passengers told the site they recently bought Ryanair tickets with no issue, but were stopped from flying when they tried to check into their flight or make a change to their bookings.
Guy Anker, MoneySavingExpert's deputy editor, wrote in the article: "This is outrageous from Ryanair. Some may have sympathy for the airline, given it incurred the costs of the original flights that went ahead that passengers chose not to take. However, it's used up any sympathy by the way it's treated holidaymakers afterwards."
Ryanair previously said it wouldn't refund passengers for flights still operating during the pandemic, but would allow them to change their flights to a later date or give them vouchers.
Last week, the UK's Competition and Markets Authority closed its investigation into British Airways and Ryanair over whether they had broken the law by not offering refunds for customers who couldn't fly because of COVID-19 restrictions.
The regulator said the law regarding ticket refunds wasn't clear when it came to such situations, and called for it to be clarified. Andrea Coscelli, the chief executive of the Competition and Markets Authority, said he believed customers who couldn't fly because of the pandemic should be given full refunds.
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Camera Buff Released After La Guardia Security Incident - AVweb
Wed, 13 Oct 2021 15:01
The man at the center of the emergency taxiway evacuation of an American Eagle flight at La Guardia on Saturday was a vintage camera buff whose in-flight preoccupation with his hobby was misinterpreted by a seatmate. The unidentified passenger spent part of the flight looking at websites and watching videos about old cameras and a woman sitting near him thought he was looking at bomb-making sites. When he pulled a camera from his carry-on and started changing the settings on it, she reported him to a flight attendant.
The flight crew declared an emergency and ordered the aircraft evacuated on a taxiway as soon as they'd cleared the runway. After he'd gone down the slide with his fellow passengers, the camera buff was tackled face first to the asphalt by two firefighters. He was arrested and taken into custody and the real story emerged to authorities. After a couple of hours of talking with local police and federal agents, he was free to go. ''The JTTF [Joint Terrorism Task Force], the FBI and the Port Authority Police Department determined that there was no criminality on the part of the passenger and he was released,'' Port Authority spokesman Tom Topousis said.
FDA authorizes first e-cigarette, cites benefit for smokers | WGN-TV
Wed, 13 Oct 2021 05:15
WASHINGTON (AP) '-- For the first time, the Food and Drug Administration on Tuesday authorized an electronic cigarette, saying the vaping device from R.J. Reynolds can help smokers cut back on conventional cigarettes.
E-cigarettes have been sold in the U.S. for more than a decade with minimal government oversight or research. Facing a court deadline, the FDA has been conducting a sweeping review of vaping products to determine which ones should be allowed to remain on the market.
The agency said in September it had rejected applications for more than a million e-cigarettes and related products, mainly due to their potential appeal to underage teens. But regulators delayed making decisions on most of the major vaping companies, including market leader Juul, which is still pending.
Tuesday's decision only applies to Vuse's Solo e-cigarette and its tobacco-flavored nicotine cartridges. The agency said data from the company showed the e-cigarette helped smokers significantly reduce their exposure to the harmful chemicals in traditional cigarettes.
While the products can now be legally sold in the U.S., the FDA stressed they are neither safe nor ''FDA approved,'' and that people who don't smoke shouldn't use them.
Launched in 2013, Vuse Solo is a rechargeable metallic device that's shaped like a traditional cigarette. The FDA said it rejected 10 other requests from the company for other flavored products. The agency is still reviewing the company's request to sell a menthol-flavored nicotine formula.
''Today's authorizations are an important step toward ensuring all new tobacco products undergo the FDA's robust, scientific premarket evaluation,'' said Mitch Zeller, director of the FDA's tobacco center, in a statement.
''The manufacturer's data demonstrates its tobacco-flavored products could benefit addicted adult smokers who switch to these products '' either completely or with a significant reduction in cigarette consumption.''
E-cigarettes first appeared in the U.S. around 2007 with the promise of providing smokers with a less harmful alternative to smoking traditional tobacco cigarettes. The devices heat a nicotine solution into a vapor that's inhaled.
But there has been little rigorous study of whether e-cigarettes truly help smokers quit. And efforts by the FDA to begin vetting vaping products and their claims were repeatedly slowed by industry lobbying and competing political interests.
In recent years, the vaping market grew to include hundreds of companies selling an array of devices and nicotine solutions in various flavors and strengths. But the vast majority of the market is controlled by a few companies including Juul Labs, which is partially owned by Altria, and Vuse.
Vuse is the No. 2 vaping brand in the U.S. behind Juul, accounting for about a third of all retail sales. Its parent company R.J. Reynolds sells Newport, Camel and other leading cigarettes.
A company spokesperson said in a statement that the FDA decision confirms ''that Vuse Solo products are appropriate for the protection of the public health, underscoring years of scientific study and research.''
The company said it is still awaiting an FDA decision on its more popular vaping device, Vuse Alto.
To stay on the market, companies must show that their products benefit public health. In practice, that means proving that adult smokers who use the products are likely to quit or reduce their smoking, while teens are unlikely to get hooked on them.
Kenneth Warner, a tobacco expert at the University of Michigan's school of public health, said the news was a positive step for reducing the harms of smoking. But he lamented that only a vaping device backed by a Big Tobacco company was able to win the FDA's endorsement.
''The demands the FDA places on companies filing these applications are so extraordinary difficult to meet that only those with huge resources and personnel '-- in terms of scientists, lawyers, researchers '-- are able to file successfully,'' said Warner.
He said smaller companies and vape shops should have a separate path to get their products authorized.
The FDA declared underage vaping an ''epidemic'' in 2018 and has taken a series of measures aimed at the small cartridge-based devices that first sparked the problem, including limiting their flavors to tobacco and menthol. Separately, Congress raised the purchase age for all tobacco and vaping products to 21.
Survey data collected earlier this year showed Vuse was the second-most popular e-cigarette brand among high schoolers who vape, preferred by 10%. Juul was the fourth-most popular e-cigarette, cited by less than 6%.
FDA said it was aware of the data on Vuse's popularity but decided to authorize its tobacco flavor ''because these products are less appealing to youth and authorizing these products may be beneficial'' for adult smokers.
The most popular brand among teens was a disposable e-cigarette called Puff Bar that comes in flavors like pink lemonade, strawberry and mango. Disposable e-cigarettes are not subject to the tight flavor restrictions of products like Juul.
Overall, the survey showed a drop of nearly 40% in the teen vaping rate as many kids were forced to learn from home during the pandemic. Still, federal officials cautioned about interpreting the results because they were collected online for the first time, instead of in classrooms.
FDA Permits Marketing of E-Cigarette Products, Marking First Authorization of Its Kind by the Agency | FDA
Wed, 13 Oct 2021 05:09
For Immediate Release: October 12, 2021Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced it has authorized the marketing of three new tobacco products, marking the first set of electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) products ever to be authorized by the FDA through the Premarket Tobacco Product Application (PMTA) pathway. The FDA issued marketing granted orders to R.J. Reynolds (RJR) Vapor Company for its Vuse Solo closed ENDS device and accompanying tobacco-flavored e-liquid pods, specifically, Vuse Solo Power Unit, Vuse Replacement Cartridge Original 4.8% G1, and Vuse Replacement Cartridge Original 4.8% G2. As the RJR Vapor Company submitted data to the FDA that demonstrated that marketing of these products is appropriate for the protection of public health, today's authorization allows these products to be legally sold in the U.S.
''Today's authorizations are an important step toward ensuring all new tobacco products undergo the FDA's robust, scientific premarket evaluation. The manufacturer's data demonstrates its tobacco-flavored products could benefit addicted adult smokers who switch to these products '' either completely or with a significant reduction in cigarette consumption '' by reducing their exposure to harmful chemicals,'' said Mitch Zeller, J.D., director of the FDA's Center for Tobacco Products. ''We must remain vigilant with this authorization and we will monitor the marketing of the products, including whether the company fails to comply with any regulatory requirements or if credible evidence emerges of significant use by individuals who did not previously use a tobacco product, including youth. We will take action as appropriate, including withdrawing the authorization.''
Under the PMTA pathway, manufacturers must demonstrate to the agency that, among other things, marketing of the new tobacco product would be appropriate for the protection of the public health. These products were found to meet this standard because, among several key considerations, the agency determined that study participants who used only the authorized products were exposed to fewer harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) from aerosols compared to users of combusted cigarettes. The toxicological assessment also found the authorized products' aerosols are significantly less toxic than combusted cigarettes based on available data comparisons and results of nonclinical studies. Additionally, the FDA considered the risks and benefits to the population as a whole, including users and non-users of tobacco products, and importantly, youth. This included review of available data on the likelihood of use of the product by young people. For these products, the FDA determined that the potential benefit to smokers who switch completely or significantly reduce their cigarette use, would outweigh the risk to youth, provided the applicant follows post-marketing requirements aimed at reducing youth exposure and access to the products.
Today, the FDA also issued 10 marketing denial orders (MDOs) for flavored ENDS products submitted under the Vuse Solo brand by RJR. Due to potential confidential commercial information issues, the FDA is not publicly disclosing the specific flavored products. These products subject to an MDO for a premarket application may not be introduced or delivered for introduction into interstate commerce. Should any of them already be on the market, they must be removed from the market or risk enforcement. Retailers should contact RJR with any questions about products in their inventory. The agency is still evaluating the company's application for menthol-flavored products under the Vuse Solo brand.
The FDA is aware that the 2021 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) found approximately 10 percent of high school students who currently used e-cigarettes named Vuse as their usual brand. The agency takes these data very seriously and considered risks to youth when reviewing these products. The evidence also indicated that, compared to users of non-tobacco flavored ENDS products, young people are less likely to start using tobacco-flavored ENDS products and then switch to higher-risk products, such as combusted cigarettes. The data also suggest that most youth and young adults who use ENDS begin with flavors such as fruit, candy or mint, and not tobacco flavors. These data reinforce the FDA's decision to authorize the tobacco-flavored products because these products are less appealing to youth and authorizing these products may be beneficial for adult combusted cigarette users who completely switch to ENDS or significantly reduce their cigarette consumption.
Additionally, today's authorization imposes strict marketing restrictions on the company, including digital advertising restrictions as well as radio and television advertising restrictions, to greatly reduce the potential for youth exposure to tobacco advertising for these products. RJR Vapor Company is also required to report regularly to the FDA with information regarding the products on the market, including, but not limited to, ongoing and completed consumer research studies, advertising, marketing plans, sales data, information on current and new users, manufacturing changes and adverse experiences.
The FDA may suspend or withdraw a marketing order issued under the PMTA pathway for a variety of reasons if the agency determines the continued marketing of a product is no longer ''appropriate for the protection of the public health,'' such as if there is a significant increase in youth initiation.
While today's action permits the tobacco products to be sold in the U.S., it does not mean these products are safe or ''FDA approved.'' All tobacco products are harmful and addictive and those who do not use tobacco products should not start.
Applications for many ENDS and other new deemed tobacco products on the market as of Aug. 8, 2016 were required to be submitted to FDA by Sept. 9, 2020. The agency has taken action on over 98% of the applications submitted by that deadline. This includes issuing MDOs for more than one million flavored ENDS products that lacked sufficient evidence that the benefit to adult smokers who used the flavor products would overcome the public health concern posed by the well-documented and considerable appeal of the products to youth. Recently, FDA posted a sample MDO decision summary. This sample does not reflect the decision rationale for each MDO action taken by the FDA.
The agency will continue to issue decisions on applications, as appropriate, and is committed to working to transition the current marketplace to one in which all ENDS products available for sale have demonstrated that marketing of the product is ''appropriate for the protection of the public health.''
The FDA, an agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, protects the public health by assuring the safety, effectiveness, and security of human and veterinary drugs, vaccines and other biological products for human use, and medical devices. The agency also is responsible for the safety and security of our nation's food supply, cosmetics, dietary supplements, products that give off electronic radiation, and for regulating tobacco products.
What is a group of lizards called?
Wed, 13 Oct 2021 04:35
The collective noun for lizards is the word you would use to describe a group of lizards.We have identified the following word(s) that you could call a group of lizards:
Used in a sentence, you could say "Look at the lounge of lizards", where "lounge" is the collective noun that means group.As you can see, you simply substitute the word "group" with one of the collective nouns on our list above when describing a group of lizards.
Amos T. Akerman - Wikipedia
Wed, 13 Oct 2021 04:11
American politician (1821''1880)
Amos Tappan Akerman (February 23, 1821 '' December 21, 1880) was an American politician who served as United States Attorney General under President Ulysses S. Grant from 1870 to 1871. A native of New Hampshire, Akerman graduated from Dartmouth College in 1842 and moved South, where he spent most of his career. He first worked as headmaster of a school in North Carolina and as a tutor in Georgia. Having become interested in law, Akerman studied and passed the bar in Georgia in 1850; where he and an associate set up a law practice. He also owned a farm and eleven slaves. When the Civil War started in 1861, Akerman joined the Confederate Army, where he achieved the rank of colonel.
After the Civil War ended in 1865, Akerman joined the Republican Party during Reconstruction. He became an outspoken attorney advocate for freedmen's civil rights in Georgia. Akerman was appointed by President Ulysses S. Grant as his U.S. Attorney General; with Grant's support, he vigorously prosecuted the Klan in the South under the Enforcement Acts. Akerman was assisted by Solicitor General Benjamin Bristow in the newly established Department of Justice. Attorney General Akerman also prosecuted important land grant cases that concerned railroads in a rapidly expanding West. Akerman advised on the United States first federal Civil Service Reform law implemented by President Grant and the U.S. Congress. Possibly due to Akerman's rulings against the Union Pacific Railroad, Grant asked for Akerman's resignation from the cabinet. Although Akerman left office at Grant's request, he continued to support Grant. He returned to Georgia, practiced law, and remained highly popular in the state.
Early years [ edit ] Akerman was born on February 23, 1821, in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, as the ninth of twelve children of Benjamin Akerman and his wife. He attended Phillips Exeter Academy prep school, and Dartmouth College, located in Hanover, where he graduated in the class of 1842 with Phi Beta Kappa honors.
Headmaster, farmer, and law practice [ edit ] Upon graduation, Akerman moved South where the climate was thought better for his lung condition. He quickly got a job as a headmaster/instructor of a boy's academy in Murfreesboro, North Carolina, at that time part of Richmond county. Akerman was known as a strict teacher. In 1846, he was hired by planter John Macpherson Berrien as a tutor for his children in Savannah, Georgia. Berrien had been President Andrew Jackson's Attorney General and was a prominent Whig. Akerman took advantage of Berrien's extensive law library and became fascinated with the field. Akerman passed the Georgia Bar in 1850, and moved to Peoria, Illinois, where his sister resided, and briefly practiced law. Akerman returned to Georgia and practiced law in Clarksville.
Akerman returned to Georgia, where he opened a law practice in Elberton, with Robert Heston. In addition to practicing law, Akerman also started a farm and owned eleven slaves. In terms of politics Akerman was a Whig.
Civil War [ edit ] Although he was against secession as a solution to the North''South conflicts, Akerman was loyal to his adopted state. At age 43, he joined the Confederate States Army in the spring of 1864. Akerman first served in General Robert Toombs' brigade and later in the quartermaster's department where it was his job to procure and dispense uniforms, weapons and other supplies to the soldiers. Akerman was put into active service against the Union during Sherman's 1864 march through Georgia.
Reconstruction [ edit ] Akerman joined the Republican Party in the campaign for freedmen's citizenship and suffrage. He was an outspoken proponent of Reconstruction as a member of Georgia's 1868 state constitutional convention and when appointed as U.S. district attorney for Georgia (1869). His appointment was blocked for some time by Congress, since he had served in the Confederate army. Akerman served for a total period of six months in this position. Akerman also strongly advocated Georgia's readmission into the Union and struggled to gain stability and federal compliance in the state.
United States Presidential election 1868 [ edit ] During the 1868 Presidential campaign, there was concern that Akerman supported presidential candidate Horatio Seymour over Grant. To stop the rumor, in a letter from Elberton, Akerman published his full endorsement for Ulysses S. Grant. He served as the Republican presidential state elector from Georgia. Akerman believed Grant would restore order and peace to the violence-plagued South. Akerman believed Grant would respect the "rights of the laborer as a freeman, citizen and voter". Akerman wrote that violence in the South against blacks was motivated by revenge after the white Southerners had been defeated by the North, lost substantial property in the emancipation of slaves, had their society disrupted, and were temporarily disenfranchised. Akerman believed that Congressional Reconstruction had been the better plan for the Southern states, opposed to President Andrew Johnson's plan. He believed that freedmen deserved federal protection from the law and he endorsed the enfranchisement of their men. Akerman admitted he was initially strongly opposed to blacks voting; however, his opinion changed as he came to believe that this was the only way that blacks could gain political power and protection.
United States Attorney Georgia 1869 [ edit ] In 1869 President Grant appointed Akerman as U.S. Attorney in Georgia. President Grant, initially, attempted to protect African American voters against white violence and discrimination by the use of State courts.
White vs. Clement [ edit ] In June 1869, Akerman argued in defense of Richard W. White, a mulatto who had won the state election for Superior Court county clerk. White's opponent, William James Clement, represented by Solicitor General Alfred B. Smith of the Eastern Georgia Circuit court, said that White was ineligible to hold office since he was a black man. A lower court had ruled that if the Clement could prove that White was a black man, he could not hold office. The case went to the Georgia's Supreme Court where Akerman defended White's election and said his color did not deny him the right to hold office. Akerman argued that the former laws, based in the South's slave society, did not apply anymore. The Reconstruction Act of 1867 stated that Georgia had no current civilian government. Akerman argued that since blacks had been granted the franchise throughout the United States, they had the right to hold public office. He argued that blacks had participated in the Georgia's new constitutional government in 1868 without distinction of color. He also noted that both President Andrew Johnson and Ulysses S. Grant had appointed black men to public office and that the current U.S. Constitution did not recognize or discriminate on the basis of a person's color. The Supreme Court reversed the lower court's decision, ruling that White had the right to hold public office regardless of his race.
United States Attorney General [ edit ] On June 17, 1870, Grant selected Akerman as United States Attorney General. Akerman was the "only person from the Confederacy to reach cabinet rank during Reconstruction". Having become attorney general shortly after the creation of the new Justice Department, Akerman dealt with legal issues from the Department of the Interior, such as the question of whether competing railroad companies deserved more land in the West in return for expanding the country's transportation system. He also dealt with the Cr(C)dit Mobilier of America scandal. He led enforcement efforts to suppress the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) in the South through litigation. He had experienced its violence first-hand. He oversaw prosecution of more than 1100 cases against KKK members, gaining convictions.
Akerman did not create the Department of Justice, but he helped play a pivotal role in its development. He helped to appoint members and set standards, but due to the geographical constraints, past laws, and financial restrictions he struggled to properly build a strong Department of Justice.
Akerman resigned on December 13, 1871,.
Ruled against Union Pacific [ edit ] On July 1, 1862, President Lincoln signed into law the Pacific Railroad Act that in addition to promoting the transcontinental railroad allowed the Union Pacific Railroad to make subsidiary railroad branch lines, including one through Kansas. One of these subsidiaries was financially unable to complete the railroad through Kansas, as a result, the Union Pacific applied for federal assistance in the form of land grants and bonds. On June 1, 1871, Attorney General Akerman denied land grants and bonds to the Union Pacific and upheld previous rulings against federal assistance. Company attorneys lobbied Akerman to change his mind, however, he refused to change his ruling. This upset Collis P. Huntington and Jay Gould, who were connected to the Union Pacific Railroad and demanded Akerman's removal from office.
Ruled on Civil Service Law [ edit ] On September 7, 1871, Att. Gen. Akerman ruled on the newly formed Civil Service Commission passed by Congress on March 3, 1871, and signed into law by President Grant on March 4. In the United States first ever Civil Service Reform legislation a commission was set up to establish rules, testing, and regulations, authorized by the President, for the best possible candidates to be appointed civil service positions. The funding for the Commission only lasted for one year until June 30, 1872. Akerman ruled that the commission, run by a chairman appointed by the President, was legal, since Congress and the President had every right in their constitutional power to put in the best candidates to serve in the United States Government. Akerman believed this was the original intent of the framers of the U.S. Constitution. Akerman, however, ruled that the Commission did not constitutionally have the power to forbid an appointment; only to aid the President and Congress to put in the best person qualified for the job. Akerman also ruled that the competitive testing need not be overly restrictive as to take away the appointment powers given to the President and Congress under the U.S. Constitution.
Prosecuted Klan [ edit ] Ku Klux Klan members were prosecuted for violent attacks by U.S. Att. Gen. Amos T. Akerman. This shows three
Mississippi Klan members arrested in September 1871.
Having lived in Georgia, Att. Gen. Akerman was well aware of the widespread violent tactics, known as "outrages" of the Ku Klux Klan, conducted primarily against African American voters, who had mostly registered as Republicans. The Freedman's Bureau in the Deep South were sent hundreds of complaints by blacks who had been persecuted and attacked by whites. One United States attorney of later years characterized this Klan activity as "the worst outbreak of domestic violence in American history to date." Upon his assumption to office, Akerman's primary duty was to stop the violence against blacks in the South and prosecute the perpetrators. His appointment by Grant in November 1870 was well timed, as he gained the strong enforcement powers of the newly created U.S. Department of Justice and the assistance of the newly created office of the U.S. Solicitor General. Having the Department of Justice and the first Solicitor General, Benjamin Bristow, Attorney General Akerman was ready to federally prosecute the Klan. Akerman, expanding the powers of the Department of Justice, started an investigating division that looked into the organization of the Klan in the South. Congress passed the Ku Klux Klan Act, and it was signed into law by President Grant on April 20, 1871.
Akerman and Bristow acted quickly and efficiently. After Grant had suspended habeas corpus in nine South Carolina counties on October 17, 1871, Akerman, who had traveled to the state, personally led U.S. Marshals and the U.S. Army into the countryside and made hundreds of arrests, while 2000 Klansmen fled the state. With the assistance of Bristow, the Department of Justice indicted 3,000 Klansmen throughout the South, and gained convictions of 600. Sixty-five of the Klansmen convicted were sentenced to federal prison for five years. As a result of the government's enforcement of the law against the Klan, its incidents of violence declined markedly. In 1872, African Americans voted in high numbers, electing numerous Republicans to state and local offices. White conservative Democrats continued to contest the elections, and there was violence related to a disputed gubernatorial election in Louisiana.[citation needed ]
Resignation controversy [ edit ] During December, while Akerman was busy prosecuting the Klan, he was unexpectedly asked to resign by President Grant. Rumor was that Grant was pressured by Secretary of Interior Columbus Delano, who sympathized with railroad tycoons Collis P. Huntington and Jay Gould, and had demanded Akerman's resignation. Akerman had ruled against the government's giving federal land grants and government bonds to the Union Pacific Railroad. Akerman denied that Delano was the reason for his departure from office.
William S. McFeely, author of a critical biography of Grant, wrote that Grant was uneasy concerning Akerman's prosecution zeal against the Klan and did not want to appear as a military dictator grinding the South into submission. According to McFeely, with Akerman's resignation "went any hope that the Republican party would develop as a national party of true racial equality". However, historian Eric Foner noted that Akerman's replacement, George H. Williams, continued to prosecute the Klan in the South. After Akerman resigned, he did not have any hard feelings towards President Grant. Akerman supported Grant's renomination in 1872 and believed that the president would continue to enforce anti-terrorist laws.
Return to Georgia and death [ edit ] Although he was offered another government job, he returned to Georgia, where he continued to practice law until his death in Cartersville, on December 21, 1880. He was interred at Oak Hill Cemetery in the city.
Family [ edit ] Days before he entered active Confederate Army service in 1864 during the Civil War, Akerman married Martha Rebecca Galloway. The couple had eight children; one child died before adulthood. Their son Alexander Akerman achieved notability.
Honors and historical recognition [ edit ] Cartersville's Oak Hill Akerman monument [ edit ] An Akerman monument was placed at Akerman's gravesite in Cartersville's Oak Hill Cemetery.
Akerman monument text [ edit ] In Thought Clear And Strong,
In Purpose Pure And Elevated,
In Moral Courage Invincible,
He Lived Loyal To His Convictions
Avouring Them With Candor,
And Supporting Them With Firmness.
A Friend Of Humanity,
In His Zeal To Serve Others,
He Shrank From No Peril To Himself,
He Was Able, Faithful, True!
These are very intriguing words left by a loving family.
Cartersville marker (2019) [ edit ] In 2019, a new historical marker recognizing Amos T. Akerman was dedicated in Cartersville, Georgia. The marker was erected by the Georgia Historical Society, in conjunction with the Waters Foundation, Inc., and the Bartow History Museum.
On March 28, 2019, the Georgia Historical Society erected a historical marker about Akerman in Cartersville at the site of his former home. The marker commemorated his career as both teacher and attorney, including his prosecution of the Ku Klux Klan during Reconstruction.
Marker text [ edit ] Amos Tappan Akerman, born in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, graduated from Dartmouth College and moved south. While Tutoring the children of U.S. Senator and former U.S. Attorney General John Macpherson Berrien in Savannah, Akerman studied law and became an attorney, first in Clarkesville and then Elberton. Akerman supported the Confederacy during the Civil War but joined the Republican Party afterwards, staunchly defending African Americans' political rights. President Ulysses S. Grant appointed Akerman federal district attorney for Georgia in 1869 and then U.S. Attorney General in 1870. Akerman began the newly created Justice Department's first investigative unit, a precursor to the F.B.I.. He aggressively prosecuted the Ku Klux Klan for political terrorism and violence against African Americans before his forced resignation in 1871. Akerman, whose home was at this location, is buried in Cartersville's Oak Hill Cemetery.
References [ edit ] ^ a b c d e f g h i j Parker (9/12/2002), Amos T. Akerman (1821''1880), viewed on 1-15-2015 ^ a b c d e Brown (1997), Amos T. Akerman 1821''1880 ^ a b c Johnson 1906, p. 66 ^ a b Richard Zuczek (2006). Encyclopedia of the Reconstruction . Greenwood Milestones in African American History. Greenwood. p. 28. ISBN 978-0313330735. ^ a b c d e f g h "Able Letter from Honorable Amos T. Akerman of Georgia". The New York Times. September 12, 1868. p. 1 . Retrieved January 15, 2015 . ^ a b Davis (June 1869), Can a Negro hold office in Georgia?, pp. 4''7. ^ a b c Davis (June 1869),Can a Negro hold office in Georgia?, pp. 103''112. ^ a b c d Davis (June 1869), Can a Negro hold office in Georgia?, pp. 65''79. ^ New York Times, June 17, 1870 ^ Jed Handelsman Shugerman. "The Creation of the Department of Justice: Professionalization Without Civil Rights or Civil Service." Stanford Law Review 66, no. 1 (2014): 121-72. ^ a b c John Y. Simon (1998). Papers of Ulysses S. Grant. Papers of Ulysses S. Grant. 22. Southern Illinois University Press. p. 188. ISBN 978-0809321988. ^ a b c Eric Foner (1988). Reconstruction: America's unfinished revolution, 1863''1877 . HarperCollins. p. 458. ISBN 978-0060158514. ^ a b c d e f g "The Civil Service; Opinion of Attorney-General Akerman on the Civil Service Commission". The New York Times. September 8, 1871. p. 5 . Retrieved January 15, 2015 . ^ a b c d e f McFeely (1981), pp. 367''373. ^ Shappert, Gretchen C. F., "Fighting Domestic Terrorism and Creating the Department of Justice: The Extraordinary Leadership of Attorney General Amos T. Akerman." DOJ Journal of Federal Law and Practice, January 2020 ^ https://www.justice.gov/usao/page/file/1243216/download/ ^ a b c d e f Smith (2001), pp. 544''547 ^ a b c d e f McFeely (1981), pp. 373''374 ^ McFeely (1981), pp. 369''370, 373. ^ McFeely (1981), p. 369. ^ a b Cooper, Scott. "AMOS T. AKERMAN '' Etowah Valley Historical Society". ^ "Amos Tappan Akerman '' United States Attorney General '' Etowah Valley Historical Society". ^ a b "Amos T. Akerman (1821-1880)". ^ Re-discovering Amos Akerman, a lost GOP hero of the 19th century South. The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. March 29, 2019. Sources [ edit ] Dept. of Justice, Biography: Amos T. Akerman, Government Printing OfficeWilliam S. McFeely, Grant: A Biography (1997) ISBN 978-0945707158William S. McFeely, "Amos T. Akerman: The Lawyer and Racial Justice", in Region, Race, and Reconstruction: Essays in Honor of C. Vann Woodward, ed. J. Morgan Kousser and James M. McPherson (1982) ISBN 978-0195030754Jean Edward Smith, Grant, 2001, New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-84927-5Trelease, Allen W. "Akerman, Amos Tappan" in American National Biography Online Feb. 2000.Trelease, Allen W. White Terror: The Ku Klux Klan Conspiracy and Southern Reconstruction (1971) ISBN 978-0061317316Attribution:
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Johnson, Rossiter, ed. (1906). "Akerman, Amos Tappan". The Biographical Dictionary of America. 1. Boston: American Biographical Society. p. 66.
Kristen Clarke - Wikipedia
Wed, 13 Oct 2021 04:09
Kristen M. Clarke (born 1975) is an American attorney who has served as the Assistant Attorney General for the Civil Rights Division at the United States Department of Justice since 2021. Clarke Previously served as president of the Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law. She also managed the Civil Rights Bureau of the New York State Attorney General's Office under Eric Schneiderman. In 2019, Clarke successfully represented Taylor Dumpson, the first Black American woman student body president of American University, in her landmark case against white supremacists.
