English to the Max 1,200 Questions That Will Maximize Your English Power



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English to the Max 1,200 Questions That Will Maximize Your English Power

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Copyright © 2008 LearningExpress, LLC.
All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. Published in the United
States by LearningExpress, LLC, New York.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data:
English to the max: 1,200 practice questions to maximize your English power.
p. cm.
ISBN978-1-57685-704-5 (1-57685-704-2)
1. English language—Examinations, questions, etc. I. LearningExpress (Organization) PE1114.E645 2008
Printed in the United States of America
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
First Edition
For more information or to place an order, contact LearningExpress at:
2 Rector Street
26th Floor
New York, NY 10006
Or visit us at:
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Introduction 1
Chapter 1: Punctuation Power-Up 3
Chapter 2: Agreement 19
Chapter 3: Modifiers—Are Yours Misplaced or Dangling?37
Chapter 4: Sentence Sense 45
Chapter 5: Building Paragraphs from the Ground Up 123
Chapter 6: Acing the Essay 179
Chapter 7: Writing Boot Camp 195
Chapter 8: Literary Response Writing Prompts 267
Chapter 9: Critical Reading 293
Glossary 429
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and inventor Benjamin Franklin once said: “Failing to prepare is preparing
to fail.” As Franklin astutely pointed out, preparation is the key to success. English to the Max:
1,200 Practice Questions to Maximize Your English Power prepares you for success by powering up
your verbal, reading, writing, and critical thinking skills through intensive English review and practice. Mas-
tering the assignments in this book will help you succeed on many levels: in your language arts classes, on assessment and entrance exams, in the data-driven multimedia college and workplace environment that you
will be entering in the near future, and as a lifelong learner. To help you reach your goals, this handbook offers
several features:
a streamlined review of punctuation, modifiers, subject-verb agreement, tense agreement, and antecedent-
pronoun agreement, with practice questions organized at increasing levels of difficulty
lessons on sentence structure basics and pointers on identifying contextual clues in sentence-completion
test questions
paragraph development lessons with practice exercises targeted at different skill levels
individualized mini-lessons and writing prompts for three common essay forms—persuasive, expository,
and narrative—including essay models and detailed rubrics for scoring
77 literary response writing prompts for use in timed practice writing sessions
a chapter on essay writing with guidelines for crafting first-rate introductory, supporting, and concluding
a revision checklist for use during essay writing practice
critical reading passages featuring intensive targeted reading and critical analysis practice
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supplementary “Get a Grip” grammar, research,
writing, and reading sidebars featuring useful
“Word Bite” definitions throughout the book
a multimedia grammar resource list
a vocabulary-building list of supplementary
multimedia resources
a literary devices crossword puzzle
a multicultural enrichment reading list featur-
ing titles geared to middle school to high school
detailed answer keys
a glossary
How should you use this book? First, set a goal.
What are you trying to achieve? By the time the mid-
dle school years roll around, most students are well
aware of their grasp of grammar (or lack thereof) or
their ability (or inability) to create a terrific lead sen-
tence. Are you an English hater? Would you rather
slurp curdled milk spiked with cayenne pepper than
write an essay? Or are you a book fiend who burns
through the reading list like a fire blazing through a
parched forest? Are you good at grammar? Do you
ace your essays? Now think about the areas where a
little extra rehab is needed. Do you need help un-
blocking writer’s block? Do you mangle your modi-
fiers? Do you know what a modifier is?
Unless you are in dire danger of failing a class be-
cause of a particularly weak area, it is strongly recom-
mended that you tackle the chapters in this book in
chronological order. LearningExpress encourages you
to highlight the tips and passages that are most essen-
tial to your particular area of focus. Don’t be afraid to
create graffiti around the borders of the pages by doo-
dling notes and spotlighting important passages with
gobs of neon highlighter. You might want to place a
double underline under the words or sentences that
you want to focus on or place your own personal notes
or symbols (such as +++▲$6Å##!?//<>) by impor-
tant words or sentences.
It’s also suggested that you purchase a minute
timer so that you can time your writing practices.
Timed writing practices ranging from 15 to 30 min-
utes will accustom you to outlining, brainstorming,
and writing under pressure.
English to the Max covers a lot of ground, but
if you really want to excel in your studies, it’s im-
portant to get into the habit of reading. Do you
read the daily newspaper? Read the movie reviews
and study the way the critic analyzes the movie fail-
ures and the movies that are destined for Oscar
gold. Do you like to read people’s opinions about
the latest news and events? Head straight to the edi-
torial section and dig right in! If you’ve had a bad
day at school and you need a laugh, the comics sec-
tion will cheer you up. And if you think that car-
toons are just for kids, you might be interested to
know that there are plenty of adults who enjoy
reading or watching their favorite cartoons. Bart
Simpson rules!
It is highly recommended that you supplement
the lessons and practice sessions in this book with at
least a half hour of supplementary reading per day. To
help you achieve your reading goals, we’ve included
an enrichment reading list in Chapter 9, “Critical
Reading,” to help you find appropriate reading selec-
tions. Enjoy!
Get a Grip Study Tip
While you are studying, it’s okay to listen to
soft classical music, but be sure to turn off
your cell phone and other electronic devices
until your study period is over.
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demands stronger reading and writing skills.
Being able to think clearly and to create interesting content is important. Having a good
grasp of the rules of punctuation is equally essential. You don’t have to love punctuation; you
just have to respect it a little. The best way to master punctuation and sentence mechanics is to learn the
basic rules and use those rules during daily writing practice. You might also consider taking passages from
books and copying them into your notebooks to reinforce the patterns of proper punctuation and sen-
tence structure.
Mastering the intricacies of the English language is a gradual process that will become easier and
more rewarding as your proficiency increases, and as you grow more confident in your abilities. Because
becoming an active reader and writer is crucial to achieving success in language arts, it is suggested that
you make reading and writing important parts of your daily activities by reading a wide variety of media
and by taking advantage of some of the supplementary material listed in the Chapter 3 resource list.
The following is a quick reference guide. We suggest you read the entire guide before moving on to
other sections.
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Period (.)
Periods signal that a sentence has come to a
complete stop. Sentences that do not require a
question mark or exclamation point should end
with a period.
A period is used to indicate a decimal. a GPA
of 3.9
A period separates dollars and cents. The
price of the loaf of bread is $2.89.
A period follows an initial in a name. Is
Robert W. Smith here today?
A period indicates that a word is being used in
abbreviated form. Diva Apparel & Accessory
Co., Inc.
Use a period to end a command. Take this
book to Mrs. Grundy’s office.
Use a period to separate letters in abbreviations.
.[common era]
Question Mark (?)
Always place a question mark at the end of a di-
rect question. What kind of maintenance
schedule should I follow?
When a question includes a direct quote, the
question mark of the overall sentence is placed
outside (after) the end quotation mark. Did
Mr. Keats say, “The reading assignment is due on
the last Friday of November”?
If a direct quotation is itself a question, the
question mark is placed inside (before) the end
quotation mark. Mark asked, “Does anyone
want more soda?”
Exclamation Point (!)
Place an exclamation point after a word, phrase,
or sentence that requires extra emphasis or one
that conveys an especially strong emotion. That car is speeding out of control!
Place an exclamation point after an interjection.
Exclamation marks are placed inside quotation
marks only when they are part of the direct
quote. Melissa screamed “Help!” when her bi-
cycle’s rain-soaked brakes unexpectedly failed.
Quotation Marks (“”)
When using a direct quote from an outside
source, place double quotation marks around
the speaker’s words, and use a comma or colon
directly before the quote. The local news an-
chor reported: “Retailers are responding to lack-
luster consumer spending by slashing prices on
apparel, electronics, and household goods.”
The titles of chapters, articles, poems, songs,
and short stories require quotation marks. “The Road Not Taken”
The rules of American standard English dictate
that periods and commas are always placed in-
side (before) end quotation marks, whereas
sentence structure determines placement of
other punctuation, such as question marks and
colons. “I like to listen to hip-hop classics by
Tupac Shakur, Ice Cube, and Eminem,” said Lisa.
When punctuating dialogue—conversations
between two or more speakers—enclose each
speaker’s words in quotation marks.
Use single quotation marks when enclosing
quoted material inside a direct quotation. When John and I discussed the writings of Henry
David Thoreau, he remarked, “I especially appre-
ciate Thoreau’s sentiment: ‘The bluebird carries
the sky on his back.’ ”
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Semicolon (;)
Use a semicolon to separate individual items or
word groups in a series containing commas. Field trips are planned for Monday, May 5; Tues-
day, May 6; and Wednesday, May 7.
Use a semicolon before adverbial connectives
such as however, nevertheless, and therefore join-
ing together two independent clauses. Cheryl
tried out for cheerleading with her arm in a cast;
nevertheless, her routine dazzled the judges.
Colon (:)
Use a colon directly in front of a listing of a se-
ries of items. While I was at the supermarket,
I picked up the following: cheese, rolls, pie, and
bottled water.
A colon separates hours and minutes. Let’s
meet for lunch at 1:30 P
A colon can be substituted for a comma before
a direct quote. Ms. Jones said: “Students who
are missing more than five homework assign-
ments will have points taken off their final
To separate biblical chapter and verse, a colon is
used after the chapter, with the verse appearing
directly after the colon.Isaiah 61:3
A colon is placed at the end of the salutation
line in a formal letter. Dear Mr. Smythe:
A colon separates the city and publisher in a
bibliographical citation or note. New York:
Alfred A. Knopf
Use a colon between titles and subtitles.
Apostrophe (’)
Use an apostrophe when letters have been
deleted. It’s [It is] time for a change.
An apostrophe is used with an s at the end of a
word in order to indicate ownership. On the
day she was absent, Ms. Carlson’s homeroom class
was very unruly.
Only an apostrophe is added to a plural word
ending with an s to indicate ownership. The
books’ pages were scattered across the floor.
Comma (,)
The best way to learn to use commas properly is to
study and imitate proper comma usage in model sen-
tences. Reinforce your comma punctuation skills by
reading the specific rule for each situation and then
practicing what you’ve learned by copying each
model sentence five times in the spaces provided.
Rule: Place a comma before a coordinating
conjunction (and, or, but, nor, so, for, yet) joining
two or more independent clauses.
Model sentence:
I was going to go to the party, but I fell asleep
while watching television.
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Rule: Place a comma between all of the items in a list.
Model sentence: She shopped for paper plates, napkins, cups,
and plastic spoons.
Rule: Place a comma directly after tags or phrases
preceding direct quotations.
Model sentence: The author of the best-selling novel declared, “I
can’t wait to start working on my next book.”
Rule: Place a comma between dates, addresses, and
Model sentence: Robert Smith, PhD, received his doctoral degree
on May 14, 2007.
Rule: Set off nonrestrictive appositives and
nonessential phrases and clauses by placing a
comma on both sides. (Do not use commas with restrictive appositives such as the poet Robert Frost.)
Model sentence: Will’s girlfriend, Halle [nonrestrictive
appositive], whom he has dated for two years
[nonessential clause], doesn’t know how to
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Rule: Place a comma directly after conjunctive
adverbs and transitional phrases, such as however,
also, then, therefore, for instance, in conclusion, in
fact, and for example.
Model sentence: In fact, the black shoes are handcrafted in Italy.
Rule: Use a comma after an introductory adverbial
clause or a prepositional phrase.
Model sentence: Under the decaying front porch, we discovered
a box filled with books and old letters.
Rule: Place a comma within (before) the end
quotation mark of a direct quote preceding a tag
(unless the quote ends with a question mark or an
exclamation point).
Model sentence: “I’m going on vacation next week,” said Tanya.
Hyphen (-)
Use a hyphen whenever two or more words are
joined together to serve as an adjective directly
before a noun (unless the first word ends in -ly).
The well-regarded teacher was honored for his
exceptionally hard work and dedication.
Use a hyphen when writing out fractions and
compound numbers.I spent one-third of my
allowance on books and DVDs.
Use a hyphen with compound nouns. My
sister-in-law works at the local mall.
If a word is not listed in the dictionary as a
compound word (for example, notebook or
self-esteem), write it as two separate words
(for example, test taker).
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Place parentheses around letters or numbers
that mark divisions in a series. The main
rules of the class are the following: (1) don’t
speak when someone else is speaking, (2) act re-
spectfully toward your teacher and your class-
mates, and (3) work hard and complete all of
your assignments.
Use parentheses to enclose supplementary ma-
terial. Dorothy (Mrs. Thomas) Walker, an an-
imal welfare activist, recently adopted an elderly
mixed-breed dog from the local animal shelter.
Ellipsis Points (...)
Ellipsis points signify that material has been
omitted from the middle of a quotation, but
they are normally not placed at the beginning or
end of a quotation. In his play Uncle Vanya,
Anton Chekhov wrote: “Man has been endowed
with reason, with the power to create ... but up to
now he hasn’t been a creator, only a destroyer.”
Practi ce Questi ons
Choose the punctuation mark that is needed in each
of the following sentences. If no additional punctua-
tion is needed, choose e.
1.“It isn’t fair!” shouted Martin. Coach Lewis
never lets me start the game!”
e.correct as is
2.Maureen’s three sisters, Molly, Shannon, and
Patricia are all spending the summer at their
grandmother’s beach house.
e.correct as is
Comma Use and Abuse
Some writers sprinkle commas into their
writing like Parmesan cheese over a plate of
spaghetti or sprinkles onto a cake. Yikes!
The best way to avoid this type of comma
abuse is to ask yourself the following ques-
tion before using a comma: What specific
punctuation rule applies to this particular sit-
uation? If a rule doesn’t fit the situation, you
might be creating a dreaded comma splice
by placing a comma between two independ-
ent clauses that are direly in need of a coor-
dinating conjunction (there are seven of
them: and, but, for, or, nor, so, and yet).
Get a Grip on
Help!! Writer Wigs Out on Exclamation Points!
Exclamation points are like cayenne pepper—
use them to add a dash of excitement, but
don’t be heavy-handed or they will irritate
the reader. If you have used more than one
exclamation point on a page, focus instead
on revising to make more precise word
choices that will interject your writing with
the same degree of enthusiasm that you are
hoping to achieve by using exclamation
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3.For the centerpieces, the florist recommended
the following flowers daisies, tulips, daffodils,
and hyacinths.
e.correct as is
4.Lily is an accomplished gymnast she won
three medals in her last competition.
e.correct as is
5.Everyone was shocked when Max Smithfield—
a studious, extremely bright high school senior
decided that college was not for him.
e.correct as is
6.Kims assistant, usually so reliable, has been
late for work three times this week, without
any excuse.
e.correct as is
7.Before sending out invitations, Margo checked
the party date with her mother-in-law.
e.correct as is
8.“I remember” Luis recollected, “the first time I
was allowed to walk home from school by
e.correct as is
9.Madeline Larkin our office manager, is the
most organized person I’ve ever known.
e.correct as is
10.I spend most of my time at the gym on the
treadmill walking is my favorite form of exercise.
e.correct as is
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Choose the alternative that shows the best punctua-
tion for the underlined part of the sentence. If the
sentence is correct as is, choose e
11.Simone bought three new pairs of shoes even
though she
had put herself on a tight budget
just last week.
a.shoes, even though, she
b.shoes, even though she
c.shoes. Even though she
d.shoes; even though she
e.correct as is
12.Most residents of the building have air condi
tioners however I’ve
always found that a
ceiling fan is sufficient.
a.air conditioners however: I’ve
b.air conditioners, however, I’ve
c.air conditioners however, I’ve
d.air conditioners; however, I’ve
e.correct as is
13.“Are you okay,” asked Timothy, “Are
you sure
you don’t want to sit down and rest for a
a.okay?” asked Timothy. “Are
b.okay?” asked Timothy, “Are
c.okay,” asked Timothy? “Are
d.okay?” asked Timothy? “Are
e.correct as is
14.The owners of the restaurant maintain that only
organic ingredients are used in their kitchen.
a.maintain, that only
b.maintain that, only
c.maintain: that only
d.maintain—that only
e.correct as is
15.Before the student could be hired by the com
pany, the students
adviser had to provide a
letter of recommendation.
a.company the students
b.company, the student’s
c.company, the students’
d.company the students’
e.correct as is
16.The volunteers who would like to work the
morning shift
should sign their names on this
a.volunteers, who would like to work the
morning shift
b.volunteers who would like to work the
morning shift,
c.volunteers, who would like to work the
morning shift,
d.volunteers who, would like to work the
morning shift,
e.correct as is
17.The employees asked whether the company
would be offering tuition reimbursement
within the next three years?
a.reimbursement within the next three years!
b.reimbursement, within the next three years.
c.reimbursement within the next three years.
d.reimbursement, within the next three years?
e.correct as is
18.This is the new restaurant you’ve been talking
about, isn’t it?
a.about isn’t it?
b.about, is’nt it?
c.about, isn’t it.
d.about isn’t it.
e.correct as is
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19.Turnips a root vegetable
can be mashed,
roasted, or used in casseroles.
a.Turnips, a root vegetable,
b.Turnips, a root vegetable
c.Turnips, a root vegetable—
d.Turnips a root vegetable,
e.correct as is
20.They met for the first time on August 27, 1972
in Seattle, WA.
a.August 27 1972 in Seattle, WA.
b.August 27 1972, in Seattle WA.
c.August 27, 1972 in Seattle, WA.
d.August 27, 1972, in Seattle, WA.
e.correct as is
Capi tal i zati on
Don’t Capitalize
the seasons of the year spring, summer, fall,
written-out references to specific dates of the
month the tenth day of February
geographical directions I told him to drive
the first word in a quotation that is written as a
phrase instead of a complete sentence He
said that he would prefer to “spend some time at
the shore” during the summer months.
the names of academic subjects, unless they are
languages such as English or titles of academic
courses second-year calculus; Advanced Cal-
culus II
the first letter(s) of words of an academic de-
gree bachelor of arts
prepositions, conjunctions, and articles in a
book or article title, unless they appear as the
first or last word
Do Capitalize
the first letter(s) of proper nouns referring to
specific beings, places, and things such as the
names of continents, countries, states, cities,
races, nationalities, religions, and languages
the first letter(s) of the names of months, week-
days, and holidays New Year’s Day
the first word of a sentence School is in ses-
sion today.
the first letter(s) of the name of a geographical
location She left for a business trip out West.
the first letter of an individual’s first, middle,
and last names President John Quincy Adams
the first letter(s) in the name of an animal My cat is named Miss Kitty.
the first letter of the first word of a direct quota-
tion that is written as a complete sentence Principal Roberts said, “Research indicates that
an extended school day increases academic
all of the letters in an acronym ASPCA
the first letter in each word of an organization’s
name American Red Cross
the pronoun I I am going to school early today.
the first letter in the first, last, and major words
in the title of a book, magazine, computer soft-
ware program, poem, story, play, song title, film,
or work of art (However, the titles of certain po-
ems, magazines, and such are sometimes typed
completely in lowercase letters for artistic effect.)
the first letter(s) of a brand name Crest
the first letter(s) of the name of a river, ocean,
or other large body of water Mississippi River
the first letter in Mother, Father, Dad, Mom,
Grandfather, Grandma, and so on if they are
not preceded by a possessive noun or pronoun
I met Dad in front of the diner.
the first letter(s) in a company name General
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the first letter(s) in the name of a school, col-
lege, or university Columbia University
the first letter(s) of the names of streets, build-
ings, and institutions when they are part of a
proper noun Wall Street; White House
the first word of each item in an outline Introduction
1. Chapter 1
2. Chapter 2
Examples of Capitalization in Titles
Amelia Rules!(comic book)
American Idol (television show)
“Casey at the Bat” (poem by Ernest Lawrence
Girl with a Pearl Earring (work of art by Johannes
The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy (book by Douglas Adams)
March of the Penguins (film)
Paradise Lost (lengthy poem by John Milton)
Popular Science (periodical)
A Raisin in the Sun (play by Lorraine Hansberry)
“The Tell-Tale Heart” (short story by Edgar Allan Poe)
“What a Wonderful World” (song)
Zone Alarm Internet Security Suite 7 (software)
Practi ce Questi ons
For the following questions, choose the lettered part
of the sentence that contains a word that needs a cap-
ital letter. If no additional words should be capital-
ized, choose e. Refer to the preceding checklists if you
want to be certain about your choice.
21.Last week, | dr. Tanya Miller received | a b
a special award from the | city of Atlanta. | c d
Correct as is
22.The new bakery | in the center of town | a b
sells a wide assortment | of italian pastries. | c d
Correct as is
23.Michael Blake, jr., | a
is such an accomplished golfer | b
that he won three tournaments | in a row. | c d
Correct as is
24.Catherine complained loudly, | a
“why can’t you ever | pick me up on time | b c
in the morning?” | Correct as is
d e
25.The Declaration of Independence | a
is one of the most important | b
documents in the history | of the United States.
c d
Correct as is
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26.Sally’s Sweet shop, | a
one of the oldest businesses in town, | b
is located on one of the main streets | c
of Millersville. | Correct as is
d e
27.My first childhood pet, | a gray cat named otis, a b
| was given to me as a gift | on my fifth birthday. | c d
Correct as is
28.The local elementary school | a
is organizing a screening | b
of the movie toy story | as a fund-raiser. | c d
Correct as is
For each question, find the sentence that has a mis-
take in capitalization or punctuation. If you find no
mistakes, mark choice d.
29.a.My least favorite season is Winter.
b.Next Friday, Uncle Jake is coming to visit.
c.Maureen served as treasurer for the
women’s organization.
d.no mistakes
30.a.“Can you attend next week’s meeting?” she
b.His new car was damaged in the accident.
c.The girls’ giggled through the whole movie.
d.no mistakes
31.a.Leo told her, to call the customer service
department in the morning.
b.She put up signs all over town, but she didn’t get any response.
c.Occasionally, her neighbors ask her to feed
their cat.
d.no mistakes
32.a.Did you see all three movies about Shrek?
b.She was given an award by mayor Chambers.
c.Math and science are my two best subjects.
d.no mistakes
33.a.A major highway is being built on the out-
skirts of town.
b.When you reach the traffic light on Berk-
shire Road, turn right onto Springfield
c.We were staying at my sister’s cape Cod
vacation home.
d.no mistakes
34.a.The instructor asked us if we needed more
b.Carla’s mother is a pediatric dentist.
c.Every item in the store costs less than a
d.no mistakes
35.a.Jane’s family owned three Persian cats.
b.My Uncle always takes the subway to Yan-
kee Stadium.
c.Everyone knows that Marisa’s favorite book
is Pride and Prejudice.
d.no mistakes
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36.a.“I’ll do the grocery shopping for you,
grandma,” Lucy said.
b.“Where can I find the best pizza in town?”
he asked.
c.“Be sure to arrive two hours early,” she
d.no mistakes
37.a.I always have a hard time getting up in the
morning. b.We took: a tent, a cooler, and a sleeping bag.
c.The fog was as thick as potato soup.
d.no mistakes
38.a.This is someone elses coat.
b.Which of these songs was recorded by
Bruce Springsteen?
c.That book must be yours.
d.no mistakes
39.a.Don’t stand in my way.
b.Cecilia and I fought our way through the
c.The vegetables were old rubbery and tasteless.
d.no mistakes
40.a.Remember to walk the dog.
b.“Don’t run”! Mr. Ellington shouted.
c.It’s supposed to snow today and tomorrow.
d.no mistakes
41.a.Charleen’s parents worried whenever she
drove the car.
b.Who designed the Brooklyn Bridge?
c.Diseases like Smallpox and Polio have been
virtually eradicated.
d.no mistakes
42.a.Can you find the Indian ocean on this
b.Which river, the Nile or the Amazon, is
c.Lerner Avenue runs into the Thompson
d.no mistakes
43.a.He’s the best dancer in the school.
b.We were planning to go, but the meeting
was canceled.
c.“Okay,” she said, I’ll go with you.”
d.no mistakes
44.a.Does Judge Parker live on your street?
b.Twenty government officials met to deal
with Wednesday’s crisis.
c.The Mayor spoke at a news conference this
d.no mistakes
45.a.My brother Isaac is the best player on the
Because of the high cost; we decided not to go.
c.Where’s your new puppy?
d.no mistakes
46.a.I have learned to appreciate Mozart’s music.
b.My cousin Veronica is studying to be a Veterinarian.
c.Mr. Shanahan is taller than Professor Martin.
d.no mistakes
ETTM_01_001_036.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 1:50 PM Page 14
47.a.“You look just like your mother,” Ms. Jones
told me.
b.“Please be careful,” he said.
c.Tyler asked, “why do I have to go to bed so
d.no mistakes
48.a.Do you prefer root beer or orange soda?
b.In which year did world war II end?
c.I like to study the geography of the Everglades.
d.no mistakes
49.a.Colds like many other viruses are highly
b.Call me when you feel better.
c.Did you wash your hands, Michael?
d.no mistakes
50.a.The industrial revolution began in Europe.
b.Is Labor Day a national holiday?
c.General Patton was a four-star general.
d.no mistakes
51.a.Carmen brought bread, and butter, and
strawberry jam.
b.Let’s look at the map.
c.Be sure to thank Aunt Helen for the gift.
d.no mistakes
52.a.My Aunt Georgia loves to read Eighteenth-
Century novels.
b.Eli’s sister’s cousin lives in Alaska.
c.Is that a German shepherd?
d.no mistakes
53.a.Those shoes are too expensive.
b.Michael’s best friend is Patrick.
c.Did you hear that Inez got a new puppy.
d.no mistakes
Questions 54–57 are based on the following passage.
First, read the passage; then, choose the alternative
that shows the best capitalization or punctuation for
each underlined part.
Madam Helena P. Blavatsky born
in Russia on
May 8, 1831, claimed to have psychic powers
and to be capable of performing feats of
clairvoyance and telepathy. During her 60 years,
she traveled to many countries—including
United States, England, India, and Egypt—in
order to study the occult. Although many
considered her a fake throughout
her lifetime
she was surrounded by faithful believers,
including such influential persons as British
statesman Allen O. Hume and Swedish countess
Constance Wachtmeister. To this day, followers
commemorate the date of her death calling
May 8 “White Lotus Day.”
54.a.Blavatsky: born
c.Blavatsky, born
d.Blavatsky. Born
e.correct as is
55.a.countries, including
b.countries: including
c.countries. Including
d.countries including
e.correct as is
ETTM_01_001_036.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 1:50 PM Page 15
56.a.fake, throughout
b.fake. Throughout
c.fake: throughout
d.fake; throughout
e.correct as is
57.a.death. Calling
b.death, calling
c.death: calling
d.death; calling
e.correct as is
Questions 58–61 are based on the following passage.
First, read the passage; then, choose the alternative
that shows the best capitalization or punctuation for
each underlined part.
312 Maple Avenue
Chicago, IL 60632
June 2, 2006
Mark Franklin, general manager
Wholesome Food Store
1245 Main Street
Chicago, IL 60627
dear Mr. Franklin;
I am writing to complain about the behavior of
one of your sales clerks. On Monday May 22nd
I visited your store to return a package of
ground turkey that I had purchased the day
before. When I explained to your sales clerk that
the expiration date on the package was May 1st,
she was extremely rude and she
refused to
refund my money. This is not the kind of
treatment I expect from your fine
establishment. I hope you will make restitution
and have a discussion with your staff about
customer service. My receipt is enclosed.
Sincerely yours,
Melanie Jeffords
58.a.Franklin, general Manager
b.franklin, General Manager
c.Franklin, General Manager
d.Franklin, General manager
e.correct as is
59.a.Dear Mr. Franklin.
b.Dear, Mr. franklin,
c.dear Mr. Franklin:
d.Dear Mr. Franklin:
e.correct as is
60.a.Monday, May 22nd I
b.Monday May 22nd; I
c.Monday. May 22nd I
d.Monday, May 22nd, I
e.correct as is
61.a.extremely rude, and she
b.extremely rude: and she
c.extremely rude? And she
d.extremely rude and, she
e.correct as is
ETTM_01_001_036.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 1:50 PM Page 16
1.d.There should be a quotation mark before
the word Coach to set off the dialogue.
2.d.Commas set off nonrestrictive appositives,
phrases that say the same thing as the pre-
vious phrase in different words. (A comma
should be placed after Patricia.)
3.a.A colon can go before a list. (Place a colon
after the word flowers.)
4.a.A semicolon can be used to separate two
main clauses that could each stand alone as
complete sentences.
5.c.Dashes can be used to set off a parentheti-
cal element, for emphasis. (Place another
em dash after the word senior.)
6.a.The possessive Kim’s requires an
7.e.This sentence is punctuated correctly.
8.b.Commas set off parenthetical elements and
always go inside the quotation marks in a
line of dialogue. (Place a comma after the
word remember.)
9.d.Commas set off a word or phrase that
describes the subject but does not alter the
meaning of the entire sentence. (Place a
comma after the word Larkin.)
10.c.A semicolon can be used to separate two
main clauses that could each stand alone as
complete sentences. (Place the semicolon
after the word treadmill.)
11.b.The comma separates the main clause from
the long, descriptive subordinate clause.
12.d.The semicolon can be used to separate two
main clauses that could each stand alone as
complete sentences, and the comma follows
the conjunctive adverb however.
13.a.The quotation is a question, and the tag
asked Timothy ends the sentence.
14.e.The sentence is punctuated correctly.
15.b.The word student’s is possessive and needs
an apostrophe.
16.e.The sentence does not require any addi-
tional punctuation.
17.c.This is a declarative sentence; it asks an
indirect question, so a question mark
should not be used. Also, to add the comma
is incorrect.
18.e.The sentence is punctuated correctly.
19.a.The phrase a root vegetable is a nonessential
element in the sentence and needs to be set
off with commas.
20.d.Commas separate dates and addresses.
A title, such as Dr., requires a capital.
22.d.Nationalities and languages require
23.a.Jr.is a kind of title and therefore takes a
24.b.The first letter of a direct quotation takes a
25.e.Capitalization is correct.
26.a.All words in the proper name of a place or
company require capitals.
27.b.Proper names require capitals.
28.c.Movie titles are capitalized.
29.a.Winter should not be capitalized.
30.c.There should not be an apostrophe after
the word girls.
31.a.The comma is incorrect and should be
32.b.Mayor should be capitalized because it
refers to a particular mayor.
33.c.Cape Cod is a proper noun, and both words
should be capitalized.
34.a.This is a declarative sentence that asks an
indirect question, so the question mark
should be replaced with a period.
ETTM_01_001_036.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 1:50 PM Page 17
35.b.Uncle is not used as a proper noun and
should not be capitalized.
36.a.Grandma is used as a proper name and
should be capitalized.
37.b.A colon should not be used between a verb
and its objects.
38.a.There should be an apostrophe in the word
else’s, which is possessive.
39.c.The commas are missing from this series of adjectives.
40.b.The quotation mark should appear on the
outside of the exclamation point: “Don’t
41.c.The word polio and smallpox should not be
capitalized. Diseases are not capitalized
unless a proper noun is part of the name.
42.a.Ocean should be capitalized.
43.c.To set off the dialogue, there should be a
quotation mark before the word I’ll.
44.c.Mayor should not be capitalized, because it
does not precede the name of a particular
45.b.A semicolon is not used between a depend-
ent and an independent clause. Use a
46.b.Veterinarian is not a proper noun and
should not be capitalized.
47.c.The word Why, which begins the quota-
tion, should be capitalized.
48.b.World War is a proper noun and should be capitalized.
49.a.The phrase like many other viruses should
be set off by commas because it is a
nonessential element in the sentence.
50.a.Industrial Revolution should be capitalized.
51.a.The commas in this sentence should be
deleted. Commas are not used in a series
when the series is already linked by conjunctions.
52.a.The names of centuries are not capitalized.
53.c.This sentence asks a question and should
end with a question mark.
54.c.Commas are used to set off a word or
phrase that describes the subject but does
not alter the meaning of the entire sentence.
55.e.Dashes are used to set off parenthetical ele-
ments, for emphasis.
56.a.The comma is used after an introductory
57.b.The comma separates the main clause from
the descriptive subordinate clause.
58.c.Titles require capitals.
59.d.First words of salutations, titles, and proper
names all take capitals; a colon follows the
salutation in a business letter.
60.d.Commas set off parenthetical elements.
61.a.A comma goes before and when and links
two main clauses.
ETTM_01_001_036.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 1:50 PM Page 18
“Birds of a feather flock together” definitely applies to present tense subject-verb
agreement; singular subjects pair up with singular verb tenses and plural subjects pair with
plural verbs. In other words, a singular person or thing requires a singular verb, while more
than one person or thing requires a plural verb.
“The neighbor’s dog [singular subject] is [singular verb] barking” is an example of singular subject-
verb agreement, while “the neighbor’s dogs [plural subject] are [plural verb] barking” is an example of
plural subject-verb agreement. A verb must always agree with its subject, even if the subject appears after
the verb.
The previous example of subject-verb agreement is relatively clear-cut; however, there are cases in
which determining subject-verb agreement gets a lot trickier. The following are general guidelines that
will keep your subjects and verbs in good standing.
Collective nouns are the nouns that refer to a group of people or things as a singular unit. For exam-
ple, we use the collective noun fish to refer to a single filet or several pounds. We use the collective noun
rice to refer to a single grain or an entire bowlful, and when we say lettuce,we could be referring to one
ETTM_01_001_036.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 1:50 PM Page 19
leaf of lettuce or an entire head. Some frequently
used collective nouns are work, traffic, mail, news, fur-
niture, equipment, plastic, rain, silver, air, gasoline,
sugar, water, wine, tea, and coffee.
Since collective nouns are perceived as one lone
unit, they usually require a singular verb. The
staff [collective noun] is [singular verb] partici-
pating in a fund-raising marathon.
Compound subjects (subject words separated
by the word and) are plural and require plural
verbs. Beans and rice [compound subject]
were [plural verb] on sale at the market last week.
Exception: When beans and rice are viewed as a
single dish (single subject), the verb is singular.
Beans and rice is my favorite dish.
Indefinite pronouns such as much, each, any-
body, anyone, no one, someone, and everyone re-
quire a singular verb.
When money or time is the subject, use a singu-
lar verb if you are writing about a total amount
of time or money and a plural verb when you
are writing about individual units. Singular:
I thought that a million dollars [singular unit to-
tal amount] was an outrageous price to pay for
that painting.Plural: Thousands of dollars [indi-
vidual units] were wasted on repairs for the ar-
chaic building.
When the subject of a sentence is uncountable,
such as the number of tea leaves or coffee grains
in a container of tea or coffee, the verb is singu-
lar. The tea [uncountable subject] has mysteri-
ously vanished from the pantry.
The most important thing that you must re-
member about tense agreement is that past and pres-
ent events can’t be occurring at the same time, so be
sure to use either all past tense or all present tense for
events occurring in the same time frame.
Get a Grip Grammar Tips
Forever-Single Pronouns
The following pronouns are always singular:
one, someone, somebody, anyone, anybody,
no one, nobody, everyone, everybody, each,
either, and neither.
Birds of a Feather Flock Together
Since repetition is essential to memorization,
post this list in a place where you will see it
at least a dozen times in the next month.
The plural pronouns many, both, few,
and several must be matched with
plural verbs.
When two subjects are joined by
and, use a plural verb.
ETTM_01_001_036.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 1:50 PM Page 20
Practi ce Questi ons
For the following questions, choose the underlined
part of the sentence that contains a grammatical er-
ror. If there are no errors, choose e.
62.Every year, a few committed
citizens exceeds a b
our expectations and
work tirelessly c
to improve
our community programs in d
significant ways. No error
63.Each of
the employees have had
a half-hour
a b c
evaluation meeting with
his or her supervisor. d
No error
64.Here are
one of the three keys
you will need
to a b c
unlock the office door tomorrow
. No error
d e
65.Soon after Donovan left to walk
to work, he
a b
realized that
he would forget
his umbrella. c d
No error
66.Someone from
the garage phoned to say
a b c
the car had been fixed and asking
if we would d
pick it up by 5:00. No error
67.In 1963, Betty Friedan’s
exposé of domesticity, a b
The Feminine Mystique, became an immediate
best-seller and creating
a national sensation. d
No error
68.The staff at the university
library deserve
a b
recognition for helping to locate
the c
many sources needed
for the successful d
completion of my doctoral dissertation. No error
on the Great Plains
had to build a b
homes, find water in a semiarid
land, c
and to learn
to understand the blessings of the
environment. No error
the winter season, homeowners should a
change their
disposable furnace filters at least b
once a month; a
dirty filter reduce
furnace c d
efficiency. No error
the film, I begun
to ask myself
why I a b c
cared about these characters
when I felt such d
an intense unease. No error
ETTM_01_001_036.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 1:50 PM Page 21
Fill in the blank with the correct verb form.
72.On March 15, 2006, the Maywood Recreation
Department requested a grant from the state
to rebuild the community center that
_____________ in the recent fire.
b.will be destroyed
c.had been destroyed
d.is being destroyed
73.We have _____________ more sweets since
that wonderful bakery opened down the
b.been eating
c.been eat
74.While attempting to _____________ his bro-
ken bicycle, Leo Donner realized that he didn’t
have the proper tools.
a.be repairing
b.have repaired
75._____________ the police immediately.
c.Been calling
d.To call
76.The biggest problem with Martha’s garden
_____________ too many weeds.
a.will have been
c.will have
77.Last week, Tracy and Shane were honored at a
luncheon for their part in rescuing a child
who _____________ into an icy pond.
b.would fall
c.had fallen
d.has fallen
78.The woman who confronted the owner of the
unleashed dog _____________ angry.
d.have been
79.The boy _____________ the bat and ran to
first base as fast as he could.
80.There _____________ four excellent restau-
rants in the center of town.
81.The noise from the lawn mowers
_____________ louder as the morning progresses.
c.have gotten
d.are getting
ETTM_01_001_036.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 1:50 PM Page 22
Replace the underlined words with the phrase that
best completes the sentence. If the sentence is correct
as is, choose a.
82.The words Equal Justice Under Law is carved
above the main entrance to the Supreme
a.correct as is
c.has been carved
d.are carved
e.been carved
83.A corporation created by the federal govern-
ment during the Great Depression, the
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is responsi-
ble for flood control, must generate electric
power, and soil conservation.
a.correct as is
b.flood control, generating electric power,
and for soil conservation.
c.controlling floods, generating electric
power, and soil conservation.
d.flood control, the generation of electric
power, and soil conservation.
e.flood control, for the generation of electric
power, and conserving the soil.
84.According to traditional Chinese medicine,
people with healthy livers are said to be calm
and that they possess
unerring judgment.
a.correct as is
b.are said to be calm and to possess
c.said to be calm and possessing
d.have said to be calm and to possess
e.are said to be calm and possessive of
85.When the phone is ringing, Jacoby had been
in his journal.
a.correct as is
b.rings, Jacoby was writing
c.rang, Jacoby was writing
d.had rung, Jacoby was writing
e.rang, Jacoby will be writing
86.To determine the speed of automobiles, radar
is often used by the state police.
a.correct as is
b.To determine the speed of automobiles, it is often necessary for the state police to
use radar.
c.In determining the speed of automobiles,
the use of radar by state police is often employed.
d.To determine the speed of automobiles, the
state police often use radar.
e.Radar by state police in determining the
speed of automobiles is often used. 87.I have a cross-training exercise program: I swim laps, play tennis, the weight machines,
and bicycle riding.
a.correct as is
b.I swim laps, play tennis, lift weights, and
ride a bicycle.
c.I swim laps, play tennis, I lift weights, and
bicycle riding is a change.
d.swimming laps, tennis, lifting weights, and
the bicycle.
e.swim laps, play tennis, lifting weights, and
riding a bicycle.
ETTM_01_001_036.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 1:50 PM Page 23
88.We all arrived at the theater on time, but
before we bought our tickets, Candace says
that she’s changed her mind and doesn’t
to see the movie after all.
a.correct as is
b.said that she had changed her mind and didn’t
c.is saying that she’d changed her mind and doesn’t
d.told us that she is changing her mind and didn’t
e.tells us that she had changed her mind and doesn’t
89.Because he was given a local anesthetic, Josh
was conscience throughout the operation.
a.correct as is
b.Josh had a conscience during the operation.
c.the operation was completed with Josh consciousness.
d.the operation was done while Josh held consciousness.
e.Josh remained conscious throughout the operation.
Find the sentence that has a mistake in grammar or
usage. If you find no mistakes, mark choice d.
90.a.No, it’s not true.
b.The curtain closed, and the people will applaud.
c.My sister is a nurse practitioner.
d.no mistakes
91.a.They talked through the entire movie.
b.The plants in this garden does not require
much water.
c.She always brings turkey sandwiches for
d.no mistakes
92.a.Where are Gianna’s art supplies?
b.Darren should of been given a chance to
c.It’s going to take all day.
d.no mistakes
93.a.Olivia took her older sister out for lunch.
b.Nicholas is learning to speak German.
c.Franklin drunk three bottles of water after
the game.
d.no mistakes
94.a.She showed us five different shades of blue paint.
b.The liveliest one of the three puppies are
not adopted yet.
c.This is the best birthday party I have ever had.
d.no mistakes
95.a.When I go the museum, I wore comfortable shoes.
b.She was approached, but she declined the offer.
c.There are seven floors in this building.
d.no mistakes
96.a.David and Mickey danced in the street.
b.Here is the photographs I wanted to show
c.My grandfather owns a 1967 Mustang.
d.no mistakes
97.a.It has not rained since last April.
b.The jurors walked solemnly into the room.
c.Had we known, we would not have come.
d.no mistakes
ETTM_01_001_036.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 1:50 PM Page 24
98.a.The dog’s barking woke us.
b.Ursula has broke one of your plates.
c.The sun rose from behind the mountain.
d.no mistakes
99.a.After we sat down to eat dinner, the phone
b.“Keep a positive attitude,” he always says.
c.Sign here.
d.no mistakes
100.a.The children’s books are over there.
b.She missed the bus and arrives late.
c.There is hardly enough food for a mouse.
d.no mistakes
101.a.The winners were announced yesterday.
b.Liam was the only one of the boys who
were chosen.
c.Although Nick was not selected, he was
happy for the others.
d.no mistakes
102.a.He shook the crumbs from the tablecloth.
b.We will strive to do our best.
c.I see that Fred has wore his old shoes.
d.no mistakes
103.a.When I heard the alarm, I jump out of bed.
b.Mr. Fox is the president of his own company.
c.At night, I listen to jazz on the radio.
d.no mistakes
Choose the sentence that is the most clearly written
and has the best construction.
104.a.All the children got out their rugs and took
a nap.
b.All the children have gotten out their rugs
and took a nap.
c.All the children got out their rugs and have
taken a nap.
d.All the children gotten out their rugs and
taken a nap.
105.a.At first I was liking the sound of the wind,
but later it got on my nerves.
b.At first I liked the sound of the wind, but
later it has gotten on my nerves.
c.At first I like the sound of the wind, but
later it got on my nerves.
d.At first I liked the sound of the wind, but
later it got on my nerves.
106.a.As the old saying goes, a cat may look at
a king.
b.A cat looking at a king, according to the old saying.
c.The old saying being, a cat may look at a king.
d.A cat looking at a king, in the old saying.
107.a.A longer happier life, caused by one’s own-
ing a pet.
b.Owning a pet, for one to live a longer, hap-
pier life.
c.To live a longer, happier life by one’s own-
ing a pet.
d.Owning a pet can help one live a longer,
happier life.
ETTM_01_001_036.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 1:50 PM Page 25
108.a.One of the first modern detectives in litera-
ture were created by Edgar Allan Poe.
b.One of the first modern detectives in litera-
ture was created by Edgar Allan Poe.
c.Edgar Allan Poe having created one of the
first modern detectives in literature.
d.In literature, one of the first modern detec-
tives, created by Edgar Allan Poe.
109.a.My brother and I going to see the ball
b.My brother and I are going to see the ball
c.My brother and I seeing the ball game.
d.My brother and I to the ball game.
110.a.I don’t like fish as much as my sister does.
b.I don’t like fish as much as my sister.
c.Fish isn’t liked by me as much as my sister.
d.My sister likes it, but I don’t like fish as
111.a.We ate the popcorn and watch the movie.
b.While watching the movie, the popcorn
was eaten.
c.Popcorn, while watching the movie, was eaten.
d.We ate the popcorn while we watched the movie.
For the following questions, choose the underlined
part of the sentence that contains a grammatical er-
ror. If there are no errors, choose answer e.
112.All employees
with two years’
experience a b
are entitled
to full benefits
, including health c d
insurance, life insurance, a retirement plan, and stock options. No error
113.To find
the perimeter of a polygon, add
the a b
of it’s
sides. No error
c d e
114.After the director and assistant
director both a
resigned, we
all wondered who would
be b c
appointed to fill their positions. No error
d e
115.Last spring, my cousin and I
packed the tent, the
a b
sleeping bags, and
a cooler filled with food c
and headed west.
No error
d e
116.Although mollusks
usually have soft a
bodies and
muscular feet, it
may also have
hard b c d
shells. No error
ETTM_01_001_036.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 1:50 PM Page 26
117.For all of those people who have vowed
to give a
up fatty foods, video games, and shopping for the new year, here’s
an incentive to keep him
b c
on the straight and
narrow path. No error
d e
118.Even as
the mainstream music industry pushes a
further into
the digital world of solid state b
circuitry, there is
a renewed interest in old-style c
amplifiers and
speakers. No error
d e
119.To formalize
and commit themselves
to there
a b c
new government, the Pilgrims signed
the d
Mayflower Pact. No error
120.Last summer around the end of July,
my a
Aunt Clarissa, and me
jumped b c
into the Ford station wagon and
headed out of d
the city. No error
121.The term blood type refers to
one of the many a
groups into which
a person’s
blood b c
can be categorized,
based on the presence or d
absence of specific antigens. No error
122.Although the chances of being victimized
are a
slim, if your
not careful, airport thieves—who
b c
look like ordinary travelers
—can make off d
with your purse, your wallet, your phone card, and all your credit cards. No error
this was
an unusually dry
summer, a b c
the corn crop was not seriously
damaged. d
No error
Fill in the blank with the correct pronoun.
124.That fine circus elephant now belongs to my
sister and _____________.
125.If you don’t stop playing _____________
video games, you will miss the bus.
126.George and Michael left _____________
backpacks at school.
ETTM_01_001_036.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 1:50 PM Page 27
127.If you steal _____________ artichoke from
Petra’s garden, you’ll be sorry.
128.We arranged the flowers and placed
_____________ in the center of the table.
129._____________ met more than ten years ago
at a mutual friend’s birthday party.
a.Her and I
b.Her and me
c.She and me
d.She and I
130.My parents approved of _____________
taking guitar lessons.
Replace the underlined words with the phrase that
best completes the sentence. If the sentence is correct
as is, choose a.
131.It was either Kendra or Zoë who brought their
volleyball to the picnic.
a.correct as is
b.brought her
c.brought there
d.brang their
e.brang her
132.Whose car will you take when you drive to
a.correct as is
b.Whose car will you take when you drive to there
c.Who’s car will you take when you drive to their
d.Who’s car will take when you drive to there
e.Which car will you take when you drive to there
133.If someone is looking
for the best car loan,
you should compare interest rates at several
a.correct as is
b.When one is looking
c.If you are looking
d.To have a person look
e.When someone is about to look
134.The friendship between Andre and Robert
began when he and his
family moved to Ohio.
a.correct as is
b.Andre and Robert’s friendship began when
he and his
c.The friendship among the two boys began
when he and his
d.The friendship between Andre and Robert
began when Robert and his
e.Andre and Robert’s friendship began when
ETTM_01_001_036.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 1:50 PM Page 28
Find the sentence that has a mistake in grammar or
usage. If you find no mistakes, mark choice d.
135.a.Of the four of us, I am the tallest.
b.Wilson’s brother is a chemical engineer.
c.That fine circus elephant now belongs to
my sister and I.
d.no mistakes
136.a.His family has lived in this town for 35
b.You’re the only one who can remember
that song.
c.That’s the quickest way to get to Sylvia’s
d.no mistakes
137.a.“Meet me at six o’clock,” she said.
b.Tired of running, she slowed her pace to a
fast walk.
c.Gabriel and me will attend the geography
d.no mistakes
138.a.Sheila’s sister wanted to accompany us to
the party.
b.Who’s scarf is this?
c.“Be sure to wear something comfortable,”
she said.
d.no mistakes
139.a.The main problem Jim had was too many
parking tickets.
b.As the bears ran toward us, it was growling.
c.Try using less butter next time.
d.no mistakes
140.a.Kamala was the most intelligent person in
the group.
b.The Eiffel Tower is in Paris, France.
c.Nick Carraway is a character in The Great
d.no mistakes
141.a.They weren’t the only ones who didn’t like
the movie.
b.“Please come back another time,” Aunt
Julie begged.
c.“Threes a crowd,” he always says.
d.no mistakes
142.a.The first house on the street is there’s.
b.I love the fireworks on the Fourth of July.
c.My grandparents live in San Juan, Puerto
d.no mistakes
143.a.Either Cassie nor I heard the door open.
b.How many people signed the Declaration
of Independence?
c.Draw up a plan before you make your
no mistakes
144.a.It’s not my fault that you and him got
b.“Do you brush twice a day?” Dr. Evans
c.What’s the weather report?
d.no mistakes
145.a.Couldn’t you arrive fashionably late?
b.You’re assumption is correct.
c.I know that Bowser will be well treated.
d.no mistakes
ETTM_01_001_036.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 1:50 PM Page 29
146.a.We invited Mayor Chen to speak at our
b.The alarm sounded, and the firefighters
jumped into the truck.
c.The committee members should work as
hard as one can.
d.no mistakes
147.a.He wore two different-colored socks to
b.Rhonda’s sister bought a new Pontiac.
c.Lake Superior is the largest of the Great
d.no mistakes
148.a.She and I have been friends for more than
ten years.
b.Is that one of the O’Farrell children?
c.They took too much time to answer.
d.no mistakes
Choose the sentence that is the most clearly written
and has the best construction.
149.a.Melanie wrote to her sister once a week
while she was living abroad.
b.While her sister was living abroad, Melanie
wrote to her once a week.
c.When traveling abroad, a letter was written
once a week by Melanie to her sister.
d.Her sister received a letter once a week
from Melanie while she was living abroad.
150.a.Some of the instructions I have to follow
are very detailed, but that doesn’t bother
one as long as they are clear.
b.Some of the instructions I have to follow
are very detailed, but that doesn’t bother
you as long as they are clear.
c.Some of the instructions I have to follow
are very detailed, but it doesn’t bother a
person as long as they are clear.
d.Some of the instructions I have to follow
are very detailed, but that doesn’t bother
me as long as they are clear.
151.a.In search of the missing teenagers, who still
had not been found through snake-ridden
underbrush all day, the exhausted volun-
teers had struggled.
b.All day the exhausted volunteers had
struggled through snake-ridden
underbrush in search of the missing
teenagers, who still had not been found.
c.All day the exhausted volunteers had
struggled through snake-ridden
underbrush who still had not been found
in searching for the missing teenagers.
d.The exhausted volunteers who still had not
found in search of the missing teenagers
when they had struggled through snake-
ridden underbrush.
ETTM_01_001_036.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 1:50 PM Page 30
152.a.One New York publisher have estimated
that 50,000 to 60,000 people in the United
States want an anthology that includes the
complete works of William Shakespeare.
b.One New York publisher has estimated that
50,000 to 60,000 people in the United
States want a anthology that includes the
complete works of William Shakespeare.
c.One New York publisher has estimated that
50,000 to 60,000 people in the United
States want an anthology that includes the
complete works of William Shakespeare.
d.One New York publisher has estimated that
50,000 to 60,000 people in the United
States want an anthology that included the
complete works of William Shakespeare.
62.b.This is an error in subject- verb agreement.
The subject, committed citizens, is plural
and requires a plural verb form. In this
case, the correct form is exceed, not the singular form, exceeds.
63.b.The error is grammatical; there is no
subject- verb agreement in this sentence.
The subject each is singular and requires a
singular verb form. In this situation, the
correct form is has had.
64.a.This is an error in agreement. The singular
noun one requires the singular verb is.
When the subject (in this case one) follows
the verb, as in a sentence beginning with
here or there, be careful to determine the
subject. In this sentence, the subject is not
the plural noun keys.
65.d.This sentence has an illogical shift in verb
tense. The sentence should read: He realized
that he had forgotten his umbrella.
66.d.In this sentence, there is faulty parallelism.
The word asking should be replaced by the
verb asked. This sentence is in the past
tense, so the two verbs asked and phoned
should be parallel.
67.d.The use of the present participle creating
results in a sentence with faulty parallelism.
A form of the verb create should be parallel
with the preceding verb became, which is in
the past tense. The word creating should be
replaced by created.
68.b.There is no subject-verb agreement in this
sentence. The singular collective noun staff
requires a singular verb form. Therefore,
the plural form deserve should be replaced
with the singular deserves.
69.d.This sentence has faulty parallelism. There
are three items in a series in this sentence:
build homes,find water,and learn to under-
stand the blessings. To make these three
items parallel, the word to should be
deleted in the underlined portion repre-
sented by choice d
70.d.There is no subject-verb agreement in the
sentence. The subject of the second inde-
pendent clause is filter, a singular noun.
Therefore, the singular form of the verb
should be used. The verb reduce should be
replaced by the verb reduces.
71.b.The error is in verb formation. The sen-
tence requires the past tense of the verb
begin. To correct this error, the past partici-
ple begun should be replaced with the past
tense began.
ETTM_01_001_036.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 1:50 PM Page 31
72.c.The sentence requires a verb in the past
perfect tense.
73.b.The verbal form been eating fits with the
verb have.
74.c.The infinitive form of the verb repair goes
with to in the sentence.
75.a.This is a command; the subject of the sen-
tence is understood (You call).
76.d.The verb was agrees with its subject,
problem, and is in the past tense.
77.c.Because the action took place before the
past honored, the only correct choice is the
past perfect had fallen.
78.b.This is the only choice that is in agreement
with the singular subject woman.
79.c.The correct verb form is the past tense
80.b.The verb are agrees with the plural noun
81.a.The singular verb gets agrees with the
singular noun noise.
82.d.A plural subject takes a plural verb; because
the subject words is plural, the verb are
carved must also be plural. 83.d.The three underlined elements make a
coordinated series; to clearly express their
relationship to each other, they need to
abide by one consistent grammatical con-
struction. In choice a, the verb must
generate breaks the parallelism. In choice b,
the word for breaks the parallelism. In
choice c, the series changes construction,
adopting a different type of parallel con-
struction; however, the third element, soil
conservation, does not use a present partici-
ple verb before it and therefore breaks the
parallelism. In choice e, none of the three
elements are parallel.
84.b.The two underlined elements make a coor-
dinated pair; they need to abide by one
grammatical construction. Only in choice b
are both verbs in their infinitive form.
85.c.In choice c, the tenses of rang and was writ-
ing agree; there is no shift in tense.
86.d.Choice d is best because it is written in the
active voice.
87.b.The second clause of this sentence requires
a parallel construction. Choice b is the only
one in which all four elements use the same
grammatical construction, a verb in the
present tense followed by a noun.
88.b.This is the best answer because no verb
shifts into present tense. For the sentence to
be logical, all the verbs should remain in
the past and past perfect tenses.
89.e.Conscience is a moral awareness; conscious
is a physical awareness. Josh was awake and
physically aware of his environment.
Choice b, like the original sentence, uses
the wrong word to describe Josh’s condition.
90.b.The correct verb form is applauded.
91.b.There is no subject- verb agreement. The
verb should be plural because the subject,
plants, is plural.
92.b.The verb is incorrect. The correct form is
should have been.
93.c.The verb in this sentence has been incor-
rectly formed; it should be drank, not
94.b.There is no subject- verb agreement. The
verb should be singular because the subject,
the liveliest one, is singular.
95.a.The sentence makes an illogical shift in
tense from the present to the past tense.
ETTM_01_001_036.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 1:50 PM Page 32
96.b.There is no subject-verb agreement. The
verb should be plural because the subject,
photographs, is plural.
97.d.There are no errors.
98.b.The correct verb form is broke or has broken.
99.a.The correct verb form is rang.
100.b.The sentence makes an illogical shift in
tense from the past to the present tense.
101.b.There is no subject-verb agreement. The
verb should be singular because the subject,
one (not boys), is singular.
102.c.The correct verb form is has worn.
103.a.This sentence makes an illogical shift in
tense from the past to the present tense.
104.a.The verbs got and took agree in tense.
105.d.The verbs liked and got agree in tense.
106.a.This is a complete sentence; the others are fragments.
107.d.This is a complete sentence; the others are fragments.
108.b.This is a complete sentence; c and d are
fragments; in choice a, the verb does not
agree in number with its subject, one.
109.b.This is a complete sentence; the others are fragments.
110.a.The comparison between the speaker’s and
his or her sister’s taste for fish is clearest in
this sentence. In choice b, the speaker likes
his or her sister better than fish. Choice c
does not make sense. Choice d has an
ambiguous pronoun; it probably refers to
fish, but who can tell?
111.d.In this sentence, the verb tense between the
independent clause and the subordinating
clause agree. In choice a, the lack of agree-
ment in tense makes the sentence unclear
as to time; choice b doesn’t make it clear
who ate the popcorn; choice c implies that
the popcorn watched the movie.
112.e.Because there are no grammatical,
idiomatic, logical, or structural errors in
this sentence, e is the best answer.
113.d.This is a grammatical error. The contrac-
tion it’s (meaning it is) should be replaced
by the possessive pronoun its.
114.e.Because there are no grammatical errors in
this sentence, the best answer is choice e.
115.e.Because there are no grammatical errors in
this sentence, choice e is the best answer.
116.c.This is an error of agreement. The singular
pronoun it does not agree with the plural
noun mollusks. In this sentence, it should
be replaced by the plural pronoun they.
117.c.This is an error in agreement. The singular
pronoun himdoes not agree with its
antecedent, the plural noun people. The
word himshould be replaced with the plu-
ral pronoun them.
118.e.Because there are no grammatical errors in
this sentence, choice e is the best answer.
119.c.The word there should be replaced by the
possessive pronoun their. 120.c.The pronoun me should be replaced by the
pronoun I. In this sentence, my brother,
Aunt Clarissa, and I is the subject, and the
nominative (subjective) case is required.
Me should be used only as an object pronoun.
121.e.Because there are no grammatical errors in
this sentence, choice e is the best answer.
b.Your should be replaced by you’re. Because
these two words are pronounced alike, they
are often confused. Your indicates posses-
sion, whereas you’re is the contraction of
you are.
123.e.Because there are no grammatical,
idiomatic, logical, or structural errors in
this sentence, e is the best answer.
ETTM_01_001_036.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 1:50 PM Page 33
124.b.The correct form of the pronoun is me
(objective case).
125.b.The pronoun agrees in number with the
noun to which it refers, and themshould
not be used as an adjective.
126.b.The antecedent, George and Michael, is plu-
ral, so the plural pronoun their is the
correct choice.
127.c.The pronoun that agrees in number with
the noun to which it refers, artichoke.
128.c.The pronoun themagrees with the plural
noun flowers.
129.d.She and I is the subject of the sentence, so
the subjective case is needed.
130.a.The possessive case is used before the word
taking, because taking functions as a noun
in this sentence.
131.b.There are two potential problems in this
sentence: (1) the grammatical agreement
between the nouns Kendra or Zoë and the
pronoun her and (2) the formation of the
verb to bring. In choice b, both of these are
correct. Because the sentence reads Kendra
or Zoë, the pronoun must be singular; only
one of them brought the volleyball. Brought
is the past tense of bring. The original sen-
tence is wrong because the pronoun their is
plural. Choice c is wrong because there is
not a correct pronoun. Choices d and e are
incorrect because brang is not the past
tense of bring.
132.a.This choice is the only one that uses the
proper form of possessive pronouns.
133.c.This choice is best because it is the only one in which there is no shift in person: If
you are looking ... , you should compare. ... All of the other choices shift
from third person (someone, one, a person)
to second person (you).
134.d.When the relationship between a pronoun
and its antecedent is unclear, as it is in this
sentence, it should be changed to avoid
ambiguity. There are two boys, Andre and
Robert, and choice d makes the relation-
ship clear: Robert’s family moved, and not
Andre’s family.
135.c.The word I should be replaced with the
word me, because the pronoun is the
object, not the subject.
136.d.There are no errors. 137.c.The correct pronoun is I,not me.
138.b.The contraction who’s is incorrect. The cor-
rect usage is the possessive whose.
139.b.This sentence contains a shift in number.
Bears is a plural noun, so the clause should
be they were growling.
140.d.There are no errors.
141.c.The contraction three’s, which means three
is, is the correct usage. 142.a.The correct usage is the possessive theirs,
not there’s.
143.a.Either is incorrect. Use either with or and
neither with nor.
144.a.The pronoun himis incorrect. He should
be used because you and he are the subjects
of the dependent clause.
The contraction You’re should be replaced
with the possessive Your.
146.c.This sentence makes a shift in person. It
should read: The committee members should
work as hard as they can.
147.d.There are no errors.
148.d.There are no errors.
149.b.In the other choices, the pronoun reference
is ambiguous; it is unclear who is traveling
ETTM_01_001_036.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 1:50 PM Page 34
150.d.The other answers contain unnecessary
shifts in person from I to one, you, and a
151.b.This is the only choice that is clear and
unambiguous. All the other choices contain
misplaced modifiers, resulting in unclear
and illogical statements.
152.c.This is the only choice that is grammati-
cally correct. Choices a and d use the verbs
incorrectly. Choice b uses a instead of an
before anthology.
ETTM_01_001_036.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 1:50 PM Page 35
ETTM_01_001_036.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 1:50 PM Page 36
when they alter a word is a lot like what tailors do when they mod-
ify a piece of fabric or an article of clothing. A tailor takes a needle to a hem to adjust
its length or width just as a writer uses a modifier to limit and define a word. In both
cases, customization is being performed. Just as there are different ways to modify a garment, there are
also different ways to modify a word. There are four different types of modifiers:
1.prepositional phrase:a phrase beginning with a preposition and ending with a noun or pronoun.
When prepositions such as about, across, above, along, and before precede a noun or pronoun, the
preposition and its object combine together to form a prepositional phrase.
2.adjective:a part of speech that modifies a noun or pronoun by describing it. You can usually find
an adjective in front of the word it is describing, but adjectives have also been known to follow a
word if they are being used as a complement: The school is superb. We did nothing important.
Yours Misplaced
or Dangling?
ETTM_02_037-122.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 3:02 PM Page 37
3.adverb:a part of speech that modifies a verb,
an adjective, or another adverb. Adverbs help
the reader to understand the Where? When?
How?about the verb, adjective, or other adverb.
Adverbs can often be spotted by their -ly end-
ings, but there are exceptions.
4.appositive:a noun phrase that is used to fill in
the blanks and provide additional information
about a noun: Miley Cyrus, a popular singer and
actress, is working on a new movie about her
character Hannah Montana.
Have you ever misplaced your modifier?
Hmmm, if you’ve misplaced your modifier, the best
place to find it is far away from its rightful home.
Here is an example of a modifier that was lost and
then found.
Misplaced:Please discuss the classroom rule
sheet that is enclosed with your child.
Found:Please discuss the enclosed classroom
rule sheet with your child.
Have you ever dangled your modifier? A dan-
gling modifier can best be described as a homeless
vagabond, because it has lost its way and there’s no
place for it to go. More formally, a dangling modifier
can be defined as a word or phrase that is intended to
modify a specific part of a sentence that is missing, so
the modifier has not been placed next to the word or
phrase that it was meant to modify. Let’s look at an
example of a dangling modifier in action: Desiring
good teaching jobs
, private schools are swamped with
teaching resumes. Because it’s pretty obvious that it’s
not the private schools that are desiring good teach-
ing jobs, the verbal phrase modifier desiring good
teaching jobs is dangling—it doesn’t have an appro-
priate word to modify.
What you need to do in this case is ask who, or
what, is “desiring good teaching jobs”? To help the
verbal phrase modifier find a home, the sentence is
corrected by adding a word or group of words for the
dangling modifier to modify. Let’s look at the revised
version of the sentence: Desiring good teaching jobs,
teachers are swamping private schools with resumes.
The modifier has found a purposeful new home,
because it is now modifying the word teachers.
Don’t you just love a happy ending?
Get a Grip
The Mega Super-Important
Adjective Modifier Rule
Adjectives almost always modify the noun
that they are closest to. There are very few
Get a Grip on Adverbs
If you have trouble remembering their func-
tion, just remember this: Adverbs “add” infor-
mation about where, when, how, or to what
When the meal was served, Laura ate
quickly. (The adverb quickly modifies
the word ate by describing how fast
Laura ate her meal.)
ETTM_02_037-122.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 3:02 PM Page 38
Immel, Constance, and Florence Sacks. Better
Grammar in 30 Minutes a Day (New York:
Career Press, 1995).
Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 11th ed.
(Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, 2003). O’Conner, Patricia T. Woe Is I Jr.: The Younger
Grammarphobe’s Guide to Better English in Plain
English. Drawings by Tom Stiglich (New York:
Putnam Juvenile, 2007).
Rogers, James, ed. The Dictionary of Clichés (New
York: Facts on File, 1985; Ballantine Books,
Webster’s New World Speller/Divider (New York: John
Wiley & Sons, 1992). Poor spellers will love this
quick-reference spelling guide!
Grammar-Building Games for Middle School/
High School Students
Grammar Mania!
Language Detective
Parts of Speech Challenge
Writing Skills Success in 20 Minutes a Day, 3rd ed.
Practi ce Questi ons
For the following questions, choose the underlined
part of the sentence that contains a grammatical
error. If there are no errors, choose e.
the little boy screamed loud
as his a b
friendly 80-pound dog
bounded up c d
the sidewalk. No error
154.Gwen’s friend Luke—once the star
of his college football team and now a successful restaurateur
ten restaurants b c
and has published
three award-winning d
cookbooks. No error
155.At 3,434 miles long, the Yangtze, a major
east-west trade and transportation route
, is b
the longest
river in Asia. No error
c d e
156.Despite its daunting three-hour
length, the a
popularity continues to grow;
last b c
week, it took
in $12.7 million. No error
d e
157.The love seat is now being installed
in some a
New York movie theaters, giving
couples the b
option of lifting the arm between
the seats to
create a more cozier viewing experience. d
No error
ETTM_02_037-122.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 3:02 PM Page 39
158.Some buildings, such as
the White House, a
Saint Paul’s Cathedral,
and the Taj Mahal, b
deserve to be preserved not only because of their
artistic excellence but also
because of c d
their symbolic associations. No error
159.Because they close
resemble sound arguments, a b
fallacious arguments can sound convincing, so be sure to carefully organize
your thoughts c
when you’re
writing an opinion paper. d
No error
the professor called out Pete’s name, a
he walked
rather hesitant
to the front of the b c
room and stood t
shaking. No error
d e
161.The puppy had been treated bad
by its
a b
previous owner, but
the people at the animal c
shelter worked hard to find a loving home for d
little Scotty. No error
Fill in the blank with the correct adjective or adverb.
162.In many popular movies today, the heroes are
________ armed than the villains.
a.more heavily
b.more heavy
d.more heavier
163.The cake I made last week tasted ________
than the one I made today.
b.more better
d.more good
164.Of the three brothers, Andre is the ________.
c.more tall
d.most tallest
165.Riding the Tornado at the amusement park
was ________ than the boy thought it would
a.more terrifying
b.more terrifyingly
d.most terrifying
166.This year, our company sold ________
magazine subscriptions than ever before.
ETTM_02_037-122.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 3:02 PM Page 40
Replace the underlined word(s) with the word or
phrase that is grammatically correct. If the sentence is
correct as is, choose a.
167.The book had a frighteningly and unhappy
a.correct as is
b.a frighteningly and unhappily ending.
c.an ending that was frightening and
d.a frightening and unhappy ending.
e.an ending that was frightening and it was
also an unhappy one.
168.Since her graduation from business school last
spring, Adela has become known as the more
member of her graduating class.
a.correct as is
b.as the most important
c.as the most importantly
d.as the more importantly
e.like the most important
169.There wasn’t nothing that could have been
a.correct as is
b.There was nothing that could have been
more easier.
c.Nothing could have been more easier.
d.Nothing couldn’t have been more easy.
e.Nothing could have been easier.
170.I was clearly the happiest person in the crowd.
a.correct as is
b.It was clear that I was the happier person in
the crowd.
c.Of all the people in the crowd, I was clearly
the happier.
d.In the crowd, clearly, I was the happier
e.Of all the people in the crowd, clearly, I
being the happiest.
171.Strip mining, the cheaper
method of mining,
is controversial because it jeopardizes the
a.correct as is
b.more cheap
c.most cheapest
e.more cheaply
Find the sentence that has a mistake in grammar or
usage. If you find no mistakes, mark choice d.
172.a.The steam rose up from the hot pavement.
b.She put the kitten down carefully beside its mom.
c.Neither of us is going to the party.
d.no mistakes
173.a.The lost dog wandered sad through the streets.
b.Frustrated, Boris threw his pencil across the room.
c.We’ll stop at their house first.
d.no mistakes
ETTM_02_037-122.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 3:02 PM Page 41
174.a.Have you ever read the book Little House on
the Prairie?
b.She urged me not to go.
c.Stop, look, and listen.
d.no mistakes
175.a.Anne will head out first, and Nick will
follow her.
b.Maya Angelou, a famous writer, directed
the movie Down in the Delta in 1998.
c.The clerk asked for my address and phone
d.no mistakes
176.a.We sold less cookies this year than we did
last year.
b.That parrot doesn’t talk.
c.Don’t spend too much money.
d.no mistakes
177.a.She spread the frosting too thickly.
b.“What is your answer?” she asked.
c.We waited while he stopped to make a
phone call.
d.no mistakes
178.a.The Adirondacks are mountains in New York.
b.President Carter led negotiations to
transfer control of the Panama Canal back
to Panama.
c.That river is terribly polluted.
d.no mistakes
179.a.Trading Spaces is one of the most popular
shows on television.
b.Which color do you like better, the teal or
the flamingo pink?
c.Mango-peach berry juice is the most
awfulest drink.
d.no mistakes
153.b.In this sentence, loud modifies the verb
screamed. The adverb loudly should be used
instead of loud.
154.e.Because there are no errors in this sentence,
e is the correct choice.
155.e.Because there are no errors in this sentence,
e is the correct choice.
156.e.Because there are no errors in this sentence,
e is the correct choice.
157.d.The double comparative more cozier is
redundant; just the comparative word
cozier is sufficient to convey the idea that
New York movie theaters will become more
comfortable with the addition of love seats.
158.e.Because there are no errors in this sentence,
e is the correct choice.
159.a.In this sentence, close attempts to modify
the verb resemble. The adverb closely should
be used instead of close.
160.c.In this sentence, hesitant attempts to
modify the verb walked. The adverb
hesitantly should be used instead of
161.a.Use bad when modifying a noun; use badly
when modifying a verb. The verb treated
should be modified by the adverb badly,
not the adjective bad.
162.a.The missing phrase modifies the verb are
armed and creates a comparison between
two types of people, heroes and villains.
Therefore, you need a comparative form of
the adverb heavily.
163.c.The comparison is between two things, a
cake made last week and a cake made
today; choices a and d can be ruled out.
Choice b, more better, is redundant. Choice c, better,is the best choice to make
the comparison. –ENGLISH TO THE MAX–
ETTM_02_037-122.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 3:02 PM Page 42
164.b.The comparison is being made among three
brothers; therefore, this sentence requires a
superlative. Choices a and c compare only
two things, and choice d is redundant.
165.a.The missing phrase modifies a noun,
riding, and makes a comparison between
two things, what he thought and what it
was; therefore, the sentence requires a
comparative adjective. Choice b is a
comparative adverb. Choice c does not
make a comparison, and choice d is a
superlative, a comparison of three or more
things. Choice a, more terrifying,is the
correct choice.
166.d.Use fewer with nouns that can be counted.
167.d.Adjectives modify nouns, and adverbs
modify verbs. In choice d, the adjectives
frightening and unhappy correctly modify
the noun ending. In the original sentence
and in choice b, the adverb frighteningly
incorrectly attempts to modify a noun. In
choice c, the adverb unhappily incorrectly
attempts to modify a noun. Choice e is
unnecessarily wordy.
168.b.The sentence makes a comparison between
Adela and all other members of the
graduating class; therefore, the superlative
form most should be used. The original
sentence and choice d are wrong because
they use the comparative more. Choice c is
wrong because the word importantly is an
adverb and cannot modify the noun
member. Choice e is wrong because it uses
the word like incorrectly.
169.e.This is the correct choice because the
sentence uses easier correctly and does not
contain a double negative. The other
choices either use two negative words
within a single sentence or use an incorrect
comparative form of easy.
170.a.The sentence compares an individual and
an entire crowd of individuals; therefore, it
requires a superlative. Only choice a
coherently uses the superlative happiest to
make the comparison among all the many
people in the crowd.
171.d.This sentence makes a comparison between strip mining and all other types of
mining; therefore, it requires a superlative.
The original sentence and choice b
compare only two things, while choice e
inappropriately uses an adverb. Choice c
uses a double superlative and is redundant.
172.d.There are no errors.
173.a.The adjective sad should be replaced with
the adverb sadly, which correctly modifies
the verb wandered.
174.d.There are no errors.
175.d.There are no errors.
176.a.This sentence has a usage error: fewer
cookies, not less cookies.
177.d.There are no errors.
178.d.There are no errors.
179.c.Most awfulest is a double superlative, and
therefore redundant.
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ETTM_02_037-122.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 3:02 PM Page 44
designed to provide targeted practice in the area of sentence structure, sen-
tence completion, and vocabulary building.
Sentence Structure
Tape this rule to your wrist if you must, but do not forget it: In order to be complete, a sentence must con-
tain a subject and a predicate (verb). Phrases do not contain both a subject and a predicate, but they are
part of a sentence that does contain a subject and a predicate. Sentences that do not contain both a subject
and a predicate are called sentence fragments, because they are not complete. Repeat after me: A complete
sentence requires a subject and a predicate.If either element is missing, a complete sentence does not exist.
Sentence Sense
“When I use a word,” Humpty Dumpty said in a rather scornful tone,
“it means just what I choose it to mean—neither more nor less.”
“The question is,” said Alice, “whether you can make words mean so
many different things.”
“The question is,” said Humpty Dumpty, “which is to be master—
that’s all.”
—Lewis Carroll, Through the Looking Glass
ETTM_02_037-122.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 3:02 PM Page 45
Word Bite: Phrase
A phrase is a group of words that does not have
a subject and a predicate (verb) and can’t stand
alone as a sentence.
In other words, you must always tell the reader
the subject of each sentence and what that subject is
doing or being. Because the subject-predicate rule is
so important, we’ve set it off here so that you can
highlight it with the brightest and boldest highlighter
that you have.
Now, what are those pesky things called clauses?
Do we really need them? Yes! Trying to build a sen-
tence without a clause is like trying to build a house
without a frame. There are several forms of clauses
that you really must get to know. An independent
clause is a free agent containing the subject and pred-
icate that it needs to function independently—it is
complete and expresses an idea or concept entirely on
its own. A dependent (subordinate) clause is a dif-
ferent story—it is incomplete and is classified as
either essential or nonessential. In an essential
dependent clause, the information that the clause
contains is indispensable to the meaning of the sen-
tence. If a clause is a nonessential clause, the infor-
mation in it is supplementary. Thankfully, sentences
don’t have feelings, because if they did, the nonessen-
tial clause would likely develop an inferiority com-
plex. Nonessential clauses add depth and interesting
detail to a sentence, but they’re not necessary.
There are the four classifications of sentences:
1.Simple sentence:a sentence that contains one
subject and one verb (one main idea)
Rachel cooked dinner.
Rachel is the only subject in the sentence.
Cooked is the only verb in the sentence.
2.Compound sentence:a sentence in which
clauses are linked together with a coordinating
conjunction: and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet
Rachel cooked dinner, and Jack set the table.
Two clauses are linked together using the
coordinating conjunction and.
3.Complex sentence:a sentence that is made up
of an independent clause and a subordinate
(dependent) clause
Rachel cooked dinner because she was expecting
The italic portion is the subordinate clause,
because it can’t stand alone.
4.Compound-complex sentence:a sentence that
is made up of more than one independent
clause and at least one subordinate clause
Jumping rope at the top of the driveway, Pamela
pretended to ignore her brothers playing
football, but she laughed out loud when one of
them almost ran into a tree
Get a Grip
The Mega Super-Important
Subject-Predicate Rule
In order to be complete, a sentence must
contain a subject and a predicate.
ETTM_02_037-122.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 3:02 PM Page 46
Practi ce Questi ons
Choose the sentence that best combines the original
two sentences.
180.The airport is called the Glynco Jetport. The
airline reservations and travel systems refer to
its location as Brunswick, Georgia.
a.Where the airport is called the Glynco
Jetport, the airline reservations and travel
systems refer to the location as Brunswick,
b.But the airport is called the Glynco Jetport,
the airline reservations and travel systems
refer to the location as Brunswick, Georgia.
c.Even though the airline reservations and
travel systems refer to the location as
Brunswick, Georgia, the airport is called the
Glynco Jetport.
d.When the airport is called the Glynco
Jetport, the airline reservations refer to the
location as Brunswick, Georgia, and the
travel systems.
181.Recently there have been government cutbacks
in funds. Experts foresee steady hiring in the
government’s future.
a.Despite recent government cutbacks in
funds, experts foresee steady hiring in the
government’s future.
b.Whereupon recent government cutbacks in
funds, experts foresee steady hiring in the
government’s future.
c.So that there have been recent government
cutbacks in funds, experts foresee steady
hiring in the government’s future.
d.Nonetheless, there have been recent govern-
ment cutbacks in funds, experts foresee
steady hiring in the government’s future.
Get a Grip on
Sentence Structure
Snag Those Frags
If a friend came up to you and said, “After
walking my dog,” you’d probably ask: “What
happens after you walk your dog?” After
walking my dog is a sentence fragment; it is
a subordinate clause that cannot stand
alone. You can identify subordinate clauses
by becoming familiar with the most com-
monly used subordinating conjunctions that
are used to construct these clauses:
after although and as
because before if since
so that though unless
until when whenever where
wherever which while who
ETTM_02_037-122.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 3:02 PM Page 47
182.The federal government has diversity of jobs
and geographic locations. The federal govern-
ment offers flexibility in job opportunities that
is unmatched in the private sector.
a.In spite of its diversity of jobs and
geographic locations, the federal
government offers flexibility in job
opportunities that is unmatched in the
private sector.
b.No matter its diversity of jobs and
geographic locations, the federal
government offers flexibility in job
opportunities that is unmatched in the
private sector.
c.Because of its diversity of jobs and geo-
graphic locations, the federal government
offers flexibility in job opportunities that is
unmatched in the private sector.
d.The federal government has diversity of jobs
and geographic locations, it offers flexibility
in job opportunities that is unmatched in
the private sector.
183.The Greeks thought that the halcyon, or king-
fisher, nested on the sea. All birds nest on land.
a.Whereupon all birds nest on land, the
Greeks thought that the halcyon, or
kingfisher, nested on the sea.
b.The Greeks thought that the halcyon, or
kingfisher, nested on the sea, whereas all
birds nest on land.
c.Whenever all birds nest on land, the Greeks
thought that the halcyon, or kingfisher,
nested on the sea.
d.The Greeks thought that the halcyon, or
kingfisher, nested on the sea, as all birds nest
on land.
184.There have been great strides in the practical
application of quantum physics in the past
decade. We are no closer to actually understand-
ing it than were the physicists of the 1920s.
a.Unless there have been great strides in the
practical application of quantum physics in
the past few decades, we are no closer to
actually understanding it than were the
physicists of the 1920s.
b.In the past few decades, we are no closer to
actually understanding it than were the
physicists of the 1920s, until there have been
great strides in the practical application of
quantum physics.
c.Although there have been great strides in
the practical application of quantum
physics in the past few decades, we are no
closer to actually understanding it than were
the physicists of the 1920s.
d.In the past few decades, if there have been
great strides in the practical application of
quantum physics we are no closer to
actually understanding it than were the
physicists of the 1920s.
ETTM_02_037-122.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 3:02 PM Page 48
185.The wisdom of the hedgehog is applauded in
medieval bestiaries. The hedgehog makes a
burrow with two exits and, when in danger,
rolls itself into a prickly ball.
a.The wisdom of the hedgehog is applauded
in medieval bestiaries, while the hedgehog
makes a burrow with two exits and, when in
danger, rolls itself into a prickly ball.
b.The hedgehog makes a burrow with two
exits and, when in danger, rolls itself into a
prickly ball, so its wisdom is applauded in
medieval bestiaries.
c.The hedgehog makes a burrow with two
exits and, when in danger, rolls itself into a
prickly ball, but its wisdom is applauded in
medieval bestiaries.
d.Its wisdom applauded in medieval
bestiaries, the hedgehog makes a burrow
with two exits and, when in danger, rolls
itself into a prickly ball.
186.Some people believe fairy tales are merely chil-
dren’s stories. Some people believe fairy tales
carry important psychological truths for adults.
a.When some believe they carry important
psychological truths for adults, some people
believe fairy tales are merely children’s
b.Some people believe fairy tales are merely
children’s stories, whereupon some believe
they carry important psychological truths
for adults.
c.Because some believe fairy tales carry
important psychological truths for adults,
some people believe fairy tales are merely
children’s stories.
d.Some people believe fairy tales are merely
children’s stories, yet some believe they
carry important psychological truths for adults.