President Joe Biden in 2021 selected Clarke as his choice to head the U.S. Department of Justice Civil Rights Division. The U.S. Senate confirmed her nomination on May 25, 2021, by a vote of 51''48. Clarke made history as the first woman to be confirmed to lead the Civil Rights Division after she was sworn in the same day.
Early life and education [ edit ] Clarke's parents immigrated to Brooklyn from Jamaica. She has said that she "grew up in a household that was about discipline, working hard in school and about making the most of every opportunity". Clarke was a member of Prep for Prep, a non-profit organization that looks to support students of color in accessing private school education.
She attended Choate Rosemary Hall, where she was the only girl to join the boy's wrestling squad. She was presented with the 2017 Choate Alumni Award at a school-wide meeting in May 2017. At the awards presentation she asked students to envision and work towards "a world with more justice, greater equity, and equal access."
Clarke earned her Bachelor of Arts degree from Harvard University, where she was involved with initiatives to support and champion African-American students, including being president of the Black Student's Association. While presiding over the BSA in 1994 she invited Tony Martin to speak.
Clarke graduated from Harvard in 1997, then earned a Juris Doctor from Columbia Law School in 2000.
Career [ edit ] After graduating she worked as a trial attorney in the United States Department of Justice Civil Rights Division. In this capacity, she served as a federal prosecutor and worked on voting rights, hate crimes and human trafficking cases.
In 2006, Clarke joined the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, where she co-led the political participation group and focused on voting rights and election law reform. In 2011, Clarke was appointed Director of the Civil Rights Bureau of then Attorney General of New York, Eric Schneiderman, where she led initiatives on criminal justice issues and housing discrimination. Under her initiative, the bureau reached agreements with retailers on racial profiling of their customers, police departments on policy reform and with school districts on the school-to-prison pipeline.
In 2015, Clarke was appointed president and Executive Director of the Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law. One of her first roles was leading Election Protection, a voter protection coalition. She became well known for her work combating the discrimination faced by marginalized communities. She is also known as one of the country's foremost lawyers and advocates on voting rights.
In 2019, Clarke represented Taylor Dumpson, the first African-American woman student body president of American University, in her lawsuit against avowed neo-Nazi Andrew Anglin, who initiated a racist "troll storm" against her making her fear for her life and disrupting her ability to pursue her education. Clarke successfully fought for the United States District Court for the District of Columbia to recognize that hateful online trolling can interfere with access to public accommodation, as well as securing damages and a restraining order.
In early 2020, Clarke said that she was "deeply concerned that African American communities are being hardest hit by the COVID-19 pandemic, and that racial bias may be impacting the access they receive to testing and healthcare." In the aftermath of the Killing of George Floyd, Clarke described the pandemic, record rates of unemployment and racial injustice caused by police brutality as a "perfect storm" for social unrest in the United States.
Clarke has appeared as a legal commentator on Here and Now, A.M. Joy, PoliticsNation with Al Sharpton, Sky News Tonight, and Democracy Now!
Voting Rights [ edit ] Kristen Clarke handled the legal argument in district court in Shelby County Alabama v. Holder. In 2020, she testified before Congress about barriers to the vote. She has advocated for passage of the John Lewis Voting Rights Advancement Act. She has participated in the annual bridge crossing in Selma, Alabama to commemorate Bloody Sunday. She sued the United States Postal Service during the pandemic because of delays with ballots. After John Lewis died, she called for honoring his life by passage of a bill to restore the Voting Rights Act. Clarke honored John Lewis in 2017 with an award named after John F. Kennedy. She appears with Stacey Abrams in the 2020 documentary All In: The Fight for Democracy. In November 2020 Lebron James thanked her for supporting the work of his organization More Than a Vote.
LGBTQ Rights [ edit ] Her work also concerns LGBTQ equality. In 2015, she opened an investigation into the Boy Scouts to look at the national group's ban on openly gay adults and alleged hiring rejections based on sexual orientation in New York. The investigation was about "ensuring equal protection under the law for all New Yorkers, including lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender individuals who live and work in New York." In July 2015 her office secured an agreement with the Boy Scouts of America to end their policy of excluding openly gay adults from serving as leaders in the organization. The terms of the agreement applied nationally. In an editorial with Chad Griffin she called for policymakers and the public to treat the recent wave of hate-motivated violence toward trans women of color as a national crisis.
Disability Rights [ edit ] She has worked to ensuring equal access for people with disabilities under the Americans with Disabilities Act. She secured agreements with bus companies, major retailers, movie theatres, theatre clubs, and polling sites.
Religious Rights Work [ edit ] Clarke secured settlements on religious rights. These agreements helped employees at NYC Health And Hospitals Corporation, the largest municipal healthcare organization in the country, by ensuring that employees' religious accommodations requests comply with state and local law and Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. She secured similar agreements with Milrose Consulting.
Immigration [ edit ] She supported a legal effort behind Cesar Vargas who became the first undocumented person to carry a law license in New York. She successfully sued the Trump administration when they tried to revoke Deferred Enforced Departure for Liberian Americans.
Hurricane Katrina [ edit ] In 2005, she co-edited Seeking Higher Ground: The Hurricane Katrina Crisis, Race, and Public Policy Reader with Manning Marable. The book examines the racial impact of the disaster and the failure of governmental, corporate and private agencies to respond to the plight of the New Orleans black community.
Online Hate Speech [ edit ] She works to fight the spread of hate online. Clarke said: "Online hate must be confronted if we are going to make meaningful progress in the fight against hate, so this is a really significant victory." This involved getting Facebook to extend its ban on hate speech to prohibit the promotion and support of white nationalism and white separatism. Her advocacy led to a temporary shutdown of Stormfront, a white supremacist website. Stormfront is known as the oldest white supremacist site. At a Congressional hearing, she noted white nationalism was about "real issues that are truly a life-and-death matter for far too many."
Hate Crimes [ edit ] Kristen Clarke sued the Proud Boys after they attacked the Metropolitan AME Church and other churches in Washington, D.C. A Black Lives Matter banner was stolen from the church and burned during a pro-Trump march on December 12, 2020. After the suit was filed, she said: "Black churches and other religious institutions have a long and ugly history of being targeted by white supremacists in racist and violent attacks meant to intimidate and create fear. Our lawsuit aims to hold those who engage in such action accountable." She leads[when? ] the James Byrd Jr. Center to Stop Hate at the Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law. Together with Spencer Freedman, she supervised the Religious Rights Unit at the New York State Attorney General's Office. She exposed a member of the Proud Boys inside the East Hampton Police Department in Connecticut. She has fought for passage of the federal Anti-Lynching Prevention Law. As a keynote speaker for Georgetown University's Center for Jewish Civilization, she said: "White nationalism should be of profound concern to all Americans because it affects all communities and tears at the fabric of our nation."
The Private Bar [ edit ] She leads a Board of over 200 lawyers that includes major law firms across the country. She also works with private lawyers who provide pro bono support for cases. Election Protection is an example.
Assistant Attorney for Civil Rights Division of the Department of Justice [ edit ] On January 7, 2021, President-elect Joe Biden chose Clarke to head the U.S. Department of Justice Civil Rights Division. Clarke said in response, "If I am fortunate enough to be confirmed, we will turn the page on hate and close the door on discrimination by enforcing our federal civil rights laws."
Clarke's nomination is supported by numerous organizations including law enforcement organizations, Jewish organizations such as the Anti-Defamation League, Justice Department alumni from Republican and Democratic administrations, Republican officials, dozens of managing partners of corporate law firms, General Counsels of Fortune 500 corporations, hate crime survivors, and others. She also has support from public figures such as Michael Bloomberg, Lilly Ledbetter and Michael Chertoff.
Four days later, Tucker Carlson and Fox News revealed a letter Clarke wrote to The Harvard Crimson as an undergraduate claiming that Blacks had "superior physical and mental abilities" due to their higher levels of melanin. Clarke claimed that the article was supposed to be a satirical statement about "fighting one ridiculous absurd racist theory with another ridiculous absurd theory." A fact-check by Newsweek quoted her article as saying it was "in response to those who defend The Bell Curve," however the fact-check concluded the article didn't state that it was not serious. Former presidents of Harvard's Black Students Association defended Clarke for considering Melanin theory worthy of inquiry.
The Jewish News Syndicate also noted Clarke's role as leader of Harvard's Black Student Association in 1994 in inviting antisemitic conspiracy theorist professor Tony Martin as a guest speaker on campus. Clarke characterized Martin as "an intelligent, well-versed black intellectual who bases his information of indisputable fact." On January 14, 2021, Clarke apologized for inviting Martin, saying, "Giving someone like him a platform, it's not something I would do again."
During his confirmation hearing, Attorney General Merrick Garland stated that Clarke's skills and experiences would help the Department of Justice combat discrimination "in areas from housing to education to employment" and "ensure accountability for law enforcement misconduct." During her confirmation hearing before the Senate Judiciary Committee, Clarke was criticized by Senators Ted Cruz and John Cornyn for her alleged writings in support of "Defunding the Police." Clarke responded by stating that she endorses attempts to increase police funding, but also wishes to see "more money for social services".
Clarke's nomination was stalled in the Senate Judiciary Committee by a vote of 11-11 after every GOP Senator on the committee voted against her nomination. On May 18, 2021, the Senate voted 50''48 to discharge her nomination from committee. She was then confirmed on May 25, 2021, by a vote of 51''48.
On June 25, 2021, it was reported that Clarke will be joining Vanita Gupta in suing the State of Georgia over the Election Integrity Act of 2021 that the state passed into law.
Awards and honors [ edit ] 2010 Columbia Law School Paul Robeson Distinguished Alumni Award2010 National Black Law Students Association Alumni of the Year2011 National Bar Association Top 40 Under 402012 National Association of Attorneys General Best Brief Award2015 New York Law Journal Rising Stars2017 Choate Rosemary Hall Alumni Award2017 Quinnipiac University School of Law Thurgood Marshall Award2018 Louis L. Redding Lifetime Achievement Award2019 The Root Most Influential AmericansSelected publications [ edit ] Marable, Manning; Clarke, Kristen (2009). Barack Obama and African American empowerment : the rise of Black America's new leadership (1st ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-10329-0. OCLC 608023888. Marable, Manning; Clarke, Kristen (2008). Seeking higher ground : the Hurricane Katrina crisis, race, and public policy reader. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-8396-1. OCLC 129952587. Clarke, Kristen (2008). "Race-Ing the Post-Katrina Political Landscape: An Analysis of the 2006 New Orleans Election". Seeking Higher Ground. New York: Palgrave Macmillan US: 33''37. doi:10.1057/9780230610095_3. ISBN 978-1-4039-7779-3. References [ edit ] ^ "Daughter of J'can immigrants nominated for senior position at US Dept of Justice". Jamaica Observer. January 9, 2021 . Retrieved May 25, 2021 . ^ Sani, Christina Sturdivant (Mar 15, 2018). "An American University". Washington City Paper . Retrieved Apr 15, 2021 . ^ a b Rubin, Jennifer (January 8, 2021). "Joe Biden's nominees will put 'Justice' back in the Justice Department". The Washington Post . Retrieved January 12, 2021 . ^ "U.S. Senate Confirms Kristen Clarke as First Black Woman to Lead Justice Department's Civil Rights Division | May 25, 2021". The Daily NewsBrief. 2021-05-25 . Retrieved 2021-05-25 . ^ Johnson, Carrie (April 14, 2021) "Kristen Clarke's Civil Rights Record Led Her To Barrier-Breaking DOJ Nomination", NPR. Retrieved May 5, 2021. ^ "Kristen Clarke sworn in as first Black woman to lead DOJ's Civil Rights Division". news.yahoo.com. May 25, 2021 . Retrieved May 25, 2021 . ^ a b c Journal, A. B. A. "10 Questions: Kristen Clarke is a leader in 21st century fight for civil rights". ABA Journal . Retrieved 2020-07-20 . ^ a b "Kristen Clarke". www.law.upenn.edu . Retrieved 20 July 2020 . She is also an active alumna of Prep for Prep. ^ "Prep for Prep | Social Justice & Social Impact". www.prepforprep.org . Retrieved 2020-07-20 . ^ a b "2017 Alumni Award Presented to Kristen Clarke '93". www.choate.edu . Retrieved 20 July 2020 . Choate taught her to be bold and courageous in other realms as well -- she was the only girl to join the boys wrestling squad, an opportunity for an intense workout and to challenge gender stereotypes. ^ "2017 Alumni Award Presented to Kristen Clarke '93". www.choate.edu . Retrieved 2021-04-15 . ^ Kristen Clarke - Alumni Award 2017 , retrieved 2021-04-15 ^ Bishai, Graham W.; Murphy, Norah M. (12 October 2017). "A Social Blueprint: Harvard's Houses, From Randomization to Renewal". The Crimson. The Quad was "vibrant," and "one of the most racially diverse sections of campus," former president of the Black Student's Association Kristen M. Clarke '97 recalls. In 1996, only 11 percent of juniors and seniors at the college were black, while 25 percent of juniors and seniors living in Quad houses were black, according to a student-produced report. Clarke describes her time in Currier House as "a core part of my social experience on campus." These distinctive communities within the Houses were an "opportunity for students who were in search of that kind of support network and system on campus at that time," says Clarke. ^ Lebwohl, Martin (6 December 1994). "The BSA President's Actions Raise Unsettling Questions". The Crimson. Last week, Wellesley Professor Tony Martin spoke at Harvard at the invitation of the Black Students Association .. after the introduction, Martin lavished praise on Kristen M. Clarke '97, the BSA president, who, he said, had courageously invited him ^ "Alumni encourage students to pursue work in public service". Harvard Gazette. 2018-01-31 . Retrieved 2020-07-20 . Keynote speaker Kristen Clarke '97 encouraged Harvard students ^ a b c "Black Law Students Association Honors Maya Wiley '89 at Annual Paul Robeson Gala". law.columbia.edu. 7 April 2014. ^ "Biography: Kristen Clarke". law.howard.edu . Retrieved 8 January 2021 . ^ a b c "Kristen Clarke". Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law . Retrieved 20 July 2020 . ^ "Kristen Clarke". Source of the Week. 2017-08-18 . Retrieved 2020-07-20 . ^ a b "Isaacson Miller Results Details". www.imsearch.com . Retrieved 2020-07-20 . ^ "Biography: Kristen Clarke | Howard University School of Law". www2.law.howard.edu . Retrieved 2020-07-20 . ^ a b Benner, Katie (14 April 2021). "Biden's Choice for Civil Rights Post Has Worked to Defend Voting Rights". The New York Times. ^ a b Augustin, Stanley (9 August 2019). "National Civil Rights Organization Wins Lawsuit Against Daily Stormer and White Supremacists Engaging in Online Threats and Harassment". Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law . Retrieved 20 July 2020 . ^ "Intercom - Civil Rights Attorney Kristen Clarke to Speak on the Rise of Hate Crimes". www.ithaca.edu . Retrieved 2020-07-20 . ^ Cooney, Elizabeth (2020-04-07). "African Americans may be bearing the brunt of Covid-19, but data limited". STAT . Retrieved 2021-01-27 . ^ " ' A Perfect Storm': Kristen Clarke on the National Protests Ripping Across the Nation". NBC New York . Retrieved 2020-07-20 . ^ "Kristen Clarke". IMDb . Retrieved 2021-01-08 . ^ "Kristen Clarke Testimony for House Select Subcommittee on Coronavirus" (PDF) . Congress.gov. September 9, 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 19, 2021. ^ Clarke, Kristen [@KristenClarkeJD] (July 18, 2020). "In March, a tireless John Lewis maneuvered through a shoulder to shoulder crowd on the bridge in Selma, Alabama and urged us all to keep fighting and keep soldiering forward. Let's heed his call and fight to end voter suppression and safeguard voting rights for all. #goodtrouble" (Tweet). Archived from the original on January 14, 2021 '' via Twitter. ^ "Lawyers". Arnold & Porter . Retrieved Apr 15, 2021 . ^ Clarke, Kristen (July 20, 2020). "Honor John Lewis with a Senate vote on the voting rights he fought for his whole life". USA Today. Archived from the original on May 19, 2021 . Retrieved May 19, 2021 . ^ Lawyers' Committee (Jun 8, 2017). "Honoring Congressman John Lewis And Getting Into #GoodTrouble". Medium . Retrieved Apr 15, 2021 . ^ "NY Attorney General Warns Boy Scouts on LGBT Hiring Discrimination". NBC New York . Retrieved 2021-04-15 . ^ "AG's Office Warns Boy Scouts of America that It Cannot Discriminate in N.Y." Non Profit News | Nonprofit Quarterly. 2015-04-23 . Retrieved 2021-04-15 . ^ "A.G. Schneiderman Announces Agreement with the Boy Scouts Of America to Allow Openly Gay Leaders | New York State Attorney General". ag.ny.gov . Retrieved 2021-04-15 . ^ Griffin, Chad; Clarke, Kristen (Feb 23, 2018). "Urgent action needed to end anti-LGBTQ violence | Opinion". The Philadelphia Inquirer . Retrieved 2021-04-15 . ^ "A.G. Schneiderman Secures Agreement With National Bus Company Ensuring Equal Access For People With Disabilities | New York State Attorney General". ag.ny.gov . Retrieved 2021-04-15 . ^ "A.G. Schneiderman Secures Agreements With Century 21, JCPenney, And Petland Discounts To Ensure Equal Access For People With Disabilities" (PDF) . June 14, 2013. ^ "AG Schneiderman Announces Agreements Requiring Three NYC Theatres To Provide Listening Devices To Individuals With Hearing Loss". LongIsland.com. May 6, 2014 . Retrieved 2021-04-17 . ^ "Schneiderman announces victories for disability rights on 23rd anniversary of Americans with Disabilities Act". Niagara Frontier Publications. Jul 26, 2013 . Retrieved 2021-04-17 . ^ "A.G. Schneiderman Announces Settlement Enhancing Religious Accommodations For Employees Of NYC Health And Hospitals Corporation | New York State Attorney General". ag.ny.gov. New York State Attorney General. July 6, 2012 . Retrieved 2021-04-17 . ^ "Settlement Protects Hhc Workers' Religious Rights '' QNS.com". qns.com. TimesLedger Newspapers. July 12, 2012 . Retrieved 2021-04-17 . ^ "A.G. Schneiderman Announces Settlement With Consulting Firm For Failing To Accommodate Religious Observance | New York State Attorney General". ag.ny.gov. New York State Attorney General. June 8, 2012 . Retrieved 2021-04-17 . ^ "In re Application of Vargas, 131 A.D.3d 4 | Casetext Search + Citator". Casetext. Jun 3, 2015 . Retrieved 2021-04-17 . ^ "Liberian Immigrants Sue President Trump". African Communities Together. 2019-03-08 . Retrieved 2021-04-17 . ^ Marable, M.; Clarke, Kristen, eds. (2008). Seeking Higher Ground: The Hurricane Katrina Crisis, Race, and Public Policy Reader. Critical Black Studies. Palgrave Macmillan US. doi:10.1057/9780230610095. ISBN 978-1-4039-8396-1. ^ "Facebook announces new policy to ban white nationalist content". BizJournals . Retrieved 2021-04-17 . ^ "Facebook extends ban on hate speech to 'white nationalists ' ". Spectrum News. Associated Press. March 27, 2019 . Retrieved 2021-04-17 . ^ "Oldest white supremacist site, stormfront.org, shut down". WKYC. August 28, 2017 . Retrieved Apr 15, 2021 . ^ "Oldest White Supremacist Site Shut Down After Complaint". Snopes. Associated Press. 28 August 2017 . Retrieved 2021-04-17 . ^ "Stormfront". Southern Poverty Law Center . Retrieved 2021-04-17 . ^ Smith, Jamil (Apr 10, 2019). "There Were Also Serious People at That Hearing on White Nationalism". Rolling Stone . Retrieved Apr 15, 2021 . ^ "Ahead of Pro-Trump Protest, Proud Boys Leader Arrested for Burning BLM Banner at Black Church". Democracy Now! . Retrieved Apr 15, 2021 . ^ Hermann, Peter (Dec 18, 2020). "Proud Boys leader says he burned Black Lives Matter banner stolen from church during demonstrations in D.C." Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286 . Retrieved 2021-04-17 . ^ "Proud Boys leader released after arrest for burning BLM flag". BBC News. Jan 5, 2021 . Retrieved Apr 15, 2021 . ^ "A.G. Schneiderman Launches New Initiative To Protect Religious Rights | New York State Attorney General". ag.ny.gov . Retrieved Apr 15, 2021 . ^ "Police officer retires after far-right group ties revealed". AP NEWS. Nov 1, 2019 . Retrieved Apr 15, 2021 . ^ "Congress makes lynching a federal crime, 65 years after Emmett Till". NBC News . Retrieved Apr 15, 2021 . ^ "Police groups endorse Biden's pick for civil rights chief". 20 April 2021. ^ Greenblatt, Jonathan (February 19, 2021). "ADL Letter of Support DOJ Monaco Gupta Clarke" (PDF) . United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 14, 2021 . Retrieved May 19, 2021 . I write on behalf of ADL (the Anti-Defamation League) to share our strong support for the confirmation of Lisa Monaco, Vanita Gupta, and Kristen Clarke to key leadership positions in the US Department of Justice (DOJ). ^ "DOJ Civil Rights Alums Back Kristen Clarke Ahead of Confirmation Battle". Birmingham Times. April 14, 2021. Archived from the original on May 8, 2021 . Retrieved May 19, 2021 . ^ "Bloomberg, former RNC chair Steele back Biden pick for civil rights division". 30 March 2021. ^ "Managing Partners Letter on Behalf of Kristen Clarke" (PDF) . United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary. April 7, 2021. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 14, 2021 . Retrieved May 19, 2021 . ^ "Over 30 General Counsels Support for Clarke" (PDF) . United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary. April 7, 2021. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 10, 2021 . Retrieved May 19, 2021 . ^ "Letter of support from individuals and families impacted by hate crimes" (PDF) . United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary. April 8, 2021. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 14, 2021 . Retrieved May 19, 2021 . ^ "Nomination Hearing". United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary. April 14, 2021. Archived from the original on May 14, 2021 . Retrieved May 19, 2021 . ^ Bloomberg, Michael (February 26, 2021). "Michael Bloomberg for Clarke" (PDF) . United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 15, 2021 . Retrieved May 19, 2021 . I am writing to express my strong support for the historic nomination of Kristen Clarke to serve as Assistant Attorney General for Civil Rights at the U.S. Department of Justice. ^ Ledbetter, Lilly (April 1, 2021). "Lilly Ledbetter: The next step in securing equal justice for women". Fortune . Retrieved May 19, 2021 . ^ Chertoff, Michael (February 5, 2021). "Michael Chertoff letter of support for Kristen Clarke" (PDF) . United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 14, 2021 . Retrieved May 19, 2021 . I am writing in support of Kristen Clarke, the President's nominee to become the Assistant Attorney General of the Civil Rights Division of the U.S. Department of Justice. ^ Rosenberg, David (January 12, 2021). "Biden nominates Black supremacist who endorsed anti-Semitic lecturer". Arutz Sheva . Retrieved January 13, 2021 . ^ The CRIMSON Staff (November 4, 1994). "Clarke Should Retract Statements". The Harvard Crimson . Retrieved January 13, 2021 . ^ Kornbluh, Jacob (January 13, 2021). "Biden's Deputy AG touts record on antisemitism amid criticism of her college activity". forward.com. ^ Marnin, Julia (14 January 2021). "Fact Check: Did Joe Biden's assistant AG pick write about Black vs. white genetics?". Newsweek . Retrieved 4 February 2021 . Despite Clarke's recent assertions that her 1994 co-authored article for The Harvard Crimson was meant to 'express an equally absurd point of view,' it is not stated in the article that her and Kennedy's claims on Black vs. white genetics were not serious at the time. ^ "Crimson Is No Friend of Black People - Opinion". The Harvard Crimson . Retrieved 2021-02-23 . Second, by listing five theories and observations that suggest that darker-skinned people may indeed benefit--other than cosmetically--from the presence of melanin, Clarke calls for a more open, comprehensive examination of race and intelligence ^ "Book Sparks Campus Debate". The Harvard Crimson. 28 October 1994 . Retrieved 4 February 2021 . ^ a b "Biden nominee for Justice Department invited anti-Semite to Harvard University". Jewish News Syndicate. January 12, 2021. ^ Kampeas, Ron (January 14, 2021). "Kristen Clarke, top Biden civil rights nominee, says she erred in inviting anti-Semitic author to speak while at Harvard". JTA. ^ Strohm, Chris (May 13, 2021). "Senate Panel Ties on Biden Pick for DOJ's Civil Rights Division". Bloomberg . Retrieved 2021-05-18 . ^ Nakamura, David. "Biden's pick for top civil rights post spars with Republicans over police funding". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286 . Retrieved 2021-05-18 . ^ "On the Motion to Discharge (Motion to Discharge the Nomination of Kristen M. Clarke to be an Assistant Attorney General from the Committee on the Judiciary)". www.senate.gov. May 18, 2021 . Retrieved May 25, 2021 . ^ "On the Nomination (Confirmation: Kristen M. Clarke, of the District of Columbia, to be an Assistant Attorney General)". www.senate.gov. May 25, 2021 . Retrieved May 25, 2021 . ^ Berman, Ari (June 25, 2021). "Justice Department Is Suing Georgia Over Voter Suppression Law". Mother Jones. ^ "National Bar Association "40 under 40 Best Advocates" sponsor brochure for 2016". Issuu . Retrieved 2020-07-20 . ^ "American Law Journal :: Kristen Clarke ~ Lawyers' Committee For Civil Rights". lawjournaltv.com . Retrieved 2020-07-20 . ^ "2015 NYLJ Rising Stars 061615". na.eventscloud.com . Retrieved 2020-07-20 . ^ "Kristen Clarke, Hamden's Marcus McCraven Receive Quinnipiac BLSA Awards". Hamden, CT Patch. 2017-02-28 . Retrieved 2020-07-20 . ^ "Louis L. Redding Gala". delawarebarristers . Retrieved 2020-07-20 . ^ "The Root 100 - The Most Influential African Americans In 2019". The Root . Retrieved 2020-07-20 . External links [ edit ] Appearances on C-SPAN
Birth certificate - Wikipedia
Wed, 13 Oct 2021 03:04
Official record of the birth of a child
A birth certificate is a vital record that documents the birth of a person. The term "birth certificate" can refer to either the original document certifying the circumstances of the birth or to a certified copy of or representation of the ensuing registration of that birth. Depending on the jurisdiction, a record of birth might or might not contain verification of the event by such as a midwife or doctor.
The United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 17, an integral part of the 2030 Agenda, has a target to increase the timely availability of data regarding age, gender, race, ethnicity, and other relevant characteristics which documents like a birth certificate has the capacity to provide.
History and contemporary times [ edit ] A Soviet birth certificate from 1972.
The documentation of births is a practice widely held throughout human civilization. The original purpose of vital statistics was for tax purposes and for the determination of available military manpower. In England, births were initially registered with churches, who maintained registers of births. This practice continued into the 19th century. The compulsory registration of births with the United Kingdom government is a practice that originated at least as far back as 1853. The entire United States did not get a standardized system until 1902.
Most countries have statutes and laws that regulate the registration of births. In all countries, it is the responsibility of the mother's physician, midwife, hospital administrator, or the parent(s) of the child to see that the birth is properly registered with the appropriate government agency.
The actual record of birth is stored with a government agency. That agency will issue certified copies or representations of the original birth record upon request, which can be used to apply for government benefits, such as passports. The certification is signed and/or sealed by the registrar or other custodian of birth records, who is commissioned by the government.
The right of every child to a name and nationality, and the responsibility of national governments to achieve this are contained in Articles 7 and 8 in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: "The child shall be registered immediately after birth and shall have the right from birth to a name, the right to acquire a nationality..." (CRC Article 7) and "States Parties undertake to respect the right of the child to preserve his or her identity, including nationality, name and family relations..." (CRC Article 8).
...it's a small paper but it actually establishes who you are and gives access to the rights and the privileges, and the obligations, of citizenship.
Despite 191 countries ratifying the Convention, the births of millions of children worldwide go unregistered. By their very nature, data concerning unregistered children are approximate. About 29% of countries don't have available or sufficient data to assess global progress towards the SDG goal of universal coverage. However, from the data that is available, UNICEF estimates that more than a quarter of children under 5 worldwide are unregistered. The lowest levels of birth registration are found in sub-Saharan Africa (43 percent). This phenomenon disproportionately impacts poor households and indigenous populations. Even in many developed countries, it contributes to difficulties in fully accessing civic rights.
Birth registration opens the door to rights to children and adults which many other human beings take for granted: to prove their age; to prove their nationality; to receive healthcare; to go to school; to take exams; to be adopted; to protection from under-age military service or conscription; to marry; to open a bank account; to hold a driving licence; to obtain a passport; to inherit money or property; and to vote or stand for elected office.
There are many reasons why births go unregistered, including social and cultural beliefs and attitudes; alternative documents and naming ceremonies; remote areas, poor infrastructure; economic barriers; lack of office staff, equipment and training; legal and political restrictions; fear of discrimination and persecution; war, conflict and unrest or simply the fact that there is no system in place.
Retrospective registration may be necessary where there is a backlog of children whose births have gone unregistered. In Senegal, the government is facilitating retrospective registration through free local court hearings and the number of unregistered children has fallen considerably as a result.In Sierra Leone, the government gave the National Office of Births and Deaths special permission to issue birth certificates to children over seven. In Bolivia, there was a successful three-year amnesty for the free registration of young people aged between 12 and 18.
Statelessness, or the lack of effective nationality, impacts the daily lives of some 11''12 million people around the world. Perhaps those who suffer most are stateless infants, children, and youth. Although born and raised in their parents' country of habitual residence, they lack formal recognition of their existence.