187.Most species of the bacterium Streptococcus
are harmless. Some species of Streptococcus
are dangerous pathogens.
a.Whereas most species of the bacterium
Streptococcus are harmless, some are
dangerous pathogens.
b.Since most species of the bacterium
Streptococcus are harmless, some are
dangerous pathogens.
c.As most species of the bacterium
Streptococcus are harmless, some are
dangerous pathogens.
d.Because most species of the bacterium
Streptococcus are harmless, some are
dangerous pathogens.
188.The man nodded politely. His expression was
a.Nodding politely, the man’s expression was
b.The man nodded politely his expression was
c.The man nodded politely, his expression
d.The man nodded politely, since his
expression was bewildered.
189.Watching a TV show is a passive behavior.
Playing a computer game is an interactive one.
a.Watching a TV show is a passive behavior, or
playing a computer game is an interactive one.
b.Watching a TV show is a passive behavior,
for playing a computer game is an
interactive one.
c.Watching a TV show is a passive behavior,
but playing a computer game is an
interactive one.
d.Being that playing a computer game is an
interactive one, watching a TV show is a
passive behavior.
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190.Socrates taught that we should question
everything, even the law. He was both greatly
loved and profoundly hated.
a.That he was both greatly loved and
profoundly hated, Socrates taught that we
should question everything, even the law.
b.Socrates taught that we should question
everything, even the law, so he was both
greatly loved and profoundly hated.
c.Socrates taught that we should question
everything, even the law, which he was both
greatly loved and profoundly hated.
d.Socrates taught that we should question
everything, even the law, for he was both
greatly loved and profoundly hated.
191.Sailors were said to catch albatross with baited
hooks let down into the ship’s wake. To kill the
albatross was thought to be bad luck, so they
were released immediately. a.Sailors were said to catch albatross with
baited hooks let down into the ship’s wake,
then release them again, for to kill the alba-
tross was thought to be bad luck.
b.With baited hooks let down into the ship’s
wake, sailors were said to catch albatross
then release them again, so to kill the alba-
tross was thought to be bad luck.
c.Sailors were said to catch albatross with
baited hooks let down into the ship’s wake,
then release them again, or to kill the alba-
tross was thought to be bad luck.
d.To kill the albatross was thought to be bad
luck, sailors were said to catch albatross
with baited hooks let down into the ship’s
wake, only to release them immediately. 192.The symptoms of diabetes often develop
gradually and are hard to identify at first.
Nearly half of all people with diabetes do not
know they have it.
a.The symptoms of diabetes often develop
gradually and are hard to identify at first, so
nearly half of all people with diabetes do
not know they have it.
b.The symptoms of diabetes often develop
gradually and are hard to identify at first,
yet nearly half of all people with diabetes do
not know they have it.
c.Nearly half of all people with diabetes do
not know they have it, and the symptoms of
diabetes often develop gradually and are
hard to identify at first. d.The symptoms of diabetes often develop
gradually for nearly half of all people with
diabetes do not know they have it and are
hard to identify at first.
193.The French philosopher Voltaire was greatly
respected. Voltaire spent almost a year
imprisoned in the Bastille.
a.The French philosopher Voltaire was greatly
respected, so he spent almost a year
imprisoned in the Bastille.
b.The French philosopher Voltaire was greatly
respected with almost a year imprisoned in
the Bastille.
c.The French philosopher Voltaire was greatly
respected, or he spent almost a year
imprisoned in the Bastille.
d.The French philosopher Voltaire was greatly
respected, yet he spent almost a year
imprisoned in the Bastille.
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194.I must buy some new shoes to wear to the
prom. My date, Donnie, will be upset if I wear
my flip-flops.
a.Unless my date, Donnie, will be upset if I
wear my flip-flops, I must buy some new
shoes to wear to the prom.
b.I must buy some new shoes to wear to the
prom, and my date, Donnie, will be upset if
I wear my flip-flops.
c.I must buy some new shoes to wear to the
prom, for my date, Donnie, will be upset if I
wear my flip-flops.
d.My date, Donnie, will be upset if I wear my
flip-flops while I must buy some new shoes
to wear to the prom.
195.The rules of statistics say that it is possible for
all the air in a room to move to one corner.
This is extremely unlikely.
a.The rules of statistics say that it is possible
for all the air in a room to move to one
corner, or this is extremely unlikely.
b.The rules of statistics say that it is possible
for all the air in a room to move to one
corner, but this is extremely unlikely.
c.This is extremely unlikely in that the rules
of statistics say that it is possible for all the
air in a room to move to one corner.
d.For all the air in a room to move to one
corner, this is extremely unlikely, according
to the rules of statistics saying that it is
possible. 196.I must buy my dog a new license. If I don’t, I
will have to pay a fine.
a.I must buy my dog a new license, and I will
have to pay a fine.
b.I must buy my dog a new license; I will have
to pay a fine.
c.Unless I buy my dog a new license, I will
have to pay a fine.
d.I will have to pay a fine since I must buy my
dog a new license.
197.Bats are not rodents. Bats bear a surface
resemblance to a winged mouse.
a.Bats are not rodents, although they do bear
a resemblance to a winged mouse.
b.Bats are not rodents that they bear a surface
resemblance to a winged mouse.
c.Bats are not rodents, when they bear a
surface resemblance to a winged mouse.
d.Bats are not rodents, if they bear a surface
resemblance to a winged mouse.
198.Art is not only found in the museum or
concert hall. Art can be found in the expressive
behavior of ordinary people, as well.
a.Art can be found not only in the museum
or concert hall, and it can be found in the
expressive behavior of ordinary people, as well.
b.In the museum or concert hall, art can be
found not only there and in the expressive
behavior of ordinary people, as well.
c.Although in the expressive behavior of
ordinary people, as well, art can be found
not only in the museum or concert hall.
d.Art can be found not only in the museum
or concert hall, but in the expressive
behavior of ordinary people, as well.
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199.In lucid dreams, the dreamer knows she is
dreaming. It gives her a sense of unlimited
a.In lucid dreams, the dreamer knows she is
dreaming, although it gives her a sense of
unlimited freedom.
b.In lucid dreams, the dreamer knows she is
dreaming, while it gives her a sense of
unlimited freedom.
c.In lucid dreams, the dreamer knows she is
dreaming, where it gives her a sense of
unlimited freedom.
d.In lucid dreams, the dreamer knows she is
dreaming, which gives her a sense of
unlimited freedom. 200.She never responded to the invitation we sent.
We assumed she wasn’t coming.
a.She never responded to the invitation we sent; however we assumed she wasn’t
b.While we assumed she wasn’t coming, she
never responded to the invitation we sent.
c.She never responded to the invitation we sent, whether we assumed she wasn’t
d.Because she never responded to the
invitation we sent, we assumed she wasn’t coming.
201.Elizabeth is an athletic woman. Elizabeth
cannot swim or ride a bike.
a.Elizabeth cannot swim or ride a bike, while
she is an athletic woman.
b.Elizabeth cannot swim or ride a bike and is
an athletic woman.
c.Although Elizabeth cannot swim or ride a
bike, she is an athletic woman.
d.Being an athletic woman, Elizabeth cannot
swim or ride a bike.
202.This neighborhood is called “baby central.”
Almost every family within a three-block
radius has a child under the age of one.
a.Almost every family within a three-block
radius has a child under the age of one,
while this neighborhood is called “baby
b.Almost every family within a three-block
radius has a child under the age of one, but
this neighborhood is called “baby central.”
c.Almost every family within a three-block
radius has a child under the age of one;
therefore, this neighborhood is called “baby
d.This neighborhood is called “baby central:”
meanwhile, almost every family within a
three-block radius has a child under the age
of one.
203.The new shopping mall has 200 stores. The
new shopping mall doesn’t have a pet shop.
a.The new shopping mall has 200 stores;
however, it doesn’t have a pet shop.
b.Instead of a pet shop, the new shopping
mall has 200 stores.
c.With 200 stores, the new shopping mall
doesn’t have a pet shop.
d.The new shopping mall has 200 stores, and
it doesn’t have a pet shop.
204.Eugene has a difficult personality. Eugene is
a.Eugene has a difficult personality, and
furthermore, he’s unreliable.
b.Eugene has a difficult personality, although
he is unreliable.
c.While he is unreliable, Eugene has a difficult
d.Being unreliable, Eugene has a difficult
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205.We never eat candy or ice cream. We do drink
a.We never eat candy or ice cream, but we do
drink soda.
b.Because we never eat candy or ice cream, we
drink soda.
c.We never eat candy or ice cream, so we do
drink soda.
d.We never eat candy or ice cream and drink
206.She loves celebrating her birthday. She always
has a big party.
a.She loves celebrating her birthday, to where
she always has a big party.
b.Although she loves celebrating her birthday,
she always has a big party.
c.She always has a big party, meanwhile she
loves celebrating her birthday.
d.She loves celebrating her birthday, so she
always has a big party.
207.Insomnia is not usually a physical problem. It
can affect one’s physical health.
a.Insomnia is not usually a physical problem;
therefore, it can affect one’s physical health.
b.Insomnia is not usually a physical problem,
yet it can affect one’s physical health.
c.Insomnia not usually a physical problem
can affect one’s physical health.
d.Insomnia is not usually a physical problem,
so it can affect one’s physical health.
208.True narcolepsy is the sudden and irresistible
onset of sleep during waking hours. True
narcolepsy is extremely dangerous.
a.While true narcolepsy is the sudden and
irresistible onset of sleep during waking
hours and is extremely dangerous.
b.The sudden and irresistible onset of sleep
during waking hours, which is true
narcolepsy but extremely dangerous.
c.True narcolepsy is the sudden and
irresistible onset of sleep during waking
hours, yet narcolepsy is extremely
d.True narcolepsy is the sudden and
irresistible onset of sleep during waking
hours, and it is extremely dangerous.
209.There has been much interest in dreams
throughout the ages. The empirical, scientific
study of dreams is relatively new.
a.Despite much interest in dreams throughout
the ages, the empirical, scientific study of
dreams being relatively new.
b.There has been much interest in dreams
throughout the ages, yet the empirical, sci-
entific study of dreams is relatively new.
c.While much interest in dreams throughout
the ages, although the empirical, scientific
study of dreams is relatively new.
d.There has been much interest in dreams
throughout the ages, for the empirical, sci-
entific study of dreams is relatively new.
ETTM_02_037-122.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 3:02 PM Page 53
Replace the underlined portion with the alternative
that best completes the sentence. If the sentence is
correct as is, choose a.
210.I look forward to welcoming you and having
the opportunity to show you around our
a.correct as is
b.I will look forward to our welcome and
c.As I look forward to welcoming you and to have
d.I look forward to welcoming you and have
e.Looking forward to welcoming you and
hoping to have
211.For a wide variety of different reasons, more
and more people
are making the choice to
vacation close to home.
a.correct as is
b.For a variety of many reasons, much more
c.For a number of reasons, more people
d.More people, for various different reasons,
e.Lots of people, for many numerous reasons
212.The likelihood
that she will decide to take the job is great, she is never completely predictable.
a.correct as is
b.Although the likelihood
c.Since the likelihood
d.In fact, the likelihood
e.Knowing that the likelihood
213.Most of a human tooth is made up of a sub-
stance known as dentin, which is located
directly below the enamel.
a.correct as is
b.dentin, and which is located
c.dentin but located
d.dentin, which it is located
e.dentin, that its location is
214.Jackson Pollock, a twentieth-century
American painter, is well known and
renowned for creating
abstract paintings by
dripping paint on canvas.
a.correct as is
b.an American painter who lived and painted
in the twentieth century, is well known for
the creation of
c.renowned and prominent, was known as a
twentieth-century American painter for
d.he is an American painter famous and
renowned for creating
e.a twentieth-century American painter, is
famous for creating
215.Having missed class several times, this was the
cause of our poor grades.
a.correct as is
b.After missing class several times, our poor
grades were anticipated.
c.Because we missed class several times, we
received poor grades.
d.We received poor grades missing class sev-
eral times.
e.Receiving poor grades, we missed class
several times.
ETTM_02_037-122.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 3:02 PM Page 54
216.Because of the need for accuracy, all employ
ees must diligently review their work at the
end of every day.
a.correct as is
b.all employees who work here must be dili-
gent and careful to review their work at the
end of every day.
c.employees must be diligently reviewing and
checking their work at the end of every day.
d.workers and employees must diligently
review their work at the end of every day.
e.all employees must diligently review and
assess their work daily, every day.
217.Beside his expertise in gardening
, Malcolm is
also an accomplished carpenter.
a.correct as is
b.Beside gardening,
c.In addition also to his accomplished carpentry,
d.Besides his expertise in gardening,
e.Beside his gardening,
218.Baseball is a sport that is popular in the
United States like Japan
a.correct as is
b.as well popular in Japan as it is in the
United States.
c.just as popular in the United States than in
d.popular in the United States as well as in Japan.
e.popular as well as in both Japan and the
United States.
219.I decided to paint the kitchen yellow, and after
I had painted, my husband
informed me that
he’d rather it be blue.
a.correct as is
b.yellow, and after I had painted my husband
c.yellow and after I had painted, my husband
d.yellow; and, after I had painted my husband
e.yellow and after I had painted my husband
220.Yelling after it as the taxi drove away, leaving
Austin and me standing helplessly on the sidewalk.
a.correct as is
b.While yelling after it and watching the taxi
drive away, which left Austin and me stand-
ing helplessly on the sidewalk.
c.Left helplessly standing on the sidewalk
after Austin and me yelled after the taxi and
watched as it drove away.
d.As we yelled after it, the taxi drove away,
leaving Austin and me standing helplessly
on the sidewalk.
e.After having yelled after it, the taxi driving
off and leaving Austin and me on the side-
walk, watching helplessly.
221.When making a chocolate torte, only the best
ingredients should be used.
a.correct as is
b.you should use only the best ingredients.
c.the best ingredients only should be used.
d.one should have used only the best ingredients. e.using only the best ingredients is essential.
ETTM_02_037-122.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 3:02 PM Page 55
222.With her book Coming of Age in Samoa,
anthropologist Margaret Mead emphasized
the role of culture, rather than biology, in
shaping human behavior.
a.correct as is
b.rather than biology with shaping human
c.somewhat better than biology to shape
human behavior.
d.in shaping human behavior, and not biology.
e.in shaping human behavior over biology.
223.This was the fifth of the five speeches the
mayor gave during this the month of May.
a.correct as is
b.Of the five speeches the mayor gave during
May, this was the fifth one.
c.Thus far during the month of May, the
mayor gave five speeches and this was the
d.This fifth speech of the mayor’s given dur-
ing the month of May was one of five
e.This was the fifth speech the mayor has
given during the month of May.
224.An American poet of the nineteenth century,
Walt Whitman’s collection of poems, Leaves of
celebrates nature and individualism.
a.correct as is
b.Leaves of Grass, a collection of poems by
Walt Whitman,
c.a collection of poems, Leaves of Grass, by
Walt Whitman,
d.Walt Whitman published poems, collected
as Leaves of Grass, that
e.Walt Whitman published a collection of
poems entitled Leaves of Grass, that
225.We loved our trip to the desert where you
could see
the tall cactus, the blooming flowers,
and the little desert animals.
a.correct as is
b.desert; you could see
c.desert; where we saw
d.desert; we saw
e.desert in that you saw
226.Opposite in what many financial analysts had
the stock market rose by 22 points
this month.
a.correct as is
b.Contrary to the predictions of many finan-
cial analysts,
c.As against the predictions of many financial analysts,
d.Contrasting of many financial analysts’
e.Contrary with what many financial analysts predicted,
227.A standardized extract made from the leaves
of the ginkgo biloba tree is proving to be effec
tive in treating
mild to moderate Alzheimer’s
a.correct as is
b.has shown its proof of effectiveness with
c.may have proven effective treatment for
d.is effectively proving in treating
e.have given a proven effectiveness in the
treatment of
ETTM_02_037-122.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 3:02 PM Page 56
228.The citizens’ action committee has accused the
city council members with being careless with
the spending of
the taxpayers’ money.
a.correct as is
b.as to carelessness in the spending of
c.of carelessness in the spending of
d.of careless spending to
e.with spending carelessly of
229.Aspirin was known exclusively as a painkiller
until the time when cardiologists began pre
scribing it as a preventive for
heart attacks.
a.correct as is
b.to be a painkiller since when cardiologists
prescribed it to be a prevention for
c.as a way to kill and stop pain until cardiol-
ogists began to prescribe it as a method for
the prevention of
d.as a painkiller until cardiologists began
prescribing it as a preventive for
e.to be a painkiller up to when cardiologists
prescribed its preventive for
230.The news reporter who had been covering the
story suddenly became ill, and I was called
take her place.
a.correct as is
b.was covering the story suddenly becomes
ill, and they called me
c.is covering the story suddenly becomes ill,
and I was called
d.would have been covering the story sud-
denly became ill, and I am called
e.covers the story, suddenly became ill, and
they called me
231.Donald Trump, the son of a real estate devel
oper, he
has built a billion-dollar empire.
a.correct as is
b.Donald Trump, being the son of a real
estate developer,
c.While he was the son of a real estate devel-
oper, Donald Trump
d.The son of a real estate developer, Donald
e.Donald Trump, the son of a real estate
developer, and he
232.The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earth’s
atmosphere, it extends
from ground level to
an altitude of seven to ten miles.
a.correct as is
b.atmosphere of which it extends
c.atmosphere. Extending
d.atmosphere, and extending
e.atmosphere; it extends
233.Along with your membership to our health
club and
two months of free personal training.
a.correct as is
b.Along with your membership to our health
club you receive
c.With your membership to our health club,
d.In addition to your membership to our
health club being
e.Added to your membership to our health club,
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234.Our contention is that a body of common
knowledge shared by
literate Americans of the
twenty-first century and that this knowledge
can be defined.
a.correct as is
b.To contend that a body of common knowl-
edge is shared by
c.We contend that we share a body of com-
mon knowledge in
d.That a common body of knowledge is
shared is our contention with
e.It is our contention that a body of common
knowledge is shared by
235.Whether they earn
a BS degree, chemical engi-
neers are almost guaranteed a job.
a.correct as is
b.If they earn
c.If earning
d.To earn
e.Since earning
Choose the sentence that is incorrectly written or
unclear. If all sentences are correct, choose answer d.
236.a.We asked him to pick us up in the morning.
b.Mrs. Jacobs needed a ride to the airport.
c.The car racing up the street.
d.no mistakes
237.a.Our neighbors went on vacation, going to
the Grand Canyon.
b.There are yellow and red tulips in my garden.
c.We invited Molly to our house for dinner.
d.no mistakes
238.a.We are planning to build a new fence in our
b.Where is the new diner that everyone is
talking about?
c.There’s nothing I can do to help.
d.no mistakes
239.a.Make sure the door is locked.
b.I love pumpkin pie Pearl does too.
c.Yes, I will bring the dessert.
d.no mistakes
240.a.After he left, I went straight to bed.
b.For the first time, I understood what she
was talking about.
c.We visited the town where my father grew
up last summer.
d.no mistakes
241.a.Kate was allergic to all dairy products.
b.Which of the Beatles’ songs is your favorite?
c.The company newsletter explained the new
vacation policy.
d.no mistakes
242.a.They went to the park and flew a kite.
b.“Don’t tell me what to do,” she shouted.
c.Liam loves the warm weather, unless he
knows it won’t last much longer.
d.no mistakes
243.a.Bring your umbrella tomorrow it’s sup-
posed to rain.
b.The dancers’ costumes were being delivered
on Saturday.
c.Would you consider bringing me as your
d.no mistakes
ETTM_02_037-122.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 3:02 PM Page 58
244.a.Marlene likes my apple crisp better than
Aunt Kate’s.
b.The people in the auditorium, whether
they were seated or standing.
c.I registered for a class in West Indian literature.
d.no mistakes
245.a.The free passes were given to Lena and me.
b.Where’s my purple umbrella?
c.After midnight, the light on the front porch
goes off.
d.no mistakes
246.a.Katya and I were in the same pottery class.
b.The weather was nicer today than it was
c.The grapes cost more than the melon does.
d.no mistakes
247.a.His jacket is just like mine.
b.Talia went to yoga class, and that she forgot
her mat.
c.Indira visits her relatives frequently.
d.no mistakes
Choose the sentence that expresses the idea most
248.a.For three weeks, the Merryville fire chief
received taunting calls from an arsonist,
who would not say where he intended to
set the next fire.
b.The Merryville fire chief received taunting
calls from an arsonist, but he would not say
where he intended to set the next fire, for
three weeks.
c.He would not say where he intended to set
the next fire, but for three weeks the
Merryville fire chief received taunting calls
from an arsonist.
d.The Merryville fire chief received taunting
calls from an arsonist for three weeks, not saying where he intended to set the
next fire.
249.a.There is no true relationship between ethics
and the law.
b.Ethics and the law having no true relationship.
c.Between ethics and the law, no true relationship.
d.Ethics and the law is no true relationship.
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250.a.Some people say jury duty is a nuisance
that just takes up their precious time and
that we don’t get paid enough.
b.Some people say jury duty is a nuisance
that just takes up your precious time and
that one doesn’t get paid enough.
c.Some people say jury duty is a nuisance
that just takes up precious time and that
doesn’t pay enough.
d.Some people say jury duty is a nuisance
that just takes up our precious time and
that they don’t get paid enough.
251.a.A sharpshooter for many years, a pea could
be shot off a person’s shoulder from 70
yards away by Miles Johnson.
b.A sharpshooter for many years, Miles
Johnson could shoot a pea off a person’s
shoulder from 70 yards away.
c.A sharpshooter for many years, from 70
yards away off a person’s shoulder Miles
Johnson could have shot a pea.
d.A sharpshooter for many years, Miles
Johnson could shoot from 70 yards away
off a person’s shoulder a pea.
252.a.By the time they are in the third or fourth
grade, the eyes of most children in the
United States are tested.
b.Most children by the time they are in the
United States have their eyes tested in the
third or fourth grade.
c.Most children in the United States have
their eyes tested by the time they are in the
third or fourth grade.
d.In the United States by the time of third or
fourth grade, there is testing of the eyes of
most children.
Sentence Compl eti on and
Vocabul ar y Bui l di ng
A sentence is both the opportunity and the limit of
thought—what we have to think with, and what we
have to think in.
—Wendell Berry
Sentence completion exercises help you increase your
vocabulary by introducing key vocabulary words
within the context of a sentence. Since repeated expo-
sure to a word is the best way to increase your vocab-
ulary, it is a good idea to supplement the exercises in
this section by reading texts that will increase your
exposure to new words. Some valuable vocabulary-
building resources include the following:
magazines such as Scholastic Junior and Smithsonian
scientific articles
comic books (surprisingly enough, many comic
books use complex high-level vocabulary words!)
an electronic dictionary with phonetic spell
correction and audio pronunciation of words
When you stumble across a strange and unfa-
miliar word, you can usually figure out its meaning
by using your detective skills to make an educated
guess. Since all of the words in a sentence are interre-
lated, drawing on context to determine a word’s
meaning is especially useful when encountering
homonyms, which are words with more than one
meaning, such as well, and homophones, which are
words pronounced alike but different in meaning and
spelling, such as beat and beet. The word well in the
sentence “Are you feeling well today?” has a vastly dif-
ferent meaning from the word well as used in the sen-
ETTM_02_037-122.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 3:02 PM Page 60
tence “The man drew a bucket of water from the well
in his backyard.” Readers can draw a conclusion
about its meaning by noting how the word well fits
into the context of the sentence.
Word Bite: Context
Context is the meaning and positioning of
neighboring words and phrases, which can help
define an unfamiliar word.
When you are working on sentence completion
exercises, it’s important to understand that there are
four main types of sentence completions: restate-
ment, contrast, comparison, and cause and effect. By
recognizing the key phrases associated with these
four types, you can use logic and the process of elimi-
nation to select the most appropriate answer.
Restatement sentences repeat an idea that has
already been stated. The following clue phrases can
be used to identify a restatement sentence: in other
words, in fact, namely, and that is. Some sentences
focus on examining the differences between one or
more people, places, or things. Sentences focusing on
differences use words that contrast one item with
another: however, despite, and but. Sentences focusing
on comparisons use words or phrases that point out
what is similar: similarly, and, just as, and likewise. To
identify cause and effect sentence completions, look
for words that highlight a cause and the consequences
or end result (effect). Whenever there is a cause, an
effect is sure to follow, so search for clue words such
as consequently, because, as a result, and due to.
Get a Grip on
To Err Is Human, but to Misspell or Mispronounce
Words Is Just Plain Unnecessary
Accept and except are commonly con-
fused. Use accept (verb) when you
mean to agree or receive and except
(preposition) when you mean with the
exclusion of.
A lot is always written as two separate
words. There are no exceptions!
It’s and its are often confused. It’s is a
contraction for the words it is or it has. If
you mean it is or it has, then you may
use the contraction it’s. Its is a posses-
sive pronoun.
Verboten! Anyway should never be pro-
nounced as anyways. Anyway does
not have, and never has had, an -s
Mischievous is a squirrelly word that is
often mispronounced. It should always
be pronounced using three syllables,
not four syllables. Say “mis-chie-vous,”
not “mis-chie-vi-ous.”
President George W. Bush is infamous
for mispronouncing the word nuclear.
Don’t say “nu-cu-lar.” The proper pro-
nunciation is “nu-cle-ar.”
ETTM_02_037-122.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 3:02 PM Page 61
Practi ce Questi ons
253.Phillip’s ______ tone endeared him to his
comical friends, but irritated his serious
254.Brian’s pale Irish skin was _____________ to
burn if he spent too much time in the sun.
255.Over the years, the Wilsons slowly
_____________ upon the Jacksons’ property,
moving the stone markers that divided their
lots farther and farther onto the Jacksons’
256.His suit of armor made the knight
_____________ to his enemy’s attack, and he
was able to escape safely to his castle.
257.Choosing a small, fuel-efficient car is a(n)
_____________ purchase for a recent college
Get a Grip on the Root
of the Problem
If a vocabulary word has stumped you, try to
figure out its meaning by using your knowl-
edge of common root words, suffixes, and
prefixes. A root word is the base word from
which other words are formed, much as the
roots of a tree provide the base from which
the trunk, branches, and leaves grow.
Meanings change when an affix is attached
either to the front (prefix) or the end (suffix)
of a root word. For example, the suffix -or is
usually used in words related to people (pro-
fessor, collector, inspector), while the suffix -able is attached to words communicating
an ability (capable, viable). When you are in
doubt about a word’s meaning, dig deeply
into its roots!
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258.With all of the recent negative events in her
life, she felt _____________ forces must be at work.
259.The _____________ rumors did a great deal
of damage, even though they turned out to be
260.Racha’s glance was a _____________
invitation to speak later in private about
events of the meeting.
261.She reached the _____________ of her career
with her fourth novel, which won the Pulitzer
262.The governor-elect was hounded by a group
of _____________ lobbyists and others
hoping to gain favor with her administration.
263.The busy, _____________ fabric of the
clown’s tie matched his oversized jacket, which
was equally atrocious.
264.Kendrick’s talent _____________ under the
tutelage of Anya Kowalonek, who as a young
woman had been the most accomplished
pianist in her native Lithuania.
265.The children were _____________ by the
seemingly nonsensical clues until Kinan
pointed out that the messages were in code.
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266.As the _____________ in Romeo and Juliet,
Romeo is a hero able to capture the audience’s
sympathy by continually professing his love
for Juliet.
267.I have always admired Seymour’s
_____________; I’ve never seen him rattled
by anything.
268.The soldiers received a military
_____________ to inspect all their vehicles
before traveling.
269.The curious crowd gathered to watch the irate
customer _____________ about the poor
service he received in the restaurant.
270.Ron didn’t know the rules of rugby, but he
could tell by the crowd’s reaction that it was a
critical _____________ in the game.
271.The _____________ sound of the radiator as
it released steam became an increasingly
annoying distraction.
272.In such a small office setting, the office
manager found he had _____________
responsibilities that required knowledge in a
variety of different areas.
273.David’s _____________ entrance on stage
disrupted the scene and caused the actors to
flub their lines.
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274.The settlers found an ideal location with
plenty of _____________ land for farming
and a mountain stream for fresh water and
275.The _____________ seventh-grader towered
over the other players on his basketball team.
276.Carson was at first flattered by the
_____________ of his new colleagues, but he
soon realized that their admiration rested
chiefly on his connections, not his
277.Searching frantically to find the hidden jewels,
the thieves proceeded to _____________ the
entire house.
278.The police officer _____________ the crowd
to step back from the fire so that no one would
get hurt.
279.Through _____________, the chef created a
creamy sauce by combining brown sugar,
butter, and cinnamon in a pan and cooking
them over medium-high heat.
280.Harvey was discouraged that his visa
application was _____________ due to his six
281.The rebel spies were charged with
_____________ and put on trial.
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282.Keith was _____________ in his giving to
friends and charities throughout the year, not
just during the holidays.
283.Although I’d asked a simple “yes” or “no”
question, Irfan’s reply was _____________,
and I didn’t know how to interpret it.
284.The high-profile company CEO was given an
_____________ for speaking at the monthly
meeting of the area business leaders’ society.
285.Zachary was doomed to a miserable life, for
no matter how much he had, he always
_____________ the possessions of others.
286.Sheila’s grueling hike included passing
through numerous _____________.
287.The college professor was known on campus
as a(n) _____________ character—bland but
harmless and noble in his ideals.
288.The toy store’s extensive inventory offered a
_____________ of toys from baby items to
video games for teenagers.
289.Only a small number of people in the
audience laughed at the comic’s
_____________ sense of humor, while the rest
found him to be too sarcastic.
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290.Dogs growl and show their teeth in an attempt
to _____________ the animal or person they
perceive as a threat.
291.In biology class, Sabine observed the
arthropod’s _____________, its barely
discernible movement in the tank.
292.The battalion’s _____________ was a well-fortified structure near the enemy lines.
293.Walking through the _____________ forest in
spring was a welcome escape from the cold,
gray winter we had spent in the city.
294.Meredith used the _____________ to steer
the horse and keep him in line.
295.Oliver was unable to _____________ himself
from the difficulties he had caused by forging
the documents.
296.The _____________ of our expedition was
still so far away that I felt we would never get
297.If he expected to _____________ as a doctor,
Lou knew he would have to study hard in
medical school and work long hours to gain
experience and skill.
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298.Doc Wilson grew up in Florida and was not
prepared to face the _____________ climate
of the Alaskan winter.
299.Marvin’s _____________ prevented him from
finishing his work and was evidenced in his
large phone bills.
300.The graph clearly showed the company
reaching the _____________ in profits during
the 1980s when the economy was in a boom
301.Victor Frankenstein’s creature was a(n)
_____________, detested by everyone he met.
302.Ariana was outstanding as the moderator; she
handled the intensely heated debate with great
_____________, diplomatically and tactfully
keeping the conversation fair and on track.
303.The class endured a loud and lengthy
_____________ by the teacher on the subject
of submitting written work on time.
304.Must we be subjected to your _____________
complaints all day long?
305.The new political candidate refused to print
_____________ about her aggressive
opponent, but that did not stop him from
printing lies about her.
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306.Awkwardly tall and prone to tripping over her own feet, Grace felt her name was truly a _____________.
307.Although the villagers’ lives were profoundly
different from her own, Jing-Mae felt a deep
_____________ for the people when she
served in the Peace Corps.
308.In the famous balcony scene, Romeo
_____________ Juliet’s beauty in one of the
most romantic soliloquies ever written.
309.The surgeon placed a _____________ on the
femoral artery to bind it during the long and
exhausting surgery.
310.By sheer _____________ force, the men
pushed the truck to the side of the road and
out of danger.
311.To settle the dispute, the students elected a
faculty member to serve as a(n)
312.The _____________ man with amnesia was
unable to recognize where he was.
313.Justin’s _____________ solution to the
problem revealed that he did not spend much
time considering the consequences.
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314.It is every American’s _____________ to live
the life he or she chooses.
315.After the boisterous customers left the café
without tipping, Carlos _____________ at
them through the restaurant’s front window.
316.Kinnel’s reelection is being threatened by a
growing _____________ of disgruntled union
317.The peasants passed their weary days in much
_____________ and little comfort.
318.Lyasia is a _____________ of the clarinet; she
has performed solos with many orchestras and
bands around the world.
319.The concert audience was frustrated by the
poor _____________ of the sounds coming
from the speakers.
320.With an _____________ blow of the whistle,
the meddling parent interrupted the game to
reiterate the rules of the tournament.
321.The candidate’s inappropriately sexist remark
was met with a _____________ of
denunciations from the angry crowd.
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322.The _____________ employee decided to
complain publicly about the unacceptable
working conditions.
323.The judge dismissed the extraneous evidence
because it was not _____________ to the trial.
324.The _____________ nature of the song is
supposed to be reminiscent of shepherds
calling to their flocks at night.
325.The _____________ child caused great
difficulties for her parents and teachers,
because she refused to correct her bad
behavior even in the face of punishment.
326.The castaway’s hut was _____________ by the
natives curious to see who was the intruder
upon their island.
327.The defense attorney’s choice of words
_____________ that there were other possible
versions of the crime, but the jury was
328.Ted’s enthusiasm for becoming a professional
drummer _____________ when he realized
he would have to practice several hours a day.
329.Some would say Muzak is a(n)
_____________ form of music, a kind of
background noise designed to be heard but
not listened to.
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330.The teacher was dismissed for the
_____________ act of helping his students
cheat on the exam.
331.The reformed criminal could not forget his
guilty past; he was in a living state of
332.The _____________ yoga instructor waited
patiently for her students to find the proper
pose, which she performed with ease.
333.Because it had been worn and washed so
often, Linus’s favorite T-shirt was tattered and
_____________ with holes.
334.Eels swim using a rapid _____________
motion that propels them through the water.
335.Sick and tired of her boring job, Cecilia began
to _____________ what it would be like to
336.The way my father likes to _____________
with any salesperson to see if he can bargain
for a lower price is embarrassing.
337.The _____________ construction crew built
large buildings all over the East Coast,
wherever the demand for qualified workers
took them.
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338.The CEO’s large expense accounts proved she
was a(n) _____________ spender with the
company’s money.
339.The young, thin boy surprised his wrestling
opponent with his _____________ strength.
340.When Arnold’s grandmother began to
complain about the excruciating pain in her
knees and legs, she was referred to a(n)
_____________ specialist for a diagnosis.
341.Charlie’s _____________ behavior made it
clear that he had been highly educated in
matters of etiquette.
342.Given his _____________ nature, it was
appropriate that he decided to be a trial lawyer
after law school.
343.Sanji went abroad as a(n) _____________
young man; when he returned two years later,
he seemed like an experienced man of the
344.The protesters were concerned that the
proposed legislation would have a(n)
_____________ effect on the state’s nature
345.Not swayed by his student’s _____________
flattery, the professor told him that his grade
would not be changed.
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346.Tonya found Isaac’s public declarations of his
love for her _____________ and
347.The kitten was _____________ when it
noticed the menacing dog entering the yard.
348.According to pirate lore, a terrible
_____________ would follow whoever
opened the treasure chest.
349.When we were renovating the old house, we
found a(n) _____________ of $10 and $20
bills hidden inside the old laundry chute.
350.The workers attempted to _____________ the
supervisor’s authority by negotiating terms
with the clients themselves.
351.The student failed his research paper because
he chose to _____________ material from a
another author’s work.
352.The _____________ old cowboy had a
complexion that spoke of many years in the
desert sun, rounding up wild horses.
353.The swimmer’s back injury _____________
his prospects for a gold medal at the world
championship competition.
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354.Lynette had to learn the _____________ of
the insurance profession before she felt
comfortable describing products to her
355.Marta had to pay off her _____________ to
the credit card company before she could get a
356.With Justine’s _____________ nature and
passion for art, she would make an excellent
tour guide for the museum.
357.The employee’s claim of being out with the flu
did not seem very _____________, because he
returned from sick leave with a deep tan.
358.The con man used his _____________ to
convince the elderly woman to sign over her
life savings to him.
359.Sunlight shining through a window was an
obvious _____________ in the nearly every
one of the artist’s works.
360.I like listening to Wesley go on about politics
and social issues; his opinions are
_____________ with my own beliefs.
361.Most people will find the film silly and
childish in its humor; the most
_____________ viewers will find it downright
crass and offensive.
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362.The goal of any company is to have its product
name become _____________ and be
constantly at the forefront of the consumer’s
363.During the holiday season, the
_____________ theme is “Peace on Earth,
goodwill toward all.”
364.Our cottage by the sea offers many days of
relaxation with warm sunshine and soothing
365.When Melinda arrived in the impoverished
city, she was immediately _____________ by
bands of children begging for food.
366.According to the terms of the agreement, if
Nicole defaulted on her loan, she would have
to _____________ her house and car, both of
which would become property of the bank.
367.The food at the buffet table was a
_____________ array of delights that even the
most disciplined dieter would find difficult to
368.After fighting the five-alarm fire, the
_____________ firefighter could not relax
enough to unwind and get some rest.
369.The firefighter was _____________ in the
news for his heroic rescue of a child from a
burning house.
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370.The villagers locked their doors when they
heard about the pirates who were
_____________ unprotected villages along
the island’s coastline.
371.I could tell by Angelica’s _____________ tone
that she was still very angry with me.
372.After years of living at a(n) _____________
pace, Paola decided it was time to slow down
and learn how to relax.
373.Living on several acres of land dotted with oak
and maple trees makes autumn leaf-raking
a(n) _____________ task.
374.It would take many hours of cleaning and
repairing for the young family to transform
the _____________ into a clean and
comfortable little cottage.
375.It was once believed that alchemists could
_____________ common metals to gold.
376.The close-up of the actor drinking the popular
brand of cola in the movie was a(n)
_____________ display of commercialism.
377.This summer’s movies are _____________ for
audiences of escape-the-heat mindless
entertainment; not one film offers a
substantive or even plausible plot.
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378.The dictator used propaganda and
intimidation to _____________ the
379.Simona’s _____________ with her money
caught up with her when she didn’t have the
resources to buy a badly needed new car.
380.The architect designed the ceiling using wood
_____________ that would remain
uncovered, creating a rustic ambience in the
living room.
Other than conditioning your skills through these
practice tests, you can use dictionaries, the Internet,
and vocabulary-building games as tools to help maxi-
mize your vocabulary power. Here are a few resources
you might want to refer to in conjunction with these
Print Resources
American Heritage Dictionaries Editors. 100 Words
Almost Everyone Confuses & Misuses (Boston:
Houghton Mifflin, 2004).
American Heritage Dictionaries Editors. 100 Words
Every High School Freshman Should Know
(Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2004).
Burchers, Sam, Max, and Bryan. Vocabulary Cartoons,
2nd ed. (Punta Gorda, FL: New Monic Books,
Roget’s Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases (New
York: Penguin, 2002).
Internet Reference Sites
Fake Out!—a fun definition guessing game to hone vocabulary skills (www.eduplace.com/
Visual Thesaurus (www.visualthesaurus.com)
Yahoo! Education—a website featuring free sample
SAT tests and useful reference guides (http://
Vocabulary- and Grammar-Building Word Games
Angaramania! vocabulary-building word game
Nymble learning name-finder game with emphasis
on synonyms, antonyms, and homonyms
Squeeze Phrase word recognition game
Word Sweep dictionary word game
ETTM_02_037-122.QXD:GED Test series 7/1/08 3:02 PM Page 78
Practi ce Questi ons
381.When the house on the corner burned down,
the entire neighborhood _____________
together to help to the victims reestablish their lives.
382.The massage therapist’s _____________
fingers quickly eased the tension in Blanche’s
383.As she walked through the halls of her old
grade school, Madeline became
_____________, remembering her old friends
and teachers.
384.Ignacio’s pain was so _____________ that he
called 911.
385.The captain _____________ the cargo to keep
his ship afloat.
386.The teacher tried to _____________ her class
off their dependence on the number lines
pasted to the tops of their desks.
387.Ricky is a _____________ of the local coffee
shop; you can find him there just about every
388.Having never left the landlocked Midwest his
entire life, Albert found that swimming in the
ocean was quite a(n) _____________.
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389.The rowdy crowd at the rock concert
_____________ Herve, and he spilled his soda
on his pants.
390.Blinded by _____________, Nicholas
accepted the job offer with the highest pay but
the least possibility of making him happy.
391.We knew Jana had _____________ motives
for running for class president: She wanted the
nearby parking space that came with the
392.The villainous gang’s hideout was a den of
_____________ that no one would dare to
393.Although it was so ridiculous that no one
believed it to be true, the reporter’s
_____________ still cost the governor his reelection.
394.People on the street stopped to
_____________ over the artist’s rendition of
the Eiffel Tower, amazed by his ability to
capture the detail.
395.The veteran lieutenant was not happy with his
_____________ rank behind the two
inexperienced men.
396.The prime minister was admired by all, a(n)
_____________ even in an environment of
corruption and disdain.
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397.The queen’s _____________ fell ill during his
journey and was unable to negotiate on her
behalf when he arrived at the economic
398.Tai was _____________ by a series of setbacks
that nearly made him miss his deadline.
399.Patsy was shocked to discover how much
higher her IQ was than the _____________.
400.Although she appeared confident, once she
began her speech, the valedictorian’s
_____________ voice indicated her
401.A charming painting of a pleasant
_____________ landscape hung above Vitaly’s
fireplace, in marked contrast to the noise and
lights of the bustling city outside his window.
402.Since his parents had little money, Peter was
_____________ to his uncle for paying for his
college education.
403.With great _____________, we stepped
gingerly onto the planks of the dilapidated
bridge that spanned a rocky stream 20 feet
404.The paper was _____________ so that it
could be easily removed from the bound
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405.Jayne’s paintings were not minimalist, but
they were _____________, using only the
most elemental and essential elements.
406.Wendell’s prolonged illness was the
_____________ that ignited his interest in
science and led to his illustrious career in
medical research.
407.After stopping to admire the _____________
in the front yard, the young woman continued
on with her gardening duties.
408.In a(n) _____________ expression of
pleasure, the infant clapped her hands and
squealed with joy.
409.The play’s _____________ debut was not a
good sign for the struggling producer.
410.At one time, it was in _____________ for
women to wear gloves and hats whenever they
were out in public.
411.To ensure that Brenda wouldn’t know where
we were going for her birthday, I took the
most _____________ route I could think of.
412.The editorial was essentially a(n)
_____________ to the governor, praising her
for enacting a series of environmental laws
and for balancing the state budget for the first
time in 20 years.
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413.Claude felt particularly _____________ as he
carried the large satchel filled with cash
through the dark streets to the bank.
414.Niall’s _____________ attitude toward the
boss is embarrassing; he does nearly
everything for him except scratch his nose!
415.Jeremy didn’t want to appear _____________,
but his brothers simply could not convince
him to change his mind.
416.Although it was supposed to be written for the
general public, the report was so
_____________ that only those with inside
knowledge of government workings could
understand it.
417.Todd set up a rope to _____________ the part
of the exhibit that was off-limits.
418.François fell into a groggy _____________
after having suffered a high fever for several
419.Blaine had a tendency to _____________
certain details of his evenings out when he
didn’t want his parents to know where he had
420.Someone who is in love may find the beloved’s
_____________—often annoying to or
disparaged by others—to be charming and
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421.Terreh was able to _____________ the traffic
jam by taking a series of one-way streets that
led to the bridge.
422.Moving all the heavy cinder blocks by hand
from the driveway to the backyard seemed like
a(n) _____________ task.
423.Claudia’s _____________ face gave no clue to
her hard, cold heart.
424.She realized mortgage rates had declined and
decided it was _____________ to continue
paying rent when she could now afford a
monthly payment for her own home.
425.As the city grew and stretched its borders, it
began to feel the _____________ problems of
urban sprawl and overpopulation.
426.Terrance, a dentist, _____________ to be with
the media, so he could see the concert for free.
427._____________ on a lounge chair by the pool
was the very tan owner of the estate, relaxing
in the midday sunshine.
428.Observing his sister’s _____________
behavior of riding without a helmet, Jorge ran
to get his mother.
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429.In an attempt to _____________ the enemy,
Braveheart rallied hundreds of fierce warriors.
430.The film was completed on schedule despite
the _____________ circumstances regarding
the location and extreme weather conditions.
431.Many employers like to visit college campuses
and _____________ college seniors to work
for their companies.
432.The company officials felt the rising cost of
health coverage was _____________ enough
to raise their employees’ insurance premiums.
433.The _____________ of the sheriff ’s
department ended at the county line.
434.We could not describe the scene before us; it
was filled with such _____________ beauty.
435.The subject matter was _____________
because the mumbling professor spoke too
436.Arnie becomes so _____________ when he
talks about painting that it is hard not to be
infected by his enthusiasm.
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437.Don’t let Julie’s enthusiasm fool you; she’s just
a _____________, not a professional dancer.
438.Normally, Maya would not have made so
many spelling mistakes in her essay; she is
usually _____________ about her spelling.
439.In the Roman myth, Artemis made a
pilgrimage to the _____________, hoping to
learn the answer to her dilemma.
440.Orson was truly a(n) _____________:
Towering over others at six feet nine inches, he
was also one of the most influential and
successful producers in the feature film
441.Brian was an _____________ child; he was
sent to the principal’s office on numerous
occasions for his rude classroom behavior.
442.We must _____________ the information
about the agenda changes immediately so that
the conference attendees have time to adjust
their schedules.
443.If you can adhere to the _____________ rules
of a military society, the Marines may be an
excellent career choice.
444.The natural _____________ of the canyon
cause it to be an everlasting source of new
adventures and beauty.
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445.A lifelong vegetarian, Xiomara
_____________ when she learned that the
sauce she’d just eaten was made with chicken
446.At the beginning of the ceremony, the high
school band _____________ the arrival of the
graduates by playing the alma mater loudly
and with enthusiasm.
447.Although Sophie was afraid of heights, she
seemed to have no _____________ about
driving over bridges.
448.I will write a rough draft of the proposal, and
then you can edit it for any _____________
material so that it is as convincing and concise
as possible.
449.Minnie finally _____________ to her sister’s
constant barrage of questions and revealed the
identity of her new boyfriend.
450.The proposed design includes many
_____________ features that are not
functional and can be eliminated to cut costs.
451.Carly’s _____________ spending on shoes
and clothing caused her parents a great deal of
concern, because she was no longer saving
money for college.
452.The professor studied the _____________
physics of ballet dancers and even published a
study on the topic of dancers and movement.
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453.Philbert’s _____________ manner fit in well
with the atmosphere of the posh country club.
454.There were several _____________ buildings
on the street, making it difficult for Margaret
to determine which one was the dentist’s
455.To _____________ a congressional bill, the
president must use his official seal on all
456.There is no way around it: Plagiarism is
_____________ to thievery.
457.For _____________ deeds during her mission
overseas, Tyesha was awarded the
Congressional Medal of Honor.
458.I am _____________ of the problems that this
solution will cause, but I still believe that this
is the best possible course of action.
459.The spectacular presentation by a rainforest
adventurer _____________ Simon with the
desire to travel to South America to see the
jungles for himself.
460.When the senator’s popularity suffered in the
polls, he _____________ his proposal to raise
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461.Because of the _____________ of reliable
information, Quentin’s report was comprised
mostly of speculation.
462.The pain medication Kristy received after
surgery offered relief; however, the
overwhelming feeling of _____________ was
an unexpected side effect, and she didn’t like
being groggy.
463.The ski lodge had a window that looked out
upon a beautiful mountain _____________.
464.The palace’s great hall was rich in history and
splendor, the walls hung with _____________
465.After weeks of heavy rains, the earth gave way;
mud and trees _____________ down the
mountain, swallowing cars and houses in their
466.Several weeks of extremely hot, dry weather
_____________ the land, so instead of rowing
across a river, we walked across a cracked,
parched riverbed.
467.The pitcher’s _____________ workout
regimen was the most grueling of the entire
team, and he never took a day off.
468.I was bored with the _____________
conversation of my roommates and longed for
some intellectual stimulation.
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469.Ned’s fear was _____________ as he watched
the 60-foot waves approach his little boat.
470.Although others were fooled by “Doctor”
Winston’s speech, Lily knew him for what he
was: a(n) _____________.
e.prima donna
471.After the neighbor’s loud music woke her up
for the fifth night in a row, Brenda felt
_____________ to complain.
472.Carter is writing a letter of recommendation
that I can include in my _____________ for
prospective employers.
473._____________ laughter came from the
upstairs apartment where Trang was having a
graduation party.
474.In the middle of his eloquent _____________,
the audience suddenly broke into applause.
475.I like the _____________ style of these essays;
they make complex issues accessible by
presenting them in everyday language.
476.A diamond ring is the _____________
symbol of love and affection.
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477.Nothing will _____________ my memory of
the night we first met; the images are forever
burned in my mind.
478.The devastating drought forced the
_____________ tribes of the rainforest to
leave their homes and venture into the
modern world.
479.Jason’s _____________ approach to
management included narrowing the salary
gap between the CEOs and office workers.
480.My parents always seem to worry and
_____________ more about money when tax
season is approaching.
481.Samantha had an _____________ trust in her
grandfather, who was an honorable man and
kind to everyone he met.
482.Although I meant it as a compliment, Zander
_____________ my remark as an insult.
483.The sailor’s _____________ complexion
bespoke his many sunny days at the lookout
484.Tanya is a _____________ person, trusted by
all who know her.
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485.After the third relative was hired to an upper-level position, several people quit the
company, claiming that _____________
caused a decline in employee morale.
486.Genevieve’s stunning debut performance at
the city opera has earned her _____________
from some of the city’s toughest critics.
487.The shaggy neon-pink couch was a(n)
_____________ in the conservative room
decorated with earth tones.
488.Harris tried to _____________ his fear of
flying when he boarded the plane, but he
could not curb his anxiety.
489.Gabi found that whenever she was confused
about an idea or issue, writing about it would
help _____________ her true feelings.
490.After the powerful windstorm, Marie
discovered a splintered and fallen tree limb
had _____________ the vinyl lining of her
swimming pool.
491.Johnny’s good behavior in class yesterday was
_____________ by his disruptive outbursts
this morning.
492.Jason and Joshua made _____________ plans
to meet in the cafeteria to study for the test,
provided Jason’s class ended on time.
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493.The professor’s lectures were filled with
excessive _____________, lasting much
longer than was necessary to convey his ideas.
494.Ming’s blatant lie revealed that he suffered no
_____________ about being dishonest to his
495.Diane, always teasing, was known for her
_____________, but as a result, nobody knew
when to take her seriously.
496.“Absolute power corrupts absolutely,” said
Haines, quoting Lord Acton. “There is no such
thing as a(n) _____________ who is not a
corrupt and cruel ruler.”
497.During his _____________in office, the
mayor made several controversial decisions
about city planning.
498.Recovering from the tragedy, Helena found
the _____________ sunrise reassuring, as it
gave her something to rely on each and every
499.Flaws in Claire’s opponent’s chess game
showed him to be _____________, and Claire
knew her victory was assured.
500.The ad didn’t mention a specific salary; it just
said “compensation _____________ with
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501.The _____________ she felt for shopping
made it impossible for her to walk by a sale
window without stopping.
502.The owners of the bed-and-breakfast were
extremely _____________ to their guests,
who enjoyed elegant meals, prompt service,
and beautifully decorated rooms.
503.Homeless people often lead a(n)
_____________ lifestyle because they
repeatedly get uprooted from the streets and
alleys where they live.
504.Linda’s _____________ for picking the right
stocks made her a very wealthy woman.
505.Computers and word processing software have
made the art of handwriting letters virtually
506.Marco has an irresistibly _____________
manner that many young women find
charming and attractive.
507.Chantel kept the _____________ of her
beloved foremost in her mind as she traveled
to countries far and wide in her quest to find
508.The cozy beach cottage was only
_____________ for summer tenants, because
it lacked the insulation to make a winter stay
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509.The settlers decided to build their town at the
_____________ of two rivers; that settlement
became the city of Pittsburgh.
510.Furious that Lou had lied about his references,
Noi _____________ her decision to promote
him to assistant manager.
511.To prove your theory, you need to design an
experiment that will provide _____________
512.Rachel’s mother was appalled by the amount
of _____________ humor on television
during hours when young children were still
513.The scared boy on the roller coaster made sure
his seatbelt was _____________ across his
514.The female fox’s _____________ over her
burrow indicates that she has just birthed her
515.After Ginger banged her head, she noticed that
a large lump began to _____________ from
her forehead.
516.The devoted fans paid _____________ to the
late singer by placing flowers on his memorial
and by holding lighted votive candles.
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517.Losing his entire business to the flood, Bill’s
only _____________ was to file bankruptcy.
518.The new evidence convinced the judge to
overturn Martin’s conviction and
_____________ him.
519.Christopher hired a tree-trimming crew to cut
the _____________ branches of the pine tree
that were scraping the side of his house.
520.We both knew our summer romance was
_____________, and we would just be
memories in each other’s minds by the winter.
521.The dissatisfied workers spread their
_____________ attitudes among themselves
until there was a danger of a full-scale
rebellion against the owners of the factory.
522.The junkyard was littered with
_____________ objects, making it unsightly
to the neighborhood behind it.
523.Although Maya’s _____________ sensibilities
are quite different from mine, I think she is a
remarkable interior decorator and I
recommend her highly.
524.The meticulous art student applied her paint
colors in subtle _____________ in her
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525.J.P. recalled running through the
_____________ of tall rows of cornstalks that
dominated his grandfather’s summer garden.
526.Peter displayed an air of _____________
when the officer asked him if he knew the
speed limit.
527.I have tried for years to get close to my brother
Rae, but he has always remained
528.In his later years, the once wildly successful
gambler lost his fortune, and became a
homeless _____________ on the streets of Las
529._____________ animals are able to survive
easily in the wilderness because, for example,
they can live on berries or insects.
530.Sally had planted the seeds in the greenhouse
three weeks ago; they would begin to
_____________ any day now.
531.Julia’s parents gave her one _____________
regarding her new job: It could not interfere
with her schoolwork.
532.The critics agreed that despite enthusiastic
efforts from the supporting cast, the star of the
play gave a(n) _____________ performance,
ruining the chance of lucrative box office sales.
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533.The tenor’s _____________ voice filled the
concert hall.
534.After the fire, there were ashes in every
_____________ of the old farmhouse.
535.Luanne experiences serious _____________
whenever she climbs several flights of steep
536.The _____________ of the successful product
idea was attributed to the extraordinarily
creative company president.
537.Once the company reached its
_____________ of hiring a hundred college
graduates, it proceeded to recruit older, more
experienced candidates.
538.After her extended illness, Delia experienced a
long period of _____________ when she did
not want to work, exercise, or clean.
539.Floyd has a distinctive _____________ to his
voice that is easily recognizable over the
540.The house was consumed in flames, and not a
_____________ of it remained after the fire.
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541.David felt as if the family picnic would be a(n)
_____________ time to talk with his
grandmother about her plans for the holidays.
542.The children were _____________ for eating
the whole batch of cookies before dinner.
543.During his routine, the stand-up comic
refused to be shaken by the heckler who
_____________ him every few minutes.
544.Going away for spring break was not in the
_____________ of possibility, since neither
Helga nor Olga had any money.
545.Oscar _____________ his sister not to tell
their mother what he had done, for he knew
his punishment would be severe.
546._____________ were in order as James
performed brilliantly onstage in his first role
as an understudy.
547.The Boston Tea Party happened because the
colonists believed the British tea taxes were
_____________ their rights.
548.The old bridge’s steel _____________ were
rusty and in need of repair.
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549.The budding flowers, warm breezes, and births of young animals suggest the much-welcomed _____________ atmosphere
in the country after a long, hard winter.
550.Because she had not exercised in five years,
Margarita’s attempt to jog five miles on her
first day of cardio training was a little
551.The legal internship program was developed
under the _____________ of the district
attorney’s office.
552.Frank feels such _____________ toward his
ex–business partner that he cannot stand to be
in the same room with him.
553.Ronaldo celebrated the gathering of his
_____________ on Thanksgiving Day and
spoke with relatives he had not seen in a long
554.After sitting in the contentious board meeting
for two hours, Allen’s necktie began to feel like
a _____________ around his neck.
555.Even though he hated to work on holidays and
weekends, Trevor hoped that his paycheck
would serve as _____________ for the time
spent away from his family.
556.Amanda’s parents were shocked by her
_____________ decision to quit her job
without notice and move to Hollywood.
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557.The catlike movements of the sneaky
_____________ served him well when he
picked pockets among the tourists on the
crowded boardwalk.
558.The student’s _____________ language
offended many others in the class.
559.In winter, the frost on a car’s windshield can
be _____________ to the driver.
560.The prom was a(n) _____________ royal ball
with so many handsome young men and
beautiful young ladies dressed to the ultimate
561.As the roller coaster inched up to its starting
point at the top of the hill, Helena could feel
her heart begin to _____________.
562.Paul’s _____________ humor is sometimes
lost on those who take his comments too
563.Hearing her sister approach, Marie-Helene
attempted to appear _____________ as she
quickly hid the birthday gift behind her back.
564.The knight sought to _____________ his
broadsword in such a menacing fashion as to
frighten his attacker away.
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565.At the banquet, the disappearance of the
woman’s jeweled bracelet from her wrist
appeared to be the _____________ of an
accomplished thief.
566.Something went _____________ in our
experiment, and instead of creating a green
odorless vapor, we ended up with a noxious
red liquid that stank up the laboratory for
567.When the movie star slipped out the back
door of the hotel, the paparazzi adroitly
gathered their _____________ and raced
around the building to catch her.
568.Since Shane won the lottery, he has been living
a life of _____________ luxury, buying
whatever he desires and traveling around the
world in his 100-foot yacht as he is waited on
hand and foot by a bevy of butlers, cooks, and
569.Confronted by his mother, the
_____________ four-year-old could not lie
about scribbling on his bedroom walls with
purple and blue markers.
570.The artist attempted to _____________ the
painting by adding people dressed in bright
colors in the foreground.
571.The artist drew the picture with such
_____________ that it was possible to count
every blade of grass that he painted.
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572.The highly publicized nature of the trial
caused the judge to _____________ the jury
in order to shield members from evidence that
might sway their verdict.
573.Jillian was _____________ by the
contradictory diagnoses she received and
decided she needed a third opinion.
574.Because he was antsy from having eaten too
much candy, little William was unable to
_____________ himself in a respectable
manner during the ceremony.
575.The chemistry professor believed her students
could do better on their exams by searching
for their own answers, and encouraged the
class to apply the _____________ method to
576.Bea was known for her loud and domineering
personality and was considered a
_____________ by many who knew her.
577.Even though he was only in kindergarten, Joel
was very _____________ and could intuit
when his teacher was not pleased with his
578.During his many years of hard work, Paul was
promoted several times and began to rise
through the bank’s _____________ of
579.The heat was absolutely _____________,
making everyone irritable, sweaty, and
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580.The biology students were assigned the task of
testing the _____________, but did not have
enough time to prove its validity.
581.It had rained all afternoon, but the fans
remained _____________ that the baseball
game would still be played.
582.If you have any special needs or requests,
speak to Val; she’s the one with the most
_____________ around here.
583.Because Virgil had been _____________ as a
child, he had an extremely difficult time
adjusting when he enrolled in the military
584.Far from being a _____________, Bob gets up
at dawn every morning to prepare for a long
day at work, after which he attends classes in
585.The vulgarity used by the football fans at the
stadium was _____________ and eventually
led to a penalty for the team.
586.After the debate, Karim _____________ upon
many of the campaign issues in a series of
detailed editorials.
587.Since the judge hearing the case was related to
one of the defendants, she felt she could not
offer a truly _____________ opinion.
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588.Abdul found his ten-hour shifts at the paper
clip factory repetitive and _____________.
589.Jonelle is a(n) _____________ of the kind of
student we seek: someone who is both
academically strong and actively involved in
the community.
590.Tomas is a(n) _____________ businessman
who knows a good opportunity when he sees it.
591.Sean would _____________ whenever it
became his turn to do the dishes.
592.The barnyard scene outside the 4-H tent made
a charming _____________ for visitors to the
state fair.
593.The jellyfish, known for its shimmering
_____________, is one of nature’s most
intriguing creatures.
594.A decade after the _____________, the
members of the tribe began to drift home
again, hoping to rebuild the community they
had fled during the war.
595.After performing a(n) _____________ of the
cow, scientists determined that it did not have
mad cow disease, and there was no need to
notify the federal authorities.
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596.Charged with moral _____________, the
judge was called off the case even though he
denied receiving bribes from the plaintiff ’s
597.I knew from Inga’s _____________ reply that
she was offended by my question.
598.The cult leader’s _____________ obeyed his
every instruction.
599.The _____________ wallpaper in his living
room makes it difficult to find curtains and
furniture that will be compatible with it.
600.Homer’s Odyssey was not translated into many
people’s _____________ until after the
invention of the printing press.
601.Don Quixote describes the adventures of a(n)
_____________ knight who believes that
windmills are giants and the barmaid
Dulcinea is a princess.
602.The _____________ espionage plot was so
sophisticated it was impossible to believe it
was the work of teenage computer hackers.
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180.c.Even though is the most logical subordinating
phrase, showing a contrast. The other
choices are not only illogical but ungrammatical.
181.a.The word despite establishes a logical con-
nection between the main and subordinate
clauses. Whereupon and so that (choices b
and c) make no sense. Choice d is both
illogical and ungrammatical.
182.c.The subordinator because in choice c estab-
lishes the logical causal relationship
between subordinate and main clause;
choices a and b do not make sense. Choice
d has faulty construction.
183.b.Whereas is the logical subordinator, estab-
lishing contrast. The other answer choices
make no sense.
184.c.The subordinator although shows a logical
contrasting relationship between subordi-
nate and main clause. The other choices do
not make sense.
185.b.The conjunction so establishes the correct
causal relationship between the clauses.
The other sentences do not point to a
186.d.The subordinator yet establishes a contrast-
ing relationship between the clauses. The
other choices do not establish a logical relationship.
187.a.The subordinator whereas correctly estab-
lishes a contrast between subordinate and
main clause. The other choices point to an
illogical causal relationship.
188.c.Choice a contains a misplaced modifier.
Choice b is a run-on sentence. Choice d
establishes a faulty causal relationship
between main and subordinate clauses.
Choice c correctly states a simple fact.
189.c.The conjunction but sets the reader up for a
contrast or opposite: TV... passive... but
computer game... active. 190.b.The conjunction so indicates a causal rela-
tionship: Socrates taught [something
obviously controversial], so he was both ...
loved and ... hated. Choice c is incorrect
because it has a misplaced modifier.
191.a.The conjunction for in this sentence means
because and prepares the reader for a logical
causal relationship. Choice d is a run-on
192.a.The conjunction so indicates that there is a
causal relationship between the two clauses. 193.d.The conjunction yet prepares the reader for
a contrast: respected, yet ... imprisoned.
Choice b is wrong because it is unclear.
194.c.In this sentence, the conjunction for means
because and prepares the reader for a logical
causal relationship.
195.b.The conjunction but sets the reader up for
an opposite or contrast: it is possible ... but
...unlikely. Choices c and d make no sense.
196.c.The word unless sets up the causal relation-
ship between the two clauses in the
sentence. The other choices are illogical.
197.a.The subordinating conjunction although
signals an impending contradiction. The
other choices do not make sense.
198.d.The subordinator but contrasts the main
clause and subordinate clause in a logical
way. Choices a, b,and c do not make sense.
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199.d.Choice d is the most economical of the
choices and makes the most sense.
200.d.Because establishes the causal relationship
between the woman not responding and
our assumption that she would not attend.
201.c.The transitional word although correctly
establishes a contrast between Elizabeth’s
athletic ability and her inability to swim or
ride a bike.
202.c.The conjunctive adverb therefore establishes
the causal relationship between the number
of babies in the neighborhood and the
neighborhood’s nickname.
203.a.The transitional word however correctly
establishes a contrast between the large
number of stores in the shopping mall and
the absence of a pet shop.
204.a.The transitional word furthermore correctly
indicates the addition of one negative trait
to another. Choice d is incorrect because
not everyone who is unreliable has a
difficult personality.
205.a.The conjunction but means on the con-
trary, and indicates that the negative in the
first main clause will be followed by its
opposite in the second: never eat ... but ...
do drink.
206.d.The conjunction so correctly indicates the
causality: The subject of the sentence
always has a big party because she loves cel-
ebrating her birthday. Choice a indicates
causality but is ungrammatical.
207.b.The conjunction yet prepares the reader for
a contrast: is not usually . . . yet it can.
Choice c is unclear.
208.d.The conjunction and in this sentence indi-
cates also. Choice a is wrong because it is a
sentence fragment. Choice b makes no
sense; choice c prepares the reader for a
contrast but fails to deliver.
209.b.The conjunction yet prepares the reader for a contrast: much interest ... throughout
the ages, yet ... scientific study ... is ... new.
Choices a and c are incomplete sentences.
210.a.The original sentence is the only one that
has the same form (parallelism) between
the verbs (welcoming and having
211.c.This choice is the only one that does not
contain repetition or wordiness. Choice b is
grammatically incorrect.
212.b.This choice is correctly subordinated and is logical.
213.a.The original sentence is the only choice
that does not have a faulty subordination.
The first part of the sentence is an inde-
pendent clause; the second part is a
dependent clause that is correctly intro-
duced by the relative pronoun which.
214.e.This is the only choice that does not contain
repetition or wordiness. In the original sen-
tence and in choices c and d, well known,
prominent, famous,and renowned mean the
same thing; in choice b, a painter obviously
lived and painted.
215.c.This choice is constructed so that the sen-
tence is logical and unambiguous. In the
original sentence, the opening phrase
Having missed class several times should be
completed by a noun or pronoun that
indicates who missed class.
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216.a.The original sentence is the only choice
that does not contain repetition or wordi-
ness. In choice b, diligent and careful mean
the same thing; in choice c, reviewing and
checking mean the same thing; in choice d,
workers and employees mean the same
thing; and in choice e, daily and every day
mean the same thing.
217.d.The word beside means at the side of; the word besides means other than or
together with.
218.d.The comparison in this sentence between
the United States and Japan requires as well as. Choice d does this while at the same time creating a clear and
logical sentence.
219.a.Correct as is. A comma is needed before a
coordinating conjunction and after a sub-
ordinating clause; choice a is the only one
that does both.
220.d.In this complex sentence, choice d is the
only choice that results in a complete sen-
tence. The other choices are sentence
221.b.This is the only choice in which the sen-
tence construction is clear and
unambiguous. In the original sentence and
in choice c, the sentence reads as though
the ingredients were making the torte. In
choice e, no one is making the torte. Choice
d is incorrect because there is a shift in
tense from present (making) to past perfect
(should have used).
222.a.The original sentence makes a comparison
between culture and biology that is logical
and clear. Choice b is wrong because the
use of the preposition with does not
observe standard usage conventions. The
phrase somewhat better in choice c makes
no sense. Choices d and e result in an
unclear comparison.
223.e.This is the only choice that does not con-
tain excessive wordiness or a redundancy.
In the original sentence, the phrase the fifth
of the five is redundant. Choices b,c, and d
also repeat five and fifth.
224.e.The opening phrase, An American poet of
the nineteenth century, should modify a
noun that identifies the poet. Only choice e
does this. In the original sentence and in
choices b and c, either collection or Leaves of
Grass is illogically credited with being the
poet. Choice d is incorrect because the sub-
ject of the resulting dependent clause,
poems, does not agree with its verb, celebrates.
225.d.Choice d is correctly punctuated with a
semicolon between two independent
clauses, and there is no shift in person. The
original sentence and choices b and e are
incorrect because the sentence shifts from
the first person (we) to the second person
(you). Choice c uses a semicolon when no
punctuation is necessary.
226.b.In this sentence, contrary to, which means
opposite to or in conflict with, is used cor-
rectly. In the original sentence, in is
inappropriately used with opposite.
Similarly, choices c,d, and e do not use
standard phrasing.
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227.a.The sentence is correct as is. Choices b and
e are wordy, while choices c and d are awkward.
228.c.The original sentence and choices b and e
are awkward and wordy. Choice d is
unclear and ambiguous; the use of the
preposition to distorts the meaning of the
229.d.This choice is clear, logical, and unambigu-
ous and does not use extraneous words. In
the original sentence, until the time when is
redundant. Choice b is also redundant
(since when) and uses extraneous words.
The redundancy in choice c is to kill and
stop. In choice e, the phrase up to when is
awkward, and the word its has an unclear
230.a.When constructing sentences, unnecessary
shifts in verb tenses should be avoided. The
original sentence is best because all three
verbs in the sentence indicate that the
action occurred in the past (had been cover-
ing,became,and was called). In choice b,
there is a shift to the present (becomes).
Choice c begins in the present (is covering,
becomes), then shifts to the past (called).
Choice d makes two tense shifts, and choice
e shifts once, from present to past tense.
231.d.This is the only choice that is both gram-
matically and logically correct. The original
sentence has a shift in construction; there
are two subjects that mean the same thing
(Donald Trump and he). Choice b has a
modifier problem; the sentence implies that
Donald Trump built a billion- dollar empire
because he was the son of a real estate
developer. Choice c, though constructed
differently, results in the same faulty logic.
Choice e creates faulty subordination.
232.e.The correct punctuation between two inde-
pendent clauses is a semicolon. The
original sentence is wrong because it cre-
ates a comma splice. Choice c
creates a
sentence fragment. Choices b and d create
faulty subordination.
233.b.This is the correct choice because it is the
only one that is a complete sentence.
234.e.This is the correct choice because the sen-
tence is complete, logical, and
235.b.This is the only choice that is logical and
236.c.This is a sentence fragment.
237.a.The comma and the word going needs to be
238.d.There are no errors.
239.b.This is a run- on sentence.
240.c.The modifier last summer is misplaced. A
modifier should be nearest to the subject or action that it modifies; in this case, that
action is visited, not grew up. The sentence
should read: Last summer, we visited the
town where my father grew up.
241.d.There are no errors.
242.c.The word unless does not logically connect
the independent clauses. The sentence
needs a word that indicates contrast,
because what Liam loves and what Liam
can expect are two opposite things; the
coordinating conjunction but should
replace unless.
243.a.This is a run- on sentence.
244.b.This is a sentence fragment.
245.d.There are no errors.
246.d.There are no errors.
247.b.The word that is unnecessary; two inde-
pendent clauses use a comma and a
coordinating conjunction.
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248.a.The other choices are unclear because they
are awkwardly constructed, obscuring who
intends to set the fire.
249.a.Choices b and c are sentence fragments.
Choice d represents confused sentence
structure as well as lack of agreement
between subject and verb.
250.c.The other choices contain unnecessary
shifts in person: from people to their and we
in choice a, to your and one in choice b, and
to our and they in choice d.
251.b.This is the only choice that does not have a
misplaced modifier. Because Miles Johnson
is the sharpshooter, his name should be
placed immediately after the introductory
phrase—which rules out choices a and c. Choice d is awkwardly constructed and unclear.
252.c.This is the only choice that is clear and log-
ical. Choice a reads as though the eyes are
in the third or fourth grade. Choices b and
d are unclear.
253.b.Jesting (adj.) means characterized by mak-
ing jests; joking; playful.
254.a.Prone (adj.) means having a tendency or
inclination to something.
255.a.To encroach (v.) means to gradually or
stealthily take the rights or possessions of
another; to advance beyond proper or for-
mal limits; trespass.
256.c.Invulnerable (adj.) means incapable of
being damaged or wounded; unassailable
or invincible.
257.e.Judicious (adj.) means being wise or pru-
dent; showing good judgment; sensible.
258.c.Malignant (adj.) means disposed to cause
distress or inflict suffering intentionally;
inclining to produce death or injury.
259.c.Apocryphal (adj.) means of questionable
authenticity or doubtful authority; fictitious, false.
(adj.) means unspoken yet understood.
261.b.Apogee (n.) means the highest or farthest
point, culmination; the point in its orbit
where a satellite is at the greatest distance
from the body it is orbiting.
262.d.Fawning (adj.) means attempting to win
favor or attention by excessive flattery,
ingratiating displays of affection, or servile
compliance; obsequious.
263.a.Mottled (adj.) means blotched or spotted
with different colors or shades.
264.c.To flourish (v.) is (of artists) to be in a state
of high productivity, excellence, or influ-
ence; to grow luxuriously, thrive; to fare
well, prosper, increase in wealth, honor,
comfort or whatever is desirable; to make
bold, sweeping movements.
265.e.To flummox (v.) is to confuse, perplex,
266.a.A protagonist (n.) is the main character in a
267.a.Aplomb (n.) is self-assurance, composure,
poise, especially under strain.
268.e.Mandate (n.) is a command or authorita-
tive instruction; an authorization.
269.c.To rant (v.) means to speak loudly, vehe-
mently, or violently.
270.c.Juncture (n.) is a point of time, especially
one that is significant.
271.a.Sibilant (adj.) means characterized by a
hissing sound.
272.d.Manifold (adj.) means many and varied; of
many kinds; multiple.
273.a.Untimely (adj.) means happening before
the proper time.
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274.c.Arable (adj.) means suitable for cultivation;
fit for plowing and farming productively.
275.a.Gangling (adj.) means awkward, lanky, or
unusually tall and thin.
276.b.Adulation (n.) means strong or excessive
admiration or praise; fawning flattery.
277.d.To ransack (v.) means to thoroughly search,
to plunder, pillage.
278.b.To enjoin (v.) means to issue an order or
command; to direct or impose with
279.e.Liquefaction (n.) is the process of liquefying
a solid or making a liquid.
280.c.To nullify (v.) means to make invalid or
281.a.Sedition (n.) means resistance, insurrection;
conduct directed against public order and
the tranquility of the state.
282.a.Munificent (adj.) means extremely gener-
ous or liberal in giving; lavish.
283.c.Equivocal (adj.) means open to two or
more interpretations, ambiguous and often
intended to mislead; open to question,
284.b.Honorarium(n.) is payment or reward for
services for which payment is not usually
285.d.To covet (v.) is to wish or long for; to feel
immoderate desire for that which belongs
to another.
286.d.A ravine (n.) is a deep, narrow canyon.
287.a.Staid (adj.) means of a steady and sober
character; prudently reserved and colorless.
288.d.A gamut (n.) is an entire range or a whole
289.e.Mordant (adj.) means bitingly sarcastic or
harshly caustic.
290.c.To cow (v.) is to intimidate; to frighten with
threats or a show of force.
291.c.Torpor (n.) means extreme sluggishness;
lethargy or apathy; dullness.
292.e.A garrison (n.) is a fort or outpost where
troops are stationed; any military post.
293.b.Verdant (adj.) means green with vegetation.
294.d.A quirt (n.) is a riding whip with a short
handle and braided rawhide lash.
295.d.To extricate (v.) is to disengage from an
entanglement or difficulty.
296.b.The terminus (n.) is the final point or goal;
the final stop on a transportation line.
297.d.To prosper (v.) means to be successful.
298.b.Gelid (adj.) means icy or extremely cold;
possessing a cold or unfriendly manner.
299.a.Loquacity (n.) is talkativeness; the state of
continual talking.
300.e.Vertex (n.) means the highest point of any-
thing; the apex or summit.
301.b.An anathema (n.) is one who is detested or
shunned; one who is cursed or damned; a
curse or vehement denunciation; a formal
ban, curse, or excommunication.
302.a.Finesse (n.) is the subtle, skillful handling of
a situation; diplomacy; tact; refined or deli-
cate performance or execution.
303.d.A tirade (n.) is a long and blusterous speech
given especially when the speaker is
denouncing someone or something.
304.a.Tiresome (adj.) means causing to be weary.
305.d.Libel (n.) is defamatory writing; misrepre-
sentative publication (writing, pictures,
signs) that damages a person’s reputation.
306.a.Misnomer (n.) is a misnaming of a person
or place; a wrong or unsuitable name.
307.b.An affinity (n.) is a natural attraction or
liking; a feeling of kinship, connection, or
closeness; similarity; relationship by marriage.
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308.b.To extol (v.) means to praise highly, exalt,
309.a.A ligature (n.) is something that ties or
binds up, such as a bandage, wire, or cord.
310.a.Virile (adj.) means having masculine
strength; vigorous or energetic.
311.c.An arbiter (n.) is one selected or appointed
to judge or decide a disputed issue, an arbi-
trator; someone with the power to settle
matters at will.
312.c.Nonplussed (adj.) means greatly perplexed,
filled with bewilderment.
313.a.Facile (adj.) means arrived at or achieved
with little difficulty or effort, thus lacking
depth, superficial; performing or speaking
effectively with effortless ease and fluency,
adroit, eloquent.
314.c.Prerogative (n.) means an exclusive or special right or privilege.
315.c.To glower (v.) means to stare angrily or sul-
lenly, to look intently with anger or dislike.
316.b.A faction (n.) is a group or clique within a
larger group, usually a minority, acting in
unison in opposition to the larger group;
internal dissension or conflict within an
organization, nation, or other group.
317.c.Travail (n.) means hard or agonizing labor.
318.c.Virtuoso (n.) means a master in the tech-
nique of some particular fine art.
319.a.Modulation (n.) is regulation by or adjust-
ment to a certain measure, such as in music
or radio waves.
320.d.Officious (adj.) means marked by excessive
eagerness in offering unwanted services or
advice to others; unofficial.
321.b.A fusillade (n.) is a barrage; a rapid dis-
charge of firearms, for example,
simultaneously or in rapid succession.
322.d.Malcontent (adj.) means one who is dissat-
isfied, uneasy, or discontented; a rebel.
323.a.Pertinent (adj.) means applicable, related to
the subject matter at hand.
324.a.Vocative (adj.) means pertaining to the act
of calling.
325.c.Incorrigible (adj.) means bad to the point of
being beyond correction; uncontrollable;
impervious to change.
326.a.To beset (v.) means to surround on all sides;
to annoy or harass persistently; to decorate
with jewels.
327.b.To insinuate (v.) is to hint or suggest; to
328.b.To wane (v.) means to diminish in intensity
or size.
329.b.Degenerate (adj.) means having declined in
quality or value, reduced from a former or
original state, degraded.
330.c.Unconscionable (adj.) means not restrained
by conscience; unscrupulous.
331.a.Perdition (n.) in its most modern use
means eternal damnation or a hell.
332.b.Lissome (adj.) means lithe or lithesome,
usually related to the body; moving or
bending easily; limber.
333.c.To riddle (v.) means to pierce in many locations.
334.b.Undulating (adj.) means characterized by a
wavelike motion.
335.a.To ponder (v.) is to weigh carefully in the
336.e.To wrangle (v.) means to dispute, bicker,
create an argument.
337.c.Itinerant (adj.) means traveling from one
place to another, usually on a planned
course; working in one place for a short
while before moving on to another place to
work; wandering.
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338.c.Liberal (adj.) means characterized by gen-
erosity or a willingness to give freely in
large amounts; untraditional or broad-minded in beliefs.
339.b.Wiry (adj.) means thin, but tough and
340.d.Osteopathic (adj.) refers to a system of
medicine pertaining to the bone and skele-
tal system.
341.a.Decorous (adj.) means characterized by
good taste in manners and conduct,
exhibiting propriety or decorum; proper.
342.d.Litigious (adj.) means inclined to disagree or dispute, especially in lawsuits; argumentative.
343.d.Callow (adj.) means lacking maturity or
experience; immature, naïve.
344.b.Deleterious (adj.) means having a harmful
or adverse effect; destructive, hurtful, noxious.
345.d.Unctuous (adj.) means characterized by
insincere earnestness; oily or fatty in
346.c.Witless (adj.) means foolish, indiscreet, or
347.d.Pavid (adj.) means timid or fearful.
348.e.Malediction (n.) is a curse or a proclaim-
ing of a curse against someone; an imprecation.
349.e.A cache (n.) is a hiding place for storing or
concealing provisions or valuables; a secret
store of valuables or money, a stash.
350.e.To undermine (v.) means to subvert in an
underhanded way.
351.d.To plagiarize (v.) is to steal thoughts or
words in literary composition.
352.d.Wizened (adj.) means withered or dry,
especially with age.
353.c.Jeopardize (v.) means to put in jeopardy or
at risk; to expose to a hazard or danger.
354.a.Lexicon (n.) is the vocabulary used in a language, profession, class, or subject.
355.b.Liability (n.) is a debt or obligation; some-
thing for which one is liable.
356.b.Congenial (adj.) means having a friendly or
pleasant disposition, sociable; having simi-
lar tastes, habits, or temperament; suitable
to one’s needs or nature.
357.d.Plausible (adj.) means apparently worthy of
belief or praise.
358.e.Wile (n.) means an act or a means of cun-
ning deception.
359.d.Motif (n.) is a recurrent theme or form in
an artistic or literary work.
360.c.Consonant (adj.) means in agreement or
accord, harmonious; having similar sounds.
361.c.Fastidious (adj.) means paying careful
attention to detail, meticulous; difficult to
please, exacting; extremely sensitive,
squeamish, especially in regard to matters
of cleanliness or propriety.
362.d.Ubiquitous (adj.) means being present
363.d.Prevalent (adj.) means widespread or
widely accepted; predominant or extensive.
364.a.A zephyr is a soft, gentle breeze; a breeze
that blows from the west.
365.b.To accost (v.) means to approach and speak
to someone, usually in a bold and aggres-
sive manner as with a demand.
366.d.To forfeit (v.) means to be deprived of or
lose the right to by the act of a crime,
offense, fault, breach, or error.
367.e.Tantalizing (adj.) means tempting, attrac-
tive, often via the senses.
368.e.Overwrought (adj.) means labored to
excess; anxious, agitated.
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369.e.To laud (v.) is to praise, honor, or glorify.
370.b.To maraud (v.) is to rove and raid in quest
of plunder.
371.d.Acerbic (adj.) means sharp or biting in
tone, character, or expression; sour or bitter
in taste.
372.a.Frenetic (adj.) means wildly excited or agi-
tated, frenzied, frantic.
373.b.Toilsome (adj.) means laborious or involv-
ing hard work.
374.c.A hovel (n.) is a small, crude house; a filthy
or disorganized hut or shed.
375.a.To transmute (v.) means to change in
nature, substance, or form.
376.d.Gratuitous (adj.) means unjustified or
unnecessary; of no cost.
377.d.Fodder (n.) is a consumable, often inferior
resource or item, high in demand and usu-
ally abundant in supply.
378.e.To quell (v.) means to cease or suppress.
379.c.Wantonness (n.) means recklessness.
380.b.Joist (n.) is a small, horizontal beam that
supports a ceiling or floor, usually made of
wood, reinforced concrete, or steel.
381.a.To rally (v.) means to come together for a
common purpose or as a means of support;
to recover or rebound.
382.a.Deft (adj.) means quick and skillful in
movement, adroit.
383.b.Nostalgic (adj.) is sentimentally yearning
for a point in the past.
384.e.Acute (adj.) means extremely sharp or
intense; keenly perceptive or discerning; of
great importance or consequence, crucial;
also, having a sharp tip or point.
385.e.To jettison (v.) is to toss goods overboard to
lighten the load of a ship or aircraft to
improve stability; to toss off (a burden).
386.d.To wean (v.) means to detach someone
from that to which he or she is accustomed
or devoted.
387.c.A denizen (n.) is one who frequents a par-
ticular place; one who lives in a particular
place, an inhabitant.
388.d.A novelty (n.) is a new or unusual thing or
389.c.To jostle (v.) is to push or shove roughly
against; to drive with pushing; to disturb or
390.d.Avarice (n.) means an excessive or insa-
tiable desire for material wealth; inordinate
391.e.Ulterior (adj.) means lying beyond or outside what is openly shown or said.
392.c.Iniquity (n.) is wickedness or overwhelm-
ing injustice.
393.e.Calumny (n.) means a false statement or
accusation uttered maliciously to harm
another’s reputation; slander.
394.e.To objectify (v.) to treat a living being as an
object or, to transform an abstract idea or
concept into a more concrete and objective
reality so that others can understand and
relate to it.
395.a.Tertiary (adj.) ranking third in order of
importance, position, or value.
396.c.A nonpareil (n.) is a person or thing of
peerless excellence.
397.c.An emissary (n.) is an agent sent on a mis-
sion to represent the interests of someone
398.c.To beleaguer (v.) is to harass, beset, besiege.
399.a.A norm(n.) is an average standard, pattern,
or type.
400.e.Tremulous (adj.) means characterized by
trembling or unsteadiness.
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401.c.Bucolic (adj.) means of or characteristic of
country life or people, rustic, especially in
an idealized sense; of or characteristic of
shepherds or herdsmen, pastoral.
402.c.Obliged (v.) means to be indebted.
403.a.Trepidation (n.) means nervous uncertainty.
404.d.Perforated (adj.) means with a line of holes
to facilitate separation; pierced with a
pointed instrument.
405.a.Elliptical (adj.) means characterized by
extreme economy of words or style; of,
relating to, or having the shape of an ellipsis.
406. b.A catalyst (n.) is something that precipi-
tates or causes a process or event; (in
chemistry) a substance that initiates or
accelerates a chemical reaction without
itself being affected in the process.
407.d.An oleander (n.) is a beautiful but poison-
ous evergreen shrub.
408. a.Overt (adj.) means apparent, obvious.
409.b.Inauspicious (adj.) means not favorable or
unfortunate; not promising success.
410.c.Vogue (n.) means the prevalent way or fashion.
411.d.Circuitous (adj.) means having or taking a
roundabout, lengthy, or indirect course.
412.e.Encomium(n.) means a formal expression
of praise, a glowing tribute.
413.b.Vulnerable (adj.) means assailable; capable
of receiving injuries; open to attack.
414.a.Subservient (adj.) means following
another’s requests in a servantlike manner
far below what is called for.
415.d.Obstinate (adj.) means stubborn.
416.e.Esoteric (adj.) means designed for, confined
to, or understandable by only a restricted
number of people, an enlightened inner
417.a.To circumscribe (v.) is to draw a line
around, encircle; to restrict or confine; to
determine the limits of, define.
418.d.Stupor (n.) means profound lethargy, such
as one might experience after being very ill.
419.e.To omit (v.) is to leave out; to neglect, disregard.
420.a.A foible (n.) is a minor weakness or charac-
ter flaw; a distinctive behavior or attribute
peculiar to an individual.
421.d.To circumvent (v.) is to go around, bypass;
to get around or avoid through cleverness
or artful maneuvering; to surround,
enclose, entrap.
422.c.Onerous (adj.) is burdensome or troublesome.
423.a.Winsome (adj.) means attractive, often
because of childlike charm and innocence.
424.e.Inexpedient (adj.) means not expedient; not
suitable or fit for the purpose; not tending
to promote a proposed object.
425.d.Concomitant (adj.) means occurring or
existing concurrently; accompanying,
426.c.To purport (v.) means to give false appear-
ance of being.
427.e.Supine (adj.) means lying on the back.
428.d.Parlous (adj.) means dangerous, risky, or
429.c.To obliterate (v.) means to blot out or
430.e.Adverse (adj.) means unfavorable acting
against or contrary to; or opposed or
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431.b.To recruit (v.) means to seek to induct or
enroll; to enlist.
432.b.Justification (n.) is an explanation or reason
that justifies or shows something to be necessary.
433.d.Jurisdiction (n.) is authority or power;
sphere of power or authority.
434.b.Unutterable (adj.) means inexpressible.
435.a.Obscure (adj.) means not clearly expressed
or easily understood; not easily seen or distinguished.
436.d.Ardent (adj.) means characterized by
intense emotion or enthusiasm, passionate,
fervent; glowing or burning like fire.
437.e.A dilettante (n.) is an amateur, one who
dabbles in an art or field of knowledge for amusement; a lover of fine arts, a connoisseur.
438.d.Scrupulous (adj.) means extremely careful,
cautious in action for fear of doing wrong.
439.c.An oracle (n.) is a person of great knowl-
edge; the place where answers are given, as
in a sanctuary.
440.a.A behemoth (n.) is a giant; something or
someone who is enormous in size, power,
or importance.
441.b.Impertinent (adj.) means improperly bold;
rude; lacking good manners.
442.b.To disseminate (v.) means to scatter widely,
diffuse, spread abroad.
443.c.Stringent (adj.) means rigid, strict, or exacting.
444.b.Vicissitudes (n.) means a change, especially
a complete change, of condition or circumstances.
445.b.To blanch (v.) means to turn pale, as if in
fear; to take the color from, whiten.
446.b.To herald (v.) is to proclaim or announce;
to foreshadow.
447.b.A qualm(n.) is a sudden or disturbing
448.c.Extraneous (adj.) means not vital or essen-
tial; not pertinent or relevant; coming from
the outside or an outside source.
449.b.To succumb
(v.) means to give in, cease to
450.e.Extrinsic (adj.) means not forming an
essential part of a thing, extraneous; originating from the outside, external.
451.d.Immoderate (adj.) means excessive or
extreme; exceeding reasonable limits.
452.b.Kinetic (adj.) means pertaining to motion
or caused by motion.
453.e.Urbane (adj.) means characterized by
refined manners; elegant or sophisticated.
454.a.Nondescript (adj.) means lacking any dis-
tinctive characteristics.
455.d.To ratify (v.) means to make valid.
456.a.Tantamount (adj.) means equal to; having
equal or equivalent value in terms of seriousness.
457.b.Valorous (adj.) means courageous, valiant.
458.b.Cognizant (adj.) means fully knowledgeable
or informed, conscious, aware.
459.c.To imbue (v.) is to inspire or pervade with
ideas or feelings; to saturate with color; to
460.a.To recant (v.) means to renounce formally;
to withdraw a former belief as erroneous.
461.a.Dearth (n.) means a severe shortage or
scarce supply, especially of food; a lack of,
an insufficient quantity.
462.e.Lethargy (n.) is the state of drowsiness or
sluggish inactivity.
463.a.Vista (n.) means a view or prospect.
464. e.Ornate (adj.) means richly and artistically
finished or stylized.
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465.d.To hurtle (v.) is to rush with great speed; to
move violently with great noise; to fling
466.b.To desiccate (v.) means to dry out thor-
oughly, to become dry; to make dry, dull,
or lifeless.
467.a.Spartan (adj.) means rigorously severe
(from the Greek city-state Sparta, known
for its austere and rigid lifestyle); marked
by strict self-discipline; characteristically
simple or frugal.
468.c.Vapid (adj.) means dull; lacking life, spirit,
or substance; tedious.
469.d.Palpable (adj.) means tangible, noticeable;
easily perceived and detected.
470.b.A charlatan (n.) is someone who makes
elaborate, fraudulent claims to having cer-
tain skills or knowledge; a quack, imposter,
471.a.To impel (v.) is to motivate; push or drive
forward; propel.
472.c.A dossier (n.) is a collection of papers giv-
ing detailed information about a particular
person or subject.
473.d.Uproarious (adj.) means noisy.
474.b.An oration (n.) is a formal speech for a special occasion.
475.a.Colloquial (adj.) means characteristic of
informal spoken language or conversation;
476.d.Quintessential (adj.) is the best and purest
part of a thing; the most typical example of
a thing.
477.d.To efface (v.) means to rub out, erase; to
cause to dim or make indistinct; to make or
conduct oneself inconspicuously.
478.a.Indigenous (adj.) means originating or
being native to a specific region or country;
also inherent or natural.
479.c.Utilitarian (adj.) means related to the ethi-
cal doctrine that actions are right because
they are useful or beneficial to the greatest
number of people.
480.b.To quibble (v.) means to find fault or criti-
cize for petty reasons.
481.a.Implicit (adj.) means unquestioning or
trusting without doubt; understood rather
than directly stated; implied.
482.a.To construe (v.) is to interpret or under-
stand; to make sense of, explain the
meaning of.
(adj.) means having a dark hue,
especially a dark or sunburned complexion.
484.e.Veracious (adj.) means truthful, honest;
habitually disposed to speak the truth.
485.e.Nepotism(n.) is favoritism for kin when
conferring jobs, offices, or privileges.
486.e.An accolade (n.) is an award or special
acknowledgment signifying approval or
487.a.Incongruity (n.) is the quality of being
inappropriate or unbecoming; not consis-
tent in character.
488.e.To repress (v.) means to keep under control
or restrain; to curb or subdue.
489. b.To elucidate (v.) means to make clear or manifest; to free from confusion or ambiguity.
490.d.To lacerate (v.) is to rip, tear, or mangle.
491.b.To negate (v.) means to nullify, invalidate,
or deny.
492.d.Tentative (adj.) means provisional or
uncertain; not fixed or set.
493.a.Verbiage (n.) means the use of many words
without necessity.
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494.a.Compunction (n.) means a feeling of
uneasiness or regret caused by a sense of
guilt; remorse; a pang of conscience at the
thought or act of committing a misdeed.
495.a.Jocularity (n.) is the state of being jocular,
which is characterized by joking or jesting.
496.c.A despot (n.) is someone who rules with
absolute power; a dictator or tyrant.
497.e.Tenure (n.) means the term during which a
thing is held; often used in connection with
career positions.
498.e.Quotidian (adj.) means occurring or
returning daily.
499. d.Vincible (adj.) means conquerable, capable
of being defeated or subdued.
500.d.Commensurate (adj.) means corresponding
in size, degree, or extent; proportionate.
501.e.Fervor (n.) means a feeling of passion or
502.a.Hospitable (adj.) means treating guests
kindly and generously; being agreeable,
receptive, or of an open mind.
503.d.Nomadic (adj.) means roaming from place
to place or wandering.
504.a.Knack (n.) is a natural talent; a clever way
of doing something.
505. c.Obsolete (adj.) means antiquated, disused;
506.e.Suave (adj.) means having a smooth and
pleasant manner.
507.e.Visage (n.) means the face, countenance, or
look of a person.
508.d.Habitable (adj.) means acceptable for
509.e.Confluence (n.) means a flowing or coming
together; a gathering or meeting together at
a point or juncture; a place where two things
come together, the point of juncture.
510.d.Rescinded (v.) means revoked.
511. d.Empirical (adj.) means relying on, derived
from, or verifiable by; experimental or
observational rather than theoretical.
512.d.Lascivious (adj.) means lewd, lustful, or
513.b.Taut (adj.) means stretched tight.
Vigilance (n.) means alert and intent mental watchfulness in guarding against
515.d.To obtrude (v.) means to stick out, push
516.e.Homage (n.) is respect paid publicly; reverence rendered; deference.
517.e.Recourse (n.) means a last option or way out.
518.d.To exonerate (v.) means to free from blame
or guilt, absolve; to release from a responsi-
bility or obligation, discharge.
519.b.Lateral (adj.) means pertaining to or
extending from the side.
520.c.Temporary (adj.) means enduring for a
short time; transitory.
521.d.Virulent (adj.) means exceedingly noxious,
deleterious, malicious, or hateful.
522.a.Otiose (adj.) means needless, functionless;
unemployed or useless.
523.a.Aesthetic (adj.) means concerning or char-
acterized by an appreciation of beauty or
good taste; characterized by a heightened
sensitivity to beauty; artistic.
524.b.Gradation (n.) is the changing of a color,
shade, or tint to another by gradual
degrees; the process of bringing to another
grade in a series; a stage or degree in such a
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525.c.Labyrinth (n.) is a maze of paths or a com-
plicated system of pathways in which it is
challenging to find the exit; something
extremely complex in structure or character.
526.c.Nescience (n.) is ignorance, or the absence
of knowledge.
527.d.Aloof (adj.) means physically or emotion-
ally distant; reserved, remote.
528.d.A vagabond (n.) is a wanderer; a person
who does not have a permanent home.
529.b.Omnivorous (adj.) means feeding on both
animal and vegetable substances; having an
insatiable appetite for anything.
530.a.To germinate (v.) means to begin to grow or
sprout; to cause to come into existence or
531.d.A provision (n.) is a stipulation or qualifica-
tion; a stock of supplies.
532.e.Lackluster (adj.) means lacking liveliness or
brightness; dull.
533.d.Sonorous (adj.) means producing sound
that is impressive or grand in effect.
534.d.An orifice (n.) is an opening, a hole; a per-
foration; a mouth or hole through which
something may pass.
535.a.Vertigo (n.) is dizziness often caused by
experiencing heights.
536.b.Genesis (n.) is the origin, beginning, or
foundation; the act of forming something
new; the first event in a series of events.
537.a.A quota (n.) is an assigned proportional
538.a.Languor (n.) is a lack of energy or interest;
a feeling of being without spirit; sluggishness.
539.c.Timbre (n.) is the quality of a tone, as distinguished from intensity and pitch.
540.a.Vestige (n.) means a visible trace, mark, or
impression, of something absent, lost, or
541.a.Opportune (adj.) means well timed or convenient.
542.e.To admonish (v.) means to reprove kindly
but seriously; to warn or counsel; to
instruct or remind, as of a forgotten
543.d.To gibe (v.) means to taunt or jeer; to utter
a taunting or sarcastic remark.
544.d.A realm(n.) is a knowledge domain in
which one is interested; a kingdom or
545.c.To exhort (v.) means to urge strongly with a
stirring argument, appeal, or advice; to
make an urgent appeal.
546.c.Kudos (n.) are complimentary remarks;
expressions of praise.
547.d.To transgress (v.) means to go beyond the
limit or bounds of; usually in connection
with a law.
548.d.A girder (n.) is a large horizontal beam,
made of wood, steel, or concrete, to sup-
port weight or span an opening.
549.d.Vernal (adj.) means belonging to or suggestive of the spring.
550.d.Quixotic (adj.) means idealistic without
regard for practicality.
551.c.Aegis (n.) means sponsorship or patronage;
guidance or direction; protection.
552.e.Animosity (n.) means bitter, open hostility
or enmity; energetic dislike.
553.d.Kindred (n.) is a group of people related to
each other by birth or marriage.
554.c.A noose (n.) is a loop with a slipknot that
tightens when pulled.
555.b.Restitution (n.) is a restoration of what is
lost or taken away, especially unjustly.
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556.e.Impetuous (adj.) means impulsive or pas-
sionate; characterized by sudden emotion
or energy.
557.b.Knave (n.) is a dishonest, deceitful, or unre-
liable person.
558.e.Scurrilous (adj.) means grossly indecent or
vulgar; offensive.
559.b.Obstructive (adj.) means blocking, hinder-
ing, obscuring.
560.b.Virtual (adj.) means being in essence or
effect, but not in actual fact.
561.d.To palpitate (v.) is to flutter or move with
slight throbs.
562.b.Wry (adj.) means ironic, cynical, or sardonic.
563.e.Nonchalant (adj.) means casual, indifferent.
564.d.To wield (v.) means to use, control, or man-
age, as a weapon or instrument, especially
with full command.
565.c.A sleight (n.) means a trick or feat so deftly
done that the manner of performance
escapes observation.
566.b.Awry (adj.) means off-course, amiss; turned
or twisted toward one side, askew; not
functioning properly.
567.c.Paraphernalia (n.) means miscellaneous
articles needed for particular professions,
information, or operation; personal
568.a.Arrant (adj.) means complete, absolute,
569.a.Guileless (adj.) means to be without guile;
straightforward; honest; frank.
570.d.To vivify (v.) means to give or bring life to;
to animate.
571.c.Nicety (n.) means precision, accuracy; a
subtle distinction or detail; the state of
being nice.
572.c.To sequester (v.) means to separate, segre-
gate, seclude; cause to withdraw or retire, as
with juries.
573.e.Bemused (adj.) means deeply absorbed in
thought; bewildered or perplexed by con-
flicting situations or statements.
574.d.To comport (v.) means to conduct or
behave (oneself) in a certain manner; to
agree, accord, or harmonize.
d.Heuristic (adj.) means stimulating further
investigation; encouraging learning
through discoveries made by a student.
576.e.Virago (n.) means a bold, impudent, turbulent woman.
577.d.Perceptive (adj.) means having the ability to
understand and be sensitive to.
578.c.Hierarchy (n.) is a series or system of peo-
ple or things that are graded or ranked;
groups of persons with various levels of
579.e.Oppressive (adj.) means unreasonably burdensome; heavy.
580.b.Hypothesis (n.) is a proposition, believed to
be probable, which is adopted to explain
certain facts and which can be further
581.c.Optimistic (adj.) means taking the most
hopeful view; feeling that everything in
nature is for the best.
582.b.Clout (n.) means influence, pull, or sway;
power or muscle; a strike or blow, especially
with the fist.
583.c.To coddle (v.) means to treat with excessive
indulgence or tenderness, to baby or pam-
per. It also means to cook in water just
below the boiling point.
584.e.A sluggard (n.) is a person who is habitually
lazy or idle.
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585.d.Reproachable (adj.) means needing rebuke
or censure.
586.a.To expound (v.) means to explain in detail,
elaborate; to give a detailed statement or
account of.
587.a.Unbiased (adj.) means completely impartial
to, as in judgment.
588.e.Wearisome (adj.) means fatiguing or tiresome.
589.b.An exemplar (n.) is one who is worthy of
imitation, a model or ideal; a typical or representative example.
590.b.Astute (adj.) means having or showing
intelligence and shrewdness; keen, discerning.
591.b.To palter (v.) is to act insincerely; to haggle;
to play tricks; equivocate.
592.c.A tableau (n.) is an arrangement of inani-
mate figures representing a scene from real
593.e.Translucence (n.) means the property or
state of allowing the passage of light.
594.d.A diaspora (n.) is a dispersion of people
from their original homeland, or the com-
munity formed by such a people; the
dispersion of an originally homogeneous
group or entity, such as a language or culture.
595.b.Autopsy (n.) means the dissection of an
animal, particularly for scientific research.
596.c.Turpitude (n.) means depravity; any action
that violates accepted standards.
597.e.Brusque (adj.) means abrupt, curt, or blunt
in a discourteous manner.
598.b.A sycophant (n.) is a servile flatterer, espe-
cially of those in authority or influence.
599.d.Variegated (adj.) means marked with different shades or colors.
600.c.Vernacular (n.) means the language of one’s
601.d.Errant (adj.) means wandering, roving,
especially in search of adventure; straying
beyond the established course or limits.
602.c.Byzantine (adj.) means highly complicated,
intricate, or involved; characterized by
elaborate scheming and intrigue, devious;
of or relating to or characteristic of the
Byzantine Empire or ancient Byzantium,
especially its architectural style; of or relat-
ing to the Eastern Orthodox Church.
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the mandatory five-paragraph essay? Would it sur-
prise you to discover that an essay can run five pages or longer in length? Because most essays
contain paragraphs that are a few sentences in length, it would also probably surprise some
students to learn that the English rule book provides free rein to writers when it comes to paragraph length!
A paragraph can technically consist of only one word, or it can take up an entire page. Although
there aren’t any rules regarding paragraph length, there are some basic components of a well-written para-
graph that you should keep in mind as you construct your paragraphs.
All paragraphs require a topic sentence that introduces the main idea. This sentence is much
broader in scope than the detailed sentences that form the body of each paragraph. Ideally, every single
paragraph should contain a final concluding statement to reinforce the key ideas.
Paragraphs from
the Ground Up
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When deciding about how to write about your
topic, you must first decide who your audience is,
and the purpose of your essay. Choose your intro-
ductory topic sentence carefully, because once you
introduce a topic you are obligated to describe,
explain, define, categorize, compare and contrast,
provide examples for, and further elaborate on the
topic that you’ve introduced. Your job as a writer is to
inform your reader by using specific detail, factual
evidence, and enough supporting information to
effectively communicate all of your ideas to your
The best way to narrow down a broad general
topic is to use a controlling idea. Here is an example
of how you can use a controlling idea to frame and
guide the focus of your entire essay:
Broad topic: music
Narrow topic:rock music
Controlling idea: the top ten rock musicians of
the 1960s
Practi ce Questi ons
For each of the following paragraphs, choose the
topic sentence that best fits the rest of the paragraph.
603.________. Residents have been directed to use
the new plastic bins as their primary recycling
containers. These new containers will make
picking up recyclables faster and easier. a.The city has distributed standardized recy-
cling containers to all households.
b.Recycling has become a way of life for most
c.While most Americans recycle, they also
use more resources than residents of other
d.Even small cities have begun recycling to
pick up used glass, plastic, and paper.
Get a Grip on an
English Teacher’s
Worst Nightmare
Unless instructed to do so, avoid writing
expository phrases, such as: “I am going to
write about smoking and the reasons
teenagers should quit smoking” or “And now
I’m going to write about how I pulled a rabbit
out of my hat during our school’s magic con-
test.” “Show, don’t tell” is a writing adage
that is as true today as it ever was.
Get a Grip on Why the
Dictionary is so Important
EVOO, a term coined by celebrity chef Rachel
Ray, has earned a place in the Oxford
American College Dictionary. Rachel Ray
invented the acronym EVOO to refer to extra-
virgin olive oil. This is an excellent example of
why the English language hasn’t faded into
extinction. It continues to grow and expand
to suit the needs of the people who use it as
new words are born and antiquated words
retire. So ... if you ever stumble across a
word that you don’t recognize—it might be
because the word is a newbie!
ETTM_03_123-194.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 1:53 PM Page 124
604.________. No search of a person’s home or
personal effects may be conducted without a
written search warrant. This means that a
judge must justify a search before it can be
a.There is an old saying that a person’s home
is his or her castle.
b.Much of the U.S. legal system was based on
the old British system. c.The Fourth Amendment to the
Constitution protects citizens against
unreasonable searches.
d.Personal effects is a term that refers to the
belongings of a person.
605.________. You must imitate as closely as pos-
sible the parents’ methods of feeding. First,
hold the beak open using thumb and forefin-
ger. Then, introduce food into the beak with
tweezers or an eyedropper.
a.Recently, I read an article about baby birds.
b.Hand-rearing wounded or orphaned baby
birds requires skill.
c.Baby birds are very special creatures, and
they are also very small.
d.I have been told that you should not touch
a baby bird that has fallen out of its nest.
606.________. All waves, though, have common
characteristics that govern their height. The
height of a wave is determined by its speed,
the distance it travels, and the length of time
the wind blows.
a.Currents, unlike waves, are caused by
steady winds or temperature fluctuations.
b.Tsunamis used to be called tidal waves.
c.Ocean waves can vary from tiny ripples to
powerful, raging swells.
d.A breaker is when a wave gets top-heavy
and tips over.
607.________. When people respect the law too
much, they will follow it blindly. They will say,
“The majority has decided on this law and
therefore I must obey it.” They will not stop to
consider whether the law is fair.
a.Some people say there is too little respect
for the law, but I say there is too much
respect for it.
b.Sometimes, a judge will decide that a law is
c.I believe that the majority of the people in
this country do not understand what it
means to have respect for other people.
d.Most of the laws passed at the end of the
twentieth century are fair laws.
608.________. Gary was a very distinguished-
looking man with a touch of gray at the
temples. Even in his early fifties, he was still
the one to turn heads. Gary checked his mirror often and felt great delight with what
he saw. In fact, he considered his good looks to
be his second most important asset in the
world. The first was money. He was lucky in
this area, too, having been born into a wealthy
family. He loved the power his wealth had
given him. He could buy whatever he desired,
be that people, places, or things.
a.Gary’s gray hair was his worst characteristic.
b.Conceit was the beginning and the end of
Gary’s character—conceit of person and
c.Gary felt blessed to be wealthy and the joy
consumed his every thought.
d.The only objects of Gary’s respect were
others who held positions in society.
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609.The term spices is a pleasant one, whether it
connotes fine French cuisine or a down-home,
cinnamon-flavored apple pie. ________.
Individuals have traveled the world seeking
exotic spices for profit and, in searching, have
changed the course of history. Indeed, to gain
control of lands harboring new spices, nations
have actually gone to war.
a.The taste and aroma of spices are the main
elements that make food such a source of
fascination and pleasure.
b.The term might equally bring to mind
Indian curry made thousands of miles away
and those delicious barbecued ribs sold
down on the corner.
c.It is exciting to find a good cookbook and
experiment with spices from other lands—
indeed, it is one way to travel around the
d.The history of spices, however, is another
matter altogether, often exciting, at times
filled with danger and intrigue.
610.________. Although these mechanical alarms
are fairly recent, the idea of a security system
is not new. The oldest alarm system was prob-
ably a few strategically placed dogs that
discouraged intruders with a loud warning
a.Anyone who lives in a large, modern city
has heard the familiar sound of electronic
security alarms.
b.Everyone knows that a large, barking dog will
scare away strangers, even the mail carrier.
c.Why spend money on an alarm system
when you can get the same service from an
d.Without a good alarm system, your place of
business could be vandalized.
611.________. According to scholars, these pat-
terns almost certainly represent the labyrinth
that held the Minotaur, a monster with the
head of a bull and the body of a man. Legend
has it that in ancient times King Minos built
the labyrinth in order to imprison the
Minotaur, which loved to dine on human
a.Patterned corridors are commonplace in
many architectural structures.
b.In the palace at Knossos, on the isle of
Crete, there is a corridor leading to the
outside that is decorated with coils and
spiral patterns.
c.Archeologists contend that patterns on the
walls and corridors of ancient architectural
structures are usually meaningful.
d.Scholars who have studied the palace at
Knossos, on the isle of Crete, are at a loss to
explain the meaning of the coils and spirals
on its corridor walls.
612.________. It is important to take special pre-
cautions to keep these medications in a secure
place, where a child cannot get to them. Every
item in the medicine cabinet should be labeled
clearly. Even if you believe the medicine cabi-
net is too high for a child to reach, it should be
locked at all times.
a.Many families have small children.
b.Many medications are extremely dangerous
if swallowed.
c.If your child accidentally swallows a medi-
cine, rush him or her to the hospital right
d.New, life-saving medicines are being
approved by the Food and Drug
Administration every day.
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613.________. It is true that Ernest Hemingway
went to war to gather material for his stories,
and F. Scott Fitzgerald lived a life of dissolu-
tion that destroyed him. However, Emily
Brontë seldom ventured outside her father’s
tiny country rectory, yet she wrote Wuthering
Heights, a tale of passionate love and intense
hatred, and one of the greatest works in the
English language.
a.It is not necessary for a writer to endanger
his or her life in order to have something to
write about.
b.There are many ways for gifted writers to
collect material for their stories and novels.
c.Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, and
Emily Brontë are all known for the passion
with which their work is imbued.
d.Hemingway and Fitzgerald are well known
for their reckless lifestyles, which neverthe-
less gave rise to some of the finest works in
the English language.
614.________. Hearsay that depends on the state-
ment’s truthfulness is inadmissible because the
witness does not appear in court and swear an
oath to tell the truth. This means that his or
her demeanor when making the statement is
not visible to the jury, the accuracy of the
statement cannot be tested under cross-
examination, and to introduce it would be to
deprive the accused of the constitutional right
to confront the accuser.
a.Hearsay evidence is not acceptable in a
criminal trial because the witness cannot be
b.Hearsay evidence in a trial is inadmissible
because there is too great a chance that it
will be false.
c.The definition of hearsay evidence is the
“secondhand reporting of a statement” and
is sometimes allowable.
d.Hearsay evidence, which is the secondhand
reporting of a statement, is allowed in court only when the truth of the statement
is irrelevant.
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615.________. One type of tickler system is the
index-card file with 12 large dividers, one for
each month, and 31 small dividers, one for
each day. Whenever secretaries need to sched-
ule a reminder, they jot it down on a card and
place it behind the appropriate divider. Each
morning, they review the reminders for that
particular day.
a.As busy secretaries, we cannot expect to
remember all the details of our daily
responsibilities without some help.
b.At the beginning of the day, good secre-
taries review and organize the tasks they
must attend to during that day.
c.The word tickler perfectly describes the
organizational system to which it refers.
d.All secretaries need a good reminder system,
sometimes known as a “tickler” system
because it tickles the memory.
616.________. Space shuttle astronauts, because
they spend only about a week in space,
undergo minimal wasting of bone and muscle.
But when longer stays in micro gravity or zero
gravity are contemplated, as in the interna-
tional space station or a proposed two-year
round-trip voyage to Mars, these problems are
of particular concern because they could
become acute. Fortunately, studies show that
muscle atrophy can be kept largely at bay with
appropriate exercise; however, bone loss
caused by reduced gravity unfortunately cannot.
a.Space flight, especially if it is prolonged,
can be hazardous to the health of the astronauts.
b.The tissues of human beings are ill-
prepared for the stresses placed upon them
by space flight.
c.In space flight, astronauts must deal with
two vexing physiological foes—muscle
atrophy and bone loss.
d.Travel on the space shuttle does less dam-
age to an astronaut’s bones and muscles
than an extended stay on a space station.
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617.________. Rather, asthma is now understood to
be a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways—that is, inflammation makes the
airways chronically sensitive. When these
hyper-responsive airways are irritated, air flow
is limited, and attacks of coughing, wheezing,
chest tightness, and difficulty breathing occur. a.No longer is asthma considered a condition
with isolated, acute episodes of
b.The true nature of asthma has only recently
been understood.
c.Since the true character of asthma is now
understood, there is more hope for a cure
than there was in earlier times.
d.No age is exempt from asthma, although it
occurs most often in childhood and early
618.________. Many experts, including those in
the American Diabetes Association, recom-
mend that 50 to 60% of daily calories of
patients suffering from non-insulin-
dependent diabetes (NIDD) come from car-
bohydrates, 12 to 20% from protein, and no
more than 30% from fat. Foods that are rich
in carbohydrates, like breads, cereals, fruits,
and vegetables, break down into glucose dur-
ing digestion, causing blood glucose to rise.
Additionally, studies have shown that cooked
foods raise blood glucose higher than raw,
unpeeled foods.
a.In 1986, a National Institutes of Health
panel gave broad recommendations as to the type of diet that is best for non-insulin-dependent diabetics.
b.It is extremely important for certain med-
ical patients to watch what they eat.
c.A good cookbook is the best friend a non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDD)
patient can have!
d.Non-insulin-dependent diabetes patients
can lead long, healthy lives if only they pay
attention to their diets.
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Choose the alternative that best develops the topic
sentence given.
619.Indoor pollution sources that release gases or
particles into the air are the primary cause of
indoor air-quality problems in homes.
a.Inadequate ventilation can increase indoor
pollutant levels by not bringing in enough
outdoor air to dilute emissions from
indoor sources.
b.Some physicians believe that the dangers of
so-called environmental allergens are
greatly exaggerated.
c.Although there are more potential pollu-
tion sources today than ever before, environ-
mental activists are working hard to make
our world a safer place.
d.I’ll choose a good, old-fashioned log cabin
any day to the kind of squeaky-clean, her-
metically sealed modern condos you find in
the big American cities.
620.Because of the cost of medical care these days,
many Americans self-diagnose and self-
a.Because of the abundance of over-the-
counter medications that exist, this can be a
bewildering task.
b.Today, much of the work doctors used to
do is done by medical assistants, who are
even allowed to write prescriptions.
c.With so many prescriptions written by
doctors each day, there is always the chance
of dangerous drug interactions.
d.Medical care today is routinely done by
specialists, who are apt to be less personally
involved than the old-style family doctor.
621.Because of technological advances, much
communication between companies and busi-
nesses is now conducted via e-mail, and office
workers must face that fact.
a.Every day, the U.S. Postal Service is sub-
jected to a huge deluge of junk mail.
b.Checking e-mail every morning is as
important a task for a secretary as sorting
and opening the boss’s paper mail.
c.It is hard to believe that a century ago, the
mail was delivered on horseback.
d.Unsolicited commercial e-mails, also
known as spam, not only are annoying, but
in large quantities can clog e-mail systems.
622.There are many good reasons to eat organic
food. It tastes great. It is grown and handled
according to strict guidelines to ensure that it
is safe and pesticide-free. And organic farming
respects the balance demanded of a healthy
a.Many restaurants and supermarkets now
carry organic products.
b.Health-food stores are popping up all over
the country.
c.An organic lifestyle is good for you, and for
our world.
d.Ten years ago, it was much more difficult to find organic food in traditional supermarkets.
ETTM_03_123-194.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 1:53 PM Page 130
623.This contract will confirm our agreement in
connection with your services as freelance
writer for the work entitled Why Kangaroos
Can’t Fly.
a.The title, although rather silly, accurately
sums up the tone and style of the book.
b.You agree to assist us in preparation of the
book by developing content for it, based on
your zoo-keeping experience.
c.It is important to have a legal contract
before turning your written work over to a
publishing company.
d.This book will make an important contri-
bution to kangaroo lore around the world.
624.America’s fascination with reality television is
a topic of much discussion. Many think that
people tune in simply to keep up-to-date with
the latest popular culture trends.
a.Whether you love it or hate it, reality televi-
sion is definitely here to stay.
b.Every season brings several new reality
television shows. However, not every one of
them succeeds.
c.Reality television has no redeeming quali-
ties whatsoever. Critics find it shallow, sen-
sationalistic, and mindless.
d.Ordinary people might also see themselves
in these reality television personalities,
leading to a sense of exhilaration as they
watch their television counterparts achieve
celebrity status and win big prizes. 625.Before we learn how to truly love someone
else, we must learn how to love the face in the
a.Don’t be shy about meeting members of
the opposite sex.
b.No one can really love you the way you can
love yourself.
c.Love is not something that lasts unless one
is very lucky.
d.Learning to accept ourselves for what we
are will teach us how to accept another
626.During colonial times in America, juries were
encouraged to ask questions of the parties in
the courtroom.
a.The jurors were, in fact, expected to investi-
gate the facts of the case themselves. If
jurors conducted an investigation today, we
would throw out the case.
b.Many states are experimenting with new
ways to get more people to serve on juries.
All eligible voters can be called to serve.
c.There are usually two attorneys: a prosecu-
tor and a defense attorney. This sometimes
makes the courtroom lively.
d.There were 13 colonies. Each colony at first
had its own legal system.
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627.Landscapers do not recommend rosebushes
for homeowners who have shade-filled gar-
dens and who don’t spend a great deal of time
maintaining outdoor plants. a.Bugs called aphids can destroy roses.
However, you can get rid of them by spray-
ing with a solution of water and dish soap.
b.Gardening can be quite time-consuming.
Most gardeners spend hours in their gar-
dens each week.
c.When these conditions are present, a better
choice would be hostas. They are extremely
hardy and easy-to-grow shade plants with
attractive foliage.
d.Landscapers can be hired on a weekly or
monthly basis to care for lawns and gardens. They can also be hired for a one-
time consultation or for a specific lawn or
garden project.
628.Ginkgo biloba extract is the most commonly
prescribed plant remedy in the world.
a.There are many plant remedies, including
the ones that can be purchased in health-
food stores. Not all plant remedies have
been approved.
b.It is a highly refined compound produced
from the leaves of the ginkgo tree. Many
people take ginkgo to treat conditions such
as headaches, asthma, and hearing loss. c.Ginkgo has also been widely prescribed in
Europe. It has been approved by the
German government for the treatment of
memory loss.
d.A 1977 study with ginkgo was conducted
with 20 patients. These patients ranged in
age from 62 to 85.
629.Life on Earth is ancient and, even at its first
appearance, unimaginably complex.
a.Scientists place its beginnings at some
3,000 million years ago. This was when the
first molecule floated up out of the ooze
with the unique ability to replicate itself.
b.The most complex life form is, of course,
the mammal. The most complex mammal
is us.
c.It is unknown exactly where life started. It
is unknown exactly where the first mole-
cule was “born.”
d.Darwin’s theory of evolution was an
attempt to explain what essentially remains
a great mystery. His theory, of course, has
been discounted by some people.
For each of the following paragraphs, choose the sen-
tence that does NOT belong.
630.(1) The cassowary, a solitary, meat-eating
creature that makes its home deep in the jun-
gles of New Guinea, hardly seems like a bird at
all. (2) It is enormous, weighing up to 190
pounds. (3) Its plumage is more like hair than
feathers; its song is a deep, menacing rumble;
and it has lost the capability of flight. (4)
Human beings have long been fascinated by
birds, particularly by their ability to fly.
a.sentence 1
b.sentence 2
c.sentence 3
d.sentence 4
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631.(1) Ratatouille is a dish that has grown in pop-
ularity over the past few years. (2) It features
eggplant, zucchini, tomato, peppers, and gar-
lic, chopped, mixed together, and cooked
slowly over low heat. (3) Zucchini is a summer
squash and has a smooth, dark green skin. (4)
As the vegetables cook slowly, they make their
own broth, which may be extended with a lit-
tle tomato paste.
a.sentence 1
b.sentence 2
c.sentence 3
d.sentence 4
632.(1) An odd behavior associated with sleep and
dreaming is somnambulism, commonly known
as sleepwalking. (2) Sleepwalkers suffer from a
malfunction in a brain mechanism that moni-
tors the transition from REM to non-REM
sleep. (3) REM sleep is vitally important to psychological well-being. (4) Sleepwalking
episodes diminish with age and usually cause
no serious harm—the worst thing that could
happen would be a fall down the stairs.
a.sentence 1
b.sentence 2
c.sentence 3
d.sentence 4
633.(1) Lyme disease is sometimes called the “great
imitator” because its many symptoms mimic
those of other illnesses. (2) When treated, this
disease usually presents few or no lingering
effects. (3) Left untreated, it can be extremely
debilitating and sometimes fatal. (4) One
should be very careful when returning from a
trek in the woods to check for deer ticks.
a.sentence 1
b.sentence 2
c.sentence 3
d.sentence 4
634.(1) The harp is a musical instrument that has
an upright triangular frame. (2) Its strings are
positioned perpendicular to the sounding
board. (3) Harps are found in Africa, Europe,
North and South America, and a few parts of
Asia. (4) Its beautiful sound, which is capable
of stirring great emotion, might bring tears to
your eyes.
a.sentence 1
b.sentence 2
c.sentence 3
d.sentence 4
635.(1) In the summer, the northern hemisphere is
slanted toward the sun, making the days longer
and warmer than in winter. (2) Many religions
make use of the solstices in their rites. (3) The
first day of summer is called summer solstice
and is also the longest day of the year. (4)
However, June 21 marks the beginning of winter in the southern hemisphere, when that
hemisphere is tilted away from the sun.
a.sentence 1
b.sentence 2
c.sentence 3
d.sentence 4
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636.(1) People are quick to blame the meteorolo-
gist if it rains on their parade! (2) The
American Meteorological Society defines a
meteorologist as a person “who uses scientific
principles to explain, understand, observe, or
forecast the earth’s atmospheric phenomena
and/or how the atmosphere affects the earth
and life on the planet.” (3) Many meteorolo-
gists have degrees in physics, chemistry, and
other fields. (4) Their work often involves
teaching, weather forecasting, atmospheric
research, and other kinds of applied meteorology.
a.sentence 1
b.sentence 2
c.sentence 3
d.sentence 4
637.(1) The park was empty, except for a child
who stood just on the other side of the fence, a
little girl about seven years old, thin and pale,
with dark eyes and dark hair—cut short and
ragged. (2) The statistics on neglected children
in our country probably fall short of the actual
numbers. (3) The child wore no coat, only a
brown cotton skirt that was too big for her—
pinned at the waist with a safety pin—and a
soiled, long-sleeved yellow blouse with rhine-
stone buttons. (4) Her fingernails were dirty
and broken, the tips of her fingers bluish with
a.sentence 1
b.sentence 2
c.sentence 3
d.sentence 4
638.(1) Ghosts can be either benevolent or malev-
olent. (2) As someone once said, “I don’t
believe in ghosts, but I’m afraid of them.” (3)
They can be comic and comfortable, like the
old sea captain in The Ghost and Mrs. Muir, or
horrific beyond belief, like the ghosts of the
revelers at the party in the Overlook Hotel in
Stephen King’s The Shining. (4) They can
emerge from the afterlife to teach us lessons,
like old Marley in A Christmas Carol, or come
back moaning to be avenged, like the ghost in
a.sentence 1
b.sentence 2
c.sentence 3
d.sentence 4
639.(1) Most criminals do not suffer from antiso-
cial personality disorder; however, nearly all
persons with this disorder have been in trou-
ble with the law. (2) Sometimes labeled
“sociopaths,” they are a grim problem for society. (3) Their crimes range from con
games to murder, and they are set apart by
what appears to be a complete lack of con-
science. (4) There is a long-standing debate
among psychiatrists whether hardened crimi-
nals can ever truly be rehabilitated.
a.sentence 1
b.sentence 2
c.sentence 3
d.sentence 4
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640.(1) Jessie Street is sometimes called the
Australian Eleanor Roosevelt. (2) Eleanor
Roosevelt was one of the most admired and
revered women in history. (3) Like Roosevelt,
Street lived a life of privilege, but at the same
time devoted her efforts to working for the
rights of the disenfranchised laborers, women,
refugees, and Aborigines. (4) In addition, she
gained international fame when she was the
only woman on the Australian delegation to
the conference that founded the United
Nations—just as Eleanor Roosevelt was for the
United States.
a.sentence 1
b.sentence 2
c.sentence 3
d.sentence 4
641.(1) Joining a health club allows you to exercise
even when the weather is bad. (2) If you’re a
fitness walker, there is no need for a commute
to a health club. (3) Your neighborhood can be
your health club. (4) You don’t need a lot of
fancy equipment to get a good workout,
either; all you need is a well-designed pair of
athletic shoes.
a.sentence 1
b.sentence 2
c.sentence 3
d.sentence 4
642.(1) Members of your office staff may have tal-
ents and abilities that you are not aware of. (2)
As supervisor, it is your job to identify and
encourage this potential talent. (3) Employee
incentive programs are becoming increasingly
common. (4) When a new project is under
way, you should brainstorm with your staff to
draw out their ideas and suggestions, rather
than just assuming that each member is only
capable of performing a very rigid role.
a.sentence 1
b.sentence 2
c.sentence 3
d.sentence 4
643.(1) Firefighters must learn the proper proce-
dures for responding to residential carbon
monoxide (CO) emergencies. (2) Upon arriv-
ing at the scene of the alarm, personnel shall
put on protective clothing and then bring an
operational, calibrated CO meter onto the
premises. (3) CO poisoning can be lethal, both
to firefighters and to ordinary citizens. (4) Occupants of the premises shall then be
examined, and if they are experiencing CO
poisoning symptoms—headaches, nausea,
confusion, dizziness, and other flulike symptoms—an Emergency Medical Services
(EMS) crew shall be sent immediately to evac-
uate and administer oxygen to the occupants. a.sentence 1
b.sentence 2
c.sentence 3
d.sentence 4
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For each of the following groups of numbered sen-
tences, choose the sentence order that would result in
the best paragraph.
644.(1) Figures have the power to mislead people.
(2) Mathematics tells us about economic
trends, patterns of disease, and the growth of
populations. (3) Math is good at exposing the
truth, but it can also perpetuate
misunderstandings and untruths. a.1, 2, 3
b.2, 3, 1
c.3, 1, 2
d.3, 2, 1
645.(1) The reason for so many injuries and fatali-
ties is that a vehicle can generate heat of up to
1,500° F. (2) Firefighters know that the dangers
of motor-vehicle fires are too often over-
looked. (3) In the United States, one out of
five fires involves motor vehicles, resulting
each year in 600 deaths, 2,600 civilian injuries,
and 1,200 injuries to firefighters.
a.1, 2, 3
b.1, 3, 2
c.2, 3, 1
d.3, 2, 1
646.(1) There is no harm in putting a special treat
in your child’s lunchbox from time to time.
(2) Usually, healthy snacks are defined as
foods with low sugar and fat content. (3) Some examples include carrot and celery
sticks, granola bars, yogurt drinks, and string
cheese. (4) However, in general, it is a much
better idea to provide healthy snacks. a.2, 4, 1, 3
b.1, 4, 2, 3
c.1, 2, 3, 4
d.3, 1, 2, 4
647.(1) Additionally, once a year, the association
hosts a block party with food, music, and
games. (2) The association organizes neigh-
borhood watch teams and liaises with the
police department on issues of crime and
safety. (3) The main goal of the neighborhood
association is to help make the community a
safer place. a.1, 2, 3
b.3, 2, 1
c.2, 3, 1
d.3, 1, 2
648.(1) Leaving us behind in a bitter cloud of
exhaust, the bus would cough and jolt down
the narrow main street of Crossland. (2) Then,
even before the bus got moving, she’d look
away, ahead toward her real life. (3) But I
could always imagine the way it would be once
it got out on the open highway, gathered
speed, and took Grandma back to a life as
exotic to me as the deserts of Egypt. (4) When
Grandma’s visit was over, we’d take her down
to the Greyhound station, watch her hand her
ticket to the uniformed driver, disappear
inside, and reappear to wave good-bye—
her expression obscured by the bus’s grimy
a.4, 2, 1, 3
b.4, 1, 3, 2
c.1, 3, 4, 2
d.1, 2, 3, 4
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649.(1) The Fifth Amendment of the U.S.
Constitution guarantees citizens freedom
from double jeopardy in criminal proceedings.
(2) It also means a person cannot be tried for
a crime for which he or she has already been
convicted; that is to say, a person convicted by
a state court cannot be tried for the same
offense in, for example, federal court. (3) Finally, a person cannot be punished more
than once for the same crime. (4) This means
that a person cannot be tried for a crime for
which he or she has already been acquitted. a.1, 4, 2, 3
b.1, 2, 4, 3
c.3, 2, 1, 4
d.3, 4, 2, 1
650.(1) If these new policies are any indication,
employees will have much less freedom than
they did before. (2) The handbook also states
that employees must give at least three weeks’
notice before taking a personal day. (3) The
new employee handbook states that anyone
who is out sick for more than three days must
provide a doctor’s note. a.2, 3, 1
b.3, 1, 2
c.3, 2, 1
d.1, 3, 2
651.(1) Every spring the softball field became his
favorite destination, and he had taken his son,
Arnie, there when he was small to teach him
how to pitch. (2) He walked home, as usual,
through the park and, as usual, passed by the
softball field. (3) This memory made him feel
sad and guilty. (4) Arnie hadn’t been in the
least interested in softball, and so after two or
three lessons, he had given up the idea.
a.2, 1, 4, 3
b.3, 2, 1, 4
c.4, 3, 1, 2
d.2, 3, 4, 1
652.(1) If there are expenses incurred, complete
report form 103; if there was damage to
equipment, complete form 107. (2) If form
107 and form 103 are required, complete form
122 also. (3) Log on to the computer and go to
the directory that contains the report forms.
(4) As an employee, you must complete all
paperwork following a fire.
a.3, 2, 1, 4
b.1, 3, 4, 2
c.2, 1, 4, 3
d.4, 3, 1, 2
653.(1) In some areas, the salt is combined with
calcium chloride, which is more effective in
below-zero temperatures and which melts ice
better. (2) After a snow- or icefall, city streets
are treated with ordinary rock salt. (3) This
combination of salt and calcium chloride is
also less damaging to foliage along the roadways.
a.2, 1, 3
b.1, 3, 2
c.3, 2, 1
d.2, 3, 1
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654.(1) Yet the human brain is the most mysteri-
ous and complex object on Earth. (2) It has
created poetry and music, planned and
executed horrific wars, and devised intricate
scientific theories. (3) It thinks and dreams,
plots and schemes, and easily holds more
information than all the libraries on Earth. (4)
It weighs less than three pounds and is hardly
more interesting to look at than an overly ripe
a.1, 3, 4, 2
b.2, 1, 4, 3
c.3, 1, 2, 4
d.4, 1, 2, 3
655.(1) Before you begin to compose a business
letter, sit down and think about your purpose
in writing the letter. (2) Do you want to
request information, order a product, register
a complaint, or apply for something? (3)
Always keep your objective in mind. (4) Do
some brainstorming and gather information
before you begin writing.
a.4, 3, 2, 1 b.2, 4, 3, 1 c.1, 2, 4, 3 d.3, 2, 1, 4
656.(1) The idea communicated may even be
purely whimsical, in which case the artist
might start out with symbols developed from
a bird’s tracks or a child’s toy. (2) Native
American art often incorporates a language of
abstract visual symbols. (3) The artist gives a
poetic message to the viewer, communicating
the beauty of an idea through religious sym-
bols or by reproducing a design from
nature—such as rain on leaves or sunshine on
water. a.3, 1, 2
b.2, 3, 1 c.2, 1, 3 d.1, 3, 2
Answer questions 657–659 on the basis of the follow-
ing passage.
(1) Greyhound racing is the sixth most
popular spectator sport in the United States.
(2) Over the past decade, a growing number of
racers have been adopted to live out
retirement as household pets, once there
racing careers are over.
(3) Many people hesitate to adopt a
retired racing greyhound because they think
only very old dogs are available. (4) People also
worry that the greyhound will be more nervous
and active than other breeds and will need a
large space to run. (5) ________. (6) In fact,
racing greyhounds are put up for adoption at a
young age; even champion racers, who have the
longest careers, work only until they are about
three and a half years old. (7) Since greyhounds
usually live to be 12 to 15 years old, their
retirement is much longer than their racing
careers. (8) Far from being nervous dogs,
greyhounds have naturally sweet, mild
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dispositions, and, while they love to run, they
are sprinters rather than distance runners and
are sufficiently exercised with a few laps around
a fenced-in backyard every day.
(9) Greyhounds do not make good
watchdogs, but they are very good with
children, get along well with other dogs (and
usually cats as well), and are very affectionate
and loyal. (10) A retired racing greyhound is a
wonderful pet for almost anyone.
657.Which sentence, if inserted in the blank
labeled 5, would best help to focus the writer’s
argument in the second paragraph?
a.Even so, greyhounds are placid dogs.
b.These worries are based on false impres-
sions and are easily dispelled.
c.Retired greyhounds do not need race tracks
to keep in shape.
d.However, retired greyhounds are too old to
need much exercise.
658.Which of the following changes is needed in
the first paragraph?
a.Sentence 1: Change growing to increasing.
b.Sentence 2: Change there to their.
c.Sentence 1: Change is to was.
d.Sentence 2: Change have been adopted to have adopted.
659.Which of the following sentences, if added
between sentences 9 and 10 of the third para-
graph, would be most consistent with the
writer’s purpose, tone, and intended audience?
a.Former racing dogs make up
approximately 0.36% of all dogs owned as
domestic pets in the United States.
b.Despite the fact that greyhounds make
excellent domestic pets, there is still a large
number of former racers that have not
been adopted.
c.Good-natured and tolerant dogs,
greyhounds speedily settle into any house-
hold, large or small; they are equally at ease
in an apartment or a private home.
d.It is imperative that people overcome the
common myths they harbor about grey-
hounds that are preventing them from
adopting these gentle dogs.
Answer questions 660–662 on the basis of the follow-
ing paragraphs.
(1) Following an overwhelmingly enthusiastic
response, the school administration has
decided to expand the Community Mural
Painting Program—now a part of two high
school curriculums—to the middle school
level. (2) A pilot program conducted in the
school district last year was a successful
initiative for students and for the community.
(3) Money to fund the program came
from a national grant designed to promote
community involvement as well as art
appreciation among teenagers. (4) A committee
that consists of art teachers, social studies
teachers, and school social workers oversees the
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(5) Studies have shown that young people
who have been exposed to similar programs are
much less prone to apathy. (6) The same
studies state that these programs promote a
sense of purpose that serves young people well
both inside and outside the academic setting.
(7) When the students were interviewed by the
program committee. (8) In addition, the
community attitude toward teenagers is
improved also.
(9) It is projected that this year more than
150 students will be involved and that more
than 20 murals will be painted.
660.Which sentence in the third paragraph is a
nonstandard sentence?
a.sentence 5
b.sentence 6
c.sentence 7
d.sentence 8
661.Which of the following changes should be
made to sentence 8 of the passage?
a.Remove the word also.
b.Change community to communities.
c.Change teenagers to teenagers’.
d.Change toward to according to.
662.Which of the following sentences, if inserted
after sentence 2 of the passage, would best
develop the ideas in the first paragraph?
a.The program could benefit other districts as well.
b.One particularly beautiful mural was
painted on a playground wall on the east
side of town.
c.Fifty high school students were involved,
and they spent five weeks painting ten
murals throughout the community in locations that were in great need of some
d.The school district is interested in trying
other pilot programs in addition the Mural
Painting Program.
Answer questions 663–665 on the basis of the follow-
ing passage.
(1) Although eating right is an important part of
good health, most experts agree that being physi-
cally active is also a key element in living a longer
and healthier life. (2) The benefits of physical
activity include improved self-esteem, a lowered
risk of heart disease and colon cancer, stronger
bones, muscles, and joints, and enhanced flexibil-
ity. (3) Physical activity, in addition to its many
other rewards will also help manage weight gain.
(4) One of the simplest and most effective
ways to increase physical activity are walking;
walking requires no special equipment and no
particular location, and it can be easily
incorporated into even the busiest lives. (5)
Add ten minutes or ten blocks to your usual
dog-walking routine. (6) Park several blocks
away from your destination and walk briskly
the rest of the way. (7) Walk up or down the
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soccer or softball field while watching your kids
play. (8) Find a walking buddy who will take a
long walk with you once or twice a week. (9) You’ll be less likely to skip the walk if
someone is counting on you to be there.
(10) ______________________. (11) Before
long, it will become a normal part of your daily
routine and you’ll hardly notice the extra effort.
(12) In addition, the increased energy and overall
sense of well-being you’ll experience will inspire
you to walk even more.
663.Which of the following revisions is necessary
in sentence 4 of the passage?
a.One of the simplest and most effective ways
to increase physical activity are walking;
walking requires no special equipment and
no particular location and it can be easily
incorporated into even the busiest lives.
b.One of the simplest and most effective ways
to increase physical activity is walking;
walking requires no special equipment and
no particular location, and it can be easily
incorporated into even the busiest lives.
c.One of the simplest and most effective ways
to enhance physical activity are walking;
walking requires no special equipment and
no particular location, and it can be easily
incorporated into even the busiest lives.
d.One of the simplest and most effective ways
to increase physical activity are walking;
only walking requires no special equipment
and no particular location, and it can be
easily incorporated into even the busiest
664.Which of the following sentences, if inserted
in the blank line numbered sentence 10, would
be most consistent with the development and
grammar of the paragraph?
a.People will benefit from putting on your
walking shoes and pounding the pavement.
b.So jog, bicycle, and walk as much as you
c.While people will benefit from increased
physical activity, it cannot replace the
necessity of your eating right.
d.So put on your walking shoes and start
pounding the pavement.
665.Which of the following changes is needed in
the passage?
a.sentence 3: Insert comma after rewards.
b.sentence 1: Replace most with more.
c.sentence 5: Insert a comma after minutes.
d.sentence 2: Insert a colon after activity.
Answer questions 666 and 667 on the basis of the following passage.
(1) Police officers must read suspects their
Miranda rights upon taking them into custody.
(2) When suspects who are merely being ques-
tioned incriminate
themselves, they might later
claim to have been in custody and seek to have the
case dismissed on the grounds of not having been
of their Miranda rights. (3) In such
cases, a judge must make a determination as to
whether a reasonable person would have believed
himself to have been in custody, based on certain
. (4) Officers must be aware of these crite-
ria and take care not to give suspects grounds for
later claiming they believed themselves to be in
custody. (5) The judge must ascertain
whether the
suspect was questioned in a threatening manner
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(threatening could mean that the suspect was
seated while both officers remained standing) and
whether the suspect was aware that he or she was
free to leave at any time. 666.Which of the underlined words in the para-
graph should be replaced by a more
appropriate, accurate word?
d.ascertain 667.Which of the following changes would make
the sequence of ideas in the paragraph clearer?
a.Place sentence 5 after sentence 1.
b.Reverse sentences 3 and 5.
c.Reverse the order of sentences 4 and 5.
d.Delete sentence 2.
Answer questions 668 and 669 on the basis of the following passage.
(1) Snowboarding, often described as a snow
sport that combines skateboarding and surfing, is
an increasingly common winter sport throughout
the world. (2) Snowboarding involves strapping a
board to one’s feet and sliding down snow-
covered mountains. (3) In addition to the snow-
board, a snowboarder’s equipment consists of
special boots that attach to the board.
(4) Some find snowboarding more
difficult to learn than skiing however, others
consider it easier, requiring the mastery of one
board as opposed to two skis and two poles. (5) All agree, though, that once the sport is
mastered, it is exciting, stimulating, and fun.
(6) Those who excel in the sport may even find
himself bound for the Olympics since
snowboarding became medal-eligible in 1998.
668.Which of the following parts of the passage is
a nonstandard sentence?
a.sentence 1
b.sentence 3
c.sentence 4
d.sentence 6
669.Which of the following changes is needed in
the passage?
a.Sentence 1: Change combines to combine.
b.Sentence 2: Change snow-covered to snow
c.Sentence 5: Change agree to agreed.
d.Sentence 6: Change himself to themselves.
Answer questions 670 and 671 on the basis of the following passage.
(1) An ecosystem is a group of animals and plants
living in a specific region and interacting with one
another and with their physical environment. (2) Ecosystems include physical and chemical
components, such as soils, water, and nutrients
that support the organisms living there. (3) These
organisms may range from large animals to
microscopic bacteria. (4) Ecosystems also can be
thought of as the interactions among all organ-
isms in a given habitat; for instance, one species
may serve as food for another. (5) People are part
of the ecosystems where they live and work. (6) Environmental Groups are forming in many
communities. (7) Human activities can harm or
destroy local eco systems unless actions such as
land development for housing or businesses are
carefully planned to conserve and sustain the
ecology of the area. (8) An important part of
ecosystem management involves finding ways to
protect and enhance economic and social well-
being while protecting local ecosystems.
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670.Which of the following numbered parts is least relevant to the main idea of the paragraph? a.sentence 1 b.sentence 6
c.sentence 7
d.sentence 8
671.Which of the following changes is needed in
the passage?
a.Sentence 5: Place a comma after live.
b.Sentence 2: Remove the comma after water. c.Sentence 6: Use a lowercase g for the word
d.Sentence 8: Change involves to involved.
Answer questions 672–674 on the basis of the following paragraphs.
(1) By using tiny probes as neural prostheses, sci-
entists may be able to restore nerve function in
quadriplegics, make the blind see, or the deaf hear.
(2) Thanks to advanced techniques, an implanted
probe can stimulate individual neurons electri-
cally or chemically and then record responses. (3) Preliminary results suggest that the micro-
probe telemetry systems can be permanently
implanted and replace damaged or missing nerves.
(4) The tissue-compatible microprobes
represent an advance over the typically
aluminum wire electrodes used in studies of
the cortex and other brain structures. (5) Previously, researchers data were
accumulated using traditional electrodes, but
there is a question of how much damage they
cause to the nervous system. (6) Microprobes,
because they are slightly thinner than a human
hair, cause minimal damage and disruption of
neurons when inserted into the brain because
of their diminutive width.
(7) In addition to recording nervous
system impulses, the microprobes have
minuscule channels that open the way for
delivery of drugs, cellular growth factors,
neurotransmitters, and other neuroactive
compounds to a single neuron or to groups of
neurons. (8) The probes usually have up to four
channels, each with its own
recording/stimulating electrode.
672.Which of the following changes is needed in
the passage?
a.Sentence 8: Change its to it’s.
b.Sentence 6: Change their to its.
c.Sentence 6: Change than to then.
d.Sentence 5: Change researchers to
673.Which of the following includes a nonstan-
dard use of an adverb?
a.sentence 2
b.sentence 4
c.sentence 6
d.sentence 8
674.Which of the following numbered sentences
should be revised to reduce unnecessary repetition?
a.sentence 2
b.sentence 5
c.sentence 6 d.sentence 8
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Answer questions 675–677 on the basis of the follow-
ing passage.
(1) Loud noises on trains not only irritate passen-
gers but also create unsafe situations. (2) They are
prohibited by law and by agency policy. (3) There-
fore, conductors follow these procedures:
(4) A passenger-created disturbance is by
playing excessively loud music or creating loud
noises in some other manner. (5) In the event a
passenger creates a disturbance, the conductor
will politely ask the passenger to turn off the
music or stop making the loud noise. (6) If the
passenger refuses to comply, the conductor will
tell the passenger that he or she is in violation
of the law and train policy and will have to
leave the train if he or she will not comply to
the request. (7) If police assistance is requested,
the conductor will stay at the location from
which the call to the Command Center was
placed or the silent alarm used. (8) Conductors
will wait there until the police arrive, will allow
passengers to get off the train at this point, and
no passengers are allowed back on until the
situation is resolved.
675.Which of the following is a nonstandard sentence?
a.sentence 3
b.sentence 4
c.sentence 6
d.sentence 7
676.Which of the following sentences is the best
revision of sentence 8 in the passage? a.Conductors will wait there until the police
arrive, will allow passengers off the train at
this point, and no passengers will be
allowed on until the situation is resolved.
b.Conductors will wait there until the police
arrive, will allow passengers off the train at
this point, and, until the situation is
resolved, no passengers are allowed on.
c.Conductors will wait there until the police
arrive, will allow passengers off the train at
this point, and will not allow passengers on
until the situation is resolved.
d.Conductors will wait there until the police
arrive, will allow passengers off the train at
this point, and no passengers are allowed
on until the situation is resolved.
677.Which of the following numbered sentences
contains a nonstandard use of a preposition? a.sentence 2
b.sentence 6
c.sentence 7
d.sentence 8
Answer questions 678–680 on the basis of the follow-
ing passage.
(1) In her lecture “Keeping Your Heart Healthy,”
Dr. Miranda Woodhouse challenged Americans
to join her in the fight to reduce the risks of
heart disease. (2) Her plan includes four basic
strategies meant to increase public awareness
and prevent heart disease. (3) Eating a healthy
diet that contains nine full servings of fruits and
vegetables each day can help lower cholesterol
levels. (4) More fruits and vegetables means less
dairy and meat, which, in turn, means less –ENGLISH TO THE MAX–
ETTM_03_123-194.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 1:53 PM Page 144
cholesterol-boosting saturated fat. (5) Do not
smoke. (6) Cigarette smoking which increases the
risk of heart disease and when it is combined with
other factors, the risk is even greater. (7) Smoking
increases blood pressure, increases the tendency
for blood to clot, decreases good cholesterol, and
decreases tolerance for exercise. (8) Be aware of
your blood pressure and cholesterol levels at all
times. (9) Because their are often no symptoms,
many people don’t even know that they have high
blood pressure. (10) This is extremely dangerous,
because uncontrolled high blood pressure can
lead to heart attack, kidney failure, and stroke.
(11) Finally, relax and be happy. (12) Studies
show that being constantly angry and depressed
can increase your risk of heart disease, so take a
deep breath, smile, and focus on the positive
things in life.
678.Which of the following is a nonstandard sentence?
a.sentence 3
b.sentence 6
c.sentence 2
d.sentence 10
679.Which of the following sentences, if inserted
between sentences 2 and 3 of the passage,
would best focus the purpose of the writer?
a.While the guidelines will help those who are
free of heart disease, they will not help those
who have already experienced a heart attack.
b.Extending the life of American citizens will
make our country’s life expectancy rates the
highest in the world.
c.The following is a brief outline of each of
the four strategies.
d.Getting people to stop smoking is the most
important element of Dr. Woodhouse’s
680.Which one of the following changes needs to
be made to the passage?
a.Sentence 2: Change includes to is inclusive of.
b.Sentence 3: Change Eating to To eat.
c.Sentence 9: Change their to there.
d.Sentence 12: Change show to shown.
Answer questions 681–684 on the basis of the following passage.
(1) Artist Mary Cassatt was born in Allegheny
City, Pennsylvania, in 1844. (2) Because her family
valued education and believed that traveling was a
wonderful way to learn. (3) Before she was ten
years old, she’d visited London, Paris, and Rome. (4) Although her family supported
education, they were not at all supportive of
her desire to be a professional artist, but that
didn’t stop her from studying art both in the
United States and abroad. (5) A contemporary
of artists including Camille Pissarro and Edgar
Degas. Cassatt was an active member of the
school of painting known as impressionism. (6) However, in later years, her painting evolved
and she abandoned the impressionist approach;
for a simpler, more straightforward style.
(7) Cassatt never married or had
children, but her best known painting’s
breathtaking, yet ordinary scenes of mothers
and children. (8) Cassatt died in 1926 at the
age of 82, leaving a large and inspired body of
work and an example to women everywhere to
break through traditional roles and follow
their dreams.
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681.Which one of the following changes needs to
be made to the passage?
a.Sentence 3: Change Before to Because.
b.Sentence 4: Insert a comma after Although.
c.Sentence 5: Insert a comma after Degas.
d.Sentence 7: Change breathtaking to breathtakingly.
682.Which one of the following numbered parts is
a nonstandard sentence?
a.sentence 1
b.sentence 2
c.sentence 3
d.sentence 8
683.Which of the following is a nonstandard sentence?
a.sentence 3
b.sentence 4
c.sentence 6
d.sentence 8
684.Which of the following should be used in
place of the underlined word in sentence 7 of
the last paragraph?
Answer questions 685–687 on the basis of the following passage.
(1) If you have little time to care for your gar-
den, be sure to select hardy plants, such as phlox,
comfrey, and peonies. (2) These will, with only a
little care, keep the garden brilliant with color all
through the growing season. (3) Sturdy sun-
flowers and hardy species of roses are also good
selections. (4) As a thrifty gardener, you should
leave part of the garden free for the planting of
herbs such as lavender, sage, thyme, and parsley. (5) If you have a moderate amount of
time, growing vegetables and a garden culture
of pears, apples, quinces, and other small fruits
can be an interesting occupation, which amply
rewards the care languished on it. (6) Even a
small vegetable and fruit garden may yield
radishes, celery, beans, and strawberries that will be delicious on the family table. (7) ________. (8) When planting seeds for the
vegetable garden, you should be sure that they
receive the proper amount of moisture, that
they are sown at the right season to receive the
right degree of heat, and that the seed is placed
near enough to the surface to allow the young
plant to reach the light easily.
685.Which of the following editorial changes
would best help to clarify the ideas in the first
a.Omit the phrase with only a little care from
sentence 2.
b.Reverse the order of sentences 2 and 3.
c.Add a sentence after sentence 4 explaining
why saving room for herbs is a sign of thrift
in a gardener.
d.Add a sentence about the ease of growing
roses after sentence 3.
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686.Which of the following sentences, if inserted
in the blank line numbered 7, would be most
consistent with the writer’s development of
ideas in the second paragraph?
a.When and how you plant is important to
producing a good yield from your garden.
b.Very few gardening tasks are more fascinat-
ing than growing fruit trees.
c.Of course, if you have saved room for an
herb garden, you will be able to make the
yield of your garden even more tasty by
cooking with your own herbs.
d.Growing a productive fruit garden may
take some specialized and time-consuming
research into proper grafting techniques.
687.Which one of the following changes needs to
be made in the passage?
a.Sentence 2: Change through to threw.
b.Sentence 5: Change languished to lavished.
c.Sentence 8: Change sown to sewn.
d.Sentence 8: Change surface to surfeit.
Answer questions 688–690 on the basis of the follow-
ing passage.
(1) Augustus Saint-Gaudens was born March 1,
1848, in Dublin, Ireland, to Bernard Saint-
Gaudens, a French shoemaker, and Mary
McGuinness, his Irish wife. (2) Six months later,
the family immigrated to New York City, where
Augustus grew up. (3) Upon completion of school
at age 13, he expressed strong interest in art as a
career so his father apprenticed him to a cameo
cutter. (4) While working days at his cameo lathe,
Augustus also took art classes at the Cooper
Union and the National Academy of Design.
(5) At 19, his apprenticeship completed,
Augustus traveled to Paris where he studied
under Francois Jouffry at the renown Ecole des
Beaux-Arts. (6) In 1870, he left Paris for Rome,
where for the next five years, he studies
art and architecture, and worked on his first
commissions. (7) In 1876, he received his first
major commission—a monument to Civil War
Admiral David Glasgow Farragut. (8) Unveiled
in New York’s Madison Square in 1881, the
monument was a tremendous success; its
combination of realism and allegory was a
departure from previous American sculpture.
(9) Saint-Gaudens’ fame grew, and other
commissions were quickly forthcoming.
688.Which of the following numbered sentences
requires a comma to separate two independ-
ent clauses?
a.sentence 1
b.sentence 3
c.sentence 7
d.sentence 9
689.Which of the following words should replace
the underlined word in sentence 6?
b.will study
c.had been studying
d.would have studied
690.Which one of the following changes needs to
be made to the passage?
a.Sentence 2: Change where to when.
b.Sentence 5: Change renown to renowned.
c.Sentence 8: Change its to it’s.
d.Sentence 3: Change expressed to impressed.
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Answer questions 691–693 on the basis of the follow-
ing passage.
(1) Everglades National Park is the largest remain-
ing subtropical wilderness in the continental
United States. (2) It’s home to abundant wildlife;
including alligators, crocodiles, manatees, and
Florida panthers. (3) The climate of the Ever-
glades are mild and pleasant from December
through April, though rare cold fronts may create
near-freezing conditions. (4) Summers are hot and
humid; in summer, the temperatures often soar to
around 90° and the humidity climbs to over 90%.
(5)Afternoon thunderstorms are common, and
mosquitoes are abundant. (6) If you visit the Everglades, wear comfortable sportswear in winter;
loose-fitting, long-sleeved shirts and pants, and
insect repellent are recommendedin the summer. (7) Walking and canoe trails, boat tours,
and tram tours are excellent for viewing
wildlife, including alligators and a multitude of
tropical and temperate birds. (8) Camping,
whether in the back country or at established
campgrounds, offers the opportunity to enjoy
what the park offers firsthand. (9) Year-round,
ranger-led activities may help you to enjoy your
visit even more; such activities are offered
throughout the park in all seasons.
691.Which of the following numbered sentences
contains a nonstandard use of a semicolon?
a.sentence 6
b.sentence 2
c.sentence 9
d.sentence 4
692.Which of the following numbered sentences
needs to be revised to reduce unnecessary repetition?
a.sentence 4
b.sentence 6
c.sentence 9
d.sentence 8
693.Which of the following changes is needed in
the passage?
a.Sentence 2: Change it’s to its.
b.Sentence 3: Change are to is.
c.Sentence 6: Remove the comma after
d.Sentence 8: Remove the comma after campgrounds.
Answer questions 694 and 695 on the basis of the following passage.
(1) Choosing a doctor is an important decision;
here are some things you can do to make the best
choice. (2) The single most important thing is to
interview the doctors you are considering. (3) Ask
questions about the practice, office hours, and
how quick he or she responds to phone calls. (4) Pay attention to the doctor’s communication
skills and how comfortable you are with them. (5) The second thing you should do is to check the
doctor’s credentials. (6) One way to do this is to
ask your healthcare insurance company how they
checked the doctor’s credentials before accepting
him or her into their network. (7) The cost of
healthcare insurance is quite high and many fami-
lies have difficulty affording it. (8) Finally, spend a
little time talking with the receptionist. (9) Keep
in mind that this is the person you’ll come into
contact with every time you call or come into the
office. (10
) If he or she is pleasant and efficient, it
will certainly make your overall experience better.
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694.Which of the following numbered parts is
least relevant to the paragraph?
a.sentence 2
b.sentence 3
c.sentence 7
d.sentence 9
695.Which of the following changes needs to be
made to the passage?
a.Sentence 3: Change quick to quickly.
b.Sentence 10: Change better to more better.
c.Sentence 6: Change accepting to accepted.
d.Sentence 10: Change efficient to efficiently.
Answer questions 696–698 on the basis of the following passage.
(1) Being able to type good is no longer a require-
ment limited to secretaries and novelists; thanks
to the computer, anyone who wants to enter the
working world needs to be accustomed
to a key-
board. (2) Just knowing your way around a key-
board does not mean that you can use one
efficiently, though; while you may have progressed
beyond the hunt-and-peck method, you may
never have learned to type quickly and accurately.
(3) Doing so is a skill that will not only ensure that
you pass a typing proficiency
exam, but one that is
essential if you want to advance your career in any
number of fields. (4) This chapter assures
that you
are familiar enough with a standard keyboard to
be able to use it without looking at the keys, which
is the first step in learning to type, and that you are
aware of the proper fingering
. (5) The following
information will help you increase your speed and
accuracy and to do our best when being tested on
timed writing passages.
696.Which of the following numbered sentences
contains a nonstandard use of a modifier?
a.sentence 1
b.sentence 2
c.sentence 3
d.sentence 5
697.Which of the following words, underlined in
the passage, is misused in its context?
698.Which one of the following changes needs to
be made in the passage?
a.Sentence 3: Remove the comma after exam.
b.Sentence 4: Insert a colon after that.
c.Sentence 1: Change needs to needed.
d.Sentence 5: Change our best to your best.
Answer questions 699–701 on the basis of the follow-
ing passage.
(1) O’Connell Street is the main thoroughfare of
Dublin City. (2) Although it is not a particularly
long street Dubliners will tell the visitor proudly
that it is the widest street in all of Europe. (3) This
claim usually meets with protests, especially from
French tourists who claim the Champs Elysees of
Paris as Europe’s widest street. (4) But the witty
Dubliner will not ensign
bragging rights easily
and will trump the French visitor with a fine dis-
tinction: The Champs Elysees is the widest boule-
vard, but O’Connell is the widest street.
(5) Divided by several important
monuments running the length of its center,
the street is named for Daniel O’Connell, an
Irish patriot. (6) An impressive monument to
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him towers over the entrance of lower
O’Connell Street and overlooking the Liffey
River. (7) O’Connell stands on a sturdy column
high above the unhurried crowds of shoppers,
businesspeople, and students; he is surrounded
by four serene angels seated at the corners of
the monument’s base.
699.Which of the following words should replace
the underlined word in sentence 4 of the passage?
700.Which of the following changes needs to be
made to the second paragraph of the passage?
a.Sentence 7: Replace the semicolon with a
b.Sentence 5: Change Irish to irish.
c.Sentence 5: Change running to run.
d.Sentence 6: Change overlooking to
701.Which of the following changes needs to be
made to the first paragraph of the passage?
a.Sentence 2: Insert a comma after that.
b.Sentence 3: Replace the comma after
protests with a semicolon.
c.Sentence 4: Remove the colon after distinction.
d.Sentence 2: Insert a comma after street.
Answer questions 702–704 on the basis of the following passage.
(1) Mrs. Lake arriving 20 minutes early surprised
and irritated Nicholas, although the moment for
saying so slipped past too quickly for him to
snatch its opportunity.
(2) She was a thin woman of medium
height, not much older than he—in her middle
forties he judged—dressed in a red-and-white,
polka-dot dress and open-toed red shoes with
extremely high heels. (3) Her short brown hair
was crimped in waves, which gave a
incongruous, quaint, old-fashioned effect. (4) She had a pointed nose. (5) Her eyes, set
rather shallow, were light brown and
(6) “Dr. Markley?” she asked. (7) Nicholas
nodded, and the woman walked in past him,
proceeding with little mincing steps to the
center of the living room, where she stood with
her back turned, looking around. (8) “My my,”
she said. (9) “This is a nice house. (10) Do you
live here all alone?”
702.Which of the following changes should be
made in sentence 3?
a.Change was to is.
b.Change gave to gives.
c.Change a
to an.
d.Change effect to affect.
703.Which of the following numbered parts con-
tains a nonstandard use of a modifier?
a.sentence 7
b.sentence 5
c.sentence 3
d.sentence 2
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704.Which one of the following changes needs to
be made to sentence 1?
a.Insert a comma after early.
b.Change too to two.
c.Change Lake to Lake’s.
a.Change its to it’s.
Answer questions 705 and 706 on the basis of the fol-
lowing passage.
(1) Understand that your boss has problems, too.
(2) This is easy to forget. (3) When someone has
authority over you, it’s hard to remember that
they’re just human. (4)Your boss may have chil-
dren at home who misbehave, dogs or cats or
parakeets that need to go to the vet, deadlines to
meet, and/or bosses of his or her own (sometimes
even bad ones) overseeing his or her work. (5) If
your boss is occasionally unreasonable, try to keep
in mind that it might have nothing to do with you.
(6) He or she may be having a bad day for reasons
no one else knows. (7) Of course, if such behavior
becomes consistently abusive, you’ll have to do
something about it—confront the problem or
even quit. (8) But were all entitled to occasional
mood swings.
705.Which of the following numbered sentences
contains a nonstandard use of a pronoun?
a.sentence 3
b.sentence 4
c.sentence 7
d.sentence 8
706.Which of the following changes needs to be
made to the passage?
a.Sentence 5: Change unreasonable to unreasonably.
b.Sentence 7: Change the dash to a
c.Sentence 8: Change were to we’re.
d.Sentence 4: Change deadlines to a deadline.
Answer questions 707 and 708 on the basis of the following passage.
(1) Beginning next month, City Transit will insti-
tute the Stop Here Program, who will be in effect
every night from 10:00 P
.until 4:00 A
.(2) The
program will allow drivers to stop the bus wher-
ever a passenger wishes, as long as they deem it is
safe to stop there. (3) This program will reduce the
amount of walking that passengers will have to do
after dark. (4) Passengers may request a stop any-
where along the bus route by pulling the bell cord
a block ahead. (5) During the first two months of
the program, when anyone attempts to flag down
a bus anywhere but at a designated stop, the bus
driver should proceed to the next stop and wait
for the person to board the bus. (6) Then the
driver should give the passenger a brochure that
explains the Stop Here Program.
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707.Which of the following editorial changes in
the passage would best help to clarify the
information the paragraph intends to convey?
a.Add a sentence between sentences 4 and 5
explaining that while the Stop Here
Program allows passengers to leave the bus
at almost any point, passengers may board
only at designated stops.
b.Delete sentence 6.
c.Add a sentence between sentences 5 and 6
explaining the safety advantages for passen-
gers of flagging down buses at night.
d.Reverse the order of sentences 4 and 5.
708.Which of the following numbered sentences
contains a nonstandard use of a pronoun?
a.sentence 1
b.sentence 2
c.sentence 3
d.sentence 5
Answer questions 709 and 710 on the basis of the fol-
lowing passage.
(1) Last October, a disastrous wildfire swept
across portions of Charlesburg. (2) Five residents
were killed, 320 homes destroyed, and 19,500
acres burned. (3) A public safety task force was
formed to review emergency procedures. (4) The task force findings were as follows.
(5) The water supply in the residential areas was
insufficient, some hydrants could not even be
opened. (6) The task force recommended a
review of hydrant inspection policy.
(7) The fire companies that responded had
difficulty locating specific sites. (8) Most
companies came from other areas and were not
familiar with Miller Point. (9) The available
maps were outdated and did not reflect recent
housing developments.