Australia [ edit ] States and territories of Australia are responsible for the issuance of birth certificates, through agencies generally titled "Registry of Births Deaths and Marriages" or similar.
Initially registering a birth is done by a hospital through a "Birth Registration Statement" or similar, signed by appropriately licensed and authorized health professionals, and provided to the state or territory registry. Home births are permitted, but a statement is required from a registered midwife, doctor or 2 other witnesses other than the parent(s). Unplanned births require in some states that the baby be taken to a hospital within 24 hours. Once registered, a separate application (sometimes it can be done along with the Birth Registration Statement) can be made for a birth certificate, generally at a cost. The person(s) named or the parent(s) can apply for a certificate at any time. Generally, there is no restriction on re-applying for a certificate at a later date, so it could be possible to legally hold multiple original copies.
The Federal government requires that births be also registered through a "Proof of Birth Declaration" similarly signed as above by a doctor or midwife. This ensures the appropriate benefits can be paid, and the child is enrolled for Medicare.
The state or territory issued birth certificate is a secure A4 paper document, generally listing: Full name at birth, sex at birth, parent(s) and occupation(s), older sibling(s), address(es), date and place of birth, name of the registrar, date of registration, date of issue of certificate, a registration number, with the signature of the registrar and seal of the registry printed and or embossed. Most states allow for stillbirths to be issued a birth certificate. Some states issue early pregnancy loss certificates (without legal significance if before 20 weeks). Depending on the state or territory, amendments on the certificate are allowed to correct an entry, add ascendant, recognize same-sex relationship, changing the sex of the holder is possible in all states and territories.
The full birth certificate in Australia is an officially recognized identity document generally in the highest category. The birth certificate assists in establishing citizenship. Shorter and/or commemorative birth certificates are available; however, they are not generally acceptable for identification purposes.
Birth certificates in Australia can be verified online by approved agencies through the Attorney-General's Department Document Verification Service and can be used to validate identity digitally, e.g. online.
Canada [ edit ] A specimen Ontario short-form birth certificate.
In Canada, the issuance of birth certificates is a function of the provinces and territories. In 2008, provinces and territories started rolling out new polymer certificates to new applicants.
Canadian birth certificates may be obtained from the following:
Alberta '' A registry agent authorised by the ProvinceBritish Columbia '' British Columbia Vital Statistics AgencyManitoba '' Manitoba Vital Statistics AgencyNew Brunswick '' Service New BrunswickNewfoundland and Labrador '' Service NLNorthwest Territories '' Health Services Administration OfficeNova Scotia '' Access Nova ScotiaNunavut '' Registrar-General of Vital StatisticsOntario '' ServiceOntarioPrince Edward Island '' Vital Statistics RegistryQuebec '' Director of Civil Status (Directeur de l'(C)tat civil)Saskatchewan '' eHealth SaskatchewanYukon '' Vital Statistics, Government of YukonA Quebec long-form birth certificate.
Types issued [ edit ] There are three forms of birth certificates issued:
Certified true copy/photostat '' contains all information available on the birth of a person.Long-form '' contains name, place and date of birth, parental information, date of issue, date of registration, registration number, certificate number, and authorised signature(s).Short-form '' as with long-form, except for parental information. Previously in card format.A short-form Northwest Territories certificate of birth (in card format), bearing the Inuktitut language.
Residents of Quebec born elsewhere can have their non-Quebec birth record inserted into Quebec's birth register. Quebec birth certificates issued with regard to a birth that occurred outside of Quebec are referred to as "semi-authentic" under paragraph 137 of the Civil Code of Qu(C)bec, until their full authenticity is recognised by a Quebec court. Inserting one's birth record into the Quebec register is a prerequisite for anyone born outside of Quebec to apply for a legal name and/or legal gender change in the province. Semi-authentic birth certificates are issued in the long-form only.
A DND 419 birth certificate issued by the Canada Department of National Defence.
Languages [ edit ] Depending on the province, certificates are in English, French or both languages. Birth certificates from Canadian territories are in English and French, as well as Inuktitut in Nunavut (though individual data is in the Roman alphabet only, not in Inuktitut syllabics). The Northwest Territories previously issued certificates bearing Inuktitut.
DND 419 birth certificates [ edit ] In 1963, the Department of National Defence started issuing birth certificates to dependents of Canadian Forces members born overseas. These certificates were never accorded legal status, but served as a convenient substitute for the original record of birth from the country of birth. In November 1979, production of these certificates ceased.
Today, the DND 419 is recognised as a proof of age, but not of citizenship. At least two Canadians have had Canadian passports withheld on the basis of their DND 419 birth certificates.
China [ edit ] A specimen Chinese medical certificate of birth.
The People's Republic of China issued its first medical birth certificate on 1 January 1996. Persons born prior to that date can obtain a birth certificate from a Chinese notary public by way of presenting their hukou and other supporting documents. The notary then proceeds to issue a notarial birth certificate based on the information contained in the said documentation. This notarial birth certificate is acceptable for immigration purposes.
The fifth-generation medical birth certificate was adopted nationwide on 1 January 2014. Still, China is amongst those countries with no globally comparable data, presenting challenges to researchers who wish to assess global and regional progress towards universal birth registration.
Cuba [ edit ] A Cuban birth certificate.
In Cuba, birth certificates are issued by the local civil registries.
With the passage of Extraordinary Official Gazette Number 9 of 2020, issued by the Cuban Ministry of Justice, birth certificates (as with all other vital records, excepting certificates of single status) will no longer expire after a certain amount of time.
Children born to Cuban citizens abroad may have the details of their birth transcribed in a Cuban civil registry through a Cuban overseas mission. This is known as a Birth Certificate Transcript. Because of the considerable difficulty of obtaining Cuban vital records for individuals residing outside of Cuba - even where Cuban overseas missions have been delegated to provide these services - private services such as the Massachusetts-based Cuba City Hall offer retrieval services, wherein they apply for a certificate from a Cuban civil registry on behalf of an overseas individual. These services have been called overpriced.
Czech Republic [ edit ] The Czech Republic maintains a registry of vital records, including births, of people, regardless of nationality, or birthplace. Every citizen of the Czech Republic will need to register their birth if born abroad, effectively granting a foreign born person two birth certificates. The Czech Republic will also register foreigners in some cases. The office that registers births is colloquially called 'matrika'.
Denmark [ edit ] In Denmark, the authority responsible for registering births is the Registrar of the Church of Denmark.
There are three types of Danish birth certificates:
Personattest (Certificate of Personal Data): issued to persons born in (or baptised in) Denmark.Foedsels- og Daabsattest (Birth and Baptism Certificate): issued to persons born in Denmark and baptised in the Church of Denmark.Foedsels- og Navneattest (Birth and Naming Certificate): issued to persons born in Denmark but not baptised in the Church of Denmark.France [ edit ] Civil records in France have been compulsory since the 1539 ordinance of Villers-Cotterªts, in which the King Francis I ordered the parishes to record baptisms, marriages and sepultures. Then in 1667 the parishes were asked to issue two registers in two different places in order to avoid the loss of data. Jews and Protestants were allowed to have their own records by Louis XVI in 1787. In 1792, the registers were fully secularized (birth, civil marriage and death replaced baptism, religious marriage and sepulture, plus an official kept the records instead of a priest), and the Code civil did create the compulsory birth certificate in 1804 (in its articles 34, 38, 39 et 57). This document should be completed at one's marriage since 1897, at one's divorce since 1939, at one's death since 1945 and at one's civil union since 2006. A note is added on the certificate for all these events.
Hong Kong [ edit ] In Hong Kong, the system is similar to England and Wales, wherein the government keeps a birth register book, and the birth certificate is actually a certified copy of the birth register book entry.
Currently, the Immigration Department is the official birth registrar. All parents need to register their children's birth within 42 days. Birth certificates issued between 1 July 1997 and 27 April 2008 recorded whether or not the child's Hong Kong permanent resident status was established at birth. Birth certificates issued after the latter date record which provision of the Immigration Ordinance the said status has been established under.
India [ edit ] Traditionally births were poorly recorded in India.
For official purposes, other proofs are accepted in India in lieu of the birth certificate, such as matriculation certificates. Facilities are available to produce a birth certificate from a passport.
By law since 1969, registration of births is compulsory as per provisions of Registration of Births & Deaths Act. Birth certificates are issued by the Government of India or the municipality concerned. Specific rules vary by state, region and municipality.
In Delhi, for example, births must be registered within 21 days by the hospital or institution, or by a family member if the birth has taken place at home. After registration, a birth certificate can be obtained by applying to the relevant authority. Certificates can also be issued under special provisions to adopted children, and undocumented orphans. Overseas births can also be registered.
Some municipalities, such as the Greater Chennai Corporation allow for fully digital birth certificates to be applied for, printed, and verified online.
Indonesia [ edit ] The current legislation governing the registration of births is the 2006 Act No 23 on the Administration of Civil Status (UU No. 23 Tahun 2006 tentang Administrasi Kependudukan), as amended by 2013 Act No 24 on Amendments to 2006 Act No 23.
An Indonesian consular birth certificate, issued in a jurisdiction that does not record non-citizen births.
An Indonesian birth certificate issued in 1996, using traditional authenticating signature and stamp
Births outside Indonesia [ edit ] Pursuant to Chapter 29 of the Act, Indonesian citizens born overseas must register their births with the local civil registrar using a foreign birth certificate upon returning to Indonesia, and receive a Report of Birth Abroad (Tanda Bukti Laporan Kelahiran). If born in a jurisdiction which does not register the births of non-citizens, they will instead be issued a regular Birth Certificate by the local Indonesian overseas mission.
An Indonesian birth certificate issued in 2019, using QR codes certified by Indonesian Electronic Certification Authority
Births within Indonesia [ edit ] Within Indonesia, local civil registrars are responsible for issuing birth certificates (akta kelahiran).
The following Staatsbladen (state gazettes), enacted by the Dutch colonial government, were supplanted by the Act:
1849 Staatsblad 25 for persons of European descent1917 Staatsblad 130 for persons of Chinese descent1920 Staatsblad 751 for persons of Indigenous descent1923 Staatsblad 75 for persons of Indigenous descent professing the Christian faithPrior to 1986, persons not born in any of the above groups had to be registered through court order. This changed by a 1986 decree of the Minister of Home Affairs, resulting in a jolt in the number of births being registered. In 1989, a subsequent decree was effected by the Minister, allowing those born between 1986 and 1989 to have their births registered.
There are several types of birth certificates issued to Indonesian-born individuals, per the Denpasar Civil Registry:
General Birth Certificate (Akta Kelahiran Umum)Delayed Birth Certificate (Akta Kelahiran Terlambat)Birth Certificate for a Child Born to a Single Mother (Akta Kelahiran Anak Seorang Ibu)Pursuant to the Act's domicile principle, a birth certificate is issued by the Civil Registry of the parents' home prefecture or city, as determined from their Indonesian identity card. This is not always the same place as the actual prefecture or city of birth of the child.
There is no such thing as a certified copy of the original birth registration form; all Indonesian birth certificates are abstracts in nature and list an individual's nationality, name, place and date of birth, birth order, parents' names and marital status only. Indonesian birth certificates are typically laminated like Malaysian and Singaporean ones; however, unlike Malaysia and Singapore, it is not done at the time of issuance by the civil registry. The Indonesian government recommends against lamination, as it may render the certificate unacceptable for use overseas (laminated certificates cannot be legalised).
In 2019, Indonesian local civil registrars began to issue birth certificates with QR codes in lieu of the traditional authenticating signature and stamp. Widodo, director of civil registry services for the Bengkulu Civil Registry, is quoted as saying that "this is by decree of the Minister of Home Affairs, and will help simplify things for the general public as they will no longer be required to go through the hassle of getting [birth certificates] legalised." In July 2020, Indonesia phased out birth certificates printed on security paper, and started allowing Indonesian-born people to print out their own birth certificates on regular A4 paper; these certificates have the same legal value as birth certificates printed on security paper. The move reportedly helped the central government save 450 billion rupiahs in the 2020 fiscal year.
Iran [ edit ] A shenasnameh (Ø´ÙØ§Ø"ÙØ§Ù
Ù), or birth certificate is issued by the National Organization for Civil Registration. It includes the name and surname of the infant, place and date of birth, gender, information relating to the parents including their names and residences, and the "registration documentation (witness or physician's certificate). A newer format was introduced in 2015. Those eligible to replication include newborn babies, people who are changing their names, those who have lost their original birth certificates, and those born before 2001 who have reached the age of 15 and need to change their cards to add the photograph. Those applying for a new certificate must show their old certificate.
Japan [ edit ] In Japan, the household registration document (jp: æ¸ç±, koseki) is generally used in lieu of a birth certificate.
Since a koseki also acts as proof of Japanese citizenship, only Japanese citizens can hold one. Anyone born in Japan, including children born to non-Japanese parents, can obtain a Certificate of Matters Stated In a Written Notification (jp: åºç--å±è¨è¼äºé
è¨¼ææ¸, shussei todoke kisai jiko shomeisho). A Certificate of Matters Stated In a Written Notification may be obtained from the city/ward/town office the birth was reported to, and is the equivalent of a birth certificate. This is to be distinguished from a Certificate of Acceptance of Birth Notification (jp: åºç--å±åçè¨¼æ æ¸, shussei todoke juri shomeisho), which, according to the Australian Embassy at Tokyo, only constitutes a receipt proving that a birth registration has been lodged with a city/ward/town office.
Birth records for children born to non-Japanese parents in Japan are not maintained permanently; usually only for the duration of ten years from the date of lodgement, but this varies from one city/ward/town office to another.
Malaysia [ edit ] In Malaysia, the National Registration Department (Jabatan Pendaftaran Negara) is responsible for the registration of births, and for issuing birth certificates (sijil kelahiran).
In 2011, the Department started colour-coding birth certificates. Henceforth, citizens at birth would receive a pale-green birth certificate, while those who do not acquire Malaysian citizenship at birth would be given a red birth certificate. Then-director Datin Jariah Mohd Said was reported as saying that "it [would] address the wrong impression among foreign parents that their children automatically become Malaysians by virtue of them having the pale green certificate."
Malaysian birth certificates are laminated at the time of issuance, forming an exception to most countries' need for an unlaminated document (e.g. the United Kingdom when applying for a passport).
Morocco [ edit ] In Morocco, there are 3 birth documents: the "Extrait d'acte de naissance" (proof of Moroccan citizenship), a "Fiche individuelle de naissance" and an "Acte de naissance". All of them are valid for 3 months. In 2017, the government opened requests for birth certificates online.
New Zealand [ edit ] The Department of Internal Affairs is responsible for issuing birth certificates in New Zealand. Certain historical records including historical birth certificates are available online in a searchable format on the Birth, Death and Marriage Historical Records website. The available records are for births recorded at least one hundred years ago.
Citizenship information is recorded on New Zealand birth certificates for births after 1 January 2006, as this was when the country formally ended its practice of jus soli.
A New Zealand birth certificate without citizenship information, issued before 2006.
Nigeria [ edit ] The birth certificate in Nigeria is a document that entails the date of birth, location (Town, L.G.A and state) and details of the parents. It is issued by the National Population Commission for every child and is usually issued at the hospital where the child is born and it is compulsory for everyone.The National Population Commission (NPC) formed in 1992, is the only body responsible for registering every newborn and issuing certificates in the country.
A person who didn't get a birth certificate at birth can later apply as long as they are below 18. However, only people between age 18 and below are issued a birth certificate. People above age 18 are issued 'Age Declaration Affidavit'. Although now in Nigeria, you will have to provide an attestation letter issued by the NPC as the 'Age Declaration Affidavit' is not a sufficient document as it used to be years ago.
An attestation letter is a written document given as backup for the 'Age Declaration Affidavit'.
However in terms of legal value and effect, the attestation of a birth certificate is equal to a birth certificate. The NPC Act states that only people born after 1992 are eligible to apply for birth certificate since that was when the NPC was formed. Also only birth certificate issued at birth or 60 days after birth is free any scenario after birth would require you to pay.
Philippines [ edit ] A birth certificate in the Philippines is a document being issued by the Philippine Statistics Authority and has lifetime validity. In almost all cases, this document is required by other government agencies as a primary requirement for getting service or benefits.
Russia [ edit ] A Russian birth certificate.
Russian birth certificates were previously issued in a booklet format, similar to that of internal passports; today, they are issued on numbered and watermarked A4 security paper. They are typically issued in the Russian language only; however, if a birth is recorded in one of the Russian republics with federal subject status, the resulting birth certificate may be bilingual (Russian and the official language of the said republic).
Filling a birth certificate [ edit ] A Russian birth certificate may either be filled out in type or print. It is then signed and sealed by a qualified officer of the public authority issuing the certificate (a local civil registry or Russian overseas mission). By default, information on the parents' ethnic origins is no longer recorded '' however, it may be recorded upon request.
Obtaining a birth certificate [ edit ] A Russian birth certificate may be applied for by the person named on the certificate if they are of full age, their parents if still vested with parental rights, their guardian(s) and/or caregiver(s). If the certificate is lost, the public authority that issued the original document issues a replacement on application.
Singapore [ edit ] In Singapore, the Immigration and Checkpoints Authority is the registrar of births. All births in the country must be registered at a gazetted birth registration centre by the parents or by authorised proxy. A Certificate of Registration of Birth is received after the registration of birth; a Certificate of Extract from Register of Births is issued for all subsequent requests for birth certificates.
The ICA annotates birth certificates with citizenship information; a child born without a claim to Singapore citizenship will have a remark on their birth certificate stating "this child is not a citizen of Singapore at the time of birth". Conversely, a child born with a claim to Singapore citizenship will have "this child is a citizen of Singapore at the time of birth" on theirs.
Singaporean birth certificates are laminated at the time of issuance, forming an exception to most foreign countries' need for an unlaminated document (e.g. the United Kingdom when applying for a passport). This practice began on the 1st January 1967.
A 1967 Singapore certificate of registration of birth, without indication as to citizenship status.
A 1979 Singapore certificate of registration of birth, indicating the child was a citizen of Singapore at birth.
An undated Singapore certificate of registration of birth, indicating the child was not a citizen of Singapore at birth.
A 2015 Singapore certificate of registration of birth, issued to mark Singapore's 50th anniversary.'
A sample Singapore certificate of extract from register of births.
Somalia [ edit ] In Somalia, many births go unregistered - owing to the mainly nomadic nature of the populace.
Prior to 1991, the Siad Barre government issued birth certificates (Somali: shahaadada dhalashada or warqadda dhalashada) for events occurring in urban areas. Subsequent to the collapse of said government, Somalia ceased to have a functioning birth registration system. As of January 2014, it has been reported by the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs that Somalia has once again started issuing birth certificates, primarily for Somali citizens to be able to obtain the new Somali passport. In Mogadishu, this function is fulfilled by the Mayor of Mogadishu.
Somali autonomous regions, such as Jubaland, Puntland, and Somaliland, have separate, functioning birth registration systems for those born within their respective jurisdictions. In Somaliland, birth certificates are routinely issued only to babies born at a hospital. Home births are registered by way of affidavit with the Somaliland Ministry of Religious Affairs at Hargeisa.
Sweden [ edit ] Sweden no longer issues birth certificates. Instead, the Swedish Tax Agency will issue a Personbevis (Extract from the Population Register) for individuals born in Sweden. This takes the place of both birth and marriage certificates for international purposes. The Extract contains, inter alia, place and date of birth, parental information, marriage status, and current registered address.
Syria [ edit ] In Syria, the father is primarily responsible for registering the birth of a child. Due to the ongoing civil war, many births have gone unregistered.
United Kingdom [ edit ] England and Wales [ edit ] In England and Wales, the description "birth certificate" is used to describe a certified copy of an entry in the birth register.
Civil registration of births, marriages and deaths in England and Wales started on 1 July 1837. Registration was not compulsory until 1875, following the Registration of Births and Deaths Act 1874, which made registration of a birth the responsibility of those present at the birth. When a birth is registered, the details are entered into the register book at the local register office for the district in which the birth tookplace and is retained permanently in the local register office. A copy of each entry in the birth register is sent to the General Register Office (GRO).
Pre-1837 birth and baptism records [ edit ] Before the government's registration system was created, evidence of births and/or baptisms (and also marriages and death or burials) was dependent on the events being recorded in the records of the Church of England or in those of other various churches '' not all of which maintained such records or all types of those records. Copies of such records are not issued by the General Register Office; but can be obtained from these churches, or from the local or national archive, which usually now keeps the records in original or copy form.
Types of certified copies issued in England and Wales [ edit ] Long-form certificates are copies of the original entry in the birth register, giving all the recorded details. Information includes; name, sex, date, and place of birth of the child, father's name, place of birth and occupation, mother's name, place of birth, maiden name, and occupation. Certificates for births registered before 1 April 1969 do not show the parents' places of birth, and those before 1984 do not show mother's occupation.
Short-form certificates show the child's full name, sex, date, and place of birth. They do not give any detail(s) of the parent(s); they therefore do not prove parentage. Both versions of a certificate can be used in the verification of identity by acting as a support to other information or documentationprovided. Where proof of parentage is required, only a full certificate will be accepted.
The original registrations are required by law to be issued in the form of certified copies to any person who identifies an index entry and pays the prescribed fee. They can be ordered by registered users from the General Register Office Certificate Ordering Service or by postal or telephone ordering from the General Register Office or by post or in person from local registrars. If the birth was registered within the past 50 years, detailed information is required before a certificate will be issued. The General Register Office draws on several registers for the issuance of birth certificates: the Register of Live Births, the Register of Stillbirths, the Abandoned Children Register, the Adopted Children Register, the Parental Order Register, and the Gender Recognition Register (for holders of Gender Recognition Certificates).
The General Register Office also issues birth certificates relating to births on UK-registered aircraft, vessels, and births of Her Majesty's Armed Forces dependents. This authority is delegated to the Office by the Registry of Shipping and Seamen, part of the Maritime and Coastguard Agency, for births aboard UK-flagged ships; and by the Civil Aviation Authority for births aboard UK-flagged aircraft.
A long-form birth certificate.
A short-form birth certificate.
A long-form adoptive birth certificate.
An Armed Forces birth certificate.
An airborne birth certificate.
A marine birth certificate.
Rest of the British Isles [ edit ] In the rest of the British Isles, there are several different birth registration authorities:
In Scotland, the National Records of Scotland.In Northern Ireland, the General Register Office Northern Ireland (GRONI).In Guernsey, the Greffe of the Royal Court of Guernsey.In Jersey, the Office of the Superintendent Registrar.In the Isle of Man, the Civil Registry. The registration of births became mandated in 1878 on the Isle.A Scottish birth certificate.
A Northern Irish birth certificate.
A Guernsey birth certificate.
A Jersey birth certificate.
An Isle of Man birth certificate.
Other cases [ edit ] Consular birth registration is available for those who establish entitlement to British nationality at birth overseas. This is especially helpful when the jurisdiction in question does not allow multiple citizenship or the registration of an illegitimate child's birth. Prior to 1983, such registrations were accepted as proof of British nationality alone. Pursuant to a Reform Order by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, new consular birth registrations issued for children born after 1 January 1983, and certificates for people born before that date re-issued starting 1 January 2014, are no longer accepted as stand-alone proof of British nationality.
In addition, certificates of birth issued under the Registration of Births, Deaths and Marriages (Special Provisions) Act 1957 (registered on HM Forces bases overseas), are also not recognised as proof of nationality status alone. Such births would also have to be registered in the local authority where the birth took place, and the parents would have to apply for a foreign certificate as proof of citizenship.
British Overseas Territories have their own independent regimes for issuance of a birth certificate. Additionally, as a result of Argentina's claim over the Falkland Islands, Falklander-born people may also apply for an Argentine birth certificate.
A consular birth certificate.
United States [ edit ] A California long-form certified copy of a certificate of live birth. This particular copy is for informational purposes only.
In the U.S., the issuance of birth certificates is a function of the vital statistics agency or equivalent of the state, capital district, territory or former territory of birth. Birth in the U.S. typically confers citizenship by birth (non-citizen nationality in American Samoa), so a U.S. birth certificate doubly serves as evidence of United States citizenship or non-citizen nationality. U.S. birth certificates are therefore commonly provided to the federal government to obtain a U.S. passport.
The U.S. State Department issues a Consular Report of Birth Abroad (which does not technically certify birth but often substitutes for a birth certificate) for children born to U.S. citizens or non-citizen nationals (who are also eligible for citizenship or non-citizen nationality), including births on military bases in foreign territory.
The federal and state governments have traditionally cooperated to some extent to improve vital statistics. From 1900 to 1946 the U.S. Census Bureau designed standard birth certificates, collected vital statistics on a national basis, and generally sought to improve the accuracy of vital statistics. In 1946 that responsibility was passed to the U.S. Public Health Service. Unlike the British system of recording all births in "registers", the states file an individual document for each and every birth.
The U.S. National Center for Health Statistics creates standard forms that are recommended for use by the individual states to document births. However, states are free to create their own forms. As a result, neither the appearance nor the information content of birth certificate forms is uniform across states. These forms are completed by the attendant at birth or a hospital administrator, which are then forwarded to a local or state registrar, who stores the record and issues certified copies upon request.
Birth certificates for individuals born in or adopted to the United States [ edit ] A Colorado long-form certified abstract of birth.
According to the Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Inspector General, as of 2000[update] there were more than 6,000 entities issuing birth certificates. The Inspector General report stated that according to the staff at the Immigration and Naturalization Service's Forensics Document Laboratory the number of legitimate birth certificate versions in use exceeded 14,000.
Short-form birth certificates and acceptance thereof [ edit ] In the case of applying for a U.S. passport, not all legitimate government-issued birth certificates are acceptable:
A Florida short-form birth registration card.
A certified birth certificate has a registrar's raised, embossed, impressed or multicolored seal, registrar's signature, and the date the certificate was filed with the registrar's office, which must be within 1 year of your birth. Please note, some short (abstract) versions of birth certificates may not be acceptable for passport purposes.
Beginning April 1, 2011, all birth certificates must also include the full name of the applicant's parent(s).
The U.S. State Department has paid close attention to abstract certificates from both Texas and California. There have been reports of a high incidence of midwife registration fraud along the border region between Texas and Mexico, and the Texas abstract certificate form does not list the name or occupation of the attendant. The California Abstract of Birth did not include an embossed seal, was no longer considered a secure document, and have not been issued in California since 2001.
Souvenir birth certificates [ edit ] Most hospitals in the U.S. issue a souvenir birth certificate which may include the footprints of the newborn. However, these birth certificates are not legally accepted as proof of age or citizenship, and are frequently rejected by the Bureau of Consular Affairs during passport applications. Many Americans believe the souvenir records to be their official birth certificates when, in reality, they hold little legal value.
An Arizona certificate of foreign birth for a person born in Mexico, stating that '[it] is not evidence of U.S. citizenship'.
Birth certificates after adoption [ edit ] When an adoption is finalized in the U.S., most states and the District of Columbia seal the original birth certificate. In its place, a replacement or amended birth certificate is issued, with the adoptee's new name and adoptive parents listed "as if" the adoptee was born to the adoptive parents. Adopted persons in ten states have an unrestricted right to obtain a copy of the original birth certificate when they are adults: Alabama, Alaska, Colorado, Hawaii, Kansas, Maine, New Hampshire, New York, Oregon, and Rhode Island. The remaining states and the District of Columbia either require a court order to release a copy of the original birth certificate or have other restrictions, such as permission of biological parent(s) or redaction of information upon request of a biological parent.
For foreign-born intercountry adoptees, U.S. jurisdictions may issue a Certificate of Foreign Birth that serves as documentary evidence of the child's birth and the child's legal relationship to the adoptive United States parents. These certificates, however, do not serve as evidence of U.S. citizenship and must be supplemented by another document to prove citizenship, such as a Certificate of Citizenship, a United States passport or a Certificate of Naturalization.
Consular reports of birth for individuals born overseas [ edit ] Prior to 1990, the Vital Records Section of the Department's Passport Services office was responsible for certifying American births overseas, and issued form FS-545, formally known as a Certification of Birth Abroad of a Citizen of the United States of America. In 1990, the Department changed its policy to make clear that a report issued by them is only supplementary to, and does not substitute for a locally-issued birth certificate; the report, however, does serve as prima facie documentary evidence of the acquisition of United States citizenship or non-citizen nationality at birth. The Department contends that the issuance of birth certificates is a function that is expressly reserved to local vital statistics authorities and may not be assumed by a consular officer.
Notwithstanding the Department's position, however, a consular report of birth is often the only government-issued record of birth for certain individuals. For example, those born on a U.S. Armed Forces base in Germany do not have their births registered with the local German registrar, but only with the Department of State. Because they cannot receive a German birth certificate, their CRBA is their de facto birth certificate. Between 1990 and December 2010, the Department issued form DS-1350, formally known as a Certification of Report of Birth of a United States Citizen; and form FS-240, formally known as the Consular Report of Birth Abroad of a Citizen of the United States of America. Since January 2011, the Department of State has issued only form FS-240.
A State Department certification of birth abroad, issued prior to 1990.
A State Department certification of report of birth, issued between 1990 and 2010.
A State Department consular report of birth abroad, issued beginning 2011.