(10) Evacuation procedures were
inadequate. (11) Residents reported being given
conflicting and/or confusing information. (12) Some residents of the Hilltop Estates
subdivision ignored mandatory evacuation
orders, yet others were praised for their
709.Which of the following is a nonstandard sentence?
a.sentence 7
b.sentence 5
c.sentence 3
d.sentence 12
710.Which one of the following changes needs to
be made to the passage?
a.Sentence 12: Change were to we’re.
b.Sentence 12: Insert a comma after others.
c.Sentence 2: Remove the comma after killed.
d.Sentence 4: Replace the semicolon with a
Answer questions 711–713 on the basis of the following passage.
(1) In 1519, Hernando cortez led his army of
Spanish Conquistadors into Mexico. (2) Equipped
with horses, shining armor, and the
most advanced weapons of the sixteenth century,
he fought his way from the flat coastal area into
the mountainous highlands. (3) Cortez was look
for gold, and he were sure that Indian groups
in Mexico had mined large amounts of the pre-
cious metal. (4) First, he conquered
the groups,
and then seized
their precious gold using very
organized methods.
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711.Which of the underlined words in the passage
could be replaced with a more precise verb?
a.was looking
b.equipped c.conquered
712.Which of the following sentences uses the verb
incorrectly? a.sentence 1
b.sentence 2
c.sentence 3 d.sentence 4
713.Which of the following changes needs to be
made to the passage? a.Sentence 1: Capitalize the c in Cortez.
b.Sentence 2: Delete the comma after horses.
c.Sentence 3: Insert a comma after groups.
d.Sentence 4: Place a semicolon after groups.
Answer questions 714 and 715 on the basis of the fol-
lowing passage.
(1) Charles Darwin was born in 1809 at Shrews-
bury England. (2) He was a biologist whose
famous theory of evolution is important to phi-
losophy for the effects it has had about the nature
of man. (3) After many years of careful study, Dar-
win attempted to show that higher species had
come into existence as a result of the gradual
transformation of lower species, and that the
process of transformation could be explained
through the selective effect of the natural environ-
ment upon organisms. (4) He concluded that the
principles of natural selectionand survival of the
fittest govern all life. (5) Darwin’s explanation of
these principles is that because of the food supply
problem, the young born to any species compete
for survival. (6) Those young that survive to pro-
duce the next generation tend to embody favor-
able natural changes which are then passed on by
heredity. (7) His major work that contained
these theories is On the Origin of Species, written
in 1859. Many religious opponents condemned
this work.
714.Which of the following corrections should be
made in punctuation? a.Sentence 1: Insert a comma after
b.Sentence 2: Insert quotation marks around
nature of man.
c.Sentence 3: Delete the comma after study.
d.Sentence 4: Insert a comma before and.
715.In sentence 7, On the Origin of Species is itali-
cized because it is
a.a short story.
b.the title of a book. c.the name of the author. d.copyrighted.
Answer questions 716 and 717 on the basis of the following passage.
(1) Theodore Roosevelt were
born with asthma
and poor eyesight. (2)Yet this sickly child later
won fame as a political leader, Rough Rider, and
hero of the common people. (3) To conquer his
handicaps, Teddy trained in a gym and became a
lightweight boxer at Harvard. (4) Out West, he
hunted buffalo and ran a cattle ranch. (5) He was a
civil service reformer in the east and also a police
commissioner. (6) He became President McKin-
ley’s Assistant Secretary of the Navy during the
Spanish-American War. (7) Also, he led a charge
of cavalry Rough Riders up San Juan Hill in Cuba.
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(8) After achieving fame, he became governor of
New York and went on to become the Vice President and then President of the United States. 716.Which of the following sentences represents
the best revision of sentence 5? a.Back East he became a civil service
reformer and police commissioner. b.A civil service reformer and police commis-
sioner was part of his job in the East. c.A civil service reformer and police commis-
sioner were parts of his job in the East. d.His jobs of civil service reformer and police
commissioner were his jobs in the East.
717.Which of the following should be used in
place of the underlined verb in sentence 1 of
the passage? a.will be b.are c.is d.was
Answer questions 718–720 on the basis of the following passage.
(1) Cuttlefish are very intriguing little animals. (2)
The cuttlefish resembles a rather large squid and
is, like the octopus, a member of the order of
cephalopods. (3) Although they are not consid-
ered the most highly evolved of the cephalopods,
cuttlefish are extremely intelligent. (4) _______.
(5) While observing them, it is hard to tell who is
doing the watching, you or the cuttlefish. (6) Since
the eye of the cuttlefish is very similar in structure
to the human eye, cuttlefish can give you the
impression that you are looking into the eyes of a
wizard who has metamorphosed himself into a
squid with very human eyes.
(7) Cuttlefish are also highly mobile and
fast creatures. (8) They come equipped with a
small jet located just below the tentacles that
can expel water to help them move. (9) For
navigation, ribbons of flexible fin on each side
of the body allow cuttle fish to hoover, move,
stop, and start.
718.Which of the following sentences, if inserted
into the blank numbered 4, would be most
consistent with the paragraph’s development
and tone?
a.Curious and friendly, cuttlefish tend, in the
wild, to hover near a diver so they can get a
good look, and in captivity, when a
researcher slips a hand into the tanks, cut-
tlefish tend to grasp it with their tentacles
in a hearty but gentle handshake.
b.The cuttlefish can be cooked and eaten like
its less tender relatives the squid and octo-
pus, but must still be tenderized before
cooking in order not to be exceedingly
c.Cuttlefish are hunted as food not only by
many sea creatures, but also by people; they
are delicious when properly cooked.
d.Cuttlefish do not have an exoskeleton;
instead their skin is covered with chromataphors.
719.Which of the following numbered sentences
should be revised to reduce its unnecessary
a.sentence 2
b.sentence 5
c.sentence 6
d.sentence 9
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720.Which of the following changes should be
made in the final sentence?
a.Change For to If.
b.Change allow to allot.
c.Change each to both.
d.Change hoover to hover.
Answer questions 721–723 on the basis of the following passage.
(1) As soon as she sat down on the airplane,
Rachel almost began to regret telling the travel
agent that she wanted an exotic and romantic
vacation; after sifting through a stack of
brochures, the agent and her decided the most
exotic vacation she could afford was a week in Rio.
(2) As the plane hurtled toward Rio de Janeiro, she
read the information on Carnival that was in the
pocket of the seat in front of hers. (3) The very
definition made her shiver: “from the Latin car-
navale, meaning a farewell to the flesh.” (4) She
was searching for excitement, but had no inten-
tion of bidding her skin good-bye. (5)“Carnival,”
the brochure informed her, originated in Europe
in the Middle Ages and served as a break from the
requirements of daily life and society. (6) Most of
all, it allowed the hardworking and desperately
poor serfs the opportunity to ridicule their
wealthy and normally humorless masters.” (7)
Rachel, a middle manager in a computer firm,
wasn’t entirely sure whether she was a serf or a
master. (8) Should she be making fun, or would
others be mocking her? (9) She was strangely
relieved when the plane landed, as though her fate
were decided.
721.Which of the following changes needs to be
made to the passage?
a.Sentence 2: Insert the before Carnival.
b.Sentence 3: Italicize carnavale.
c.Sentence 6: Italicize serfs.
d.Sentence 9: Change were to was.
722.Which of the following numbered sentences
contains a nonstandard use of a pronoun?
a.sentence 1
b.sentence 5
c.sentence 7
d.sentence 8
723.Which of the following changes needs to be
made to sentence 5 of the passage?
a.Insert quotation marks before originated.
b.Remove the comma after her.
c.Remove the quotation marks after Carnival.
d.Insert quotation marks after society.
Answer questions 724–726 on the basis of the following passage.
(1) A metaphor is a poetic device that deals with
comparison; compares similar qualities of two
dissimilar objects. (2) With a simple metaphor,
one object becomes the other: Love is a rose. (3) Although this doesn’t sound like a particularly
rich image, a metaphor can communicate so much
about a particular image that poets utilize them
more than any other type of figurative language. (4) The reason for this is that a poet composes
poetry to express emotional experiences. (5) Succinctly
, what the poet imagines love to be
may or may not be our perception of love. (6)
Therefore, the poet’s job is to enable us to experience
it and feel it the same way. (7)You should be able to
nod in agreement and say, “Yes, that’s it! (8) I under-
stand precisely where this guy is coming from.”
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724.The tone of this passage is very formal; the last
sentence is not. Which of the following would
be more consistent with the tone of the passage? a.This guy is right on.
b.I can relate to the poet’s experience.
c.I know this feeling. d.This poem gets right to the point. 725.Which of the following numbered sentences
contains a nonstandard use of a pronoun? a.sentence 3
b.sentence 5
c.sentence 6
d.sentence 7
726.Which of the following adverbs should replace
the underline word in sentence 5 of the passage? a.Consequently
Answer questions 727–729 on the basis of the following passage.
(1) Light pollution a growing problem worldwide.
(2) Like other forms of pollution, light pollution
degrades the quality of the environment. (3)
Where once it was possible to look up at the night
sky and see thousands of twinkling stars in the
inky blackness, one now sees little more than the
yellow glare of urban sky glow. (4) When we lose
the ability to connect visually with the vastness of
the universe by looking up at the night sky, we lose
our connection with something profoundly
important to the human spirit, my sense of wonder.
727.Which of the endings to the following sen-
tence would be the best concluding sentence
for this passage? The most serious damage done by light
pollution is to our
a.artistic appreciation.
b.sense of physical well-being.
c.spiritual selves. d.cultural advancement.
728.Which of the following changes needs to be
made to sentence 4 of the passage? a.Change we to you.
b.Change my to our.
c.Change we to I.
d.Change my to his.
729.Which of the following numbered parts con-
tains a nonstandard sentence? a.sentence 1 b.sentence 2 c.sentence 3 d.sentence 4
Answer questions 730–732 on the basis of the following passage.
(1) Typically people think of genius, whether it
manifests in Mozart composing symphonies at
age five or Einstein’s discovery of relativity, as hav-
ing quality not just of the divine, but also of the
eccentric. (2) People see genius as a good abnor-
mality; moreover, they think of genius as a com-
pletely unpredictable abnormality. (3) Until
recently, psychologists regarded the quirks of
genius as too erratic to describe intelligibly; how-
ever, Anna Findley’s groundbreaking study
uncovers predictable patterns in the biographies
of geniuses. (4) Despite the regularity of these –ENGLISH TO THE MAX–
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patterns, they could still support the common
belief that there is a kind of supernatural inter-
vention in the lives of unusually talented men and
women. (5) ________. (6) For example, Findley
shows that all geniuses experience three intensely
productive periods in their lives, one of which
always occurs shortly before their deaths; this is
true whether the genius lives to age 19 or 90. 730.Which of the following sentences, if inserted
in the blank numbered 5, would best focus the
main idea of the passage?
a.These patterns are normal in the lives of all
b.Eerily, the patterns themselves seem to be
determined by predestination rather than
mundane habit.
c.No matter how much scientific evidence
the general public is presented with, people still like to think of genius as unexplainable.
d.Since people think of genius as a good
abnormality, they do not really care what
causes it.
731.Which of the following changes needs to be
made to the passage?
a.Sentence 1: Change Mozart to Mozart’s.
b.Sentence 3: Change too to to.
c.Sentence 4: Change there to their.
d.Sentence 6: Change geniuses to geniuses’.
732.Which of the following numbered sentences
contains a nonstandard use of a pronoun?
a.sentence 2
b.sentence 3
c.sentence 4
d.sentence 6
Answer questions 733–735 on the basis of the following passage.
(1) The English-language premiere of Samuel
Beckett’s play Waiting for Godot took place in Lon-
don in August 1955. (2) Godot is an avant-garde
play with only five characters (not including Mr. Godot, who never arrives) and a minimal setting—one rock and one bare tree. (3) The play
has two acts, the second act repeating what little
action occurs in the first with few changes: the
tree, for instance, acquires one leaf. (4) Famously,
the critic Vivian Mercer has described Godot as “a
play in which nothing happens twice.” (5) Opening
night critics and playgoers, greeted the play with
bafflement and derision. (6) Beckett’s play man-
aged to free the theater from the grasp of detailed
naturalism. (7) The line “Nothing happens,
nobody comes, nobody goes. It’s awful” was met
by a loud rejoinder of “Hear! Hear!” from an audi-
ence member. (8) Despite the bad notices, director
Peter Hall believed so passionately in the play that
his fervor convinced the backers to refrain from
closing the play at least until the Sunday reviews
were published. (9) Harold Hobson’s review in
The Sunday Times managed to save the play, for
Hobson had the vision to recognize the play for
what history has proven it to be—a revolutionary
moment in theater.
733.Which of the following editorial changes
should be made in order to improve the focus
and flow of the passage?
a.Reverse the order of sentences 6 and 7.
b.Sentence 3: Remove the clause the tree, for
instance, acquires one leaf.
c.Remove sentence 9.
d.Remove sentence 6.
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734.Which of the following changes needs to be
made to the passage?
a.Sentence 2: Italicize “Mr. Godot.”
b.Sentence 2: Do not italicize “Godot.”
c.Sentence 4: Italicize “Godot.”
d.Sentence 9: Do not italicize “The Sunday
735.From which of the following numbered sen-
tences should a comma be removed?
a.sentence 3
b.sentence 4
c.sentence 5
d.sentence 9
Answer questions 736–737 on the basis of the following passage.
(1) The Woodstock Music and Art Fair—better
known to its participants and to history simply as
“Woodstock”—should have been a colossal fail-
ure. (2) Just a month prior to its August 15, 1969,
opening the fair’s organizers were informed by the
council of Wallkill, New York, that permission to
hold the festival was withdrawn. (3) Amazingly,
not only was a new site found, but word got out to
the public of the fair’s new location. (4) At the new
site, fences that were supposed to facilitate ticket
collection never materialized, all attempts at gath-
ering tickets were abandoned. (5) Crowd esti-
mates of 30,000 kept rising; by the end of the three
days, some estimated the crowd at 500,000. (6) And then, on opening night, it began to rain.
(7) Off and on, throughout all three days, huge
summer storms rolled over the gathering. (8) In
spite of these problems, most people think of
Woodstock not only as a fond memory but as the
defining moment for an entire generation.
736.In which of the following numbered sentences
should a comma be inserted? a.sentence 1
b.sentence 2 c.sentence 3 d.sentence 4
737.Which of the following sentences is a run-on? a.sentence 1 b.sentence 2
c.sentence 3 d.sentence 4
Answer questions 738–740 on the basis of the following passage.
(1) Whether or not you can accomplish a specific
goal or meet a specific deadline depends first on
how much time you need to get the job done. (2) What should you do when the demands of the
job precede
the time you have available. (3) The
best approach is to correctly divide the project
into smaller pieces. (4) Different goals will have to
be divided in different ways, but one seemingly
unrealistic goal can often be accomplished by
working on several smaller, more reasonable
738.Which of the following sentences has an error
in the verb infinitive? a.sentence 1 b.sentence 2 c.sentence 3 d.sentence 4 –ENGLISH TO THE MAX–
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739.Which of the following words should replace
the underlined word in sentence 2 of the passage?
a.exceed b.succeed c.supercede
740.Which of the following sentences in the pas-
sage needs a question mark? a.sentence 1 b.sentence 2
c.sentence 3 d.sentence 4 Answer questions 741 and 742 on the basis of the following passage.
(1) The Competitive Civil Service system is
designed to give candidates fair and equal treat-
ment and ensure that federal applicants are hired
based on objective criteria. (2) Hiring has to be
based solely on a candidate’s knowledge, skills,
and abilities (which you’ll sometimes see abbrevi-
ated as KSA), and not on external factors such as
race, religion, gender, and so on. (3) Whereas
employers in the private sector can hire employees
for subjective reasons, federal employers must be
able to justify his decision with objective evidence
that the candidate is qualified.
741.Which of the following sentences lacks parallelism? a.sentence 1
b.sentence 2
c.sentence 3
d.sentences 2 and 3 742.Which of the following sentences has an error
in pronoun agreement? a.sentence 1 b.sentence 2 c.sentence 3 d.sentences 2 and 3
Answer questions 743 and 744 on the basis of the following passage.
(1) A light rain was falling. (2) He drove home by
his usual route. (3) It was a drive he had taken a
thousand times; still, he did not know why, as he
passed the park near their home, he should so
suddenly and vividly picture the small pond that
lay at the center of it. (4) In winter, this pond was
frozen over, and he had taken his daughter Abigail
there when she was small and tried to teach her
how to skate. (5) She hadn’t been able to catch on,
and so after two or three lessons Abigail and him
had given up the idea. (6) Now there came into his
mind an image of such clarity it caused him to
draw in his breath sharply; an image of Abigail
gliding toward him on her new Christmas skates,
going much faster than she should have been.
743.Which of the following changes needs to be
made to the passage?
a.Sentence 3: Change the semicolon to a
b.Sentence 4: Remove the word and.
c.Sentence 5: Change the comma to a semicolon.
d.Sentence 6: Change the semicolon to a
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744.Which of the following changes needs to be
made to the passage?
a.Sentence 3: Replace their with there.
b.Sentence 4: Remove the comma after over.
c.Sentence 5: Change himto he.
d.Sentence 6: Replace Christmas with Christmas’.
Answer questions 745–747 on the basis of the follow-
ing passage.
(1) For years, Mount Desert Island, particularly its
major settlement, Bar Harbor, afforded summer
homes for the wealthy. (2) Finally, though, Bar
Harbor has become a burgeoning arts commu-
nity as well. (3) But, the best part of the island is
the unspoiled forest land known as Acadia
National Park. (4) Because the island sits on the
boundary line between the temperate and subarc-
tic zones the island supports the flora and fauna of
both zones as well as beach, inland, and alpine
plants. (5) Lies in a major bird migration lane and
is a resting spot for many birds. (6) The establish-
ment of Acadia National Park in 1916 means that
this natural monument will be preserved and that
it will be available to all people, not just the
wealthy. (7)Visitors to Acadia may receive nature
instruction from the park naturalists as well as
enjoy camping, hiking, cycling, and boating. (8) Or they may choose to spend time at the
archeological museum learning about the Stone
Age inhabitants of the island. 745.Which of the following sentences is a sentence
fragment? a.sentence 2 b.sentence 3
c.sentence 4 d.sentence 5 746.Which of the following adverbs should replace
the words Finally, though in sentence 2?
747.Which of the following changes needs to be
made to sentence 4? a.Insert a comma after the word zones.
b.Delete the word Because at the beginning of
the sentence.
c.Delete the comma after the word inland. d.Add a question mark at the end of the sentence. Answer questions 748 and 749 on the basis of the following passage.
(1) A smoke detector should be placed on each
floor level of a home and outside each sleeping
area. (2) A good site for a detector would be a hallway that runs between living spaces and bedrooms.
(3) Because of the “dead” air space that
might be missed by turbulent hot air bouncing
around above a fire, smoke detectors should be
installed either at the ceiling at least four inches
from the nearest wall, or high on a wall at least
four, but no further than 12, inches from the
ceiling. (4) Detectors should not be mounted
near windows, exterior doors, or other places
where drafts might direct the smoke away from
the unit. (5) Also, it should not be placed in
kitchens and garages, where cooking and gas
fumes are likely to set off false alarms.
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748.Which of the following numbered sentences
contains a nonstandard use of a preposition?
a.sentence 1
b.sentence 3
c.sentence 4
d.sentence 5
749.In which of the following numbered sentences
should a pronoun be replaced with a different
a.sentence 1
b.sentence 3
c.sentence 4
d.sentence 5
Answer questions 750–752 on the basis of the following passage.
(1) Heat exhaustion, generally characterized by
clammy skin, fatigue, nausea, dizziness, profuse
perspiration, and sometimes fainting, resulting
from an inadequate intake of water and the loss of
fluids. (2) First aid treatment for this condition
includes having the victim lie down; raising the
feet 8 to 12 inches; applying cool, wet cloths to the
skin; and giving the victim sips of salt water (1 tea-
spoon per glass, half a glass every 15 minutes) over
the period of an hour. (3) ________.
(4) Heatstroke is much more serious; it is
an immediate life-threatening condition. (5) The characteristics of heatstroke are a high
body temperature (which may reach 106° F or
more); a rapid pulse; hot, dry skin; and a
blocked sweating mechanism. (6) Victims of
this condition may be unconscious, and first
aid measures should be directed at cooling the
body quickly. (7) Heatstroke often occurs
among poor people in urban areas. (8) The
victim should be placed in a tub of cold water
or repeatedly sponged with cool water until his
or her temperature is lowered sufficiently. (9) Fans or air conditioners will also help with
the cooling process. (10) Care should be taken,
however, not to chill the victim too much once
his or her temperature is below 102° F.
750.Which of the following sentences, if inserted
into the blank numbered 3 in the passage,
would best aid the transition of thought
between the first and second paragraphs?
a.Heat exhaustion is a relatively unusual
condition in northern climates.
b.The typical victims of heatstroke are the
poor and elderly who cannot afford air
conditioning even on the hottest days of
c.Heat exhaustion is never fatal, although it
can cause damage to internal organs if it
strikes an elderly victim.
d.Air-conditioning units, electric fans, and
cool baths can lower the numbers of people
who suffer heatstroke each year in the
United States.
751.Which of the following numbered sentences
draws attention away from the main idea of
the second paragraph of the passage?
a.sentence 6
b.sentence 7
c.sentence 8
d.sentence 10
752.Which of the following numbered parts con-
tains a nonstandard sentence?
a.sentence 1
b.sentence 3 c.sentence 5
d.sentence 8
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Answer questions 753 and 754 on the basis of the following passage.
(1) Glaciers consist of fallen snow that compresses
over many years into large, thickened ice masses.
(2) Most of the world’s glacial ice is found in
Antarctica and Greenland glaciers are found on
nearly every continent, even Africa. (3) At present,
10% of land area is covered with glaciers. (4) Gla-
cial ice often appears blue because ice absorbs all
other colors but reflects blue. (5) Almost 90% of
an iceberg is below water; only about 10% shows
above water. (6) What makes glaciers unique is
their ability to move? (7) Due to sheer mass, gla-
ciers flow like very slow rivers. (8) Some glaciers
are as small as football fields, while others grow to
be over a hundred kilometers long.
753.Which of the following sentences is a run-on
sentence? a.sentence 1
b.sentence 2
c.sentence 3
d.sentence 4
754.Which of the following sentences contains an
error in punctuation?
a.sentence 3
b.sentence 4
c.sentence 5
d.sentence 6
Answer question 755 on the basis of the following
short description.
(1) Herbert was enjoying the cool, bright fall after-
noon. (2) Walking down the street, red and yellow
leaves crunched satisfyingly under his new school
755.Which of the following is the best revision of
the description?
a.Herbert was enjoying the cool bright fall
afternoon. Walking down the street red and
yellow leaves crunched satisfyingly under
his new school shoes. b.Herbert was enjoying the cool, bright fall
afternoon. He was walking down the street,
red and yellow leaves crunched satisfyingly
under his new school shoes.
c.Herbert was enjoying the cool, bright fall
afternoon. Walking down the street, he
crunched red and yellow leaves satisfyingly
under his new school shoes.
d.Herbert was enjoying the cool, bright fall
afternoon. Walking down the street, red
and yellow leaves were crunched satisfy-
ingly under his new school shoes.
Answer questions 756–758 on the basis of the following passage.
(1) The building in which Howard Davis was to
teach his undergraduate evening course, Interpre-
tation of Poetry, was Renwick Hall, the General
Sciences Building. (2) Markham Hall, which
housed the English Department offices and classrooms, was to be closed all summer for renovation.
(3) Howard’s classroom was in the base-
ment. (4) The shadowy corridor that led
to it was lined with glass cases containing
exhibits whose titles read
, Small Mammals of
North America, Birds of the Central United
States, and Reptiles of the Desert Southwest. (5) The dusty specimens perched on little
stands; their
tiny claws gripped the smooth
wood nervously. (6) A typewritten card, yel-
low with age, bearing the name of its genus
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and species. (7) The classroom itself was outfit-
ted with a stainless steel sink, and behind the
lectern loomed a dark-wood cabinet through
whose glass doors one could see rows of jars,
each holding what appeared to be an animal
embryo floating in a murky liquid. (8) The
classroom wreaked
of formaldehyde.
756.Which of the following sentences, if inserted
between sentences 6 and 7, would best fit the
author’s pattern of development in the second
paragraph of the passage?
a.Howard would be teaching Byron, Shelley,
and Keats this term.
b.In the display case opposite Howard’s class-
room, a pocket gopher reared up on its
hind legs, staring glassy-eyed into the open
c.Although Markham was at least 25 years
younger than Renwick, the administration
had chosen to renovate it rather than the
aging, crumbling science building.
d.Genus and species are taxonomic
757.Which of the following numbered sentences is
a nonstandard sentence?
a.sentence 1
b.sentence 2
c.sentence 6
d.sentence 7
758.Which of the underlined words in the second
paragraph needs to be replaced with its homophone?
c.their d.wreaked
603.a.This is the best choice, because it is the only
one that refers to recycling containers,
which is the main focus of this paragraph.
The other choices are statements about
recycling in general.
604.c.This choice refers to unreasonable searches, which is the main focus of this
paragraph. Choice a can be ruled out
because this idea is not developed by the
other two sentences. Choices b and d do
not relate to the topic of unreasonable
605.b.This choice clearly fits with the main focus
of the paragraph, which is the skill that is
needed to hand-rear orphaned baby birds.
Choice a is too vague to be a topic sentence.
Choices c and d introduce other topics.
606.c.The main focus of the paragraph is the
height of a wave. This is the only choice
that introduces that topic.
607.a.The paragraph expresses the writer’s opin-
ion about respect for the law. Choices b and
d can be ruled out because they are irrele-
vant to the main topic. Choice c can also be
eliminated because it discusses respect for
other people, not respect for the law.
608.b.Choice b addresses both of Gary’s vanities:
his person and his situation. Choice a deals
only with Gary’s vanity of person. Choice c
deals only with his vanity of position.
Choice d is not supported in the passage.
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609.d.Changed the course of history and gone to
war imply that the subject of the paragraph
is history; these phrases also connote dan-
ger and intrigue.
610.a.This is the only choice that is in keeping
with the main focus of the paragraph.
Although dogs are mentioned in the para-
graph, choices b and c can be ruled out
because the other two sentences do not logically follow either choice.
611.b.This choice focuses the paragraph by
speaking of a particular patterned corridor,
as is described in the rest of the paragraph.
Choices a and c only speak of patterned
corridors in general. Choice d is contra-
dicted in the passage.
612.b.This choice is most relevant to the rest of
the paragraph, which is about protecting
children from swallowing dangerous med-
ications. Choices a and d do not mention
danger; choice c does not mention protec-
tion and is also written in a different style
than the rest of the paragraph.
613.a.This sentence contrasts writers who endan-
ger their lives in order to have something to
write about with those who do not. The
rest of the paragraph illustrates this state-
ment. Choice b is too broad. Choices c and
d contain elements not expressed in the
614.d.This choice specifically defines the kind of
hearsay evidence that is admissible in a trial
and would be logically followed by a defini-
tion of the kind of hearsay evidence that is
inadmissible. It works better as a topic sen-
tence than choice c, which is more general.
Choices a and b are too limited.
615.d.Choice d is the only sentence that focuses
on both the tickler and its usefulness to sec-
retaries, and therefore is relevant to all the
other sentences in the paragraph. Choices a
and b are too general to effectively focus
the paragraph; choice c is too narrow.
616.c.This choice focuses most sharply on the
main topic of the paragraph—muscle atro-
phy and bone loss. Choices a and b are too
broad to guide the reader to the focus of
the paragraph. Choice d is too limited.
617.a.The word rather indicates a contrast to
whatever came before. Choice a is the only
sentence that guides the reader to the con-
trast between the old definition of asthma
and the new. Choices b and c are less pre-
cisely related to the new understanding of
asthma. Choice d is not related at all.
618.a.Choice a is more specific than the other
choices and more sharply focused toward
the entire paragraph. Choices b and d are
more vague and general, and choice c is
written in a slightly different, more upbeat style.
619.a.Choice a expands on the topic sentence.
Choices b and c do not relate directly to
indoor pollution. The style of choice d is
more informal than that of the topic sentence.
620.a.Choice a relates directly to self-medication.
The other choices do not.
621.b.Choice b elaborates on the topic sentence.
Choices a and c are not related to it. Choice
d is wrong because although it is true, and
it is e- mail related, it is not related to the
topic sentence, which focuses on the effect
that e- mail has on office workers.
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622.c.Choice c expands on the list of good rea-
sons to eat organic food. The other choices
are simply neutral facts.
623.b.The topic sentence is obviously from a con-
tract and speaks of an agreement. Choice b
goes on to explain, in the language of a
contract, what that agreement is and so is
more closely related to the topic sentence
than the other choices.
624.d.This is the only choice that logically follows
the topic: It provides a possible reason why
Americans are fascinated with reality televi-
sion. The other choices do not follow the
topic sentence.
625.d.Only this choice deals with learning how to
accept oneself and then relate that accept-
ance to another person. Choices a and c are
both irrelevant to the topic sentence.
Choice b states the opposite of the topic
626.a.This is clearly the only choice that logically
follows the statement about juries in colo-
nial times. Choices b and c can be ruled out
because they do not refer back to colonial
times. Choice d refers to colonial times but
not to juries.
627.c.This choice develops the topic sentence by
providing information about what a land-
scaper would recommend under these
conditions. Choices a, b, and d veer away
from the topic.
628.b.This is the only choice that develops the
topic sentence. Choice a does not even
mention ginkgo. Choice c is redundant
because Europe is part of the world. Choice
d, by referring to an old study, veers com-
pletely away from the topic.
629.a.This is the best choice because it directly
follows the information that the earth is
ancient and complex. Choice b changes the
topic to mammals. Choice c also strays
from the topic sentence. Choice d changes
the topic to Darwin.
630.d.The passage is about the cassowary bird,
not about human beings. Sentence 4 is
irrelevant to the topic.
631.c.The focus of the paragraph is ratatouille,
not zucchini.
632.c.This is the only sentence that does not
mention sleepwalking, which is the subject
of the passage.
633.d.Although there is a connection between
Lyme disease and deer ticks, this connec-
tion is not made in the paragraph.
634.d.The first three sentences are written in an
objective, professional tone. The tone of
Sentence 4 is much more personal and sub-
jective, so even though it says something
about a harp, it is quite out of character in
this paragraph.
635.b.This is the only sentence that mentions reli-
gion or any human activity at all. The other
sentences define the solstices in lay science
a.The other three sentences objectively dis-
cuss the role and qualifications of a
meteorologist. Sentence 1 tells us what peo-
ple think of weather forecasters. Its tone is
also much more casual than the rest of the
637.b.This choice has the objective tone of a text-
book and is a general statement. The other
choices describe a particular child and are
written in a fictional style.
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638.b.Choices a,c, and d list specific characteris-
tics of the two different types of ghosts,
benevolent (good) and malevolent (bad).
Choice b is just an ironic observation on
the general subject of ghosts.
639.d.Choices a,b, and c deal with the character-
istics of sociopaths. Choice d simply talks
about criminals, most of whom are distin-
guished from sociopaths in the very first
640.b.This choice has Eleanor Roosevelt as its
focus. The other choices focus on Jessie
641.a.Choice a addresses the benefits of being
able to exercise even if the weather is bad.
The remainder of the paragraph focuses on
the benefits of exercising without fancy
equipment or health clubs. 642.c.The paragraph as a whole deals with mak-
ing the most of a staff ’s talents. It is also
written directly to the supervisor. The word
you is used in every sentence except choice
c. Not only does choice c use a different
tone and voice, but it also discusses a pro-
gram that is designed to reward employees
and veers away from the main topic.
643.c.This choice is a general statement about
carbon monoxide poisoning. The other
choices all relate to a firefighter’s specific
duties in dealing with victims of CO poisoning.
644.d.This is the correct chronological order of
the events described in the paragraph.
645.c.Sentence 2 gives an overview of what the
paragraph is about. Sentence 3 gives spe-
cific reasons why sentence 2 is correct.
Sentence 1 gives the reason why sentence 3
is correct.
646.b.Sentence 1 provides a statement about
adding a treat to a child’s lunchbox periodi-
cally and gives no indication, by its tone or
its wording, that it is based on any other
sentence. Sentence 4 tells us that in spite of
the truth in that statement, it is best, as a
general rule, to provide healthy snacks and
it uses the word however, which indicates
that it is responding to another idea that
we’ve already heard. Sentence 2, with the
word usually, gives a definition of what is
considered a healthy snack. Sentence 3 goes
on to provide specific examples of healthy
647.b.Sentence 3 is the topic sentence and states
the main goal of the neighborhood associa-
tion. Sentence 2 goes on to cite specific
tasks that help the association achieve that
goal. Sentence 1, with the word
additionally, tells us that there is one more
thing the association does, even though it is
a less frequent and less primary
648.a.In this choice, the order is chronological. In
sentence 4, they take Grandma to the
Greyhound station. In sentence 2, the bus
has not yet moved away from the station. In
sentence 1, the bus jolts away but is still in
town. In sentence 3, the bus (at least in the narrator’s mind) is out on the open
649.a.Sentence 1 is the topic sentence. Sentence 4
defines the term double jeopardy used in
sentence 1; sentence 2 gives another defini-
tion, signaled by also; sentence 3 begins
with the word finally and gives the last definition.
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650.c.Sentence 3 is clearly the lead sentence, as it
tells us something about the new employee
handbook and is in no way based on infor-
mation provided in the other two
sentences. Sentence 2 uses the word also to
indicate that it is telling us something else
about the handbook, something that adds
to a fact we’ve already been told. Sentence
1, which is making a generalization about
the new policies, is based on information
we already know from sentences 3 and 2.
Because of this, it can only follow these
sentences and not precede them.
651.a.Sentence 2 sets the stage—this is a memory.
After that, the order is chronological: In
sentence 1, the man tries to teach his son
how to pitch. In sentence 4, the boy wasn’t
interested, so he gave up. Sentence 3 logi-
cally follows—the memory of giving up
makes him feel sad and guilty.
652.d.Sentence 4 sets the reader up to expect a
discussion of a procedure, the writing of
reports of a fire. Sentence 3 tells how you
can find the right report forms. Sentence 1
leads logically into sentence 2.
653.a.Sentence 2 is the topic sentence. Sentence 1
provides reasons for the procedure
described in the topic sentence. Sentence 3
gives further definition as a conclusion.
654.d.The word Yet at the beginning of sentence 1
is a clue that this is not the beginning sen-
tence. Sentences 4 and 1 are the only ones
that logically follow each other, so the other
choices can be ruled out.
655.c.Sentence 1 is the topic sentence and states
the general situation. Sentence 2 poses a
question about the situation in the topic
sentence. Sentence 4 offers the response.
Sentence 3 concludes the paragraph as it
gives a reminder about the original goal.
656.b.Sentence 2 is the topic sentence, introduc-
ing the subject. Sentence 3 expands the
topic, and sentence 1 gives more definition
to the Native American art form.
657.b.The second paragraph contradicts the mis-
conceptions potential adopters of racing
greyhounds might have about the breed.
Choice b states that certain popular beliefs
about greyhounds are erroneous and acts
as a transition to the facts that follow in the
paragraph. Choice a does not focus on con-
tradicting the misinformation; also, the
phrase even so appears to agree with the
misconceptions rather than contradict
them. Choice c does not focus on the argu-
ment; instead, it repeats information given
in the previous sentence. Choice d, rather
than supporting the main purpose of the
paragraph—which is to dispel myths about
racing greyhounds—actually contradicts
information in sentences 6 and 7.
658.b.The possessive pronoun their is correct.
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659.c.This choice is the best because it retains the
writer’s informal, reassuring tone and
because the information in it furthers the
purpose of this paragraph—the suitability
of greyhounds as household pets. This
response also is clearly directed at a general
audience of householders. Choice a is
incorrect because the information does not
keep with the topic of the paragraph; also,
the tone set by the inclusion of a precise
statistic is too formal. Choice b retains the
informal tone of the selection, but it pro-
vides information that is not suitable to the
purpose of this paragraph. The tone in
choice d is argumentative, which defeats
the author’s purpose of trying to reassure
the reader.
660.c.This question tests the ability to recognize a
sentence fragment. Although choice c does
include a subject and a verb, it is a depend-
ent clause because it begins with the adverb
when. Choices a, b, and d are all standard
661.a.This question assesses the ability to recog-
nize redundancy in a sentence. Choice a
removes the redundancy of sentence 8 by
taking out the word also, which repeats the
meaning of the introductory phrase in
addition to. Choice b involves changing a
singular noun to a plural and choice c
changes a plural to a plural possessive
noun, which would make the sentence
grammatically incorrect. Choice d would
change the meaning of the sentence incor-
rectly. The attitude of the community
toward young people is being reported, not
what young people have reported about the
community attitude.
662.c.Choice c provides a fact that supports and
expands upon the information given in the
previous sentences. The first two sentences
tell us about the program’s success and the
plans for expanding it. The third sentence
would build on these ideas by providing
detailed information about the results of the
program and who was involved. Choice a
changes the subject of this paragraph. This
paragraph is about the program in a specific
school district, and choice a makes a com-
ment about other school districts, which
may be true, but which is not related to the
topic of this particular paragraph. Choice b
adds a detail about the program, but it is a
single detail as opposed to a conclusive,
summarizing sentence that gives us a clear
idea of the program specifics. Choice d,
which mentions the possibility of other pilot
programs, again changes the subject and
veers away from the main topic of this para-
graph, which is the Mural Painting Program
within this particular school district.
663.b.This question assesses the ability to recog-
nize the correct agreement of subject and
verb. Choice b is correct because it uses the
third- person singular of the verb to be, is,
which agrees in number and in person with
the subject one. Choice a is wrong because it
does not correct the subject- verb agreement
problem; instead, it removes an optional
comma between location and and. Choice c
is incorrect because it does not correct the
agreement error; instead, it makes an unnec-
essary change in vocabulary from increase to
enhance. Choice d is incorrect because it
does not correct the agreement problem;
instead, it creates an error by misplacing the
modifier only directly after the semicolon.
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664.d.This question tests the ability to recognize
the logical connection of ideas in a para-
graph and to recognize grammatical
consistency. Choice d gives a general piece of
advice (start walking), which is followed by
two sentences that point to things that will
result from following this advice. Choice a is
incorrect because although it does give a gen-
eral piece of advice that would make sense at
the beginning of this paragraph, it contains
an error in the pronoun-antecedent agree-
ment (using the pronoun your, which
disagrees in person with the antecedent peo-
ple). Choice b is incorrect because it includes
other forms of physical activity (jogging,
bicycling) that are off the topic (walking) and
are irrelevant to the development and order
of ideas in the passage. Choice c is incorrect
because it contains the same pronoun-
antecedent agreement problem as choice a,
and the sentence does not respect the order
of ideas in the passage; it returns, to informa-
tion and ideas that are more appropriate to
the first paragraph.
665.a.Choice a is correct because a comma after
the word rewards in sentence 3 closes off
the parenthetical phrase between the sub-
ject, physical activity, and the predicate,
will. Choice b is incorrect because it intro-
duces an incomplete comparison into
sentence 1. Choice c is incorrect because it
inserts an unnecessary comma into sen-
tence 5. Choice d is incorrect because it
adds a misplaced colon to sentence 2.
666.b.The word appraised,meaning judged, does
not make sense in the context; the correct
word for the context is apprised,meaning
informed. In choices a,c,and d,the words
incriminate, criteria, and ascertain are all
used correctly in context.
667.c.The information in sentence 5 continues
the description of what judges must ascer-
tain about such cases, which began in
sentence 3. Skipping next to the responsi-
bilities of officers and back to judges, as
happens in the passage as it stands, is con-
fusing. Choices a and b introduce examples
before the passage states what the examples
are supposed to show. Choice d is incorrect
because deleting sentence 2 removes the
statement from which all the paragraph’s
examples and information follow.
668.c.Sentence 4 is a run- on sentence; the con-
junctive adverb however requires the use of
either a colon or a semicolon before it in
order to link two sentences. The other
choices are standard sentences.
669.d.This choice provides the plural reflexive
pronoun themselves, which agrees in num-
ber and person with the subject, those.
Choice a is incorrect because it provides
the verb combine, which does not agree in
person or in number with the subject,
snowboarding. Choice b is incorrect because
it removes a hyphen necessary to the cre-
ation of a compound adjective. Choice c is
incorrect because it changes the verb to the
past tense, which does not agree with the
present tense used throughout the
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670.b.The topic of the paragraph is about the
ecology of an area; it does not specifically
address environmental organizations.
671.c.Since groups is not a proper noun, it should
not be capitalized. Choices a, b, and d are
gramatically incorrect.
672.d.This question calls on the ability to identify
standard usage of the possessive. Choice d
is correct because the word researchers is
actually a possessive noun, so an apostro-
phe must be added. Choice a substitutes a
misused homonym for the word given.
Choice b contains a faulty pronoun-
antecedent—the microprobes have a
diminutive width, not the brain.
673.b.In sentence 4, the adverb typically is mis-
used as an adjective to modify the noun
wire. The other choices do not contain
nonstandard uses of modifiers.
674.c.The phrases because they [microprobes] are
slightly thinner than a human hair and
because of their [microprobes’] diminutive
width contain the same information.
675.b.The predicate does not match the subject
grammatically, which is necessary when
using the verb is:A passenger-created distur-
bance doesn’t match by playing ... or
676.c.This choice makes use of parallel structure
because the list of the conductors’ obliga-
tions are all expressed in the same
subject-verb grammatical form: Conductors
will wait, will allow, will not allow. In
choices a,b, and d, the parallelism of the
list is thrown off by the last item in the list,
which changes the subject of its verb from
operators to passengers.
677.b.Sentence 6 contains a nonstandard use of a
preposition. The standard idiom is comply
with rather than comply to. Choices a,c,
and d do not contain nonstandard uses of prepositions.
678.b.Sentence 6 is a sentence fragment; it is a
dependent clause. Choices a, c, and d
refer to standard sentences.
679.c.The main purpose of this paragraph is
strictly informational, to outline Dr.
Miranda Woodhouse’s plan to reduce the
risks of heart disease, and choice c focuses
the reader’s attention on the four strategies
that Dr. Woodhouse proposes as part of
this plan. Choice a contains seemingly con-
tradictory information that is in no way
implied or stated in the paragraph. Choice
b focuses on the life expectancy rates of
American citizens, and while lowering
heart disease may boost life expectancy
rates, this paragraph does not deal with
that at all. It focuses exclusively on Dr.
Woodhouse’s plan for preventing heart dis-
ease. Choice d makes an argumentative
claim about one part of Dr. Woodhouse’s
plan, which is out of place in a paragraph
that seeks only to outline the basic
680.c.The possessive pronoun their is used erro-
neously in sentence 9. There is the word
that should be used.
ETTM_03_123-194.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 1:53 PM Page 170
681.c.A comma is necessary after the first part of
the sentence, which is an introductory
phrase. Choice a is incorrect because visit-
ing London, Paris, and Rome was not
dependent on her being ten years old, so
the word because wouldn’t make sense. In
choice b, a comma after Although would
make the sentence grammatically incorrect.
Choice d is incorrect because the word
breathtaking is describing a noun (scenes)
and requires an adjective, not an adverb.
Breathtakingly is an adverb.
682.b.Sentence 2 is a sentence fragment. Choices
a, c, and d all contain standard sentences.
683.c.The semicolon in sentence 6 must be fol-
lowed by an independent clause, and here it
is followed by a dependent clause. Choices
a, b, and d all contain standard sentences.
684.b.The underlined word in sentence 7 needs to
be made into a plural noun. Choice a is
incorrect because it is a singular noun,
which makes for incorrect subject- verb
agreement. Choices c and d are incorrect
because they are possessive.
685.c.The first paragraph mentions that saving
room for herbs such as lavender, sage,
thyme, and parsley is a characteristic of a
thrifty gardener, but fails to explain why it is
a sign of thrift. Choice a is incorrect because
it removes information that is vital to
explaining why the plants mentioned in sen-
tence 1 are appropriate to a gardener who
has little time. Choice b is incorrect because
reversing the order of the sentences moves
the demonstrative pronoun these in sentence
2 too far away from its antecedent. Choice d
is incorrect because the passage does not
indicate that growing roses is easy in general;
rather, it suggests particular types of roses
(hardy species) as appropriate to a garden
that requires little time for maintenance.
686.a.This sentence creates a transition between
the idea of harvesting food from a garden
and the proper way of planting in order to
achieve a good yield of food. Choice b is
redundant, repeating information already
stated in sentence 5. Choice c contains
information that is on the subject matter of
the first paragraph and is, thus, off-topic in
the second. Choice d is off-topic and does
not match the main idea of the paragraph;
it mentions time-consuming work in a
paragraph on the subject of gardening that
takes a moderate amount of time.
687.b.The word lavished should be substituted for
languished, which makes no sense in the
688.b.Sentence 3 requires a comma before the
coordinate conjunction so. Choice d is
incorrect because it already shows a comma
separating the two independent clauses.
Choices a and c
each contain only one
independent clause.
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689.a.This answer is in the simple past tense,
which is the tense used throughout the
paragraph. Choices b, c, and d are incorrect
because they suggest tenses inconsistent
with the tense of the rest of the paragraph.
690.b.The context requires that the noun renown
be replaced by the adjective renowned.
Choice a is incorrect because the change to
when makes no sense in the context; it
would imply that Augustus grew up before
immigrating. Choice c incorrectly inserts
the contraction of pronoun it and verb is in
a context where the possessive pronoun its
is required. Choice d is incorrect because it introduces a diction error into the sentence.
691.b.The semicolon in sentence 2 is used incor-
rectly to introduce a list. In choices a,c, and
d, the semicolon correctly separates two
independent clauses.
692.c.The expressions year-round and in all sea-
sons repeat the same idea. Choices a, b, and
d are incorrect because none of these sen-
tences contain unnecessary repetition.
Sentence 4 may seem to, at first; however,
the words hot and humid are described in
more interesting and specific terms in the
second part of the sentence.
693.b.The subject of sentence 3 is climate and
therefore requires the third-person singular
form of the verb to be—is. Choice c is
incorrect because the comma is correctly
placed after an introductory phrase. Choice
a incorrectly inserts the possessive pronoun
its in a context where the contraction of
subject and verb it is is required. Choice d
is incorrect because the comma is necessary
to close off the interruptive phrase, whether
in the back country or at established camp-
grounds, between the subject and verb.
694.c.Sentence 7 provides information about the
high cost of healthcare insurance but doesn’t give information about the main
topic of this passage, which is how to
choose a doctor. Choices a, b, and d all do
provide information about, and guidelines
for, choosing a doctor.
An adverb is required here because the
word is being used to add information to a
verb (responds). The correct form of the
word is quickly. Choice b is incorrect
because the term more better is grammati-
cally incorrect. Choice c is incorrect
because in the context of this sentence,
using the past tense, accepted, is not appro-
priate. Choice d is incorrect because the
sentence requires an adjective here, not an
696.a.In sentence 1, the adjective good is misused
as an adverb; it needs to be replaced by the
adverb well.
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697.a.In sentence 4, the verb assure, a transitive
verb meaing to make certain, is nonsensical
in the context; it should be replaced by the
verb assume, to suppose or take for granted.
Choices b,c, and d are incorrect because all
these words are used properly in their context.
698.d.The paragraph consistently uses the pro-
noun you;therefore, the inconsistent use of
our should be replaced by your. Choice a is
incorrect because the comma is necessary before the coordinate conjunc-
tion but. Choice b is incorrect because
insertion of a colon would incorrectly
divide a phrase. Choice c is incorrect
because it would introduce an error of
tense shift into the paragraph.
699.b.The context requires a word meaning to
surrender or yield, so choice b is correct.
The other choices are incorrect because
each has the wrong meaning for the context
of the sentence.
700.d.To make the pair of verbs in the sentence
parallel, overlooking should be changed to
overlooks to match the form of the verb
towers. Choice a is incorrect because the
change would convert sentence 7 into a
run-on sentence. Choice b is incorrect
because Irish, as the name of a people, must
be capitalized. Choice c is incorrect because
the word running is functioning as an
adjective here; the verb run would make
nonsense of the sentence.
701.d.A comma is required after an introductory
dependent clause. Choice a would intro-
duce a comma fault, separating a verb from
its object. Choice b is incorrect because the
semicolon would have to be followed by a
complete sentence, which is not the case.
Choice c is incorrect because removing the
colon would create a run-on sentence.
702.c.Choices a and b would cause an unwar-
ranted shift in tense from past (in which
most of the passage is written) to present.
Choice d would change the correctly written noun, effect, to an incorrect verb
form. (Affect is a verb, except when used as a noun to denote a person’s emotional
expression, or lack thereof, as in: He has a joyless affect.)
703.b.The adjective shallow in sentence 5 actually
modifies the verb set; therefore, the adjec-
tive should be revised to be the adverb shallowly. Choices a,c, and d are incorrect
because none of them contain a nonstan-
dard use of a modifier.
704.c.The proper noun Lake must be made pos-
sessive because it is followed by the gerund
arriving. Choice a is incorrect because it
introduces a comma fault into the sentence.
Choices b and d introduce errors in diction
into the sentence.
705.a.The antecedent of the pronoun they in this
sentence is someone. Since someone is sin-
gular, the corrected subject pronoun
should be he or she.
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706.c.The sentence requires the contraction
we’re, short for we are. It is all right to use a
contraction, because the writer uses con-
tractions elsewhere in the passage. Choice a
is incorrect because it introduces an error
in modifier. Choice b is incorrect because a
semicolon must be followed, here, by a full
sentence. Choice d is incorrect because the
singular a deadline would disrupt the paral-
lelism of the list, the other elements of
which are plural.
707.a.Another sentence is needed to add the
information that the program is only for
passengers leaving the bus, not for those
boarding it. This information is implied in
the paragraph but not directly stated; with-
out the direct statement, the paragraph is
confusing, and the reader must read
between the lines to get the information.
Choice b is incorrect because it removes an
important instruction to drivers, rather
than clarifying the paragraph’s point.
Choice c is incorrect because it adds infor-
mation that contradicts the point the
paragraph is making. Choice d is incorrect
because it would place intervening material
between the ideas of what the program is
and how it operates; it would disorder the
sequence of ideas.
708.a.The subjective pronoun who is incorrectly
used to refer to the Stop Here Program; the
pronoun which would be a better choice.
709.b.Sentence 5 contains two sentences linked
only by a comma; a semicolon is required.
Choices a, c, and d are all standard sentences.
710.d.In sentence 4, a semicolon is used incor-
rectly to introduce a list; it should be
replaced by a colon. Choice a is incorrect
because this sentence would not make
sense if the contraction we’re, which means
we are, replaced the verb were. Choice b is
incorrect because it would introduce a
comma fault between the subject others and
the verb were. Choice c is incorrect because
the comma is needed to separate items in a list.
711.a.This paragraph is written with powerful
verbs. Was looking is passive and has little
impact in the passage. Choices b, c, and d
use the active voice.
712.c.Sentence 3 says he were sure. He is singular
and takes the verb was.Choices a,b
, and d
are incorrect because all verbs are used correctly.
713.a.Cortez is a proper noun and should begin
with a capital letter. Choices b, c, and d
would make the sentences grammatically
714.a.Commas are used to separate city from
country. Choices b,c, and d would make
the sentences gramatically incorrect.
715.b.Titles of books are always underlined or italicized. Short stories (choice a) are
punctuated with quotation marks. Authors’
names (choice c) are not italicized.
Copyrights do not need italics (choice d).
716.a.Choice a is written in the tone and style
reflected in the passage. Choices b,c,and d
are awkward versions of the same details.
717.d.The verb needs to be singular to agree with
the singular subject of the sentence,
Theodore Roosevelt. Choices a, b, and c are
incorrect because they introduce a shift from
the past tense of the rest of the passage.
ETTM_03_123-194.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 1:53 PM Page 174
718.a.The subject of this paragraph is the appearance and observation of cuttlefish.
Choice a is about observing cuttlefish in the wild and in the laboratory. Choices b
and c stray from the topic of the paragraph.
Choice d, while having something to do
with the appearance of cuttlefish, is written in jargon that is too technical to
match the tone of the rest of the passage.
719.c.The double mention in sentence 6 of the
human-like eyes of the cuttlefish is unnec-
essarily repetitious.
720.d.The correct choice is hover, because to
hoover is a chiefly British phrase meaning
to use a vacuum cleaner. For (meaning to
indicate the purpose of the action) is the
correct preposition for this sentence, so
choice a is the incorrect choice. Choice b
is incorrect because allow is the right word
(allot, meaning to apportion, would not
make sense). Choice c is incorrect, because
it would make the sentence ungrammatical
with regard to number.
721.b.The word carnavale is a foreign word;
therefore, it must be italicized. Choice c is
incorrect because there is no reason to itali-
cize the word serfs, an ordinary noun, in
the passage. Choice a is incorrect because
the definite article is not needed before the
word Carnival used as a proper noun.
Choice d is incorrect because the verb were
is used correctly here, in the subjunctive
722.a.The objective pronoun her is misused in
sentence 1 as a subject pronoun; it needs to
be replaced with the pronoun she.
723.a.Quotation marks need to be inserted before
the quotation is resumed after the inter-
rupting phrase, the brochure informed her.
Choice b is incorrect because the comma is
required to set off the interrupting phrase
from the quotation. Choice c is incorrect
because the close quotation marks are nec-
essary before the interrupting phrase.
Choice d is incorrect because the quotation
is not finished; it goes on for another sentence.
724.b.This statement maintains the formal tone
established by the rest of the passage.
Choices a,c,and d are still too informal.
725.d.In sentence 7, the pronoun you needs to be
changed to we to agree in number and per-
son to the antecedents used earlier in the
passage. Choices a,b, and c are incorrect
because none of these sentences contain a
nonstandard use of a pronoun.
726.a.Consequently means as a result of. The
adverbs listed in choices b,c,and d do not
address this sequence.
727.c.Choice c reflects the sentiments in the last
sentence of the passage. Choices a,b, and d
do not state such a profound effect.
728.b.The pronoun my needs to be changed to
our to agree in number and person with
the pronoun we. Choices a, c,and d fail to correct the pronoun-antecedent agree-
ment problem.
729.a.Sentence 1 is a fragment and needs a verb
to make it a complete sentence. The sen-
tences in choices b,c, and d are complete. –BUILDING PARAGRAPHS FROM THE GROUND UP–
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730.b.The main idea of this paragraph is that,
while genius has a recognizable pattern, the
patterns are extraordinary. Choice b
directly states that the patterns have the
eerie quality of fate. Choice a does not
focus ideas, but rather repeats material
already stated. Choice c focuses attention
on the side idea of the popular opinions
about genius. Choice d contains material
that is irrelevant to the main idea and argu-
ment of the passage.
731.a.The possessive Mozart’s is required before
the gerund composing. Choice b is incorrect
because too, meaning excessively, is required
in this context, not the preposition to.
Choice c is incorrect because there, not the
possessive pronoun their, is required in this
context. Choice d is incorrect because the
possessive form does not make sense in this
732.c.Sentence 4 contains an error in pronoun-
antecedent agreement; the pronoun they
must be changed to it in order to agree in
number and person with its antecedent,
regularity. Choices a, b, and d are incorrect
because they contain standard uses of pronouns.
733.d.Sentence 6 is a statement about the effect of
the play in theater history in general; how-
ever, this statement is placed in the midst of
a description of the reception of the open-
ing of the play. The paragraph ends with a
statement about the play’s effect on theater
history, so sentence 6 should either be
moved to the end of the paragraph or be
removed. Because there is no choice to
move sentence 6 to the end of the para-
graph, choice d is the correct answer.
Choice a is incorrect because it still leaves
sentence 6 in a position where its meaning
is out of place. Choice b is incorrect
because removing the phrase has little
effect on the paragraph; it merely removes
a concrete detail. Choice c is incorrect
because removing sentence 9 excises the
conclusion that the previous sentence has
promised; it is necessary to the develop-
ment of the paragraph.
734.c.The names of works that can be published
on their own should be italicized, even if
only part of the title (in this case Godot) is
used to designate the work; therefore,
choice b is incorrect. Choice a is incorrect
because Mr. Godot names a character, not
the play. Choice d is incorrect because the
titles of newspapers must be italicized.
735.c.The comma in sentence 5 separates the
subject, critics and playgoers, from its verb,
Inserting a comma in sentence 2, after the
word opening separates the introductory
phrase from the rest of the sentence. The
sentences in choices a, c, and d are correct
as they are written.
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737.d.The two independent clauses in sentence 2
need a conjunction in order for the sen-
tence to be gramatically correct. The
sentences choices a,b, and c are correctly
738.c.To correctly divide is a split infinitive. The
infinitive is to divide. Choices a,b, and d do
not make this kind of error.
739.a.The context requires a verb that means to
extend beyond, not to come before.The
words in the other choices do not have this meaning.
740.b.Sentence 2 is the only interrogatory sen-
tence in the passage. Because it asks a
question, it needs a question mark as punctuation.
741.a.Since the sentence states that the system is
designed to give, then it needs to ensure as
well. Choices b,c, and d are correct as written. 742.c.The pronoun his should be replaced with
their in order to agree with federal employ-
ers. There are no errors in pronoun
agreement in choice a,b, or d.
743.d.A semicolon should separate two complete
sentences (independent clauses); the sec-
ond half of sentence 6 is not a complete
sentence but a restatement of a portion of
the first half. This makes a colon appropri-
ate. Choices a and b would create run-on
sentences. Choice c would incorrectly sepa-
rate two independent clauses joined by a
conjunction (and) with a semicolon.
744.c.The pronoun is one of the subjects of the
sentence, and so it should be changed from
the objective form himto the subjective
form he. Choice a is incorrect because their,
meaning belonging to them,is correct in
this context. Choice b is incorrect because
the comma is necessary before the conjunc-
tion. Choice d is incorrect because the
possessive form is not suitable in this context. 745.d.Sentence 5 is the only sentence fragment in
this passage. It needs a subject in order to
express a complete thought.
746.d.Recently is the best contrast to Finally,
though in sentence 2. Choices a,b, and c
indicate time lapses that would not neces-
sarily take place in the context of the
747.a.The comma is needed to set off the
introductory clause from the independent
clause. Making the changes stated in
choices b,c, or d would create a
nonstandard sentence.
748.b.The phrase at the ceiling should be replaced
with on the ceiling.
749.d.The pronoun it should be changed to they
to agree in number and person with the
antecedent, detectors.
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750.c.The paragraphs are related in that they
both talk about the physical effects of
extreme heat on people and the treatment
of these conditions, but the main subject of
each paragraph details a different condition
resulting from extreme heat. The second
paragraph begins by mentioning that heat-
stroke is much more serious than the
condition mentioned in paragraph 1, heat
exhaustion. Choice c best aids the transi-
tion by ending the first paragraph with an
explanation of the most serious effects of
heat exhaustion, thereby paving the way for
the contrasting description of the far more
serious condition, heatstroke. Choice a is
off-topic; choices b and d are both about
heatstroke, so they belong in the second
paragraph, not the first.
751.b.The main idea of this paragraph is a
description of the symptoms and treatment
of heatstroke. The information in sentence
7 about the most common victims of heat
stroke is least relevant to the topic of the
paragraph. The other choices, by contrast,
all discuss either symptoms or treatment.
752.a.Sentence 1 is a sentence fragment; it con-
tains no main verb.
753.b.Sentence 2 expresses two complete
thoughts as one. To correct this sentence, a
comma should be added after Greenland,
followed by the conjunction but introduc-
ing the independent clause.
754.d.Even though it may look like a question,
sentence 6 is not an interrogatory sentence.
It should not be punctuated with a ques-
tion mark.
755.c.This choice adds the subject he in the sec-
ond sentence, eliminating the dangling
modifier walking down the street.
Otherwise, the sentence reads as if the
leaves are walking down the street. All other
choices ignore the problem of the dangling
modifier and add grammatical mistakes to
the sentences.
756.b.This paragraph’s purpose is descriptive; it
describes the classroom and the corridor
outside it. Choice b is correct because the
information in the sentence adds to the
description of the corridor. Choice a is
incorrect because it adds information that
describes the course Howard is to teach,
which is not the subject of this paragraph.
Choice c is incorrect because it adds infor-
mation about the two buildings mentioned
in the first paragraph; therefore, it right-
fully belongs in the first paragraph, not the
second. Choice d is incorrect because it
adds information irrelevant to the paragraph.
757.c.Sentence 6 is a dependent clause with no
independent clause to attach itself to;
therefore, it is a sentence fragment.
758.d.The word wreaked should be replaced in
this context by its homophone reeked. The
words in choices a,b, and c are all used cor-
rectly in their context.
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24 essay writing practice exercises. Before you begin your essay
practice, read over the Essay Scoring Criteria to familiarize yourself with the components of a
high-scoring level 6 essay and the weaknesses associated with a poorly written essay that has
scored only at level 1. You will also find sample essays in the Answers section. When you are studying a
model essay, reflect on the following questions: What makes this essay so appealing or unappealing? How
does the author use language? How does the author organize his or her essay? How does the author intro-
duce the topic? What are this essay’s strengths? What are this essay’s weaknesses?
One of the most difficult challenges that a writer faces is the task of writing an interesting and rele-
vant lead sentence during a timed writing session or test. The lead sentence sets the tone and framework
for the remainder of the essay, so it’s important to start on the right footing. Here are some suggestions for
crafting an enticing lead sentence:
Pose a provocative question. Would you sell your right to vote for a million dollars?
Introduce relevant statistics. A recent survey of high school seniors revealed a 30% increase in the
number of students participating in volunteer work programs.
Acing the Essay
Never be afraid to sit awhile and think.
—Lorraine Hansberry
ETTM_03_123-194.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 1:53 PM Page 179
State a specific problem. Shockingly, the inci-
dence of autism has dramatically doubled in the
past ten years.
Introduce the story with a vivid narrative. I could hear the children’s laughter emanating
from the gymnasium as I marked English papers
in the eerily silent sun-dappled classroom.
Start with an enticing quotation. Henry
James wrote, “It takes a great deal of history to
produce a little literature.”
Introduce relevant dialogue. When my father
said, “You’re going to have to decide about col-
lege,” I knew that I was about to make one of the
most important decisions in my life.
Arouse the reader’s curiosity with a surprising
or unusual statement. During my childhood, I
had a wide variety of pets: five cats, rabbits, a hen,
and a squirrel named Riley.
Use an interesting case history. John D. lived
in foster homes during the first five years of his
life. He had been placed in his first foster home
after his teenage mother realized that she could
not afford to raise him.
Use hyperboles to shock and surprise the reader.
I’m not saying that her diamond engagement
ring was gaudy, but the reflection from the ice on
her finger made the lights on the Empire State
Building appear dim in comparison.
Kick off with an interesting definition. The
pro-nature green moniker “tree hugger” is no
longer relegated to granola-munching countercul-
ture hippie environmentalists.
Supporting paragraphs are similar to the mid-
dle cars of a train, because they move your essay fur-
ther along with each additional paragraph. The
concluding paragraph in an essay is similar to the
train station where the passengers disembark.
Your readers’ journey ends at the last sentence
of your concluding paragraph. You’ll want to be cer-
tain that you’ve helped your readers reach their final
destination by providing a concluding paragraph that
synthesizes and reinforces your main idea. Reflect on
the following questions before writing your conclud-
ing paragraph:
What main idea or ideas should your readers
have grasped? What have they learned?
Are there any final thoughts for your readers to
reflect on?
If you have been discussing a problem, can you
offer a solution?
Are you plagiarizing your own words by using
similar words and ideas from your introductory
paragraph? Ask yourself: Has my idea grown
and developed as I’ve moved along, or is it still
as raw and undeveloped as when I began dis-
cussing it?
Get a Grip Writing Tip
The Five Ws and H
Journalists have always relied on the “five
Ws and H” formula to ensure that they pro-
vide the essential information that a reader
needs to fully comprehend a news story:
Who? What? Where? When? Why? How?
Use this formula to be sure that you cover
the basics when writing an essay.
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Resource Li st of Essay Model s
Reading lots of good essays will lead to writing lots of
good essays!
Cart, Michael, Marc Aronson, and Marianne Carus,
eds. 911: The Book of Help (Chicago: Cricket
Books/Marcato, 2002). This is an anthology of
memorable essays and short stories inspired by
September 11, 2001.
Fulghum, Robert. It Was on Fire When I Lay Down on
It (New York: Random House, 1989). These
down-to-earth, lighthearted, and spirited per-
sonal essays teach valuable life lessons.
Gaskins, Pearl Fuyo, ed. What Are You?(New York:
Henry Holt, 1999). These essays written by
mixed-raced young people (ages 14 to 26) dis-
cuss issues such as relationships, racism, per-
sonal identity conflict, cultural issues, and more.
Essay Scori ng Cri teri a
Use the following scoring guide to score each of your
essays. Better yet, have someone else read your essay
and use the scoring guide to help you see how well
you have done. Sample essays for the first six essay
topics follow this scoring guide.
A “6” essay is a highly effective response to the
assignment; a few minor errors are allowed. It has the
following additional characteristics:
good organization and overall coherence
clear explanation and/or illustration of main
variety of sentence syntax
facility in language usage
general freedom from mechanical mistakes and
errors in word usage and sentence structure
A “5” essay shows competence in responding to the
assigned topic but may have minor errors. It has the
following additional characteristics:
competent organization and general coherence
fairly clear explanation and/or illustration of
main ideas
some variety of sentence syntax
facility in language usage
general freedom from mechanical errors and
errors in word usage and sentence structure
Get a Grip Writing Tip
A Title by Any Other Name Can
Be Just Plain Boring
Don’t feel as if you have to create a title as
soon as you begin writing. If you’re not very
good at writing titles and lead sentences,
start by writing your ending first and don’t
write your title until after you’ve completed
your essay. Titles are important, because
they entice the reader and provide a signifi-
cant clue about the content of your essay.
First impressions are crucial, so take the
time to brainstorm interesting titles that will
set the tone and draw the reader in.
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A “4” essay displays competence in response to the assignment. It has the following additional
adequate organization and development
explanation and illustration of some key ideas
adequate language usage
some mechanical but inconsistent errors and
mistakes in usage or sentence structure
A “3” essay shows some competence but is plainly flawed. Additionally, it has the following
inadequate organization or incomplete development
inadequate explanation or illustration of main
a pattern of mechanical mistakes or errors in
usage and sentence structure
A “2” essay shows limited competence and is severely flawed. Additionally, it has the following
poor organization and general lack of development
little or no supporting detail
serious mechanical errors and mistakes in
usage, sentence structure, and word choice
A “1” essay shows a fundamental lack of writing skill.
Additionally, it has the following characteristics:
practically nonexistent organization and gen-
eral incoherence
severe and widespread writing errors
A “0” essay does not address the topic assigned.
Practi ce Questi ons
Make sure that your essays are well organized and that
you support each central argument with concrete
examples. Allow about 30 minutes for each essay.
759.In a review of Don DeLillo’s novel White
Noise, Jayne Anne Phillips writes that the char-
acters are people “sleepwalking through a
world where ‘Coke is It!’ and the TV is always
on.” On the other hand, television is said by
some to have brought the world to people who
would not have seen much of it otherwise. It
has made possible a global village.
Write an essay in which you express your
opinion of the effect of television on
individuals or on nations. Include specific
details from personal experience to back up
your assertions.
760.Bob Maynard has said, “Problems are oppor-
tunities in disguise.” Write an essay describing a time in your
life when a problem became an opportunity.
How did you transform the situation? Explain
what you did to turn the problem into an
opportunity, and explain how others can
benefit from your experience.
When you write an essay under testing conditions,
you should plan on using about the first one-fourth
to one-third of the time you are allotted just for plan-
ning. Jot down notes about what you want to say
about the topic, and then find a good way to organize
your ideas.
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761.In his play, The Admirable Crighton, J.M.
Barrie wrote, “Courage is the thing. All goes if
courage goes.” Write an essay about a time in your life
when you had the courage to do something or
face something difficult, or when you feel you
fell short. What did you learn from the
762.Some people say that writing can’t be taught.
Educators debate the subject every day, while
the teachers in the trenches keep trying.
Write an essay in which you take a
position about the matter. You may discuss
any kind of writing, from basic composition
to fiction. Be sure to back up your opinion
with concrete examples and specific details.
The most important step in writing an essay is to read
the topic carefully. Make sure you understand the
question. If you have a choice of topics, choose the
one you understand fully.
763.Dorothy Fosdick once said, “Fear is a basic
emotion, part of our native equipment, and
like all normal emotions has a positive func-
tion to perform. Comforting formulas for
getting rid of anxiety may be just the wrong
thing. Books about peace of mind can be bad
medicine. To be afraid when one should be
afraid is good sense.” Write an essay in which you express your
agreement or disagreement with Fosdick’s
assertion. Support your opinion with specific
764.In the past several years, many state govern-
ments have permitted gambling by actually
sponsoring lotteries, to increase state revenues
and keep taxes down. Proponents of gambling
praise the huge revenues gambling generates.
Opponents counter that gambling hurts those
who can least afford it, and increased availabil-
ity of gamblers leads to an increase in the
number of gamblers who need treatment.
Write an essay in which you take a
position on the issue of state-sponsored
gambling. Be sure to support your view with
logical arguments and specific examples.
Take just 30 minutes to plan and write your essay.
This is good practice for writing under timed condi-
tions, as you have to do in a test.
765.The Western view of human rights promotes
individual rights. The Eastern view argues that
the good of the whole country or people is
more important than the rights of individuals. Write an essay in which you take a
position on this debate. The Western view
would be that individuals always have the
right to express their opinions. The Eastern
view would hold that individual expression
must sometimes be fettered in order to
promote harmony in a given society. Be sure
to support your discussion with specific
examples and logical arguments.
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766.Barbara Tuchman once noted, “Every successful
revolution puts on in time the robe of the
tyrant it has deposed.” Write an essay in which you either agree
or disagree with her observation. Support
your opinion with specific examples.
When planning your essay, use an outline, a brain-
storming list, a topic map, or any other method that
works for you to jot down your ideas and organize
them logically.
767.Gossip is fun, but if it is malicious, it can be
Have you ever been the victim of gossip?
Have you ever passed on gossip that you later
found was untrue? How do you think the
victim of malicious gossip should react or
respond? What advice would you give to such
a victim?
768.In 1997, scientists in Scotland successfully
cloned a sheep. This event added to the debate
over human cloning. Proponents of a ban on
human cloning are concerned about issues
such as genetic selection. Opponents of a ban
point out that cloning could lead to significant
medical advances.
Write an essay in which you take a
position on the issue of human cloning. Be
sure to support your view with logical
arguments and specific examples.
When you write, make sure the first paragraph of
your essay includes a thesis statement, a sentence that
states the main idea of your essay. 769.Law enforcement agencies use a tool called
profiling in certain situations. Profiling is the
practice of outlining the looks and behavior of
the type of person who is more likely than
others to commit a particular crime. For
example, if a person buys an airline ticket with
cash, travels with no luggage, and returns the
same day, that individual fits the profile for a
drug courier. Opponents of profiling argue
that it has the potential to unfairly target citi-
zens based on their appearance. Proponents
argue that law enforcement must take such
shortcuts in order to effectively fight crime.
Write an essay in which you take a
position on this debate. Be sure to use logical
reasoning and support your view with specific
770.Is it ever all right to lie? Some people say that
little white lies are acceptable to spare some-
one else’s feelings. Other people believe it is
never right to lie, that telling a few little lies
leads to telling more and bigger lies. Which position do you hold? Is it
possible to never lie? Is it possible to tell just
the right kind of lies? Use examples to
illustrate your position.
There’s no specific number of paragraphs you have to
have in an essay, but it would be difficult to write a
good essay on any topic in fewer than three para-
graphs. Most good essays will have four to seven
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771.The United States owes the United Nations
several million dollars in back dues and other
fees. Opponents of paying this debt point to
an inefficient bureaucracy at the United
Nations and the tendency of the United
Nations to support positions that are not in
the United States’ best interests. Proponents of
paying this debt highlight a growing tendency
toward internationalism and the fact that the
United States depends on the United Nations
for support.
Write an essay outlining why the United
States should pay its United Nations debt or
why it should not. Support your position with
examples and logical arguments.
772.As juvenile crime increases, so do the calls for
stricter punishments for juvenile offenders.
One suggestion is to lower the age at which a
juvenile may be tried as an adult. Supporters
of this view believe that young people are
committing crimes at younger and younger
ages, and the crimes they are committing are
becoming more and more heinous.
Opponents of this view point to the success of
juvenile crime prevention programs, such as
teen centers and midnight basketball.
Write an essay in which you either
defend or criticize the suggestion that juvenile
offenders should be charged as adults at
younger ages. Include examples and logical
reasoning to support your position.
The essays in this set and the next few contain more
personal topics—ones that ask you to reflect on a
specific event in your life or on your personality.
773.Phyllis Bottome has said, “There are two ways
of meeting difficulties. You alter the difficulties
or you alter yourself to meet them.”
Write about a time in which you
attempted to alter a difficult situation, or
decided to alter yourself. Were you successful?
Are you pleased with the choice you made?
Whichever you chose to alter, would it have
been easier to alter the other? Would it have
been better?
774.Bella Lewitzky once said, “To move freely you
must be deeply rooted.” Write an essay in which you first state
what you interpret this statement to mean
(there is no right or wrong interpretation),
then (using your own interpretation) agree or
disagree with it. Support your opinion with
specific examples and logical reasoning.
Each body paragraph of your essay should have a
topic sentence that forecasts the main idea of that
paragraph. Make sure your topic sentences are con-
nected to your thesis statement in order to write a unified essay.
775.Most people have faced a situation—perhaps
in a class, in an organization, or just with a
group of friends—in which they held a strong,
but unpopular, opinion. Write about a time when you were in this
circumstance. Did you speak up? Did you keep
quiet? Why do you think you made the choice
you did?
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776.Do you consider yourself adventurous, a risk taker? Write about a time in which you con -
tem plated an undertaking that others
considered dangerous. Did you do it? Why? If
you did not do it, why not? Do you have
regrets? The danger involved need not have
been physical, although it could have been.
It’s always important to explain yourself fully. How
will the reader understand the event you’re describing
if you don’t “show all”? In both personal and persua-
sive writing, it’s important to include lots of details,
images, and explanations to support your main idea.
777.Nadine Stair said, “If I had my life to live over again, I’d dare to make more mistakes
next time.” Write an essay in which you agree or
disagree with this assessment, using your own
life as a touchstone. Why do you agree or
disagree? How might your life have been
different if you had dared to make more
778.In the 1960s and 1970s, women were demand-
ing the right to attend previously all-male
educational institutions. Having won that
right, some women are now reconsidering.
Citing studies that indicate girls perform bet-
ter in all-girls schools than in coed schools,
some women are calling for the establishment
of single-sex educational institutions. Write an essay in which you take a
position on the issue of single-sex schools. Be
sure to include specific examples and solid
reasoning in your opinion.
Often the best way to organize a personal essay is
chronologically, in time order. But you should still
make sure you have a thesis statement that responds
to the question, and that your whole essay is related
to your thesis statement.
779.Susanne Curchod Necker said, “Worship your
heroes from afar; contact withers them.”
Do you agree? Write about a time when
you made contact with a hero. Were you
disappointed with the experience or not? Or
perhaps someone once thought of you as a
hero. Did that admirer feel the same way after
getting close to you? Did closeness make the
relationship better or worse?
780.Most of us have been in a situation, perhaps at
work or at school, in which we felt we were
being treated unfairly. Write about a time when you were
treated unfairly. How did you react? What did
you do or say about the treatment? If you had
it to do over again, would you do something
Whether you’re writing a personal essay or a persua-
sive one, make sure you stick to the topic you are given.
781.An old cliché says, “You can’t fight city hall.” Do you believe this is true? What advice
would you give someone who wanted to
convince a city council that a stoplight should
be installed at a particular corner? Perhaps
you can write about a time in which you tried
to change or enact a law, or perhaps a
regulation at school or at work. Were you
successful? Why or why not?
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782.Advances in genetic testing now allow scien-
tists to identify people whose genetic
backgrounds make them greater risks for certain diseases. A genetic predisposition to a
certain disease, however, is far from a guaran-
tee that a patient will contract that disease.
Environmental factors, such as diet, exercise,
and smoking also play a role. Insurance com-
panies want to have access to genetic
information in order to help keep their costs
down. Opponents feel that insurance compa-
nies will misuse such information, by unfairly
denying people coverage. Write an essay in which you take a
position on providing genetic testing
information to insurance companies. Be sure
to support your argument with specific
examples and logical reasoning.
Sample “6” Essay
Television has an important place in society for two
reasons. First, it is a common denominator that can
be used as a teaching tool for kids. Second, it
bridges gaps between cultures. With a simple flick of
the switch people can tune in and watch congres-
sional meetings, travel down the Ganges, or see the
Scottish highlands. They can learn about other cul-
tures, cooking, or architecture. They can witness
events half a world away as soon as they take place.
Because everyone in every classroom from
kindergarten to college has been exposed to televi-
sion, its programs can bring about lively discussions
and a meeting of the minds. Television opens windows
on the world that are unique. It helps students see
more of the world than any generation before them
could see. Given the right focus in a classroom, it
can be the start of a writing exercise or a debate.
The skills learned in these kinds of exercises prepare
students for more complicated tasks later on in life.
By watching engaging, educational television
programming, people from all walks of life can learn
about others. Understanding the habits, religions, and
cultural traits of people from distant parts of the
globe helps bring the world closer together. It makes
people more tolerant of others and can only promote
peace in a global village that becomes increasingly
smaller every day we live. Its place in society is vital. Sample “4” Essay
Many people say they don’t watch television, and I say
good for them! There is very little on TV today that is
worth watching. And yet, for all that, it has an impor-
tant place in society. I believe, for example, that it is
an excellent teaching tool for kids who have had less
than a sterling formal education in the lower grades.
It’s something they can relate to and something they
will have in common with the other people in their
class. It’s something they have in common with the
teacher, for that matter. And that is all-important.
Television opens a window on the world that is
unique. It helps students to see more of the world
than any generation before them has been able to
see. With a simple flick of the switch they can look in
and watch the goings-on in congress; or travel down
the Ganges river or see the Scotish highlands. They
can learn about other cultures, learn how to cook or
build a house. They can witness events half a world
away as soon as they take place.
Here is one advantage of television, as it can be
used as a teaching tool. In classrooms today, espe-
cially in community colleges, for example, there are
students from every strata of society, from many dif-
ferent social classes. Television is one thing they have
in common and can bring about lively discussions and
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a meeting of the minds. Rich and poor alike, privileged
or under privileged, all have looked through that tiny
window and see wonders and horrors, current events
and events long-past. And all can be used as fodder
for lively class discussion, for making the subjects
we’re teaching come alive.
We might take pride in saying we never watch
television, but we shouldn’t be so quick to put it
down—especially as it pertains to teaching.
Television is one thing students have in common, and
I think it was Winston Churchhill who said, “The only
thing worse than democracy is any other form of
government.” I think the same can be said for televi-
sion: “The only thing worse than television is no tele-
vision.” Sure, theres a lot on that’s not worth
watching, but theres also a lot that is. And to
ignore it’s influence is to ignore an excellent, if
flawed, teaching tool.
Sample “3” Essay
I sometimes wish TV had never been invented.
Especially for the younger generation, who get much of
their information about the world in a distorted fash-
ion from “the box.” Of course it is entertaining after a
hard day, but at the end what have you gained? And the news gets distorted. We get our news
from “a reliabel source” but who is that? Some gossip
columist in Washington or New York that has nothing
to do with our real life. We get to see how rotten our
politicions are and maybe thats a good thing
because earlier in history they could cover it up. We
get to watch them on TV and judge for ourself
instead of taking someone else’s word for it. So tele-
vision can be a good thing if watched in moderation.
Another way TV corrups society is through
advertizing. It tells us to buy, buy, buy. It gives us
super models and sport’s figures to tell you what to
buy and where. It gives you movie stars advertizing
even in a TV movie away from comercials, by holding a
can of Coke or other product. All of which subliminaly
tells you to buy Coke. They say they even have mes-
sages flashed on the screen so on the commercial
you will get up and go to the kitchen. I find myself
bringing home products I never even use. The worse
thing is the shows in which dificult life situatsions
get solved in a half hour. You could never do it in real
life but on TV it is easy. It gives us a erronous view of
the world. I think we should try to do away with it in our
homes even if it is hard. After all, its your baby-sitter
and advise-giver, and even your friend if you are
lonely. But give it a week to be away from it and then
watch intermitently. You’re life will be better for it.
Sample “1” Essay
TV can be good or bad depending on how you look at it.
It can be all you do if you are not careful. It can take
you away from your kids if you use it as a baby sitter
or when you come home from work that is all you do.
Also you will never get the real story. You will never
know if they are telling the truth or trying a snow job
to sell you something.
I grew up with television like most peopel. It is a
good thing if you try to learn from it. It probably will
help in a class room discussion if the children all
watch the same show. In grade school where I went
we had current events and television had it’s place.
One example is the news. We know if we are going
to war the minute the president makes his decission.
We can watch it all happening. We can know if there is
a scandel in Washington. And the latest medical
facts are on TV. So TV can be good in that aspect.
It can be bad to. For example the shows for
teen agers. When I was a teen ager I liked them, all
the music and the dancing. But now it is diferent.
Drugs are spread through MTV because of the
musicions who you can tell do them. And they are
models for our kids.
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But in some aspects TV is good and in some it
is bad. I think spending time away from it will make
you feel better. all the news is bad news. But you can
get an education too if you just watch public TV. It is
good in some aspects and bad in some. 760.
Sample “6” Essay Life is full of problems, but the method we use to
approach those problems often determines whether
we’re happy or miserable. Bob Maynard says,
“Problems are opportunities in disguise.” If we
approach problems with Maynard’s attitude, we can
see that problems are really opportunities to learn
about others and ourselves. They enable us to live
happier and more fulfilling lives. Maynard’s quote applies to all kinds of problems.
To share a personal story, I faced a problem just last
week when the plumbing for our family’s kitchen sink
developed a serious leak. Water puddled all over our
new kitchen floor, and to make matters worse, our
landlord was out of town for the week. Since my family
is large, we couldn’t afford to wait for the landlord’s
return nor could we afford an expensive plumbing bill.
Taking charge, I decided to learn how to fix it myself.
The best place to start was at my local library. There,
I found a great fix-it-yourself book, and in just a few
hours, I had figured out the cause of the leak. Not only
did I repair the leak, but I know now that I can rely on
my own abilities to solve other everyday problems. I think it’s important to remember that no mat-
ter how big a problem is, it’s still an opportunity.
Whatever kind of situation we face, problems give us
the chance to learn and grow, both physically and
mentally. Problems challenge us and give us the
chance to do things we’ve never done before, to learn
things we never knew before. They teach us what we’re
capable of doing, and often they give us the chance to
surprise ourselves. Sample “4” Essay
Just the word problemcan send some of us into a
panic. But problems can be good things, too.
Problems are situations that make us think and
force us to be creative and resourceful. They can also
teach us things we didn’t know before.
For example, I had a problem in school a few
years ago when I couldn’t understand my math
class. I started failing my quizzes and homework
assignments. I wasn’t sure what to do, so finally I
went to the teacher and asked for help. She said
she would arrange for me to be tutored by another
student who was her best student. In return,
though, I’d have to help that student around school.
I wasn’t sure what she meant by that until I met my
tutor. She was handicapped. My job was to help her carry her books from
class to class. I’d never even spoken to someone in a
wheelchair before and I was a little scared. But she
turned out to be the nicest person I’ve ever spent
time with. She helped me understand everything I
need to know for math class and she taught me a lot
about what it’s like to be handicapped. I learned to
appreciate everything that I have, and I also know
that people with disabilities are special not because
of what they can’t do, but because of who they are. So you see that wonderful things can come out
of problems. You just have to remember to look for
the positive things and not focus on the negative.
ETTM_03_123-194.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 1:53 PM Page 189
Sample “3” Essay
The word “problem” is a negative word but its just an
opportunity as Mr. Bob Maynard has said. It can be
teaching tool besides.
For example, I had a problem with my son last
year when he wanted a bigger allowance. I said no and
he had to earn it. He mowed the lawn and in the fall
he raked leaves. In the winter he shovelled the walk.
After that he apreciated it more.
Its not the problem but the sollution that mat-
ters. My son learning the value of work and earning
money. (It taught me the value of money to when I
had to give him a bigger allowance!) After that he
could get what he wanted at Toys Are Us and not
have to beg. Which was better for me too. Sometimes
we forget that both children and there parents can
learn a lot from problems and we can teach our chil-
dren the value of over-coming trouble. Which is as
important as keeping them out of trouble. As well we
can teach them the value of money. That is one
aspect of a problem that we manytimes forget.
So problems are a good teaching tool as well as
a good way to let you’re children learn, to look at the
silver lining behind every cloud.
Sample “1” Essay
I agree with the quote that problems are opportunities
in disguise. Sometimes problems are opportunities, too.
I have a lot of problems like anyone else does.
Sometimes there very difficult and I don’t no how to
handle them. When I have a really big problem, I some-
times ask my parents or freinds for advise.
Sometimes they help, sometimes they don’t, then I
have to figure out how to handle it myself.
One time I had a big problem. Where someone
stole my wallet and I had to get to a job interview.
But I had no money and no ID. This happen in school.
So I went to the principles office and reported it. He
called the man I was supposed to interview with. Who
rescheduled the intervew for me. So I still had the
opportunity to interview and I’m proud to say I got
the job. In fact I’m still working there!
Problems can be opportunities if you just look
at them that way. Instead of the other way around.
Sample “6” Essay
Courage and cowardice seem like absolutes. We are
often quick to label other people, or ourselves, as
either “brave” or “timid,” “courageous” or “cowardly.”
However, one bright afternoon on a river deep in the
wilds of the Ozark mountains, I learned that these
qualities are as changeable as mercury.
During a cross-country drive, my friend Nina and
I decided to stop at a campsite in Missouri and spend
the afternoon on a boat trip down Big Piney River, 14
miles through the wilderness. We rented a canoe and
paddled happily off. Things were fine for the first seven
or eight miles. We gazed at the overhanging bluffs,
commented on the dogwoods in bloom, and marveled
at the clarity of the water. Then, in approaching Devil’s
Elbow, a bend in the river, the current suddenly swept
us in toward the bank, under the low-hanging branches
of a weeping willow. The canoe tipped over, and I was
pulled under. My foot caught for just a few seconds on
the willow’s submerged roots, and just as I surfaced,
I saw the canoe sweeping out, upright again, but
empty. Nina was frantically swimming after it.
Standing by cravenly, I knew I should help, but I
was petrified. I let my friend brave the treacherous
rapids and haul the canoe back onto the gravel bar
by herself. But then came the scream, and Nina
dashed back into the water. In the bottom of the
canoe, a black and brown, checkerboard-patterned
copperhead snake lay coiled. I don’t know exactly why,
but the inborn terror of snakes is something that
has passed me by completely. I actually find them
rather charming in a scaly sort of way, but Nina was
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still screaming. In a calm way that must have
seemed smug, I said, “We’re in its home, it’s not in
ours.” And gently, I prodded it with the oar until it
reared up, slithered over the side of the canoe, and
raced away.
Later that night, in our cozy, safe motel room,
we agreed that we each had cold chills thinking about
what might have happened. Still, I learned something
important from the ordeal. I know that, had we
encountered only the rapids, I might have come away
ashamed, labeling myself a coward, and had we
encountered only the snake, Nina might have done
the same. I also know that neither of us will ever
again be quite so apt to brand another person as
lacking courage, because we will always know that
just around the corner may be the snake or the bend
in the river, or the figure in the shadows, or some-
thing else as yet unanticipated, that will cause our
own blood to freeze. Sample “4” Essay
Courage can be shown in many ways and by many
kinds of people. One does not have to be rich, or edu-
cated, or even an adult to show true courage.
For example, a very heartbreaking thing hap-
pened in our family. It turned out all right but at the
time it almost made us lose our faith. However, it
also taught us a lesson regarding courage. In spite of
his father’s and my repeated warnings, my son Matt
went ice-fishing with some friends and fell through
the ice into the frigid water beneath. He is prone to
do things that are dangerous no matter how many
times he’s told. Fortunately there were grown-ups
near and they were able to throw him a life line and
pull him to safety. However, when they got him onto
shore they discovered he was unconscious. There
were vital signs but they were weak, the paramedics
pronounced him in grave danger. He is his little sisters (Nans) hero. He is 16 and
she is 13, just at the age where she admires every-
thing he does. When they took him to the hospital
she insisted on going that night to see him, and she
insisted on staying with me there. My husband
thought we should insist she go home, but it was
Christmas vacation for her so there was no real rea-
son. So we talked it over and she stayed. She stayed
every night for the whole week just to be by Matt’s
side. And when he woke up she was there. Her smiling
face the was first thing he saw.
In spite of the fact she was just a child and it
was frightning for her to be there beside her brother
she loves so much, and had to wonder, every day if he
would die, she stayed. So courage has many faces.
Sample “3” Essay
Courage is not something we are born with. It is
something that we have to learn.
For example when your children are growing up
you should teach them courage. Teach them to face
lifes challanges and not to show there fear. For
instance my father. Some people would say he was
harsh, but back then I didnt think of it that way. One
time he took me camping and I had a tent of my own.
I wanted to crawl in with him but he said there was
nothing to be afriad of. And I went to sleep sooner
than I would have expect. He taught me not to be
There are many reasons for courage. In a war a
solder has to be couragous and a mother has to be
no less couragous if she is rasing a child alone and
has to make a living. So, in me it is totally alright to
be afriad as long as you face your fear. I have been
greatful to him ever since that night.
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Sometimes parents know what is best for
there kids even if at the time it seems like a harsh
thing. I learned not to show my fear that night,
which is an important point to courage. In everyday
life it is important to learn how to be strong. If we
dont learn from our parents, like I did from my
father, then we have to learn it after we grow up.
But it is better to learn it, as a child. I have never
been as afriad as I was that night, and I learned a
valuble lesson from it.
Sample “1” Essay
Courage is important in a battle and also ordinary
life. In a war if your buddy depends on you and you let
him down he might die. Courage is also important in
daly life. If you have sicknes in the famly or if you
enconter a mugger on the street you will need all the
courage you can get. There are many dangers in life
that only courage will see you through.
Once, my apartment was burglerised and they
stole a TV and micro-wave. I didnt have very much.
They took some money to. I felt afraid when I walked
in and saw things moved or gone. But I call the police
and waited for them inside my apartment which was
brave and also some might say stupid! But the
police came and took my statement and also later
caught the guy. Another time my girlfreind and I
were in my apartment and we looked out the window
and there was somebody suspisious out in front. It
turned out to be a false alarm but she was scard
and she said because I was calm it made her feel
better. So courage was important to me, in my
relatinship with my girlfeind.
So courage is importand not only in war but
also in life.
Sample “6” Essay
Writing, at least the kind of basic composition needed
to be successful in school, can be taught. The most
important factor in teaching a basic composition
class, which usually has students who have been less
than successful writers in the past, is a simple one.
The student should be asked to write about some-
thing interesting in a context with a purpose beyond
English class. In other words, the student should want
to learn to write. For students who have fallen behind
for one reason or another, it’s difficult to see a writing
class as anything but an exercise in plummeting self-
esteem. Many students believe that writing well is a
mystery only those with talent can understand, and
that English class is just something to endure. The
first thing to teach students is that writing has a
purpose that pertains to their lives. The teacher must
appeal to emotion as well as to intellect.
I believe the best approach is to ask students to
keep a journal in two parts. In one part, grammar and
style shouldn’t matter, the way they have to matter in
the formal assignments that come later in the course.
In this part of the journal, the students should be
asked to keep track of things they encounter during
the day that interest them or cause them to be happy,
sad, angry, or afraid. In the second part of the journal
they should keep track of subjects that make them sit
up and take notice. These can include things that hap-
pen in class or ideas that come to them when reading
an assignment for class. These journal notes should
whet the intellect and excite curiosity. For teaching grammar, the teacher can present
exercises in the context of a one-page essay or story
because it gives writing a context. Too often in the
early grades, students complete dry drill and skill
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exercises that take the fun out of writing.
Diagramming sentences, identifying nouns and verbs,
or labeling adjectives seems far removed from the
skill of writing. Appealing to emotion, intellect, and
curiosity will really succeed in engaging the whole
student and awakening the urge to write. Sample “4” Essay
I believe writing can be taught if we work hard
enough at it as teachers. The important thing is to
teach students that it can be enjoyable. Years of
fearing writing lie behind a lot of students, and it’s
one of the biggest stumbling blocks. But it can be
gotten over.
Having them break up into small groups is one
way to teach writing to reluctant or ill-prepared stu-
dents. Have the students discuss a topic they are
all interested in—say a recent TV show or an event
coming up at school, then plan a paper and come
back and discuss the idea with the whole class. Your
next step can be to have them actually write the
paper, then get into their small groups again and
criticize what theyve done. Another way for students who don’t like the
small groups is one on one conferences. But dont
just talk about grammar or sentence structure or
paragraphing, talk about the content of his paper. I
did a summer internship teaching in an innter city
school, and I rememmber one young man. He hated
small groups so we talked privately. He had written a
paper on going to a city-sponsered camping trip and
seeing white-tailed deer, which was his first time. He
was excited about it, and I suggested he write a
paper about his experience. He did and, except for
some trouble with grammar, it was an A paper, full of
active verbs and telling detail!
Finally, try to get your students to read. If you
have to, drag them to the community library yourself.
Not only will it help their writing, it will help them in
life. Only by getting them interested in the written
word and by helping them to see that it matters in
their everyday lives can you really reach them and
set them on the path of good writing.
Yes. Writing can be taught if you are willing to
take the time and do the hard work and maybe give a
few extra hours. No student is hopeless. And writing
is so important in today’s world that its worth the
extra effort.
Sample “3” Essay
I dont think writing can be taught neccesarily,
although if the students are half-way motivated
anything’s possible. The first thing is get them inter-
ested in the subject and give them alot of writing to
do in class. They may not do it if it is all outside
class as many poorly prepared students hate home-
work. I know I did as a kid! Writing does not come natural for most people
especially in the poorer school districs. Unless they
are lucky enough to have parents who read to them.
That is another aspect of teaching how to write.
Assign alot of reading. If you don’t read you can’t
write, and that is lacking in alot of students back-
grounds. If your students wont’ read books tell them
to read comic books if nothing else. Anything to get
them to read.
The second thing is to have the student come
in for a conference once a week. That is one way to
see what is going on with them in school and at
home. A lot of kids in the poorer schools have conflict
at home and that is why they fail. So give them alot
of praise because thats what they need.
Finaly don’t give up. It can be done. Many peo-
ple born into poverty go on to do great things. You
can help and you never know who you will inspire and
who will remember you as the best teacher they
ever had.
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Sample “1” Essay
You will be able to tell I am one of the peopel that
never learned to write well. I wish I had but my per-
sonal experience as a struggeling writer will inspire
my students, thats the most I can hope for. Writing
can be taught, but you have to be ready to inspire
the student. Give them assignments on subjets they
like and keep after them to read. Take them to the
public libary if they havnt been and introduce them
to books.
If you cant write people will call you dumb or
stupid which hurts you’re self-estem. I know from
The next thing is have them come in and talk to
you. You never know what is going on in there lifes that
is keeping them from studying and doing there best.
Maybe they have a mom that works all the time or a
dad who has left the home. Be sure to teach the whole
person. Also have them write about what is going on in
there lives, not a dry subject like the drinking age. Have
the student write about there personal experience
and it will come out better. Writing can be taught if
the student is motivated. So hang in there.
Grade Yourself
The previous sample essays show you how
the essay scoring guide works. For topics
763–782, simply use the scoring rubric on
pages 181–182 to evaluate your essays.
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of writing skills, the Greek philosopher Epictetus of-
fered wise advice: “If you would be a reader, read; if a writer, write.” One of the best ways
to develop your writing skills to their fullest potential is to write on a consistent basis—at
least five days a week. Because it is almost impossible to guess which topics are going to appear on a writ-
ing test or assignment, the best way to prepare for writing challenges is to master the essentials of brain-
storming, outlining, writing a lead sentence, and writing powerful concluding paragraphs. The plain truth
is that skillful writers do well on writing assignments and essay writing exams. If you wish to do well on
writing exams, concentrate your energy on becoming a better writer by reading and writing consistently
and asking for helpful feedback and pointers from teachers and professional writing tutors.
To help you reach your writing goals, this chapter contains specific advice for three main forms of
writing: persuasive, expository, and narrative writing. A fourth form, literary analysis, is covered in the
next chapter. In each section are writing prompts, helpful sidebars, writing models with which to compare
and contrast your writing, and a scoring rubric.
Writing Boot
We learn something by doing it. There is no other way.
—John Holt
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Because it is impossible to predict the subject
matter that will be presented on an essay-writing
assignment or standardized examination, the key to
success is to hone your critical thinking skills through
consistent immersion in reading and writing activi-
ties such as the ones that are presented in this book.
This chapter provides you with a complete writ-
ing tool kit to help you excel on writing assignments.
Within each section you will find models providing
top-, middle-, and low-scoring writing examples that
will help you grasp the key components of a success-
ful essay. Carefully studying these models will help
you become more proficient in identifying your own
weaknesses and strengths.
A scoring rubric for each specific type of essay is
also included in each section. After you complete
each essay writing exercise, use the rubric to score
your essay to see if you have scored the optimum
score of 6. If you find that the majority of your con-
tent, development, organizing, and language scores
are level 4 or lower, it is advisable that you rewrite
your essay with the goal of improving on your areas
of weakness.
The following writing guidelines will help max-
imize your writing practice:
Schedule sufficient time for writing practice—a
half hour to an hour, never less.
Commit to a weekly writing prompt practice
Freewriting is an effective method of warming
up and generating ideas, because you must
write as rapidly as you can without stopping to
edit or censor your writing. First, select a writ-
ing prompt that strikes your fancy. Then, set a
minute timer for ten minutes. Start writing
anything and everything that relates to the writ-
ing prompt’s main idea.
Don’t stop or try to correct mistakes—just keep
freewriting until the timer starts buzzing!
When you have finished freewriting, read over
your work. If you like particular phrases or pas-
sages that you’ve written, consider using them
in your first formal draft.
After you have warmed up, write a formal re-
sponse by focusing on the purpose of your es-
say. Ask yourself if you are being asked to
define, persuade, compare and contrast, classify,
illustrate, or narrate. Then brainstorm related
ideas about your topic and decide which ideas
will best help to support you in achieving your
As you respond to your writing prompts, keep
your target audience firmly in mind. Who will
be reading your work?
What works well when you are communicating
with your friends on YouTube does not work in
the middle school or high school classroom.
When you are writing a formal essay, as you will
be doing during these writing practices, it’s ad-
visable to leave your profanity, slang, and in-
stant messaging lingo such as LOL (Internet
shorthand for “laughing out loud”) or LAWL
(slang for “laughing a whole lot”) at the door!
Important factors to reflect upon before writing
are audience gender, ethnicity, educational
level, and occupation, as well as the audience’s
present knowledge of the subject.
Remember, the concluding paragraph is the
place to reinforce all of the most important
ideas that you’ve presented—it’s not the place
to address a new subtopic. Repeat and then re-
inforce your main idea.
The final sentence is as important as the lead
sentence, so spend time crafting a powerful fi-
nal sentence condensing the most important
thoughts on your subject.
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Revise. Revise. Revise.Do not skip this impor-
tant and necessary step!
Proofread to be sure that your spelling and
grammar are immaculate.
Word Bite: Revising
Revising is the process of editing and
reworking the first rough draft. The revision
process focuses on shaping and refining content
and may require one draft or more.
Word Bite: Proofreading
Proofreading is the final step of the revision
process, focusing on correcting spelling and
grammatical errors.
Revision Checklist
Is your title appropriate and not generic or bor-
ing? Does it entice the reader?
Is your lead sentence appropriate? Does it in-
troduce the main idea and provide a firm foun-
dation for the sentences that follow it?
Are your paragraphs uniform? Do all of the
sentences in each paragraph relate to the topic
sentence? Do you use a variety of sentence
Did you elaborate on general ideas by providing
details such as descriptions, examples, and explanations?
Have you identified and eliminated any clichés?
Are there any sentences that need to be shifted
to a more appropriate paragraph or eliminated
Does every sentence contain a subject and a
Are your word choices as appropriate and pre-
cise as they could be? Have you looked up any
words about which you were uncertain?
Do your thoughts flow smoothly throughout
the paper?
Does your conclusion provide a final summary
or judgment, or make a future prediction?
Did you proofread manually?
Did you run your word processor’s spell-
checker to check for spelling and punctuation
Did you read your paper aloud or have a friend
or relative read it aloud to check for stilted
phrasing, sentence fragments, and run-on
Do all of the sentences in your essay relate to
your main idea and topic?
Persuasi ve Wri ti ng
Persuasive writing is a form of writing that is typi-
cally used in essays, advertising copywriting, sales let-
ters, and newspaper editorials. A well-constructed
persuasive essay hinges on the writer’s ability to think
logically and construct a bullet-proof argument built
on factual information. Persuading readers to accept
your argument is not an easy task, because you must
provide enough proof to convince your fiercest oppo-
nents that your opinion is correct. While it is true
that many arguments are won by appealing to a
reader’s emotions, facts obtained from reputable
sources are an essential element. Presenting incorrect,
weak, or misleading information will sabotage your
attempts to sway readers to your point of view.
Presenting relevant examples that support your
opinion is a good way to argue your case. For exam-
ple, if you are arguing that your school’s sports program needs to raise funds to purchase new
equipment, you might want to compare and contrast
examples of your school’s antiquated sports equip-
ment with the newer sports equipment provided by
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similar high schools in your area. Because you are
comparing schools that are serving the same student
population, your argument makes sense. However, if
you were to use the example of the equipment pro-
vided by a Beverly Hills private school, your argument
for new sports equipment would appear frivolous and
unrealistic, because the budget of a posh private
school in Beverly Hills can not be realistically com-
pared to the budget of an average public school.
Guidelines for Persuasive Writing
Speak out!It’s almost impossible to sway readers
if you are not firmly convinced about your own
beliefs, so take a strong and definite position and
then support your perspective to the fullest.
Do your homework:Before you start writing,
be certain that you are knowledgeable about
your topic and that none of your research infor-
mation is outdated or inaccurate.
Three is the key:After you have researched
your topic, select three key points to support
your argument, and focus separate paragraphs
on each of those ideas by providing examples,
facts, statistics, anecdotes, and other relevant
information to sway your reader.
Make a prediction:When writing a persuasive
essay, it helps to predict the counterargument
that will occur when someone reads your es-
say. Always show respect for opposing argu-
ments by crafting a graceful and professional
Keep it clean:Don’t use profanity or insults to
make your point. A sharp wit and a good argu-
ment are your best defenses.
Bring it on home:Before signing off, be sure to
restate the most important points about your
topic, and leave the reader with something to
think about.
Get a Grip Reference Tip
Avoiding Bogus Blogs and
Other Faulty Sources
Here are some essay types and the reputable
reference sources the writers should use to
find information to support their positions.
crime statistics for a persuasive essay
on criminal justice: the FBI’s Internet
site (www.fbi.gov/ucr/ucr.htm), which
provides an annual crime report
federal budget statistics for a persua-
sive essay arguing against raising
taxes (www.whitehouse/gov)
statistics and facts about heart dis-
ease for a persuasive essay against
fat-filled cafeteria lunch menus or an
expository essay on heart disease:
American Heart Association (AHA)
information on U.S. trade in the Asia-
Pacific region for a narrative essay on
the explosion of imported goods from
China and Japan: the East-West Center
Get a Grip Research Tip
Wikipedia Wipeout
The Internet reference site, Wikipedia, is a
fine place to get a speedy overview of your
subject, but many instructors will not accept
information that has been obtained from
Wikipedia. Always check with your instructor
before using information from this source.
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Rubric for Persuasive Writing
SCORE 6 5 4 3 2 1
satisfies the
provides a thoughtful
meets some of the
offers a simple
meets few of the ■
minimally addresses
Your written
requirements of the analysis of the writing requirements of interpretation of the requirements of the the writing prompt.
response shows writing prompt in a prompt.the prompt.writing prompt.writing prompt.
digresses, repeats,
an understanding creative and original ■
provides a clear ■
includes some key ■
lacks a thesis from ■
discusses very or dwells on and interpretation manner.thesis statement.elements that help which to base the basic ideas.insignificant of the writing ■
uses a clear thesis ■
offers good examples explain the thesis.essay.
makes few details throughout.
prompt.statement.to confirm the thesis connections to help ■
proves the thesis statement.explain the thesis.
with insightful examples and details.
builds and elaborates
develops the topic ■
answers the question
shows weakness
contains inaccurate, ■
shows a lack of Your written thoroughly.in an acceptable way.in an abbreviated in the development of vague, or repetitive development of ideas.
response gives a ■
uses examples ■
uses relevant manner.ideas and/or develops details.
clear and logical precisely.examples throughout
gives brief examples ideas without thorough
has limited explanation of
develops the topic in the essay.to explain ideas.explanation.development of ideas, using an interesting and ■
develops ideas ■
develops ideas ideas.
supporting imaginative way.clearly and somewhat
demonstrates consistently.inconsistently.
coherence in the development of ideas.
sets up and maintains
has an obvious plan
has a general focus.
does not show a ■
shows an attempt to
is less organized
Your written a clear focus.of organization.
obviously logical sense of create a focus.than a level 2 response shows
establishes a logical,
focuses on the attempts organization.
digresses from the response.
a coherent, rational sequence of thesis statement.organization.
strays from the topic.topic.
exhibits no orderly, ideas with transitional
uses appropriate
exhibits a logical
can be difficult to
is disorganized.organizational well-reasoned words and sentences.devices and sequence of ideas.follow.pattern or focus.
Language Use/
has vivid language,
has good control of
has a sense of
uses vocabulary that
exhibits little control
shows minimal
Conventions:fluidity, and a sense mechanics.audience.is slightly below level.of the language.control of language
Your written of engagement
contains some errors
uses simple
has a vague sense of ■
has errors that make skills.
response shows a and voice.when using sentences.audience.comprehension difficult.
may be illegible or
sense of audience
has sophisticated sophisticated language.
uses an appropriate
shows a beginner’s unrecognizable as by using effective style of sentence ■
has a slightly lower level of vocabulary.control of the English.
vocabulary and structure, sentence quality of sentence ■
demonstrates partial language.
varied sentence variety, and vocabulary.structure and control of mechanics.
has errors that begin
has essentially no sentence variety.
exhibits some errors to interfere with
shows errors when that do not interfere comprehension.
using sophisticated with comprehension.
vocabulary only.
totally unrelated to the topic.
filled with illegible and indecipherable words.
incoherent with illogical or garbled syntax.
ETTM_04_195_266.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 4:20 PM Page 199
Use the persuasive writing prompts to write an
essay for numbers 783–797. Each prompt has a model
essay and two lower-scoring essays in the answer sec-
tion that you can use to compare and contrast your
writing. You can also use the Rubric for Persuasive
Writing, included in this chapter, to give you an idea
of the way your essay may be graded. If you have
trouble interpreting the scoring guide, see a teacher
or professor for help.
Practi ce Questi ons
783.Many parents give children a weekly or
monthly allowance regardless of their behavior
because they believe an allowance teaches chil-
dren to be financially responsible. Other
parents give children an allowance only as a
reward for completing chores or when they
have behaved properly. Explain what you think
parents should do and why.
784.More and more farmers and food manufactur-
ers are genetically modifying their crops to
reduce susceptibility to disease, improve flavor,
and reduce costs. Do you think genetically
modifying foods is a good idea? Why or why
not? Use specific reasons and examples to sup-
port your position.
785.A few decades ago, many families had half a
dozen or more children. Nowadays, more and
more families are choosing to have only one or
two children. Are smaller families better than
larger ones? Why or why not? State your posi-
tion and support it with specific reasons and
786.Good habits improve our physical, emotional,
and/or financial health. Select one of your
good habits and write an essay persuading
readers to make that habit a part of their lives.
787.Is there a book that you feel should be required
reading for everyone? Write an essay persuad-
ing your audience to read this book. 788.Some people think of the United States as a
nation of “couch potatoes.” Write an essay persuading readers to be more physically
active. 789.Nowadays, the private life of a politician is
hardly private. In your opinion, should we be so concerned with the private life of a politician or political candidate? State your
position and support it with specific reasons
and examples.
790.Today’s top professional athletes often have
salaries and bonuses in the tens of millions of
dollars. Do you think these athletes deserve
such high compensation? Why or why not?
Explain your position and use specific reasons
and examples.
791.Is reading fiction a waste of time? Why or why
not? Explain your answer using specific reasons
and examples to support your position.
ETTM_04_195_266.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 4:20 PM Page 200
792.Some people think that school cafeterias
should be required to provide low-fat and/or
vegetarian lunch options to accommodate the
eating habits of all students. Do you agree or
disagree? Explain your position and use spe-
cific reasons and examples as support.
793.Many people feel that the use of surveillance
cameras in public places, such as parking lots,
is a good idea that can help ensure our safety.
Others worry that too many cameras violate
our right to privacy and give law enforcement
officials too much power. In your opinion,
should we install more surveillance cameras in
public places? Why or why not? Support your
position with specific reasons and examples.
794.Alexander Smith said, “The great man is the
man who does a thing for the first time.” Do
you agree with this definition of greatness?
Why or why not?
795.Should people lease or buy new cars? Make a
case for the option that you think is better. Use
specific reasons and examples to support your
796.The inventor and statesman Benjamin Franklin
said, “Money never made a man happy yet, nor
will it. There is nothing in its nature to produce
happiness.” Do you agree with this statement?
Why or why not? Use specific reasons and
examples to support your position.
797.Some states have now made it illegal to drive
while talking on a handheld cell phone. Do you
think this is a good law that should be passed
in other states as well? Why or why not?
Explain your answer.
Exposi tor y Wri ti ng
Expository writing is writing that explains a concept
or idea. You will most often use this writing style
when you are writing research papers, process essays,
definition essays, and technical instruction manuals.
An expository essay might explain the steps that are
needed in order to achieve a particular goal, such as
applying for a job, or it might teach a skill, such as
how to perform an Internet search for health infor-
mation. Some writers will include chronologically
numbered steps containing specific details and expla-
nations, while others accompany their explanations
with photographs or illustrations of each specific
Guidelines for Expository Writing
Before committing one word to paper, decide
on your audience and purpose: Who will be
reading your paper? What are you trying to
Present your ideas and explanations or direc-
tions in an organized, clear, and precise manner.
Add specific details and several topic-relevant
examples to help the reader better understand
the general topic. Remember to smooth the
transition from your general statement to your
specific example by using transitional phrases
such as “to illustrate” or “an example of,” but try
not to cram too many of these phrases into
your paragraphs. Choose your examples care-
fully. Providing one or two excellent examples is
better than cramming your paragraph with
three or four weak examples.
Focus on explaining one specific step or con-
cept at a time.
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Rubric for Expository Writing
SCORE 6 5 4 3 2 1
satisfies the ■
provides a thoughtful
meets some of the
offers a simple ■
meets few of the ■
minimally addresses
Your written requirements of analysis of the writing requirements of the interpretation of the requirements of the the writing prompt.
response shows the writing prompt prompt.writing prompt.writing prompt.writing prompt.
digresses, repeats, an understanding in a creative and ■
uses a clear theme ■
includes some key ■
lacks a theme.
discusses very or dwells on and interpretation original manner.throughout.elements that help basic ideas.insignificant details
of the writing ■
uses an obvious explain the thesis.
makes few throughout.
prompt.theme throughout.connections to help
explain the thesis.
builds and elaborates
develops the topic
answers the ■
shows weakness in
contains inaccurate, ■
shows a lack of Your written ideas thoroughly.in an acceptable way.question in an development of ideas vague, or repetitive development of ideas.
response gives a ■
uses examples ■
uses relevant abbreviated manner.and/or develops ideas details.
clear and logical precisely.examples throughout ■
gives brief examples without thorough ■
has limited explanation of ■
develops the topic the essay.to explain ideas.explanation.development ideas, using in an interesting and
develops ideas ■
develops ideas of ideas.
supporting imaginative way.clearly and somewhat material.
demonstrates consistently.inconsistently.
coherence in the development of ideas.
sets up and maintains
has an obvious plan ■
has a general focus.
does not show a ■
shows an attempt
is less organized Your written a clear focus.of organization.
obviously attempts logical sense of to create a focus.than a level 2 response shows a ■
establishes a logical,
focuses on the thesis organization.organization.
digresses from the response.
coherent, orderly, rational sequence of statement.
exhibits a logical ■
strays from the topic.topic.
exhibits no well-reasoned ideas with transitional ■
uses appropriate sequence of ideas.
can be difficult to
is disorganized.organizational pattern approach.words and sentences.devices and transitions.follow.or focus.
has vivid language, ■
has good control of ■
has a sense of ■
uses vocabulary that
exhibits little control
shows minimal
Language Use: fluidity, and a sense of mechanics.audience.is slightly below level.of the language.control of language
Your written engagement and voice.
contains some ■
uses simple ■
has a vague sense
has errors that make skills.
response shows ■
has sophisticated errors when using sentences.of audience.comprehension difficult.
may be illegible or a sense of style of sentence sophisticated language.
uses an appropriate
shows a beginner’s unrecognizable as
audience by structure, sentence ■
has a slightly lower level of vocabulary.control of the language.English.
using effective variety, and vocabulary.quality of sentence ■
demonstrates partial
has errors that begin
vocabulary and ■
has essentially no structure and sentence control of mechanics.to interfere with
varied sentence errors.variety.
exhibits some errors comprehension.
shows errors when that do not interfere
using sophisticated with comprehension.
vocabulary only.
totally unrelated to the topic.
filled with illegible and indecipherable words.
incoherent with illogical or garbled syntax.
ETTM_04_195_266.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 4:20 PM Page 202
Proofread for errors in grammar, punctuation,
and sentence structure.
Proofread to be certain that necessary informa-
tion or steps have not been omitted.
Read your essay aloud to be certain that the lan-
guage sounds natural and not forced or stilted.
Use the expository writing prompts to write an
essay for numbers 798–812. Each prompt has a model
essay and two lower-scoring essays in the answer sec-
tion that you can use to compare and contrast your
writing. You can also use the Rubric for Expository
Writing, included in this chapter, to give you an idea
of the way your essay may be graded. If you have
trouble interpreting the scoring guide, see a teacher
or professor for help.
Practi ce Questi ons
798.Explain the problems, both personal and socie-
tal, that result from obesity.
799.Describe the purposes of the Internet. Include
various viewpoints, including those of users
and providers.
800.Describe various styles of shoes as well as rea-
sons for their popularity.
801.Math is a required subject. Explain why it is so
802.Describe a major environmental problem and
what you believe should be done about it. 803.Describe how communication has changed in
the past 20 years.
804.Discuss the events in the life of your favorite
author, sports figure, or performer. Explain how
these events relate to the person’s achievements.
805.Explain the causes and effects of not voting in
Get a Grip
Proofreading Tip
Three Ways of Looking at an Essay
First, run the spell-checker on your word
processor after completing a first draft or
Second, proofread manually by fold-
ing a piece of paper in half and placing the
folded edge directly under each sentence so
that you can focus your undivided attention
on one sentence at a time.
Third, when you are done proofreading
manually, check for stiff and unnatural lan-
guage and unnecessary words or phrases
by reading your paper aloud, or ask a
friend or relative to read your paper to you.
Get a Grip Writing Tip
Don’t Hardly Never Use No
Double Negatives! These Word
Divas Need to Shine Alone!
Using two negative describing words in a
single phrase is wrong, plain wrong. The fol-
lowing negative words refuse to share star
billing with their equally negative peers, so
use only one of these at a time: no, not,
none, nothing, never, hardly, scarcely.
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806.Explain how to have a winning baseball team.
807.Explain how to choose the right college.
808.Your new job requires that you move to a dif-
ferent city. Describe the steps you will take to
prepare for this move.
809.Many people spend a great deal of time with
animals. Write about the relationships that
people have with animals.
810.Describe an especially memorable photo or
811.Write a letter to a teacher requesting informa-
tion about a poor grade.
812.You want to organize a family reunion.
Describe the steps you will take to contact peo-
ple and to organize the event.
Narrati ve Wri ti ng
When you are writing a narrative essay, you are
telling a story that has a main idea or theme. To make
your story interesting and realistic, you must include
descriptive detail that will help the reader to visualize
and experience the story as it unfolds. Create specific
detail by appealing to the reader’s five senses: sight,
smell, taste, touch, and hearing. For example, if you
are writing about a picnic, you might want to jot
down details about how the food looked and smelled,
the weather, and background sounds.
Avoid attaching vague labels to people, places,
and things. For example, a reader can more easily vi-
sualize “a robin wrestling with a wiggling worm in its
beak” than just “a bird.” Because birds come in all
shapes and sizes, if you simply write “a bird,” the
reader is left to figure out exactly what kind of bird
you are discussing and what it is doing. Besides, the
alliteration produced by “wrestling with a wiggling
worm” may make the story more inviting to the
reader’s ear.
When you are organizing your essay, you have
to make a decision about the order in which you will
present your major ideas and information. Chrono-
logical order is used to write about events in time se-
quence from the past to the present, whereas reverse
chronological order moves from the present to the
past. Space order shifts the reader’s attention from
one space to another—from left to right, from top to
bottom, from above to below, and so on. Space order
is ideal for writing descriptions of landscapes, homes,
people, and events.
Order of importance is a great way to capture
the reader’s attention and build suspense. It can be a
helpful way to organize a science or technology pa-
per, because starting off slowly prepares the reader
for more complex concepts and ideas.
Get a Grip on Transitional Expressions
Here are signal words that help writers make
smooth transitions when writing about
events that have occurred in particular time
after afterward before during
earlier finally first immediately
later next soon then
upon when while
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Rubric for Narrative Writing
SCORE 6 5 4 3 2 1
satisfies the ■
provides a thoughtful
meets some of the
offers a simple ■
meets few of the ■
minimally addresses
Your written requirements of analysis of the writing requirements of the interpretation of the requirements of the the writing prompt.
response shows the writing prompt prompt.writing prompt.writing prompt.writing prompt.
digresses, repeats, an understanding in a creative and ■
uses a clear theme ■
includes some key ■
lacks a theme.
discusses very or dwells on and interpretation original manner.throughout.elements that help basic ideas.insignificant details
of the writing ■
uses an obvious explain the thesis.
makes few throughout.
prompt.theme throughout.connections to help
explain the thesis.
builds and elaborates ■
develops the topic
answers the ■
shows weakness in
contains inaccurate, ■
shows a lack of Your written ideas thoroughly.in an acceptable way.question in an development of ideas vague, or repetitive development of ideas.
response gives a ■
uses examples ■
uses relevant abbreviated manner.and/or develops ideas details.
clear and logical precisely.examples throughout ■
gives brief examples without thorough ■
has limited explanation of ■
develops the topic the essay.to explain ideas.explanation.development ideas, using in an interesting and
develops ideas of ideas.
supporting imaginative way.clearly and material.
demonstrates consistently.
coherence in the development of ideas.
sets up and maintains
has an obvious plan ■
has a general focus.
does not show a ■
shows an attempt
is less organized Your written a clear focus.of organization.
has an obvious logical sense of to create a focus.than a level 2 response shows a ■
establishes a logical,
focuses on the thesis attempt at organization.organization.
digresses from the response.
coherent, orderly, rational sequence of statement.
exhibits a logical ■
strays from the topic.topic.
exhibits no well-reasoned ideas with transitional ■
uses appropriate sequence of ideas.
can be difficult to
is disorganized.organizational pattern approach.words and sentences.devices and transitions.follow.or focus.
has vivid language, ■
has good control of ■
has a sense of ■
uses vocabulary that
exhibits little control
shows minimal
Language Use:fluidity, and a sense of mechanics.audience.is slightly below level.of the language.control of language
Your written engagement and voice.
contains some ■
uses simple ■
has a vague sense
has errors that make skills.
response shows ■
has sophisticated errors when using sentences.of audience.comprehension difficult.
may be illegible or a sense of style of sentence sophisticated language.
uses an appropriate
shows a beginner’s unrecognizable as
audience by structure, sentence ■
has a slightly lower level of vocabulary.control of the language.English.
using effective variety, and vocabulary.quality of sentence ■
demonstrates partial
has errors that begin
vocabulary and ■
has essentially no structure and sentence control of mechanics.to interfere with
varied sentence errors.variety.
exhibits some errors comprehension.
shows errors when that do not interfere
using sophisticated with comprehension.
vocabulary only.
totally unrelated to the topic.
filled with illegible and indecipherable words.
incoherent with illogical or garbled syntax.
ETTM_04_195_266.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 4:20 PM Page 205
Use the narrative writing prompts to write an
essay for numbers 813–825. Each prompt has a model
essay and two lower-scoring essays in the answer sec-
tion that you can use to compare and contrast your
writing. You can also use the Rubric for Narrative
Writing, included in this chapter, to give you an idea
of the way your essay may be graded. If you have
trouble interpreting the scoring guide, see a teacher
or professor for help.
Practi ce Questi ons
813.People often say, “Don’t judge a book by its
cover.” Describe a time when you misjudged
someone based on his or her appearance or
when someone misjudged you.
814.It has been said that the truth is often stranger
than fiction. Describe an experience you had
that was so strange others might think you
made it up.
815.We all have things that we are afraid of, and
sometimes we find ourselves in situations that
force us to face our deepest fears. Tell about a
time when you had to face one of your greatest
816.Moving can be a very exciting but also difficult
time in one’s life. Tell about a time you moved
and how it affected you.
817.As the saying goes, “If at first you don’t suc-
ceed, try, try again.” Describe a time when you
persisted until you achieved your goal.
818.Movies and literature often deal with the
theme of counting your blessings. Tell about an
experience that led you to appreciate someone
or something you’d taken for granted.
819.We are often surprised, even awed, by the expe-
riences of our ancestors. Describe a time when
you learned something important about your
family history.
Stale Is Bad. Fresh Is Good.
Proverbs are time-tested nuggets of wis-
dom that will never go stale, because they
add color and insight to your writing. But
proverbs are not the same as clichés or
trite expressions, which have become stale
and dull due to overuse. Does the cliché
cold, cruel world sound familiar to you? Be-
cause they are so universally recognizable,
clichés can sometimes be used effectively to
communicate an idea, but it’s usually best to
use your own words and phrases instead of
relying on tried-and-true but possibly over-
used expressions. If you are using an ex-
pression or figure of speech that has been
circulated as much as a library edition of the
original Harry Potter novel, you just want to
rethink your choice and dispense with the
ETTM_04_195_266.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 4:20 PM Page 206
820.Most of us remember exactly where we were
and what we were doing when we received
shocking or important news. Tell the story of
what you were doing when you heard about an
important event and how that news affected
821.Many things can interfere with our plans.
Sometimes an illness prevents us from doing
something we really want to do. Describe a
time when you became ill and missed out on
doing something you’d really been looking for-
ward to.
822.Many of our fondest memories are associated
with food. Describe a memorable experience
that took place while preparing or eating food.
823.Try as we might to avoid them, accidents hap-
pen. Tell about a time when you were involved
in an accident.
824.Describe an experience you had that would be
considered a near miss or a brush with disaster.
825.We all need help from others from time to
time. Tell about a time you helped someone in
Scoring Explanations for
Persuasive Writing Essays
A score of “6” indicates that your essay satisfies the
requirements of the writing prompt in a creative and
original manner, using an obvious theme and thesis
throughout. Your essay provides a clear and logical
explanation of your ideas and uses supporting mate-
rial precisely. You thoroughly articulate your ideas in
a coherent fashion, use precise examples, and develop
the topic in an interesting manner. Your essay is or-
derly and well reasoned, with a clear focus, a logical
sequence of ideas, and transitional words and sen-
tences. The essay demonstrates a sense of audience by
using effective vocabulary, varied sentence structure,
and fluid, sophisticated language that is essentially
without errors.
A score of “4” indicates that your essay meets some
of the requirements of the writing prompt, including
some key elements that help explain the thesis. Your
essay may answer the question in an abbreviated
manner, giving only brief examples and developing
ideas somewhat inconsistently. You give the essay a
general focus, make an obvious attempt at organiza-
tion, and present your ideas in a logical sequence. The
language of your essay indicates a general control of
mechanics but has a slightly lower quality of sentence
structure and variety than a sample 6 score. An essay
of this type contains errors only when using sophisti-
cated language.
A score of “1” indicates that your essay only mini-
mally addresses the writing prompt, digressing, repeat-
ing, or dwelling on insignificant details throughout.
An essay on this level shows a lack of development
and exhibits no organizational pattern or focus. Your
writing may be illegible or unrecognizable as English.
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Model Persuasive Writing Essays
783.Many parents give children a weekly or
monthly allowance regardless of their behavior
because they believe an allowance teaches chil-
dren to be financially responsible. Other
parents give children an allowance only as a
reward for completing chores or when they
have behaved properly. Explain what you think
parents should do and why.
Sample 6 Score
Starting when I was about eight years old, my par-
ents gave me a list of chores that had to be com-
pleted each week. If I did my chores, I got an
allowance, a bit of change that I could use as I
pleased. If I didn’t do my chores, I didn’t get my al-
lowance. There was no other punishment, but no
other punishment was necessary. That dollar or two
a week was all the incentive I needed to help out
around the house. Whether it was the latest Barbie
or a six-pack of Hubba Bubba chewing gum, there was
always something I wanted to buy. My parents could
always count on me doing my chores.
I think that giving children an allowance for do-
ing chores is a smart parenting move, for it accom-
plishes four important goals: It helps ensure that
important work gets done around the house; it
teaches children that they need to do their part to
make things run smoothly for the whole family; it re-
wards children in a realistic, practical way for good
behavior; and it helps teach children how to handle
I know that some people consider money for
chores a form of bribery, and others feel that chil-
dren should just do their chores anyway, without the
incentive of an allowance. They argue that giving kids
money for doing chores undermines the lesson that
they need to help the family and do their part. I can
understand that point of view, and when parents give
their children too much money, it does undermine
those lessons. But when the allowance is small, it is
simply a modern version of the age-old practice of re-
warding good behavior. Once children reach a certain
age, money is an appropriate and effective reward
that helps them learn how to be responsible and how
to manage money. They get a sense of what things
are worth and how much they have to save and spend
to get what they want. And learning to save in order
to purchase a desired item teaches them patience
and helps children better understand the value of
hard work.
Giving children money for doing chores is also a
good introduction to the reality of the workplace. If
they do the work, they get paid; if they don’t do the
work, they don’t. Extra work can be rewarded with
bonuses and extra praise; poor work may result in a
pay cut or demotion.
It’s important for parents to find the right
amount to give. Too much money may make a child
feel like hired help and will undermine the goal of
teaching children to help simply because they are
part of a family that must work together. On the
other hand, too little money may make a child feel re-
sentful, as if his or her work isn’t worth anything to
the household. What’s an appropriate amount? It de-
pends on the amount of chores the child is expected
to do and the child’s age. If your nine-year-old is only
expected to clean his or her room, a dollar a week is
probably plenty. If your 14-year-old is expected to
keep his room clean, take out the trash, water the
plants, and vacuum the house, then ten dollars a
week is more appropriate.
Being paid for my chores helped me have a good
attitude about housework, taught me how to save
money and spend it wisely, and enabled me to appre-
ciate the hard work my parents did around the
house. I’m really grateful that this was the way my
parents chose to handle chores in our household.
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Sample 4 Score
Should parents pay children for doing chores is a
good question. My parents paid me, and my brothers
and sister. I never liked doing chores, but getting an
allowance each week (if I did my chores) made it not
so bad. In fact, sometimes I did extra (like reorganiz-
ing the pantry) to get some extra money for some-
thing I really wanted.
I think having my allowance depend on my doing
chores made me understand what it’s like to work. In
the “Real World,” you don’t get paid if you don’t do
your work. That’s how it was in our house.
I also learned that it’s hard work to keep a
house going, I learned to appreciate all the hard work
my mom and dad use to do. In addition, I learned
how to save money. I would set aside my allowance
to save up for something I wanted, like a new CD
player or outfit.
In my opinion, parents should give an al-
lowance for doing chores, but it shouldn’t be too
much. Children should know that they need to help
no matter what. Too much money I think would
make him or her feel like their hired help or some-
thing. Contrarily, too little money can make him or her feel like their help isn’t worth anything to his or her parents. So finding the right amount is
In conclusion, giving children an allowance for
doing household chores is a good idea. Children learn
to work for their money and save what they earn.
Sample 1 Score
Many children they do not behave in properly, they
should be punish, no getting reward. They should no
be allowance anything. Chores is hard, on the con-
trary, there to learn for helping that’s important. For
the family. All to do the parts.
For me, it was vacuuming and the dusting.
Every week, for Saturday or else. Forgetting the al-
lowance, there wasn’t. Only to be punish for what
not to do.
Children should listen, to their parents. Its very
784.More and more farmers and food manufactur-
ers are genetically modifying their crops to
reduce susceptibility to disease, improve flavor,
and reduce costs. Do you think genetically
modifying foods is a good idea? Why or why
not? Use specific reasons and examples to sup-
port your position.
Sample 6 Score
A few decades ago, manipulating genes in people,
plants, and animals was just science fiction. Today,
it’s a reality, and genetic modification may have
many positive applications in the future, including
the eradication of many hereditary diseases. But like
most scientific and technological advances, the ge-
netic modification of organisms for our food supply
can be as dangerous as it is beneficial. Because of
the potential dangers of this technology, I think ge-
netically altering plants and animals in the food sup-
ply is a practice that should be very tightly
controlled and carefully studied before it is an ac-
cepted and common practice. Unfortunately, it may
already be too late for that.
Many people don’t even realize that many of
their foods are genetically modified organisms
(GMOs). GMOs are already prevalent in supermar-
kets and grocery stores across the country, but
manufacturers are not required to label foods as
having been made from GMOs. As a result, millions of
Americans purchase and eat GMOs every day with-
out even knowing it. Yet we don’t even know if GMOs
are harmful to our health. We don’t really know how
GMOs may affect our bodies or our ecosystem. When
we mess with DNA, we may be making changes that
ETTM_04_195_266.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 4:20 PM Page 209
have all sorts of dangerous repercussions, includ-
ing some that we may not even realize for several generations.
One of the main concerns about GMOs is the un-
predictability of the behavior of altered genes and of
the bacteria, plants, and animals that interact with
the altered organism. For example, a crop of corn ge-
netically modified to be less susceptible to a particular
insect may take on other unwanted characteristics
due to the change. It may, for example, become more
susceptible to another disease, or it could develop a
tougher skin on its kernels, or it could decrease the
crop’s ability to produce vitamin E.
More frightening is the domino effect of geneti-
cally modifying foods. Any change in an organism’s
DNA has the potential to affect not only the organ-
ism but also anything that feeds off of it, including
. How do we know how GMOs might affect us on a
microscopic, genetic level? We don’t know, and can’t
know, without years of studies that track all sorts of
potential outcomes over several generations.
Another fear is that transferred genes may es-
cape from one organism into another. For example,
imagine that strain A of sweet peas was altered by
adding a gene that would increase its sugar produc-
tion. Through cross-pollination, this altered genetic
code could enter other strains and slowly (or quickly)
infect the entire subspecies. If the alteration was
beneficial, this could be a good thing. But the altered
gene might not act the same way in all varieties, and
the change may not be a good thing in the first
place, and/or it may have unintended consequences.
Genetically modifying foods is a practice that
has been driven by the desire to make more food
available more quickly and more cheaply than ever be-
fore. This attitude puts profit first and consumers
and the environment last, and that is simply danger-
ous. The agribusiness needs to slow down and stop
selling us GMOs until their safety is certain.
Sample 4 Score
In my opinion GMOs (genetically modified organisms)
are a bad thing. Because we don’t know enough about
them, and they could be dangerous, we don’t even
know it. There needs to be more studies done before
we know for sure its safe.
For example, modified genes could jump from
one GMO to another GMO. Another problem is we
don’t know what other effects a genetic modification
might have. If you change a plant to produce more
sugar or something that might make its fruit
sweeter it might ruin something else in the plant.
We eat GMOs even though it may not say so on
the label. I’m worried because we don’t know how
those GMOs might affect our bodies. Who knows?
Technically these are new foods that no human being
has ever eaten before. It may be a small change but
it’s a change and it could be dangerous.
I think there should be a lot of studies to de-
termine the safety of GMOs and I think any food
that has GMO in it should have a big “GMO” label on
it. We should know what we’re eating and how it might
affect us.
Sample 1 Score
Do I think genetically modifying foods is a good idea?
No. My idea, its bad. Could be very dangerous. We
don’t no, its genes an noone ever did this kind of
thing before. What could be the affects? You chang-
ing the plant from its foundation. What are the other
changes it could be? This is scaring for me.
I like eating healthy food like soy. These make
me feel like I’m putting good in my body. GMOS these
make me feel like I’m putting bad in my body. I worry
who is the mad scientist.
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785.A few decades ago, many families had half a
dozen or more children. Nowadays, more and
more families are choosing to have only one or
two children. Are smaller families better than
larger ones? Why or why not? State your
position and support it with specific reasons
and examples.
Sample 6 Score
I grew up in a large family—I am the oldest of six—
and I have many wonderful memories from my child-
hood. I am very close to most of my siblings and I
treasure my relationships with them. But when I have
my own family someday, it won’t be as big as the one I
grew up in. As much as my large family was full of love,
and as much as I learned about sharing, giving, and
patience, I think having too many kids puts too much
pressure on the parents and the oldest children.
When I think back on my childhood, I remember
playing with my siblings or grandparents. I don’t re-
member spending a whole lot of time with my
mother and father. They were always around, but
they were always busy. Although they did their
best to spend some quality time with each of us,
there was just too much to do to keep our large
family going. My mother was always cooking, clean-
ing, nursing, changing a diaper, shopping, or taking
someone to baseball practice or a playdate. She
was always tired.
My father, on the other hand, was always
working. He needed overtime whenever he could get
it, and weekends were always full of projects around
the house. He had lots of helpers, of course, but
there are only so many things kids can do. Even
when we were able to get away for vacation, Mom
and Dad couldn’t really relax, because there were so
many kids to look after.
Money was also a constant worry for my family.
With so many children, our budget was always tight.
Back-to-school shopping was always a stressful
time; we all wanted the latest fashions, but we could
get only a few things. My younger siblings wore hand-
me-downs as much as they could. We shopped at
bargain stores and often got clothes that we didn’t
really like because they were on sale. Our house al-
ways needed repairs, and there was never enough
money to keep up with them.
Another problem with large families is that the
older siblings always end up being babysitters. Like it
or not (and most of the time I didn’t like it), I had to
watch my younger brothers and sisters. At age six, I
could change a diaper like a pro. I was getting my
brothers and sisters dressed, giving them breakfast,
and helping them get ready for bed. I learned a lot
about sharing, self-sacrifice, and responsibility at an
early age, and these are important character traits
that I value highly and want to instill in my children.
But I also want to give them a chance to bechildren.
I don’t want them to have so much responsibility at
such an early age.
I don’t want to give the impression that I didn’t
have a happy childhood. I most definitely did; I was
loved as much as my parents could love me, and I had
wonderful fun with my brothers and sisters. But I al-
ways wanted a little more time with Mom and Dad,
and I often resented having so much responsibility. I
wished my mom wasn’t always so tired and my dad
didn’t have to work so much. Because I want to be
there more for my kids, because I want them to be
kids throughout their childhood, I plan to have a
much smaller family.
Sample 4 Score
These days, more and more families have only a couple
of kids, whereas, a few decades ago, families were
much bigger, with sometimes as many as ten kids in
the family. I grew up in one of those big families (we
have six kids, and I am the oldest). I had a great child-
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hood, but based on my experience and my family’s, I
would say that it’s better to have a smaller family.
One reason I say this is because I was the
oldest, and I sure did a lot of babysitting. My mom
was always asking me to watch the kids while she
went to the store or took one of the other kids
somewhere. I don’t blame her, if I had that many
kids I sure would need a helper, too. But lots of
times I felt like it wasn’t fair and I didn’t get to do
things with my friends because I had to watch my
brothers and sisters. I also had to change a lot of
diapers, too—and I mean a lot!
I also think smaller families are better for an-
other reason: because my mom and dad were always
working and tired. I guess if you have a whole lot of
money, then it isn’t such a problem. However, we didn’t,
and my dad was always working, while my mom was
always working around the house or running us
around somewhere. I wished I could have spent more
time with them, too.
I really love my family and especially both of my
parents. I did have a great childhood, but I think a
smaller family is easier and better, especially for the
oldest child.
Sample 1 Score
Are smaller families better than larger ones? This is
a big question. I have a large family. There are six
kids. I am the oldest children. I have three brothers
and two sisters. My youngest brother is ten years
younger than me.
My mom, she has 11 brothers and sisters. My
dad, he has ten brothers and sisters. They live far
away from us. My parents, they had good childhood
but for them all it was a lot of work.
786.Good habits improve our physical, emotional,
and/or financial health. Select one of your
good habits and write an essay persuading
readers to make that habit a part of their lives.
Sample 6 Score
When I was 15, I wanted to get a job so I could buy a
car when I turned 16. My father sat me down at the
kitchen table and said, “Excellent. But you can get a
job on only one condition: 10% of every paycheck must
go into a savings account. And you cannot touch
that money except in an emergency.”
“But Dad,” I argued, “if I have to put 10% away,
how will I ever save enough money to buy a car?”
“You’ll have enough,” he replied. “And you’ll soon
see how important it is to set money aside for savings.”
I didn’t believe him at the time, and in fact I of-
ten resented having to put that 10% in a separate
account. But two years later when the transmission
on my car blew, I didn’t have to fret about coming up
with the money for repairs. I was able to cover the
cost easily and was back on the road in no time. It
was then that I began to see the wisdom of my fa-
ther’s rule, which I adopted as my own. This habit has
helped to give me a secure financial life, and I urge
you to make this practice part of your life.
Ten percent of each paycheck may sound like a
lot, and if you’re on a tight budget to begin with, you
might be thinking, “I just can’t afford to do it.” In
truth, you can’t afford not to do it. You never know
when you are going to need an extra $100 or $1,000;
life is full of surprises, and lots of them are expen-
sive. You can afford to do this. In fact, you can’t af-
ford notto do this.
As tight as your budget may be, it’s important
to get started right away. If you are absolutely
scraping by with every last penny going to bills, then
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start with just 5%, but move up to 10% as soon as
you can. If you earn $500 a week, for example, put
$25 to $50 in your savings account each week. At
first, this may mean clipping coupons, renting a movie
instead of going to the theater, or pressing your own
shirts instead of taking them to the cleaner. Think
carefully about ways you can save just a few dol-
lars—because just a few dollars from each paycheck
are all it takes to build up a solid savings account.
The money you save will add up quickly. For ex-
ample, if your annual salary is $40,000, each year
you would put $4,000 into your savings account.
That still leaves you with $36,000 to cover all of
your expenses. After ten years, you will have saved
$40,000, plus interest. And the more money in your
account, the more interest you earn, the larger your
emergency fund, and the more you can afford to relax
later in your life.
Once you get in the habit of putting 10% of your
money into savings, it won’t feel like a sacrifice. The
90% that’s left will be your working budget, and you
won’t even miss that 10%, because you won’t be used
to spending it. Yet you will know that it is there,
ready for an emergency, helping to keep you finan-
cially secure. So take my father’s advice, and mine:
Put a piece of each paycheck into your savings. It’s a
habit that’s worth every penny.
Sample 4 Score
When I was 15, my dad helped me start a good habit
that I still keep to this day, that is saving 10% of
every paycheck. Whenever I get paid, I put 10% of that
check into a savings account. I don’t touch that
money except for an emergency or special purchase.
I’m really grateful to my dad for helping me
start this habit, though I wasn’t at the time, be-
cause I wanted to buy a car and I didn’t know how I
could save up enough money if I didn’t put it all to-
wards the car, but he was right, I did save enough,
and then I had money for repairs because I’d saved
The great thing about this habit is, once you’re
in it, you don’t feel like there’s any money missing. You
use the 90% to figure out your budget, not the 100%.
In just one year you can save a whole lot of money.
You’re probably thinking, like I did, “I can’t afford
to put some of my money away, I need it all.” However,
you’re wrong. You can afford it, and you’ll be glad be-
cause you’ll always have money for an emergency. So
get started today!
Sample 1 Score
Good habits improve our physical, emotional, and/or
financial health. I have many good habit. One, is, I
saving money every month. Another, is, I excersize
everyday. Also, I am eating healthy. I also do not
never use the bad language.
I am pride of my good habits. What habits do
you do that are good for you? Save money like me,
also excersize all the time, and eat healthy. It will be
wise to do.
787.Is there a book that you feel should be required
reading for everyone? Write an essay persuad-
ing your audience to read this book.
Sample 6 Score
Most people know who Frankenstein is—or at least
they think they do. Because of the way Mary Shelley’s
brilliant 1818 novel has been adapted to film, most
Americans think that Frankenstein is a towering,
scar-faced monster who brings terror wherever he
goes. In Shelley’s novel, however, the real monster is
Victor Frankenstein, the scientist who is the mon-
ster’s creator. In her story of how Victor Frankenstein
creates the monster and what he does after the
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monster comes to life, Shelley conveys several time-
less messages about the dangers of science, the
dangers of isolation, and the importance of being a
good parent. It is a novel that everyone should read.
In the story, Frankenstein, eager for glory, wants
to discover the “elixir of life” so that he can have the
power to bring the dead back to life. He wants to cre-
ate a new race of superhuman beings and wants them
to worship him like a god. He wants to unlock the se-
crets of nature and use that power for his own selfish
goals. Shelley’s novel warns us that we must be careful
what we do with science—how we apply the knowledge
we discover. For when Frankenstein does discover the
“elixir of life,” and when he does create a superhuman
being, he creates a creature that is beyond his con-
trol. The creature is more powerful and more intelligent
than Victor Frankenstein, and the creature engineers
Frankenstein’s demise.
Shelley’s novel also warns us about the dan-
gers of isolation. Frankenstein’s creation is so re-
volting and dangerous in part because Frankenstein
works completely alone. He becomes so absorbed
with his project that he completely blocks out family
and friends. He stops communicating with others
and works secretly; he does not consult others
about his project, partly because he knows that
what he is doing is wrong, and partly because he
wants all the glory. But because he does not work
with others and because he loses touch with his
community of family and friends, he also loses touch
with his responsibility to other human beings. When
the creature comes to life, Frankenstein runs away,
abandoning his creation even though he knows the
creature might harm others.
This abandonment brings us to the novel’s third
timeless message: the importance of being a good
parent. Frankenstein creates a living being and then
abandons him because he is an “ugly wretch.” He to-
tally ignores his responsibility to the creature, who is
born as innocent as a child, even though he is the
size of a giant. The creature is abhorred by everyone
he meets, and because no one has ever shown him
love, he learns to hate. And the person he comes to
hate most is the father who abandoned him. Shel-
ley’s message is clear: you are responsible for what
you create, and if you are a parent, you must love
your child, whatever his or her appearance.
In our age of cloning and genetic engineering, of
scattered communities and neighbors who don’t
know each other’s names, of abandoned children and
abusive parents, Shelley’s book may have more impor-
tance than ever. It is also a powerful and suspense-
filled tale. Will Frankenstein capture the creature?
Will he create a bride for the monster? Will Walton,
the ship captain who records Frankenstein’s story,
learn from Frankenstein’s tale? Find out for your-
self. Grab a copy of this amazing novel and enjoy.
Sample 4 Score
Frankenstein isn’t who most people think he is,
which is the monster. The real Frankenstein is the
scientist who brings the monster to life. You’d know
this if you read one of the greatest novels ever written, Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein, a book that I
think everyone should read. This book is great be-
cause its suspensefull and teaches some impor-
tant lessons, these lessons are maybe even more
important to day than they were in Shelly’s time.
(Which was the 1800s.)
One lesson is about how to use science. Dr.
Frankenstein in the story discovers how to bring a
dead person back to life. But everything goes wrong
after the creature wakes up. What was supposed to
be a great thing that would bring Frankenstein all
kinds of glory and make him like a master creator in-
stead brought him and lots of other people all kinds
of terrible horror. I think Mary is telling us to be very
careful how we use science.
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She also is telling us in this story to stay close
to others. Frankenstein makes the creature all by
himself. While he’s working on the monster; he doesn’t
talk to anyone, no one in the university knows what on
earth he’s up to, he’s got a big secret. He’s so ob-
sessed and he forgets to think about what will hap-
pen once this giant creature comes to life. He doesn’t
think about being responsible to and for the creature.
Because he worked alone he forgot about that.
The third lesson is that we need to be good par-
ents. Frankenstein is like the creature’s father and
mother. He created him, and he needs to take care of
him. But he doesn’t, he just runs away. That’s when
his horror begins, and the creature’s, too. The poor
creature is hated by everyone and his life is really sad.
Read this excellent book!
Sample 1 Score
Every school has required reading that all the kids
are required to read for school. There are lots of dif-
ferent books on this list, I read some of them, some
of them are good but I dont like them all.
One book that hard to read but I liked it, was,
Frankenstien. The story of the monster. Frankenstin
makes this monster out of dead body parts. Then he
makes the monster come to life, through some secret
way he doesn’t tell anybody about. Then he runs away
and gets attacked and becomes a killer because every-
one hates him. Frankenstine, is a really good story.
788.Some people think of the United States as a
nation of “couch potatoes.” Write an essay per-
suading readers to be more physically active.
Sample 6 Score
Is your favorite place in the home sitting on the
couch in front of the television? Do you spend hours
and hours there each day, surrounded by bags of
chips and cans of soda? Do you panic when you can’t
find the remote control and think that you might ac-
tually have to get up off of the sofa to change the
If you answered “yes” to any of these ques-
tions, you are not alone. In fact, you are one of the
millions of Americans who are “couch potatoes”: peo-
ple who spend their days and nights “vegging out” in
front of the “tube.”
Well, spud, it’s time to get up out of that arm-
chair and get some exercise!
I know how seductive television can be. I know
how easy it is to plop onto the sofa and lose your-
self in the world of sports, reality shows, and good
old make-believe. I know how mesmerizing MTV and
other channels can be and how hard it can be to pull
yourself away. But all that television spells disaster
for your body, because it needs to be active to be
healthy. And it’s no good for your mental health or
social life, either.
Think about what all that time in front of the
television is doing to your body. Think about what all
that sagging muscle and growing belly is doing to
your life. Think about how your lack of energy affects
you at work.
Now think about how different things would be if
you spent some of that TV time getting exercise in-
stead: You would feel better during the day. You
would sleep better at night. You would have more en-
ergy. You would look better. You would have more con-
fidence. You would be more creative. You would be
healthier and happier. And you would not even miss
the television.
What sort of exercise can you do? Anything!Go
for a walk. Ride a bike. Jog. Lift weights. Take an aero-
bics class. Do yoga. Join a basketball or hockey
league. Swim. Rollerblade. Grab a friend, a fellow
couch potato, and exercise together.
You can start with just 15 minutes a day, two
or three days a week, and build up slowly. Before you
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know it, your couch potato days will be over, and you
will wonder how on Earth you ever spent so much
time in front of the TV.
Sample 4 Score
Americans everywhere are “couch potatoes.” These
are people who just sit in front of the TV all day and
night. They spend so much time on the couch they’re
almost becoming part of the couch. They don’t ever
want to get up to change the channel, so the remote
control is like a part of their hand. Is that what
you’re like? Do you spend too much time in front of
the TV? Well, it’s time to stop being a couch potato.
You need to take care of your body. It’s time for you
to get up and get some excercise.
If you lay around all day, think of how that’s
just not good for you. It’s not healthy. You need to
get excercise to be healthy. Physical activity at
least three times a week will get you back in shape.
It will help you have a healthy heart, better sleep,
and less likely to get sick and diseases because your
immune system will be stronger. Furthermore, you’ll
have more energy and just feel better. This is espe-
cially good for you at work. In addition, you’ll be more
confident because you will look better and fit into
nicer clothes. When you feel better about yourself,
you’re happier.
Its easy to get excercise. You can do some
jumping jacks or jog or play tennis. Even just walking
to the store instead of driving can help. Maybe you
could join a gym or a sports team, like a basketball
team in your neighborhood. Or ask a friend whose
also a couch potato to excercise with you. Its easier
when you have someone to excercise with.
So do yourself a favor, stop spending so much
time in front of the TV! You’ll be proud when your days
as a couch potato are over.
Sample 1 Score
For some people’s thinking, there are to many “couch
potatos”, all across the American country. There are
lying on there couchs all the time, doing nothing. Ex-
cept watching the TV all the time. Whereas they not
getting any excersizing, not anything at all. Theres so
much to do, like jogging or walking or tennis instead.
The couch potatos, they should not be just on the
couch, but also excersizing. Think about being this
like a potato. Is not a good thing! Instead, to be like a
lion or strong like a bull.
789.Nowadays, the private life of a politician is
hardly private. In your opinion, should we be
so concerned with the private life of a politi-
cian or political candidate? State your position
and support it with specific reasons and examples.
Sample 6 Score
When you think of former president Bill Clinton,
what’s the first thing that comes to mind? Unfortu-
nately, for many people, the first thing they think of
is Monica Lewinsky. Like millions of people around the
globe, I was horrified by how much the investigation
delved into Mr. Clinton’s private life. No one needed to
know the sort of details that were revealed by Ken
Starr’s investigation. But while I don’t want to know
the details, I do believe we have a right to know what
sort of lives our politicians are living. I believe their
behavior in private is a reflection of their true values
and how they will behave in office.
For example, if a politician lies to his or her
spouse (I’m talking about big lies, like infidelity, not
little white lies), that tells us something about his or
her character. In my opinion, this person is not to be
trusted. I wouldn’t have faith that this politician
would keep his or her word. True, the relationship be-
tween a husband and wife is very different from that
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between a politician and his or her constituents. But
the politician’s respect for that relationship and how
he or she deals with any problems in that relation-
ship reflect his or her level of integrity.
Similarly, if a politician (or political candidate)
behaves in an illegal manner, that shows a disrespect
for the law. A government official who employs an ille-
gal alien as a nanny or housekeeper, for example, or
pays a nanny or housekeeper under the table to
avoid taxes is acting as if he or she is above the
law—or demonstrating that he or she simply doesn’t
care about the law. This is not the kind of person I
want in a public office.
On the other hand, if a politician leads a re-
spectable, law-abiding life at home, we can expect a
respectable, law-abiding performance in office. A
politician who deals honestly with family, friends, and
business associates is likely to deal honestly with
his or her constituents as well. A politician who re-
spects the law in all aspects of his or her private life
is likely to respect the law while in office, too. A can-
didate who behaves in a cautious, reserved manner
regarding his or her personal affairs is likely to bring
a similar approach to the office.
I know that nobody is perfect and that every
politician may have skeletons in the closet. I’m not
talking about transgressions from the distant past.
But I am concerned with a politician’s recent past and
current behavior. Is he or she honest or does he or she
break promises? Does he or she behave recklessly or in
a thoughtful and controlled manner? We cannot sepa-
rate who we are personally from who we are profession-
ally. That is why I believe the public has a right to know.
Sample 4 Score
Politicians live very public lives. If their big politicians
(like the president, for example), they don’t really
have any privacy. Everybody knows everything they
do. This probably bothers some people, however, I ac-
tually think that is a very good thing. I think we need
to know what politicians are really like. How they are
at home (in private) tells us about how they will be in
the office.
It’s true that we are different at home and in
the office. However, we’re still the same person. In
other words, we will pretty much act the same, on
the same values and principals, whether we’re at
home or in the office. If we would steal or lie at home,
we would probably steal or lie in the office. So, if a
politician lies to his wife, for example, or to her busi-
ness partners, then we can probably expect them to
lie to the people who elected them.
On the contrary, if a politician lives an honest
life and always obeys the law. We can probably expect
them to behave honestly and lawfully when they are
in office. Because like I started to say before, you
can’t separate home and work. We’re the same per-
son in both places.
So, in conclusion, it’s a good idea to have
knowledge about politician’s private affairs. They
probably don’t like it and want things to be private.
However, since they are our elected officials, they
have to be public, unfortunately for them about al-
most everything.
Sample 1 Score
The politicians, they have privacy in there homes.
For them too much is knowed about everything what
they is doing. This is bad; for them. Whereas, know-
ing the public are a very good thing for us. If lying
and stealing there, also here. Don’t you agree? It is
clear. If they are a liar at home, we will be lying to
also. So therefore, in my opinion, “we should be so
concerned with the private life of a politician or po-
litical candidate.”
ETTM_04_195_266.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 4:20 PM Page 217
790.Today’s top professional athletes often have
salaries and bonuses in the tens of millions of
dollars. Do you think these athletes deserve
such high compensation? Why or why not?
Explain your position and use specific reasons
and examples.
Sample 6 Score
When he was at the height of his basketball career,
Michael Jordan was making approximately $300,000
per game. That’s more than most people make in a
year; indeed, it’s more than some people earn in a
lifetime. Yes, Michael Jordan was a phenomenal bas-
ketball player. Yes, he was also a fantastic role
model. But no, he did not deserve to earn such a
ridiculously high salary. Jordan, like many other top
professional athletes, was grossly overpaid.
Why do top athletes earn such inflated
salaries? Because they bring big bucks into their
cities and franchises. But what sort of service do
they provide to society? Do they save lives? No. Do
they improve the standard of living or promote posi-
tive social change? No. Do they help keep our streets
safe or educate our kids? No. True, many of the top
athletes are good role models for our children. But
seven-figure salaries don’t always mean model be-
havior. Take NBA star Latrell Spreewell, for example,
who choked and threatened to kill his coach. It is true that professional athletes work hard,
and many have spent their lives pursuing their goals.
It is also true that most professional athletes have
a relatively short career span—a decade perhaps
at the top of their game. Limited as their profes-
sional sporting career may be, they don’t deserve
such high salaries. After their professional sports
careers are over, they can certainly pursue other ca-
reers and work regular jobs like the rest of us. End-
ing their stints as professional athletes doesn’t
mean they have to stop earning incomes. They just
have to earn incomes in a different way. Why should
they be any different from the rest of us who may
need to switch careers?
It is also true that professional athletes may
be injured while on the job; their work is indeed physi-
cal, and especially in contact sports like football, in-
juries are bound to happen. But, like the rest of us,
they have insurance, and in nearly all cases, their ex-
orbitant salaries more than cover their medical
costs. And theirs is not the only high-risk job. What
about miners, construction workers, or firefighters?
They are at risk for physical injury every day, too—in-
juries that could likewise end their careers. But they
sure aren’t earning millions of dollars a year.
It is also true that professional athletes may
spend years and years practicing with farm teams
for a fraction of the salary they receive once they
make it to the top. But in every career path, we
start off with lower wages and must pay our dues
and work our way up. Besides, farm team salaries
are not always so low.
We’re a sports-crazy country, a nation of fa-
natic sports fans and celebrity worshippers. We’re
awed and entertained by the best of them—the
Michael Jordans, the Alex Rodriguezes, the Emmitt
Smiths. But as much as they may inspire and enter-
tain us, professional athletes do not deserve such
high salaries. Those millions could be much more
wisely spent.
Sample 4 Score
Do athletes get paid too much? You bet. That’s my
Professional athletes, what do they do with
all that money? Imagine Michael Jordan earning
$300,000 per game! Plus all his money from Nike
and other advertising. I think that money can be put
to much better use in this country.
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Professional athletes should get good salaries,
but not the millions like they get now. It’s just too
much. Their job isn’t dangerous, except maybe for
football or ice hockey where it’s easy to get a bad in-
jury. It’s easy to get a bad injury in lots of other jobs,
too, like construction, but they don’t get millions of
dollars. I guess, the difference is that nobody likes to
watch construction workers. There’s fun in the game
and people like the competition, sports teams bring
lots of money into a city’s economy.
If professional athletes could guarantee they’d
also be a good role model for kids, then maybe they
could have such high salaries. Because they’d be do-
ing something good for society since so many kids
are watching. For now though, it’s too much.
Sample 1 Score
Today the athleets so much money. Millions an mil-
lions of the dollars. They playing baseball, basketball;
football, even for golf. This is the not of the danger-
ous sport, even less than many of the others.
The money, it’s too much, giving mine opinon. For
the teems and the citys its so much there’s else to
pay for with the money, like homelessness. This is the
need to be changed.
791.Is reading fiction a waste of time? Why or why
not? Explain your answer using specific reasons
and examples to support your position.
Sample 6 Score
Remember the last book that captured your imagi-
nation, that transported you to another place and
time? Remember a book that made you fall in love
with its characters, made you feel their pain and
joy? Remember a story that taught you an impor-
tant lesson, that helped you better understand
others, or that helped you make sense of the hu-
man condition? If so, then you can understand why
the question “Is reading fiction a waste of time?” is
such a silly question.
Fiction, unlike a user manual, a magazine arti-
cle, or a newspaper editorial, probably won’t offer you
any practical knowledge that you can put to immedi-
ate use. It won’t inform you of current events or give
you advice on how to cultivate a better garden. It
probably won’t help you decide which candidate to
vote for or which product to buy. But that certainly
doesn’t mean it’s useless or impractical. Indeed, fic-
tion serves three important functions for human be-
ings: It helps us be more compassionate to others, it
helps us better understand ourselves, and it culti-
vates our imaginations. It can also teach us about
history, psychology, even biology and other sciences.
Compassion for others is rooted in under-
standing and acceptance, and a good story brings
us into the inner world of its characters so that we
can understand them. In Toni Morrison’s novel The
Bluest Eye
, for example, Morrison peels away the lay-
ers of her characters’ histories piece by piece like an
onion until we see into their core and understand
what drives them. They may still do awful things to
each other, but she shows us why they do the things
that they do, and we learn that we shouldn’t judge
others until we understand their pasts. Their stories
are sad and painful, and we learn to love even the
outcast Pecola. In fact, we learn that those out-
casts are the ones who need our love the most.
Many stories and novels also help us better un-
derstand ourselves. Joseph Conrad’s dark and pow-
erful novel Heart of Darknesshelps us see that all of
us have a dark side, and that we need to acknowl-
edge this dark side in order to control it. It makes us
question just how civilized we are and indeed what it
means to be civilized in the first place.
Good fiction also cultivates our imagination,
which is more important to us than some might
think. Without imagination, we live a sad, empty life.
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Imagination is central to our emotional health and is
a key factor in our level of intelligence. Facts are one
thing; but facts can be of no real use unless coupled
with imagination. Fiction can help us by keeping our
imaginations fresh and active. In a story like Franz
Kafka’s “Metamorphosis,” for example, we are asked
to imagine that Gregor, the main character, wakes
up one morning and has turned into a giant bug.
Crazy? Perhaps. But once we accept this premise and
imagine Gregor as a five-foot-long cockroach, we can
feel his family’s horror and imagine his agony as he
finds himself trapped in his room and abandoned by
those he loves.
Is reading fiction a waste of time? That’s like
asking if laughing is a waste of time. We don’t need
fiction to survive, but we do need it to be kinder, more
understanding, and more creative human beings.
Sample 4 Score
Is reading fiction a waste of time? I am surprised
by this question. I never thought of it as a waste of
time. I understand that it is not practical like
reading a “how-to” article or something like that.
However, on the other hand, it is good for you. I
think it helps you have a good imagination and be a
better person.
I think fiction helps you be a better person be-
cause it helps you understand people. Lots of sto-
ries help you understand why people do what they do.
For example, in The Bluest Eye, at the end of the
story we understand why the people do the things
that they do. We judge the characters right away
but then we learn about them and maybe change our
judgment. The book was written by Toni Morrison.
Second, I think fiction also helps you under-
stand yourself. Some stories help us see that we all
have a good side and a dark side within. Fiction can
also help us have a good imagination, and this is im-
portant in helping us be creative. Being creative can
help you better solve problems and think of original
I love reading fiction, and I never think it is a
waste of time. It may not be practical, like reading
the newspaper, however it is a lot more fun and helps
me be a better person.
Sample 1 Score
Is reading fiction a waste of time? is a question. How
is the answer? Like you and me, wondering, is fun
things a waste of time too, or only do the practical
what you should? These be important questions.
What the answer?
In my opinion, no way, Jose! It fun to read fiction
stories. Its like imagenation, cool things.
So don’t beleive it. Say who! Reading fiction
ain’t wasting time. In my opinion.
792.Some people think that school cafeterias
should be required to provide low-fat and/or
vegetarian lunch options to accommodate the
eating habits of all students. Do you agree or
disagree? Explain your position and use spe-
cific reasons and examples as support.
Sample 6 Score
It’s a fact: There are students across the United
States who are vegetarian and/or health conscious,
and school cafeterias should be required to provide
low-fat and/or vegetarian lunch options for them.
Even more importantly, many teenagers’ dietary de-
cisions are based not only on health concerns but
also on religious and/or moral issues. In this day
and age, an individual's eating habits often reflect
his or her identity. For these reasons, it's impera-
tive that each school's cafeteria menu be as di-
verse as its student body.
Just by reading headlines in any of the major
news magazines, it becomes clear that the United
ETTM_04_195_266.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 4:20 PM Page 220
States is a nation that needs to slim down. In every
town and city, there is an abundance of fast-food
restaurants that lure teenage customers with fast,
inexpensive, and tasty food, but these foods are typ-
ically unhealthy. Unfortunately, school cafeterias, in
an effort to provide food that is appetizing to young
people, mimic fast-food menus, often serving items
such as burgers and fries, pizza, hot dogs, and fried
chicken. While these foods do provide some nutri-
tional value, they are relatively high in fat, and many
of them, namely burgers, hot dogs, and fried chicken,
are clearly not designed for vegetarians.
Many of the lunch selections currently offered
by most school cafeterias could be made vegetarian
and/or more healthy with a few simple and inexpen-
sive substitutions. Veggie burgers, for example, of-
fered alongside beef burgers would give both
vegetarians and the health conscious more options.
A salad bar would also serve the dual purpose of pro-
viding both vegetarians and low-fat food eaters the
opportunity for a satisfying meal. This is not to say
that accommodating every desire or food preference
is plausible, but students should have the right to be
served foods that coincide with their life choices. Sample 4 Score
In the United States there are many people who
are vegetarian. In addition, there are people who
choose to eat low-fat foods, either to lose weight
or to stay healthy. Many of these people are stu-
dents who eat lunch at their school cafeterias on a
daily basis. Surprisingly though, school cafeterias
are not required to provide low-fat nor vegetarian
options for students.