See also [ edit ] Birth registration in ancient RomeBirth registration campaign in LiberiaClosed adoptionDeath certificateIdentity cardUse of birth cerificates in smart contractsMarriage certificateMarriage licensePassportVital recordReferences [ edit ] ^ "Goal 17 | Department of Economic and Social Affairs". sdgs.un.org . Retrieved 26 September 2020 . ^ a b Vital Records Registration Handbook Archived 11 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine (Jacksonville, FL: Florida Office of Vital Statistics, 2007) 7. ^ "About Us" Archived 1 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine (UK General Registry Office). Retrieved August 2009, . ^ Brumberg, H.L.; Dozor, D.; Golombek, S.G. (June 2012). "History of the birth certificate: from inception to the future of electronic data". Journal of Perinatology. 32 (6): 407''411. doi:10.1038/jp.2012.3 . 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Pedagogy - Wikipedia
Wed, 13 Oct 2021 01:52
Theory and practice of education
Woman teaching geometry (Detail of a XIV-century illuminated manuscript, at the beginning of
Elementa, in the translation attributed to
Adelard of Bath).
Pedagogy (), most commonly understood as the approach to teaching, is the theory and practice of learning, and how this process influences, and is influenced by, the social, political and psychological development of learners. Pedagogy, taken as an academic discipline, is the study of how knowledge and skills are imparted in an educational context, and it considers the interactions that take place during learning. Both the theory and practice of pedagogy vary greatly, as they reflect different social, political, and cultural contexts.
Pedagogy is often described as the act of teaching. The pedagogy adopted by teachers shapes their actions, judgments, and other teaching strategies by taking into consideration theories of learning, understandings of students and their needs, and the backgrounds and interests of individual students. Its aims may range from furthering liberal education (the general development of human potential) to the narrower specifics of vocational education (the imparting and acquisition of specific skills). Conventional western pedagogies view the teacher as knowledge holder and student as the recipient of knowledge (described by Paulo Freire as "banking methods"), but theories of pedagogy increasingly identify the student as an agent and the teacher as a facilitator.
Instructive strategies are governed by the pupil's background knowledge and experience, situation, and environment, as well as learning goals set by the student and teacher. One example would be the Socratic method.
Etymology and pronunciation [ edit ] The word pedagogy is a derivative of the Greek ÏÎ±Î¹Î´Î±Î"ÏÎ"Î¯Î± (paidagÅgia), from ÏÎ±Î¹Î´Î±Î"ÏÎ"ÏÏ (paidagÅgos), itself a synthesis of á¼Î"Ï (gÅ), "I lead", and ÏÎ±áÏ (pas, genitive ÏÎ±Î¹Î´ÏÏ , paidos) "boy, child": hence, "attendance on boys, to lead a child". It is pronounced variously, as , , or . The related word pedagogue has had a negative connotation of pedantry, dating from at least the 1650s; a related expression is educational theorist.
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( October 2018 ) Western [ edit ] In the Western world, pedagogy is associated with the Greek tradition of philosophical dialogue, particularly the Socratic method of inquiry. A more general account of its development holds that it emerged from the active concept of humanity as distinct from a fatalistic one and that history and human destiny are results of human actions. This idea germinated in ancient Greece and was further developed during the Renaissance, the Reformation, and the age of Enlightenment.
Socrates [ edit ] Socrates (470 '' 399 BCE) employed the Socratic method while engaging with a student or peer. This style does not impart knowledge, but rather tries to strengthen the logic of the student by revealing the conclusions of the statement of the student as erroneous or supported. The instructor in this learning environment recognizes the learners' need to think for themselves to facilitate their ability to think about problems and issues. It was first described by Plato in the Socratic Dialogues.
Plato [ edit ] Plato (428/427 or 424/423 '' 348/347 BCE) describes a system of education in The Republic (375 BCE) in which individual and family rights are sacrificed to the State. He describes three castes: one to learn a trade; one to learn literary and aesthetic ideas; and one to be trained in literary, aesthetic, scientific, and philosophical ideas. Plato saw education as a fulfillment of the soul, and by fulfilling the soul the body subsequently benefited. Plato viewed physical education for all as a necessity to a stable society.
Aristotle [ edit ] Aristotle (384''322 BCE) composed a treatise, On Education, which was subsequently lost. However, he renounced Plato's view in subsequent works, advocating for a common education mandated to all citizens by the State. A small minority of people residing within Greek city-states at this time were considered citizens, and thus Aristotle still limited education to a minority within Greece. Aristotle advocates physical education should precede intellectual studies.
Quintilian [ edit ] Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (35 '' 100 CE) published his pedagogy in Institutio Oratoria (95 CE). He describes education as a gradual affair, and places certain responsibilities on the teacher. He advocates for rhetorical, grammatical, scientific, and philosophical education.
Tertullian [ edit ] Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus (155 - 240 CE) was a Christian scholar who rejected all pagan education, insisting this was "a road to the false and arrogant wisdom of ancient philosophers".
Jerome [ edit ] Saint Jerome (347 - 30 September 420 CE), or Saint Hieronymus, was a Christian scholar who detailed his pedagogy of girls in numerous letters throughout his life. He did not believe the body in need of training, and thus advocated for fasting and mortification to subdue the body. He only recommends the Bible as reading material, with limited exposure, and cautions against musical instruments. He advocates against letting girls interact with society, and of having "affections for one of her companions than for others." He does recommend teaching the alphabet by ivory blocks instead of memorization so "She will thus learn by playing." He is an advocate of positive reinforcement, stating "Do not chide her for the difficulty she may have in learning. On the contrary, encourage her by commendation..."
Jean Gerson [ edit ] Jean Charlier de Gerson (13 December 1363 '' 12 July 1429), the Chancellor of the University of Paris, wrote in De parvulis ad Christum trahendis "Little children are more easily managed by caresses than fear," supporting a more gentle approach than his Christian predecessors. He also states "Above all else, let the teacher make an effort to be a father to his pupils." He is considered a precursor of Fenelon.
John Amos Comenius [ edit ] John Amos Comenius (28 March 1592 '' 15 November 1670) is considered the father of modern education.
Johann Pestalozzi [ edit ] Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (January 12, 1746 '' February 17, 1827), founder of several educational institutions both in German- and French-speaking regions of Switzerland and wrote many works explaining his revolutionary modern principles of education. His motto was "Learning by head, hand and heart".
Johann Herbart [ edit ] The educational philosophy and pedagogy of Johann Friedrich Herbart (4 May 1776 - 14 August 1841) highlighted the correlation between personal development and the resulting benefits to society. In other words, Herbart proposed that humans become fulfilled once they establish themselves as productive citizens. Herbartianism refers to the movement underpinned by Herbart's theoretical perspectives. Referring to the teaching process, Herbart suggested five steps as crucial components. Specifically, these five steps include: preparation, presentation, association, generalization, and application. Herbart suggests that pedagogy relates to having assumptions as an educator and a specific set of abilities with a deliberate end goal in mind.
John Dewey [ edit ] The pedagogy of John Dewey (20 October 1859 '' 1 June 1952) is presented in several works, including My Pedagogic Creed (1897), The School and Society (1900), The Child and the Curriculum (1902), Democracy and Education (1916), Schools of To-morrow (1915) with Evelyn Dewey, and Experience and Education (1938). In his eyes, the purpose of education should not revolve around the acquisition of a pre-determined set of skills, but rather the realization of one's full potential and the ability to use those skills for the greater good (My Pedagogic Creed, Dewey, 1897). Dewey advocated for an educational structure that strikes a balance between delivering knowledge while also taking into account the interests and experiences of the student (The Child and the Curriculum, Dewey, 1902). Dewey not only re-imagined the way that the learning process should take place but also the role that the teacher should play within that process. He envisioned a divergence from the mastery of a pre-selected set of skills to the cultivation of autonomy and critical-thinking within the teacher and student alike.
Paulo Freire [ edit ] Paulo Reglus Neves Freire (September 19, 1921 '' May 2, 1997) was a Brazilian educator and philosopher who was a leading advocate of critical pedagogy. He is best known for his influential work Pedagogy of the Oppressed, which is generally considered one of the foundational texts of the critical pedagogy movement.
Eastern [ edit ] Confucius [ edit ] Confucius (551''479 BCE) stated that authority has the responsibility to provide oral and written instruction to the people under the rule, and "should do them good in every possible way." One of the deepest teachings of Confucius may have been the superiority of personal exemplification over explicit rules of behavior. His moral teachings emphasized self-cultivation, emulation of moral exemplars, and the attainment of skilled judgment rather than knowledge of rules. Other relevant practices in the Confucian teaching tradition include the Rite and its notion of body-knowledge as well as Confucian understanding of the self, one that has a broader conceptualization than the Western individual self.
[ edit ] A study on the central organ of the National Socialist Teachers' Union (NSLB) has been published at the Research Center for National Socialist Education at the University of Frankfurt am Main. Over 90 percent of the teachers were organized in it. The NSLB was not a harmless professional organization, but an integral part of the Nazi system, which accompanied the murder program with racism, hostility to Jews and agitation against the persecuted. The vast majority of teachers did not join the organization by force, but voluntarily and gladly. Nevertheless there are some teachers like the Austrian priest Heinrich Maier who founded a resistance group and actively took action against the Nazi system. The group passed very important military information to the Allies, was discovered by the Gestapo and most of its members were executed. The denominational area was particularly affected by National Socialism, because denominational schools were closed and religious events in the school area were generally banned. Knowledge transfer was followed by political and physical training, which ranged from sport to paramilitary training.
Pedagogical considerations [ edit ] Hidden curriculum [ edit ] A hidden curriculum is a side effect of an education, "[lessons] which are learned but not openly intended" such as the transmission of norms, values, and beliefs conveyed in the classroom and the social environment.
Learning space [ edit ] Learning space or learning setting refers to a physical setting for a learning environment, a place in which teaching and learning occur. The term is commonly used as a more definitive alternative to "classroom," but it may also refer to an indoor or outdoor location, either actual or virtual. Learning spaces are highly diverse in use, learning styles, configuration, location, and educational institution. They support a variety of pedagogies, including quiet study, passive or active learning, kinesthetic or physical learning, vocational learning, experiential learning, and others.
Learning theories [ edit ] Learning theories are conceptual frameworks describing how knowledge is absorbed, processed, and retained during learning. Cognitive, emotional, and environmental influences, as well as prior experience, all play a part in how understanding, or a world view, is acquired or changed and knowledge and skills retained.
Distance learning [ edit ] Distance education or long-distance learning is the education of students who may not always be physically present at a school. Traditionally, this usually involved correspondence courses wherein the student corresponded with the school via post. Today it involves online education. Courses that are conducted (51 percent or more) are either hybrid, blended or 100% distance learning. Massive open online courses (MOOCs), offering large-scale interactive participation and open access through the World Wide Web or other network technologies, are recent developments in distance education. A number of other terms (distributed learning, e-learning, online learning, etc.) are used roughly synonymously with distance education.
Teaching resource adaptation [ edit ] Adapting the teaching resource should suit appropriate teaching and learning environments, national and local cultural norms, and make it accessible to different types of learners. Key adaptations in teaching resource include:
Large class size '' consider smaller groups or have discussions in pairs;Time available '' shorten or lengthen the duration of activities;Modifying materials needed '' find, make or substitute required materials;Space requirements '' reorganize classroom, use a larger space, move indoors or outdoors.Cultural familiarity
Change references to names, food and items to make them more familiar;Substitute local texts or art (folklore, stories, songs, games, artwork and proverbs).Local relevance
Use the names and processes for local institutions such as courts;Be sensitive of local behavior norms (e.g. for genders and ages);Ensure content is sensitive to the degree of rule of law in society (trust in authorities and institutions).Inclusivity for diverse students
Appropriate reading level(s) of texts for student use;Activities for different learning styles;Accommodation for students with special educational needs;Sensitivity to cultural, ethnic and linguistic diversity;Sensitivity to students' socioeconomic status.Pedagogical approaches [ edit ] Critical pedagogy [ edit ] Critical pedagogy is both a pedagogical approach and a broader social movement. Critical pedagogy asserts that educational practices are contested and shaped by history, that schools are not politically neutral spaces, and that teaching is political. Decisions regarding the curriculum, disciplinary practices, student testing, textbook selection, the language used by the teacher, and more can empower or disempower students. It recognizes that educational practices favor some students over others and some practices harm all students. It also recognizes that educational practices often favor some voices and perspectives while marginalizing or ignoring others. Another aspect examined is the power the teacher holds over students and the implications of this. Its aims include empowering students to become active and engaged citizens, who are able to actively improve their own lives and their communities.
Critical pedagogical practices may include, listening to and including students' knowledge and perspectives in class, making connections between school and the broader community, and posing problems to students that encourage them to question assumed knowledge and understandings. The goal of problem posing to students is to enable them to begin to pose their own problems. Teachers acknowledge their position of authority and exhibit this authority through their actions that support students.
Dialogic learning [ edit ] Dialogic learning is learning that takes place through dialogue. It is typically the result of egalitarian dialogue; in other words, the consequence of a dialogue in which different people provide arguments based on validity claims and not on power claims.
Student-centered learning [ edit ] Student-centered learning, also known as learner-centered education, broadly encompasses methods of teaching that shift the focus of instruction from the teacher to the student. In original usage, student-centered learning aims to develop learner autonomy and independence by putting responsibility for the learning path in the hands of students. Student-centered instruction focuses on skills and practices that enable lifelong learning and independent problem-solving.
Academic degrees [ edit ] The academic degree Ped. D., Doctor of Pedagogy, is awarded honorarily by some US universities to distinguished teachers (in the US and UK, earned degrees within the instructive field are classified as an Ed. D., Doctor of Education, or a Ph.D., Doctor of Philosophy). The term is also used to denote an emphasis in education as a specialty in a field (for instance, a Doctor of Music degree in piano pedagogy).
Pedagogues across the world [ edit ] The education of pedagogues, and their role in society, varies greatly from culture to culture.
Brazil [ edit ] In Brazil, a pedagogue is a multidisciplinary educator. Undergraduate education in Pedagogy qualifies students to become school administrators or coordinators at all educational levels, and also to become multidisciplinary teachers, such as pre-school, elementary and special teachers.
Denmark [ edit ] Germany: A kindergarten teacher facilitates play for a group of children (1960)
In Scandinavia, a pedagogue (p...dagog) is broadly speaking a practitioner of pedagogy, but the term is primarily reserved for individuals who occupy jobs in pre-school education (such as kindergartens and nurseries). A pedagogue can occupy various kinds of jobs, within this restrictive definition, e.g. in retirement homes, prisons, orphanages, and human resource management. When working with at-risk families or youths they are referred to as social pedagogues (socialp...dagog).
The pedagogue's job is usually distinguished from a teacher's by primarily focusing on teaching children life-preparing knowledge such as social or non-curriculum skills, and cultural norms. There is also a very big focus on the care and well-being of the child. Many pedagogical institutions also practice social inclusion. The pedagogue's work also consists of supporting the child in their mental and social development.
In Denmark all pedagogues are educated at a series of national institutes for social educators located in all major cities. The education is a 3.5-year academic course, giving the student the title of a Bachelor in Social Education (Danish: Professionsbachelor som p...dagog).
It is also possible to earn a master's degree in pedagogy/educational science from the University of Copenhagen. This BA and MA program has a more theoretical focus compared to the more vocational Bachelor in Social Education.
Hungary [ edit ] In Hungary, the word pedagogue (pedag"gus) is synonymous with the teacher (tanr); therefore, teachers of both primary and secondary schools may be referred to as pedagogues, a word that appears also in the name of their lobbyist organizations and labor unions (e.g. Labor Union of Pedagogues, Democratic Labor Union of Pedagogues). However, undergraduate education in Pedagogy does not qualify students to become teachers in primary or secondary schools but makes them able to apply to be educational assistants. As of 2013, the 6-year training period was re-installed in place of the undergraduate and postgraduate division which characterized the previous practice.
India [ edit ] In India, the Gurukula system was followed. A gurukula or gurukulam is a type of education system of ancient India with shishya ('students' or 'disciples') living near or with the guru, in the same house. The guru-shishya tradition is a sacred one in Hinduism and appears in other religions too in India, such as Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism. The word gurukula is a combination of the Sanskrit words guru ('teacher' or 'master') and kula ('family' or 'home'). Before British rule, they served as South Asia's primary educational system. The term is also used today to refer to residential monasteries or schools operated by modern gurus. The proper plural of the term is gurukulam, though the terms ''gurukulas'' and ''gurukuls'' are also used in English and some other Western languages.The students learn from the guru and help the guru in his everyday life, including carrying out of mundane daily household chores. However, some scholars suggest that the activities are not mundane and are an essential part of the education and is also a method to inculcate self-discipline among students. Typically, a guru does not receive or accept any fees from the shishya studying with him as the relationship between a guru and the shishya is considered very sacred.At the end of one's education, a shishya offers the guru a gurudakshina (donation, fees, or honorarium to the teacher) before leaving the gurukula. The gurudakshina is a traditional gesture of acknowledgment, respect and thanks to the guru, which may be monetary, but may also be a special task the teacher wants the student to accomplish. While living in a gurukula, the students would be away from their home from a period of months to years at a stretch. The gurukula system of education has been in existence since ancient times. The Upanishads mention multiple gurukulam, including that of guru Dronacharya. The Bhrigu Valli (a discourse on the Brahman) is said to have taken place in Guru Varuni's gurukula. The Vedic school of thought prescribes the gurukula (sacred rite of passage) to all individuals before the age of 8 (at least by 12). From initiation until the age of 25 all individuals are prescribed celibacy and bachelorhood, besides being students.Gurukulam were supported by public donations. This was followed by many following Vedic thoughts, making gurukula one of the earliest forms of public-school centers.During the British colonial era, the gurukula system was on a steep decline in India. Dayananda Saraswathi, the founder of Arya Samaj and Swami Shraddhanand, were the pioneers of the modern gurukula system; in 1886 was founded the now-widespread Dayanand Anglo-Vedic Public Schools and Universities.In 1948, Shastriji Maharaj Shree Dharamjivan das Swami followed suit and initiated the first Swaminarayan Gurukula in Rajkot in Gujarat state of India. Recently, several gurukulam have opened in India as well as overseas with a desire to uphold Hindu gurukulam tradition.Various gurukulam still exist in India, and researchers have been studying the effectiveness of the system through those institutions. With the advent of new means of mass communication, many gurus and Vedantic scholars are opening E-Gurukulam. These gurukulam are operating online and are now imparting knowledge about different Hindu scriptures using the internet. Most of these gurukulam are breaking traditional bounds by allowing women to get access to knowledge about the scriptures and Vedas.The Gurukulam system of education is available outside of India as well, e.g., in Belgium, at the Jain Culture Center of Antwerp, children between the ages of 8 and 16 study Vedic Mathematics, Vedic Art, Vedic Music, Sanskrit and Yoga.
Modern pedagogy [ edit ] An article from Kathmandu Post published on 3 June 2018 described the usual first day of school in an academic calendar. Teachers meet their students with distinct traits. The diversity of attributions among children or teens exceeds similarities. Educators have to teach students with different cultural, social, and religious backgrounds. This situation entails a differentiated strategy in pedagogy and not the traditional approach for teachers to accomplish goals efficiently.
American author and educator Carol Ann Tomlinson defined Differentiated Instruction as "teachers' efforts in responding to inconsistencies among students in the classroom." Differentiation refers to methods of teaching. She explained that Differentiated Instruction gives learners a variety of alternatives for acquiring information. Primary principles comprising the structure of Differentiated Instruction include formative and ongoing assessment, group collaboration, recognition of students' diverse levels of knowledge, problem-solving, and choice in reading and writing experiences.
Howard Gardner gained prominence in the education sector for his Multiple Intelligences Theory. He named seven of these intelligences in 1983: Linguistic, Logical and Mathematical, Visual and Spatial, Body and Kinesthetic, Musical and Rhythmic, Intrapersonal, and Interpersonal. Critics say the theory is based only on Gardner's intuition instead of empirical data. Another criticism is that the intelligence is too identical for types of personalities. The theory of Howard Gardner came from cognitive research and states these intelligence help people to "know the world, understand themselves, and other people." Said differences dispute an educational system that presumes students can "understand the same materials in the same manner and that a standardized, collective measure is very much impartial towards linguistic approaches in instruction and assessment as well as to some extent logical and quantitative styles."
Abolitionist Teaching Network
Wed, 13 Oct 2021 01:30
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Willie Horton - Wikipedia
Wed, 13 Oct 2021 01:13
William R. Horton (born August 12, 1951) is an American convicted felon who, while serving a life sentence for murder (without the possibility of parole), was the beneficiary of a Massachusetts weekend furlough program. He did not return from his furlough, and ultimately committed assault, armed robbery, and rape before being captured and sentenced in Maryland where he remains incarcerated.
The controversy over Horton's furlough became a major issue in the 1988 presidential campaign, as George H. W. Bush brought him up frequently during his campaign. A prominent PAC ad for Bush about Horton has been widely characterized as a case of dog-whistle politics.
Criminal activity and incarceration [ edit ] On October 26, 1974, in Lawrence, Massachusetts, Horton and two accomplices robbed Joseph Fournier, a white 17-year-old gas station attendant, and then fatally stabbed Fournier 19 times after he had cooperated by handing over all of the money in the cash register. His body was stuffed in a trash can so his feet were jammed up against his chin. Fournier died from blood loss. Horton was convicted of murder, sentenced to life imprisonment without the possibility of parole, and incarcerated at the Northeastern Correctional Center in Massachusetts.[citation needed ]
On June 6, 1986, Horton was released as part of a weekend furlough program, but did not return. On April 3, 1987, in Oxon Hill, Maryland, Horton twice raped a woman after pistol-whipping, knifing, binding, and gagging her fianc(C). He then stole the car belonging to the man he had assaulted. He was later shot by Corporal Paul J. Lopez of the Prince George's County Police Department and captured by Corporal Yusuf A. Muhammad of the same department after a pursuit. On October 20, Horton was sentenced in Maryland to two consecutive life terms plus 85 years. The sentencing judge, Vincent J. Femia, refused to return Horton to Massachusetts, saying, "I'm not prepared to take the chance that Mr. Horton might again be furloughed or otherwise released. This man should never draw a breath of free air again."
On April 18, 1996, Horton was transferred to the Jessup Correctional Institution (then called the Maryland House of Correction Annex), a maximum security prison in Jessup, Maryland, where he remains.
Legislative and political background [ edit ] Democratic Presidential candidate Michael Dukakis was the governor of Massachusetts at the time of Horton's release, and while he did not start the furlough program, he had supported it as a method of criminal rehabilitation. The state inmate furlough program, originally signed into law by Republican Governor Francis Sargent in 1972, excluded convicted first-degree murderers. However, in 1973, the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court ruled that this right extended to first-degree murderers, because the law specifically did not exclude them. The Massachusetts legislature quickly passed a bill prohibiting furloughs for such inmates. However, in 1976, Dukakis vetoed this bill arguing it would "cut the heart out of efforts at inmate rehabilitation."
The program remained in effect through the intervening term of Governor Edward J. King, and was abolished during Dukakis' final term of office on April 28, 1988, after Dukakis had decided to run for President. This abolition occurred only after the Lawrence Eagle-Tribune had run 175 stories about the furlough program and won a Pulitzer Prize.
Horton was later interviewed in the periodical, The Nation:
The fact is, my name is not 'Willie.' It's part of the myth of the case. The name irks me. It was created to play on racial stereotypes: big, ugly, dumb, violent, black '-- 'Willie'. I resent that. They created a fictional character '-- who seemed believable, but who did not exist. They stripped me of my identity, distorted the facts, and robbed me of my constitutional rights.
Horton in the 1988 presidential campaign [ edit ] The first person to mention the Massachusetts furlough program in the 1988 presidential campaign was Democratic Senator Al Gore. During a debate before the New York primary, Gore took issue with the furlough program. However, he did not specifically mention the Horton incident or even his name, instead asking a general question about the Massachusetts furlough program.
Republicans eagerly picked up the Horton issue after Dukakis won the Democratic nomination. In June 1988, Republican candidate George H.W. Bush seized on the Horton case, bringing it up repeatedly in campaign speeches. Bush's campaign manager Lee Atwater said: "By the time we're finished, they're going to wonder whether Willie Horton is Dukakis' running mate."
Campaign staffer James Pinkerton returned with reams of material that Atwater told him to reduce to a 3-by-5-inch (8 cm 13 cm) index card, telling him "I'm giving you one thing: You can use both sides of the 35 card." Pinkerton discovered the furlough issue by watching the Felt Forum debate. On May 25, 1988, Republican consultants met in Paramus, New Jersey, holding a focus group of "Reagan Democrats" who had voted for Ronald Reagan in 1984. These focus groups convinced Atwater and the other Republican consultants that they should 'go negative' against Dukakis. Further information regarding the furlough came from aide Andrew Card, a Massachusetts native whom President George W. Bush later named as his Chief of Staff.
Over the Fourth of July weekend in 1988, Atwater attended a motorcyclists' convention in Luray, Virginia. Two couples were talking about the Horton story as featured in the July issue of Reader's Digest. Atwater joined them without mentioning who he was. Later that night, a focus group in Alabama had turned completely against Dukakis when presented the information about Horton's furlough. Atwater used this occurrence to argue the necessity of pounding Dukakis about the furlough issue.
Fall campaign [ edit ] Beginning on September 21, 1988, the Americans for Bush arm of the National Security Political Action Committee (NSPAC), under the auspices of Floyd Brown, began running a campaign ad entitled "Weekend Passes", using the Horton case to attack Dukakis. The ad was produced by media consultant Larry McCarthy, who had previously worked for Roger Ailes. After clearing the ad with television stations, McCarthy added a mug shot of Horton. The ad was run as an independent expenditure, separate from the Bush campaign, which claimed not to have had any role in its production. The ad referred to Horton as "Willie", although he later said he had always gone by William.
On October 5, 1988, a day after the "Weekend Passes" ad was taken off the airwaves and the day of the Bentsen''Quayle debate, the Bush campaign ran its own ad, "Revolving Door", which also attacked Dukakis over the weekend furlough program. While the advertisement did not mention Horton or feature his photograph, it depicted a variety of men walking in and out of prison through a revolving door.
The controversy escalated when Vice Presidential candidate Lloyd Bentsen and former Democratic presidential candidate and civil rights leader Jesse Jackson called the "Revolving Door" ad racist, a charge which was denied by Bush and campaign staff.
Through most of the campaign, the Horton ad was seen as focusing on issues of criminal justice, with neither the candidates nor journalists mentioning a racial component. However, near the end of the presidential campaign'--on October 21, 1988'--Democratic primary runner-up Jesse Jackson accused the ad's creators of playing upon presumed fears of some voters, in particular those harboring stereotyped fears of blacks as criminals. From that point on, race was a substantial part of the media coverage of the ad itself and the campaign. Some candidates continued to deny it and most commentators at the time felt it was not. Academics have noted that the alleged racial overtone of the ad was a key aspect of the way the ad was remembered and later studied.
On October 22, in an attempt to counter-attack, Dukakis' campaign ran an ad about a convicted heroin dealer named Angel Medrano who raped and killed a pregnant mother of two after escaping from a federal correctional halfway house.
In 1990, the Ohio Democratic Party and a group called "Black Elected Democrats of Ohio" filed a complaint with the Federal Election Commission alleging that NSPAC had coordinated or cooperated with the Bush campaign in airing the ad, which would make it an illegal in kind campaign contribution. Investigation by the FEC, including deposition of officials from both organizations, revealed indirect connections between McCarthy and the Bush campaign (such as his having previously worked for Ailes), but found no direct evidence of wrongdoing, and the investigation reached an impasse and was eventually closed with no finding of any violation of campaign finance laws.
Robin Toner of The New York Times wrote in 1990 that Republicans and Democrats, while disagreeing on the merits of the ad itself, agreed it was "devastating to Dukakis." Dukakis said in 2012 that while he initially tried to ignore the ad during the 1988 campaign, two months later he "realized that I was getting killed with this stuff."
In December 2018, after Bush's death, the ad was again highlighted by political commentators. Ann Coulter described his Willie Horton ad as "the greatest campaign commercial in political history", claiming that it "clearly and forcefully highlighted the two presidential candidates' diametrically opposed views" on crime. Many other commentators remarked that the Bush presidency, and back to the Horton ad of the campaign, stoked racial animosity. Many commentators have pointed to race-bating or similar dog whistle in the ad, and the fact that he was black is still a key part of how the ad is still discussed.