Unfortunately, vegetarian options may be lim-
ited to the french fries (served with burgers) or
pizza. While these are vegetarian (non-meat) options,
they do not necesarily serve as low-fat foods. I think
schools should have a wider variety of low-fat and/or
vegetarian options such as a salad bar, or perhaps
even something with tofu.
While cafeterias can't meet all the demands of
students, it is important to offer those commited to
a healthy or vegetarian lifestyle the choice. Schools
should create a menu that offers these options for
all students.
Sample 1 Score
Lot's of people are overwait and even fat, and the
other people are vegetaran who dont eat meat. The
food at schools are bad enouf and then why should
they hafe to have stuff that those people like.
School's shoudl have good food and meat, but not
fat food for everyone.
793.Many people feel that the use of surveillance
cameras in public places, such as parking lots,
is a good idea that can help ensure our safety.
Others worry that too many cameras violate
our right to privacy and give law enforcement
officials too much power. In your opinion,
should we install more surveillance cameras
in public places? Why or why not? Support
your position with specific reasons and
Sample 6 Score
Not long ago, the nation was gripped by the horrify-
ing news that a baby had been stolen from a car in a
parking lot while her mother, who was returning a
shopping cart, was just a few feet away. Thanks to
the description of the kidnapper captured by surveil-
lance cameras in the parking lot and broadcast over
radios, television, and highway overpass signs, the
kidnapper was quickly caught and the baby returned,
unharmed, to her mother. Had it not been for those
surveillance cameras, that mother would probably
never have seen her baby girl again.
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I can’t think of a much better argument for the
use of surveillance cameras in public places. That
baby’s life was saved by those parking lot cameras.
Many people worry about the use of surveillance
cameras in public places such as parking lots, stores,
parks, and roadways. They don’t like the idea that
they are being watched. They worry that the informa-
tion captured on the surveillance tapes can somehow
be used against them. But how? It seems to me that
the only reason we should worry about being caught
on surveillance cameras is if we are doing something
wrong. If we are behaving lawfully in a public place,
then why worry if it is captured on film?
Surveillance cameras can provide two im-
mensely important services. One, they can help us
find those who commit crimes, including thieves, kid-
nappers, vandals, and even murderers. Two, they can
serve as a powerful deterrent to crime. A thief who
plans to steal a car may think twice if he knows he
will be caught on video. A woman who hopes to kidnap
a child may abandon her plans if she knows she will be
captured on film.
Surveillance cameras can also help us in less
critical but nonetheless practical ways. In some
towns in England, for example, radio deejays use in-
formation from surveillance cameras to announce the
availability of parking spaces in crowded public park-
ing lots. Problems of all shapes and sizes can also be
noted and addressed through video surveillance. For
example, imagine a video camera installed in a local
town square. Reviewing the films, officials might real-
ize that people who meet in the square move quickly
into the shade of the one tree in the center of the
square. This could move officials to plant more trees
or provide tables with umbrellas so that people could
meet and relax in the shade. Similarly, a video camera
in a grocery store might reveal that aisle 7 is always
overcrowded, prompting the manager to rearrange
items to more evenly distribute shoppers.
Of course it’s possible to have too much of a
good thing, and if surveillance cameras cross the
line and start being installed on private property—
that is, in our offices and homes—then we will have
the “Big Brother is watching” scenario opponents
fear. If that were the case, I would be against sur-
veillance cameras, too. But as long as surveillance
cameras are limited to public places, they can help
ensure our safety.
Sample 4 Score
Many public places now have surveillance cameras,
the main reason being to ensure safety. I think this
is a good idea, and that more places should have
Surveillance cameras are a good thing be-
cause they help keep us safe. If people know they
might be on video then, they probably won’t do
something bad or against the law, like stealing. This
is a big protection for us. It makes me feel safer, es-
pecially like in a parking lot in the night time. The
other good thing about surveillance cameras, is
that they can help us catch someone who does do
something bad. For example, stealing a car in a
parking lot. The camera can get a good picture of
the thief and the police will have a good description
of the person who stole the car. That makes it a lot
easier to catch the thief.
I think surveillance cameras can also be used
for other good things, like helping fix traffic jams in
grocery stores. I mean if you can see that people are
always crowding in one isle, for example.
I know that some people are upset about this
kind of thing (being on film) and think that it’s like
“Big Brother is watching,” or something. Also, some
people just don’t like being on cameras. However, if
you’re not doing anything wrong, it shouldn’t matter.
Their only for finding people who do things wrong. To
me, I think that makes a lot of sense.
ETTM_04_195_266.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 4:20 PM Page 222
Sample 1 Score
In my opinion, should we install more surveillance
cameras in public places? I think, “yes,” is a good idea.
Why or why not? In my opinion, it is for making en-
sured the safety in places such as parking lots. This
is what our right to privacy can do and tell the law
enforcement officials and government too.
794.Alexander Smith said, “The great man is the
man who does a thing for the first time.” Do
you agree with this definition of greatness?
Why or why not?
Sample 6 Score
Just as there are many definitions of success, there
are also many definitions of greatness. Alexander
Smith said that a great person is someone who does
a thing for the first time. He’s right, and the list of
those great people is long and includes the likes of
Neil Armstrong, Jackie Robinson, and Thomas Edi-
son. But Smith’s definition isn’t broad enough to in-
clude many other people who I believe are also great.
In my opinion, greatness can also be attained by do-
ing something to improve the lives of others.
Mother Teresa is the first person to come to
mind under this broadened definition. Mother Teresa,
who received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979, dedicated
her life to helping the poor, the sick, and the hungry.
She left her homeland of Yugoslavia to work with the
impoverished people of India, where she selflessly
served others for almost 70 years. She became a
nun and founded the Missionaries of Charity sister-
hood and the House for the Dying. She embraced
those that many in society chose to disdain and ig-
nore: the crippled and diseased, the homeless and
helpless. She gave them food, shelter, medical care,
and the compassion that so many others denied
them. She was certainly not the first to dedicate her
life to the care of others, but she was certainly a
great woman.
Another great person who also won a Nobel
Peace Prize was Dr. Albert Schweitzer, a German
doctor who, like Mother Teresa, also selflessly served
the poor and sick. Schweitzer dedicated himself to
the people of Africa. There, he built a hospital and a
leper colony, a refuge for those who had been re-
jected by society. Again, he was not the first to offer
care and comfort for the sick and suffering. But he
certainly was great.
Harriet Tubman is also clearly a great woman.
She led hundreds of American slaves to freedom
along the underground railroad, risking her life over
and over again to bring her fellow slaves to freedom.
She gave them the greatest gift one can offer: free-
dom to live a better way of life. She wasn’t the first
to escape, and she wasn’t the first to go back for
others. But she was the one who kept going back.
She knew that each time she returned for another,
she was risking her life. But like Mother Teresa and
Dr. Schweitzer, Harriet Tubman was utterly dedi-
cated to improving the lives of others.
Greatness comes in many forms, and we are
lucky to have many examples of greatness upon
which to model our lives. Some great people are
those who were able to be the first to accomplish
something marvelous. Others, like Mother Teresa, Al-
bert Schweitzer, and Harriet Tubman, are great be-
cause they worked tirelessly to ease the suffering of
their fellow human beings.
Sample 4 Score
According to Alexander Smith, “The great man is the
man who does a thing for the first time.” In my opin-
ion, this is a good definition, but it is also too narrow.
By that I mean that it is not broad enough to include
lots of other people that I believe are great. There are
ETTM_04_195_266.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 4:20 PM Page 223
many people who didn’t necessarily do anything for
the first time who have done great things.
One example was Mother Teresa. Another is Al-
bert Schweitzer, and a third is Harriet Tubman.
Albert Schweitzer opened up a hospital and
leper colony in Africa to take care of the sick and
abandoned people who had no money or access to
health care. This was a great thing. Without his hos-
pital, people would die or suffer and be outcast by
Harriet Tubman is famous for being a woman
who kept going back to the South to free slaves. She
led them through the “underground railroad” and
brought them to freedom. She wasn’t the first to es-
cape or help others escape, but she was great be-
cause she kept doing it and kept helping others.
Finally, Mother Teresa helped so many people.
She went to India and opened up a place for the sick
and the dying to be taken care of. She helped to feed
and comfort hungry and sick people, thousands of
them. She is what it means, to be compassionate
towards others.
All three of these people and lots of others like
them are great for what they did to help others.
Sample 1 Score
What does it mean, to be great. Alexander Smith say
that “The great man is the man who does a thing for
the first time.” I know a lot of great men, the list can
be long: George Washington, Robert Kennedy, Mother
Teresa, Harriet Tubman, Beethoven, Jackie Robinson,
Reggie Jackson (I like baseball), Martin Luther King,
and etc. the list goes on and on.
To be great is not an easy thing. Having to do
something for the first time, or doing something else
that is great. You can be leading others or helping
them. In fact not everyone who does this is great.
795.Should people lease or buy new cars? Make a
case for the option that you think is better. Use
specific reasons and examples to support your
Sample 6 Score
Planning to lease a car because you don’t think you
can afford to buy? Think again. Leasing can end up
being just as expensive as buying—and you don’t
even get to keep the car. Even if you decide to buy the
car at the end of your lease, you may end up paying
considerably more money than if you’d decided to buy
from the beginning.
Most people who are thinking about leasing are
attracted to this option because they believe it will
cost them less money. And they’re right—it is
cheaper, but only in the short term. For example, if you
were to lease a new Subaru Forester, with $2,500
down, you might pay $250 per month for the car. If
you were to buy the same car, with $2,500 down, you
would pay closer to $350 per month. Over a three-
year lease, that’s $3,600—a big savings. But after
your lease is over, you’ll have to give the car back. If you
want to keep driving, you’ll either have to put another
down payment on another lease, or, if you have the op-
tion to buy the car, you’ll have to pay thousands of
dollars to purchase the vehicle—dollars that won’t be
spread out in more manageable monthly payments.
Many people want to lease because they can
then drive a nicer car than they might otherwise be
able to afford. For example, if your monthly budget al-
lowed you to spend $250 on your car, you might be
able to lease a brand-new Ford Explorer. For the same
price, you might have to buy an Explorer that was
two or three years old with 50,000 miles, or buy a
new but considerably less expensive make and model.
A lease therefore allows you to drive in the latest
models of more expensive cars. But when your lease
is over, you will have to return that Explorer. What-
ETTM_04_195_266.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 4:20 PM Page 224
ever car you can afford to buy, you get to keep it, and
it will always have a resell or trade-in value if later on
you want to upgrade to a newer car.
Furthermore, people who lease cars are often
shocked by how much they must pay when the lease
is over. Most leases limit you to a certain number of
miles, and if you go over that allotment, you must
pay for each mile. As a result, at the end of your
lease, you may end up paying thousands of dollars in
mileage fees. For example, if your lease covers you
for 25,000 miles over three years, but you drive
40,000 miles, that’s an extra 15,000 miles. At 11¢
per mile, that’s $1,650 you’ll have to pay. And you
still won’t have a car.
In addition, when you lease, you still have to pay
for regular maintenance and repairs to the vehicle.
Because you must return the car when your lease ex-
pires, you are paying to repair someone else’s car. If
you own the car, however, you would know that every
dollar you spend maintaining or repairing the car is
an investment in a real piece of property—your prop-
erty, not someone else’s.
By now, the benefits of buying over leasing
should be clear. But if you’re still not convinced, re-
member this fundamental fact: If you lease, when
your lease is up, after you’ve made all of your monthly
payments, paid for extra mileage, and paid for re-
pairs, you must give the car back. It isn’t yours to
keep, no matter how much the lease cost you. What-
ever make or model you can afford to buy, it is yours
to keep after you make your payments. There’s no
giving it back, and that makes all the difference.
Sample 4 Score
When you need a car, you can lease, or buy it. A lot of
people think leasing is better, than buying. I think it
makes more sense to buy. It really actually costs
less money in the long run.
With a lease you can pay less each month for a
car. If you buy it you’d probably have to pay a lot more
each month, like a hundred dollars more a month.
But the good thing about buying is you get to keep
the car. With a lease of course, you have to give the
car back.
With a lease you also have to pay for the extra
miles you put on the car. You are only allowed to put
so many miles on the car and if you go over that, you
have to pay for each mile. That can add up to thou-
sands of dollars even though its only a few sense for
each mile.
You will also need to pay for any repairs on the
car just like you would if you owned it, which you
don’t, because you still have to give it back. When you
owne the car, you still have to pay for repairs, but,
it’s your car. Leasing feels like throwing money away.
Sample 1 Score
Lot of people they buy car, so many others they leas-
ing. Leasing mean pay money each month and then
giving the car back. Leasing can be for one year or
two even three or four. Most any car, you can lease it.
Any car you can buy, too, new one or use one.
Leasing sometime you pay fewer monies be-
cause you don’t keep the car. Buying sometime it
cost more but you keep the car. Down paying can be a
lot of money and hard to save.
Buying or leasing, is up to you. Which works for
796.The inventor and statesman Benjamin Franklin
said, “Money never made a man happy yet, nor
will it. There is nothing in its nature to produce
happiness.” Do you agree with this statement?
Why or why not? Use specific reasons and
examples to support your position.
ETTM_04_195_266.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 4:20 PM Page 225
Sample 6 Score
Benjamin Franklin is one of the greatest figures in
American history, and I have a great deal of respect
for this incredible inventor, politician, and writer. But I
must respectfully disagree with his claim that
“Money never made a man happy yet, nor will it. There
is nothing in its nature to produce happiness.” I agree
that money in and of itself does not make a person
happy; but I believe that money can help provide one
thing that is essential to happiness: good health.
While money can do nothing to change our ge-
netic makeup and our physiological predisposition to
illness and disease, it can give us access to better
healthcare throughout our lives. This begins with pre-
natal care and childhood vaccinations. In impover-
ished third-world countries, infant mortality rates
are three, four, even ten times higher than in the
United States, and as many as one in four women
still die in childbirth because they do not have ac-
cess to modern medical care. Sadly, people who are
too poor to afford vaccinations and routine health-
care for their children watch helplessly as many of
those children succumb to illnesses and diseases
that are rarely fatal here in the United States.
Money also enables us to afford better doctors
and see specialists throughout our lives. If your child
has difficulty hearing, for example, and you have insur-
ance (which costs money) or cash, you can see a hear-
ing specialist and pay for therapy. If you have migraines
that make you miserable, you can see a headache spe-
cialist and afford medication and treatment. Having
money also means being able to afford preventative
measures, such as taking vitamins and getting regular
check-ups. It means being able to afford products and
services that can enhance our health, such as gym
memberships, organic foods, and acupuncture.
Another important thing money can do is en-
able us to live in a healthy environment. Many of the
world’s poorest people live in dirty, dangerous
places—unsanitary slums crawling with diseases
and health hazards of all sorts. In a particularly poor
area of the Bronx, for example, children had an ab-
normally high rate of asthma because their families
couldn’t afford to move away from the medical waste
treatment plant that was poisoning the air.
Money can also help us be healthy by enabling
us to afford proper heating and cooling measures.
This includes being able to afford a warm winter
coat and the opportunity to cool off at a pool or in
the ocean. On a more basic level, it means being able
to afford heat in the winter and air-conditioning in
the summer. During heat waves, victims of heat-
stroke are often those who are too poor to afford
air-conditioning in their apartments. In extreme cold,
the same is true: people who freeze to death or be-
come gravely ill from the cold are often those who are
unable to afford high heating bills.
Having money may not make people happy, but
it sure goes a long way toward keeping them healthy.
And as they say, if you haven’t got your health, you
haven’t got anything.
Sample 4 Score
Benjamin Franklin once said that “Money never made
a man happy yet, nor will it. There is nothing in its na-
ture to produce happiness.” I do not agree with this
statement because money can buy access to good
health care. In my opinion, good health is essential to
happiness. Therefore, money can make you happy by
keeping you healthy.
Money first of all can get you access to good
doctors, even specialists if you need them. With
money, you can afford all kinds of things, like tests
that check for diseases and special treatments if
you find something wrong. If your pregnant you can
get good pre-natal care and have a good birth, while
in poor countries lots of women die in childbirth and
lots of babies die while their infants.
ETTM_04_195_266.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 4:20 PM Page 226
If you have money you can buy an air conditioner
so it’s not too hot in the summer and you can afford
to have heat all winter. If you don’t you might suffo-
cate in the heat or freeze to death. You can also
stay out of poor areas like slums which are unhealthy
and dangerous to live in.
As they say, money can’t buy you love, but I
think it can buy you good health, and if you don’t feel
good, it’s hard to be happy.
Sample 1 Score
Benjamin Franklin was a great inventer of America.
He famous for inventing electricity. He also wrote a
lot. One thing he said once was that “Money never
made a man happy yet, nor will it. There is nothing in
its nature to produce happiness.” Do you agree or
disagree with this statement? Every one has their
opinion. Another question is what is happiness? I
also like to be with my family and friends. Some times I need money to spend with them,
like to fly on a plane to see my brother in Colorado. It
is as beautifol there as every one told me it was.
797.Some states have now made it illegal to drive
while talking on a handheld cell phone. Do you
think this is a good law that should be passed
in other states as well? Why or why not?
Explain your answer.
Sample 6 Score
No matter how careful a driver you may be, when you
do something else while driving, whether it’s drinking
coffee, changing the radio station, looking at a map,
or making a call on your cell phone, you endanger
yourself and others because you are distracted
from your driving. Even a fraction of a second of dis-
traction is enough to cause an accident. While no
state can make it illegal to drink coffee or switch
stations while driving, all states can, and should,
make it illegal to drive while talking on a cellular
In the past decade, as the popularity of cellular
phones has risen, so have the number of accidents
caused by people talking on their cell phones. Whether
they were dialing a number, listening to a message, or
simply in a heated conversation, they were momentar-
ily distracted from the task of driving, and suddenly—
crash!Fortunately, many of these accidents have
been minor fender-benders. But all too many have
been deadly accidents that could have been pre-
vented by a stricter cell-phone use laws.
Cell phone proponents may argue that talking
on a cell phone is no more dangerous than, for exam-
ple, having a cup of coffee while on the road or talk-
ing to someone in the backseat. But unlike a cup of
coffee, which you can put down between sips, you
must keep the phone in your hand. That means that
you have only one hand on the wheel while you’re driv-
ing. That makes cell phones doubly dangerous: not
only are you distracted by dialing or by the conver-
sation; you are also driving one-handed, which
means you are less in control. If you suddenly need
both hands on the wheel to prevent an accident or
to keep your car from sliding, the extra second it
takes to get your hand back on the wheel can make
the difference between an accident and an acci-
dent narrowly averted, between a serious injury and
a minor one.
Cell phones are also dangerous because when
you are busy talking, especially if you really have to
concentrate on the matter you are discussing, your
mind is not fully focused on the road, and this has a
significant effect on your reaction time. You will be
slower to make important driving decisions such as
how soon to brake and when to switch lanes, and you
will be less able to respond to situations on the road.
Many people use cell phones to report acci-
dents and emergencies, to let loved ones know they’ll
ETTM_04_195_266.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 4:20 PM Page 227
be late, and to stay in touch when they’re out of
town. I’m not arguing that you shouldn’t have a cell
phone in your car. What I am saying is that you
shouldn’t be driving when you’re talking on that
phone. Until your state outlaws handheld cell phones
in cars, pull over to the side of the road when you are
ready to make a call. It may add a few extra minutes
to your commute, but it just might save your life.
Sample 4 Score
Driving with a cell phone is dangerous, and it should
be illegal. Its all ready illegal in some states, in my
opinion it, should be illegal in all of them.
First of all, driving with a cell phone is danger-
ous because your distracted. Especially when you’re
dialing a number, then you’re not even looking at the
road. What if the cars in front of you suddenly stop?
You can also be distracted by the conversation
you are having and lose focus from driving. This
means that you may not be able to react quick
enough to dangers on the road. Another problem is
that with a cell phone, you don’t have both hands on
the wheel, and that’s for the whole time you’re talk-
ing. You can’t make sharp turns and handle sudden
curves with just one hand.
Lots of people think, oh, it’s just one quick call,
no problem. But even just a quick call makes you dis-
tracted, even just for a quick second. That’s enough
to cause an accident. So don’t drive when you need to
talk on your cell phone. Instead, be safe and pull over.
Sample 1 Score
In many states of the United States they make it
again the law for talking while driving with cellular
telephone. In my opinion, is this a good idea? I believe.
For to many accidents, are happening with the
cellular telephone, the driver he don’t see (what hap-
pens) ahead. This terrible for every one especial the
ones they getting hurt. Some accident really very
terrible and, everyone going to the hospital. This
should be the law.
Scoring Explanations for
Expository Writing Essays
A score of “6” indicates that your essay satisfies the
requirements of the writing prompt in a creative and
original manner, using an obvious theme and thesis
throughout. Your essay provides a clear and logical
explanation and uses support material. Your ideas are
articulated in a coherent fashion; there are precise ex-
amples; and the topic is developed in an interesting
manner. Your essay is well reasoned, with a clear fo-
cus, a logical sequence of ideas, and transitional
words and sentences. You demonstrate a sense of au-
dience by using effective vocabulary, varied sentence
structure, and fluid, sophisticated language that is es-
sentially without errors.
A score of “4” indicates that your essay meets
some of the requirements of the writing prompt,
including some key elements that help explain the
thesis. Your essay may answer the question in an ab-
breviated manner, giving only brief examples and de-
veloping ideas somewhat inconsistently. Your essay
has a general focus, makes an obvious attempt at or-
ganization, and presents ideas in a logical sequence.
The language of your essay indicates a general control
of mechanics but has a slightly lower quality of sen-
tence structure and variety than a sample 6 score. An
essay of this type contains errors only when using so-
phisticated language.
A score of “1” indicates that the essay only
minimally addresses the writing prompt, digress-
ing, repeating, or dwelling on insignificant details
throughout. The essay shows a lack of development
and exhibits no organizational pattern or focus. Your
writing may be illegible or unrecognizable as English.
ETTM_04_195_266.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 4:20 PM Page 228
Model Expository Writing Essays
798.Explain the problems, both personal and socie-
tal, that result from obesity.
Sample 6 Score
A single overweight person might not warrant much
attention. But a nation whose population is increas-
ingly obese is cause for concern. In the United
States, 14% of children and teenagers are catego-
rized as overweight. Why is this a serious problem in-
stead of simply a matter of personal choice? What
are the causes of this constantly increasing per-
centage of obese persons? What is to be done about
this, and what organized steps should be taken to
solve the problem?
Just as there are ripples from a stone thrown
into the water, there are far-reaching and unending
effects resulting from obesity. From a psychological
perspective, most obese persons would prefer not
to be overweight. Our society glorifies the ultrathin,
so if you are obese you do not fit in with acceptable
modes of appearance. We know that children are of-
ten cruel about taunting their heavy classmates.
All too often we hear friends say, “I’ve got to lose
weight before that trip,” or “before the wedding.”
However, there are more objective measures of the
negative results of obesity. Type 2 (adult onset) di-
abetes, an illness with serious consequences, in-
cluding damage to the heart, damage to the eyes,
and difficulty in healing infections, is attributed to
obesity. Public health agencies are dealing with the
continual rise in this type of diabetes. Asthma is
also on the rise as a result of the obesity epidemic,
as are sleep disorders such as sleep apnea. Recent
research indicates a relationship between some
types of cancer and obesity. Society pays the price
when citizens are ill, are unable to work, and require
constant medical care.
Questions arise: “What can be done about
this?” “Who or what is to blame?” Discussing blame
is a delicate problem. There are undoubtedly over-
weight individuals with inherited tendencies toward
diabetes or heart disease, and there is evidence that
a hormone that gives people a sense of fullness after
eating may be lacking in some obese people. Yet,
knowing that they are at risk would suggest that
steps be taken to thwart the onset of the physical
consequences of obesity.
Most authorities agree that diet is key. The
avoidance of foods high in sugars, carbohydrates,
and saturated fats is recommended by most physi-
cians as a way to ward off obesity and its dire con-
sequences. But this is difficult in our society where
fast-food outlets are ubiquitous, where we are bom-
barded by advertising of unhealthy foods, and where
we lead increasingly sedentary lives. Sugar-laden
soft drinks are sold in schools, and profits from
these sales are high. An elementary school in Los
Angeles received $50,000 for allowing Coca-Cola to
install its vending machines. This company and PepsiCo
constitute the majority of the school soft drink mar-
ket, and while they profit from the present sales,
they are also building brand loyalty and creating fu-
ture habitual soft drink consumers.
Lack of adequate exercise is a concomitant
contributor to the rise in obesity. Children are often
playing video games instead of engaging in sports.
Adults watch television instead of exercising. People
will drive around shopping centers to avoid walking a
few extra steps. The quintessential “couch potato”
device has just been invented. Now you can get a uni-
versal remote with which, from your comfortable
couch, you can control not only your television, but
your oven, lights, and, presumably, other things that
we can only begin to imagine.
Society suffers when its population is increasingly
unhealthy, has rising medical costs, notes absentee-
ism from work and school, and has social inequalities.
This last result, social inequalities, reflects the as-
sertion recently made by a school administrator that
ETTM_04_195_266.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 4:20 PM Page 229
50% of children in poorer school districts are obese.
Experts seem to believe that obesity is a problem
that can, with diligence and desire, be eliminated or
at least mitigated with two simple changes in
lifestyle—eating more healthily and getting more
Sample 4 Score
Obesity is a growing problem in this country. But I
don’t think obese people actually want to be over-
weight because being overweight makes you get sick
more often. Doctors say obesity causes asma, dia-
betes, and even heart disease. If people understood
the effects of obesity, they would probably try harder
to lose weight because no one likes to get sick. Being
sick makes kids miss school and adults miss work
and often causes a lot of hospital bills. So, in the
end, obesity hurts kids educations and their parent’s
jobs and is also incredibly expensive. Lately, more and more kids are becoming obese.
This is a real problem because teenagers shouldn’t
have to worry about their heart! They should be play-
ing sports and having fun and getting an education.
But when students have asma attacks, they can’t
breath, which means they can’t go to class or take
gym. So, having asma and missing school interferes
with their education. Obesity also causes diabetes, a really terrible
disease that can make you blind. Of course, some
people get diabetes because their parents have it
not because they’re obese. Heart disease is the
number one cause of death in America and can also
be caused by obesity. In a way, obesity is more than
just being overweight, its like three diseases wrapped
up in one. That’s exactly why everyone needs to learn
more about it, so we can stop it from getting out of
Some people may be obese because they don’t
like to exercise. But they need to find a way to exer-
cise because if you exercise every day, you will proba-
bly stay in shape. Then you won’t have to pay expen-
sive doctor bills or go to the hospital as often and
everyone will be healthier, miss less school and work,
and be better off. Sample 1 Score
I think obesity is bad but not that bad. If you like sodas
you want to have a soda and you may need a mashin.
My best friend may be obese but so what if your nice.
They try to make you do sports but what if you like tv
and the soaps bettr. I don’t think yul die if you eat fries
and I like that food best so whats the big deel?
799.Describe the purposes of the Internet. Include
various viewpoints, including those of users
and providers.
Sample 6 Score
In today’s world, the first place people turn to when
there is a question to be answered, information to be
located, or people to be contacted is often the Inter-
net. Yes, the Internet may have supplanted the tradi-
tional encyclopedia as well as a number of other
sources of service and information. We can make
reservations, plan vacations, play interactive games,
learn a language, listen to music or radio programs,
read the newspaper, and find out about a medical
condition without coming face-to-face with another
person. There is no limit to the subject matter you
can research on the Internet. Just go to a search
engine such as Yahoo! or Google, type in a few key-
words or a Web address, and presto, you will probably
summon links to more sources than you could have
imagined. The Internet allows you to remain at your
computer and shop no matter what you wish to pur-
chase. And if you are looking for a bargain or an un-
usual item, you can go to a popular auction site and
either sell or buy.
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If, however, you do wish to speak directly to a
person, there are the chat rooms. On practically any
given topic, groups of people converse with each
other. They may be giving opinions about a perfect
travel itinerary, a book, or even a political party. The
most prevalent use of the Internet also involves di-
rectly writing to a person, and that is the sending of
e-mail messages to friends and associates. It is
possible to communicate instantly with anyone, any-
where, as long as there is an Internet connection. In
a world where people frequently travel and families
do not necessarily live in the same neighborhoods,
e-mail is a means of making simple, inexpensive, im-
mediate contact. Not only do we send verbal mes-
sages, but also now digital cameras take pictures
that can be stored and then instantly transmitted
on the Internet.
Unfortunately, there are individuals who sub-
vert the opportunities offered by this technology.
They are less than honest, disguise their identity, bilk
people in financial scams, and entice unsuspecting
people, including children, into giving them personal
information. Caveats about these problems are cur-
rently being publicized so those Internet users will
not be victimized.
Of course, the Internet providers, such as AOL,
hope to make a profit, and there is usually a monthly
fee for the hookup. To increase the profits, the
providers sell advertising, which may pop up on the
subscriber’s screen and require the user to stop and
respond, either positively or negatively, to the ads.
When you consider that, among other things,
you can hear a concert, read a book, visit a museum
and view its contents, visit the websites of numerous
individuals and organizations, play a game with one
or more people, and pay your bills, you will realize that
the uses of the Internet are too vast for a short list.
Most would agree that much has been added to peo-
ple’s lives by connecting them to the Internet, and
that we probably cannot anticipate what new pur-
poses will be explored in the future.
Sample 4 Score
The internet is very useful. You can send e-mail to
your friends. They can write back to you. You can do
this whenever you want. You can write to people you
don’t know. You can meet people through the inter-
net. When someone goes to college you can write to
them every day.
You can look things up. If you want to find out
about something you can look it up. You don’t have to
go to the library. If you have to read a book you can
find out about it and not read it. There are good
games you can put in your computer. I like these
games. I want to get more games. You can hear good
music on the computer. I like to do this. I know how to
download the music.
I like to buy stuff on the internet. My friends do
this too. I can buy anything and just give a credit
card number. I don’t have to go the store.
There are many, many things you can do on the
internet right from your computer.
Sample 1 Score
I have the internet. I do not use it a lot it takes to
long to get things on it if you have to find it out. If
you have a computer you shud have it then you can
rite on it and music but who nose how the music I like
noone els likes I like hard rock what about you.
If you have internet only 1 can use it so how do
you no who it is and why fite. If you have a movie more
than 1 are alowd not just 1.But the internet has good
800. Describe various styles of shoes as well as rea-
sons for their popularity.
ETTM_04_195_266.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 4:20 PM Page 231
Sample 6 Score
Visit the shoe department of a large department store
and you will undoubtedly see a variety of shoe styles on
display. This suggests that the store is satisfying the
customers’ desire for an assortment of shoes.
Logically, shoes should protect and support
the feet. An example of such a shoe is the sneaker.
Originally an inexpensive canvas, rubber-soled ver-
sion of a leather oxford (a shoe with laces), the
sneaker has become increasing popular and has
supplanted the oxford for regular everyday use for
many students and some adults. Sneakers, like liv-
ing things, have evolved and branched out. They are
now mostly made of leather and have much cush-
ioning to minimize stress on the wearer’s joints.
They have become specialized into separate sneak-
ers for walking, running, tennis, and basketball.
There are sneakers for aerobic classes, and for the
eclectic exerciser, there are cross trainers. There is
justification for their popularity, for they are com-
fortable and are engineered to properly support the
foot during a particular activity. It has also become
acceptable to wear sneakers with street clothes
because they just plain feel good. An endorsement
by a popular athlete spreads their appeal as well as
increases their cost.
At the opposite end of the spectrum is a shoe
style that is uncomfortable, harmful, and impracti-
cal. These adjectives describe the women’s shoes
with pointed toes and thin, high heels. Doctors say
that the pointed toes cause deformities of the feet,
and the three- to four-inch heels are unstable and
can cause back problems. With so many negatives,
why are these styles consistently popular? Wearers
may admit that they are uncomfortable, but say
that they are fashionable and that, in time, they get
used to them. Historically, people follow fashion, and
here again, advertising preys upon this need to keep
up with the current trends.
A shoe that can be totally practical, simply
fashionable, or a combination of both, is the boot.
For cold or inclement weather, no footwear is as de-
sirable as an insulated, rubber-soled boot. Boots are
popular because they are practical, long lasting, and
a desirable fashion accessory. But there are boots
whose entire function is fashion. Yes, these boots
have the same pointed toes and spiked heels as the
shoes described earlier, but they are boots because
the leather continues high on the leg.
Historically, shoe styles change, but there are
some shoes that are comfortable as well as fashion-
able, like sandals and sneakers. And, there are those
styles some would consider fashionable but harmful
to the feet, or worse. If the choice were between com-
fort and fashion, many people would probably risk
discomfort in order to be fashionable.
Sample 4 Score
Shoes are popular because they’re necessary for do-
ing almost anything. You need them to walk, play
sports, and even to enter drug stores and restau-
rants. Without them, you’d have to sit at home all
day. Shoes also protect your feet when your walking
on a hot sidewalk or hiking in the woods. Nowadays,
people even use shoes to make fashion statements.
Some shoes are more expensive than ever just be-
cause they’re so popular. My favorite shoes are my sneakers. Everyone at
school has sneakers because they’re required for
gym class. They’re also popular outside of school be-
cause they come in so many colors and styles. I have
a lot of friends at school but none of us has the ex-
act same pair of sneakers. In high school, sneakers
are a good way to express your personality, and on
top of that they’re really comfortable.
Sandals are also popular, especially in the sum-
mer, because they’re also comfortable and don’t hurt
your feet. You can move your toes around when you
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where them and they don’t make your feet sweat like
sneakers sometimes do.
I also have new high heel boots with a 4 inch
heel. They hurt my feet when I wear them for a long
time, but I don’t care because they look so cool. I
think looking good is worth the pain. Besides, I only
wear them on special ocasions. My mother thinks I’ll
end up ruining my feet, but you should see the heels
she wears to work! Sample 1 Score
I like shoe styles they are good. One time I went to
buy shoes and my cuzin was there and we huged be-
cuz we did not see each other for ever. We went to
her house and watched tv. I need new sneakers. I like
sneakers. They cost to much so I cant get them now.
I want high heels my mother wears them and they kill
her feet but I want them to. Everyone wants them.
801.Math is a required subject. Explain why it is so
Sample 6 Score
If you complain about the universality of math as a
required subject, just try to spend one day without
encountering some form of mathematics. From page
numbers to prices to today’s date, math puts things
in order and enables us to compare quantitatively.
Figuring how much time is required, how much of an
ingredient must be measured, how much carpet to
buy, all of these everyday experiences require famil-
iarity with math. To survive financially you must use
math to allocate your resources. If you want to in-
vest in a business or in the stock market, you must
know how to deal with the numbers. Understanding
graphs and other analyses about the economy or
politics or consumer confidence is enhanced by the
applications of math. Mathematical applications in
the study of science are essential. Tracking the or-
bits of planets and the locations of stars in the
galaxy cannot be done without numerical compar-
isons. Every discipline, from archeology to zoology,
benefits in some way from the use of mathematics.
Practical reasons for the need for mathemat-
ics are omnipresent, but there are other, perhaps
more esoteric reasons for interest in this subject.
The amazing coincidences found in numbers provide
continual fascination. An example is the fact that
the numbers in each product of the “9-times table”
add up to nine: Nine times five equals 45, and four
plus five equals nine; similarly, the numbers in the
product of seven times nine also equal nine. Mathe-
maticians are also especially fascinated with unique
geometric relationships. An example is the fact that
three pyramids of the same height will exactly fit into
a prism of equal height.
A teacher of mathematics once told me, “Math
is in everything,” and some people say, “Mathematics
is the something for which the world was written.”
These are reasons enough for requiring its study.
Sample 4 Score
Math is a required subject because it is important in
school and in every day life. If you don’t understand
simple math, you’ll never know if the cashier is giving
you the right change or if your getting a good deal on
a new car. Without math, shopping would be impossi-
ble. You wouldn’t be able to figure out what you could
afford. Some people think they don’t need math but
they do. You need math to know if its hot or cold out-
side or to know what pages you have to study for a
particular test. Math is also important because you need to
use it in almost every other subject. Sometimes you
need math in science to make a graph or to measure
amounts for an experiment. There’s no way you could
pass science without math. I use math in history
class to remember dates and in English class we use
ETTM_04_195_266.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 4:20 PM Page 233
it to understand poetry. You can’t even write a haiku
without math because you wouldnt be able to count
the number of syllables and lines. In every day life, you need math to balance your
checkbook and to know how much time you have be-
fore the movie starts. Without it, you’d never be on
time, and your friends would hate you. Math is nec-
essary even to make a simple phone call. When you
think about it numbers are everywhere so it’s impor-
tant to understand them.
Sample 1 Score
We have to take math. I don’t like it. It is stupid. We
have to draw in the boxes on graf paper what is this
art. I faled art anyway so why do it in math. I can use
the kalkuate so I don’t even need to study it where
allowd to use the kalkuate and so I do not care if
math is important.
802.Describe a major environmental problem and
what you believe should be done about it.
Sample 6 Score
A major environmental problem, the magnitude of
which we are just beginning to realize, is global warm-
ing. When people say that the winters aren’t as cold
as they used to be, or that there was definitely more
snow in past years, they are correct. In addition to
these personal testimonials, there is concrete visual
evidence of global warming. Most noticeable is the
depletion of the ice caps. In recent years, glaciers
have been receding in greater amounts than in for-
mer years. One only has to visit a national park where
this recession is marked with signs indicating where
the glacier reached in a particular year. The visitor
can see how much further away from a particular
spot the ice is at the present moment.
When the ice caps, made of fresh water, melt,
they change the salinity of the oceans, change the
currents, and change the conditions for survival for
myriad species. Additionally, invasive species might
move in, affecting the entire ecosystem. This has a
domino effect, as all species are interdependent and
survive according to predictable sources of food and
living conditions. A specific example recently de-
scribed on an environmental calendar told of the ef-
fect of global warming on polar bears. The bears
cannot go out on the melted ice, which is how they
get their food. This causes them to lose body fat
and even to be unable to give birth to cubs.
Global warming causes flooding, and because the
warming of the earth causes dryness, fires increase.
When speaking of the causes of global warming,
some experts say that ice ages followed by warming
have been cyclical throughout the eons and that
there is not much that can be done about it. How-
ever, most scientists believe that the actions of hu-
mans have speeded up this process. They blame the
increased burning of wood and fossil fuels—oil and
coal—on an increasing population needing heat for
warmth and cooking. More energy consumption
places carbon dioxide and other pollutants in the at-
mosphere. Warm air trapped around the earth has
been deemed the greenhouse effect.
While we cannot stop the naturally occurring
climate changes, we can try to mitigate the rapid
warming by reducing our use of fossil fuels. Much
publicity has been given to the love that Americans
have for sports utility vehicles, which burn an inordi-
nate amount of fuel and are not required for the kind
of ordinary driving done by most owners. There are
numerous additional ways in which we can reduce our
dependence on these fuels, ranging from insulating
our homes to lowering the thermostat in winter and
raising it when we use air-conditioning. Perhaps re-
searchers can develop alternate sources of energy. A
hybrid automobile uses gas initially and then auto-
matically switches to electricity. Theoretically, this
ETTM_04_195_266.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 4:20 PM Page 234
car will be able to run for 50 miles on one gallon of
gasoline. Additionally, we can support the scientific
study of the effects of global warming. Perhaps we
can predict such things as where floods will occur or
where crops will have difficulty surviving and take
steps to overcome these problems.
One thing is certain: Global warming is a seri-
ous environmental problem with ramifications that
affect almost every aspect of life.
Sample 4 Score
Global warming which means that it is getting
warmer all over the globe, is a serious environmental
problem. It is bad for the environment, nature, ani-
mals, and humans as well. Global warming causes a
lot of glaciers to melt which then causes more floods
and makes the ocean warmer which could hurt cer-
tain kinds of fish. Global warming also leads to more
fires in general and increases the rate of cancer in
humans, especially skin cancer.
In order to stop global warming, we should
study the greenhouse effect. Because we use too
much oil and gas and pollute the air on a regular ba-
sis, hot air can’t escape the atmosphere. We need to
use less oil and gas so the hot air can get out. People
don’t need to drive trucks and SUVs all the time be-
cause they use more gas and cause more air pollu-
tion. We also don’t have to use air conditioning all the
time. People need to remember that minivans and air
conditioning are luxuries not neccessities.
If everyone agreed to change their habits, it
would help the environment a lot. So, we should find
out what needs to be done to solve this serious envi-
ronmental problem and do whatever it takes.
Sample 1 Score
A environmental problem is called global warming. The
globe is getting hot. I am not sure about this we had
plenty of cold days and I like it hot in summr. How do
they no do they mesure all over the globe. 1 day it
was so cold my hands froze and I got in trubel be-
cause I was not aloud out so I had no time to gebt
gloves. I gess I don’t like global warming if it gets to
hot but maybe its only far away anwe don’t need to
wory about it hear.
803.Describe how communication has changed in
the past 20 years.
Sample 6 Score
Who could have predicted 20 years ago that commu-
nication would change as radically as it has? Today,
communication is instantaneous. No longer do we
have to use a pen, pencil, or typewriter to write a let-
ter. No longer do we have to use a postal service to
mail it. No longer do we have to wait for a response
that takes several days. Nor do we have to stay near
a telephone or search for a public phone while travel-
ing. Things have speeded up exponentially.
In the past 20 years, we have benefited from
tremendous changes in telecommunication. The rela-
tively simple change to portable phones enabled us
to roam around the house while chatting, not limited
by the length of the cord that attaches the receiver
to the base of the telephone. Then came the beeper,
allowing us to get a message when away from a tele-
phone. Now, of course, there is the ubiquitous cell
phone. Watch the crowds walking along a sidewalk,
and you can’t help noticing people purposefully strid-
ing along while talking on their cell phones.
What if we must write a message? We now have
e-mail. We send these messages immediately after
typing them on the computer keyboard and never
have to go to the post office. No more “snail mail.”
Perhaps we have a written copy that must be sent
but cannot be conveniently sent via the computer.
Simply dial a phone number, push a few buttons, and
send a fax. The copy is transmitted to the receiver at
ETTM_04_195_266.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 4:20 PM Page 235
once. The ability to telecommute is almost like hand-
ing the copy to the recipient. What a difference 20
years has made. Just as most of us could not imag-
ine the speed and ease of communication in the
twenty-first century, we probably cannot anticipate
the changes that will occur in the next 20 years. Per-
haps we will be able to send instant messages simply
by thinking about them, from one brain to the brain of
the intended recipient.
Sample 4 Score
I believe communication has definitly changed in the
last 20 years. It is much different. I can send e-mails
to my friends every day. Even twice a day if I want. I
could not do this a few years ago. It’s great. So I
think communication is much faster and I definitly
think it is much easier if you have a computer. Every
school and office has a computer.
I believe the best change is the cell phone. I have
a cell phone that I carry everywhere I go. I can turn it
off in the movie and it will vibrate (shake). Then I know
I have a call and I can leave and answer it. I don’t
think it is right for you to bother someone with your
cell phone. I don’t even need stamps to send cards. I can
send them on the computer. All my friends have e-mail.And if they don’t they don’t get a card untill they do.
I can also send a FAX on the telephone if I have
to send a copy right then.
These are the ways communication has changed
in the last 20 years.
Sample 1 Score
Communication is talking. In some ways it has
changed in the last 20 years. I think I can talk eas-
ily now because I cary around with my phone. It is
pink and everyone likes it. Because I worked to earn
it each month. You don’t have to read the paper you
can watch tv if you want. Tv tells you about clothes
and stuff that you care about. So communication
is grate. Communication is also the computer which
is all over. I hate to rite so I use my cell but I could if
I felt like it. My mother uses it. So she says it is
much better.
804.Discuss the events in the life of your favorite
author, sports figure, or performer. Explain
how these events relate to the person’s achievements.
Sample 6 Score
Herman Melville was a nineteenth-century writer
whose works foreshadowed themes that would be-
come prevalent in the twentieth century. He wrote
about his distaste for the oppression of underlings,
of the need to accept different cultures and to ap-
preciate the contributions of ordinary people. His
novels probe into psychological reasons for charac-
ters’ actions in a way that would be relevant today.
Born into a New York family that was promi-
nent, although in constant debt, Melville was forced
to end his formal schooling at the age of 12. He was
nevertheless widely read and informed on numerous
subjects, including, but not limited to, literature, art,
science, biology, navigation, mythology, and geogra-
phy. Thus, he was largely self-educated, as was Ish-
mael, the narrator of Moby Dick, Melville’s most
acclaimed novel. Ishmael said, “A whale ship was my
Yale College and my Harvard.”
Just as Ishmael’s experiential education mirrored
Melville’s own informal schooling, so were many other
aspects of his life reflected in his writings. Signing up
as a cabin boy on a ship going to Liverpool, England,
when he was 20, provided Melville with material for the
novel Redburn. The novel was about a lonely 20-year-
old orphan wandering around Liverpool and is thought
to be the writer’s most autobiographical work.
ETTM_04_195_266.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 4:20 PM Page 236
Motivated by the need to earn money, Melville
signed up for a four-year voyage as a common sea-
man in spite of the fact that his family connections
could have easily gotten him an officer’s commission.
Melville had a progressive view about equality that
was unusual for his time. He believed in the dignity of
all work, which was reflected in his sympathetic, even
admiring, excruciatingly detailed descriptions of the
jobs of the working people in his writings. He decried
nationalistic prejudice and believed that all people
are related. He wrote, “You cannot shed a drop of
American blood without shedding blood of the whole
Among the first white men to explore the South
Sea Islands, Melville was surely the first literary
artist to do so. Unable to bear the inhumane treat-
ment on this long voyage, he deserted in the Marque-
sas Islands. He was ill and fortunately was cared for
by a kindly native family. A grown son in the family was
covered with tattoos, and Melville learned that these
people were cannibals who feasted on their enemies. In
order to leave, he had to escape, finding refuge on an
Australian ship. He deserted from this ship also,
landing in Tahiti. These experiences provided material
for the novel Typee, about the South Sea Islands; the
novel Omoo, based on his experiences in Tahiti; and
the novel White Jacket, which exposed the cruelty of
navy flogging. The tattooed man who cared for Melville
provided the prototype for Quequeg, one of the most
memorable characters in literature.
Herman Melville also was a crew member of a
whaling ship, where he learned the intricacies involved
in the type of multiyear voyage that he used as the
setting for Moby Dick. This novel, considered a liter-
ary masterpiece, provided a forum for Melville’s ideas
about the necessity for connectedness. The savage,
Quequeg, and the sailor, Ishmael, were mutually sup-
portive of this theme. In addition, Melville was a
great believer in democracy and the benefits of diver-
sity, and these beliefs were reflected in his descrip-
tions of the crew on the whaling voyage. The ship was
a metaphor for the world, with its crew coming from
every known location and background, all being neces-
sary for success. A monomaniacal captain, devoid of
empathy, driven by his selfish aims, and unable to
connect with others, could only lead to disaster.
Thus, Herman Melville’s real-life experiences un-
doubtedly made possible his descriptive novels, but
they would not have been possible without his inde-
pendently drawn conclusions about the dignity of
man and his place in the universe.
Sample 4 Score
Herman Melville was a 19th century American writer
who wrote many famous books including Moby Dick.
Like Moby Dick, most of his books where about topics
that were of personal interest to him like ships and
whaling. He spent a lot of time on ships and also
knew a lot about whales. Melville led an exciting life
and put a lot of that excitement into his books. Be-
cause his books were based on real life events and
topics he knew alot about, the writing was incredibly
detailed and vivid. When people read his books, even
when people read them today, they feel as though
they’ve been taken into another world. When you read
Melville’s books, you learn a lot about whales and for-
eign lands, but you also learn a lot about him as a
Moby Dickis a great book. After reading it, you
can understand a lot more about Meville. The story
is about a crazy man named Captain Ahab who
wants to kill a great whale named Moby Dick. In the
book, Melville really seems to care about his charac-
ters and makes it clear that all of the characters
are equal in his eyes. Ahab’s ship is supposed to be a
symbol of the entire world and characters like Que-
queg and Ishmael are simply every day people. Be-
cause Ahab is so selfish, he ends up destroying the
ETTM_04_195_266.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 4:20 PM Page 237
entire ship. After realizing that, Melville wants us to
know that selfish world leaders will also ruin the
world if regular citizens like Ishmael and Quequeg
aren’t given any power. Melville was all for democracy
which you can easily tell after reading this book.
Sample 1 Score
My clas had to read Moby dick. I learned about the
author. He is Herman Melville and I like him he is brave
he went on trips. I never went on many trips but I
wuld. I wuld go to florida. He Herman never went there
but he went other places and wrote about it. i don’t
think nobody in my class akshuly read it.
805.Explain the causes and effects of not voting in
Sample 6 Score
Voting is the privilege for which wars have been
fought, protests have been organized, and editorials
have been written. “No taxation without representa-
tion” was a battle cry of the American Revolution.
Women struggled for suffrage, as did all minorities.
Eighteen-year-olds clamored for the right to vote,
saying that if they were old enough to go to war, they
should be allowed to vote. Yet Americans have a de-
plorable voting history.
Interviewing people about their voting habits is
revealing. There are individuals who state, almost
boastfully, that they have never voted. They somehow
set themselves apart from the requirements of citi-
zenship in a democracy. Many who avoid voting do so
consciously. It is not as if they were ill or unavoidably
detained on election day. Often they claim that their
one vote doesn’t matter. “What’s one vote?” they
ask. Perhaps one vote may not count in some elec-
tions, although there have been results determined
by one or very few votes. In addition, the total of sin-
gle votes that are not cast can add up to a signifi-
cant difference in a particular race. Some people
blame the fact that they do not know enough about
the issues for their absence from the voting booth.
Others say that they avoid learning about the news
because it is too depressing. In a democracy, we can
express our opinions to our elected leaders, but more
than half of us sometimes avoid choosing these peo-
ple who make the policies that affect our lives.
One of the effects of this statistic is that
politicians will cater to the groups that do vote in
large numbers, giving more weight to their needs
than to those of other groups or of the general
population. Since so many do not vote, elected offi-
cials can, with impunity, promote policies that ben-
efit the special interests that contribute financially
to the election campaigns. Another effect of not
voting is the free rein given to those in office to dis-
regard the expressed opinions of constituents. For
if you do not vote, why should the candidate worry
about you?
It seems ironic that in this most democratic of
societies, we abrogate the privilege for which so
many have struggled. How many countries do not
have a choice of candidates, yet their citizens are
forced to participate in sham elections? In the
United States we have choices. We can vote to fire
an officeholder who does not live up to our expecta-
tions by choosing an opponent in the next election,
and we are free to choose someone whose ideas ap-
peal to us.
Perhaps a major reason for not voting is the
failure to convey how precious and unique is the right
to vote and how important is each and every vote.
The major effect is that we are voluntarily giving up
our rights as citizens to ascertain that our elected
officials truly represent us. This is because we have
not done our part in choosing them, so in effect, we
are telling these officials that we don’t care enough
to bother to vote.
ETTM_04_195_266.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 4:20 PM Page 238
Sample 4 Score
Many people do not vote because they think its a has-
sle or that their vote won’t make a difference. Some
people say they don’t care who wins, but everyone
should care because government officials make deci-
sions that effect all of us. People need to learn more
about their own government. So many Americans
think our government is made up of one person, the
president! But there are so many other people involved
and so many other elections to think about too. Not having time to vote or not knowing who to
vote for is no excuse for not voting at all. People
should take the time to learn as much as they can
about the people who are running and make an in-
formed decision. If you don’t vote then you’ll never
get what you want and you won’t be able to complain
when politicians make bad decisions. But if you’re smart and vote for whoever you
feel is the best candidate, then if that person is
elected, you can know that it’s their responsibility to
listen to you. Our government is supposed to be for
the people and run by the people, so everyone should
realize it is their right and also their responsbility to
vote during every election.
Sample 1 Score
Most people don’t vote I wouldn’t my mother don’t
she says she has no time she is so bizy she works
and how can she vote if she works. My brother says if
you vote you can called to the juree and who need
that his friend had it and it was boring and he culdve
lost his job. If you care who wins you shud vote if you
don’t care don’t.
806.Explain how to have a winning baseball team.
Sample 6 Score
Whether professional or amateur, a baseball team,
like a fine meal, needs the right ingredients to create
a winning result. Talented athletes are the first re-
quirement. After that, astute coaching, which dis-
cerns and then develops the unique capabilities of
the players, can be as important as the athletes
themselves. Flexibility and the willingness to try dif-
ferent strategies are the hallmarks of winning
coaches. All the talent in the world could be wasted
without creative and shrewd coaching.
A player with the ability to sprint, needed both
for infield defense and for speedy base running, can
be invaluable. A fast runner can steal bases and get
to first base with a carefully placed bunt.
Good pitching is essential for a winning base-
ball team. A pitcher who is “on” is the first line of de-
fense in baseball. It is well known that the pitcher is
often the poorest hitter, but it is the pitcher who
keeps the opponents from scoring. The pitcher’s
teammates accept this and acknowledge that it is
their job to score the runs. Here again, a good coach
decides who is the optimum pitcher for today’s
game, and equally important, when to take a tired or
poorly performing pitcher out of the game.
Recruiting strong and consistent batters will
be a factor in creating a winning baseball team. Hav-
ing a home run hitter with several players who can be
counted on to get base hits and pinch hits is needed
because the best pitching and the best fielding will
be for naught if runs aren’t scored.
Even with a plethora of natural ability, to become
a winning baseball team, the players must continually
practice, not only to maintain their skills, but also to
improve them. In fact, a motivated player who prac-
tices diligently may eventually surpass those with su-
perior natural ability that is not developed. Along with
this desire to continually improve one’s individual play-
ing ability, there is the motivation to succeed because
of loyalty to the group. This type of esprit de corps
can make the difference between a merely good and a
winning baseball team. Putting the team first, while
ETTM_04_195_266.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 4:20 PM Page 239
striving to give one’s all, puts the finishing touches on
the recipe for a winning baseball team.
Sample 4 Score
A winning baseball team would need good hitters, fast
runners, a skilled pitcher and catcher, and a knowl-
edgable and patient coach. It would also need to have
a group of players who got along without any jealousy
or hostility and were capable of rooting for each other.
Good hitters and runners are important be-
cause you have to get alot of hits and runs to win.
You can’t win without scoring runs. Also, the runners
need to be speedy, so they can get to the base be-
fore the ball gets there. You also have to have a
skilled pitcher who can strike people out. The pitcher
has to be good or else the other team will score more
runs and you will lose. The catcher is important as
well because if the catcher drops the ball when the
pitcher throws it, that is an error. Finally, you also need to have a good coach who
can help the players improve and who knows when to
put certain players in the game and when to take
them out. The coach should keep the team running
smoothly and solve any fights or disagreements.
Sample 1 Score
I don’t want to be on a baseball teem but I want to
win if I do. My brother did and he never got a hit and
he wont even look at me so who cars about baseball. I
think you need to be a athleet and take lessons. And
I think the uniforms are ugly I don’t look good in it
and it is swetty. I will pick the best players if I have to
play so I mite as well win right.
807.Explain how to choose the right college.
Sample 6 Score
One of the most important decisions young adults
make is where to go to college. Your college education
will affect the rest of your life, so you should weigh
your options carefully. The perfect school may not
exist, but I believe there are three factors that are
integral to choosing the right college: location, size,
and curriculum. You can narrow down your search
based on these criteria.
First, you should consider location. Some ques-
tions you should ask yourself include: Do I prefer to
live in a city, the suburbs, or a rural area? Do I want
to live in a temperate or colder climate? Do I prefer
to be near my family, or in another part of the coun-
try? The answers to these questions will help you
make the best choice. Second, you should consider size. Perhaps your
high school experience will affect your choice of col-
leges. If you attended a small high school with a low
teacher-student ratio, you may be accustomed to
small class sizes and knowing your fellow students
extremely well. On the other hand, if you attended a
large high school, you may be used to new faces and
larger classes. Would you prefer a school such as the
University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB)
with 50,000 students, or a smaller school with
fewer than 5,000 students? Remember, the atten-
tion you receive will be affected by the size of the
student population.
Finally, in order to choose the right college, you
should take the time to decide what you would like to
study. Although most colleges offer a myriad of
courses, some of them specialize in certain fields and
subjects or offer a wider selection of classes. For ex-
ample, if you are interested in studying the classics,
did you know that the University of Texas has one of
the best classics departments in the United States? Choosing the right college will require some ef-
fort. After you have decided on the location, size,
and curriculum you prefer, do some research. Learn
about different colleges from your guidance coun-
selor, the Internet, or from the colleges themselves.
ETTM_04_195_266.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 4:20 PM Page 240
As with any important decision, make sure your
choice is an educated one.
Sample 4 Score
It's not easy to choose the right college. There are
three things you should consider when applying and
deciding on a college. These are: location, classes,
and size.
First of all, you should decide where you want to
go to school for four years. Decide if you want to be
in a city or in a rural area, or if you want to be near to
or far from your family. Then, if you know what you
want to study, you should make sure that the college
offers classes. There would be no need to go to a
school that does not teach the Classics, if that's
what you want to study. Finally, you should think
about whether you want to go to a school with alot
of students or not too many. For example, there are
more than 50,000 students at UCSB, but maybe
you prefer to go to a school with only 5,000.
When deciding on a college, take your time and
consider all of these things. College is important for
the rest of your life so choose wisely!
Sample 1 Score
Evryone shoold go to college because that educasion
are good for You. Its right to go to college becaus you
need it for work and job's and life too. The right
colege for You is one You like alot when You are done
with hi-scool.
808.Your new job requires that you move to a dif-
ferent city. Describe the steps you will take to
prepare for this move.
Sample 6 Score
Although Americans move more than most people in
the world, a move is acknowledged to be one of life’s
more stressful experiences. There are, however, steps
that can be taken and preparations that can be
made that will mitigate the inevitable strain.
If I were to move to a different city because of a
job change, I would find a sponsor in the new location,
preferably someone who could give me insight into the
kind of situation I could expect in the workplace and
about the cultural and other differences in the new
community. Different cities may be diverse in many
ways: in ideas about appropriate behavior, in social ex-
pectations, and even in emotional reactions. If the city
had special sites or events to generate civic pride, I
would like to investigate those. Or there may be popu-
lar gathering places such as parks or cafés. This
knowledge would be helpful in getting to understand
the attitudes of the residents and to become part of
the community.
Spending time with a real estate agent would be
a necessity, not only for finding a satisfactory resi-
dence, but also for gaining information about different
neighborhoods, schools, libraries, and other commu-
nity resources. In fact, it would be worthwhile to take
the time to deliberately explore the community by
walking or driving around.
My family members are interested in horses,
sailing, and playing bridge. As a way to find out how
we can pursue these interests and find people simi-
larly inclined, we could visit stables, marinas, or so-
cial clubs. Striking up a conversation with people in
these places and telling them that I am moving there
shortly would create a more knowledgeable transi-
tion. In addition to picking the brains of people, there
may be published material, such as maps and guide-
books, that could be informative. The same is true of
Internet sites.
All this preparation cannot eliminate the prob-
ability that leaving my friends; seeing my belongings
picked up, packed, and moved to a different city; and
facing new routines and new surroundings will be
somewhat traumatic. However, visualizing daily life in
ETTM_04_195_266.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 4:20 PM Page 241
the new city can help make the move easier and the
transition smoother.
Sample 4 Score
If I find out that I have to move to a different city I will
try to make some plans. First of all I will have to find a
house. I will get a real estate person and look at
houses. I will find out how much they cost and if I can
afford it. Then I will try to find a nice area. The schools
should be good and near the house and the church to.
I like to play basketball and ride my bike and I
will look around for places to play. Maybe I can meet
some people who live there and make friends. Maybe
they can show me around the place. I will try to meet
someone who works at the new job. They can give me
hints about how things are done there.
I will say goodbye to my friends and give them
my new address. It will be sad to move, but also there
will be good things coming up. At least I wont be go-
ing in cold. I will have a place to live that is nice and I
know maybe a few people already. I think I am start-
ing to know what it will be like in my new home.
Sample 1 Score
I have to move becuz my job it changed. I will go there to
see what it is there. Is there a good house. I hate to
pay for a house they always rip you off and the boss
dosent car. I will find our if the boss is good or not like
this 1 I hate now. What can you do you want a job rite. I
wil sell my house and use it to by the new 1 and I would
learn the name of the new city and how to rite it.
809.Many people spend a great deal of time with
animals. Write about the relationships that
people have with animals.
Sample 6 Score
Since they were first domesticated, people have had
relationships with animals that have enhanced their
lives. Probably animals that were trained to hunt and
to retrieve prey were among the first to become valu-
able to their owners. Useful animals include those
used for transportation, for hauling loads, and, in re-
cent times, to assist handicapped people. The latter
are usually dogs trained to guide the blind and to as-
sist paraplegics. Although these animals have spe-
cific functions, it is probable that a special bond
inevitably arises between them and the humans
they serve, and this goes far beyond the depend-
ency each has on the other.
Can a relationship with an animal improve a per-
son’s health? Many recent reports seem to suggest
this possibility. Pets give us abundant and uncondi-
tional love. Always happy to see us, our pets allow us
to be ourselves, to talk to them, and even to believe
that they understand us. When we come home, we
might feel reluctant to talk to ourselves, but it is per-
fectly all right to greet, chat, and interact with our
dog, cat, bird, and even our fish. Some mental health
workers are so insistent upon the beneficial influences
of pets that they have an animal present during ther-
apy sessions, claiming that this causes patients to
be more relaxed and responsive. Studies have proven
that relationships with animals reduce stress and
actually can measurably lower blood pressure.
For people who are depressed or living alone,
having a pet is not only therapeutic; it is a means
of encouraging a healthier lifestyle. A pet owner
must live according to a regular timetable so that
the pet can be fed and cared for appropriately. For
dog owners, there is an additional social benefit
that accrues from having to go outdoors for a
walk. Encountering other dog walkers often leads
to further social interaction and, perhaps, friend-
ship. For cat owners, there is the admiration for
the cat’s characteristic independence, which
makes any affection from the cat so much more
meaningful. Keeping the bird feeders filled gives a
ETTM_04_195_266.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 4:20 PM Page 242
sense of satisfying the needs of creatures that, in
turn, delight us with their beauty and their antics.
Other beneficial effects of relationships with
animals continue to be discovered. A recent article
suggests that kindness to people and animals may
be interconnected. Role-playing that increases chil-
dren’s empathy for animals helps them not only psy-
chologically, but also physically and socially. Another
discovery shows that riding horses, for reasons not
completely understood, has been shown to benefit
autistic children. Pet owners can now volunteer to
take their pets to hospitals and nursing homes,
where residents seem to welcome them.
It is probable that continued research will shed
additional light on what happens when people and
animals form a bond. For the present, it is certain
that almost anyone can benefit from the resulting
security, understanding, fun, laughter, and love that
come from having a pet.
Sample 4 Score
I enjoy my pets. I have a cat and a bird and I like to
spend time with them. When no one is home I play
with my cat, or I may try to hold my bird. When I have
a pet I feel good and happy. Some people have horses
for pets. They get to ride them and take care of
them. Even if you have a cat and don’t have to take it
for a walk you have to feed it.
One of the good things about pets is it
teaches you things. I learned that I have to take
care of my pets. They need me to feed them every
day. I think they look at me funny if I forget or if I
am late. I no that little babies like to pet animals
and that they like them. So there are relationship
with animals for all ages. Old people like animals to.
If they live alone they can have someone to talk to.
Pets are like friends.
I no a blind man and he has a seeing dog and he
goes all over with it. So he has a relationship with his
dog. The dog helps him and he helps the dog by loving
and taking care of it.
Relationships with animals are good for both
people and animals.
Sample 1 Score
What are animals that have a relationship they are
pets. I have a dog I hate to feed it and it shed but it
wags its tale its kut. Wen I got the dog it was little
and kut and now it isnt so kut because its to big.
But I love it and he loves me not like my boyfreind who
I don’t have a relationship with. So I have a relation-
ship with my pet it ushuly feel good.
810.Describe an especially memorable photo or
Sample 6 Score
You might think a memorable picture would be in vivid
color, have an appealing or inspirational theme, or be
something you might want to display and look at
every day. That is not the case with the picture that
is most memorable to me. This picture is really a
large mural, painted in 1937 by the Spanish artist
Pablo Picasso to protest the bombing of a small vil-
lage in northern Spain.
Surprisingly, there is no vivid red color to show
the flowing blood. One must imagine this, for the mu-
ral is startlingly gray, black, and white. But there is
no avoiding the horror of the images. The figures are
not realistically drawn, but are cubist and abstract,
and it is apparent that innocent civilians are being
slaughtered. A mother screams with her mouth wide
open, her head tipped back in heartrending anguish,
as she holds her dead baby. A soldier lies dead on
the ground, clutching his broken sword, and three
other people are shown in shock and agony. Animals,
including a tortured horse and a crying bird, are also
portrayed as innocent victims of a massacre. Some
ETTM_04_195_266.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 4:20 PM Page 243
symbols are open to interpretation. What is the
meaning of the bull, which seems simply to be observ-
ing, or of the lightbulb emitting rays at the top of the
mural? Does the bull symbolize brute force, and does
the lightbulb signify that there is hope? Yet there is
no doubt that the distorted, horrible images are in-
tended to shock the viewer. This depiction of human
grief is a profound statement of the cruelty and
senselessness of war. Limiting the picture to black
and white adds a funereal element to the shocking
depiction of the catastrophe.
The memory of the picture cannot be erased; it is
a metaphor for the senselessness and the horror of
war. Whereas it was painted to protest atrocities in a
long-ago war, it is as relevant today as the recollection
of the horrors of September 11, 2001. Perhaps it should
be shown to all those who contemplate starting a war.
Would it be worth it to have another Guernica?
Sample 4 Score
The picture I remember is Guernica. It is by Picasso. It
is not realist. The shapes don’t look real but you know
what they are in real life. It is in black and white. It is
not in color like most pictures. But it really gets to you.
It shows people getting killed or already killed. A baby is
killed and a soldier is killed. The mother is screaming
because her baby is dead. You won’t forget that.
What this picture does is to make you know that
war kills people and it is just awful. It kills people and it
kills animals and even if you are not killed you will probly
be screaming or crying. This picture could be for any
war it doesn’t matter. You remember it because it
makes you upset and you wish there would never be a
war. Then people wouldn’t have to suffer. This picture is
memorable because you remember how the people suf-
fered and they probly didn’t do anything.
Sample 1 Score
I remember a picture that is very big. It is Guernica.
It is about people dieing and screaming and horses. I
don’t like it it dosent make sens. Who cared about a
horse and why is it in black and white. I don’t like
black and white movies or pithcers. My sister had
black and whites at her wedding and of cours I hated
it. But I do remember it because everyone is yelling.
811.Write a letter to a teacher requesting informa-
tion about a poor grade.
Sample 6 Score
Dear Ms. Jones:
Your class was one of the most informative I
have ever taken, and I learned a tremendous amount
in the relatively short time of one semester. There-
fore, I felt obliged to write to you when I received the
disappointing grade of C on my term paper.
Checking the criteria you provided and thor-
oughly discussed in class, I felt that I complied with
each one in a superior manner, not just passably, as
reflected in my grade. Four arguments in support of
my thesis were stated and each was in turn dis-
cussed with several relevant examples given. You re-
quired only three arguments. Bibliographical citations
were given in the exact format you demonstrated in
class. As suggested, Internet sites were used in addi-
tion to first-person accounts and editorial material.
Although I spent an inordinate amount of time
on this project, I felt it to be most worthwhile be-
cause it was a wonderful learning experience. When I
saw the grade on the paper, I looked in vain for com-
ments or suggestions. It would be helpful to me if I
understood how you arrived at this grade. Would it
be possible for us to arrange a meeting, during which
time you could offer hints about what you felt was
lacking in my work, and, perhaps, I could hope that
you might reconsider and raise my grade.
Thank you for your kind consideration of this
Sincerely yours,
Your Student
ETTM_04_195_266.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 4:20 PM Page 244
Sample 4 Score
Dear Ms. Jones:
I was really upset at my grade. I don’t think I am
a C student. I tried hard and got some B’s a few
times. Don’t you think I did everything on the check-
list you gave us? I had the right number of examples
and I tried to tell a little about the examples. There
was only one where I couldn’t get an example, but
does that mean I get a C?
I worked hard on this and I think anyone would get
a C even if they didn’t work so hard. I never did such a
long paper. I hope you noticed the good bibliography. I
copied it just the way you showed it. And you didn’t
write any corrections so what was wrong with it?
Could you tell me what was wrong with it. I think
I should get at least a B.
Sincerely yours,
Your Student
Sample 1 Score
Dear ms Jones,
Why do you pick on me im as good as anyone.
Why do I get the lousy grad. I culdnt do that bibliog-
raphy but I did do some examples. My friend was over
and who had time she was having a big prolben with
the famly. I tried to help her but it was no use. Any-
way I wish yud be nice for wuns sins its over the class
is and whats the big deel. Just give me a better
grade I was only abset 8 tims.
Your friend,
A student
812.You want to organize a family reunion.
Describe the steps you will take to contact peo-
ple and to organize the event.
Sample 6 Score
My family is united genetically but not by proximity.
We live in far-flung locations, including three conti-
nents and both the northern and southern hemi-
spheres. Some of us have kept in touch, while others
might as well be considered MIA. It would seem
close to impossible to organize a family reunion for
such a peripatetic group. Yet, that is what I decided
to attempt.
Initially I sent e-mails to all those I regularly
heard from and requested any and all addresses of
other relatives to be forwarded to me. South Africa
was the farthest location and was the source of some
previously unknown addresses. Internet searches
yielded still more. How delighted I was that there
seemed to be universal interest in the project. Several
people volunteered to help. We generated a list and
added to it as soon as we received further information.
Relatives were located in Alaska, Canada, and
six states. Thus the first big hurdle was overcome:
the list of potential invitees. Then, with solicited in-
put from all concerned, it was decided to choose a
location near New York, the original point of origin of
the family.
It then became necessary to choose a site for
the get-together and then to find accommodations
for approximately 55 people ranging in age from un-
der one year to 85. An all-suite hotel, which agreed
to charge reduced rates if a minimum number of
reservations were confirmed, was selected. The ho-
tel agreed to hold rooms for us until two weeks prior
to the weekend of the get-together. A list of nearby
motels and bed-and-breakfasts was also compiled.
We now had the who, where, and when, the latter be-
ing the last weekend in September when the weather
ETTM_04_195_266.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 4:20 PM Page 245
was still moderate and travel not likely to be a prob-
lem. Why we were getting together seemed obvious.
There was curiosity to catch up, and even to meet
relatives known only by reputation.
Now we came to the question of howthe week-
end would be organized. Since most people would be
arriving on Friday, that day was to be relaxed and un-
structured. On Saturday, there would be games and
an informal picnic lunch in a nearby county park, the
permission for which was easily obtained. Saturday
night would be the highlight, a catered dinner in a
restaurant that could easily hold a group of this size.
People had been asked to bring photos and anec-
dotes, and a list of speakers was generated. The
youngest members would be introduced, and those
traveling great distances would be recognized. The
oldest members might wish to share their reminis-
cences. Sunday would again be an informal day, prob-
ably punctuated with hugs, the sharing of addresses,
and promises to do this again. All of the activities
would be recorded on videos and a digital camera so
that they could easily be forwarded via e-mail.
Thus, the planning for a family reunion must be-
gin well in advance of the date. Planners must seek
out addresses of the relatives, and must settle on a
location, a date, and, of course, a place to stay.
These would vary according to the size and needs of
the group. Some groups might prefer to simply chat
informally, while others would appreciate planned ac-
tivities. Once a family has done this, a second reunion
would be much easier. The addresses are known, faces
can be associated with names, and an evaluation of
the previous schedule can be solicited. One caveat:
have alternate plans in case of bad weather.
Sample 4 Score
The first step in planning a family reunion is having a
family. Who is included? Do you invite the divorced
ones? After you decide who to invite you should make
up a list. Then you should call them, maybe getting
someone to help as this is a big job.
The second step is to decide what to do. So you
need to know exactly or pretty nearly how many are
coming. So you have to pick a date that is good for
everyone. Will it be just one day. Or two? You could
play games and have people tell stories. It would be
fun to hear about things the old people remember.
Will you all get together or will it be by ages? You will
have to decide. I think it is best to have all ages see
each other and become friends if possible.
The third step is deciding where to get to-
gether. How about your house? Do you have room? Do
you want the mess? If everyone brings something you
will probly still have to get most of the stuff and
have the most work anyway. I would do it one time
and then have someone else take a turn.
So you now have everybody together for a fam-
ily reunion. I hope it is fun. I hope it is not boring. I
must tell you that some of my known relatives are
boring but they are my relatives.
Sample 1 Score
I wanted to try to have a family reunion. My friend
had it. What if someone couldn’t get there. Well
that’s life. What if they didn’t like the food—hot
dogs and hamburgers—well we could ask people to
bring something.
One thing I wanted was to see pitchers of my
aunt’s and uncles and my mom and dad when they
were young. Its hard to believe that they were ever
kids. Some of the family hates each other at least
they don’t speak to each other and sometims you
cant menshun there names. So what, I can invite
them. Acept maybe one dum cousin. But I will take
pitchers to show my kids but I don’t think I want any.
Kids that is.
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Scoring Explanations for
Narrative Writing Essays
A score of “6” indicates that your essay satisfies the
requirements of the writing prompt in a creative and
original manner, using an obvious theme through-
out. You thoroughly articulate your ideas in a coher-
ent fashion, use precise examples, and develop the
topic in an interesting manner. The narrative uses di-
alogue effectively, contains believable characters, and
conveys vivid emotions and situations. The story it-
self is orderly, with a clear focus, a logical sequence of
ideas, and transitional words and sentences. Your
writing demonstrates a sense of audience by using ef-
fective vocabulary, varied sentence structure, and
fluid, sophisticated language that is essentially with-
out errors.
A score of “4” indicates that your essay meets
some of the requirements of the writing prompt
but develops ideas somewhat inconsistently. Your
essay may answer the question in an abbreviated
manner, using little dialogue and giving only brief
examples to support the thesis. Your essay has a
general focus, makes an obvious attempt at organi-
zation, and presents your ideas in a logical sequence.
The language of your essay indicates a general control
of mechanics but has a slightly lower quality of sen-
tence structure and variety than a sample 6 score. An
essay of this type contains errors only when using so-
phisticated language.
A score of “1” indicates that the essay only
minimally addresses the writing prompt, digress-
ing, repeating, or dwelling on insignificant details
throughout. Your essay shows a lack of develop-
ment and exhibits no organizational pattern or fo-
cus. Your writing may be illegible or unrecognizable
as English.
Model Narrative Writing Essays
813.People often say, “Don’t judge a book by its
cover.” Describe a time when you misjudged
someone based on his or her appearance or
when someone misjudged you.
Sample 6 Score
When Maria Mariella Panontin first showed up at
our school, here’s what I thought: Look at that girl.
She dresses like she’s some exotic gypsy or some-
thing. Looks like a real high-maintenance kind of
girl. Not my type; I’m not going to bother trying to
get to know her.
So I didn’t. Too late, I realized what
a mistake I’d made.
Maria Mariella (she went by both names) was a
foreign exchange student from Italy who was staying
with a friend of mine, Joanne. Joanne and I weren’t
that close, but we hung out in the same general
crowd, so when the extended clique got together,
Maria Mariella was often part of the group. We were
friendly to each other, but we never tried to become
friends until Shanda’s party.
I wasn’t planning on going to Shanda’s party be-
cause I had a big track meet the next day, but my
friend Elaine convinced me to go for a little while.
When I was saying good-bye, Joanne rushed up to me.
“Hey, Jenine, can you do me a really big favor?
Maria Mariella needs to go home, but I want to stay.
Would you mind dropping her off at my house?”
I didn’t really want to, but it was on the way,
and I would have looked like a real jerk if I said no, so I
said, “Sure, no problem.” Maria Mariella was right be-
hind Joanne. I looked at her and said, “Let’s go.”
We hopped into my car. As I was pulling out of
the driveway, I popped in a 10,000 Maniacs cassette
and turned the sound up loud.
ETTM_04_195_266.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 4:20 PM Page 247
“I love this song!” Maria Mariella shouted over
the music.
“Really?” Not even my American friends appreci-
ated this band. “You like the 10,000 Maniacs?”
“I love them,” she said with her heavy Italian
After that, it seemed like Maria Mariella and I
couldn’t stop talking to one another and finding
things in common. I loved that she was straight-
forward and honest, like me. She shared my taste in music and film. We both had crushes on the
same movie stars. It felt like a friendship that was
meant to be.
Then, just two weeks later, Maria Mariella
threw a party at Joanne’s house. It was a going-
away party. Her mother had developed a serious ill-
ness, and Maria Mariella was going home to be with
her. At that party, a group of us were playing Truth
or Dare, one of our favorite games. It was Maria
Mariella’s turn.
“Truth!” she said.
“Name something you regret,” our friend Denise
Maria Mariella pointed a long finger at me. “I
wish I’d taken the time to get to know you sooner. I
didn’t think you were worth my time.”
A sad smile came across my face. “I thought
the same thing, Maria Mariella,” I said. “That is
something I’m always going to regret.”
Sample 4 Score
They say you shouldn’t judge a book by it’s cover, but
people often do. I learned my lesson about this in
high school when I met Maria Mariella. I didn’t think
she was worth getting to know but I was very wrong.
She turned out to be a great friend, but by the time I
realized it she was gone.
Maria Mariella came to our school from Italy,
she stayed with a friend of mine, Joanne. I saw Maria
Mariella a lot at school and parties but I never really
talked to her. Just from how she looked and dressed
(like a gypsy), I didn’t think I’d like her. Then one night
Joanne asked me to take Maria Mariella home be-
cause I was leaving early and she wanted to leave
early too. So I did, and I found out she loved the
10,000 Maniacs as much as I did, not even my best
friend liked the same music. After that we started
talking and hanging out, and we kept finding that we
had all kinds of things in common. The more we
talked, the more we liked each other.
Its a sad thing that our friendship was so
short. Maria Mariella had to go back to Italy a few
weeks later because her mother got sick. At her
good-bye party, we were playing “Truth or Dare.” It
was our favorite game. When it was Maria Mariella’s
turn she said “truth.” Denise asked her to tell the
truth about something she regrets.
Maria Mariella said, “I wish I’d gotten to know
you sooner, I didn’t think you were worth my time.” I
said, me too, and that’s something we both regret.
Sample 1 Score
One time I misjudeged someone based on their ap-
pearance and someone misjudged me also. In high
school. We shouldn’t not to judge other people be-
cause it is wrong, you must to get to know some
body first and then you can have an opinion on them
what there like. When you judge some one first you
can be a lot wrong in fact really wrong about what
that person is to be like. For example, Maria Mariella,
in high school. I didn’t not liked her because I thought
she looked stupid the way she dressing up all the
time. Although she really was nice. It was too late.
Don’t not judge a book by its cover, it can make
you very sad.
ETTM_04_195_266.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 4:20 PM Page 248
814.It has been said that the truth is often stranger
than fiction. Describe an experience you had
that was so strange others might think you
made it up.
Sample 6 Score
My friends still think I made this story up, even
though they’ve never known me to be a liar. When it
happened I couldn’t believe it myself, but it’s true.
This really happened.
My best friend and I were working one summer
as line chefs in the Marriott at the sprawling Tan-
Tara Resort on the Lake of the Ozarks, Missouri. One
Tuesday morning, as I walked through the kitchen to
get to the time clock, half a dozen people said to me,
“Uh-oh, man, the executive chef wants to see you.”
The executive chef? But I hadn’t done anything wrong.
What could he want? Why was I in trouble?
I clocked in and knocked on the executive chef’s
door. “Listen,” he said angrily when I sat down, “I
don’t know what you guys did or how you did it, but
you and your buddy Jim have off on Friday.” Friday
was our busiest night; no one gets off on Friday with-
out a very good reason. “Just one thing,” he said
sternly as I got up to go. “Don’t you guys tell anyone
why you’re not coming in. Understand?”
“Understand,” I replied, but I had no idea what
he was talking about. I had to find Jim as soon as
possible and figure out what was going on. But every
time I asked Jim about it, he simply said, “I’ll tell you
later. Just don’t worry about it.” No matter how
much I begged, he wouldn’t tell me what was going on
and why we had the day off. By Thursday night, he
still hadn’t told me what was happening Friday. As
we were watching TV in our apartment, he said, “Let’s
hit the sack early tonight. We’re going to need lots of
rest for tomorrow.” Jim never went to bed early. What
on Earth was going on?
In the morning, Jim woke me up (another anom-
aly) and told me to get a quick shower, put on my
bathing suit, and pack a change of clothes. A few
minutes later, a dark SUV with tinted windows pulled
up in front of our building. “There’s our ride,” Jim said
with a secretive smile. We walked out to the car, but I
wasn’t getting in without an explanation. So Jim
shoved me in. Inside, I looked up, and there in the pas-
senger seat was a famous Hollywood actor.
Now Jim had no choice but to explain. It turns
out that a friend of a friend of Jim’s knew the actor
and knew that he wanted to get away for a totally
private vacation between films. This friend said that
he knew two guys at a large secluded lake in Missouri
who would take care of him for the day. So the actor
called the executive chef and asked for Jim and me
to have the day off.
We all spent the day out on the lake waterski-
ing, fishing, eating, drinking, and telling stories. We
did our best to treat him like just another guy
spending the day with a couple of new friends. We
didn’t ask him anything about Hollywood or his lat-
est high-profile romance; we just let him relax and be
himself for a day without cameras or fans.
At the end of the day, as we pulled back in to
the dock, he said, “Listen, guys, I had a really good
time today. It was just what I needed. I appreciate it,
man.” He shook our hands. “One favor, though?” he
asked. “Don’t tell anybody about this. If people find
out I’m here, I won’t get any peace and quiet. I need
some time alone.”
“No problem,” we said, and headed home. The
next day, everyone kept asking what was so special
that we had to have Friday off. The night was a dis-
aster for the kitchen, and they were all upset that
we hadn’t been there. All we could say was, “Nothing,
man, nothing. We were just hanging out.” We had a
great time, too, and we kept our promise.
ETTM_04_195_266.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 4:20 PM Page 249
Sample 4 Score
My friends still don’t believe me when I tell them this
story, but its true. I was working in a restaurant at a
big lake resort, in Missouri, when my boss called me
into his office. I thought I was in trouble. Instead, he
told me that me and my roommate and best friend,
Jim, had Friday off. Normally you have to beg and
plead or have an emergency to have a Friday off, here
I was getting the day off without even asking. I had
no idea what was going on. He seems angry, too, and
says, “don’t you and your friend tell anybody why your
not coming in Friday, understand”? I said yes, but I
was clueless.
I kept asking my roommate about it but he de-
cides not to tell me anything. “Just don’t worry,” he
keeps saying, and it was starting to drive me crazy.
For three days, he kept the secret. Then, Friday
morning, he wakes me up early (I’m always the one up
first, so I thought this was really weird) and tells me
to get dressed. A few minutes later, a black SUV with
dark windows pulls up, and he tells me to get in. No
way, I say, but he pushes me in, and that’s when I see
whose in the car, a famous Hollywood actor.
“What is going on?” I demand so I finally get my
explanation. A friend of a friend of Jim heard that
the actor needed a vacation between movies, told
him to go to this lake which is pretty private because
its really big, you can hide away there if you want. He
also gave him our names and said we would take care
of him for the day if he wanted, so he called our boss
and told him to give us the day off. We went out on
the lake then and spent the day out on the boat.
It turns out that he was a really cool guy. It
was hard to treat him like just another guy, but we
did, because that was what he wanted. We didn’t ask
him about his movies or anything, actually he kept
asking us questions about us. We all had a great
time. At the end of the day, he thanks us and asks
us not to tell anyone so that people don’t chase him
with cameras and stuff. We promised. It was so hard
not to tell anyone what we did that day!
Sample 1 Score
Some people they make up storys all the time, you
don’t know when to beleive them if its true or not.
Some time, the storys are super strange like it
couldn’t really of happened in the first place, then no
body is going to beleive it. One time a story like that
happen to me, when I met an actor, he was on vaca-
tion and asks my boss for me to have the day off. So
me and my friend could hang out with him. But we’re
not aloud to tell any body any thing. That was so
frustrating! For me.
This guy he was a really good actor, I seen him
in a lot of films, I was like wow when I met him but I
have to play it cool, like I don’t care how famous he is.
That was so hard. We hung out all day and he was a
really nice guy to. He was glad noone else knows that
he is there on the lake or else they all come after him
with cameras and stuff and bother him a lot.
815.We all have things that we are afraid of, and
sometimes we find ourselves in situations that
force us to face our deepest fears. Tell about a
time when you had to face one of your greatest
Sample 6 Score
Every kid in the neighborhood knew the Robinson
house and avoided it like a bowl of brussels sprouts.
Mr. Robinson was a notorious crank, the house was
always dark and creepy, and his dog was a terror—a
mean, fang-toothed creature that looked like she
would love to tear you apart.
The dog’s name was Angel, but she scared the
devil out of us. She was half pit bull, half Doberman
pinscher. Mr. Robinson kept her out on the front lawn,
chained to a thin pole stuck in the ground near his
ETTM_04_195_266.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 4:20 PM Page 250
front door. It was a long chain, and when I walked
past the house to the bus stop, Angel always
bounded toward me, barking furiously. One of these
times that chain will break
, I thought, and I’ll be An-
gel’s dinner
. When I got to the Robinson house, I al-
ways walked past it as quickly as I could.
Sometimes I could see Mr. Robinson watching from
the window, laughing.
Then it happened. We had gotten our report
cards in school that day, and I was so proud of my
marks and my teachers’ comments that I just had
to look at them again on my way home from the bus
stop. I was so wrapped up in that report card that I
didn’t realize how close I was to Mr. Robinson’s house,
and Angel startled me when she started barking. I
dropped my report card, and just then, a big gust of
wind took the paper up into the air. It landed right
smack in the middle of Mr. Robinson’s lawn, about
two feet away from Angel.
Angel, growling ferociously, was straining her
chain, trying to get closer to me. I could see her long
canines. I could even smell her from where I was
standing. I think I was shaking. But I needed to get
that report card back. My mom had to sign it. Be-
sides, she had to see those fantastic grades.
I thought about yelling for Mr. Robinson, but I
was just as afraid of him as of the dog. So I decided
to see if maybe, just maybe, Angel would let me get
close enough to get that piece of paper.
I remembered my uncle telling me that dogs can
sense your fear, and that most dogs will be friendly if
you approach them in the right manner. So I did my
best not to look scared. I straightened up, softened
my face, and walked slowly toward Angel. She kept
barking and growling. Saliva was dripping from her
chin. I closed my eyes and gulped. I was about six feet
away from Angel, and I put my fist out in front of me
for her to smell, saying, “Here, girl. Nice girl. Good
girl,” as calmly as I could. But she was barking so
loudly and angrily that I’m sure she didn’t hear a
Inside, I had never been more frightened. This dog
is going to tear me to pieces
, I thought. But I kept go-
ing, slowly. I had never earned such good marks before.
I wasn’t going to let a crazy old dog keep me from
showing that report card to my parents.
I was about three steps away from Angel when
the wind blew again, this time sending my report card
just out of Angel’s reach. I didn’t have to confront
that dog after all. It was a good thing, too—Mr.
Robinson later told my folks that Angel surely would
have bitten me badly. I realized that what I’d planned
to do was dangerous and that I was simply being
stubborn. But part of me was proud, because I was
brave enough to try to get close to Angel.
Sample 4 Score
Growing up, a dog named Angel was one of my
biggest fears. She was a vicious dog, half pit bull
and half Doberman pincher. I had to walk past her
house a lot, and every time I did, I walked as fast
as I could. Sometimes I saw her owner, Mr. Robin-
son, watching out the window. He was as creepy as
she was mean.
One day we got our report cards and I saw I’d
gotten the best grades ever. I couldn’t wait to show
my parents. On my way home, passing the Robinsons
house, I was looking at my report card again. I was
just so proud. But then Angel started to bark, and
that scared me. I dropped my report card, and some
wind came along and blew it right next to Angel.
Angel was pulling on her chain and growling at
me, scaring me to death. But, I had to get my report
card back. What was I going to do? I decided to try to
make friends with Angel. I know that if you hold your
hand out to a dog and don’t act scared they’ll often
be friendly to you because then they don’t fell
threatened. So, I slowly approached Angel trying not
ETTM_04_195_266.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 4:20 PM Page 251
to look to scared. I thought she was going to attack
me, but I kept going slowly towards her.
Luckily, just then the wind blew again. This time
my report card blew towards me and far enough away
from Angel that I could get it safely. I breathed a big
sigh of relief and headed home. Later Mr. Robinson
told my parents that Angel surely would have bitten
me. It’s a good thing I didn’t get any closer. Still I’m
proud that I got as close as I did.
Sample 1 Score
Dogs can be really scarey. In my neighborhood they’re
was a really scarey dog named “Angel.” She was
mean and always barking. Everyone was scared of
her. We all thought her owner Mr. robinson was weird
too and scarey. He was always peaking out of his win-
dows and watching.
One day when I was coming home from school.
My report card blue out of my hands next to Angel. I
was really scared, more then ever. I got close and
then the wind blue again, luckily for me. She just kept
barking and growling all the time, too. I was sure her
chain would brake.
816.Moving can be a very exciting but also difficult
time in one’s life. Tell about a time you moved
and how it affected you.
Sample 6 Score
As the new kid in town, I was eager—okay, desperate
—to make new friends, and fast. My dad had just
accepted a promotion that required a transfer, and
we had moved from Chicago to Oakland, California,
just a few days before I was to begin the sixth grade.
I hadn’t even had a chance to get to know any of the
kids in the neighborhood before school started.
After the first day of school, I could tell that
Charlie Jenkins was the one who would make me or
break me. He was a bully for sure, but he was so
good-looking and charming that everyone seemed to
like him. He was clearly the center of power in that
classroom, and I knew I would have to win his ap-
proval. I just wasn’t sure what I’d have to do to get it.
My answer came at the end of the third week of
school, when Ms. Harcourt gave us our second writ-
ing assignment. We’d been reading and discussing fa-
bles, and now it was our turn to write our own. That
afternoon, Charlie cornered me on the playground.
He teased me about being a new kid, yet he
seemed interested in the fact that I was a good
writer. Our teacher, Ms. Harcourt, had read aloud one
of my poems in class just the day before, and obvi-
ously he was paying attention.
“Hey, new kid, hold on a second,” he said, stand-
ing between the gate and me. “You seem to be pretty
good with writing.”
I admitted that I had a flair for writing, and at
first I was flattered that he noticed. But, he had an
ulterior motive.
“I’ll tell you what,” he said, moving closer, until
his face was just a few inches from mine. “Why don’t
you just write an extra fable, one for you, one for me?
Let me see what you can do.”
So that was it. I was going to do Charlie’s En-
glish homework for him. That was the price I was going to pay to be accepted.
Charlie didn’t wait for an answer. “Bring a fable
to school for me on Monday,” he said. That would give
him time to copy it over in his own handwriting to
submit to Ms. Harcourt on Tuesday.
Over the weekend, I wrote two fables, both of
them quite good, I thought, but one was definitely
better than the other. On Monday morning, I met
Charlie in the schoolyard as planned.
“Here’s your fable,” I said to Charlie, handing him
a piece of paper. I gave Charlie the fable that I
thought was inferior, keeping the better fable for my-
self, and turned to walk away.
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He questioned me about the quality of the pa-
per, read it quickly, and decided that it passed
muster. Without saying thank you or goodbye, he
swaggered off into the building.
A few days later, Ms. Harcourt returned our fa-
bles. I looked at my paper, expecting to see an A or
A+, but my grade was an A–. Then I looked over at
Charlie. He was holding his paper up high so I could
see his grade: A+. I knew the fable I’d kept for myself
was better. Perhaps Charlie’s charm was factored
into his grade.
Fortunately, I only had to do one more assign-
ment for Charlie before he and his family abruptly
moved to another town. Now Charlie was going to be
the new kid in the classroom. I often wondered what
he had to do there to be accepted.
Sample 4 Score
One of the hardest things about moving is trying to
make new friends. When we moved to Oakland, I didn’t
have time to make any friends before school started.
I was the “new” kid in the classroom. The most popu-
lar kid in the sixth grade was Charlie, and I had to
make sure he liked me. I could tell right away you
wouldn’t want Charlie as your enemy.
After a couple weeks of school, we were given an
assignment in English, we had to write our own fa-
bles. (We’d been studying fables in class). Charlie
came up to me in the playground that day. He’d
found out I was a good writer, and he said I better
write an extra fable for him. If I wanted Charlie to like
me, I was going to have to do his English homework
for him. “Meet me here Monday before school starts,
with my fable,” he said.
So I wrote two fables that weekend. Both of
them were good, but one was better than the other.
That’s the one I kept for myself. I gave the other one
to Charlie, outside of school on Monday morning, just
like he said. He made me stand there while he read it
to make sure it was good. He seemed to like it, and
he let me go.
A few days later we get our fables back, and I
couldn’t believe it. Charlie got an A+ on his fable
while I got an A–. I know my fable was better than his
(which was really mine, of course). Maybe the
teacher really liked Charlie. That’s the only way I can
explain it.
A few weeks later Charlie’s family had to move,
so I only had to do one more assignment for him.
Now he had to be the new kid. I wonder how he han-
dled it.
Sample 1 Score
Moving is a hard thing. It is often very difficult for
family’s. Especially children. I remember a time we
moved. It affect me strongly. I had to do someone
elses schoolwork. He ask me to do his assinment and
I have to or else he wont like me and he is the most
I do his homework for him and mine too. Then
even though mine is better he gets an even better
grade! This was not fare at all. I think the teacher
had a big problem. Sometimes the popular kids are
even poplar with teechers, they get better grades for
nothing. This made me very angry.
I was very happy when he moved away then I
didn’t have to do any more work for him or worry if he
likes me.
817.As the saying goes, “If at first you don’t suc-
ceed, try, try again.” Describe a time when you
persisted until you achieved your goal.
Sample 6 Score
In seventh grade, I had a best friend who was an in-
credible athlete. I was pretty coordinated myself, but
because I was so insecure, I never seemed to be any
good at sports. I was so afraid of missing the ball
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that I would be sure to swing and miss, even if it was
right over the plate. But Katie was my best friend,
and if she joined a team, I did, too. Or at least I tried.
Katie was a starter for the junior varsity field hockey
team; I sat on the bench all season. Katie played reg-
ularly in JV basketball; I was cut during tryouts. I fig-
ured I was headed for a similar fate with lacrosse.
But Katie was my best friend, so I signed up anyway.
Katie was a natural, and she picked up the new
sport quickly. I, on the other hand, couldn’t seem to
hold the lacrosse stick comfortably. I caught one out
of ten throws, if I was lucky, and my tosses were al-
ways way off their mark. I was clumsy and feeling
clumsier, and I thought maybe it was time to give it
up. But that would create an even wider gulf between
Katie and me. Already she was spending more and
more time with the girls who, like her, excelled at
sports. I was beginning to be left behind.
Determined to stick it out and save our friend-
ship, I begged my mom to take me to a sporting
goods store and buy me an early birthday present:
my own lacrosse stick and ball so I could practice at
home. Katie was impressed with my stick, but I could
tell that she thought it was a waste of money. She
figured I would never get to use that stick in a game.
I was hurt by her reaction, and again I felt the
distance between us. If I was going to keep Katie as a
friend, I thought, I simply had to get the hang of this
sport. It was my last chance. Somehow, someway, I
had to learn how to throw and catch the ball in that
net and be respectable on the playing field.
So I practiced, and I practiced, and I practiced
some more. I often felt like there was no hope, and I
broke two windows in the garage, but I kept at it.
Then, one day, just after the first official game
of the season (during which I sat on the bench),
something happened. I paired off with Suzie, who had
become my partner since Katie had quickly proven to
be too good to play with me. That day, when Suzie
sent me her first throw, I caught it. When I threw the
ball back to her, I hit her stick dead on. I caught her
next throw, and the next. Something was happening. I
was gettingit. The stick was actually feeling good in
my hands. The movements were becoming natural. I
was catching and throwing the ball accurately.
I still don’t know what exactly happened that
day, but I will always be grateful for it. By the end of
the season, I was starting for the JV team. I scored
12 goals that year, and the next year I was playing
varsity. My success on the field gave me confidence
that I desperately needed. Katie and I continued to
drift apart, but Suzie turned out to be a great
friend. She quit the team after the first year, but
she came to every game to cheer me on.
Sample 4 Score
They say that if you don’t succeed, try, try again un-
til you do. When I was in Junior High School, I tried
many sports because my best friend did. She was a
great athlete; I was not. I sat on the bench all of field
hockey season and I got cut during basketball try-
outs, too. I stuck with it, though and finally made it
on the lacrosse team.
My friend Katie picked up lacrosse right away,
but I struggled. Even though she was my best friend I
couldn’t be partners with her during practice. Be-
cause she was so much better than me. I was afraid
that if I didn’t learn how to be good at lacrosse, our
friendship would be over. She was spending more and
more time with her sports friends, and I was feeling
more and more left out.
I decided to do something to save our friend-
ship. I went out and bought a lacrosse stick. After
practice, I’d come home and practice. I practiced on
weekends, too. I tried and tried and tried. Some days
I felt like there wasn’t any hope, but I kept trying.
Then one day, it happened. I was throwing and
catching the ball with Suzie, my new partner. Sud-
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denly, I caught the ball. I caught the next one she
threw, too. My throws to her were accurate. From
that day on, I got better and better. I had more con-
fidence, too. I ended up playing a lot that season on
the JV team and even scored 12 goals. Suzie quit the
team, but she was my new friend, and she came to
cheer me on. I’m really glad I kept trying.
Sample 1 Score
As the saying goes if at first you don’t succeed try
try again. This is good advise to everyone. I try and
try and try until I get good at lacross.
This is a fun sport, I really enjoy it. You have to
throw and catch the ball in a net. When I first start I
was lousy at it. I couldnt catch or through the ball
right. I was sitting on the bench all the time. My
friend was really good at it. She even plays varsity
her first year.
This friend shes looking for other friends who
are like her good at sports not like me. She really
hurt me a lot that way. However I make new friends
like Suzie. She was my partner in practices. She
stayed with me even when I learned how to play right.
818.Movies and literature often deal with the
theme of counting your blessings. Tell about an
experience that led you to appreciate someone
or something you’d taken for granted.
Sample 6 Score
I often complained about our lack of wealth to my
parents, who often replied that I had no idea what it
means to be poor and that someday they’d show me
what poverty was really like. I thought they were all
talk, but one day, they proved me wrong—and
showed me just how right they were.
Thehe images from that day still haunt me. My
parents were very active in their church, and they
had arranged to deliver clothing and food donations
to a church in a deeply impoverished area on the edge
of the Appalachian Mountains, a four-hour drive from
our home.
I’d seen pictures of poverty before, of course.
But seeing a picture of a shack with seven malnour-
ished children and actually walking into such a shack
are two entirely different things. The pastor of the
church took us into a few homes so we could deliver
some of the items (a crib, a box of linens, canned
goods) personally. I had never felt so uncomfortable
before. These people had so little! Eight family mem-
bers living in two rooms ... no electricity or running
water ... no couches or microwaves or cable televi-
sion ... soon I began to realize just how lucky I was.
True, I didn’t have as much as my friends. But I had
so much more than the people we visited that day. I
felt greedy and guilty for having so many things.
When we got back home, I got on the Internet
and found a soup kitchen not too far from our home.
I’ve been volunteering there twice a week ever since.
Two of my friends have joined me. Every time we go,
we count our blessings.
Sample 4 Score
On one afternoon I’ll never forget, my parents taught
me to appreciate what I have. We lived in a very rich
neighborhood but we ourselves were not rich, we were
only middle class. Therefore I always felt like I was
poor; compared to all my friends and their fancy
houses and pools and cars. None of my friends had
to work; but I had to work, to afford my car.
I guess my parents got tired, of me complain-
ing, so one day they woke me up really early and took
me on a long drive to a really poor neighborhood. I
mean this place was really, really poor. I never saw
such poverty before. The people, they lived in shacks,
not houses. Everything was dirty, they had nothing
like we have in our houses, most of them didn’t even
have running water or even electricity. And so many
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people living in such a little shack, with everyone on
top of each other.
We went there to deliver some food and clothing
donations to a church. The paster, he took us to
some houses to deliver some of the food and clothes
ourselves. Thus, I could see for myself how much I re-
ally had.
When I got back home, I found a soup kitchen I
could go to help other people who really don’t have
anything, not even food to eat. They always remind
me to count my blessings.
Sample 1 Score
I am told “to count your blessings” and appreciate
someone or something that you’d taken for
granted. Many movies and books are about this. I
am sure you have seen some and read some. Like
scary movies where people get killed can make us
apreciate the blessing, we are still alive. Or a war
movie, that were not fighting a war. When I went to
a poor town once when I was in school I saw people
even more poor than me. That made me sad, they
live with so little. Compared to how much I have. All
the time I felt poor since my friends, they were so
819.We are often surprised, even awed, by the expe-
riences of our ancestors. Describe a time when
you learned something important about your
family history.
Sample 6 Score
My dad wasn’t the type to talk much about anything,
and he was especially quiet about his past. There
were a few things I knew: He’d come over from Hun-
gary in 1956, after the Revolution. He’d fought with
the rebels in Budapest. He was a toolmaker in Hun-
gary, and he was a toolmaker here. He left behind his
parents and 11 brothers and sisters, who still lived in
the countryside. They exchanged letters once or
twice a year. That was about all I knew.
The summer that I was 14, my dad received one
of those letters. In it was the news that one of his
brothers had died. Maybe it was the realization that
he was so out of touch with his family. Maybe it was
his own mortality he was facing. In any case, a few
days after the letter came, he told me about his
role in the Hungarian Revolution and his escape from
The Hungarian Revolution began with a massive
student protest on October 23, 1956, and ended
just a few weeks later in November after the city was
invaded by Soviet tanks and the rebellion crushed.
My dad, just 22 years old, had decided to join the
students who were protesting the Communist
regime, and soon he was not just a protester but a
soldier, and not just a soldier but an officer in the
rebel army. “Wait a minute,” he said, and he returned
with a tattered copy of Lifemagazine’s special issue
devoted to the Hungarian Revolution. He flipped
through the pages, showing me image after image of
buildings demolished by bombs, rebels fighting on
foot against tanks, bodies lying in the street. Then
he found the picture he was looking for. “There,” he
said, pointing to a window in an abandoned, bullet-
ridden building. “I was hiding in there, throwing Molo-
tov cocktails at the Russian tanks.”
It’s a long and fascinating story, and I wanted
to know all the details. How did he get involved? How
did he escape? How close was he to being captured
or killed? I had so many questions. But the question I
wanted answered most was this: Why did he fight?
At that age, I was just starting to find my footing in
the swampy ground of ethics and moral stances. I
was having a tough time figuring out what I believed
in, and I wanted desperately to understand how
someone could believe in something so strongly that
he would be willing to die for it.
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Why did he do it? There were a lot of reasons,
he said. For one thing, the Communist regime was
ruining the economy. As a toolmaker with several
years of experience, he had a better salary than
most, but still, he said, “I couldn’t afford both
clothes and food.” If he respected the government,
he would have been able to live with that. “But what I
couldn’t live with,” he said, “was not being able to say
what I wanted. The Communists, they had all kinds
of restrictions on everything. You couldn’t go to the
next town without the proper permissions and pa-
pers. And you couldn’t say anything, not anything,
against the government, or else they’d put you in
jail, or worse. They’d come and get you late at night
and no one in your family would ever see you again.”
That’s what happened to his best friend, Attila. He
disappeared the night of September 22, and no one
ever heard from him again.
My dad often complains about America. The
politicians are crooks, criminals have too many
rights, schools and parents aren’t strict enough with
children, and the taxes are “an abomination.” But I
don’t need to remind him that at least in this coun-
try, he can complain as loudly as he pleases.
Sample 4 Score
The summer I was 14, I learned something about
my dad. He never talked much and I didn’t really
know that much about him. After he found out
about his brother dying back in Hungary, he
must’ve felt like it was important for me to know
more. He decided it was time to tell me about the
Hungarian Revolution.
My dad was a toolmaker in Hungary. Because
he didn’t like the Communist government, he decided
to join the protests led by students angry at the
government. That’s how the rebellion started. The
communists wouldn’t let anyone talk bad about the
government, and the protesters were attacked. That
started the fighting. He showed me pictures of the
revolution with lots of destroyed buildings and people
lying in the street. It was horrible. Because he was a
little older than most of the students, my dad be-
came an officer in the rebel army.
I wanted to know why he decided to fight. He
told me that because of the communist govern-
ment, he couldn’t make enough money to buy food
and clothes. He couldn’t travel to another town
without the right papers. The most important
thing, though, was freedom of speech. He couldn’t
say what he wanted. He said that anyone who criti-
cized the government would get taken away in the
middle of the night and no one would see them
again. That happened to his best friend. For my
dad, that was the last straw.
My dad escaped with the other refugees, and
he’s been living in America ever since 1956. He com-
plains about America a lot, especially the politicians.
But he knows that here, no one is going to come and
take him away for that.
Sample 1 Score
I was surprised by my dad when he told me about the
Hungarian revelution he fought. I knew before that he
fought but I didn’t no anything else about it. It was a
short war and the communists one. He was even an
officer in the army. He didn’t like to talk much so
thats part of why I was so surprized.
One question I had, was, why did he fight. He
said he didn’t like the government and they’d take
you away just for saying that. I can’t imagine such a
thing. I’d want to fight to. That’s not the way it is
here in America. This is a really grate country and I’m
glad to live here.
ETTM_04_195_266.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 4:20 PM Page 257
820.Most of us remember exactly where we were
and what we were doing when we received
shocking or important news. Tell the story of
what you were doing when you heard about an
important event and how that news affected
Sample 6 Score
Every May the carnival came to town. It was the
standard small-town fair: a ferris wheel, a fun house,
a giant slide, and dozens of booths where you could
buy greasy food and try to win cheap stuffed animals
for your date.
That’s where I was, with my date—sort of. We
weren’t actually in the fairgrounds. We were in his car
in the parking lot, stealing some time together. I was
16, but I wasn’t allowed to date, and I had the sort of
father who just might come to the fair to check up on
me to make sure I wasn’t hanging out with any boys.
Keith had borrowed his mom’s Buick Skylark, as
usual. REO Speedwagon’s “I Can’t Fight This Feeling”
was playing on the radio when Keith rather abruptly
ended a kiss, interrupting what I thought had been a
perfectly nice romantic moment.
“I have something to tell you,” he said. He
wouldn’t look me in the eye. My heart dropped to the
floor. He’s going to break up with me, I thought in horror.
But that’s not what happened. In fact, I never
could have guessed at what Keith was about to tell me.
He took a deep breath and looked straight ahead
at the windshield. “Your mom was married to someone
else before she married your dad,” he said softly. “You
have an older brother. He lives in North Carolina.”
I know what you’re thinking, because it’s exactly
what I was wondering, too: How on Earth did Keith
know this?
He guessed what I was thinking, and said:
“My mom told me.” Then, before I could ask, he added: “Edie told her.” Edie was his mother’s
Finding out that I had an older brother was a
shock enough. To find out from my boyfriend, who
found out from his mother, who found out from her
hairdresser—that was just too much. I was too
overwhelmed to respond.
After a few minutes of silence during which
Keith held my hand, what Keith told me about how
he found out began to make sense. Edie was the
daughter of my dad’s best friend, Samuel. Though
our families were no longer close, when I was
young, we spent a lot of time together. Edie and
her older sister used to babysit my sister and me.
It wouldn’t be so unlikely for her to pick up a family
secret or two.
Keith’s mom had told him what Edie told her
because she believed it was proof that I wasn’t good
enough to be his girlfriend. He wanted me to know
about my brother, of course, but he also wanted me
to know that he was going to have to cool it for a
while until his mom got over it.
The next day, I told my mom that I knew about
my brother. At first, she looked shocked; then she
looked relieved, as if a tremendous burden had been
lifted. She was glad I knew, although she was sorry
about the way in which I’d found out. She gave me my
brother’s phone number and told me I could call
whenever I was ready.
Today, my brother and I talk regularly, and he is
one of my closest friends. One of these days, I have
to thank Edie for being such a gossip.
Sample 4 Score
When the fair came to our town I went like I always
did. There were rides and games. You could also buy
lots of food. I enjoyed the fair, but this time I wasn’t
going on any rides. I was sitting with my boyfriend in
his car in the parking lot.
I wasn’t suppose to have a boyfriend. That’s
why we were hiding in his car. We were listening to mu-
sic and talking and kissing. Suddenly Keith stopped.
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He said he had something to tell me. I got really
scared. Is he going to break up with me, I wondered?
That’s what I thought was going to happen. But
he surprised me even more.
“You have an older brother,” Keith told me. I
was shocked. He told me that my mother had been
married before she met my dad. I never knew this,
and I wondered how on earth Keith knew this if I
didn’t even know. I asked him, and he said, “My mom
told me.”
How on earth did his mom know, I demanded. It
turns out her hairdresser, of all people told her. I was
confused. But then I remember her hair dresser is
Edie, who used to babysit us when we were little.
Edie’s dad and my dad were best friends a long time
ago. Maybe that’s how Edie found out. She must
have heard them talking about it one time.
I was very upset that Keith knew something my
parents hid from me. His mom told him because she
wants him to break up with me. She was thinking our
family is bad because of this. Plus he wanted me to
know about my older brother. Well, the next morning I
talked to my mom, and she gives me my brothers
number. She says sorry for not telling me earlier, and
now me and my brother we are very good friends. I am
glad Edie liked to gossip.
Sample 1 Score
I am going to the fare like it always is coming to town
and find out a secret about my brother from my
boyfriend. We are in his car. Because I am not a loud
to have boyfriends, so we hide there from my dad in
case he is checking up on me. Then my boyfriend tells
me his mom’s hairdressing lady tells her about my
brother and she tells him. I am all confuse, I say so he
explain my brother is from my mom being married be-
fore she meets my dad. How, does he know. His mom
tells him since her hairdressing lady tells her so he
can break up with me.
I have to ask my mom right a way after this
then she is gladly to know about it for me. Now I call
my brother all the time, we are good friends.
821.Many things can interfere with our plans.
Sometimes an illness prevents us from doing
something we really want to do. Describe a
time when you became ill and missed out on
doing something you’d really been looking for-
ward to.
Sample 6 Score
I’d been looking forward to my 12th birthday for
months. We were going to have a party in school and
a party at my house after school. My relatives from
Ohio were coming, my mom was going to bake my fa-
vorite cake, and my brother and his friends were go-
ing to DJ. I spent weeks making up the playlist,
though I might as well have just handed over my pile
of Beach Boys albums, because just about every
song I chose was a Beach Boys tune. I was the
biggest Beach Boys fan on the East Coast.
The day before my birthday, however, I came
down with the chicken pox. Everything for the next
day was canceled, and I stayed home from school,
itchy and cranky. I refused to get out of my pajamas
or be civil to anyone. I just sat in my room, playing my
Beach Boys albums and feeling miserable. The next
day, my birthday, I was still itchy and cranky as can
be, a total wretch. Until hecalled.
Just after lunch and my third “Three Stooges”
episode, the phone rang. It was my dad telling me I
had to believe his next statement. I rolled my eyes
but agreed.
“In a few minutes, Brian Wilson is going to call
you,” he said.
“That’s not funny, Dad,” I replied.
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He assured me that it would happen and hung
up. He told me I had to believe him and to answer the
phone when it rang.
Was he playing a joke on me? No, he couldn’t be.
My dad knew how much I loved the Beach Boys, and
to play a joke of this sort would be too cruel. He
must be serious
, I thought, but I couldn’t believe it.
“Okay,” I said to myself as I placed the receiver
down. TheBrian Wilson was going to call me? I sat in a
daze. Then, before I had a chance to digest what my
father said, the phone rang. I thought it was my dad
calling back to say he was just teasing. It wasn’t.
At the other end of the line was none other
than the Brian Wilson. I don’t really remember what
he said beyond that; once I realized it really was
Brian Wilson, I went into a mild state of shock. He
must have thought I was a terrible conversationalist
because I could only say “yeah” or “no” to most of his
questions. After a few minutes, he said good-bye. I
hung up the phone, screamed, and cried.
Sample 4 Score
When I was about to turn 12, I came down with the
chicken pox. That ruined all of my plans, we were going
to have a party in school and a party at my house af-
terwards. I had all the music picked out that my
brother was going to play (DJ) and my mom was mak-
ing my favorite cake, but, everything got cancelled.
I was miserable as could be. My dad said he’d
never seen me be crankier before in his life. I guess
that’s why he did what he did. He ended up giving me
the best birthday present ever.
I think I must have been the biggest Beach
Boys fan on the east coast of the United States. I
had every record and knew every song. On my birth-
day, when I was home feeling blue, the phone rang. It
was my dad, and he told me that “I have to believe
him” and that Brian Wilson, THE Brian Wilson, was
going to call me. I couldn’t believe it.
“Are you kidding me,” I asked my dad?
“No. Please believe me,” he answered.
A minute later, the phone rang. “Hello, is Cas-
sandra there,” a familiar voice asked. It really was
Brian Wilson! He wished me a “Happy Birthday” and
told me, “Me and the boys are recording an album
here in Indiana.” We talked for a few minutes. Or,
rather, he talked, and I stuttered, I was so excited
and nervous I couldn’t hardly say anything.
My dad told me that he managed to track the
Beach Boys down and that Brian Wilson heard my
story, that I was sick and a big fan on my birthday,
and he agreed to call me. What a wonderful thing dad
did for me. He made my birthday unforgettable.
Sample 1 Score
Many things can interfere with our plans. Some-
time an illness prevents us from something we re-
ally want to do. One time I became ill and missed
out on something I’d really been looking forward. We
cancel my birthday party plan because I have the
chicken pocks. I felt really sad. I was 12. I really love
the beach boys music and suddenly when I am home
crying Brian Wilson, he calls me. I cannot believe!! It
was so important. I am so lucky for my dad to do
such a thing.
822.Many of our fondest memories are associated
with food. Describe a memorable experience
that took place while preparing or eating food.
Sample 6 Score
Back when I was in junior high school, all students—
boys as well as girls—were required to take home
economics. In the fall, we sewed duffel bags and pil-
lows shaped like animals. In the spring, we learned
how to cook.
For our final cooking class project, we had to
cook a dish at home and bring it to class. I knew right
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away what I was going to make: my Aunt Rosie’s fa-
mous chocolate cake.
My Aunt Rosie made the best chocolate cake in
the world. It was a recipe she had gotten from her
grandmother, who swore her grandmother had per-
sonally made that chocolate cake for the Prince of
Wales. When I started the cooking class, I had asked
Aunt Rosie what made her chocolate cake so special.
She told me the secret ingredient was coffee.
I had never tried to bake a cake from scratch
before, and since the chocolate cake was Aunt
Rosie’s specialty, I thought for sure she would help
me make it.
“But that would be cheating,” she said as she
handed me the recipe. “You go home and you make it
yourself. Make sure you save a piece for me!” she
hollered as I headed out the door.
At home, I got out my ingredients: eggs, butter,
milk, sugar, fine powdered chocolate, cinnamon, bak-
ing powder, and coffee. The recipe looked easy enough,
and I followed each step carefully. When I had mixed
everything together, I carefully poured the batter
into the pan. I put the cake into the oven, which I had
preheated as directed, and set a timer for 50 min-
utes. When the buzzer went off, I stuck a toothpick
into the middle of the cake to make sure it was done.
It was perfect.
When the cake cooled, I opened up a can of
Betty Crocker’s chocolate frosting, spread a thick
layer on top of the cake, and covered it with plastic
wrap. It was a masterpiece, and I couldn’t wait for my
classmates to taste it.
The next morning, I carried my cake carefully to
school. I passed out pieces to my classmates, beam-
ing with pride. But when I saw the look on their faces,
I knew something was terribly wrong. I took a bite and
nearly burst into tears. No wonder they looked dis-
gusted! Aunt Rosie’s cake was never crunchy, and
the crunchy things were bitter. The cake tasted aw-
ful. My heart sank as I watched Mrs. Wilson take a
bite. She crunched, paused, crunched again, paused
again, and looked at me thoughtfully.
“Sarah,” she said gently, “does the recipe for
this cake call for coffee?”
“Yes,” I replied.
“Hmmm. I thought so.”
When I questioned her about my mistake, she
said, “You used coffee grounds. You were supposed to
use liquidcoffee,” she said, and she laughed gently.
I was mortified. I vowed to correct my mistake
and make a new cake for tomorrow.
This time, with a real cup of brewed coffee, I
baked a cake that would have made Aunt Rosie
Sample 4 Score
One of my most memorable school experiences had to
do with food preparation. I was making a cake for my
cooking class in junior high school, but things didn’t
turn out the way I’d planned.
We all had to make something at home for our fi-
nal cooking project, and I wanted to make my Aunt
Rosie’s famous chocolate cake. She made the best
chocolate cake in the world, all of my family and
friends agreed. It was an easy enough recipe, I
thought. What made it different—better than—most
chocolate cakes was its secret ingredient, coffee.
When I had all of the ingredients out I started
making the cake. I followed the recipe exactly, putting
in three-quarters cup of coffee, just like the recipe
called for. I put it in the oven at precisely 350 de-
grees and cooked it for exactly one hour. When I took
it out of the oven, it looked beautiful. I covered it with
some chocolate frosting and set it aside to take to
school in the morning. I was so proud of it!
When I got to cooking class, however, I realized
something was wrong. People made funny faces when
they bit into the cake. So I tried it too, and it tasted
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awful. It was bitter and crunchy. Aunt Rosie’s cake
never tasted like this! What did I do wrong?
My teacher asked me if the recipe called for
coffee. Yes, I told her. “You used coffee grounds,
didn’t you,” she asked.
“Yes,” I answered.
That was my mistake. I was supposed to use
brewed coffee, not coffee grounds. Mrs. Wilson was
really nice, though; she allowed me to make another
cake for the next class and bring it in. That time, I
did it right. My cake was delicious. It would have
made Aunt Rosie proud!
Sample 1 Score
I like to cook. In school I even had a cooking class. We
learn everything from measuring to whats different
from frying and baking. The school was a nice kitchen
for practicing. My friend Alisha was the best cook.
She and her whole family cooked. In my family Aunt
Rosie is the best cook. One time I baked a cake for
class, and I messed it up bad and everyone in class
though it was nasty tasting. I did it again the next
time and it was delicious. Even Aunt Rosie think so.
823.Try as we might to avoid them, accidents hap-
pen. Tell about a time when you were involved
in an accident.
Sample 6 Score
I was never one to believe in things like miracles or fate,
but since my accident a few months ago, I look at
things a little differently. Whether it was a miracle, or
fate, or just plain luck, I’m still here to tell this story.
It was a Monday morning, just about 8:15. I was
actually a little early for once and was glad I didn’t
have to race to work. It was my second week as a
bank teller at Harrison Savings and Loan.
There had been some freezing rain earlier that
morning, but the roads seemed clear as I pulled out
of the driveway. I turned left at the light, right at
the Dunkin’ Donuts, and then left again onto the on-
ramp for Route 61. I sped up to merge with the
southbound rush-hour traffic when suddenly I felt
my car, a brand-new Durango, lose control. I’d hit a
patch of ice.
What happened next probably lasted no more
than 15 seconds, but if felt like hours. I spun around
like a top, turning two full revolutions as I crossed
the two southbound lanes. Then I hit the median
strip and the car flipped over as it crossed into the
northbound traffic. I skidded across the highway
and the car stopped in the right-hand lane. There I
was, upside-down and backwards, after crashing
across four lanes, and somehow I was alive. Somehow
I hadn’t hit a single car.
But I had no time to appreciate that miracle,
because when I looked out the shattered windshield, I
saw an 18-wheeler bearing down on me at about 65
miles an hour. There was no time to get out of the car.
I screamed and braced myself for the impact.
But instead of hearing the crunch of metal crashing
into metal, I heard the screeching of brakes as the
truck swerved around me, just in time to avoid a
head-on collision. The truck skidded to a stop on
the shoulder about a hundred feet away from me.
Then the driver jumped out and ran over to see if I
was okay.
That night at home, I eased my aching body
into bed. But I was climbing into my own bed, in my
own room, not in the hospital. Somehow, the only in-
juries I sustained were a few cuts on my face and
hands, a bruised right shoulder, and two bruised calf
muscles. My new car was totaled, but I didn’t care.
All that mattered was that I was alive.
Sample 4 Score
I was involved in a really terrible accident not long
ago, and I’m very lucky to be alive. I was on my way to
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work at my new job when I hit a patch of ice as I was
pulling onto a major highway. It’s a miracle I didn’t
get seriously hurt.
When I hit the patch of ice, my car, my brand
new Durango, that I was so proud of, lost control. I
started spinning around like a top. I spun across the
two north-bound lanes. Then my car hit the median
strip and flipped over.
I thought, I ought to be dead already, but I
wasn’t.But it wasn’t over yet. Now I went across the
south bound lanes upsidedown. I stopped in the right
hand lane and then I saw a big truck headed straight
towards me.
Somehow, I don’t know how, that truck man-
aged to stop before it crashed into me. It swerved
around me and saved my life. Then the driver got out
to see if I was ok.
Luckily, I was OK. I only had just a few cuts and
bruises and I bruised both of my calf muscles. My car
was totaled, but, that didn’t matter. I was just
happy to be alive.
Sample 1 Score
One time I had bad accident. That almost got me
killed. I hit a pach of ice. When I was go onto high
way I spinned around a lot. Across all for lanes.
First I hit the midean stripe that made my car
flipped over. I was upside down thanking I was still a
live. When a big truck was coming at me. There
wasnt no time to got out. It was my brand new car
that was totalled. I was ok after all that lucky for
me my car wrecked but not me. The truck he stop on
time and move around my car upsidedown still. He
jump to see if I ok.
In hospital doctors say I ok. Just many number
of bruises and cuts and some on my calfs and shoul-
der. I am ok all thogh my car it ruined.
824.Describe an experience you had that would be
considered a near miss or a brush with disaster.
Sample 6 Score
I must have had a guardian angel that day.
I was six and had just learned how to ride a bi-
cycle. My bike was a beauty: pink all over, with a styl-
ish banana seat, iridescent fringes hanging off the
handle bars, and a white woven basket with big, pink
flowers on the front.
It was a Monday afternoon and I was alone, rid-
ing my bike in circles in the driveway. I was exalting in
my freedom: no more training wheels, no more big
brother or father pushing me from behind and holding
me steady. Now I could start, stop, and ride all by
myself, and I went around and around our circular
driveway in complete bliss.
The sun shone on my face and made the black
pavement hot, even though it was already late Sep-
tember. Emboldened by the warmth of the sun and
the excitement of my success—eight laps around
and I hadn’t fallen yet—I decided it was time to leave
the safety of the circle and ride down the steep hill
that led to the road on which we lived: Route 309, a
four-lane, heavily traveled highway. I warmed up with
another two or three turns around the circle and
then eased to my right and down the slope.
From the start of the circle to the edge of the
highway, the driveway ran about 200 feet at an even
45 degrees. I began to pick up a lot of speed at 50
feet, more at 75, and by 100 feet I was flying. The
road was getting closer; I could see the faces of the
people driving by at 50, 60, 70 miles an hour. It was
time to slow down, but I couldn’t. I kept going faster,
and faster, and I couldn’t stop. In my panic, I forgot
how to use the brakes.
In an instant I was out on the highway, a little
pink streak that zoomed across all four lanes and
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somehow, some way, ended up on the other side, up on
the Zeiglers’ lawn, in one piece. In the seconds that it
took me to cross the road, there had not been a sin-
gle car. An instant later, they were back, and I had to
wait several minutes before I slowly, shakily, walked my
bike back across the street and up the driveway.
I never told anyone about what happened, and
it was a long, long time before I ventured down that
slope again. When I did, I used my brakes the whole
way down. This time, I wasn’t going to forget.
Sample 4 Score
I once had a brush with disaster and nearly got my-
self killed. I was six and just learned how to ride my
bike by myself. I loved my bike. It was pink and had a
banana seat and a basket in front.
On the day that this happened, I was riding
around in our driveway. Our driveway was a long hill
and then a big circle at the top. I was riding around in
the circle.
It was the first time I was all alone on my bike.
After a while because I didn’t fall at all, I decided to
go down the hill. I start down the slope and I realize I
can’t remember how to break. This of course is a
problem because I start going faster and faster, any
minute I will be out on the highway.
We lived on Route 309, a 4-lane highway that
was always busy with cars. Suddenly I was zooming
across that road. Somehow, I made it across all four
lanes without getting hit by a car.
I don’t know how I was so lucky, to not be hurt
at all that day. Because a minute later, as soon as I
was across, there were more cars on the road than I
could count. Somehow, when I was going across,
there just weren’t any cars. Maybe I had a guardian
angel watching over me.
Sample 1 Score
When I have just learned to ride a bike, I almost have
a big accident. That almost gets me killed. My fa-
vorite bike, I’m riding it around and around in the
driveway. I like this bike so much. My aunt, she gived
it to me as a present. For my birthday.
All of a suddenly I am starting going down the
hill, I forgot how to stop, I am going across the road.
There are four lanes and lots of cars. Somehow I don’t
get hit by nothing. I walk my bike back up the hill. I am
thinking never to tell anyone. Boy I am so lucky!
825.We all need help from others from time to
time. Tell about a time you helped someone in
Sample 6 Score
It was the hottest day of the summer, a record-break-
ing 102 degrees, hot and humid, sweltering even in
the shade. I was driving back from visiting my older
brother and his new baby. In the blistering heat, I
could see the blacktop bubbling. I’d never been so
grateful for air-conditioning before.
I cruised happily along County Route 2, which
wound through the northern tip of the Sonoran
Desert. Then I saw that a car had broken down up
ahead. It was the first car I’d seen in about half an
hour. In the distance, a few hundred feet ahead of
the car, I saw a stooped figure walking with a gas can
in his hands. There was nothing around for miles.
There was no way this person was going to make it to
the nearest town, which was a good 20 miles away, in
this desert heat.
I’d always been told to stay away from
strangers, but I thought if there ever was a time to
do a good deed, this was it. Besides, as I neared
the figure, I could tell that it was an elderly man,
and I thought there was little chance he’d do me
any harm. So I slowed down and pulled over. “Need a
lift?” I asked.
Now that I could see him clearly, it was obvious
the old man was already in trouble. He’d walked only a
hundred yards or so, and he looked as if he was going
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to pass out any moment. “I’d be most grateful, young
lady, if you could help me get to a gas station,” he
said slowly. “I seem to be out of petroleum.”
“No problem,” I replied. “I’m headed that way.”
He climbed slowly into the car and I pulled back
out onto the road. “Not a good day for car trouble,
huh?” I asked.
“Indeed,” he replied. I offered him a soda from
the cooler I’d packed for my four-hour ride. He ac-
cepted it gratefully. He was silent for a few minutes
while his body temperature normalized. We made a
little small talk then, but just a little. He seemed to
prefer the silence.
As we neared the gas station, I asked him if he
would like a ride back to his car. “I don’t have to be
home until late this afternoon,” I told him. “It’s no
“I know it is quite out of your way,” he replied.
“But I would be most grateful.” He paused. “And just
where is home, young lady?”
“Elmwood,” I replied. “By the way, my name is
Emily. Emily Hampton.”
“You’re a very kind young lady, Emily Hampton.
My name is Edward Gilliam.”
Mr. Gilliam filled up his gas can and I drove him
back to his car. We poured the gas into his tank, and
I followed him back into town just to make sure he
was okay. At the gas station, I beeped and waved
and continued north toward home. Mr. Gilliam waved
and nodded his thanks.
The next morning, the doorbell rang. My mom an-
swered. “Emily!” she hollered. “Get down here!” I came
down the stairs and saw a giant bouquet of flowers.
They were stunning. A small note was attached:
“Dearest Emily, thank you for your incredible
kindness yesterday. You just might have saved my
life, and I am eternally grateful. You reminded an old
man of how much beauty there is in this world. Yours,
Edward Gilliam.”
Sample 4 Score
I’d never picked up a hitchhiker or helped anyone along
the highway before that day. But with that heat, how
could I just drive by. It was the hottest day ever, I was
driving through the desert when I passed a broken-
down car. An old man was walking along the road carry-
ing a gas can, I had to stop.
I asked him if he needed a ride. Which was a
silly question—of course he did. It was over 100 de-
grees and the nearest town was more than 20 miles
away. He’d die before he made it five miles in those
We didn’t talk much; I think he was the quiet
type. I offered him a soda and he drank it down like
that. When we got to the nearest gas station, I
asked him, if he wanted me to drive him back to his
car? “It won’t be any trouble,” I told him. I didn’t have
to be home until the end of the day.
So we filled up his gas can and I drove him back.
We talked a little more this time. He asked where I
lived, and he told me he was on his way to visit his
granddaughter. We filled up his tank and I followed
him for a while to make sure he was ok. Then I drove
the rest of the way home.
Next morning, the doorbell rang, there was a
huge boquet of flowers for me. They were from Edward
(that was his name). He was very grateful; he said “I
saved his life yesterday” and that “I reminded him
there was so much beauty in the world.” I was so glad
that I helped him.
Sample 1 Score
Everyone needs help sometime. One day I help an old
man who car break down on the road in the hot hot
dessert. He need a ride to get gas. He was so
thankful he sends me a big giant bunch of flowers
the next day.
Their was never such a hot day, he was crazy to
try walking to get gas, the gas station was so far
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away. It was a dessert so their wasn’t no shade or
anything or places to rest awhile. He would have been
in trouble for sure if I don’t help. At the gas station I
tell him I can take him back to his car, its not any
problem because I have all day. His so thankful to me.
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demands an ability to examine the meaning of a literary
text on multiple levels. In addition to explaining and summarizing the literal meaning of a
story, you must also delve more deeply into concepts that are implied through the use of lit-
erary devices such as symbols, metaphor, and connotation. Before responding to any of the prompts in
this chapter, you should read the scoring rubric carefully so that you understand what a successful literary
response is.
One of the most common errors that students make when writing a literary essay is trying to cover
too much material and too many ideas. Pay attention to the question that is being asked and then focus on
writing responses that directly answer the question. When you are proofreading your final draft, check to
be sure that every sentence supports your main idea. For example, if the question asks you to discuss a
particular character’s role as an evildoer, it would not be beneficial for you to write three entire pages
detailing the story’s setting unless you have a really compelling reason to do so—if, for example, the set-
ting influenced his evildoing to a great extent.
Literary Response
Writing Prompts
ETTM_05_267_292.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 1:55 PM Page 267
Before writing your literary responses to these
prompts, it is suggested that you do the following:
Use a timer to time each of your writing exer-
cises. Keep a record of your response times and
strive to decrease your average completion time
over the weeks ahead.
Read the question twice to make certain that
you understand the question and the task that
you have been given. Ask yourself these ques-
tions: What is the topic? What is the required
method of response? Am I being asked to com-
pare and contrast or am I being asked to iden-
tify and explain an important literary element?
Or am I being asked to evaluate or illustrate a
particular aspect of the story?
Use scrap paper to brainstorm and compose a
brief organizational outline.
Narrow your response so that you don’t include
material that isn’t essential to the required
response. When you are finished, look at the
original question and ask yourself: Did I com-
pletely answer the question that was asked?
Focus your attention on the key words in the
question or text.
Use examples from the text to support your
statements, but be sure to retain your own voice
when writing your response by not relying on
excerpts from the text to develop your ideas.
Be sure to proofread your response.
Get a Grip on Style
Every writer has style. Just as Gucci designs
differ from Baby Phat designs, it’s also true
that Mark Twain’s writing style is different
from J.D. Salinger’s writing style. Each writer
is unique in the way he or she constructs a
sentence, uses description, or sets the over-
all tone. Set a goal to become more aware of
the stylistic differences of the literature that
you read. Eventually, you’ll be so attuned to
the nuances of each writer’s individual style
that you’ll be able to identify a writer’s work
without even glimpsing the byline.
Get a Grip on Point of View
Most stories are written using either first-
person or third-person point of view. The
majority of academic reports are written using
the third-person perspective, whereas per-
sonal essays, memoirs, writing journals, and
reflection essays are written from the first-
person perspective.
When the first-person point of view is
used (I ), the narrator lets his or her personal
feelings and judgments color the perspec-
tive about people and events that have
occurred. Therefore, you are getting only the
narrator’s limited and biased perspective. An
example of this type of first-person narrative
is Miguel Street by V.S. Naipaul.
She, he, and it are tip-offs that an
author is telling the story from the distant
and more objective third-person perspec-
tive. “The Story of an Hour” by Kate Chopin
is written from a third-person perspective.
ETTM_05_267_292.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 1:55 PM Page 268
Rubric for Literary Response Writing
SCORE 6 5 4 3 2 1
satisfies the
provides a thoughtful
meets some of the
offers a simple
meets few of the ■
minimally addresses
Your written
requirements of the analysis of the writing requirements of interpretation of the requirements of the the writing prompt.
response shows writing prompt in a prompt.the writing prompt.writing prompt.writing prompt.
reveals a minimal an understanding creative and original ■
establishes a ■
establishes a ■
makes an attempt to ■
reveals an incomplete understanding of and interpretation manner.controlling idea controlling idea establish a controlling understanding of the text.
of the writing ■
establishes a that reveals an that shows a basic idea, but it is weak.the text.
makes no connection prompt.controlling idea understanding of understanding of ■
makes superficial ■
fails to establish a to the text, to the that reveals an the text.the text.connections between controlling idea.ideas in the text, understanding of ■
provides a clear
includes some key the controlling idea ■
gives no examples or to literary elements
the text.thesis statement.elements that help and the text.to help explain in the text.
uses a clear thesis ■
offers good examples explain the thesis.the thesis.
statement.to confirm the thesis ■
proves the thesis statement.
with insightful
examples and details.
builds and elaborates
develops the topic ■
responds to some ■
shows weakness
contains inaccurate, ■
shows a lack of Your written thoroughly.in an acceptable way.ideas more completely in the development of vague, or repetitive development of ideas.
response gives a ■
uses examples ■
uses relevant than others.ideas and/or develops details.
clear and logical precisely.examples throughout
uses some specific ideas without thorough
has limited explanation of
develops the topic in the essay.and relevant evidence explanation.development of ideas, using an interesting and ■
develops ideas from the text.ideas.
supporting imaginative way.clearly and material.
demonstrates consistently.
coherence in the development of ideas.
sets up and maintains
maintains focus on ■
has a general focus.
does not show a ■
suggests some ■
exhibits no Your written a clear focus based on the controlling idea.
obviously attempts logical sense of organization but organizational response shows the controlling idea.
has an obvious plan organization but organization.lacks focus.pattern or focus.
a coherent, ■
establishes a logical,of organization.lacks consistency.
strays from the topic.
orderly, rational sequence of
uses appropriate
can be difficult to
well-reasoned ideas with transitional devices and follow.
approach.words and sentences.transitions.
Language Use/
has vivid language,
has good control of
has a sense of
uses vocabulary that
exhibits little control
shows minimal
Conventions:fluidity, and a sense mechanics.audience.is slightly below level.of the language.control of language
Your written of engagement
contains some errors
uses simple
has a vague sense of ■
has errors that make skills.
response shows a and voice.when using sentences.audience.comprehension difficult.
may be illegible or
sense of audience
has sophisticated sophisticated language.
uses an appropriate
shows a beginner’s unrecognizable as by using effective style of sentence ■
has a slightly lower level of vocabulary.control of the English.
vocabulary and structure, sentence quality of sentence ■
demonstrates partial language.
varied sentence variety, and vocabulary.structure and control of mechanics.
has errors that begin
has essentially no sentence variety.
exhibits some errors to interfere with
shows errors when that do not interfere comprehension.
using sophisticated with comprehension.
vocabulary only.
totally unrelated to the topic.
filled with illegible and indecipherable words.
incoherent with illogical or garbled syntax.
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Use the literary response prompts to write an
essay for numbers 826–902. Each of the first 14
prompts has a model essay and two lower-scoring
essays in the answer section that you can use to com-
pare and contrast your writing. You can also use the
Rubric for Literary Response Writing, included in
this chapter, to give you an idea of the way your essay
may be graded. If you have trouble interpreting the
scoring guide, see a teacher or professor for help.
Practi ce Questi ons
826.Tone is the mood or feeling the author intends
the reader to experience. Using a specific piece
of literature, explain how tone enhances the
827.In the novel Lord of the Flies, by William
Golding, a group of boys are stranded on a
remote island to fend for themselves.
Compare/contrast this novel to the popular
television show Survivor. Use specific details in
your answer.
828.Using a specific literary work, explain how a
novel might influence change in society.
829.The theme of a literary piece is the central idea
or message that it delivers. Cite a specific liter-
ary work and discuss the theme.
830.Compare/contrast the fear of terrorism and
the concern with safety issues in present-day
society with George Orwell’s novel 1984.
831.Personification is the technique wherein a
nonhuman character is given human
thoughts, feelings, and dialogue. Illustrate how
this technique is used in a favorite novel or
short story. 832.Many times in Shakespeare’s plays, the setting
changes from rural or pastoral to urban.
Compare and contrast these settings. Explain
the reason for the shift of scenery, using sup-
port from specific plays. 833.A type of conflict is called character versus
him- or herself. This is also referred to as
internal conflict, because the character must
face self-inflicted fears and problems. Write
about this type of conflict, using a piece of lit-
erature that you have read.
834.Discuss a piece of literature in which the
author is also the narrator. Describe the way
he or she uses actual events from his or her life
in his or her writing.
835.The coming of age theme is very popular in
literature. This theme refers to a preadolescent
boy or girl going through many difficult, life-
altering experiences in order to reach young
adulthood. Using a novel you are familiar
with, discuss this theme. Be sure to use sup-
porting details and evidence in your essay.
836.Discuss how the reader might sympathize with
the main character in Christopher Marlowe’s
Dr. Faustus, even though he sells his soul to
the Devil.
837.Discuss a hero in a literary piece that you have
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838.Write a literary analysis of a Robert Frost
poem. Include theme and symbolism in your
839.Compare the society of The Scarlet Letter to
our society today. Compare and contrast how
Hester Prynne would have been treated today
with how she was treated in the novel.
840.A struggle between two or more opposing
forces in a work is called conflict. Cite a piece
of literature and explain the conflict embodied
in the work.
841.Walt Whitman uses second-person narration—
a technique not often used by writers—in his
poem “Crossing Brooklyn Ferry.” In second-
person narration, the narrator speaks directly
to you. Discuss another work that uses sec-
ond-person narration. Give examples from the work.
842.The setting of a novel is where the action takes
place. Explain how the setting complements
the story in a novel you have read.
843.The climax of a work is when all of the events
come to a breaking point. Using a piece of lit-
erature that you know, explain the events that
lead to the climax, what happens in the cli-
mactic scene, and how the story changes after
the climax.
844.Third-person point of view is when the narra-
tor has no part in the action. He or she is
simply telling the story using the words he,
she, or they. A story would be very different if
it were told from the first-person (using the
pronoun I) point of view. Using a novel writ-
ten in the third person, discuss how it would
be a very different story if it were told in the
first person. 845.List ten sensory images for each of the four
seasons—winter, spring, summer, and fall.
Then, write a brief explanation of why you
chose those specific images.
846.Narrative poetry tells a story and doesn’t nec-
essarily rhyme. Often, narrative poems are
written about historical events. Name three
historical events that could be considered wor-
thy of a narrative poem. Describe the key
elements from each historical event.
847.Describe a character from literature that you
would trade places with, and explain why.
848.Imagine that you could become an omniscient
character in a literary piece and change the
plot somehow. Describe the piece of literature
in which the character belongs, and tell how
that character would alter the plot. Use details
from the literary piece that you have chosen.
849.Explain the popularity of science fiction writ-
ing. Use a work from this genre to explain its
850.Using a work of literature you have read,
describe the hero or heroine and his or her
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851.The protagonist in a story is usually the do-
gooder, or the character that most readers
emphathize with. Identify a piece of literature
where the author wants us to empathize with
the antagonist, or evildoer. Explain by using
details from that work.
852.In drama, when a character speaks his or her
innermost thoughts, it is called a monologue.
Explain your favorite monologue from a dra-
matic piece and tell how this monologue
affects the plot. 853.Explain the appeal of war literature. Use a
piece of literature from this genre to describe
its allure.
854.Foreshadowing is when the author gives hints
to the reader about what is going to take place
later in the work. Using a piece of literature
that you are familiar with, explain how the
author uses foreshadowing and how the use of
foreshadowing adds to the plot.
855.Novels such as John Steinbeck’s The Winter of
Our Discontent and Ernest Hemingway’s For
Whom the Bell Tolls take their titles from lines
in works by William Shakespeare and John
Donne. Write an essay explaining and inter-
preting the significance of one of these titles
and how it captures the theme of the book.
856.Discuss a character in literature that you
loathed. Explain the techniques the author
used that caused you to feel this way. 857.In William Faulkner’s Barn Burning, a young
boy must decide whether to turn his father in
for breaking the law or to stay loyal to his fam-
ily. Write about a situation in real life that is
similar to this one.
858.Conflict, in a work of literature, is the struggle
between opposing characters or opposing
forces. One type of conflict is character versus
character. Explain this type of conflict using a
piece of literature that you have read.
859.Another type of conflict is called character
versus nature. Using a piece of literature that
you are familiar with, explain how the author
uses this type of conflict.
860.Oral tradition is a form of storytelling that is
passed on from generation to generation. It
has often been said that an original story
could be altered from when it was first told to
when it was first written. Give examples of
how this could happen using evidence from a
story you know in the oral tradition.
861.Explain the items you would want to place in a
time capsule. 862.Flashback is a technique whereby past events
are recalled while telling a story in the present.
Discuss this technique as it is used in a piece
of literature that you have read and tell why
this is the best way to tell the story.
863.Discuss your favorite character from Greek
mythology. Be sure to include details and ele-
ments from the myth as you describe this
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864.Repetition is a technique used by a poet to
create sound or to emphasize a subject in a
poem. Discuss how and why this technique is
used in a poem that you know.
865.Discuss whether a piece of literature has ever
predicted actual events. Using a work that you
are familiar with, discuss this topic using spe-
cific details.
866.Ralph Waldo Emerson once wrote in one of his
essays that he thought it amusing when a man
could wear an expensive wristwatch, but could
not tell time by looking at the position of the
sun in the sky. Explain what he is saying about
modern people and society. 867.Often, in literature, a character is viewed as an
outsider or a loner. Using a piece of literature
that you are familiar with, discuss such a char-
acter. Be sure to describe this character’s
attitudes toward himself or herself, and how
he or she deals with the isolation that comes
with these two labels.
868.Discuss a character from literature who seems
to be present only for comic relief. Explain
how this character adds to or detracts from
the work.
869.Death has been symbolized many different
ways in prose and poetry. Using either of these
genres, discuss the symbols that authors use
when they write about death. Describe the
impact of these symbols. 870.Often, an author will give the reader more
information than the characters have. Using a
piece of literature that you are familiar with,
speculate on the reasons an author would use
this method. 871.Sometimes an author will write dialogue that
illustrates a person’s intelligence, speech pat-
tern, or locality. Discuss a piece of literature in
which this happens. Also discuss whether this
technique helps or hinders your reading. 872.Discuss a piece of literature that uses the
theme of personal survival.
873.Frequently, popular novels are adapted into
motion pictures. Discuss a novel that you have
read and that has been made into a motion
picture. Compare/contrast the plot, setting,
and characterization in both mediums.
874.Shakespeare’s tragedy Romeo and Juliet is a
powerful drama about young love and familial
conflict. Compare this play to another piece of
literature that you have read and that embod-
ies the same themes.
875.Discuss the themes of two fairy tales that you
know. Tell how these themes benefit young
876.Imagery is the use of descriptive details that
appeal to the reader’s senses. Using a literary
piece that you are familiar with, discuss how
the author’s use of imagery enhances your
reading experience.
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877.Compare how a social studies textbook and
historical fiction are similar yet different.
Explain which medium you would choose in
order to learn more about a historical period.
878.Each culture has its own unique literature.
Discuss the literary contributions made by
one particular culture. Cite a least three major
works to illustrate your point. 879.Music and poetry have many similarities.
Discuss the connection using specific exam-
ples from both musical and poetic works.
880.In the beginning of a novel, an author may present a character one way, but by the end of
the novel, this same character may behave dif-
ferently. Through characterization, we can learn
to understand people. Using a piece of literature
that you have read, discuss the ways in which
the author uses characterization to present personality.
881.Explore the theme of social breakdown or
anarchy, using a piece of literature that you
have read.
882.Explore the theme of personal degeneration
and abandoning morals, using a piece of liter-
ature that you have read.
883.Discuss the theme of social injustice, using a
piece of literature that you have read.
884.Discuss a piece of literature in which the set-
ting switches between the past and the
885.Discuss a literary trilogy wherein the reader
must read the succession of novels to under-
stand the plot. 886.Discuss a specific literary work that focuses on
adolescent main characters.
887.Discuss how faith is symbolized in a piece of
literature that you have read.
888.A burlesque, such as Oscar Wilde’s The
Importance of Being Earnest, is a literary piece
that explores a serious subject in a trivial man-
ner or a trivial subject in a serious manner.
Choose a literary work that fits this descrip-
tion and explain why it should be classified as
a burlesque.
889.Discuss a piece of literature that uses an object
of worth, such as a sword, as its focus. Discuss
the symbolic purpose of this object.
890.Discuss the imagery from a Civil War period
novel that you have read.
891.Using a piece of literature that you are familiar
with, discuss the theme of unrequited love.
892.Discuss why only men and boys performed in
Shakespeare’s dramatic works at the Globe
893.Using a piece of literature that you are familiar
with, discuss how one character influences
other characters to change.
894.Discuss a piece of literature that utilizes spirits
or ghosts.
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895.Discuss a character from literature who
embodies a dark mood.
896.Discuss your favorite historical poem, its
theme, and the historical events on which the
poem is based.
897.Discuss the use of metaphor, imagery, and
word play in Lewis Carroll’s Alice in
898.Discuss an immigrant’s point of view in
America, using a piece of literature that you
have read.
899.Discuss the theme of greed in a piece of litera-
ture that you have read.
900.Discuss a prominent leader in our society and
his or her literary influences. Discuss what
these literary influences reveal about that
901.Discuss a piece of literature from the
Industrial Revolution and its treatment of
issues like child labor, working conditions, and
social classes.
902.Often in literature, a character has ironic expe-
riences that can be humorous or fateful.
Discuss how this technique is used in a piece
of literature that you have read.
Scoring Explanations for Literary Response Essays
A score of “6” indicates that your essay satisfies the
requirements of the writing prompt in a creative and
original manner, using an obvious theme and thesis
throughout. The essay provides a clear and logical
explanation of your ideas, using specific support
material, including direct quotations from the literary
work. You thoroughly articulate your ideas in a coher-
ent fashion, analyze and interpret specific literary ele-
ments and concepts, and avoid simple plot summary.
The essay is orderly and well reasoned, with a clear
focus, a logical sequence of ideas, and transitional
words and sentences. The essay demonstrates a sense
of audience by using effective vocabulary, varied sen-
tence structure, and fluid, sophisticated language that
is essentially without errors.
A score of “4” indicates that your essay meets some
of the requirements of the writing prompt, including
some key elements that help explain the thesis. The
essay may answer the question in an abbreviated
manner or rely heavily on plot summary, giving only
brief or general examples and developing ideas some-
what inconsistently. Literary elements and concepts
may be only minimally addressed. You give the essay a
general focus, make an obvious attempt at organiza-
tion, and present your ideas in a logical sequence. The
language of the essay indicates a general control of
mechanics but has a slightly lower quality of sentence
structure and variety than a sample 6 score. An essay
of this type contains errors only when using sophisti-
cated language.
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A score of “1” indicates that your essay only mini-
mally addresses the writing prompt, digressing,
repeating, or dwelling on insignificant details
throughout. The essay shows a lack of development
and exhibits no organizational pattern or focus. Your
writing may be illegible or unrecognizable as English.
Model Literary Response Essays
826.Tone is the mood or feeling the author intends
the reader to experience. Using a specific piece
of literature, explain how tone enhances the
Sample 6 Score
Writers for TV sitcoms or movies are fortunate.
Visuals often convey tone much more conveniently
than words. Writers have to be very skillful in word
choice in order to evoke emotions. While I began to
explore Edgar Allan Poe’s works, I was intrigued with
the way Poe carefully chose language and with the
way it evoked a very certain mood or tone.
In Poe’s “The Tell-Tale Heart,” I was amazed
with the way the main character could grow to
hate someone’s physical appearance so much so
that he could stare at him for hours on end. The
plot of this story revolves around a young man who
rents a room from an elderly man in a large, dark
mansion. This is how Poe begins to create the tone
or mood. If the setting were in a house with a white
picket fence in Pleasantville, the setting might not
be as effective for suspense or horror. However, Poe
begins to masterfully build suspense in “The Tell-
Tale Heart.” For example, the deranged tenant
slowly opens the elderly man’s bedroom door at
night and stares at his glass eye for hours in a
seething rage. He does this numerous times, to
where the reader begins to understand that this
man is far from normal. His obsession leads him to
commit a horrible crime.
The rage this man feels about the eye finally
comes to a point wherein he attacks the man and
suffocates him in his bed. Afterwards, he dismem-
bers his corpse and hides the pieces under the floor-
boards. By now, the reader is in complete disbelief
and awe at such a heinous, unprovoked attack, but
we must continue reading. The tone becomes very
eerie, and will soon turn suspenseful.
Finally, the police investigate the home after a
neighbor reports hearing screams coming from the
house. The deranged man invites the police in, and
invites them to sit with him in the room where the
corpse lies. Poe now adds to the tone with more sus-
pense and a feeling of anxiety as to whether the man
will confess to the murder. While speaking with the
police, the man begins to hear a faint heartbeat that
continues to grow in volume. However, he is the only
one who hears it. The man has attempted to cun-
ningly fool the police officers while sitting over the
corpse, only to now mentally break down from the
noise inside his mind to the point that he confesses.
The torture this man evokes on himself adds tremen-
dously to the tone of the story.
Just as Poe creates an eerie, intense, and
twisted tone to his fiction, authors can lead their
readers to feel certain emotions through their writing.
Sample 4 Score
Tone can be called the way an author makes you feel
while reading their work. I personally have been fright-
ened, brought to tears, extremely angry, and have
laughed out loud simply by the way an author cre-
ates the tone of a story. This is also very similar to
what an audience experiences while watching a film.
I recall one work I read by Edgar Allen Poe called
The Telltale Heart, which has a bizarre, twisted tone.
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Initially, I thought this story was simply about
a man who takes in a stranger. However, the tone of
the story became strange when the tenant stares
at his landlord while he sleeps. Poe leads us into the
mind of a madman. I was on the edge of my seat as
the police were asking questions of the man. The
tone of the story, or the mood, was both frightening
and suspenseful.
I enjoy reading all types of books because many
times the tone is different. I especially like Poe’s sto-
ries because I now know how he used tone in his
twisted tales.
Sample 1 Score
Tone is like when the writor makes you feel good when
you read books. I like to read a lot. In this essay I will
tell you about tone.
I like many books that have tone. If you don’t
have tone, then sometimes I don’t like to read these
kinds. I like to read books about animuls, cars, and
misteries. I really like misteries because you try an
figure out what happens.
In this essay I have told you about tone.
827.In the novel Lord of the Flies, by William
Golding, a group of boys are stranded on a
remote island to fend for themselves.
Compare/contrast this novel to the popular
television show Survivor.Use specific details in
your answer.
Sample 6 Score
William Golding’s novel Lord of the Flies explores
many themes, such as the dark side of human
nature, allegiances, and how these boys mirror larger
society. I feel as if the producers of the popular tele-
vision show Survivor used this novel as the frame-
work of their show. Golding’s novel and the show have
many similarities.
When the show Survivor premiered, I immediately
thought of the novel Lord of the Flies. The novel is
about a group of schoolboys who are shipwrecked on a
deserted island. The boys attempt to create a “civi-
lization,” but ultimately transform into mere savages.
This is an important novel for the psychological study
Golding presents. One can’t help but draw parallels to
adult society. There is a true need for structure and
control in any society, but the means of that control
makes this novel all the more interesting.
One of the boys, Jack, is power-hungry and rep-
resents dictatorship. Some of the other boys, such
as Simon and Piggy, try to do what is safe and con-
servative. The character of Ralph is symbolic of
democracy and fairness. Throughout the novel, the
boys engage in a power struggle and end up destroy-
ing one another. Golding’s use of symbolism forces
the reader to see characters and situations as
larger ideas. The boys realize that they must create
some type of order.
Similar to the television show Survivor, the boys
hold council meetings, use objects as symbols of
strength, and use fire as a symbol of hope. I remem-
ber watching the show and observing a contestant
who won a physical contest against the other play-
ers. This person was given a pillow to use, whereas
the other contestants had nothing. The pillow sym-
bolized power, as did the conch in the novel. Also,
whenever the show’s council met on Sunday nights,
they all brought their torches. When someone was
voted off the island (seen as a liability or risk to the
welfare of the group), that person’s torch was extin-
guished, thus eliminating hope. Alliances were
formed, and these alliances pitted the contestants
against each other. Ultimately, the winner was the
most cunning player who could convince the other
members to follow. This is exactly the situation that
occurred between Ralph and Jack in the novel.
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William Golding’s novel allows the reader to
explore human nature and mankind. Often, we do not
like to face the psychological aspects of our being.
Survivoremulates the same underlying motives that
form our nature.
Sample 4 Score
In William Goldings The Lord of the Flies, I can draw
many parallels between the group of boys in the story
and the basis for the television show “Survivor”.
In “Survivor”, contestants are forced to live
together on a deserted island for a prolonged period
of time. The rules are to form alliances and not to be
deceived by the other players. This is similar to what
happens in the novel The Lord of the Flies. A group of
shipwrecked boys must form a society in order to
have structure. Jack and Ralph are the two leaders
with totally different ways of order. One wants to be
a dictator and the other wants to be democratic.
Another similarity between the novel and the
show is that they place importance on objects. In the
book, the conch is symbolic of power. On the show, if
someone wins a race or something, they get a prize
and the others don’t have anything! Also, both use
fire as a lifeline. In the show, when you are voted off
the island, you must put out your torch. And both
the show and novel have tribal meetings.
I think the show “Survivor” and The Lord of the
tell about human nature and how societies are
Sample 1 Score
I like survivor on tv and it reminds me of that book
about the boys who were the lords of the flies. In the
book, boys have to come together to live on an island
which is like castaway. In survivor they are put on an
iland to survive too. I think the show is cool and the
boys in the book destroy everyone!
That is my essay on the survivor show and lord
of the flies
828.Using a specific literary work, explain how a
novel might influence change in society.
Sample 6 Score
Have you ever read a story that ultimately changed
the way in which you thought about the world?
So often we form our opinions and lifestyles
from our families and what we observe around us.
Could it be possible that a novel might change peo-
ple’s thinking? After reading Harper Lee’s To Kill a
, I realized for the first time how complex
racism was, and the necessity for societal change.
I have always been aware of cultural and racial
differences in others. I was raised to accept people
for their differences and judge people solely on their
character. However, I wasn’t aware of the problems
encountered by black people in the Deep South during
the 1940s. In her novel, Lee makes it apparent that
the color of skin was a determinant of social
stature, no matter your character.
I felt that having a first person narrator, with
the story told from the perspective of a young girl in
the South, was a brilliant way to tell this story.
Scout is at the age where she is only beginning to
understand how society handles diversity and cul-
tural differences. A black man, Tom Robinson, is
accused of raping a white woman, even though none
of the evidence points to him. Scout’s father, Atticus
Finch, is a well-respected, highly moral lawyer who is
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defending Tom. Even though Atticus finds evidence
contrary to the accusations, he has no hope of win-
ning this trial. Scout fights a boy in her class who
calls Tom a racial slur. Scout now begins to come to
terms with her assumptions about people.
An interesting point is made in this novel. While
the white people of this small town in Alabama dis-
cuss the horrors of Hitler persecuting Jewish people,
Scout wonders how the same people could not
understand that the white people of her town were
doing the same to the blacks. This sends a powerful
message to the reader through such a vivid analogy.
This novel elicits the reader to think about race
relations and social bigotry. There are decent, moral
black characters in this novel who are doomed
because of their skin color. However, Lee portrays
low-class white families, such as Bob’s, as being
undeserving of respect but able to enjoy a much
higher social stature than the blacks. When Tom
Robinson is killed escaping from prison, the town
barely takes notice.
Through Lee’s novel, society is faced with the
vulgarities of race and social class, along with the
racism of this Southern town. Her message that nei-
ther race nor class but rather actions define some-
one’s character leaves the reader with important
social issues to be re-examined.
Sample 4 Score
In Harper Lee’s novel To Kill a Mockingbird, many
racial issues are brought into the story for the
reader to think about. I think Lee does a nice job of
bringing these issues to light.
Atticus Finch, a white lawyer, defending Tom
Robinson, a black man accused of raping a white
woman, sees that he has no chance of winning this
case in this small Southern town, set in the 1940’s.
Finch’s daughter, Scout, tells the story. I liked how
Lee used Scout to tell the story, because it was
from a child’s point of view. Scout must face preju-
diced people in the novel who make fun of her father
for taking this case, even though her father is
Many things in the novel make the reader feel
horrible for the treatment of black people in this
town. None of the evidence points to Tom, and even
when he is shot at the end of the novel, no one seems
to even care.
I really believe because of this book, that many
people’s ideas about race have been changed. I think
that people should be treated with respect no mat-
ter the color of their skin.
Sample 1 Score
In this essay, I will write about how a book can change
peeple’s mind. If you ever read To Kill A Mockingbird,
you would see why. A small girl tells this stiory and a
black man is being in court because people think he
rapped a wehite woman. The reader no’s this isn’t
true, but the town in the south don’t believe him.
When I read this I was sad because of the way people
get picked on. This is my essay on changing society.
Thank you.
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829.The theme of a literary piece is the central idea
or message that it delivers. Cite a specific liter-
ary work and discuss the theme.
Sample 6 Score
Theme is the underlying message an author presents
to his or her audience. Many times the theme of a
work is apparent. Often we ask ourselves upon com-
pleting a novel, “What did that character learn at
the end?” We base our judgment of characters on our
cultural beliefs and emotions we experience in our
lives. In Herman Hesse’s Siddartha, the theme seems
apparent—fulfillment in life through spiritual peace.
The main character, Siddartha, takes the
reader on his life’s journey to find truth and meaning
in life. He decides to leave home with his childhood
friend, Govinda. The setting of this story is India,
with the social caste system as the motivation for
his journey. Siddartha realizes that he yearns for
more knowledge and understanding, far more that
his father can provide him with. He seeks spiritual
fulfillment and wisdom. Even though this story is set
in India, the theme is universal. Just as many of us
decide to go on to college to learn more about the
world and ourselves, Siddartha does the same.
At different stages of his journey he acquires
wisdom, learns as much as he can, and forges on to
new experiences. Siddartha is not unlike a person
today in our culture. Many of us challenge ourselves
with new ideas and experiences. Sometimes we fail,
and other times we succeed. However, what unifies us
is the desire to explore the unknown. The trade-off is
we may discover we are much happier after taking
those risks than if we had never ventured out. This is
the theme in Siddartha. It is the message that is
universal. In fact, there is a very popular book out
now about moving cheese, which is a metaphor for
the same theme as in Siddartha: moving out of our
comfort zones into a new, unfamiliar arena, hoping to
find what it is we are looking for.
Siddartha goes through both pleasant and
unpleasant experiences in this novel. At one point, he
acquires incredible wealth and has every material
possession he could ever dream of. However, at this
point in his life, he contemplates suicide! He has
become so gluttonous that he sickens himself. He
realizes material possessions cannot bring him
peace. From this scene, the theme of attaining spiri-
tual peace is strengthened. How many times have we
come across people with enormous wealth, but little
peace and fulfillment in their lives?
Siddartha is a great novel and its theme is
apparent. The quest for spiritual peace, wisdom, and
self-understanding is unpredictable, but attainable
through the trials of life and what it has to offer.
Sample 4 Score
The theme of a literary work is the main idea, or mes-
sage that we understand. Many times the theme is
not stated directly, but the reader can usually figure
it out. One particular novel I enjoyed reading was
Siddartha by Herman Hesse. In this novel, a young
man begins his life’s journey towards spirituality and
understanding. This is a common theme in literature.
While Siddartha is still a young man, he asks
his father to explain certain things to him about
life and religion. His father doesn’t have all the
answers for him, so Siddartha decides to leave
home and try to find the answers for himself. He
brings along his friend Govinda. This book takes
place in India; that is the reason for the unfamiliar
names. Siddartha and his friend encounter many
new people and experiences.
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Towards the end of his journey, Siddartha has
discovered many things about himself. He realizes that
possessions cannot make him happy. He becomes
aware that true happiness and peace are found inside.
This theme is very common in literature. I think
this is true because people everywhere go through
what Siddartha did sometime in their life.
Sample 1 Score
Theme is where you can tell what a writer is thinking
about. I think that sometimes writers like to fool
with people and guess real hard to see if they can
In Siddartha, a book about a boy who tries to
see about life, I think the theme is about a boy in
India who likes to go on trips and helps people.
That is my essay about theme. I hope you liked
this essay.
830.Compare/contrast the fear of terrorism and
the concern with safety issues in present-day
society with George Orwell’s novel 1984.
Sample 6 Score
The events of September 11, 2001, shattered our
belief that we as Americans are immune to terrorism
and its proponents. Our society has taken for
granted security and free will. However, new meas-
ures have been taken in public arenas to bolster our
safety. With this heightened security comes the for-
feiture of some civil liberties that George Orwell
wrote about in his novel 1984.
In his novel, Orwell was writing from the per-
spective of a nation that recently endured a world
war. Orwell wrote his novel in 1948, and simply
reversed the last two digits in the year to explore
what the world might be like in the future. In this
world that Orwell writes about, the government has
surveillance in every imaginable public space. There is
also a law enforcement collaborative called the
“thought police.” In this society, no one could have
anti-governmental sentiment, whether vocalized or
internalized. If you violated this law, “Big Brother”
took you away. This government (Big Brother) sup-
posedly gave the citizens what they needed in order
to survive. In this cold, mundane society, there was
always a camera somewhere watching you. I think it
is appropriate to assume that this society was
under Communist rule, and Orwell was indeed fright-
ening his readers with the thought of such a threat.