See also [ edit ] Revolving Door (advertisement)Daisy (advertisement)SwiftboatingWayne DuMondMaurice ClemmonsReferences [ edit ] ^ "Prison furloughs survive campaign flap over Willie Horton". Milwaukee Journal. Associated Press. November 6, 1989. ^ Haney-Lopez, Ian (2013). Dog whistle politics: how coded racial appeals have reinvented racism and wrecked the middle class. Oxford University Press. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-19-022925-2. OCLC 908967433. ^ Withers, Rachel (December 1, 2018). "George H.W. Bush's "Willie Horton" ad will always be the reference point for dog-whistle racism". Vox . Retrieved June 11, 2020 . ^ Criss, Doug (November 1, 2018). "This is the 30-year-old Willie Horton ad everybody is talking about today". CNN . Retrieved June 11, 2020 . ^ Baker, Peter (December 3, 2018). "Bush Made Willie Horton an Issue in 1988, and the Racial Scars Are Still Fresh". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331 . Retrieved June 11, 2020 . ^ Scott, Eugene (December 3, 2018). "How the Willie Horton ad factors into George H.W. Bush's legacy". The Washington Post. ^ Simon, Roger (1 October 1990). "The killer and the candidate: How Willie Horton and George Bush rewrote to rules of political advertising". Regardie's Magazine. ^ Bidinotto, Robert (July 1988). "Getting away with murder". Reader's Digest. ^ "Inmate locator". Maryland Department of Public Safety and Correctional Services . Retrieved March 31, 2014 . ^ "Devlin v. Commissioner of Correction". 1973. 364 Mass. 435 (1973). 305 N.E.2d 847. ^ Toner, Robin (5 July 1988). "Prison Furloughs in Massachusetts Threaten Dukakis Record on Crime". New York Times . Retrieved 31 May 2015 . ^ Edsall, Thomas Byrne; Edsall, Mary D. (1992). Chain Reaction: The impact of race, rights, and taxes on American politics . W. W. Norton and Company. p. 222. ISBN 0393309037 '' via Internet Archive. cut the heart out of efforts at inmate rehabilitation ^ Porter, Bruce (March 1995). "So What? Pulitzer Prize-winning expos(C)s and their sometimes dubious consequences". Columbia Journalism Review. Archived from the original on 28 March 2008 . Retrieved 7 September 2015 . ^ Newton, Adam Zachary (1995). Narrative Ethics . Harvard University Press. p. 324. ISBN 9780674600874. ^ "Did Gore hatch Horton?". Slate. November 1, 1999. ^ Simon, Roger (November 11, 1990). "How a murderer and rapist became the Bush campaign's most valuable player". The Baltimore Sun. ^ Simon, Roger (May 19, 2015). "The GOP and Willie Horton: Together again". Politico. ^ a b Germond, Jack W.; Jules Witcover (1989). Whose Broad Stripes and Bright Stars: The Trivial Pursuit of the Presidency, 1988 . Warner Books. pp. 159''161. ISBN 0-446-51424-1. ^ "George Bush and Willie Horton". The New York Times. 4 November 1988 . Retrieved 4 August 2015 . ^ a b "Independent Ads: The National Security Political Action Committee "Willie Horton " " . Retrieved 9 September 2008 . ^ Rodricks, Dan (12 August 1993). "Trying to find the real Willie Horton". The Baltimore Sun . Retrieved 4 January 2015 . ^ "Candidate ads: 1988 '' George Bush" . Retrieved September 8, 2008 . ^ Rosenthal, Andrew (October 24, 1988). "Foes accuse Bush campaign of inflaming racial tension". New York Times . Retrieved April 4, 2015 . ^ a b Dowd, Maureen (25 October 1988). "Bush Says Dukakis's Desperation Prompted Accusations of Racism". The New York Times . Retrieved 8 September 2008 . ^ Blodgett, Todd (December 7, 2018). "I had an insider view to the Willie Horton story. The real issue wasn't race". Des Moines Register . Retrieved December 21, 2018 . ^ a b c Mendelberg, Tali. "The Race Card" (PDF) . ^ Love, Keith (October 22, 1988). "MEDIA POLITICS : Both Campaigns Launch Ads on Prison Furlough Issue". Los Angeles Times . Retrieved December 21, 2018 . ^ Toner, Robin (December 10, 1990). "POLITICAL MEMO; Issue of Job Quotas Sure to Affect Debate on Civil Rights in the 90's". The New York Times . Retrieved June 27, 2019 . ^ Dukakis, Michael (June 15, 2012). "Dukakis's Regret". New York Magazine (Interview). Interviewed by Eric Benson . Retrieved June 27, 2019 . ^ "BUSH'S FINEST 30 SECONDS: THE WILLIE HORTON AD". Ann Coulter. December 5, 2018 . Retrieved December 6, 2018 . ^ Greenberg, David (December 1, 2018). "Is History Being Too Kind to George H.W. Bush? The 41st president put self-interest over principle time and time again". Politico. ^ Heer, Jeet (December 3, 2018). "The Whitewashing of George H. W. Bush". New Republic. ^ Baker, Peter (December 3, 2018). "Bush Made Willie Horton an Issue in 1988, and the Racial Scars Are Still Fresh". The New York Times. ^ Berlatsky, Noah (December 4, 2018). "George H.W. Bush wasn't Trump '-- but from Willie Horton to the AIDS crisis, we shouldn't whitewash his legacy". NBC News. External links [ edit ] "Independent Ads: The National Security Political Action Committee "Willie Horton " ". " " Willie Horton" advertisement". 1988 '' via American Museum of the Moving Image. Simon, Roger (11 November 1990). "How a murderer and rapist became the Bush campaign's most valuable player". The Baltimore Sun. Walton, Anthony (1989). "Willie Horton and me". New York Times.
Kimberl(C) Williams Crenshaw - Wikipedia
Wed, 13 Oct 2021 00:45
American lawyer and civil rights advocate
Kimberl(C) Williams Crenshaw (; born 1959) is an American lawyer, civil rights advocate, philosopher, and a leading scholar of critical race theory. She is a full-time professor at the UCLA School of Law and Columbia Law School, where she specializes in race and gender issues. Crenshaw is also the founder of Columbia Law School's Center for Intersectionality and Social Policy Studies (CISPS) and the African American Policy Forum (AAPF), as well as the president of the Berlin-based Center for Intersectional Justice (CIJ).
Crenshaw is known for the introduction and development of intersectionality, the theory of how overlapping or intersecting social identities, particularly minority identities, relate to systems and structures of oppression, domination, or discrimination. Her scholarship was essential in the development of intersectional feminism which examines the overlapping systems of oppression and discrimination to which women are subject due to their ethnicity, sexuality and economic background.
Early life and education [ edit ] Crenshaw was born in 1959 in Canton, Ohio, to African American parents, Marian and Walter Clarence Crenshaw, Jr, both teachers. Her parents had a history in the desegregation movement; her mother helped desegregate a paddling pool. She attended Canton McKinley High School, as well as a Christian fundamentalist school where she experienced racism. She represented her school in debating and spelling competitions and aspired to be a lawyer from a young age.
In 1981, Crenshaw received a bachelor's degree in government and Africana studies from Cornell University, where she was a member of the Quill and Dagger senior honor society. She received a J.D. from Harvard Law School in 1984, and the next year, an LL.M. from the University of Wisconsin Law School, where she was a William H. Hastie Fellow. She was law clerk to Wisconsin Supreme Court Judge Shirley Abrahamson.
Career [ edit ] Crenshaw is one of the founders of the field of critical race theory. While at Harvard Law School, she was one of the founders of the Critical Race Theory Workshop, which originated the term.She explained to Vanity Fair:
We were critically engaging law but with a focus on race [...] So we wanted critical to be in it, race to be in it. And we put theory in to signify that we weren't just looking at civil rights practice. It was how to think, how to see, how to read, how to grapple with how law has created and sustained race'--our particular kind of race and racism'--in American society.
Following completion of her Master of Laws degree, Crenshaw joined the faculty of the UCLA School of Law in 1986, where she lectured on critical race theory, civil rights, and constitutional law. At UCLA she currently teaches four classes with no requisites; her courses are Advanced Critical Race Theory; Civil Rights; Intersectional Perspectives on Race, Gender and the Criminalization of Women & Girls; and Race, Law and Representation. In 1991 and 1994, she was elected professor of the year by matriculating students. In 1995, Crenshaw was appointed as full professor at Columbia Law School, where she is the founder and director of the Center for Intersectionality & Social Policy Studies, established in 2011. At Columbia, Crenshaw's courses include an Intersectionalities Workshop and an Intersectionalities Workshop centered around Civil Rights.
In 1996, she co-founded, and is the executive director of, the nonprofit think tank and information clearinghouse, the African American Policy Forum, which focuses on "dismantling structural inequality" and "advancing and expanding racial justice, gender equality, and the indivisibility of all human rights, both in the U.S. and internationally." Its mission is to build bridges between scholarly research and public discourse in addressing inequality and discrimination. Crenshaw has been awarded the Fulbright Chair for Latin America in Brazil, and in 2008, she was awarded an in-residence fellowship at the Center of Advanced Behavioral Studies at Stanford University.
In 1991, she assisted the legal team representing Anita Hill at the U.S. Senate confirmation hearings for Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas.
In 2001, she wrote the background paper on Race and Gender Discrimination for the United Nations World Conference Against Racism (WCAR), helped to facilitate the addition of gender in its Conference Declaration, and served as a member of the National Science Foundation's Committee to Research Violence Against Women and the National Research Council panel on Research on Violence Against Women. Crenshaw was a member of the Domestic Strategy Group at the Aspen Institute from 1992 to 1995, the Women's Media Initiative, and was a regular commentator on NPR's The Tavis Smiley Show.
Influence [ edit ] Her work has been cited as influential in the drafting of the equality clause in the Constitution of South Africa.
In 2017, Crenshaw gave an hour-long lecture to a maximum-capacity crowd of attendees at Rapaporte Treasure Hall. She explained the role intersectionality plays in modern-day society. After a three-day celebration of her work, Brandeis University President Ron Liebowitz presented Crenshaw with the Toby Gittler award at a ceremony following a lecture in December.
She was invited to moderate a Sexual Harassment Panel hosted by Women in Animation and The Animation Guild, Local 839. Crenshaw discussed the history of harassment in the workplace and transitioned the discussion to how it plays a role in today's work environments. The other panelists with Crenshaw agreed there have been many protective measures placed to combat sexual harassment in the workplace but many issues remain to be resolved for a complete settlement of the problem at hand.
She contributed the piece "Traffic at the Crossroads: Multiple Oppressions" to the 2003 anthology Sisterhood Is Forever: The Women's Anthology for a New Millennium, edited by Robin Morgan.
She attended the Women of the World festival that took place from 8''13 March 2016 at the Southbank Centre in London, England. She delivered a keynote speech on the unique challenges facing women of colour when it comes to the struggle for gender equality, racial justice and well-being. A key challenge is what Crenshaw says is police brutality against black women. She highlighted the #SayHerName campaign, which is aimed at uplifting the stories of black women killed by the police.
Intersectionality [ edit ] Crenshaw introduced the theory of intersectionality in her 1989 paper, "Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory and Antiracist Politics". Influenced by black feminist criticism, the main argument of the paper is that the experience of being a black woman cannot be understood in terms of being black and of being a woman considered independently, but must include the interactions between the two, which frequently reinforce each other.
According to Crenshaw, the concept of intersectionality predates her work and is congruous with the ideas of African American women from "every generation[,] every intellectual sphere and every political moment", citing women who articulated it before as Anna Julia Cooper, Maria Stewart, Angela Davis and Deborah King. Her inspiration for the theory started during her college studies, when she realized that the gender aspect of race was extremely underdeveloped, although the school she was attending offered many classes that addressed both race and gender issues. In particular, women were only discussed in literature and poetry classes while men were also discussed in serious politics and economics.
Using the metaphor of intersecting roads to describe the merging of oppression, Crenshaw highlighted how black women were treated by legal systems at the time, being seen as equal to both white women and black men, in regards to their sex and race, respectively; thus their claims of discrimination on the basis of race and sex were dismissed by the courts. Crenshaw's analysis of the law's invoking and creation of social identities aligns her with the broader intellectual tradition in critical race theory which discusses the same idea.
Crenshaw realized the idea of racialized sexism and sexualized racism. She broke down intersectional analysis into three forms: 1. Structural, which addresses racism and patriarchy in association with violence against women. 2. Political, which addresses the intersection of anti-race organizing and feminist organizing. 3. Representational, which addresses the intersection of racial and gender stereotypes. Crenshaw's participation in paradigms of identity which are mutually exclusive is one of rethinking identity politics from within, in general through systemic legal exclusions.
Crenshaw often refers to the case DeGraffenreid v. General Motors as an inspiration in writing, interviews, and lectures. In DeGraffenreid v. General Motors, Emma Degraffenreid and four other African-American women argued they were receiving compound discrimination excluding them from employment opportunities. They contended that although women were eligible for office and secretarial jobs, in practice such positions only were offered to white women, barring African-American women from seeking employment in the company. The courts weighed the allegations of race and gender discrimination separately, finding that the employment of African-American male factory workers disproved racial discrimination, and the employment of white female office workers disproved gender discrimination. The court declined to consider compound discrimination, and dismissed the case.
Crenshaw also discusses intersectionality in connection to her experience as part of the 1991 legal team for Anita Hill, the woman who accused then-US Supreme Court Nominee Clarence Thomas of sexual harassment. The case drew two crowds expressing contrasting views: white feminists in support of Hill and the opposing members of the African-American community that supported Clarence Thomas. The two lines of argument focused on the rights of women and Hill's claimed experience of being violated as a woman, on the one hand, and on the other the appeal to believe Thomas, or perhaps believe Hill but forgive Thomas or turn a blind eye to his conduct due to his opportunity to become only the second African American to serve on the United States Supreme Court.
Crenshaw argued that with these two groups rising up against one another during this case, Anita Hill lost her voice as a black woman. She had been unintentionally chosen to support the women's side of things, silencing her racial contribution to the issue. "It was like one of these moments where you literally feel that you have been kicked out of your community, all because you are trying to introduce and talk about the way that African American women have experienced sexual harassment and violence. It was a defining moment." "Many women who talk about the Anita Hill thing," Crenshaw adds, "they celebrate what's happened with women in general'.... So sexual harassment is now recognized; what's not doing as well is the recognition of black women's unique experiences with discrimination."
Crenshaw's theory of intersectionality has been adopted on a worldwide scale and has expanded the study of oppression. Professor of law Devon W. Carbado described the idea as "enormously influential", noting its usage in multiple disciplines, as well as its global adoption by scholars, human rights activists, community organizers, political figures, and lawyers alike.
In Gender & Society, published in 2012 by Christine E. Bose, she expands on how Crenshaw's theory of intersectionality has and still is being applied on a global level. According to Bose, "U.S. scholars should not be surprised that an Intersectional approach is useful to European, Asian or African scholars studying inequalities in nations with diverse native populations or polarized class structures, or with increasing numbers of migrants and contract workers from other countries" (Bose 68). In the United States, intersectionality is rarely thought of as a policy issue, however, "feminists in European Union (EU) countries, where gender mainstreaming is common and where cross-national equality policies are being developed, view intersectionality as directly useful for such policies and considerably better than approaches that tend to foster a sense of competing oppressions" (Kantola and Nousiainen 2009). The problem now, according to Choo and Ferree, is how an intersectional analysis should be carried out. In 2010, they identified "three different understandings of intersectionality that have been used in sociological research, with each producing distinct methodological approaches to analyze inequalities. Their typology of group-centered, process-centered, and system-centered practices provides a useful framework for examining the global usage of intersectionality, and a way of thinking intersectionally about variations in political approaches to gender". Since then, studies surrounding Crenshaw's original theory of intersectionality, combined with the frameworks outlined by Choo and Ferree, have continued to develop on a global level.
My Brother's Keeper [ edit ] A nationwide initiative to open up a ladder of opportunities to youth males and males of color.[clarification needed ] Crenshaw and the other participants of the African American Policy Forum (AAPF) have expressed the opinion in various media that although the initiative may have good intentions, it works in a way that excludes girls and in particular young girls of color. To address this problem, the AAPF started the campaign #WHYWECANTWAIT for the inclusion in the "My Brother's Keeper" initiative of all youth, including girls and boys of color. This campaign has received a lot of support from all over letters signed by men of color, letters signed by women of color and letters signed by allies that believe in the cause.[citation needed ]
In an interview on the Laura Flanders Show Crenshaw explained that the program was introduced as response to the widespread grief from the African-American community after the acquittal of George Zimmerman in the case of his shooting and killing of Trayvon Martin, an unarmed African-American teenage boy who had been in an altercation with his shooter. (The jury believed that Zimmerman acted in self-defense.) She describes the program as "feel-good", and fatherly initiative but does not believe that it is a significant or structural program that will help fight the rollback of civil rights; the initiative will not provide the kinds of things that will really make a difference. She believes that because women and girls of color are a part of the same communities and disadvantages as the under-privileged males that are focused in the initiative, that in order to make it an effective program for the communities it needs to include all members of the community girls and boys alike.
#Why we can't wait: Women of Color Urging Inclusion in "My Brother's Keeper"June 17, 2014 '' a letter from more than 1000 girls and women of colorThe letter is signed by women of all ages and a variety of backgrounds including high-school teens, professional actors, civil rights activists, and university professors commending President Obama on the efforts of the White House, private philanthropy, and social justice organizations to urge the inclusion of young women and girls. The realignment would be important to reflect the values of inclusion, equal opportunity and shared fate that have propelled our historic struggle for racial justice moving forward.
May 30, 2014 '' a letter of 200 Concerned Black Men and Other Men of Color calling for the Inclusion of Women and Girls in "My Brothers Keeper"The letter is signed by a multitude of diverse men with different lifestyles to include scholars, recently incarcerated, taxi drivers, pastors, college students, fathers of sons, fathers of daughters and more. All the men believing that the girls within the communities that these men share homes, schools, recreational areas share a fate with one another and believe that the initiative is lacking in focus if that focus does not include both genders.
In 2014, President Barack Obama launched a program called "My Brother's Keeper". This program cost around $200 million and was a five-year program to support boys and young men of color, mostly African-American and Hispanic, by providing them with the opportunity for mentorships, internships, summer jobs and more. In a White House Summit address concerning working families, President Obama announced "new commitment to the program" with the support of corporations, schools and assorted nonprofits. In his speech he mentioned "all the heroic single moms out there." He also stated, "ANYTHING that makes life harder for women makes life harder for families and makes life harder for children," but the program lacked to address this. In response to this, Kimberl(C) Crenshaw wrote a New York Times article titled "The Girls Obama Forgot". In her article, she elaborates on how "My Brother's Keeper" is "the most significant contradiction of his efforts to remain a friend to women while navigating the tricky terrain of race." The program lacked the representation of women of color who were a source of his main supporters during his campaign for presidency. In Obama's speech he noted how "boys who grew up without a father are five times more likely to live in poverty and commit crime." In Crenshaw's article, she felt that there needed to be more representation of these boy's sisters and mothers. "He noted that boys who grew up without a father were more likely to be poor. More likely than whom? Certainly not their sisters, who are growing up in the same households, attending the same underfunded schools and living in the same neighborhoods." She claimed that the White House had this false belief that black men were better off than black women; an idea against which Crenshaw argued vociferously.
Equality Amendment [ edit ] In December 2019 Crenshaw and legal scholar Catherine MacKinnon introduced a new version of the Equal Rights Amendment. This new version is known as the Equality Amendment and is discussed at length in their essay, "Reconstituting the Future: The Equality Amendment."
Awards and honors [ edit ] 1985: William H. Hastie Fellow1991: "Professor of the Year," UCLA School of Law1994: "Professor of the Year," UCLA School of Law2007: Fulbright Chair for Latin America in Brazil2008: Alphonse Fletcher Fellow2008: Fellow, Center for Advanced Behavioral Studies in the Social Sciences, Stanford University2015: No. 1 "Most Inspiring Feminist," Ms. Magazine2015: "Power 100," Ebony Magazine2016: Outstanding Scholar Award, Fellows of the American Bar Foundation2017: Joseph B. and Toby Gittler Prize, Brandeis University2020: Doctor honoris causa, KU Leuven (Belgium)2021: Elected member of the American Academy of Arts and SciencesSelected works [ edit ] Crenshaw has published works on civil rights, black feminist legal theory, race, racism, and the law.
Critical Race Theory: The Key Writings That Formed the Movement (editor), 1995. ISBN 1565842715, OCLC 489927296."Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics and Violence against Women of Color," in The Feminist Philosophy Reader, Alison Bailey and Chris Cuomo (eds.). New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008. 279''309.Reaffirming Racism: The faulty logic of Colorblindness, Remedy and Diversity, 2013 ISBN 9781595588838, OCLC 807025281.Black Girls Matter: Pushed Out, Overpoliced and Underprotected, African American Policy Forum, 2016.The Race Track: Understanding and Challenging Structural Racism, 2017. ISBN 9781595588821, OCLC 1063635935.On Intersectionality: Essential Writings of Kimberl(C) Crenshaw, 2017. ISBN 9781620972700, OCLC 1015981627.Seeing Race Again: Countering Colorblindness across the Disciplines, 2019. ISBN 9780520300996, OCLC 1050455449References [ edit ] ^ "Reunion Renews Commitment to William H. Hastie Fellowship Legacy | University of Wisconsin Law School". law.wisc.edu . Retrieved March 10, 2016 . ^ "Who we are". www.intersectionaljustice.org . Retrieved July 12, 2018 . ^ a b c Adewunmi, Bim (April 2, 2014). "Kimberl(C) Crenshaw on intersectionality: "I wanted to come up with an everyday metaphor that anyone could use " ". New Statesman . Retrieved December 27, 2018 . ^ Miller, Hayley (August 11, 2017). "Kimberl(C) Crenshaw Explains The Power Of Intersectional Feminism In 1 Minute". Huffington Post . Retrieved December 16, 2017 . ^ Ritzer, George; Stepnisky, Jeffrey (January 23, 2017). Modern Sociological Theory. SAGE Publishing. p. 430. ISBN 978-1-5063-2561-3. ^ Griffin, Gabriele, ed. (2017). "Crenshaw, Kimberl(C)". A Dictionary of Gender Studies. 1. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acref/9780191834837.001.0001. ^ a b Crenshaw, Kimberle (1989). "Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory and Antiracist Politics". University of Chicago Legal Forum . Retrieved September 15, 2021 . ^ a b c d "Kimberl(C) Crenshaw: the woman who revolutionised feminism '' and landed at the heart of the culture wars". The Guardian . Retrieved May 9, 2021 . ^ a b "Race, gender scholar Crenshaw on campus Oct. 16''21 | Cornell Chronicle". news.cornell.edu . Retrieved March 10, 2016 . ^ "The Cornell Daily Sun 31 October 1980 '-- The Cornell Daily Sun". cdsun.library.cornell.edu . Retrieved June 10, 2020 . ^ "Kimberl(C) Williams Crenshaw | Faculty | Columbia Law School". www.law.columbia.edu . Retrieved March 10, 2016 . ^ a b c d "Canton native Kimberl(C) Crenshaw receives legal scholar award". The Repository . Retrieved March 10, 2016 . ^ "William H. Hastie Fellowship Program | University of Wisconsin Law School". law.wisc.edu . Retrieved March 10, 2016 . ^ Peller, Garry (1995). Critical Race Theory: The Key Writings that Formed the Movement. The New Press. ISBN 9781565842717. ^ Omokha, Rita (September 2021). " ' I See My Work as Talking Back': How Critical Race Theory Mastermind Kimberl(C) Crenshaw Is Weathering the Culture Wars" . Vanity Fair. ISSN 0733-8899. ^ "Courses Page". law.ucla.edu . Retrieved December 16, 2017 . ^ a b "Columbia University Record". Columbia.edu (2 ed.). September 15, 1995 . Retrieved March 9, 2016 . ^ Foundation, American Bar. "UCLA and Columbia Law Professor Kimberl(C) Crenshaw to Receive 2016 Fellows Outstanding Scholar Award '' American Bar Foundation". www.americanbarfoundation.org . Retrieved March 10, 2016 . ^ "Kimberle W. Crenshaw". Columbia Law School . Retrieved December 16, 2017 . ^ "Our mission". African American Policy Forum . Retrieved March 10, 2016 . ^ a b Poole, Shirley L. (November''December 2000). The Crisis. NAACP/The Crisis Publishing Company, Inc . Retrieved March 9, 2016 . ^ Harris-Perry, Melissa (April 18, 2016). "Where Are All the Black Feminists in Confirmation?". ELLE . Retrieved April 22, 2016 . ^ Knubel, Fred (September 16, 1995). "Kimberle Crenshaw Named Professor at Columbia Law". New York, NY: Columbia University, Office of Public Information . Retrieved January 25, 2018 . ^ "Kimberle Crenshaw biography". The African American Policy Forum . Retrieved January 25, 2018 . ^ "About the Tavis Smiley Show". The Tavis Smiley Show . Retrieved January 25, 2018 . ^ "The Joseph B. and Toby Gittler Prize Lecture". October 25, 2017 . Retrieved October 7, 2018 . ^ Gould, Jocelyn (October 31, 2017). "Kimberl(C) Crenshaw accepts Gittler Prize for career works". The Justice . Retrieved December 16, 2017 . ^ Wolfe, Jennifer (December 7, 2017). "Sexual Harassment Panel Offers Definitions, Strategies". Animation World Network . Retrieved December 16, 2017 . ^ Library Resource Finder: Table of Contents for: Sisterhood is forever : the women's anth . Vufind.carli.illinois.edu. 2003. ISBN 9780743466271 . Retrieved October 15, 2015 . ^ "WOW '' Women of the World | Southbank Centre". wow.southbankcentre.co.uk . Retrieved March 23, 2017 . ^ "#SayHerName". AAPF . Retrieved March 23, 2017 . ^ "Kimberl(C) Crenshaw '' On Intersectionality '' keynote '' WOW 2016: Southbank Centre". Southbank Centre at YouTube . Retrieved May 31, 2016 . ^ a b c d e f Carbado, Devon W. (2013). "Colorblind Intersectionality". Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society. 38 (4): 811''845. doi:10.1086/669666. ISSN 0097-9740. ^ Thomas, Sheila; Crenshaw, Kimberl(C) (Spring 2004). "Intersectionality: the double bind of race and gender" (PDF) . Perspectives Magazine. American Bar Association. p. 2. ^ a b Dhamoon, Rita Kaur (2011). "Considerations on Mainstreaming Intersectionality". Political Research Quarterly. 64 (1): 230''243. ISSN 1065-9129. ^ Puar, Jasbir K. (2017). "I Would Rather Be a Cyborg Than a Goddess": Becoming Intersectional In Assemblage Theory. New York: Routledge. p. 596. ISBN 978-1-138-93021-6. ^ "Black Women Still in Defense of Ourselves". The Nation. ISSN 0027-8378 . Retrieved March 10, 2016 . ^ BOSE, CHRISTINE E. (2012). "Intersectionality and Global Gender Inequality". Gender and Society. 26 (1): 67''72. doi:10.1177/0891243211426722. ISSN 0891-2432. JSTOR 23212241. S2CID 145233506. ^ "My Brother's Keeper". whitehouse.gov . Retrieved March 10, 2016 '' via National Archives. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/14/us/george-zimmerman-verdict-trayvon-martin.html ^ "Why We Can't Wait: Women of Color Urge Inclusion in "My Brother's Keeper " ". AAPF . Retrieved March 10, 2016 . ^ "Remarks by President Obama at the White House Summit on Working Families". whitehouse.gov. June 23, 2014 . Retrieved November 8, 2020 '' via National Archives. ^ Kimberle Williams Crenshaw (July 29, 2014). "The Girls Obama Forgot". The New York Times . Retrieved November 8, 2020 . ^ Crenshaw, Kimberle Williams (July 29, 2014). "Kimberl(C) Williams Crenshaw: My Brother's Keeper Ignores Young Black Women". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331 . Retrieved November 5, 2019 . ^ a b "Reconstituting the Future: The Equality Amendment" (PDF) . Yale Law Journal. December 2019. ^ a b "Canton native wins fellowships to study race". The Repository . Retrieved March 10, 2016 . ^ report, CantonRep.com staff. "Kimberl(C) Crenshaw named to Ebony Magazine's 'Power 100 ' ". The Repository . Retrieved March 10, 2016 . ^ Foundation, American Bar. "UCLA and Columbia Law Professor Kimberl(C) Crenshaw to Receive 2016 Fellows Outstanding Scholar Award '' American Bar Foundation". www.americanbarfoundation.org . Retrieved March 10, 2016 . ^ Bencks, Jarret (October 27, 2017). "Kimberl(C) Crenshaw honored with Gittler Prize". BrandeisNOW . Retrieved December 16, 2017 . ^ "Honorary doctorate Kimberl(C) Crenshaw". KU Leuven. February 3, 2020 . Retrieved June 7, 2020 . ^ "Laudatio - Motivatio Kimberl(C) Crenshaw". KU Leuven. February 3, 2020 . Retrieved June 7, 2020 . ^ "New Members". American Academy of Arts & Sciences . Retrieved April 24, 2021 . ^ "Black Girls Matter: Pushed Out, Overpoliced and Underprotected". AAPF. December 30, 2014 . Retrieved February 8, 2019 . Sources [ edit ] UCLA Law Professors: Kimberl(C) W. CrenshawAlkalimat, Abdul (2004). The African American Experience in Cyberspace. Pluto Press. ISBN 0-7453-2222-0."O.J. Verdict Interviews: Kimberl(C) Williams Crenshaw". Frontline. PBS. April 22, 2005 . Retrieved June 17, 2009 . Further reading [ edit ] Mohdin, Aamna (November 12, 2020). "Kimberl(C) Crenshaw: the woman who revolutionised feminism '' and landed at the heart of the culture wars". The Guardian. External links [ edit ] Quotations related to Kimberl(C) Williams Crenshaw at WikiquoteIntersectionality Matters, podcast by Crenshaw and AAPF
Critical race theory - Wikipedia
Wed, 13 Oct 2021 00:43
Academic movement regarding society, race and culture
Critical race theory (CRT) is a body of legal scholarship and an academic movement of US civil-rights scholars and activists who seek to critically examine the intersection of race and US law and to challenge mainstream American liberal approaches to racial justice. CRT examines social, cultural, and legal issues primarily as they relate to race and racism in the US. A tenet of CRT is that racism and disparate racial outcomes are the result of complex, changing, and often subtle social and institutional dynamics, rather than explicit and intentional prejudices of individuals.
CRT originated in the mid-1970s in the writings of several American legal scholars, including Derrick Bell, Alan Freeman, Kimberl(C) Crenshaw, Richard Delgado, Cheryl Harris, Charles R. Lawrence III, Mari Matsuda, and Patricia J. Williams. It emerged as a movement by the 1980s, reworking theories of critical legal studies (CLS) with more focus on race. CRT is grounded in critical theory and draws from thinkers such as Antonio Gramsci, Sojourner Truth, Frederick Douglass, and W. E. B. DuBois, as well as the Black Power, Chicano, and radical feminist movements from the 1960s and 1970s.
CRT scholars view race and white supremacy as an intersectional social construct that advances the interests of white people at the expense of persons of other races. In the field of legal studies, CRT emphasizes that formally colorblind laws can still have racially discriminatory outcomes. A key CRT concept is intersectionality, which emphasizes that race can intersect with other identities (such as gender and class) to produce complex combinations of power and advantage.
Academic critics of CRT argue that it relies on social constructionism, elevates storytelling over evidence and reason, rejects the concepts of truth and merit, and opposes liberalism. Since 2020, conservative US lawmakers have sought to ban or restrict critical race theory instruction along with other anti'racism programs. Critics of these efforts say the lawmakers have poorly defined or misrepresented the tenets and importance of CRT and that the goal of the laws is to more broadly silence discussions of racism, equality, social justice, and the history of race.
Definitions Roy L. Brooks defined critical race theory in 1994 as "a collection of critical stances against the existing legal order from a race-based point of view". More specifically, race is a social construct and racism is neither an individual bias nor prejudice, but rather embedded in the legal system and supplemented with policies and procedures.
Richard Delgado, a co-founder of the theory, defined it in 2017 as "a collection of activists and scholars interested in studying and transforming the relationship among race, racism, and power".
History Early analyses that later consolidated into critical race theory developed in the 1970s as legal scholars, activists, and lawyers tried to understand why civil-rights-era victories had stalled and were being eroded.
In the early 1980s, students of color at Harvard Law School organized protests regarding Harvard's lack of racial diversity in the curriculum, among students, and in the faculty. These students supported professor Derrick Bell, who had resigned his position at Harvard because of what he viewed as the university's discriminatory practices. Bell left Harvard in 1980 and then became the dean at University of Oregon School of Law. During his time at Harvard Law, Bell had developed new courses that studied American law through a racial lens. Harvard students of color wanted faculty of color to teach the new courses in his absence.The university rejected student requests, responding that no sufficiently qualified black instructor existed. Legal scholar Randall Kennedy writes that some students felt affronted by Harvard's choice to employ an "archetypal white liberal... in a way that precludes the development of black leadership". In response, numerous students, including Kimberl(C) Crenshaw and Mari Matsuda, boycotted and organized to develop an "Alternative Course" using Bell's Race, Racism, and American Law (1973, 1st edition) as a core text.
First meetings The first formal meeting centered on critical race theory was the 1989 "New Developments in Critical Race Theory" workshop, an effort to connect the theoretical underpinnings of critical legal studies (CLS) to the day-to-day realities of American racial politics. The workshop was organized by Kimberl(C) Crenshaw for a retreat entitled "New Developments in Critical Race Theory" that effectively created the field. As Crenshaw states, only she, Matsuda, Gotanda, Chuck Lawrence, and a handful of others knew "that there were no new developments in critical race theory, because CRT hadn't had any old ones'--it didn't exist, it was made up as a name. Sometimes you gotta fake it until you make it". Crenshaw states that critical race theorists had "discovered ourselves to be critical theorists who did race and racial justice advocates who did critical theory". Crenshaw writes, "one might say that CRT was the offspring of a post-civil rights institutional activism that was generated and informed by an oppositionalist orientation toward racial power".
One manner in which CRT diverged from CLS post-1987 was CRT's stress on the importance of race. Though CLS criticized the legal system's role in generating and legitimizing oppressive social structures, it did not tend to provide alternatives. CRT scholars such as Derrick Bell and Alan Freeman argue that failure to include race and racism in its analysis prevented CLS from suggesting new directions for social transformation.
The 1989 critical race theory workshop at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, attended by 24 scholars of color, marked a turning point for the field. Following this meeting, scholars began publishing a higher volume of works employing critical race theory, including some that became popular among general audiences. In 1991, Patricia Williams published The Alchemy of Race and Rights, while Derrick Bell published Faces at the Bottom of the Well in 1992.:'124'
Spread In 1995, pedagogical theorists Gloria Ladson-Billings and William F. Tate[further explanation needed ] began applying the critical race theory framework in the field of education, moving it beyond the field of legal scholarship. They sought to better understand inequities in schooling. Scholars have since expanded work in this context to explore issues including segregation, relations between race, gender, and academic achievement, pedagogy, and research methodologies.
As of 2002[update], over 20 American law schools and at least three non-American law schools offered critical race theory courses or classes that covered the issue. In addition to law, critical race theory is taught and applied in the fields of education, political science, women's studies, ethnic studies, communication, sociology, and American studies. A variety of spin-off movements developed that apply critical race theory to specific groups. These include the Latino-critical (LatCrit), queer-critical, and Asian-critical movements. These other groups continued to engage with the main body of critical theory research, over time developing independent priorities and research methods. More recently, CRT has been taught internationally, including in the United Kingdom and Australia.
List of scholars Principal figures of the theory include Derrick Bell, Patricia J. Williams, Kimberl(C) Williams Crenshaw, Camara Phyllis Jones, Angela P. Harris, Charles Lawrence, Alan Freeman, Neil Gotanda, Mitu Gulati, Jerry Kang, Eric Yamamoto, Robert Williams, Ian Haney L"pez, Kevin Johnson, Laura E. G"mez, Margaret Montoya, Juan Perea, Francisco Valdes, Dean Carbado, Cheryl Harris, Angela Onwuachi-Willig, Tom Ross, Stephanie Wildman, Nancy Levit, Robert Harman, Jean Stefancic, Andr(C) Cummings and Mari Matsuda.
Common themes Common themes that are characteristic of critical race theory, as documented by scholars such as Richard Delgado and Jean Stefancic, include:
Critique of liberalism: Critical race theory scholars question foundational liberal concepts such as Enlightenment rationalism, legal equality, and Constitutional neutrality, and challenge the incrementalist approach of traditional civil-rights discourse. They favor a race-conscious approach to social transformation, critiquing liberal ideas such as affirmative action, color blindness, role modeling, or the merit principle with an approach that relies more on political organizing, in contrast to liberalism's reliance on rights-based remedies.Storytelling, counter-storytelling, and "naming one's own reality": The use of narrative (storytelling) to illuminate and explore lived experiences of racial oppression. Bryan Brayboy has emphasized the epistemic importance of storytelling in Indigenous-American communities as superseding that of theory, and has proposed a Tribal Critical Race Theory (TribCrit).Revisionist interpretations of American civil rights law and progress: Criticism of civil-rights scholarship and anti-discrimination law, such as Brown v. Board of Education. Derrick Bell, one of CRT's founders, argues that civil-rights advances for black people coincided with the self-interest of white elitists. Likewise, Mary L. Dudziak performed extensive archival research in the U.S. Department of State and Department of Justice and concluded that U.S. government support for civil-rights legislation "was motivated in part by the concern that racial discrimination harmed the United States' foreign relations".Intersectional theory: The examination of race, sex, class, national origin, and sexual orientation, and how their combination (i.e., their intersections) plays out in various settings, e.g., how the needs of a Latina female are different from those of a black male and whose needs are the ones promoted.Standpoint epistemology: The view that a member of a minority has an authority and ability to speak about racism that members of other racial groups do not have, and that this can expose the racial neutrality of law as false.Essentialism vs. anti-essentialism: Delgado and Stefancic write, "Scholars who write about these issues are concerned with the appropriate unit for analysis: Is the black community one, or many, communities? Do middle- and working-class African-Americans have different interests and needs? Do all oppressed peoples have something in common?" This is a look at the ways that oppressed groups may share in their oppression but also have different needs and values that need to be looked at differently. It is a question of how groups can be essentialized or are unable to be essentialized.Structural determinism: Exploration of how "the structure of legal thought or culture influences its content", whereby a particular mode of thought or widely shared practice determines significant social outcomes, usually occurring without conscious knowledge. As such, theorists posit that our system cannot redress certain kinds of wrongs.Empathetic fallacy: Believing that one can change a narrative by offering an alternative narrative in hopes that the listener's empathy will quickly and reliably take over. Empathy is not enough to change racism as most people are not exposed to many people different from themselves and people mostly seek out information about their own culture and group.Non-white cultural nationalism/separatism: The exploration of more radical views that argue for separation and reparations as a form of foreign aid (including black nationalism).Internalization Karen Pyke has documented the theoretical element of internalized racism or internalized racial oppression, whereby victims of racism begin to believe in the ideology that they are inferior to whites and white culture. The internalizing of racism is not due to any weakness, ignorance, inferiority, psychological defect, gullibility, or other shortcomings of the oppressed. Instead, it is how authority and power in all aspects of society contribute to feelings of inequality.
Institutional racism Camara Phyllis Jones defines institutionalized racism as
differential access to the goods, services, and opportunities of society by race. Institutionalized racism is normative, sometimes legalized and often manifests as inherited disadvantage. It is structural, having been absorbed into our institutions of custom, practice, and law, so there need not be an identifiable offender. Indeed, institutionalized racism is often evident as inaction in the face of need, manifesting itself both in material conditions and in access to power. With regard to the former, examples include differential access to quality education, sound housing, gainful employment, appropriate medical facilities, and a clean environment.
Influence of critical legal studies Critical race theory shares many intellectual commitments with critical theory, critical legal studies, feminist jurisprudence, and postcolonial theory. But authors like Tommy J. Curry have written that the epistemic convergences with such approaches are emphasized due to the idealist turn in critical race theory. The latter, as Curry explains, is interested in discourse (i.e., how individuals speak about race) and the theories of white Continental philosophers, over and against the structural and institutional accounts of white supremacy which were at the heart of the realist analysis of racism introduced in Derrick Bell's early works,[page needed ] and articulated through such Black thinkers as W. E. B. Du Bois, Paul Robeson, and Judge Robert L. Carter.[page needed ]
Critical race theory draws on the priorities and perspectives of both critical legal studies and conventional civil rights scholarship, while also sharply contesting both of these fields. Critical race theory's theoretical elements are provided by a variety of sources. Angela P. Harris describes critical race theory as sharing "a commitment to a vision of liberation from racism through right reason" with the civil rights tradition. It deconstructs some premises and arguments of legal theory and simultaneously holds that legally constructed rights are incredibly important.[page needed ] As described by Derrick Bell, critical race theory in Harris' view is committed to "radical critique of the law (which is normatively deconstructionist) and... radical emancipation by the law (which is normatively reconstructionist)".
Applications Scholars of critical race theory have focused, with some particularity, on the issues of hate crime and hate speech. In response to the opinion of the U.S. Supreme Court in the hate speech case of R.A.V. v. City of St. Paul (1992), in which the Court struck down an anti-bias ordinance as applied to a teenager who had burned a cross, Mari Matsuda and Charles Lawrence argued that the Court had paid insufficient attention to the history of racist speech and the actual injury produced by such speech.
Critical race theorists have also argued in favor of affirmative action. They propose that so-called merit standards for hiring and educational admissions are not race-neutral and that such standards are part of the rhetoric of neutrality through which whites justify their disproportionate share of resources and social benefits.
Criticism Academic Law professors Daniel A. Farber and Suzanna Sherry argue that critical race theory lacks supporting evidence, relies on an implausible belief that reality is socially constructed, rejects evidence in favor of storytelling, rejects truth and merit as expressions of political dominance, and rejects the rule of law. Farber and Sherry additionally posit that anti-meritocratic tenets in critical race theory, critical feminism, and critical legal studies may unintentionally lead to antisemitic and anti-Asian implications. They suggest that the success of Jews and Asians within what critical race theorists argue is a structurally unfair system may lend itself to allegations of cheating, advantage-taking, or other such claims. Responses to Farber and Sherry published in the Harvard Law Review argue that there is a difference between criticizing an unfair system and criticizing individuals who perform well inside that system.
In a 1999 Boston College Law Review article titled Race, Equality and the Rule of Law: Critical Race Theory's Attack on the Promises of Liberalism, First Amendment lawyer Jeffrey J. Pyle argued that critical race theory undermined confidence in the rule of law. He wrote that "critical race theorists attack the very foundations of the liberal legal order, including equality theory, legal reasoning, Enlightenment rationalism and neutral principles of constitutional law".
Judge Richard Posner of the U.S. Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals argued in 1997 that critical race theory "turns its back on the Western tradition of rational inquiry, forswearing analysis for narrative" and that "by repudiating reasoned argumentation, [critical race theorists] reinforce stereotypes about the intellectual capacities of nonwhites." Former Judge Alex Kozinski, who served on the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, criticized critical race theorists in 1997 for raising "insuperable barriers to mutual understanding" and thus eliminating opportunities for "meaningful dialogue".
Political controversies Critical race theory has stirred controversy in the United States since the 1980s for critiquing color blindness, promoting the use of narrative in legal studies, advocating "legal instrumentalism" as opposed to ideal-driven uses of the law, analyzing the U.S. Constitution and existing law as constructed according to and perpetuating racial power, and encouraging legal scholars to promote racial equity. An example of an instrumentalist approach is attorney Johnnie Cochran's defense in the O. J. Simpson murder case, in which Cochran urged the jury to acquit Simpson in spite of the evidence against him'--a form of jury nullification as payback for the United States' racist past. In the run-up to and aftermath of the 2020 US presidential election, opposition to critical race theory was adopted as a campaign theme by Donald Trump and various conservative commentators on Fox News and right-wing talk radio shows.
1990s Lani Guinier, Bill Clinton's nominee for Assistant Attorney General, was attacked by Republicans in part for her association with CRT, in an attempt to block her nomination. These attacks ultimately proved successful, since Clinton quickly withdrew her nomination on June 4, 1993, on the basis of disagreements with her legal philosophy.
2010s In 2010, a Mexican-American studies program in Tucson, Arizona, was halted because of a state law forbidding public schools from offering race-conscious education in the form of "advocat[ing] ethnic solidarity instead of the treatment of pupils as individuals". Certain books, including a primer on CRT, were banned from the curriculum. Matt de la Pe±a's young-adult novel Mexican WhiteBoy was banned for "containing 'critical race theory ' " according to state officials. The ban on ethnic-studies programs was later deemed unconstitutional on the grounds that the state showed discriminatory intent: "Both enactment and enforcement were motivated by racial animus", federal Judge A. Wallace Tashima ruled.
2020s Australia In June 2021, following media reports that the proposed national curriculum was "preoccupied with the oppression, discrimination and struggles of Indigenous Australians", the Australian Senate approved a motion tabled by right-wing senator Pauline Hanson calling on the federal government to reject CRT, despite it not being included in the curriculum.
United Kingdom In October 2020, the Conservative UK Equalities Minister Kemi Badenoch stated that, in regard to teaching critical race theory in primary and secondary schools;
we do not want to see teachers teaching their pupils about white privilege and inherited racial guilt ... any school which teaches these elements of critical race theory, or which promotes partisan political views such as defunding the police without offering a balanced treatment of opposing views, is breaking the law."
In an open letter, 101 writers of the Black Writers' Guild denounced Badenoch for remarks about popular anti-racism books such as White Fragility and Why I'm No Longer Talking to White People About Race, made in an interview in The Spectator, in which she said, "many of these books'--and, in fact, some of the authors and proponents of critical race theory'--actually want a segregated society".
United States Conservative lawmakers and activists have used the term "critical race theory" as "a catchall phrase for nearly any examination of systemic racism", according to The Washington Post. In September 2020, after seeing a piece on Fox News in which conservative activist Christopher Rufo denounced CRT, President Donald Trump issued an executive order directing agencies of the United States federal government to cancel funding for programs that mention "white privilege" or "critical race theory", on the basis that it constituted "divisive, un-American propaganda" and that it was "racist". Rufo's use of the term propelled the controversy into the mainstream; he wrote on Twitter, "The goal is to have the public read something crazy in the newspaper and immediately think 'critical race theory'."
In a speech on September 17, 2020, Trump denounced critical race theory and announced the formation of the 1776 Commission to promote "patriotic education". On January 20, 2021, President Joe Biden rescinded Trump's order and dissolved the 1776 Commission. Opposition to critical race theory was subsequently adopted as a major theme by several conservative think tanks and pressure groups, including the Heritage Foundation, the Idaho Freedom Foundation and the American Legislative Exchange Council.
In early 2021, bills were introduced in a number of Republican-controlled state legislatures to restrict teaching critical race theory in public schools, including Idaho, Iowa, Oklahoma, Tennessee and Texas. Several of these bills specifically mention "critical race theory" or single out the New York Times 1619 Project. In mid-April 2021, a bill was introduced in the Idaho legislature that would effectively ban any educational entity (including school districts, public charter schools, and public institutions of higher education) in the state from teaching or advocating "sectarianism", including critical race theory or other programs involving social justice. On May 4, 2021, the bill was signed into law by Governor Brad Little. On June 10, 2021, the Florida State Board of Education unanimously voted to ban public schools from teaching critical race theory at the urging of governor Ron DeSantis. As of July 2021, 10 U.S. states have introduced bills or taken other steps that would restrict teaching critical race theory, and 26 others were in the process of doing so. In June 2021, the American Association of University Professors, the American Historical Association, the Association of American Colleges and Universities, and PEN America released a joint statement stating their opposition to such legislation, and by August 2021, 167 professional organizations had signed onto the statement.
Subfields Within critical race theory, various sub-groupings have emerged that focus on issues and nuances that are unique to a particular ethno-racial and/or marginalized community. This can include issues that relate to the intersection of race with disability, ethnicity, gender, sexuality, class, religion and other social structures. For example, disability critical race studies (DisCrit), critical race feminism (CRF), Hebrew Crit (HebCrit), Black Critical Race Theory (Black Crit), Latino critical race studies (LatCrit), Asian American critical race studies (AsianCrit), South Asian American critical race studies (DesiCrit), and American Indian critical race studies (sometimes called TribalCrit). CRT methodologies have also been applied to the study of white immigrant groups. CRT has spurred some scholars to call for a second wave of whiteness studies, which is now a small offshoot known as Second Wave Whiteness (SWW). Critical race theory has also begun to spawn research that looks at understandings of race outside the United States.
Disability critical race theory Another offshoot field is disability critical race studies (DisCrit), which combines disability studies and CRT to focus on the intersection of disability and race.
Latino critical race theory Latino critical race theory (LatCRT or LatCrit) is a research framework that outlines the social construction of race as central to how people of color are constrained and oppressed in society. Race scholars developed LatCRT as a critical response to the "problem of the color line" first explained by W. E. B. Du Bois. While CRT focuses on the Black''White paradigm, LatCRT has moved to consider other racial groups, mainly Chicana/Chicanos, as well as Latinos/as, Asians, Native Americans/First Nations, and women of color.
In Critical Race Counterstories along the Chicana/Chicano Educational Pipeline, Tara J. Yosso discusses how the constraint of POC can be defined. Looking at the differences between Chicana/o students, the tenets that separate such individuals are: the intercentricity of race and racism, the challenge of dominant ideology, the commitment to social justice, the centrality of experience knowledge, and the interdisciplinary perspective.
LatCRTs main focus is to advocate social justice for those living in marginalized communities (specifically Chicana/os), who are guided by structural arrangements that disadvantage people of color. Social institutions function as dispossessions, disenfranchisement, and discrimination over minority groups, while LatCRT seeks to give voice to those who are victimized. In order to do so, LatCRT has created two common themes:
First, CRT proposes that white supremacy and racial power are maintained over time, a process that the law plays a central role in. Different racial groups lack the voice to speak in this civil society, and, as such, CRT has introduced a new critical form of expression, called the voice of color. The voice of color is narratives and storytelling monologues used as devices for conveying personal racial experiences. These are also used to counter metanarratives that continue to maintain racial inequality. Therefore, the experiences of the oppressed are important aspects for developing a LatCRT analytical approach, and it has not been since the rise of slavery that an institution has so fundamentally shaped the life opportunities of those who bear the label of criminal.
Secondly, LatCRT work has investigated the possibility of transforming the relationship between law enforcement and racial power, as well as pursuing a project of achieving racial emancipation and anti-subordination more broadly. Its body of research is distinct from general critical race theory in that it emphasizes immigration theory and policy, language rights, and accent- and national origin-based forms of discrimination. CRT finds the experiential knowledge of people of color and draws explicitly from these lived experiences as data, presenting research findings through storytelling, chronicles, scenarios, narratives, and parables.
Asian critical race theory Asian critical race theory looks at the influence of race and racism on the experiences and outcomes of Asian Americans in U.S. education, providing a foundation for discourse around the racial experiences of Asian Americans and other racially marginalized groups in education. Like Latino critical race theory, Asian critical race theory is distinct from the main body of CRT in its emphasis on immigration theory and policy.
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Curry, Tommy J. (2012). "Shut Your Mouth when You're Talking to Me: Silencing the Idealist School of Critical Race Theory through a Culturalogic Turn in Jurisprudence". Georgetown Journal of Law and Modern Critical Race Studies. 3 (1): 1''38. ISSN 1946-3154. Archived from the original on June 22, 2021 . Retrieved September 17, 2016 . Delgado, Richard (1995). "Rodrigo's Tenth Chronicle: Merit and Affirmative Action". Georgetown Law Journal. 83 (4): 1711''1748. ISSN 0016-8092. SSRN 2094599 . Delgado, Richard; Stefancic, Jean (1993). "Critical Race Theory: An Annotated Bibliography". Virginia Law Review. 79 (2): 461''516. doi:10.2307/1073418. ISSN 0042-6601. JSTOR 1073418. Archived from the original on February 21, 2021 . Retrieved January 15, 2021 . Delgado, Richard; Stefancic, Jean (1998). The Latino/a Condition: A Critical Reader. New York University Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-1894-0. Delgado, Richard; Stefancic, Jean (2012). Critical Race Theory: An Introduction. Critical America (2nd ed.). New York University Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-2136-0. Delgado, Richard; Stefancic, Jean (2001). Critical race theory : an introduction (1st ed.). New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-1930-9. Delgado, Richard; Stefancic, Jean (2017). Critical race theory : an introduction (Third ed.). New York University Press. ISBN 978-1-4798-0276-0. Bernal, Dolores Delgado (February 2002). "Critical Race Theory, Latino Critical Theory, and Critical Raced-Gendered Epistemologies: Recognizing Students of Color as Holders and Creators of Knowledge". Qualitative Inquiry. 8 (1): 105''126. doi:10.1177/107780040200800107. S2CID 146643087. Dudziak, Mary L. (November 1988). "Desegregation as a Cold War Imperative". Stanford Law Review. 41 (1): 61''120. doi:10.2307/1228836. JSTOR 1228836. Dudziak, Mary (1993). "Desegration as a Cold War Imperative". Stanford Law Review. 41 (1): 61''120. doi:10.2307/1228836. ISSN 0038-9765. JSTOR 1228836. Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. (1996). "Critical Race Theory and Freedom of Speech". In Menand, Louis (ed.). The Future of Academic Freedom. University of Chicago Press. pp. 119''159. ISBN 978-0-226-52004-9. Harpalani, Vinay (August 12, 2013). "DesiCrit: Theorizing the Racial Ambiguity of South Asian Americans" (PDF) . New York University Annual Survey of American Law. 69 (1): 77''183. SSRN 2308892 . Archived (PDF) from the original on June 22, 2021 . Retrieved September 11, 2020 . Harris, Angela P. (July 1994). "Foreword: The Jurisprudence of Reconstruction". California Law Review. 82 (4): 741''785. doi:10.2307/3480931. JSTOR 3480931. Harris, Cheryl I. (June 1993). "Whiteness as Property". Harvard Law Review. 106 (8): 1707''1791. doi:10.2307/1341787. JSTOR 1341787. Harris, Cheryl (2002). "Critical Race Studies: An Introduction". UCLA Law Review. 49 (5): 1215ff. ISSN 1943-1724. Jones, Camara Phyllis (2002). "Confronting Institutionalized Racism". Phylon. 50 (1/2): 7''22. doi:10.2307/4149999. ISSN 0031-8906. JSTOR 4149999. S2CID 158126244. Jupp, James C.; Berry, Theodorea Regina; Lensmire, Timothy J. (December 2016). "Second-Wave White Teacher Identity Studies: A Review of White Teacher Identity Literatures From 2004 Through 2014". Review of Educational Research. 86 (4): 1151''1191. doi:10.3102/0034654316629798. S2CID 147354763. Kang, Jerry; Banaji, Mahzarin R. (2006). "Fair Measures: A Behavioral Realist Revision of Affirmative Action". California Law Review. 94 (4): 1063''1118. doi:10.15779/Z38370Q. SSRN 873907 . Kennedy, Duncan (September 1990). "A Cultural Pluralist Case for Affirmative Action in Legal Academia". Duke Law Journal. 1990 (4): 705''757. doi:10.2307/1372722. JSTOR 1372722. Archived from the original on June 22, 2021 . Retrieved September 11, 2020 . Ladson-Billings, Gloria (January 1998). "Just what is critical race theory and what's it doing in a nice field like education?". International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education. 11 (1): 7''24. doi:10.1080/095183998236863. Levin, Mark (2008). "The Wajin's Whiteness: Law and Race Privilege in Japan". HÅritsu JihÅ. 80 (2): 80''91. SSRN 1551462 . Matsuda, Mari (1987). "Looking to the Bottom: Critical Legal Studies and Reparations". Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review. 22 (2): 323ff. ISSN 2153-2389. Myslinska, Dagmar (2014a). "Contemporary First-Generation European-Americans: The Unbearable 'Whiteness' of Being". Tulane Law Review. 88 (3): 559''625. ISSN 0041-3992. SSRN 2222267 . Myslinska, Dagmar (2014b). "Racist Racism: Complicating Whiteness Through the Privilege and Discrimination of Westerners in Japan". UMKC Law Review. 83 (1): 1''55. ISSN 0047-7575. SSRN 2399984 . Pyke, Karen D. (2010). "What is Internalized Racial Oppression and Why Don't We Study it? Acknowledging Racism's Hidden Injuries". Sociological Perspectives. 53 (4): 551''572. doi:10.1525/sop.2010.53.4.551. ISSN 1533-8673. JSTOR 10.1525/sop.2010.53.4.551. S2CID 43997467. Pyle, Jeffrey (May 1, 1999). "Race, Equality and the Rule of Law: Critical Race Theory's Attack on the Promises of Liberalism". Boston College Law Review. 40 (3): 787''827. Archived from the original on July 12, 2020 . Retrieved September 11, 2020 . Trevi±o, A. Javier; Harris, Michelle A.; Wallace, Derron (March 2008). "What's so critical about critical race theory?". Contemporary Justice Review. 11 (1): 7''10. doi:10.1080/10282580701850330. S2CID 145399733. Williams, Patricia J. (1991). The Alchemy of Race and Rights: Diary of a Law Professor. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01470-1. Yosso, Tara J. (March 2005). "Whose culture has capital? A critical race theory discussion of community cultural wealth" (PDF) . Race Ethnicity and Education. 8 (1): 69''91. doi:10.1080/1361332052000341006. Yosso, Tara J. (2006). Critical Race Counterstories along the Chicana/Chicano Educational Pipeline . Teaching/Learning Social Justice. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-95195-1. Further reading Brewer, Mary (2005). Staging Whiteness. Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press. ISBN 978-0-8195-6769-7. Curran, Andrew (2011). The Anatomy of Blackness: Science and Slavery in an Age of Enlightenment. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-1-4214-0965-8. Archived from the original on August 24, 2018 . Retrieved August 23, 2018 . Delgado, Richard, ed. (1995). Critical Race Theory: The Cutting Edge. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. ISBN 978-1-5663-9347-8. Dixson, Adrienne D.; Rousseau, Celia K., eds. (2006). Critical Race Theory in Education: All God's Children Got a Song. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-95292-7. Epstein, Kitty Kelly (2006). A Different View of Urban Schools: Civil Rights, Critical Race Theory, and Unexplored Realities. Peter Lang. ISBN 978-0-8204-7879-1. Ladson-Billings, Gloria; Tate, William F. IV (1994). "Toward a Critical Race Theory of Education". Teachers College Record. 97 (1): 47''68. ISSN 0161-4681 '' via ResearchGate. Solorzano, Daniel G. (1997). "Images and Words that Wound: Critical Race Theory, Racial Stereotyping, and Teacher Education" (PDF) . Teacher Education Quarterly. 24 (3): 5''19. JSTOR 23478088. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 6, 2020 . Retrieved September 11, 2020 . Sol"rzano, Daniel; Ceja, Miguel; Yosso, Tara (2000). "Critical Race Theory, Racial Microaggressions, and Campus Racial Climate: The Experiences of African American College Students". The Journal of Negro Education. 69 (1/2): 60''73. JSTOR 2696265. ProQuest 222072305. Solorzano, Daniel G.; Bernal, Dolores Delgado (May 2001). "Examining Transformational Resistance Through a Critical Race and Latcrit Theory Framework: Chicana and Chicano Students in an Urban Context". Urban Education. 36 (3): 308''342. doi:10.1177/0042085901363002. S2CID 144784134. Solorzano, Daniel G.; Yosso, Tara J. (July 2001). "Critical race and LatCrit theory and method: Counter-storytelling". International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education. 14 (4): 471''495. doi:10.1080/09518390110063365. S2CID 144999298. Sol"rzano, Daniel G.; Yosso, Tara J. (May 2002). "A Critical Race Counterstory of Race, Racism, and Affirmative Action". Equity & Excellence in Education. 35 (2): 155''168. doi:10.1080/713845284. S2CID 146680966. Tate, William F. IV (January 1997). "Chapter 4: Critical Race Theory and Education: History, Theory, and Implications". Review of Research in Education. 22 (1): 195''247. doi:10.3102/0091732X022001195. JSTOR 1167376. S2CID 53626156. Taylor, Edward (Spring 1998). "A Primer on Critical Race Theory". Journal of Blacks in Higher Education (19): 122''124. doi:10.2307/2998940. ISSN 1077-3711. JSTOR 2998940. Tuitt, Patricia (2004). Race, Law, Resistance. London: Glasshouse Press. ISBN 978-1-9043-8506-6. Tyson, Lois (2006). Critical Theory Today: A User-Friendly Guide 2nd Edition. New York-London: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. ISBN 978-0-415-97410-3. V(C)lez, Veronica; Huber, Lindsay Perez; Lopez, Corina Benavides; de la Luz, Ariana; Sol"rzano, Daniel G. (2008). "Battling for Human Rights and Social Justice: A Latina/o Critical Race Media Analysis of Latina/o Student Youth Activism in the Wake of 2006 Anti-Immigrant Sentiment". Social Justice. 35 (1): 7''27. JSTOR 29768477.
The Green Agenda or How This Energy Crisis is Different from All Others
Tue, 12 Oct 2021 19:49
Image Attribution Author: Pxfuel.com Image License: Public Domain.Image Link: LINK By F. William Engdahl 11 October 2021 The price of energy from all sources conventional is exploding globally. Far from accidental, it is a well-orchestrated plan to collapse the industrial world economy that has already been weakened dramatically by almost two years of ridiculous covid quarantine and related measures. What we are seeing is a price explosion in key oil, coal and now especially, natural gas energy. What makes this different from the energy shocks of the 1970s is that this time, it is developing as the corporate investment world, using the fraudulent ESG green investment model, is dis-investing in future oil, gas and coal while OECD governments embrace horrendously inefficient, unreliable solar and wind that will insure the collapse of industrial society perhaps as early as the next months. Barring a dramatic rethinking, the EU and other industrial economies are willfully committing economic suicide .
What only a few years ago was accepted as obvious was that ensuring an abundant, reliable, efficient and affordable energy defines the economy. Without efficient energy we cannot make steel, concrete, mine raw materials or any of the things that support our modern economies. In the past months the world price of coal for power generation has doubled. The price of natural gas has risen by almost 500%. Oil is headed to $90 a barrel, highest in seven years. This is a planned consequence of what is sometimes called the Davos Great Reset or the Green Agenda zero carbon madness.
Some two decades ago Europe began a major shift to mis-named renewables or Green Energy, mainly solar and wind. Germany, the heart of EU industry, led the transformation with former chancellor Merkel's ill-conceived Energiewende, where Germany's last nuclear power plants will close in 2022 and coal plants are rapidly being phased out. This all has now collided with the reality that Green Energy is not at all able to deal with major supply shortages. The crisis was entirely predictable.
Green Chickens Come Home to Roost
With the widespread covid lockdowns of industry and travel in 2020 EU natural gas consumption fell dramatically. The largest EU gas supplier, Gazprom of Russia, in interest of an orderly long-term market, duly reduced its deliveries to the EU market even at a loss. An unusually mild 2019-2020 winter allowed EU gas storage to reach maximum. A long, severe winter all but erased that in 2021.
Contrary to EU politicians' claims, Gazprom has not played politics with the EU to force approval of its new NordStream 2 gas pipeline to Germany. As EU demand resumed in the first six months of 2021, Gazprom rushed to meet it and even exceed record 2019 levels, and even at the expense of replenishing Russian gas storage for the coming winter.
With the EU now firmly committed to a Green Energy agenda, Fit for 55, and explicitly rejecting natural gas as a long-term option, while at the same time killing coal and nuclear, the incompetence of the think-tank climate models that justified a 100% CO2-free, electric society by 2050 has come home to roost.
Because financial investors on Wall Street and London saw the benefit of huge profits from the Green energy agenda, working with the Davos World Economic Forum to promote the laughable ESG investing model, conventional oil, gas and coal companies are not investing profits in expanded production. In 2020 worldwide spending on oil, gas, coal dropped by an estimated $1 trillion. That is not coming back.
With BlackRock and other investors all but boycotting ExxonMobil and other energy companies in favor of ''sustainable'' energy, one exceptionally cold and long winter in Europe and a record lack of wind in northern Germany, triggered a panic buying of gas on world LNG Markets in early September.
The problem was the restocking was too late, as most available LNG from the USA, Qatar and other sources that normally would be available had already been sold to China where an equally confused energy policy, including a political ban on Australian coal, has led to plant closings and a recent government order to secure gas and coal ''at any cost.'' Qatar, US LNG exporters and others have flocked to Asia leaving the EU in the cold, literally.
Deregulation of Energy
What few understand is how today's Green energy markets are rigged to benefit speculators like hedge funds or investors like BlackRock or Deutsche Bank and penalize energy consumers. The headline prices for natural gas traded in Europe, the Dutch TTF futures contract, is sold by the London-based ICE Exchange. It speculates on what future wholesale natural gas prices in the EU will be in one, two or three months hence. The ICE is backed by Goldman Sachs, Morgan Stanley, Deutsche Bank and Soci(C)t(C) G(C)n(C)rale among others. The market is in what are called gas futures contracts or derivatives.
Banks or others can speculate for pennies on the dollar, and when news broke on how low EU gas storage for the coming winter were, financial sharks went on a feeding frenzy. By early October futures prices for Dutch TTF gas had exploded by an unprecedented 300% in only days. Since February it is far worse, as a standard LNG cargo of 3.4 trillion BTU (British Thermal Units) now costs $100-120 million, while at the end of February its cost was less than $20 million. That's a 500-600% rise in seven months.
The underlying problem is that, unlike the case for most of the postwar period, since the political promotion of unreliable and high-cost solar and wind ''renewables'' in the EU and elsewhere (e.g. Texas, February 2021) electric utility markets and their prices have been deliberately deregulated to promote Green alternatives and force out gas and coal on the dubious argument that their CO2 emissions endanger the future of humankind if not reduced to zero by 2050.
The prices borne by the end consumer are set by the energy suppliers who integrate the different costs under competitive conditions. The diabolical way EU electricity costs are computed, allegedly to encourage inefficient solar and wind and discourage conventional sources, is that, as French energy analyst Antonio Haya put it, ''the most expensive plant of those needed to cover demand (marginal plant) sets the price for each hour of production for all the production matched in the auction.'' So today's natural gas price sets the price for essentially zero cost hydro-electric electricity. Given the soaring price for natural gas, that is defining EU electricity costs. It's a diabolical pricing architecture that benefits speculators and destroys consumers, including households and industry.
A fundamental aggravating cause for the recent shortages of abundant coal, gas and oil is the decision by BlackRock and other global money trusts to force investment away from oil, gas or coal'--all perfectly safe and necessary energy sources'--to buildup of grossly inefficient and unreliable solar or wind. They call it ESG investing. It is the latest rage on Wall Street and other world financial markets ever since BlackRock CEO Larry Fink joined the Board of the Klaus Schwab World Economic Forum in 2019. They set up front ESG certifying companies that award ESG ''politically correct'' ratings on stock companies, and punishing those who do not comply. The rush into ESG investing has made billions for Wall Street and friends. It has also put the brakes on future development of oil, coal or natural gas for most of the world.
The 'German Disease'
Now after 20 years of foolish investment into solar and wind, Germany, the once-flagship of EU industry, is a victim of what we can call the German Disease. Like the economic Dutch Disease, the forced investment into Green Energy has resulted in the lack of reliable affordable energy. All for an unproven 1.5C claim of IPCC that is supposed to end our civilization by 2050 if we fail to reach Zero Carbon.
To advance that EU Green Energy agenda, country after country with a few exceptions have begun dismantling oil, gas and coal and even nuclear. Germany's last remaining nuclear plants will permanently close next year. New coal plants, with latest state-of-art scrubbers, are being scrapped even before being started.
The German case gets even more absurd.
In 2011 the Merkel government took an energy model developed by Martin Faulstich and the state Advisory Council on the Environment (SRU) which claimed that Germany could attain 100% renewable electricity generation by 2050. They argued that using nuclear longer would not be necessary, nor the construction of coal-fired plants with carbon capture and storage (CCS). With that, Merkel's catastrophic Energiewende was born. The study argued, it would work because Germany could contract to buy surplus, CO2-free, hydro-electric power from Norway and Sweden.
Now with extreme drought and a hot summer, the hydropower reserves of Sweden and Norway are dangerously low coming into winter, only 52% of capacity. That means the electric power cables to Denmark, Germany and now UK are in danger. And to make it worse, Sweden is split on shutting its own nuclear plants which give it 40% of electricity. And France is debating cutting as much as one-third of its clear nuclear plants meaning that source for Germany will also not be sure.
Already on January 1, 2021 because of a German government mandated coal phase-out, 11 coal-fired power plants with a total capacity of 4.7 GW were shut down. It lasted only 8 days when several of the coal plants had to be reconnected to the grid due to a prolonged low-wind period. In 2022 the last German nuclear plant will shut and more coal plants will permanently close, all for the green nirvana. In 2002 German nuclear power was source for 31% of power, carbon-free electric power.
As for wind power making up the deficit in Germany, in 2022 some 6000 wind turbines with an installed capacity of 16 GW will be dismantled due to the expiration of feed-in subsidies for older turbines. The rate of new wind farm approvals is being blocked by growing citizen rebellion and legal challenges to the noise pollution and other factors. An avoidable catastrophe is in the making.
The response from the EU Commission in Brussels, rather than admit the glaring flaws in their Green Energy agenda, has been to double down on it as if the problem were natural gas and coal. EU Climate Czar Frans Timmermans absurdly declared, ''Had we had the green deal five years earlier, we would not be in this position because then we would have less dependency on fossil fuels and natural gas.''
If the EU continues with that suicidal agenda, it will find itself in a deindustrialized wasteland in a few short years. The problem is not gas, coal or nuclear. It is the inefficient Green Energy from solar and wind that will never be able to offer stable, reliable power.
The Green Energy Agenda of the EU, US and other governments along with the Davos-promoted ESG investing will only guarantee that as we go forward there will be even less gas or coal or nuclear to fall back on when the wind stops, there is a drought in hydroelectric dams or lack of sunshine. It doesn't take a rocket scientist to realize this is a road to economic destruction. But that's in fact the goal of the UN 2030 ''sustainable'' energy or the Davos Great Reset: population reduction on a massive scale. We humans are the frogs being slowly boiled. And now the Powers That Be are really turning the heat up.
F. William Engdahl is strategic risk consultant and lecturer, he holds a degree in politics from Princeton University and is a best-selling author on oil and geopolitics, exclusively for the online magazine''New Eastern Outlook''
Foundation asks for end to blackface ritual | Yle Uutiset | yle.fi
Tue, 12 Oct 2021 14:45
The three wise men have statues in the centre of Oulu. Image: Juha Virranniemi / YleA foundation has asked people to stop using blackface as part of the traditional 'Star Boys' performance, which tells the bible story of the three wise men and their role in Christian nativity plays.
The foundation said it had taken note of the reaction in wider society to racism, and wanted to show that it takes the message seriously.
Traditionally, one of the 'three kings' has worn blackface in the Oulu telling of the tale. The first record of this tradition dates back to 1873.
Originally groups of youths would travel around a district or area performing the story, asking for donations at the end of the performance. They were known as 'Tiernapojat', or 'Star Boys'.
Blackface has gained notoriety as a way for white actors to portray black characters in often stereotypical or offensive ways.
The Star Boy foundation (Tiernas¤¤ti¶ in Finnish) says that it would like those performing the ritual outside its own events to take note of its stance and change their ways.
The foundation had recommended that blackface not be used, and that the 'King of the Moors' character be renamed as 'King of the Mauris', after the popular Finnish male name, Mauri.
Now the organisation has said it will not allow blackface at its own events and recommends others follow its lead.
That entails darkening beards below the nose, but not full blackface '-- but only for male actors.
The foundation organises a Star Boy competition in Oulu city centre on the last weekend of November, where groups from across the country gather to compete.
Pentagon's first software chief RESIGNS in protest because US 'already lost' the AI war with China | Daily Mail Online
Tue, 12 Oct 2021 14:02
The Pentagon's first ever chief software officer Nicolas Chaillan said he resigned over U.S. inaction on technological developments in the military
The Pentagon's first ever chief software officer resigned last month in protest at the slow pace of technological transformation in the U.S. military, claiming the failure to respond to China winning the Artificial Intelligence battle is putting the U.S. at risk.
Nicolas Chaillan, 37, told the Financial Times after resigning: 'We have no competing fighting chance against China in 15 to 20 years.'
'Right now, it's already a done deal '' it is already over in my opinion,' he added. 'Whether it takes a war or not is kind of anecdotal.'
Chaillan worked for three years on a Pentagon project aimed at boosting cyber security. He was the first chief software officer for the Air Force.
He said in his interview published Sunday that China has won over the U.S. and is on track towards global dominance due to its technological advances.
In the coming weeks, Chaillan said he will testify before Congress about the Chinese cyber threat to U.S. supremacy, including in classified briefings.
China, the world's second largest economy, is likely to dominate many of the key emerging technologies, particularly artificial intelligence, synthetic biology and genetics within a decade or so, according to Western intelligence assessments.
The communist nation is set to dominate the future of the world, controlling everything from media narratives to geopolitics, Chaillan said.
'Right now, it's already a done deal '' it is already over in my opinion,' Chaillan added, claiming the U.S. Military is refusing to progress technologies and that China is surpassing the U.S. artificial intelligence advancements
He blamed sluggish innovation, the reluctance of U.S. companies such as Google to work with the government on AI and extensive ethical debates over the technology.
Google was not immediately available for comment outside business hours when Reuters reached out.
Chinese companies, Chaillan said, were obliged to work with their government and were making 'massive investment' in AI without regard to ethics.
He said U.S. cyber defenses in some government departments were at 'kindergarten level'.
On Monday, the official People's Liberation Army Daily newspaper said drills had been carried out 'in recent days' in the southern part of Fujian province, posting a video of soldiers carrying out training in the ocean and on a beach. Pictured: A still grab from the video
Chaillan announced his resignation at the beginning of September, saying military officials were repeatedly put in charge of cyber initiatives for which they lacked experience.
A spokesperson for the Department of the Air Force said Frank Kendall, secretary of the U.S. Air Force, had discussed with Chaillan his recommendations for the department's future software development following his resignation and thanked him for his contributions, the FT said.
Tensions in Asia are high right now as the Chinese Communist Party detailed its intentions to reunify with Taiwan.
Chinese state media The Global Times threatened on Sunday that the CCP 'will have little choice but to take Taiwan to the battlefield' after the island's president, Tsai Ing-wen, vowed to resist 'threats' from Beijing.
Quoting from 'experts' within China , the paper accused 'secessionist' Tsai of stirring up tensions while warning that 'resisting reunification by force will only bring doom more quickly.'
China, the US and the race to develop artificial intelligence while tensions build between Beijing and D.C. Nicholas Chaillan resigned from his post as the Pentagon's first software chief during the race to develop the most cutting-edge artificial intelligence technology.
Congress has upped the US investment into artificial intelligence and President Biden has consistently stressed the need to compete with Beijing while touting his multi-trillion dollar spending plans.
But the reality is the U.S. is far behind their Chinese counterparts. Beijing has one of the most comprehensive facial recognition software systems in the world and is able to keep track of huge portions of their population.
China also has the largest population in the world at more than 1.4billion people, meaning they have a huge dataset to gather information from.
China files more AI patents than any other country, has 1,189 firms specifically focused on AI production, and they publish more research than any other country in the world, according to the Harvard Business Review.
The U.S. has more than 2,000 artificial intelligence companies , but progress is stifled by ethics and privacy concerns depending on how invasive the technology is.
In March, a report by the National Security Commission on Artificial Intelligence found that the U.S. was 'unprepared' for AI competition with China and urged the Pentagon to get up to speed by and be 'AI-ready' by 2025.
Commission Vice Chair Robert Work, former deputy secretary of defense, said: 'The bottom line '... is we don't feel this is the time for incremental toggles to federal research budgets or adding a few new positions in the Pentagon for Silicon Valley technologists.
'Those just won't cut it. This will be expensive and requires significant change in mindset at the national, and agency, and Cabinet levels. America needs White House leadership, Cabinet member action, and bipartisan congressional support to win the AI competition and the broader technology competition.
Former Google executive Eric Schmidt warned that China is making huge investments in AI and there is 'every reason to think their competition will increase'.
In June, the U.S. Senate approved a $250billion cash injection into semiconductor production and artificial intelligence in the United States Innovation and Competition Act.
In July, U.S. Secretary of Defense Lloyd Austin said the Pentagon 'urgently needs' to prioritize AI development over the next five years and a $1.5billion investment would help 600 projects already under way.
However, advancements have been stifled by ethics and safety concerns, and Austin has said he would not 'cut corners' while advancing the technology.
Progressive Democratic Senators including Elizabeth Warren and Ed Markey have urged the government not to use facial recognition software, while the Department of Homeland Security wants to install a biometric system for all non-citizens passing through the U.S.
Robert Spalding, a retired Air Force brigadier and former defense attache in Beijing told the Financial Times that Chaillan 'rightfully' complained in his resignation.
He also stepped down to create his own encrypted defence technology because he was frustrated by the 'archaic' systems in B-2 stealth bombers.
The PLA posted a video which it said involved 'shock' troops, sappers and boat specialists undertaking a training drill
The video of soldiers in small boats storming a beach, throwing smoke grenades, breaking through barbed wire defenses and digging trenches in the sand
Pictured: A grab from the PLA's video showing soldiers in training storming a beach
Who Is Really Running the Destroy-America Biden Regime?
Tue, 12 Oct 2021 13:20
''Guilty as hell, free as a bird'--America is a great country.'' Bill Ayers, Weather Underground founder.
A guest post by Joan Swirsky of Blue State Conservative '' In today's chaotic political landscape, it is obvious that the Democrat Party in power is comprised largely of far-left radicals, many of them shockingly anti-American and predictably anti-Semitic (as are all deranged leftists).
After all, with Barack Obama, they thought they were significantly closer to their 100-year goal of a socialist-cum-communist America and believed that ''President'' Hillary would fulfill their cherished fantasy.
And then along came President Trump to smash that fantasy to smithereens.
When everything the Democrats tried to sabotage President Trump with failed''''the Russian hoax, the Ukraine hoax, the Stormy Daniels hoax, the impeachment fiascos, on and on''''they pulled out the Wuhan lab surprise, effectively creating a pandemic.
The result was the entire world isolated in their homes, worldwide economies destroyed, and the unprecedented phenomenon of mail-in ballots, which essentially ensured that the voter fraud Democrats are so famous for '' ACORN anyone?, and the Dominion voting machines used in ''elections'' in Venezuela and other banana republics to ensure the desired outcomes '' would succeed as it had in the past.
And it did. Today, however, with audits being conducted in every significant state, that colossal voter fraud is being proven'...stay tuned! And with the arrest of Hillary's lawyer, Democrats are also looking at the coming arrests of all those higher-ups who colluded in the criminal anti-Trump effort, including Ms. Hillary herself!
In less time than a normal human pregnancy, putative president Biden managed to accomplish the following:
Is it Barack Obama? As writer Steve Weinstein spells out, Obama always had a lazy disregard for the tough work, and as we can see to this very day, is far more interested in displaying the conspicuous consumption that is part and parcel of his nouveau-riche persona than in the gritty fray of politics.
Is it Ron Klain? A clever guy, now Biden's Chief of Staff, but more adept at managing a clearly diminished and doddering POTUS than orchestrating the complexities of an attempted coup d'(C)tat.
Is it Rahm Emanuel, Obama's first Chief of Staff, or David Axelrod, the chief strategist of Obama's two presidential campaigns? Clearly not, since neither was even invited to his lavish birthday party in August of 2021 at Obama's $15M waterfront mansion on Martha's Vineyard ''''although Jay Z and Beyonc(C) were among other very important people who were invited.
Is it Valerie Jarrett, Obama's longtime senior advisor? She certainly has the brains, ability to think strategically, and fidelity to leftist ideology. She simply doesn't have the burning hatred it requires to work so diligently for America's downfall.
Is it Nancy Pelosi? Just the other day, the House Speaker twice referred to the president as Obama. Highly unlikely that this addled octogenarian is calling any shots! In fact, she can hardly cope with the far-left flank of her own Party. But she was certainly not too addled a few weeks ago to meet with the guy (and his son) who bankrolls her agenda and tells her what to do.
Is it Joe Biden himself? There are more than 330-million Americans who have eyes and ears to make that determination. In my opinion, not one of that massive number of people believes that the intellectually''''and now cognitively''''limited Joe Biden manages more than barely getting through the day.
Is it China's leader, Xi Jinping, or Russia's President, Vladimir Putin? It is certainly possible that they are colluding with each other against America, and even ''speaking with'' those who are directing things from the Oval Office. But both are too busy running their own massive countries to manage to topple a colossus like the U.S.A., especially when things are going so well in the direction they desire.
Delingpole: BMJ Urges Docs to Cut Back on Treatment Because Climate
Tue, 12 Oct 2021 13:16
Doctors should think less about the health of their patients and more about the health of the planet, an editorial in the BMJ (formerly the British Medical Journal) has urged.
The editorial, published as part of a special edition dedicated to the forthcoming COP26 climate summit in Glasgow, Scotland, says that medical treatment contributes significantly to ''greenhouse gas emissions'' and that this carbon footprint can be reduced if only ''health professionals'' can learn to reduce ''overdiagnosis'' and ''overtreatment''.
Healthcare contributes 4-5 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions. In the NHS, 62 per cent of these emissions are from its supply chains and 24 per cent from delivery of care. Health professionals can be institutional leaders who drive decarbonisation in hospitals through reducing overdiagnosis and overtreatment in healthcare, eliminating waste, streamlining services, and better managing suppliers and procurement. All of these efforts will bring us closer to making healthcare more sustainable.
One of the bigger problems, a separate piece argues, is all those pesky suspected cancer patients who tiresomely insist on getting as early a diagnosis as possible. They need to learn to wait, argues one Rammya Mathew:
The pressure to diagnose cancers earlier and earlier is another major contributor to modern medicine's carbon footprint. Over successive years we've been told to continually lower our threshold for suspecting cancer, and we're encouraged to investigate sooner and more extensively. In primary care, most patients with mildly elevated or even high normal platelet counts now undergo a barrage of investigations in case thrombocytosis is an early indicator of underlying cancer. What does the yield of these tests have to be to make this an acceptable approach? And shouldn't we be considering the environmental impact of putting so many patients on a conveyor belt of investigations, as part of cost-benefit calculations?
But hey, why stop at letting the occasional undiagnosed cancer patient die? What we should really be doing is forcing everyone to go vegan and make everyone travel by bicycle'...
Adopting the largely plant based planetary health diet and taking most journeys using a combination of walking, cycling, and public transport would substantially reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve our health.
Animal sourced foods (meat, dairy, fish) generally use much more land and water and create more greenhouse gases than plant sourced food. Sustainable and healthy diets consist largely of diverse plant foods with low amounts of animal source foods, unsaturated rather than saturated fats, and limited amounts of refined grains, highly processed foods, and added sugars. The nature and scale of change required depends on existing dietary patterns and nutritional status of local populations. For example, to meet the planetary health diet recommendations, average meat consumption in Africa can slightly increase (2 per cent), whereas in North America and Europe it needs to fall by 79 per cent and 68 per cent, respectively.
Sustainable land travel will involve substantially fewer journeys by car and more journeys taken by foot, bicycle, and public transport, ensuring that all transport is carbon neutral and powered by renewable energy. This requires a transformation of the energy sector and transport infrastructure, prioritising active and public transport over road building. Estimates of the nature and scale of change needed vary. In the UK, for example, a central net zero pathway includes car mileage per driver falling by 10 per cent by 2050, whereas other analysis calls for a reduction between 20 per cent and 60 per cent by 2030, depending on the speed of transition to electric vehicles.
Old fashioned types who imagine doctors should be concentrating on healthcare rather than engaging in environmental activism may be puzzled by this. But they shouldn't be. The Climate Industrial Complex '-- and the sinister billionaire backers behind it, such as the World Economic Forum '-- has run a hugely successful gaslighting operation in which schools, universities, the entertainment industry, big business, and the mainstream media now broadcast nothing but environmental scare stories. Any stories providing evidence that the global warming scare has been massively overblown are ruthlessly suppressed.
Hence, for example, the recent announcement by Google that it will demonetise media that ''contradicts the scientific consensus on climate change''. (Spoiler: there is no such thing as ''consensus'' in science. There is definitely no ''consensus'' on climate change, neither on the causes nor the solutions. If there were a consensus Google would not need to indulge in censoring dissident voices because everyone would agree on the subject already).
Galileo contradicted the scientific consensus of geocentricism
Wegener contradicted the scientific consensus that continents can't move
Einstein contradicted the scientific consensus of Newtonian physics.
Someday your climate cult will be remembered with the same disdain.
'-- Tony Heller (@Tony__Heller) October 7, 2021
Tony Heller's point on this is well made:
Galileo contradicted the scientific consensus of geocentricism
Wegener contradicted the scientific consensus that continents can't move
Einstein contradicted the scientific consensus of Newtonian physics
Someday your climate cult will be remembered with the same disdain.
Yes. But before we reach that state of enlightenment, how many people will need to die of undiagnosed cancer as woke doctors sacrifice them on the altar of their ''planetary emergency''?
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Report: Inmates Have 'Near Total Control Over' NYC's Rikers Island Jail
Tue, 12 Oct 2021 13:11
Inmates have ''seized near total control over entire units'' at New York City's infamous Rikers Island jail, a report details. Mayor Bill de Blasio (D) has long claimed he will shutter the jail and build prisons in New York City neighborhoods to house inmates.
A New York Times report on Monday reveals the extent to which the city's most violent inmates awaiting trial at Rikers Island are allowed to wander freely, run food distribution, and commit more crimes.
''Detainees in some buildings have seized near total control over entire units, deciding who can enter and leave them, records and interviews show,'' the Times reports:
In other buildings, they have wandered in and out of staff break rooms and similarly restricted areas, with some flouting rules against smoking tobacco and marijuana. Sometimes they have answered phones that were supposed to be manned by guards. Several have stolen keys and used them to free others in custody, who went on to commit slashings and other acts of violence. [Emphasis added]
To guards, detainees and their lawyers, the most striking aspect of the current dysfunction at Rikers Island is the extent to which incarcerated people seem to run parts of the complex. [Emphasis added]
On five occasions in the past 18 months, incarcerated people who should have been confined or closely supervised were instead free to commit violent acts. [Emphasis added]
In one instance, according to the Times, an inmate was able to leave an unlocked cell and take pepper spray off a food cart, which he then used to spray staff with following a fight in June 2020. In another case, a nurse was beaten by an inmate after he was able to open a security gate.
One former inmate interviewed by the Times said he was starved for two days while at Rikers Island because a gang of inmates were controlling food distribution in his unit and would not allow him to eat. The same inmate said he watched one day as a group of inmates nearly beat to death another inmate in an area that was not being guarded.
For months, amid staffing shortages, reports have circulated that inmates had been effectively running Rikers Island. Last month, a report detailed how parties and overdoses at Rikers Island have become the norm.
De Blasio, for years, has laid out plans to shut down Rikers Island and move inmates into jails that would be built in New York City neighborhoods in Brooklyn, Queens, and the Bronx. Residents have protested de Blasio's plans.
Rikers Island holds nearly 5,000 inmates daily. The majority have mental health issues.
John Binder is a reporter for Breitbart News. Email him at email@example.com. Follow him on Twitter here.
The Queer Dictionary: Definition of "Cishet"
Tue, 12 Oct 2021 12:26
Pronounced SIS-het.Related terms include cisgender, cisnormativity, ally, and cissexism."Karen is a dedicated ally-- she's a cishet but goes to Pride every year to show support for her dads."Cishet, used as both an adjective and a noun, describes a person who is both cisgender and heterosexual. A person is cishet if he or she is cisgender, meaning identifying with his or her assigned-at-birth gender, as well as heterosexual, or attracted exclusively to people of the opposite sex. Cishet individuals are not inherently part of the LGBT+ or queer community but may identify themselves as allies.People who are cishet arguably form most of the human population. The common assumption that all or most people are cishet contributes to cisnormativity and heteronormativity. Most people who are cishet do not identify themselves as cishet because they have never had want or need of a specific label to describe their orientation and gender identity.The use of "cishet" by the LGBT+ and feminist community has been a source of some controversy, It may be occasionally used in what are perceived as ad hominem or straw-man arguments when addressing cisgender heterosexuals, and this has led to many perceiving it as an insult. In gender, cishet is a shorthand descriptive term and not a slur.First used in online communities in the 2000s, cishet is a portmanteau of cis-- as in cisgender, from the Latin cis-, meaning "this side of"-- and het-- as in heterosexual, meaning attracted to the opposite sex.
Joan Collins: 'I couldn't bear to be married to someone my own age' | Times2 | The Sunday Times
Tue, 12 Oct 2021 11:41
D ame Joan Collins is in a grump. I can tell something's not right the moment she breezes into her baroque drawing room and plonks herself down on the hunter green velvet sofa. We don't ''mwah mwah'' for obvious reasons, and she seems far from thrilled to be here. Her big sunglasses stay on.
''How are you?'' I inquire tentatively. ''Pretty stressed,'' she replies.
The problem we are facing is that Collins is going on holiday to Mallorca the following day and our interview is eating into her packing time. It should be noted that packing for Collins is rather different from packing for you or me: she has been known to take 16 suitcases on her travels. And on top of that, she's double-booked, facing
Google News - Texas Gov. Abbott issues order banning Covid vaccination mandates in rebuke of Biden
Tue, 12 Oct 2021 11:19
Language & region English (United States)
Another Facebook whistleblower says she is willing to testify before Congress - CNN
Tue, 12 Oct 2021 11:11
By Donie O'Sullivan, CNN Business
Updated 1:04 AM EDT, Tue October 12, 2021
San Francisco(CNN Business) Sophie Zhang, who said she felt like she had "blood on her hands" after working at Facebook, is willing to testify before Congress about her former employer, she told CNN Sunday. She said she had also passed on documentation about the company to a US law enforcement agency.
Zhang, who worked as a data scientist at the tech giant for almost three years, wrote a lengthy memo when she was fired by Facebook last year detailing how she believed the company was not doing enough to tackle hate and misinformation -- particularly in smaller and developing countries. Zhang said the company told her she was fired because of performance issues.
The memo was first reported last year by BuzzFeed News and later formed the basis of a series of reports by The Guardian newspaper.
Speaking to CNN at her home in the Bay Area on Sunday, Zhang said she was encouraged that there appeared to be bipartisan support for action relating to the protection of children online following Facebook whistleblower Frances Haugen's testimony to a Senate subcommittee last week.
Zhang said she has brought information about Facebook to authorities. "I provided detailed documentation regarding potential criminal violations to a U.S. law enforcement agency. My understanding is that the investigation is still ongoing," she tweeted Sunday.
She declined to share when asked by CNN what information she had provided or to which agency. An FBI spokesperson declined to comment Monday adding, "the FBI does not generally confirm, deny, or otherwise comment on information or tips we may receive from the public."
Central to Zhang's allegations about Facebook is that it doesn't do enough to tackle abuse of its platform in countries outside of the United States. Roughly 90% of Facebook's monthly active users are outside the US and Canada, according to its most recent quarterly filing.
A Facebook spokesperson pushed back on that charge Monday, saying the company had invested billions in safety and security in recent years.
"We have also taken down over 150 networks seeking to manipulate public debate since 2017, and they have originated in over 50 countries, with the majority coming from or focused outside of the US. Our track record shows that we crack down on abuse abroad with the same intensity that we apply in the US," the spokesperson added.
- CNN's Christina Carrega contributed reporting
Scientists Sue the FDA for Data it Relied Upon to License Pfizer's Covid-19 Vaccine - by Aaron Siri - Injecting Freedom
Tue, 12 Oct 2021 04:17
The FDA repeatedly promised ''full transparency'' with regard to Covid-19 vaccines, including reaffirming ''the FDA's commitment to transparency'' when licensing Pfizer's Covid-19 vaccine.
Transparency regarding this product means, if nothing else, sharing the data the FDA relied upon to license this vaccine. The definition of ''transparency'' literally includes ''accessibility of information.'' So, when the FDA denies a request to expedite release of this data from a group of highly credentialed scientists from major universities across the country, is that transparency?
If the FDA is committed to transparency, why must a federal lawsuit be filed to timely obtain this data? Why has the FDA, weeks after the filing of a federal lawsuit, still not agreed to timely release this data? Why does the FDA persist in delaying its release when even federal law states that, once licensed, the ''data and information in the biological product file [for the licensed vaccine] are immediately available for public disclosure.''
Transparency demands the FDA immediately disclose the data it relied upon to license the Pfizer vaccine. Not tomorrow. Today. Scientists, health care professionals, and every person in this country, especially those mandated to receive this product, should have access to the data now.
It is incredible enough that the federal government has mandated Pfizer's Covid-19 vaccine for millions of Americans when it has given Pfizer complete financial immunity for harms caused by this product. So, you can't say no, you can't sue for harm, and you can't see the data underlying the government's claim that the product is safe and effective. Some might describe such conduct as authoritarian. Of course, such a claim would likely get censored. And censoring will, of course, help anyone claiming such a mandate is authoritarian understand they are misguided.
Feel free to peruse the complaint filed in the federal lawsuit against the very transparent FDA. Should have another update on this in a few weeks.
Kamala Harris's NASA video featured child actors | Washington Examiner
Mon, 11 Oct 2021 23:36
The first installment of Vice President Kamala Harris's YouTube Originals space series featured child actors who auditioned for their roles in the project.
Trevor Bernardino, a 13-year-old actor from Carmel, California, and one of five teenagers featured in the video, was asked to submit a monologue discussing something he is passionate about and three questions for a world leader, according to an interview with KSBW TV. Trevor then interviewed with the production director.
''And then after that, like a week later, my agent called me, and he's like, 'Hey Trevor, you booked it,''' Trevor said. He didn't learn until much later that he would be meeting with Harris, who was appointed to lead the National Space Council earlier this year.
HARRIS HIRES MESSAGING GURUS TO SHORE UP 'LONG-TERM PLANNING'
Bernardino was joined by Derrick Brooks II, another child actor , Emily Kim, likewise a child actor , Zhoriel Tapo, a child actor and aspiring journalist who has interviewed former first lady Michelle Obama , and Sydney Schmooke.
''All five of them are actors,'' Bernardino's father, Carlo, told the Washington Examiner in an interview Monday.
''He's a child actor '-- he's been trying to do this type of thing for a while. And so he has a manager and an agent in LA and they send him castings,'' Bernardino said. ''This was a casting call, a very specific one where he had to write essentially a monologue about what he's really passionate about and he wrote a monologue about the environment.''
He added, ''The producer of the series came back to him and asked him to write three questions that he'd ask a very important person ... after that, he had a live Zoom interview with the producer of the series and then he got the part.''
Trevor didn't learn that he would be meeting with Harris ''until the day flying out, essentially,'' his father said. ''The producers wanted a big surprise.''
Carlo Bernardino said he hopes the series will be picked up for broader distribution.
''It was pitched to my son and us as a pilot,'' he said, but whether it continues will ''depend on the reaction and what the producers want to do '-- our hope is that it gets picked up.''
Last week, YouTube Originals announced Get Curious with Vice President Harris, a series that aims to get more children interested in space. The project was produced by Sinking Ship Entertainment, an Emmy award-winning media company based in Toronto that specializes in live-action programming, according to its website .
Filmed in August and released during World Space Week, the video shows a group of children meeting with Harris at her residence, the Naval Observatory, where she introduces herself as the chairwoman of the National Space Council. Before meeting the vice president, NASA astronaut Shane Kimbrough ''beams'' down from the International Space Station for a virtual meet and greet with the children, leading them on a scavenger hunt to find the tools to build a telescope.
For Trevor Bernardino, meeting Harris was the highlight of the visit, he said.
''The most exciting part was definitely meeting Vice President Harris. There's nothing that can top that. Like honestly, she just sat us down. She's super charismatic. She's everything that I ever thought of her, plus more,'' he said . ''She made me feel like one of her peers, and at the time, I felt super important. I was talking to her face to face.'' Bernardino's talent agency shared a montage on Instagram.
The video, which by Monday had garnered some 114,000 views on YouTube, as well as 1,900 likes and 2,800 dislikes, was shared online by the vice president's aides and supporters. A trailer for the show drew 48 likes and 136 dislikes. Comments on both videos have been disabled.
''I am so so so excited this project is out!'' wrote Emily Keller, a YouTube executive overseeing progressive civics content partnerships, according to her LinkedIn . She was the Democratic National Committee's social media director until June.
''We are over the moon to be working with Vice President Harris on this exciting special that encourages kids to ask questions and explore space,'' said Nadine Zylstra, head of family, learning, and impact for YouTube Originals. ''Upholding our commitment to inspiring kids' interests and learning, this special delivers quality, educational programming to our young viewers around the globe '-- and it's pretty cool to have the Vice President of the United States and astronaut Shane Kimbrough help us do it.''
The actors flew to Washington during the second week of August, filming Wednesday through Friday. At the time, the U.S.-backed government in Afghanistan was in collapse, with Washington's withdrawal from the two-decade conflict drawing comparisons to the fall of Saigon in 1975.
On Twitter, detractors were quick to poke fun at Harris's performance.
'''You can have the border/immigration, voting rights, and also, uh, let's see, the vast expanses of the unknown universe,''' quipped Emily Tamkin, U.S. editor for the New Statesman, a British publication, referencing Harris's challenging slate of assignments.
In one segment, Harris expounds on the virtues of space exploration and scientific discovery.
''I love the idea of exploring the unknown,'' Harris said. ''And then, there's other things that we just haven't figured out or discovered yet. To think about so much that's out there that we still have to learn, like, I love that. I love that. And so, I'm very excited about the Space Council.''
''We're going to learn so much,'' Harris said, telling the children they ''you're going to literally see the craters on the moon with your own eyes. With your own eyes. I'm telling you.''
Paired with the caption, ''Me when I miscalculate a micro dose and start fully tripping midday,'' the clip has been viewed close to a million times.
Bernardino said the response had been ''eye-opening'' for him, and that while ''a lot of people love it,'' others are ''torching it, and these are just a bunch of kids.''
He added, ''They're trying to bring attention to NASA National Science Week.''
Still, the producers may have seen this coming given Harris's position as a lightning rod.
''If you go to the YouTube link, what's interesting is I think the producers anticipated this '-- there's no comment [section], so you can't [add] a comment, and if you look at the thumbs up and thumbs down, there's actually more thumbs down, which is a shame, because I think this is a great thing to draw attention to the space program,'' he said.
Since taking office, Harris has drawn scrutiny for her interactions with voters and reporters, including for a biting retort during a televised interview while visiting Guatemala.
Critics have painted this latest moment as emblematic of what some perceive as a challenge in connecting with ordinary voters.
CLICK HERE TO READ MORE FROM THE WASHINGTON EXAMINER
Last month, the vice president's office hired two messaging gurus to help finesse her communications efforts.
One of Harris's new advisers, Lorraine Voles, has a portfolio including ''crisis management'' and ''marketing and rebranding.''
As the Taliban seizes control of Afghanistan, coal is a key source of revenue
Mon, 11 Oct 2021 13:22
Mining was a major source of finance for the Taliban resurgence in Afghanistan and has strategic importance as the militants seek to govern
Coal played a significant role in financing the Taliban's takeover of Afghanistan and has strategic importance as the militants seek to govern, experts told Climate Home News.
The speed with which the Islamist group captured Kabul this month as US-led forces left the country sparked terror in the capital and took many analysts by surprise.
But the Taliban laid the groundwork for its rapid assault in the preceding months and years by targeting trade routes and key industries across the country. Besides controlling much of the opium trade, militants raised revenue by imposing taxes on poppy farmers and mining companies, and tariffs for the transit of goods through checkpoints.
Mohammad Najeeb Azizi, a former chief economist with the Afghan government, who spoke to Climate Home from outside Afghanistan, said the Taliban have long been taking a cut from coal mining companies as a condition for keeping their businesses running.
''The Taliban have a direct stake in coal operations by providing companies with security and helping them transport material. They keep a database of contractors and workers, shareholders and even private security. They are well aware of how the coal industry works and how the supply chain can be managed,'' he said.
Within the Afghan government ''this was an open secret,'' Azizi, who served as the chair of the telecom regulatory agency until June 2019 when he went into exile, told Climate Home. ''We all knew this was happening under the eyes of governors and local authorities but this was the arrangement.''
Afghanistan at risk of hunger amid drought and Taliban takeover
Ahmed Rashid, a Pakistani journalist who has written extensively about Afghanistan, told the BBC taxation on mineral development focused primarily on coal and marble, exported to Pakistan and sometimes onwards to China.
Even in government-controlled areas, including the coal-rich central region of the country, Taliban allies and others opposed to the Afghan government would prevent meaningful government access to the mines.
This ''taxation'' system allowed the militant group to ''self-fund its insurgency without the need for support from governments or citizens of other countries,'' according to a 2020 confidential report commissioned by Nato, obtained by Radio Free Europe.
The report, which included interviews with Taliban operatives, found that in the financial year ending in March 2020, the group earned $1.6bn through the drug trade, mining and exports.
In recent years the group ''purposefully moved into regions of Afghanistan with exploitable mineral resources and have been able to build their finances, by their own admission, beyond their expectations,'' the report states.
According to a breakdown of revenues provided by some Taliban members to the report author, the mining sector drove the largest rise in revenue, from $35 million in 2016 to $464 million in 2020. The opium trade came in second, bringing in $416m, with $240m from exports.
With Joe Biden insisting that the US will withdraw its troops by the agreed date of 31 August and European allies following suit, a return to Taliban rule appears inevitable.
From running an insurgency to running a country, the group will need to shore up revenues to pay for salaries, basic services and infrastructure.
As a relatively low tech industry, coal is an easy candidate to generate that revenue, Azizi said.
''The Taliban will continue to extract coal and export it,'' with the possibility of scaling up production by growing the workforce, he explained.
Until now, virtually all of Afghanistan's coal exports have gone to Pakistan. While it is of poorer quality, Afghan coal is cheaper than imports from maritime routes.
In 2019, brown, hard and coking coal exports to Pakistan were officially valued at more than $91m, according to Chatham House's Resource Trade database.
The true figure could be higher. High-resolution satellite imagery analysed by Alcis, a company which specialises in geographic information services in fragile environments, revealed significant undeclared coal exports to Pakistan. The detailed findings were published in a report earlier this year.
Coal mine entrances and coal mounds (in green) and miners' tents and temporary structures (in red) in Samangan province. (Source: Alcis' report In Plain Sight)
Tom Mills, director at research company Two Oceans Strategy, who worked extensively in Afghanistan until 2017, said ''coal will be part of the Taliban's arsenal'' to generate revenue and maintain a social contract with the population by keeping homes warm during Afghanistan's bitterly cold winters. In 2017, coal generated about 30% of all energy supplies.
Yet Afghanistan's coal mines are known to be ''unbelievably dangerous,'' Mills said, with outdated infrastructure leading to regular mine collapses and poisoning incidents.
The unstable situation has sparked speculation that countries like China could make a grab for more valuable minerals including copper, iron ore, gold, lithium, talc and chromite, which is used in steel manufacturing.
A 2010 study by the US Geological Survey estimated Afghanistan's mineral wealth to be worth up as much as $1 trillion. At the time, a former Afghan mine minister said the number could be as high as $3 trillion.
UK oil construction postponed after kayakers' Stop Cambo protest
Mills told Climate Home the evidence for those numbers was ''shaky''. Most of the mineral and petroleum resources of Afghanistan have not been comprehensively mapped and are difficult to access because of geological constraints and poor infrastructure, he said.
Extracting the rare earth minerals which are used in the manufacturing of solar panels and batteries would take large organisational planning and significant capital resources and engineering know-how, which is unlikely to become any easier under Taliban rule.
Said Sabir Ibrahimi, an Afghan and a non-resident fellow at the Center on International Cooperation at New York University, told Climate Home China has been trying to secure contracts for exploiting Afghan minerals for 20 years and both sides have shown willing to engage.
The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, a major initiative of China's Belt and Road investment initiative, could bring Afghanistan closer to Beijing's sphere of influence.
''But that's not going to happen overnight,'' he said, adding that investments would have to be traded off against the security situation.
U.S. Charges Navy Engineer, Wife for Allegedly Trying to Share Military Secrets - WSJ
Mon, 11 Oct 2021 13:20
They are accused of trying to pass information involving nuclear submarine technology to a foreign country
Updated Oct. 10, 2021 6:18 pm ETWASHINGTON'--A U.S. Navy employee and his wife have been charged with attempting to share secrets about nuclear submarine technology with a foreign country, according to court documents unsealed on Sunday.
The documents name the employee as Jonathan Toebbe and his wife as Diana Toebbe. Mr. Toebbe is a nuclear engineer, holds a top-secret clearance with the Department of Defense and has worked for the government for almost a decade, according to the documents.
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WASHINGTON'--A U.S. Navy employee and his wife have been charged with attempting to share secrets about nuclear submarine technology with a foreign country, according to court documents unsealed on Sunday.
The documents name the employee as Jonathan Toebbe and his wife as Diana Toebbe. Mr. Toebbe is a nuclear engineer, holds a top-secret clearance with the Department of Defense and has worked for the government for almost a decade, according to the documents.
The Toebbes couldn't immediately be reached for comment. The Navy declined to comment.
The documents allege that in April 2020, Mr. Toebbe sent a mail package containing U.S. Navy documents, instructions and an SD card to a foreign government. The FBI obtained the package in December 2020, the court filings said.
The foreign country isn't named in the court documents. It couldn't immediately be determined whether it was a U.S. friend or rival.
The package included guidance on how to use an encrypted communication platform, along with other documents. Mr. Toebbe marked the information as confidential and asked for it to be forwarded to the other country's military agency, the documents said.
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''I believe this information will be of great value to your nation,'' he said in the letter, according to the court documents.
It was dated April 1, 2020, April Fool's day. ''This is not a hoax,'' he added in his note.
The documents contained information classed as restricted data, according to an expert at the U.S. Navy consulted by the FBI.
The encrypted platform that Mr. Toebbe wanted to use is typically used by people that want to keep their activities and locations secret, the FBI said in the documents.
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An FBI agent who intercepted the mail package began corresponding with Mr. Toebbe, pretending to be a representative of the foreign country. The FBI offered Mr. Toebbe a gift in exchange for the data, but he declined to meet because of the risks involved in a face-to-face meeting, according to the documents.
Mr. Toebbe instead proposed payment in cryptocurrency, suggesting a $100,000 initial payment to prove their seriousness before providing a link to secret documents.
''Please remember I am risking my life for your benefit,'' he said, according to court documents.
The FBI and Mr. Toebbe in further exchanges discussed how the payment and delivery of documents could occur. Eventually the FBI paid $10,000 in cryptocurrency to Mr. Toebbe under a pseudonym as a show of good faith, the court documents say.
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Mr. Toebbe went ahead with a dead drop of documents in West Virginia, where he was observed by the FBI, the documents say. His wife accompanied him, the court records show. The drop of data was carried out by the SD card left in a peanut butter sandwich.
The contents of the card were examined by a Navy subject matter expert, who determined it contained militarily sensitive details about Virginia-class submarine reactors.
Further exchanges were coordinated between Mr. Toebbe and FBI agents posing as officials of a foreign country. In total, the FBI paid Mr. Toebbe $100,000 by August 2021, according to the documents. It couldn't be determined whether the FBI recovered the money.
The Toebbes were arrested in Jefferson County, W.Va., by the FBI and the Naval Criminal Investigative Service on Saturday. They will have their initial appearances on Tuesday in federal court, the Justice Department said.
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Write to Jessica Donati at firstname.lastname@example.org
'Outrageous & needs to stop': Outcry after university names trans weightlifter Laurel Hubbard 'New Zealand sportswoman of year' '-- RT Sport News
Mon, 11 Oct 2021 13:09
The issue of trans athletes in sport has again hit the headlines after controversial weightlifter Laurel Hubbard was named as New Zealand's 'sportswoman of the year' by one university '' and some fans aren't buying it.
The University of Otago bestowed the honor on trans athlete Hubbard, becoming the first such sports star to receive the award in its 113-year history and comes after Hubbard became the first openly-trans competitor to compete in a solo event at the Olympic Games in Tokyo this past summer.
However, despite Hubbard, 43, being unsuccessful in her Olympic bid, she has been hailed by the New Zealand university for her impact on sport '' despite being outshined at the Olympics by compatriot Lisa Carrington who won three golds in Japan to become the country's most successful Olympian in history.
Nonetheless Hubbard, who ignited a debate as to the fairness of having athletes who were born male competing against women, gratefully accepted the award and thanked Otago University for the nod.
"It is not possible for athletes to complete at the Olympic level without the encouragement and aroha of friends, family and supporters," said Hubbard.
"This award belongs to everyone who has been part of my Olympic journey."
Also on rt.com 'Men with low testosterone could compete with women' '' Russian Olympic legend weighs in on transgender row Hubbard, who transitioned to female in 2012, was granted permission to compete in the Olympics thanks to a newly-implemented rule which allows trans women to take part so long as their testosterone levels are below a certain level. Hubbard had previously competed in weightlifting competitions as a male.
"I see the Olympic Games as a global celebration of our hopes, ideals and values and I would like to thank the IOC for its commitment to making sport inclusive and accessible," Hubbard said in a statement after being granted permission to participate in the Olympics.
"I'm not here to change the world, I just want to be me and do what I do."
However, not everyone sees it the same way. Hubbard's participation in Tokyo was seen by some as a line in the sand when it comes to having athlete born biologically male in competition against naturally born women '' but the issue once again raising its head in the wake of Hubbard's recognition from the University of Otago.
This is Lisa Carrington. She is a New Zealand canoeist. She won three gold medals at Tokyo 2020 and became NZ's most successful Olympian ever. pic.twitter.com/lP4O8IztRt
'-- Emma Hilton (@FondOfBeetles) October 2, 2021"The University of Otago names Hubbard as sportswoman of the year," read one reaction online. "I am sorry that - once again '' women are being displaced. This is outrageous and it needs to stop."Is this a joke?" said another. "Even (satirical newspaper) The Babylon Bee would struggle for content this comically insane."
"This is Lisa Carrington," wrote a third of the country's all-conquering canoeist. "She is a New Zealand canoeist. She won three gold medals at Tokyo 2020 and became NZ's most successful Olympian ever."
Also on rt.com 'Sex matters in sport': Cautious optimism after landmark new UK report admits trans athletes DO retain advantages against women
Austin's Defund the Police Lesson - WSJ
Mon, 11 Oct 2021 11:05
Please don't call 911 unless it's really, really an emergency.
Cut police funding, and you get less policing. That's what Austin residents are learning the hard way this month as law enforcement tries to triage its emergency response amid a severe staffing shortage.
Beginning this month, the Austin Police Department has asked the public not to call 911 for ''non-emergency situations'' if ''there is no immediate threat to life or property,'' ''where crimes are no longer in progress,'' and ''when the suspect(s) are no longer on scene or in sight.'' The directive applies to burglaries, thefts, prostitution,...
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Cut police funding, and you get less policing. That's what Austin residents are learning the hard way this month as law enforcement tries to triage its emergency response amid a severe staffing shortage.
Beginning this month, the Austin Police Department has asked the public not to call 911 for ''non-emergency situations'' if ''there is no immediate threat to life or property,'' ''where crimes are no longer in progress,'' and ''when the suspect(s) are no longer on scene or in sight.'' The directive applies to burglaries, thefts, prostitution, vandalism, and several other crimes. The police urged victims and witnesses to call 311 or file a report online instead.
The police department says this will reduce contact between police and the public amid a pandemic. But the new policy is also in large part ''a result of recent staffing challenges that we have had, and as we are working through those, we are looking to see how we can deploy staff in the most appropriate manner'' and respond ''to those calls that need them the most,'' said Chief of Police Joseph Chacon in a news conference in late September.
In fiscal 2020-2021, the Austin police budget was $292.9 million, down from $434.5 million the previous year. The City Council slashed $31.5 million directly from the police budget last year.
It also put $121.7 million in a reserve fund that was intended to ''decouple or reimagine some public-safety functions'' from the police department but which ended up funding police operations, says Alicia Dean, a spokesperson for the city. The City Council also canceled three cadet classes and cut 150 officers from the budget last year, says City Councilor Mackenzie Kelly, an outspoken supporter of the police.
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Under new state legislation passed earlier this year, big cities can face financial penalties for reducing law-enforcement funding and in some cases must seek voter approval first. Under duress, the Austin City Council restored police funding for fiscal 2021-2022 and added an additional $8.6 million to the police budget. But it didn't allocate money for new patrol officers, Ms. Kelly says.
The Austin Police Department had 1,798 sworn officers on Jan. 1, 2020. By last week it had 1,514 cops currently able to work, with 200 vacancies and an additional 96 officers on long-term medical or military leave, or restricted duty, Ms. Kelly says, citing numbers she received from the Austin Police Association.
City data shows Austin's population grew by more than 38,000 between 2019 and 2021. Fewer police are now being asked to do more for a bigger population. Meanwhile, violence has risen. By Sept. 14 Austin had recorded 61 homicides this year, up from 44 in all of 2020 and 33 in 2019, according to city data.
It's easy to defund and demoralize a police department but harder to rebuild one. The Austin Police Department has faced some public anger for announcing the emergency-response limitations, but it deserves credit for being honest with the public about the consequences of progressive policy. Those who don't like it can respond next month when they vote on Proposition A, which would require two officers for every 1,000 Austin residents.
Dead Drops in Half-Eaten Sandwiches, Gum Packages: FBI Unveils Plot to Sell US Nuclear Sub Secrets
Sun, 10 Oct 2021 21:55
Dead Drops in Half-Eaten Sandwiches, Gum Packages: FBI Unveils Plot to Sell US Nuclear Sub Secrets
Dead Drops in Half-Eaten Sandwiches, Gum Packages: FBI Unveils Plot to Sell US Nuclear Sub Secrets
Dead Drops in Half-Eaten Sandwiches, Gum Packages: FBI Unveils Plot to Sell US Nuclear Subs Secrets
The FBI jointly with the Naval Criminal Investigative Service (NCIS) has arrested a couple from Annapolis, Maryland, who are accused of attempting to sell classified data on nuclear submarine technologies '' specifically its propulsion and reactor systems '' to a foreign government.Jonathan Toebbe, who worked as a nuclear engineer at the Department of the Navy, and his wife Diana wanted to earn some extra money on the side, and so they decided to contact a foreign government with an exclusive offer '' to get their hands on information considered "restricted" under American law. The Department of Justice did not reveal which nation or nations Toebbe tried to reach out to '' just that he was eventually contacted. Only his contact was not a representative of a foreign government, as Jonathan believed, but an FBI agent.After sending a sample of "Restricted Data" to the undercover agent and receiving a "good faith" payment of $10,000 in an unspecified cryptocurrency, Toebbe struck a deal to exchange more pieces of classified info on US nuclear submarines for more crypto.During the summer of 2021, Jonathan Toebbe left three SD flash drives hidden in various objects - from half a peanut butter sandwich to a chewing gum package, which he left in pre-specified dead drops with his wife acting as a lookout. After leaving cards with classified info at dead drops he traded decryption keys for their contents for a total of $100,000 in cryptocurrency.Upon receiving money for the first two dead drops, Toebbe did not want to stop, going for a third '' and that's when the FBI decided to arrest him. Both Jonathan and Diana Toebbe were charged with violating the Atomic Energy Act - a piece of legislation protecting US nuclear technology secrets '' and will face a court for the first time on 12 October.
MIA 'Rosiya Segodnya''
MIA 'Rosiya Segodnya''
MIA 'Rosiya Segodnya''
us, espionage, classified documents, nuclear submarines
18:57 GMT 10.10.2021 (Updated: 18:58 GMT 10.10.2021 ) As Washington was preparing to arrange a sale of nuclear submarines to Australia, one of the country's nuclear engineers decided it was high time to make some money selling the same technology to other foreign countries.
The FBI jointly with the Naval Criminal Investigative Service (NCIS) has arrested a couple from Annapolis, Maryland, who are accused of attempting to
sell classified data on nuclear submarine technologies '' specifically its propulsion and reactor systems '' to a foreign government.
Jonathan Toebbe, who worked as a nuclear engineer at the Department of the Navy, and his wife Diana wanted to earn some extra money on the side, and so they decided to contact a foreign government with an exclusive offer '' to get their hands on information considered "restricted" under American law. The
Department of Justice did not reveal which nation or nations Toebbe tried to reach out to '' just that he was eventually contacted. Only his contact was not a representative of a foreign government, as Jonathan believed,
but an FBI agent.After sending a sample of "Restricted Data" to the undercover agent and receiving a "good faith" payment of $10,000 in an unspecified cryptocurrency, Toebbe struck a deal to exchange more pieces of classified info on US nuclear submarines for more crypto.
During the summer of 2021, Jonathan Toebbe left three SD flash drives hidden in various objects - from half a peanut butter sandwich to a chewing gum package, which he left in pre-specified dead drops with his wife acting as a lookout. After leaving cards with classified info at dead drops he traded decryption keys for their contents for a total of $100,000 in cryptocurrency.
Upon receiving money for the first two dead drops, Toebbe did not want to stop, going for a third '' and that's when the FBI decided to arrest him. Both Jonathan and Diana Toebbe were charged with violating the Atomic Energy Act - a piece of legislation protecting US nuclear technology secrets '' and will face a court for the first time on 12 October.
British Columbia woman awakes to a hole in her roof and a space rock on her pillow
Sun, 10 Oct 2021 21:54
(C) Ruth Hamilton The hole left in the ceiling, and the space rock that created it.
On Oct. 4, many were treated to the sight of a fireball lighting up the night sky, with images of a meteor sailing above Lake Louise striking awe.Longtime Golden resident Ruth Hamilton, however, was fast asleep.
Or at least she was until she was roughly awoken by the sound of a crash through her ceiling and the sensation of debris on her face."I just jumped up and turned on the light, I couldn't figure out what the heck had happened," said Hamilton.
She said she took a look around to get her bearings, and spotting a rock sitting neatly on her pillow next to where her head usually lays.
Hamilton called 911, unsure of what to make of the projectile. An police officer arrived on the scene, and after establishing that the rock was not there as a result of the ongoing construction in the Kicking Horse Canyon, they settled on the only other explanation - that a meteorite had come through her roof.
"We called the Canyon project to see if they were doing any blasting and they weren't, but they did say they had seen a bright light in the sky that had exploded and caused some booms," said Hamilton.
"I was shaking and scared when it happened, I thought someone had jumped in or it was a gun or something. It's almost a relief when we realized it could only have fallen out of the sky."
Hamilton says that she's totally fine and avoided any injuries, and that she plans to keep the rock for the foreseeable future, stating that her grandchildren think it's pretty cool.
"I'm just totally amazed over the fact that it is a star that came out of the sky, It's maybe billions of years old," said Hamilton.
She also says that the experience has given her a new perspective on life.
"The only other thing I can think of saying is life is precious and it could be gone at any moment even when you think you are safe and secure in your bed," said Hamilton.
"I hope I never ever take it for granted again."
As for the damage to her home, Hamilton says that her insurance company will be doing a walk-through to see if roof holes cause by space debris are covered. Evidently, the company has never had a claim filed quite like this before.
As for Hamilton, she has no plans to take up astrology or stargazing after her encounter.
"That's enough for a lifetime, I think," she said.