This threat was very significant at the time this
novel was written. Orwell was conveying the themes
of manipulation of the truth and loss of identity. In
our present-day society, there are many parallels to
Orwell’s novel.
Since September 11, 2001, our government has
taken steps in order to tighten security and mini-
mize terrorist attacks. By the same token, members
of our society must forfeit certain civil liberties. For
example, if you travel by air now, you must arrive
extremely early before departure, your belongings are
scrutinized more closely, and you may have to be
patted down or asked to remove your shoes. These
actions seem to be intrusive, but most people will
accept them to ensure safety.
Furthermore, it is becoming commonplace to
find video cameras in many public arenas. Many air-
ports, stores, and offices install cameras for surveil-
lance. Technology has produced cameras that are so
small, they can be installed in a shirt or jacket but-
ton. Many parents install cameras in their homes to
monitor activity if they must leave and hire a sitter.
Many police vehicles are equipped with video
recorders so that the tape might yield evidence in
court. There are even popular television shows that
air actual surveillance tapes. This is eerily reminis-
cent of what occurs in Orwell’s 1984.
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Although we have no thought police, nor do we
live under totalitarian rule, our society has definitely
surrendered its privacy in order to protect its free-
dom. Orwell seemed to understand how technology
can influence society and its freedoms.
Sample 4 Score
George Orwell seems to understand how our society
can become disconnected from one another.
I believe since the terrorist attacks, that our
sense of security has been compromised. We now
have surveillance in almost every aspect of life.
In Orwell’s 1984, the society he writes about is
very similar to what I have learned about Communism.
In this society, there is a dictator and his officials. No
one in this society can think for themselves or think
anything anti-government. If you do, then the
“thought police” will come and get you. Also, there are
cameras everywhere in the city. This is similar to what
our society is going through now.
Since the terror attacks, our government lead-
ers have asked us to be on alert and to endure
tighter restrictions while in public places. For exam-
ple, you may have to take off your shoes in the air-
port now, since a terrorist was caught on a plane
trying to light a fuse in his sneaker that contained
Also, if you go to a store like 7-11 or Macy’s, you
can always find a camera looking at you. I personally
feel frightened when I see a camera everywhere, but
it just might be helpful to catch people who break
the law.
I don’t believe that our society will become like
Orwell’s society in 1984, but I do feel that camera
surveillance and checkpoints are very similar to the
plot in his novel.
Sample 1 Score
In 1984, people have no privacy because the powers
to be want to know what they think and how they
act. This reminds me of what happens today. I went
in to a store and tried to buy some snacks. A man
behind the counter started to scream at me
because he thought he saw me stealing something.
Also, my dad flies, and he says that is hard now
because all the people check everything you have and
they pat you down like in the movies. I don’t think this
is fair and it reminds me of Orwells story.
831.Personification is the technique wherein a
nonhuman character is given human
thoughts, feelings, and dialogue. Illustrate how
this technique is used in a favorite novel or
short story.
Sample 6 Score
Personification is a clever technique wherein nonhu-
man characters are given human characteristics.
Using this technique, the reader is able to under-
stand how an animal feels, or what a tree is thinking,
or even the most intimate thoughts of an old pair of
sneakers! Rudyard Kipling’s “Rikki-Tikki-Tavi” is one of
my favorite short stories. In it, all of the animals are
personified, which is crucial because the protagonist
is a mongoose.
Rikki-Tikki-Tavi is a small mongoose who nearly
drowns after a flood sweeps him away from his home.
A boy named Teddy finds the mongoose, and he and
his mother nurse the animal back to health. Rikki
never converses in English with his human family;
however, he does interact with the other animals in
the garden, speaking in English. I find this technique
to be helpful in formulating the plot. For example, a
mongoose’s natural enemy is the cobra. Kipling uses
these two enemies in the wild and makes them the
protagonist and antagonist of the short story.
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Throughout the story, Rikki-Tikki finds himself bat-
tling adversaries in the garden in an effort to save
Teddy’s family.
This story follows the archetype of the battle
between good and evil. If we look closely at the plot, bib-
lical themes are apparent. Snakes in the garden may
remind some of the biblical story of Adam and Eve.
Without personification in this biblical story, Eve might
not have been tempted if the serpent hadn’t had the
ability to speak. Although Rikki-Tikki cannot converse
with the humans in the story, the reader is able to
understand his character and his thoughts. For exam-
ple, before he battles Nag, the male antagonist ser-
pent, he is cautious and a bit nervous. However, he
won’t show his fear to his enemy. Only the reader
understands Rikki’s character from this point of view.
Rudyard Kipling was clever enough to observe
what occurs in nature, blending it with personification
and creating a timeless story of good versus evil.
Sample 4 Score
Personification is the technique where the author
gives non-human characters human thoughts,
speech, and feelings. I like how this is used in Rudyard
Kipling’s Rikki-Tikki-Tavi.
Without personification, the main character,
who is a mongoose, would not be able to express his
feelings. The story would need a narrator, like the kind
you see on television’s Wild Discovery. Some of those
documentaries show animals in the wild, while a nar-
rator tells the audience why the animals behave cer-
tain ways. With personification, a non-fictional event
can be fictionalized.
For example, a mongoose’s natural enemy in the
wild is the cobra. In Rikki-Tikki-Tavi, the mongoose is
the hero, while the cobra is the villain. Both animals
have conversations with other animals and the
reader can see what they are thinking about. Rikki-
Tikki is nervous to fight the cobras, but doesn’t show
it when he starts to battle. I like how the author lets
the story unfold through personification.
Although Rikki can’t talk with his human family,
he behaves like a family pet. When the cobras plot to
kill the family, Rikki defends them by killing the
snakes. This story follows the common theme of
good versus evil. Without personification, the story
would not be so enjoyable.
Sample 1 Score
Personification sounds like person, and that is what
it means. When a writer gives something words and
feelings, it is called personification. In this essay, I
will tell you about personification.
Rikki-Tikki is a animul who can talk and have
conersashuns with other animuls. He fights snakes
and wins! When I read this story I like how animus can
talk because then I can see how they feel and stuff.
This is my essay on animuls and talking.
832.Many times in Shakespeare’s plays, the setting
changes from rural or pastoral to urban.
Compare and contrast these settings. Explain
the reason for the shift of scenery, using sup-
port from specific plays.
Sample 6 Score
Many times in Shakespeare’s works, the setting
changes from a city to a pastoral venue. Although
change in setting is expected, there is an underlying
reason why Shakespeare chooses these specific
areas. In his play A Midsummer Night’s Dream, the
setting changes from the city of Athens to a forest
near the city. The characters behave very differently
in each setting.
The play deals with marriages, love, family, and
nonconformity. The Duke of Athens is about to be
married to a woman whom he recently defeated in
war. Another element of the plot deals with a young
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woman whose father is demanding she marry a man
she is not in love with. The woman decides to run
away to the forest with the man she does love. There
are two distinct settings here, and I believe
Shakespeare was mirroring human nature in the
change of scenery. Often someone when faced with a
pressing problem or decision will retreat to a quiet
place to meditate, or might go out with friends in
order to find release from the issue or problem.
Similarly in this play, the forest is viewed as a place
of nonreality, or a dream world. Fairies and supernat-
ural beings inhabit the forest. This is a place of
refuge that is in contrast to the conformity of the
city. There are, however, similarities in both settings.
Just as the Duke of Athens is marrying
Hippolyta, there is King Oberon and his queen in the
forest. Both couples are learning about the trials of
love. There are colorful characters in both venues who
keep the audience entertained also. One such charac-
ter who lives in the forest is Puck. Puck is a fairy-type
character who plays tricks on the characters and ulti-
mately tries to teach them lessons throughout the
play. One of the more famous lines from Shakespeare
is found in this work when Puck states, “Oh what fools
these mortals be.” There are lessons to be learned in
both the city and the forest, but the forest is more of
a dream world or an escape from reality.
Shakespeare cleverly changes the setting in
this play to expose human folly and lends keen
insight into human nature.
Sample 4 Score
The change in setting in Shakespeare’s A Midsummer
Night’s Dream
is used to show contrast between a
world of conformity and court life with a dream type
world. Shakespeare does this to highlight human
In this play, there are two different worlds. One
is the city of Athens where the Duke is about to be
married. The city has its strict rules and conformity.
One part of the plot deals with a woman who doesn’t
want to marry the man her father wants her to. She
decides to run away to the forest with the man she
loves. The forest is now seen as an escape from real-
ity. In the forest, there are fairies and other super-
natural beings. People also do this in real life. If
someone is sad, they may go down to the beach to
think or just to be alone.
There is a similarity in both worlds though.
There is the Duke of Athens in the city, and there is
King Oberon in the forest. They both are involved with
their marriages and try to help others with their
I think Shakespeare does a great job using the
city and the forest in this play to show two sides of
human nature.
Sample 1 Score
In this essay I will talk about shakespeare’s play a
midsummer night’s dream and how this play uses the
setting. The setting is the place where things hap-
pened. I think the woods and the city are good places
for this play. One place is nice, but full of fairies and
weird stuff. The city is more like real life and has real
people. this is the difference of the setting in the
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833.A type of conflict is called character versus
him- or herself. This is also referred to as
internal conflict, because the character must
face self-inflicted fears and problems. Write
about this type of conflict, using a piece of lit-
erature that you have read.
Sample 6 Score
In many literary works there is a central conflict.
Conflict can occur in many ways. There is character
versus another character, character versus an out-
side force like nature, and internal conflict, where
characters must battle themselves mentally and
emotionally. Often these types of conflicts can occur
simultaneously in a literary work. I have chosen to
discuss my favorite type of conflict in one of my
favorite plays by Shakespeare, Hamlet.
Internal conflict is the most intricate of all the
types of conflict. We may read about characters who
must physically defend themselves against other
characters. Also, there are many characters who
have to brave the elements and survive in life-threat-
ening situations. For example, Ishmael, the narrator
and sole survivor in Herman Melville’s Moby Dick, tells
the story of the giant white whale. But the most
intense is internal conflict. In Shakespeare’s Hamlet,
a young prince must battle his conscience.
Hamlet, the main character, has recently lost
his father. While he is still mourning, his mother mar-
ries his father’s brother, Claudius. However, Hamlet’s
father’s ghost appears to him and shows him the
foul play that surrounded his death. Hamlet learns
that his uncle actually murdered his father! This is
where internal conflict is most present. In one of the
most famous Shakespearian lines, Hamlet ponders,
“To be, or not to be... .” Hamlet must now decide
whether to take action and avenge his father’s death
or to remain passive. This decision weighs so heavily
on his conscience that others notice a drastic
change in his behavior. Hamlet must decide if being
passive is the equivalent of being a coward.
Eventually, Hamlet decides to avenge his father’s
murder, and this play comes to a tragic end.
I believe that internal conflict works ideally in literature. Of course, Shakespeare presents
Hamlet’s internal conflict through soliloquy, and this
was performed onstage, but when you are able to
read what a person is struggling through, you can
more closely relate to the character. Internal conflict
conjures up the fears that many of us have in every-
day life. Hopefully, ours are not as tragic as Hamlet’s
Sample 4 Score
Conflict is what makes literature interesting to read.
If there were no problems, then the reader might
become bored. One type of conflict is called internal
conflict. This type occurs when a character is bat-
tling their conscience. One such character that expe-
riences this is Hamlet from one of Shakespeare’s
most famous plays.
In Hamlet, the main character (by the same
name), has just lost his father in a war. His father
was the king of Denmark, and Hamlet is prince.
Hamlet is visited by his father’s ghost and shown
that his death was murder by Hamlet’s own uncle!
This puts Hamlet in a really bad spot. Now he must
decide whether to seek revenge for his father’s death
or do nothing. Why would he do nothing? Well, his
uncle is marrying his mother now. Hamlet has the
toughest time trying to decide whether to seek
revenge. The famous quote “To be or not to be ...”
shows his internal conflict.
Hamlet does seek revenge, but I like how
Shakespeare shows what a character is thinking and
what goes on in their minds. Internal conflict adds
interest for audiences.
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Sample 1 Score
In this essay I will talk about what is internal conflict.
In many works of writers, a person has thoughts
that lead them to make choices. You can tell what
that person is thinking by reading. Hamlet had one
where he did not like his uncle and his dad was ded.
Hamlet had to get even with his dads killers or do
nothing. So Hamlet had a hard time trying to make
up his mind.
I think that internal conflict is when you have a
problem that needs to have solved.
834.Discuss a piece of literature in which the
author is also the narrator. Describe the way
he or she uses actual events from his or her life
in his or her writing.
Sample 6 Score
In literature, there are varying points of view in relay-
ing the events. If the narrator was actually part of
the events, this is called first-person narration.
When the narrator is merely telling a story, but was
not part of the events, this is third-person narra-
tion. At times, a reader might be thankful that the
narrator is only telling a story as the events unfold,
especially if the main characters are in some sort of
danger. I personally enjoy first-person narration
because you are allowed into the mind of the main
character. This was especially enjoyable while reading
J.D. Salinger’s Catcher in the Rye.
The main character, Holden Caulfield, is the nar-
rator as well. He is a very complex character who
doesn’t seem to fit in socially. Salinger creates the
world from Holden’s point of view. Although Holden
seems apathetic toward many things in his life such
as his schoolwork and friends, he is a deeply sensitive
character marred by his view of the world. For exam-
ple, in the beginning of the novel, Holden questions
why his roommates are so popular and can converse
so well, especially with members of the opposite sex.
His insecurities are revealed so that the reader can
explore his character and perhaps identify with him.
If Salinger had written this as a third-person narra-
tion, the reader might not understand Holden’s
character as well.
Even though Holden Caulfield is a tragic charac-
ter, and many of his actions are not the most benefi-
cial, Salinger allows us to identify with Holden’s
insecurities and private feelings.
Sample 4 Score
When the author is involved in the action in a book, it
is called first person narration. This is my favorite
type of narration because you can understand what
goes on in a character’s mind. A good example is J.D.
Salinger’s Catcher in the Rye.
The story is told from the viewpoint of the main
character, Holden Caufield. He is a very shy, with-
drawn young man who is also sensitive. He some-
times wonders if he is like other people, and he is
trying to find himself. I think many readers can iden-
tify with Holden from time to time. I think everyone
feels insecure at one time or another.
I think that Salinger chooses the narrator for
this novel well. If this was written any other way, we
might not sympathize with the main character as
Sample 1 Score
I think 1st person narrator is a nice way to tell a
story. In this essay you will hear about this narrator.
In cather in the Rye, I forget the author, the
story is told by the main character, Hulden. His is a
boy who is afraid of everything! I can feel the way he
did sometimes.
This is why I like the narrator person one.
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835.The coming of age theme is very popular in
literature. This theme refers to a preadolescent
boy or girl going through many difficult, life-
altering experiences in order to reach young
adulthood. Using a novel you are familiar
with, discuss this theme. Be sure to use sup-
porting details and evidence in your essay.
Sample 6 Score
The “coming of age” theme is a common one, where an
adolescent boy or girl is faced with decisions that
ultimately lead them into adulthood. Barn Burning,
by William Faulkner, embodies this theme with mes-
sages of family loyalty and morality.
The story is set in the South, roughly 30 years
after the Civil War. The main character who comes of
age is Sarty Snopes, a preadolescent whose father,
Ab Snopes, is a poor sharecropper frustrated by the
post–Civil War aristocracy. Sarty’s father is a very
destructive, immoral character. In the South at this
time, a person who wanted to deliver the most
potent form of revenge against a neighbor would have
someone burn down the neighbor’s barn. This crude
assault makes perfect sense considering the main
income-providing activity was agriculture and live-
stock. If people lost their barn where these things
were stored, their lives would ultimately be ruined. Ab
and his son drift from place to place, and Ab makes
money as a hired hit for barns. His son is deeply
troubled by his father’s destructiveness, but follows
along out of “blood,” or the loyalty of family regard-
less of the activities.
Throughout the novel, Sarty is faced with inter-
nal conflict. He knows that his father is doing some-
thing highly illegal and immoral; however, he wishes to
remain loyal to family. Faulkner explores this coming
of age theme with real depth and conviction, as the
boy struggles with his conscience.
The climax of this novel comes when the boy and
his father are taken in by a warm, friendly man who
provides the two with meals, lodging, and conversa-
tion. Sarty takes a genuine liking to the man; how-
ever, he knows that his father plans to burn the
man’s barn down. Although he tries to convince his
father not to commit this heinous act, Ab takes the
boy in the middle of the night toward the barn. Sarty
makes the hardest decision of his life and warns the
man. In the closing scene, a gunshot is heard and the
reader can assume that the father has been caught
and killed. Sarty has crossed the threshold of pread-
olescence and has deceived “blood” in order to pre-
serve his morality.
William Faulkner’s Barn Burningis a remarkable
story of coming of age, where a boy must make the
ultimate decision and thus becomes a man.
Sample 4 Score
Barn Burning, by William Faulkner, is a great story
that has the theme coming of age. In this story, a
young boy must decide whether to follow his father in
committing unlawful acts, or listen to his own con-
Barn Burning takes place in the South, after
the Civil War. The boy, Sarty Snopes, and his father,
Ab, travel from place to place, hired to burn down
barns. Ab is a sharecropper who is angry at the soci-
ety of the South. During this time, it was the worst
thing you could do to someone, burning down their
barn. This is where a person would make all of their
money, so it was the ultimate slap in the face if you
wanted revenge on someone. Sarty doesn’t like what
his dad does, but stays with him because it’s his
family duty. He is conflicted on whether to follow hi
father or do what he knows is right.
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Sarty and his dad are taken in by a man on a
plantation and treated very nicely. Sarty begins to
really like this man, however he knows that his father
is planning to burn down his barn. Sarty is faced with
turning in his father or being loyal. In the end, he
turns his dad in and this is where he finally comes of
age. I think this was a very powerful story.
Sample 1 Score
In this essay, I will tell you about to come to age in
Barn Burning. This story was wen a man and his son
burn barns, but the boy does not want to do it. He
tries to think about what is right, but he wants to
stick with blood. His family should not snitch. Barn
burning was very bad in this time near the civil war,
so The boy at the end turns in his father and
becomes a man. That is my essay on barn Burning.
836.Discuss how the reader might sympathize with
the main character in Christopher Marlowe’s
Dr. Faustus, even though he sells his soul to
the Devil.
Sample 6 Score
The familiar adage about selling one’s soul to the
devil conjures up two distinct images—dabbling with
the occult and being granted magical gifts. Although
most people would not want to or dare to cross into
such dangerous territory, Dr. John Faustus, the
renowned scholar in this Elizabethan tragedy, could
not resist.
Christopher Marlowe, author of Dr. Faustus,
created a complex character in the play of the same
name. This character is tragic, foolish, ambitious,
intelligent, and to be pitied. For all the good and bad
traits he has, the audience cannot help but share in
Faustus’ regret at the end of the play.
Faustus has mastered many disciplines and is
a well-known scholar. However, he yearns for more
knowledge beyond the realm of what is offered.
Faustus summons the occult and encounters a
demon named Mephistopheles, a servant to Lucifer.
Faustus makes an offer to give his soul to the devil
in exchange for 24 years of magic. Mephistopheles
tries to dissuade Faustus from such a fate, but
Faustus persists until the deal has been made.
Once this occurs, Faustus is ready to satisfy his
At this point in the play, the audience—
although apprehensive about Faustus’ choice—is
just as curious as he was about magic and infinite
knowledge. Faustus wants to learn the secrets of
the universe. He also wants a wife. Basically, he
desires the things that most humans desire, and
this is where Marlowe captures the audience’s empa-
thy. We know that what Faustus has done is immoral
and tragic, but we want to share in this display of
power as he entertains courts by summoning histor-
ical spirits. The audience has pity for Faustus when
he has bouts with his conscience. For example, at one
point he prays desperately to God for forgiveness,
but the audience realizes that no matter how des-
perately or how much he pleads, the devil will make
sure the contract is honored. What is particularly
powerful at the end of the play is the torment and
desperation Faustus experiences as he fights the
clock and tries to hold back time. But, the hours and
minutes close in on his fate. Colleagues find his body
the next day, and the audience realizes that he has
been dragged down to hell.
Although the audience can blame Faustus for
summoning the occult and bringing this tragedy on
himself, Marlowe creates such a complex character
that he is to be pitied for his choices.
ETTM_05_267_292.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 1:56 PM Page 288
Sample 4 Score
Christopher Marlowe creates a character that can
be both loathed for his attitude, but also pitied for
his choices in Dr. Faustus.
In this play, a young doctor with a lot of knowl-
edge desires more from his studies. He realizes he
can’t get this knowledge from earth, so he sum-
mons the help of the devil. The devil’s servant,
Mephistopheles, tries to convince Faustus that
this is something he should not play around with.
Faustus is persistent, so the deal with the devil is
finally sealed in blood.
Faustus enjoys his newly found powers, such as
bringing up spirits. He does however have bouts with
his conscience about his choices. The audience feels
pity for him because we would want his power, but we
definitely don’t want his fate. He tries to bargain and
pray, but it is no use. The devil finally wins at the end,
and we feel sorrowful for Faustus.
In conclusion, even though Faustus does some-
thing that he knows he shouldn’t have, the audience
still feels pity for him when he has to trade in his
Sample 1 Score
The devil in the play Docter Faust plays a trick on him
because he wants to be smarter. I think that Faust
is a good man that does wrong.
In the play he has magic but this does not help
the devil or make Faust a smart man. He must go to
hell when this is done, so he feels sorry for hisself.
The people who watch the play fell bad for him to. Oh,
well, he made his choice in life and now he is doomd.
837.Discuss a hero in a literary piece that you have
Sample 6 Score
In her autobiographical novel I Know Why the Caged
Bird Sings
, Maya Angelou relates her story as a poor
black girl living in racially segregated Stamps,
Arkansas. As the story unfolds, she describes rela-
tionships with her family and members of the com-
munity, her love of reading, her feeling of inequality,
the racial prejudice she suffers, and her experiences
as a single mother. What makes Angelou heroic, I
think, is her perseverance over a multitude of odds. In the beginning of the novel, the reader learns
that Angelou is living with her grandmother because
her birth mother abandoned her. She has no direc-
tion or positive influence in her life until a woman
introduces her to “her first white love”—William
Shakespeare. Reading becomes an escape from her
reality. In real life, Angelou weathered many hard-
ships on her path to adulthood. What then makes
her a hero?
The archetype of a hero usually involves hard-
ship, struggle, and an arduous journey. When this
hero reaches a certain breaking point or climactic
scene, a turn of events usually brings about resolu-
tion, self-awareness, and peace. This is true in
Angelou’s book. Throughout the novel, racial prejudice is an
overriding factor in her life. Even though Angelou
documents her struggles against prejudice, lack of a
formal education, and personal failure, she comes full
circle when her son is born. She embarks on a new
self-awareness and peace. There is a heroic quality
about a woman who has overcome so many odds. Although Angelou is both author and subject,
she embodies the spirit of a heroic character who
ultimately prevailed against the odds. –LITERARY RESPONSE WRITING PROMPTS–
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Sample 4 Score
An hero in my opinion is the author Maya Angelou.
Often people think of heroes as sports stars or
world leaders, but Maya Angelou is a hero.
In Maya’s book, I know why the caged bird Sings,
Maya is really the main character. In fact, this is an
autobiography of her life. In the book she goes
through many hard times and has tough choices to
make. The town she is from is in Arkansas, and it is a
very racially divided town. Her grandmother is also
raising her. One thing that Angelou loves to do is
read. She meets a woman who shows her how to
read, and well!
I think she is a hero because she survived being
a victim. Angelou was treated poorly because of her
race, she was raped by a relative, abandoned by her
mother, and becomes a mother herself. Similar to a
hero, she has to be brave and strong-willed.
I think Maya Angelou is a great person and a
true hero.
Sample 1 Score
A hero is a person who is in comic books and things,
but did you know something about Miya Angeloo?
She is a writer and she came from being very
poor to becoming a success. In this essay I will talk
abot angeloo.
Well, maya had problems because some poeple
are rasist, but she made her problems beter and
even rote about them. And I think she is very nice and
brave i hope everyone reades about this strong hero.
838.Write a literary analysis of a Robert Frost
poem. Include theme and symbolism in your
Grade Yourself
Sample 6 Score
Robert Frost’s comforting, sad, and often poignant
poetry is usually filled with metaphors and vivid
imagery. Perhaps my favorite Frost poem is
“Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening.” The
imagery creates a memorable portrait of the beauty
and power of nature.
Near the beginning, the narrator is introduced
as a working man, who has stopped to rest: “My little
horse must think it queer / To stop without a farm-
house near.” The narrator suggests that his days
are mostly spent in labor, moving from place to place.
On a whim, he stops riding to watch the “woods fill up
with snow.” During this brief moment, the narrator
achieves spiritual transcendence and peace as he
connects with nature.
Throughout the poem, the narrator’s horse is a
symbol of daily labor and the constant struggle of
civilization. Taken from the wilds of nature, domesti-
cated, and trained to obey orders, the horse no
longer has any appreciation of nature. While the nar-
rator relaxes in the woods, his horse “gives his har-
ness bells a shake / To ask if there is some mistake.”
The irony here is that the man becomes even more
connected to nature than the once-wild beast he
It’s important that this event takes place dur-
ing “the darkest evening of the year,” because the
darkness allows the narrator to be hidden from the
civilized and unnatural world he lives in every day. At
the same time, the darkness of the evening is ironic
because the narrator can’t really see the beauty of
the woods very clearly. In this way, Frost suggests
that nature’s beauty is more than just visual. It’s
spiritual, too. In the “lovely, dark, and deep” woods,
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the narrator is able to fully appreciate the beauty of
nature without seeing it.
After his brief moment of peace, the narrator
must return to the working world. The line, “And miles
to go before I sleep” is repeated at the end to show
how weary and tired the narrator has become. Here,
the “miles” represent long spans of time. He has a
long time to wait before he gets home that night,
and he also has a long time to wait before he reaches
the ultimate sleep of death. But in this poem, the
idea of death isn’t negative because when the narra-
tor dies, he will finally be permanently reunited with
the beauty of nature.
Sample 4 Score
Robert Frost’s poem “Stopping By Woods On A
Snowy Evening” can be interpreted as a man learning
to appreciate nature.
The poem starts out as a man in a horse-
drawn carriage stops to appreciate the serenity of a
dark, snowy evening. Although this might seem to be
a simple poem using imagery, Frost sends a message
about the power of nature. The man seems to enjoy
the woods even more than his horse, who was proba-
bly born in the woods. It’s a dark evening but some-
how the man can still appreciate the lovely forest.
At the end of the poem, Frost says that he
can’t stop to rest anymore because he has things to
do. I thought this part was really sad because the
man seemed so tired and didn’t want to leave.
This poem has many symbolic elements in it
and I enjoyed this very much.
Sample 1 Score
Roburt frost has made a poem about a snowy
evening. In this essay I will explain about the message
in the poem I have read.
The poem is about a man who goes into a cold
forest and stops to watch snow. I like to snowboard
in the winter, so I know what he is felling. Afterwards,
frost says he cannot stop anymore because he has
to go into town and help people. This is my intrep-
utashun of his poem.
839.Compare the society of The Scarlet Letter to
our society today. Compare and contrast how
Hester Prynne would have been treated today
with how she was treated in the novel.
Sample 6 Score
Hester Prynne, from Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The
Scarlet Letter
, would not necessarily have fared
much better today than in her own time. Some of
the Puritanical influences in Salem, Massachusetts,
at that time still exist in modern society. Public
ridicule remains an integral part of our culture, infi-
delity is still deplored, and unfortunately, women are
still often seen as the more guilty party of any
extramarital affair.
In The Scarlet Letter, Reverend Dimmesdale is
a spiritual leader of the community. However, he
impregnates a young woman named Hester Prynne,
who believes her husband has died at sea. As a
result of their affair, Hester is forced to wear a scar-
let “A” on her chest and stand in the midst of the
town on a scaffold. Meanwhile, Dimmesdale keeps his
distance and remains silent out of fear. In modern
times, it would be hard to imagine anyone who has
had an affair being forced to wear a red letter on his
or her clothes for all to see, but, at the same time,
public ridicule has become a part of modern culture
as well. Celebrities are publicly ridiculed on the covers
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of tabloid magazines every day, and the details of
their private lives are frequently broadcast on shows
like Access Hollywood. In our society, extramarital
affairs have become public knowledge. From celebri-
ties to politicians, one way or another, affairs make
news and sell papers. Also, in the book, Hester Prynne is unfairly sin-
gled out as the guilty one as a result of Dimmesdale’s
silence. Even now, it is often the woman who is viewed
as the immoral one with poor judgment. Although
Dimmesdale finally delivers a powerful sermon toward
the end of the novel, confessing to the affair before
his congregation, he dies—rather conveniently—
shortly after, thereby escaping any punishment or
public ridicule. So, in the end, Hester Prynne may not
have been treated much better in our times. For its
portrayal of this timeless situation, The Scarlet
remains a viable novel.
Sample 4 Score
Our society views women the same as in Nathaniel
Hawthorne’s Scarlet Letter. It’s very interesting how
things change very little in such a wide span of time.
Hester Prynne is brought in front of the town on a
scaffold for having an affair and becoming pregnant.
Her husband is assumed lost at sea, however the
townspeople scorn her and exclude her from society.
She is made to wear a letter A on her clothes for
embarrassment. Although sometimes women who
have affairs are treated badly, they don’t ever have
to wear scarlet letters anymore.
Reverend Dimmsdale is never really looked at
badly, even though at the end he confesses. It’s the
same today. Usually, there is one person who is
viewed as the bad guy, and one person who is inno-
cent, even though both people are having the affair.
It’s the same sort of thing you read in the newspa-
pers with celebrities and politicians, it seems some-
one is always having an affair. For all these reasons, I
think that what happens in the book is mostly the
same as what would happen in modern times.
Sample 1 Score
Hester in the scarlet letter was a women who had
had an afair with an importent man and she was
made fun because of it. She had to where an A letter
to show she was sorry. Everyne in the town didnt like
her becase they think she did something very bad
and they also were not mean to the man. I wouldnt
treet poeple like that along time ago today or in the
futur either.
Grade Yourself
The previous sample essays show you how
the literary response scoring guide works.
For topics 840–902, simply use the Rubric
for Literary Response Writing on page 269 to
evaluate your essays. You can also refer to
the Essay Scoring Criteria section in Chapter
6 for more information.
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, standardized tests are an important gauge of a student’s aca-
demic achievement, and every student should strive to succeed on standardized tests such
as the SAT, ACT, GRE, and school entrance exams. The best way to prepare for reading
tests and for future reading challenges is to become a critical reader—the kind of active reader who
reaches to find a deeper meaning beyond the literal. Active readers interpret a text by analyzing literary
devices and by drawing conclusions based on facts and events presented in the text. A well-told fictional
story is a joy to read, and active readers experience an even richer reading experience by exploring the
meaning beyond the surface. Active readers analyze, scrutinize, and make judgments and connections
regarding important elements such as plot, characterization, and the author’s use of setting and literary
devices. Armed with the ability to form inferences and draw logical conclusions, the experienced critical
reader has little to fear when faced with a standardized test or entrance exam.
Critical Reading
A writer lives in awe of words, for they can be cruel or kind, and they
can change their meanings right in front of you. They pick up flavors
and odors like butter in a refrigerator.
—John Steinbeck
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Cri ti cal Readi ng Strategi es
Here are strategies that will help you to become a
more active and successful reader:
Start by surveying the book’s title, topic sen-
tences, or photo captions for clues about the
main idea. Ask yourself: What is the ongoing
theme? Is there more than one theme? Is the
theme stated in the title or in the body of the
book? Is it implied? What is the author trying to
When you stumble upon a word that is unfa-
miliar to you, use the context of the surround-
ing words to clue you in to its meaning. Read
difficult paragraphs more than once to be cer-
tain that you have grasped the full meaning.
Analyzing dialogue is an important method of
understanding a character’s personality and the
manner in which he or she interacts with the
other characters. Pay attention to what charac-
ters say to one another. Are they engaged in
conflict? Dialogue also reveals important clues
about a character’s educational, regional, social,
and economic background and his or her moral
What is the author’s tone? Is the story an opti-
mistic or a pessimistic one? Does the author
think that the world is a cruel, harsh place to live
in, or does he or she have a positive worldview?
Every story contains conflict woven into the
plot, because without conflict there isn’t usually
much of a story. There can be more than one
conflict going on, and the conflict can involve
individuals, nature, and concepts (man versus
nature, man versus man, man versus society).
Ask yourself: What are the roots of the conflict?
What are the consequences or effects of the
conflict? Is the conflict ever resolved? If so, how?
Setting details are important and should be
analyzed. Historical, scientific, and technologi-
cal events, climate, economic conditions, occu-
pations, traditions, and religious and cultural
customs are important setting details that
impact a story and its characters. The racially
charged Southern Depression-era setting in the
Southern Gothic novel To Kill a Mockingbird by
Harper Lee is an excellent example of the con-
nection between setting and plot development.
The science fiction genre often introduces tech-
nology in settings that are vastly different from
the present-day world.
When you are writing a response to a literary
text, it is important that you incorporate quota-
tions from the text to support your ideas.
Unless you are asked to refer to outside sources,
focus on extracting information from the text
itself. Use specific quotations to support your
analysis. However, don’t let your use of quota-
tions dominate the page or drown out your
own voice and ideas.
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4.a person, place, event, or thing that is used to
communicate meaning beyond the literal
6.the emotional, historical, or traditional associa-
tion with a particular word
7.the main idea and perspective in a fiction or
nonfiction story or other form of writing, such
as poetry or essays
8.a figure of speech in which two items are com-
pared using the words like or as
10.the literal meaning of a word
12.the sensory descriptive detail that is used to
created vivid images in the reader’s mind
13.the time period and geographical location in
which a story takes place
1.a figure of speech in which the author suggests
a similarity or connection between two things
that are not alike
2.an overly dramatic exaggeration that is used to
increase the impact of a statement
3.clue to future plot development
5.the author’s general attitude or philosophy
9.the overall feeling created by the author’s use of
language, setting, sound, and other details—for
example, joyful, mysterious, romantic
11.when an author applies human traits to a nonhuman
Li terar y Devi ces Crossword Puzzl e
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Word Bite: Epithet
An epithet is used to emphasize a special or
distinctive characteristic of a geographical
location, an individual, or a thing. For example,
New York City is well-known as “the Big Apple”
and New Orleans is often referred to by its
epithet “the Big Easy.”
Practi ce Questi ons
Read the following passages and choose the best
Questions 903–905 are based on the passage on the fol-
lowing page.
903.According to the passage, why did James
Russell invent the CD?
a.He was tired of turning over his records to
hear both sides.
b.He wanted to record more music on a new
c.He wanted a purer, more durable sound
than he could get from vinyl records.
d.He was interested in getting patents.
e.He wanted to work with lasers.
904.What would happen if the detector on a CD
player malfunctioned?
a.The spiral track would not be read properly.
b.The pits and land would look like one unit.
c.The changes in reflectivity would be
absorbed back into the laser.
d.The music would play backwards.
e.The information read by the laser would
not be converted into music.
Get a Grip on Citations
Your own voice and ideas should dominate
your report. When citing outside sources,
direct quotations and paraphrasing should
be limited to approximately 20% of your final
Idioms are colorful expressions that add
spice and color to the stories in which they
appear. Since idioms are hard to figure out
logically, the best way to understand what
one of these expressions means is to look up
its meaning in a reference book. Idioms
come from local folklore, slang expressions,
sports, proverbs, authors, and other sources.
Here are some common idioms and
their meanings:
It’s going to the dogs.—It’s declining
in quality or heading to ruination.
Take it with a grain of salt.—View it
with a bit of skepticism.
Birds of a feather flock together.—
People who are alike usually attract
one another.
Someone is mad as a wet hen.—
The person is expressing extreme
anger, agitation, or distress.
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905.Paragraph 3, lines 14–21, explains all of the
following EXCEPT
a.how the information on a CD is read.
b.why semiconductor lasers were invented.
c.where information is stored on a CD.
d.what pits and bumps are.
e.the purpose of the aluminum layer of a CD.
Compact discs (CDs), which may be found in over 25 million Amer-
ican homes, not to mention backpacks and automobiles, first entered
popular culture in the 1980s. But their history goes back to the 1960s,
when an inventor named James Russell decided to create an alterna-
tive to his scratched and warped phonograph records—a system that
could record, store, and replay music without ever wearing out.
The result was the compact disc. Made from 1.2 mm of polycar-
bonate plastic, the disc is coated with a much thinner aluminum layer
that is then protected with a film of lacquer. The lacquer layer can be
printed with a label. CDs are typically 120 mm in diameter, and can
store about 74 minutes of music. There are also discs that can store 80,
90, 99, and 100 minutes of music, but they are not as compatible with
various stereos and computers as the 74-minute size.
The information on a standard CD is contained on the polycar-
bonate layer, as a single spiral track of pits, starting at the inside of the
disc and circling its way to the outside. This information is read by
shining light from a 780 nm wavelength semiconductor laser through
the bottom of the polycarbonate layer. The light from the laser follows
the spiral track of pits, and is then reflected off either the pit or the alu-
minum layer. Because the CD is read through the bottom of the disc,
each pit looks like a bump to the laser.
Information is read as the laser moves over the bumps (where no
light will be reflected) and the areas that have no bumps, also known
as land (where the laser light will be reflected off the aluminum). The
changes in reflectivity are interpreted by a part of the compact disc
player known as the detector. It is the job of the detector to convert the
information collected by the laser into the music that was originally
recorded onto the disc. This invention brought 22 patents to James
Russell, who today says he working on an even better system for
recording and playing back music.
The following selection is about the invention of the compact disc, and explains how it works.
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906.All of the following are probably part of the
collection of the Computer Museum of
America EXCEPT
a.adding machines.
b.old computers.
c.operation manuals for calculators.
d.card punch machines.
e.kitchen scales.
907.In line 12, the author used the words sneered
at to show
a.a negative image of accountants.
b.what accountants and bookkeepers looked
c.the negative reaction to the comptometer.
d.the precursor of the comptometer operator.
e.how accountants and bookkeepers add.
908.What term paper topic could probably be
researched at the Computer Museum of
a.Alexander Graham Bell’s contributions to
American society
b.IBM’s contribution to the development of
the modern computer
c.more than just paintings: the museums of
d.the rise and fall of the comptometer operator
e.why video games are harmful to our
nation’s youth
Wondering what to do with that old Atari home video game in the
attic? It’s on the wish list of the Computer Museum of America, in San
Diego, California, which hopes you will donate it to their holdings.
The Museum was founded in 1983 to amass and preserve historic
computer equipment such as calculators, card punches, and type-
writers, and now owns one of the world’s largest collections. In addi-
tion, it has archives of computer-related magazines, manuals, and
books that are available to students, authors, researchers, and others
for historical research.
One item currently on display is a 1920s comptometer, advertised
as “The Machine Gun of the Office.” The comptometer was first
sneered at by accountants and bookkeepers, many of whom could add
four columns of numbers in their heads. The new machine was the
first that could do the work faster than humans. The comptometer
gained a large following, and its operation became a formal profession
that required serious training. But by the 1970s, computers took over,
and comptometers, and the job of operating them, became obsolete.
Questions 906–908 are based on the following passage.
This selection introduces the Computer Museum of America, and details an important item in its collection.
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Today’s shopping mall has as its antecedents historical marketplaces,
such as Greek agoras, European piazzas, and Asian bazaars. The pur-
pose of these sites, as with the shopping mall, is both economic and
social. People go not only to buy and sell wares, but also to be seen,
catch up on news, and be part of the human drama. Both the mar-
ketplace and its descendant the mall might also contain restaurants,
banks, theaters, and professional offices.
The mall is also the product of the creation of suburbs. Although
villages outside of cities have existed since antiquity, it was the techno-
logical and transportation advances of the nineteenth century that gave
rise to a conscious exodus of the population away from crowded,
industrialized cities toward quieter, more rural towns. Since the sub-
urbs typically have no centralized marketplace, shopping centers or
malls were designed to fill the needs of the changing community, pro-
viding retail stores and services to an increasing suburban population.
The shopping mall differs from its ancient counterparts in a num-
ber of important ways. While piazzas and bazaars were open-air ven-
ues, the modern mall is usually enclosed. Since the suburbs are spread
out geographically, shoppers drive to the mall, which means that park-
ing areas must be an integral part of a mall’s design. Ancient market-
places were often set up in public spaces, but shopping malls are
designed, built, and maintained by a separate management firm as a
unit. The first shopping mall was built by J.C. Nichols in 1922 near
Kansas City, MO. The Country Club Plaza was designed to be an
automobile-centered plaza, as its patrons drove their own cars to it,
rather than take mass transportation, as was often the case for city
shoppers. It was constructed according to a unified plan, rather than
as a random group of stores. Nichols’ company owned and operated
the mall, leasing space to a variety of tenants.
The first enclosed mall was the Galleria Vittoria Emanuele in Milan,
Italy, in 1865–1877. Inspired by its design, Victor Gruen took the shop-
ping and dining experience of the Galleria to a new level when he cre-
ated the Southdale Center Mall in 1956. Located in a suburb of Min-
neapolis, it was intended to be a substitute for the traditional city center.
The 95-acre, two-level structure had a constant climate-controlled tem-
perature of 72 degrees, and included shops, restaurants, a school, a post
office, and a skating rink. Works of art, decorative lighting, fountains,
tropical plants, and flowers were placed throughout the mall. Southdale
afforded people the opportunity to experience the pleasures of urban
life while protected from the harsh Minnesota weather.
In the 1980s, giant megamalls were developed. While Canada has
had the distinction of being home to the largest of the megamalls for
Questions 909–916 are based on the following passage.
The following selection explains the origins and development of the modern shopping mall.
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909.The statement that people went to market-
places to be part of the human drama (line 5)
suggests that people
a.prefer to shop anonymously.
b.like to act on stage rather than shop.
c.seem to be more emotional in groups.
d.like to be in community, interacting with
one another.
e.prefer to be entertained rather than shop
for necessities.
910.In line 1, antecedents most nearly means
d.role models.
911.All of the following questions can be explicitly
answered on the basis of the passage EXCEPT
a.Who designed the Southdale Center Mall
in Minnesota?
b.Why was the Country Club Plaza automobile-centered?
c.What are three examples of historical marketplaces?
d.Where is the Galleria Vittoria Emanuele?
e.What is the West Edmonton Mall often
referred to as?
912.How was the Country Club Plaza different
from an urban shopping district?
a.It consisted of many more stores.
b.It was built by one company that leased
space and oversaw operations.
c.It was enclosed.
d.It had both retail stores and restaurants,
and offered areas for community programs.
e.It was based on an Italian design.
over 20 years, that honor will soon go to Dubai, where the Mall of
Arabia is being completed at a cost of over five billion U.S. dollars.
The 5.3-million-square-foot West Edmonton Mall in Alberta, Canada,
opened in 1981, with over 800 stores, 110 eating establishments, a
hotel, an amusement park, a miniature-golf course, a church, a zoo,
and a 438-foot-long lake. Often referred to as the “eighth wonder of
the world,” the West Edmonton Mall is the number-one tourist
attraction in the area, and will soon be expanded to include more retail
space, including a facility for sports, trade shows, and conventions.
The largest enclosed megamall in the United States is the Mall of
America in Bloomington, MN, which employs over 12,000 people. It
has over 500 retail stores, an amusement park that includes an indoor
roller coaster, a walk-through aquarium, a college, and a wedding
chapel. The mall contributes over one billion dollars each year to the
economy of the state of Minnesota. Its owners have proposed numer-
ous expansion projects, but have been hampered by safety concerns
due to the mall’s proximity to an airport.
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913.According to the passage, how did Southdale
expand the notion of the shopping mall?
a.It added an amusement park.
b.It was unheated.
c.It was the first to rise above two stories.
d.It was designed with more parking spaces
than any previous shopping mall.
e.It was intended to be a substitute for the
traditional city center.
914.According to paragraph 5, which is the only
activity visitors to the West Edmonton Mall
cannot enjoy?
a.staying in a hotel
b.gambling in a casino
c.visiting animals in a zoo
d.playing miniature golf
e.riding an amusement park ride
915.The statement in lines 38 to 40 that Southdale
afforded people the opportunity to experience
the pleasures of urban life means that
a.they could perform necessary and leisurely
activities in one location.
b.they could have a greater variety of retailers
to choose from.
c.they could see more artwork and botanicals
than they would in a city.
d.they could be entertained as they would be
in a city.
e.they could have taller buildings in their
916.What is NOT a probable reason for the pro-
posed expansion of the Mall of America?
a.so it can contribute more to the economy
of its state
b.to keep it closer in size to the other megamalls
c.so it can employ more people
d.to attract more tourists
e.to compete for visitors with the Mall of
Questions 917–924 are based on the passages on
pages 302–304.
917.The author’s tone in Passage 1, lines 1–7, may
best be described as
a.satire concerning a man’s journey through
b.cynicism about the reasons people go on
reality TV shows.
c.humor regarding the content of reality TV.
d.irony about the maturation process.
e.sarcasm toward the television networks.
918.Based on the passages, which statement would
both authors agree with?
a.Reality TV has had a long history.
b.Big Brother is about the desire for fame and
c.The popularity of reality TV is an indica-
tion of a decline in morals.
d.Survivor is the most successful reality TV
e.There is nothing wrong with reality TV.
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Passage 1
There comes a time in every boy’s life when he becomes a man. On
this fateful day, he will be swept up and put on an island to compete
for one million dollars. Then, this man will realize that money can’t
buy happiness. He will find his soul mate, as we all do, on national TV,
picking a woman out of a line of 20. By then it will be time for him
to settle down, move to the suburbs, make friends with the neigh-
bors, and then refurbish the neighbors’ house.
Welcome to real life. That is, real life as the television networks see it.
Reality TV is flawed in many ways, but the most obvious is in its
name. It purports to portray reality, but no “reality” show has suc-
ceeded in this endeavor. Instead, reality TV is an extension of fiction,
and there are no writers who need to be paid. Television executives
love it because it is so much cheaper to produce than any other type
of programming, and it’s popular. But the truth is that there is little
or no reality in reality TV.
Do you sing in the shower while dreaming of getting your own
record deal? There are a couple of shows made just for you. Audition,
and make the cut, so some British guy who has never sung a note can
rip you to pieces on live television. Or maybe you’re lonely and fiscally
challenged, and dream of walking down the aisle with a millionaire?
Real marriage doesn’t involve contestants who know each other for a
couple of days. The people on these shows seem to be more interested
in how they look on camera than in the character of the person they
might spend the rest of their life with. Let’s hope that isn’t reality.
There are also about a dozen decorating shows. In one case, two
couples trade rooms and redecorate for each other. The catch is, inte-
rior designers help them. This is where the problem starts. Would
either couple hire someone who thinks it’s a great idea to swathe a
room in hundreds of yards of muslin, or to adhere five thousand plas-
tic flowers as a mural in a bathroom? The crimes committed against
defenseless walls are outrageous. When you add the fact that the cou-
ples are in front of cameras as well as the designers, and thus unable to
react honestly to what is going on, you get a new level of “unreality.”
Then there is the show that made the genre mainstream—Survivor,
the show that pits men and women from all walks of life against each
other for a million-dollar prize in the most successful of all the real-
ity TV programs. What are record numbers of viewers tuning in to
see? People who haven’t showered or done their laundry in weeks are
shown scavenging for food and competing in ridiculous physical chal-
lenges. Where’s the reality? From the looks of it, the contestants spend
Both of these passages were adapted from high school newspaper editorials concerning reality television.
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most of their time, when not on a reality TV show, driving to the
Burger Barn and getting exercise only when the remote goes missing.
So the television networks have used reality TV to replace the dra-
mas and comedies that once filled their schedules, earning millions in
advertising revenue. The lack of creativity, of producing something
worth watching, is appalling. We are served up hundreds of hours of
reality TV each week, so we can watch real people in very unreal situa-
tions, acting as little like themselves as possible. What’s real about that?
Passage 2
Why does reality TV get such a bad rap? Editorials on the subject
blame its popularity on everything from the degenerate morals of
today’s youth to our ever-decreasing attention spans. The truth is that
reality-based programs have been around for decades. Candid Camera
first aired in 1948, a Cops-like show called Wanted was on CBS’s
lineup in the mid-1950s, and PBS aired a controversial 12-hour doc-
umentary filmed inside a family’s home in 1973. But it was Survivor,
which debuted on American TV in the summer of 2000, that
spawned the immense popularity of the reality genre. There are now
more than 40 reality shows on the air, and, hinting that they are here
to stay, the Academy of Television Arts and Sciences added “Best
Reality Show” as an Emmy category in 2002.
Why are these shows so popular today? Are they really a sign that
our morals, and our minds, are on a decline? People have been tuning
in to reality TV for generations, so what makes today’s shows any
worse than their predecessors? Let’s look at a number of current, popu-
lar shows to see what the fuss is about. MTV’s The Real World has been
on the air for over ten years. It places seven strangers in one house and
tapes them as they live together for a few months. The show has been
a ratings home run for MTV, and tens of thousands of hopefuls audi-
tion each time they announce they are producing another show. Those
who make the cut are attractive young singles not only looking for a
good time, but also looking for fame, too. It’s not uncommon for them
to hire a show business agent before the taping starts.
Other reality shows take fame-seekers to the next level by having
them compete against one another. American Idol, Star Search, and
Fame showcase singers, actors, dancers, and model wannabes, and
offer them a chance at professional success. Even those who don’t win
the big prize get national television exposure, and have a better chance
than they did before the show of becoming famous. Survivor offers
another twist: Not only can you become an instant celebrity, but you
have a chance to win a million dollars. The combination of fame and
money has helped to make Survivor the most popular reality TV pro-
gram of all time. But it’s not alone in the format. Big Brother combines
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919.The primary purpose of Passage 2 is to
a.refute an argument.
b.explore possible outcomes.
c.give a brief history.
d.explain how to get famous.
e.show the need for change.
920.The two passages differ in that the author of
Passage 1
a.defends reality TV, while the author of Passage 2 does not.
b.explains what he or she thinks is wrong
with reality TV, while the author of Passage
2 does not.
c.believes reality TV has many faults, while
the author of Passage 2 thinks no one has a
problem with it.
d.blames reality TV for the lack of variety in
programming, while the author of Passage
2 thinks it has improved variety.
e.says reality TV is cheap to produce, while
the author of Passage 2 disagrees.
921.In Passage 2, line 20, the phrase ratings home
run means that
a.a lot of people watch The Real World.
b.The Real World beats baseball games in TV
c.there are baseball players on The Real
d.the Nielsen company likes The Real World.
e.The Real World contestants play softball on
the show.
922.Both passages illustrate the idea that
a.people on reality TV shows become
b.Reality TV is all about getting rich.
c.Reality TV is a good alternative to tradi-
tional programming.
d.the producers of reality TV are getting rich.
e.Reality TV is controversial.
the “group living together in a beautiful setting” concept of The Real
World with a $500,000 prize, and Fear Factor pays $50,000 to the con-
testant who completes the most terrifying stunts.
Given television’s long history of reality-based programming, why
is there a problem now? Most reality TV centers on two common
motivators: fame and money. The shows have pulled waitresses, hair-
stylists, investment bankers, and counselors, to name a few, from
obscurity to household names. These lucky few successfully parlayed
their 15 minutes of fame into celebrity. Even if you are not inter-
ested in fame, you can probably understand the desire for lots of
money. Watching people eat large insects, jump off cliffs, and be
filmed 24 hours a day for a huge financial reward makes for interest-
ing viewing. What’s wrong with people wanting to be rich and
famous? Not much, and, if you don’t like it, you can always change the
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923.Swathe in Passage 1, line 29 most nearly means
a.to stitch.
b.a combination of pleating and stapling.
c.to cover.
d.a way of making curtains.
e.to cover the floor.
924.What does the author of Passage 1 find most
troublesome about reality TV?
a.It isn’t original.
b.It doesn’t need writers to come up with
c.It invades people’s privacy.
d.It doesn’t accurately show reality.
e.It shows how shallow people are.
In the past 30 years, Americans’ consumption of restaurant and
take-out food has doubled. The result, according to many health
watchdog groups, is an increase in overweight and obesity. Almost 60
million Americans are obese, costing $117 billion each year in health
care and related costs. Members of Congress have decided they need
to do something about the obesity epidemic. A bill was recently intro-
duced in the House that would require restaurants with 20 or
more locations to list the nutritional content of their food on their
menus. A Senate version of the bill is expected in the near future.
Our legislators point to the trend of restaurants’ marketing larger
meals at attractive prices. People order these meals believing that they
are getting a great value, but what they are also getting could be, in
one meal, more than the daily recommended allowances of calories,
fat, and sodium. The question is, would people stop “supersizing” or
make other healthier choices if they knew the nutritional content of
the food they’re ordering? Lawmakers think they would, and the grav-
ity of the obesity problem has caused them to act to change menus.
The Menu Education and Labeling (MEAL) Act would result in
menus that look like the nutrition facts panels found on food in super-
markets. Those panels are required by the 1990 Nutrition Labeling
and Education Act, which exempted restaurants. The new restaurant
menus would list calories, fat, and sodium on printed menus, and calo-
ries on menu boards, for all items that are offered on a regular basis
(daily specials don’t apply). But isn’t this simply asking restaurants to
state the obvious? Who isn’t aware that an order of supersize fries isn’t
health food? Does anyone order a double cheeseburger thinking
they’re being virtuous?
Studies have shown that it’s not that simple. In one, registered dieti-
cians couldn’t come up with accurate estimates of the calories found in
certain fast foods. Who would have guessed that a milk shake, which
Questions 925–931 are based on the following passage.
The following selection is adapted from a news story about a bill recently introduced in Congress.
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925.The purpose of the passage is to
a.argue the restaurant industry’s side of the
b.explain why dieticians have trouble esti-
mating the nutritional content of fast food.
c.help consumers make better choices when
dining out.
d.explain one way legislators propose to deal
with the obesity epidemic.
e.argue for the right of consumers to under-
stand what they are ordering in fast food
926.According to the passage, the larger meals now
being offered in restaurants
a.cost less than smaller meals.
b.add an extra side dish not offered with
smaller meals.
c.include a larger drink.
d.save consumers money.
e.contain too many calories, fat, and sodium.
927.In lines 16–17, the word gravity most nearly
a.the force of attraction toward the earth.
b.a cemetery plot.
e.presumption of wrongdoing.
928.According to the passage, why is the restaurant
industry against the new congressional bill?
a.They don’t want any healthy items on their
b.Because lack of adequate exercise is also
responsible for the obesity epidemic.
c.They don’t want to be sued if they incorrectly
calculate the calories in their menu items.
d.They feel their industry is already overregulated.
e.Because people would stop coming to their
establishments if they knew what was in the
sounds pretty healthy (it does contain milk, after all) has more calories
than three McDonald’s cheeseburgers? Or that one chain’s chicken
breast sandwich, another better-sounding alternative to a burger, con-
tains more than half a day’s calories and twice the recommended daily
amount of sodium? Even a fast-food coffee drink, without a doughnut
to go with it, has almost half the calories needed in a day.
The restaurant industry isn’t happy about the new bill. Arguments
against it include the fact that diet alone is not the reason for America’s
obesity epidemic. A lack of adequate exercise is also to blame. In addi-
tion, many fast food chains already post nutritional information on
their websites, or on posters located in their restaurants.
Those who favor the MEAL Act, and similar legislation, say in
response that we must do all we can to help people maintain a healthy
weight. While the importance of exercise is undeniable, the quantity
and quality of what we eat must be changed. They believe that if we
want consumers to make better choices when they eat out, nutritional
information must be provided where they are selecting their food.
Restaurant patrons are not likely to have memorized the calorie counts
they may have looked up on the Internet, nor are they going to leave
their tables, or a line, to check out a poster that might be on the oppo-
site side of the restaurant.
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929.Why is the chicken breast sandwich
mentioned in paragraph 4?
a.It is an example of a menu item that con-
tains more fat than one would assume.
b.It is the only healthy choice on some
restaurants’ menus.
c.It has twice as much salt as the
recommended daily allowance.
d.It has as many calories as three McDonald’s
e.It is a typical selection in a Value Meal.
930.The passage explains that those in favor of the
MEAL Act want nutritional information
a.anywhere the consumer can make a menu
b.in print advertisements.
c.on websites.
d.on toll-free hotlines.
e.on posters with print large enough to read
from any position in the restaurant.
931.If the MEAL Act is passed, consumers would
a.menus that tell them how to select the
healthiest complete meal.
b.menus that look like nutritional labels on
packaged food.
c.restaurants with more extensive informa-
tion on their websites.
d.less television advertising of fast food
e.restaurants that serve healthier food
A mainstay of American newspapers since the early nineteenth century,
political cartoons use graphic art to comment on current events in a
way that will inform, amuse, provoke, poke, and persuade readers.
Cartoons take on the principal issues and leaders of the day, skewering
hypocritical or corrupt politicians and depicting the ridiculous, the
ironic, or the serious nature of a major event in a single, deftly drawn
image. Cartoons use few words, if any, to convey their message. Some
use caricature, a technique in which a cartoonist exaggerates the fea-
tures of well-known people to make fun of them. (Think of renderings
of Bill Clinton with a nose redder than Rudolph’s and swollen out of
proportion, or cartoons of George W. Bush’s exaggerated pointy vis-
age sporting a ten-gallon cowboy hat.)
Because they have the ability to evoke an emotional response in
readers, political cartoons can serve as a vehicle for swaying public
opinion and can contribute to reform. Thomas Nast (1840–1902), the
Questions 932–935 are based on the following passage.
The following passage describes the medium of political cartoons as a graphic means of commenting on contempo-
rary social or political issues.
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932.The author would most likely agree with
which statement?
a.Political cartoons are a powerful means of
influencing the public.
b.The more mean-spirited a political cartoon
is, the more effective.
c.Political cartoonists must maintain their
objectivity on controversial subjects.
d.Political cartoons cater to an elite class of
e.Because of their relevance to current
affairs, political cartoons rarely serve as
historical documents.
933.In describing the art of political cartooning in
the first paragraph, the author’s tone can be
best described as
934.In line 14, vehicle most nearly means
935.The author cites Thomas Nast’s depiction of
an elephant for the Republican Party (lines
20–21) as an example of
a.an image that is no longer recognized by
the public.
b.the saying “the pen is mightier than the
c.art contributing to political reform.
d.a graphic image that became an enduring
e.the ephemeral nature of political cartooning.
preeminent political cartoonist of the second half of the nineteenth
century, demonstrated the power of his medium when he used his art
to end the corrupt Boss Tweed Ring in New York City. His images,
first drawn for Harper’s Weekly, are still in currency today: Nast created
the tiger as the symbol of Tammany Hall, the elephant for the Repub-
lican Party, and the donkey for the Democratic Party.
Created under tight deadlines for ephemeral, commercial formats
like newspapers and magazines, cartoons still manage to have lasting
influence. Although they tackle the principal issues and leaders of
their day, they often provide a vivid historical picture for generations
to come.
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While the Chinese, in particular those working as sailors, knew the west
coast of North America before the Gold Rush, our story begins in 1850,
as the documentation from the Gold Rush provides the starting point
with which to build a more substantial narrative. Most Chinese immi-
grants entered California through the port of San Francisco. From San
Francisco and other ports, many sought their fortunes in other parts of
California. The Chinese formed part of the diverse gathering of peoples
from throughout the world who contributed to the economic and pop-
ulation explosion that characterized the early history of the state of Cal-
ifornia. The Chinese who emigrated to the United States at this time
were part of a larger exodus from southeast China searching for better
economic opportunities and fleeing a situation of political corruption
and decline. Most immigrants came from the Pearl River Delta in
Guangdong (Canton) Province.
Chinese immigrants proved to be productive and resourceful con-
tributors to a multitude of industries and businesses. The initial group
of Chinese argonauts sought their livelihood in the gold mines, call-
ing California Gam Saan, Gold Mountain. For the mining industry,
they built many of the flumes and roads, allowing for easier access and
processing of the minerals being extracted. Chinese immigrants faced
discrimination immediately upon arrival in California. In mining, they
were forced to work older claims, or to work for others. In the 1850s,
the United States Constitution reserved the right of naturalization for
white immigrants to this country. Thus, Chinese immigrants lived at
the whim of local governments, with some allowed to become natu-
ralized citizens, but most not. Without this right, it was difficult to
pursue livelihoods. For example, Chinese immigrants were unable to
own land or file mining claims. Also in the 1850s, the California leg-
islature passed a law taxing all foreign miners. Although stated in gen-
eral terms, it was enforced chiefly against the Mexicans and the
Chinese through 1870. This discrimination occurred in spite of the
fact that the Chinese often contributed the crucial labor necessary to
the mining enterprise.
Discriminatory legislation forced many Chinese out of the gold
fields and into low-paying, menial, and often arduous jobs. In many
cases, they took on the most dangerous and least desirable compo-
nents of work available. They worked on reclaiming marshes in the
Central Valley so that the land could become agriculturally produc-
tive. They built the stone bridges and fences, constructed roads, and
excavated storage areas for the wine industry in Napa and Sonoma
counties. The most impressive construction feat of Chinese Americans
Questions 936–943 are based on the following passage.
The following passage explores the role of Chinese Americans in the nineteenth-century westward expansion of the
United States, specifically their influence on the development of California.
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936.The first paragraph (lines 1–14) of the passage
serves what function in the development of
the passage?
a.provides an expert’s opinion to support the
author’s thesis
b.introduces the topic by describing general
c.compares common myths with historical
d.draws a conclusion about the impact of Chinese immigration on the state of
e.condemns outdated concepts
937.Which of the following best describes the
approach of the passage?
a.theoretical analysis
b.historical overview
c.dramatic narrative
d.personal assessment
e.description through metaphor
938.Lines 15–20 portray Chinese immigrants as
939.The author cites the United States
Constitution (lines 23– 24) in order to
a.praise the liberties afforded by the Bill of
b.show that the government valued the con-
tributions of its immigrants.
c.imply that all American citizens are equal
under the law.
d.emphasize the importance of a system of
checks and balances.
e.suggest that it did not protect Chinese
immigrants from discrimination.
940.The word enterprise as it is used in line 33
most nearly means
941.According to the passage, which of the follow-
ing is NOT a contribution made by Chinese
a.worked land so that it would yield more
b.performed dangerous work with explosives
c.built roads and bridges
d.purchased older mining claims and mined
them e.dug storage areas for California wine
was their work on the western section of the transcontinental railroad.
Chinese-American workers laid much of the tracks for the Central
Pacific Railroad through the foothills and over the high Sierra
Nevada, much of which involved hazardous work with explosives to
tunnel through the hills. Their speed, dexterity, and outright persever-
ance, often in brutally cold temperatures and heavy snow through two
record-breaking winters, is a testimony to their outstanding achieve-
ments and contributions to opening up the West.
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942.In line 37, reclaiming most nearly means
943.The last sentence (lines 46–49) in the passage
a.an example supporting the thesis of the
b.a comparison with other historical viewpoints.
c.a theory explaining historical events.
d.a summary of the passage.
e.an argument refuting the position taken
earlier in the passage.
The worst and longest economic crisis in the modern industrial world,
the Great Depression in the United States, had devastating conse-
quences for American society. At its deepest (1932–1933), more
than 16 million people were unemployed, more than 5,000 banks had
closed, and over 85,000 businesses had failed. Millions of Americans
lost their jobs, their savings, and even their homes. The homeless built
shacks for temporary shelter—these emerging shantytowns were
nicknamed “Hoovervilles,” a bitter homage to President Herbert
Hoover’s failure to give government assistance to the jobless. Farmers
were hit especially hard. A severe drought coupled with the economic
crisis ruined small farms throughout the Great Plains as productive
farmland turned to dust and crop prices dropped by 50%. The effects
of the American depression—severe unemployment rates and a sharp
drop in the production and sales of goods—could also be felt abroad,
where many European nations were still struggling to recover from
World War I.
Although the stock market crash of 1929 marked the onset of the
depression, it was not the only cause of it: deep underlying fissures
already existed in the economy of America’s Roaring Twenties. For
example, the tariff and war-debt policies after World War I con-
tributed to the instability of the banking system. American banks
made loans to European countries following World War I. However,
the United States kept high tariffs on goods imported from other
nations. These policies worked against one another: If other coun-
tries could not sell goods in the United States, they could not make
enough money to pay back their loans or to buy American goods.
Questions 944–951 are based on the following passage.
The following passage describes the Great Depression and the relief policies introduced under President Franklin
Delano Roosevelt that aimed to mitigate the effects of the crisis.
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944.The author’s main point about the Great
Depression is that
a.government policies had nothing to do
with it.
b.the government immediately stepped in
with assistance for the jobless and homeless.
c.underlying problems in the economy preceded it.
d.the New Deal policies introduced by
Franklin D. Roosevelt ended it.
e.its effects were severe but not far-reaching.
945.The passage is best described as
a.an account of the causes and effects of a
major event.
b.a statement supporting the value of federal
social policies.
c.a condemnation of outdated beliefs.
d.a polite response to a controversial issue.
e.a comparison of economic conditions in
the 1930s and those of today.
And while the United States seemed to be enjoying a prosperous
period in the 1920s, the wealth was not evenly distributed. Businesses
made gains in productivity, but only one segment of the population—
the wealthy—reaped large profits. Workers received only a small share
of the wealth they helped produce. At the same time, Americans spent
more than they earned. Advertising encouraged Americans to buy
cars, radios, and household appliances instead of saving or purchasing
only what they could afford. Easy credit policies allowed consumers to
borrow money and accumulate debt. Investors also wildly speculated
on the stock market, often borrowing money on credit to buy shares
of a company. Stocks increased beyond their worth, but investors were
willing to pay inflated prices because they believed stocks would con-
tinue to rise. This bubble burst in the fall of 1929, when investors lost
confidence that stock prices would keep rising. As investors sold off
stocks, the market spiraled downward. The stock market crash
affected the economy in the same way that a stressful event can affect
the human body, lowering its resistance to infection.
The ensuing depression led to the election of President Franklin D.
Roosevelt in 1932. Roosevelt introduced relief measures that would
revive the economy and bring needed relief to Americans who were
suffering the effects of the depression. In his first hundred days in
office, Roosevelt and Congress passed major legislation that saved
banks from closing and regained public confidence. These measures,
called the New Deal, included the Agricultural Adjustment Act, which
paid farmers to slow their production in order to stabilize food prices;
the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, which insured bank
deposits in case a bank failed; and the Securities and Exchange
Commission, which regulated the stock market. Although the New
Deal offered relief, it did not end the depression. The economy sagged
until the nation entered World War II. However, the New Deal
changed the relationship between government and American citizens,
by expanding the role of the central government in regulating the
economy and creating social assistance programs.
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946.The author cites the emergence of
“Hoovervilles” (line 8) as an example of
a.federally sponsored housing programs.
b.the resilience of Americans who lost their
jobs, savings, and homes.
c.the government’s unwillingness to assist
citizens in desperate circumstances.
d.a new paradigm of safety-net social pro-
grams introduced by the government.
e.the effectiveness of the Hoover administra-
tion in dealing with the crisis.
947.In line 10, coupled most nearly means
948.The term policies as it is used in line 24 most
nearly means
949.The passage suggests that the 1920s was a
decade that extolled
950.The example of the human body as a
metaphor for the economy (lines 41–43) sug-
gests that
a.a stressful event like the stock market crash
of 1929 probably made a lot of people sick.
b.the crash weakened the economy’s ability to
withstand other pressures.
c.the crash was an untreatable disease.
d.a single event caused the collapse of the
e.there is no way to diagnose the factors that
led to the depression.
951.The content of the last paragraph of the pas-
sage (lines 44–59) would most likely support
which of the following statements?
a.The New Deal policies were not radical
enough in challenging capitalism.
b.The economic policies of the New Deal
brought about a complete business recovery.
c.The Agricultural Adjustment Act paid
farmers to produce surplus crops.
d.The federal government became more
involved in caring for needy members of
e.The New Deal measures went too far in
turning the country toward socialism.
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When Thomas Jefferson sent Lewis and Clark into the West, he pat-
terned their mission on the methods of Enlightenment science: to
observe, collect, document, and classify. Such strategies were already
in place for the epic voyages made by explorers like Cook and Van-
couver. Like their contemporaries, Lewis and Clark were more than
representatives of European rationalism. They also represented a ris-
ing American empire, one built on aggressive territorial expansion
and commercial gain.
But there was another view of the West: that of the native inhabi-
tants of the land. Their understandings of landscapes, peoples, and
resources formed both a contrast and a counterpoint to those of Jef-
ferson’s travelers. One of Lewis and Clark’s missions was to open
diplomatic relations between the United States and the Native Amer-
ican nations of the West. As Jefferson told Lewis, “it will now be proper
you should inform those through whose country you will pass ... that
henceforth we become their fathers and friends.” When Euro-Americans
and Native Americans met, they used ancient diplomatic protocols
that included formal language, ceremonial gifts, and displays of mili-
tary power. But behind these symbols and rituals there were often
very different ways of understanding power and authority. Such dif-
ferences sometimes made communication across the cultural divide
difficult and open to confusion and misunderstanding.
An important organizing principle in Euro-American society was
hierarchy. Both soldiers and civilians had complex gradations of rank
to define who gave orders and who obeyed. Kinship was important
in the Euro-American world, but it was even more fundamental in
tribal societies. Everyone’s power and place depended on a complex
network of real and symbolic relationships. When the two groups
met—whether for trade or diplomacy—each tried to reshape the
other in their own image. Lewis and Clark sought to impose their own
notions of hierarchy on Native Americans by “making chiefs” with
medals, printed certificates, and gifts. Native people tried to impose
the obligations of kinship on the visitors by means of adoption cere-
monies, shared names, and ritual gifts.
The American republic began to issue peace medals during the
first Washington administration, continuing a tradition established
by the European nations. Lewis and Clark brought at least 89
medals in five sizes in order to designate five ranks of chief. In the
Questions 952–961 are based on the following passage.
In 1804 President Thomas Jefferson sent Army officers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark on an expedition to
explore the territory of the Louisiana Purchase and beyond and to look for a waterway that would connect the
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. This passage describes the collision of cultures that occurred between Native Americans
and the representatives of the United States government.
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952.The goals of the Lewis and Clark expedition
include all of the following purposes EXCEPT to
a.expand scientific knowledge.
b.strengthen American claims to western
c.overcome Native American resistance with
military force.
d.introduce native inhabitants to the ways of
Euro-American culture.
e.make peaceful contact with native inhabitants.
953.According to the passage, the United States
government primarily viewed its role in rela-
tion to Native Americans as one of
954.The word protocols as it is used in line 17 most
nearly means
eyes of Americans, Native Americans who accepted such medals were
also acknowledging American sovereignty as “children” of a new
“great father.” And in a moment of imperial bravado, Lewis hung a
peace medal around the neck of a Piegan Blackfeet warrior killed by
the expedition in late July 1806. As Lewis later explained, he used a
peace medal as a way to let the Blackfeet know “who we were.”
In tribal society, kinship was like a legal system—people depended
on relatives to protect them from crime, war, and misfortune. People
with no kin were outside of society and its rules. To adopt Lewis and
Clark into tribal society, the Plains Indians used a pipe ceremony. The
ritual of smoking and sharing the pipe was at the heart of much Native
American diplomacy. With the pipe the captains accepted sacred obli-
gations to share wealth, aid in war, and revenge injustice. At the end
of the ceremony, the pipe was presented to them so they would never
forget their obligations.
Gift giving was an essential part of diplomacy. To Native Ameri-
cans, gifts proved the giver’s sincerity and honored the tribe. To Lewis
and Clark, some gifts advertised the technological superiority and oth-
ers encouraged the Native Americans to adopt an agrarian lifestyle.
Like salesmen handing out free samples, Lewis and Clark packed bales
of manufactured goods to open diplomatic relations with Native
American tribes. Jefferson advised Lewis to give out corn mills to
introduce the Native Americans to mechanized agriculture as part of
his plan to “civilize and instruct” them. Clark believed the mills were
“verry Thankfully recived,” but by the next year the Mandan had
demolished theirs to use the metal for weapons.
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955.According to the passage, the distribution of
peace medals exemplifies
a.the American republic’s attempt to forge a
relationship of equals with native people.
b.a cultural bridge connecting the Euro-
Americans with Native American tribes.
c.the explorers’ respect for Native American
d.the imposition of societal hierarchy on
Native Americans.
e.the acknowledgment of the power and
authority of Native American chiefs.
956.The description of Lewis’ actions in lines
41–43 is used to
a.depict the expedition in a patriotic light.
b.contradict commonly held views of imperialism.
c.make an ironic statement about the mean-
ing of the peace medals.
d.give an explanation for the killing of a Pie-
gan Blackfeet warrior.
e.provide a balanced report of two opposing
points of view.
957.The description of the pipe ceremony in lines
48–53 is used to illustrate
a.the naïveté of the Plains Native Americans.
b.cultural confusion.
c.the superiority of the native inhabitants.
d.how Plains Native Americans honored low-
ranking members of society.
e.the addictive properties of tobacco.
958.In line 47, adopt most nearly means
959.The author uses the image of salesmen hand-
ing out free samples (line 58) in order to
a.depict Lewis and Clark as entrepreneurs.
b.illustrate the generosity Lewis and Clark
showed the tribal people they met.
c.suggest that Lewis and Clark hoped to per-
sonally profit from their travels.
d.imply that everyone likes to get something
for free.
e.show the promotional intent behind the
explorers’ gift-giving.
960.The passage is developed primarily through
a.the contrast of different abstract principles.
b.quotations from one specific text.
c.the analysis of one extended example.
d.first-person narratives.
e.recurring symbols.
961.The author’s primary purpose in the passage
is to
a.describe Lewis and Clark’s expedition into
the West.
b.show the clashing views of the Indian
nations versus those of the American
c.explore the tribal system of kinship.
d.make an argument supporting Jefferson’s
quest for scientific knowledge.
e.criticize Lewis and Clark’s use of peace
medals to designate the rank of a chief.
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Questions 962–972 are based on the following passages.
Passage 1
First let me speak of the constitution of the United States, and assert
that there is not a line in it, nor a word, forbidding women to vote; but,
properly interpreted, that is, interpreted by the Declaration of Inde-
pendence, and by the assertions of the Fathers, it actually guarantees to
women the right to vote in all elections, both state and national. Listen
to the preamble to the constitution, and the preamble you know, is the
key to what follows; it is the concrete, general statement of the great
principles which subsequent articles express in detail. The preamble
says: “We, the People of the United States, in order to form a more per-
fect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the
common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings
of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this
Constitution for the United States of America.”
Commit this to memory, friends; learn it by heart as well as by head,
and I should have no need to argue the question before you of my right
to vote. For women are “people” surely, and desire, as much as men, to
say the least, to establish justice and to insure domestic tranquility; and,
brothers, you will never insure domestic tranquility in the days to come
unless you allow women to vote, who pay taxes and bear equally with
yourselves all the burdens of society; for they do not mean any longer
to submit patiently and quietly to such injustice, and the sooner men
understand this and graciously submit to become the political equals
of their mothers, wives, and daughters—aye, of their grandmothers, for
that is my category, instead of their political masters, as they now are,
the sooner will this precious domestic tranquility be insured. Women
are surely “people,” I said, and were when these words were written, and
were as anxious as men to establish justice and promote the general
welfare, and no one will have the hardihood to deny that our fore-
mothers (have we not talked about our forefathers alone long
enough?) did their full share in the work of establishing justice, pro-
viding for the common defense, and promoting the general welfare in
all those early days.
The truth is, friends, that when liberties had to be gained by the
sword and protected by the sword, men necessarily came to the front
and seemed to be the only creators and defenders of these liberties;
hence all the way down women have been content to do their patriotic
work silently and through men, who are the fighters by nature rather
These passages concern themselves with the nineteenth-century arguments made for and against women’s right to
vote in the United States. Passage 1 is an excerpt from an address by Isabella Beecher Hooker before the Interna-
tional Council of Women in 1888. Passage 2 is an excerpt from an 1878 report from the Senate’s Committee on Priv-
ileges and Elections in response to a proposed constitutional amendment that would give women the right to vote.
ETTM_06_293_428.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 1:57 PM Page 317
than themselves, until the present day; but now at last, when it is estab-
lished that ballots instead of bullets are to rule the world ... now, it is
high time that women ceased to attempt to establish justice and pro-
mote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to them-
selves and their posterity, through the votes of men ...
Passage 2
This proposed amendment forbids the United States or any State to
deny or abridge the right to vote on account of sex. If adopted, it will
make several millions of female voters, totally inexperienced in political
affairs, quite generally dependent upon the other sex, all incapable of
performing military duty and without the power to enforce the laws
which their numerical strength may enable them to make, and compar-
atively very few of whom wish to assume the irksome and responsible
political duties which this measure thrusts upon them.
An experiment so novel, a change so great, should only be made
slowly and in response to a general public demand, of the existence of
which there is no evidence before your committee. Petitions from var-
ious parts of the country, containing by estimate about 30,000 names,
have been presented to Congress asking for this legislation. They were
procured through the efforts of woman-suffrage societies, thoroughly
organized, with active and zealous managers. The ease with which sig-
natures may be procured to any petition is well known. The small
number of petitioners, when compared with that of the intelligent
women in the country, is striking evidence that there exists among them
no general desire to take up the heavy burden of governing, which so
many men seek to evade. It would be unjust, unwise, and impolitic to
impose that burden on the great mass of women throughout the coun-
try who do not wish for it, to gratify the comparatively few who do.
It has been strongly urged that without the right of suffrage women
are and will be subjected to great oppression and injustice. But every
one who has examined the subject at all knows that without female
suffrage, legislation for years has improved and is still improving the
condition of women. The disabilities imposed upon her by the com-
mon law have, one by one, been swept away until in most of the States
she has the full right to her property and all, or nearly all the rights
which can be granted without impairing or destroying the marriage
relation. These changes have been wrought by the spirit of the age, and
are not, generally at least, the result of any agitation by women in their
own behalf.
Nor can women justly complain of any partiality in the adminis-
tration of justice. They have the sympathy of judges and particularly
of juries to an extent which would warrant loud complaint on the part
of their adversaries of the sterner sex. Their appeals to legislatures
against injustice are never unheeded, and there is no doubt that when
ETTM_06_293_428.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 1:57 PM Page 318
962.The author of Passage 1 supports her argu-
ment by
a.providing information about the educa-
tional levels achieved by women.
b.sharing anecdotes about women who
fought in the American Revolution.
c.referring to principles already accepted by
her audience.
d.describing her personal experience as a
citizen of the United States.
e.listing the states in the union that had
granted women voting rights.
963.The phrase learn it by heart as well as by head
in Passage 1, line 14 suggests
a.an emotional and intellectual response.
b.rote memorization.
c.learning from experience rather than
d.accepting an argument on faith.
e.presupposition of an outcome.
964.In line 27 of Passage 1, anxious most nearly
965.Lines 25–32 of Passage 1 portray American
women as
966.Which of the following best describes the
author’s strategy in Passage 2?
a.summarizing public perceptions of the issue
b.anticipating opposing viewpoints and then
refuting them
c.relating an incident and describing its significance
d.persuading his audience through emotional
e.providing evidence that supports both sides
of the issue
any considerable part of the women of any State really wish for the
right to vote it will be granted without the intervention of Congress.
Any State may grant the right of suffrage to women. Some of them
have done so to a limited extent, and perhaps with good results. It is
evident that in some States public opinion is much more strongly in
favor of it than it is in others. Your committee regards it as unwise and
inexpedient to enable three-fourths in number of the States, through
an amendment to the National Constitution, to force woman suffrage
upon the other fourth in which the public opinion of both sexes may
be strongly adverse to such a change.
For these reasons, your committee reports back said resolution with
a recommendation that it be indefinitely postponed.
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967.As used in Passage 2, line 9, novel most nearly
968.In the third paragraph of Passage 2 (lines
23–33), the author characterizes the activists
of the women’s suffrage movement as
969.The author of Passage 2 cites the example of a
woman’s right to her property (lines 29 and
30) in order to
a.show that women are well represented by
the legislature even if they cannot vote.
b.demonstrate that if women can be respon-
sible for property, they can be responsible
c.prove that unjust laws affect the condition
of women.
d.support the belief that political change
should happen quickly.
e.argue that political equality strengthens
970.Which aspect of the topic of women’s voting
rights is emphasized in Passage 2, but not in
Passage 1?
a.the interpretation of the Constitution
b.the contributions of American women
c.the tax-paying status of women
d.how the judiciary treats women
e.how ready the country is to allow women
the right to vote
971.The two authors would most likely agree with
which statement?
a.Most women do not desire the right to
b.Women are not meant to be soldiers.
c.Voting is more of a burden than a privilege.
d.American society is ready for female voters.
e.Men and women should be political equals.
972.The approaches of the two passages to the
topic differ in that only Passage 1
a.describes an incident from the author’s
personal experience.
b.gives a point and argues its counterpoint.
c.cites several specific examples of laws that
benefit women.
d.recommends an action to be taken.
e.There aren’t any significant differences
between Passage 1 and Passage 2.
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973.According to the passage, the greatest goods
are those that
a.are theoretical.
b.are spiritual.
c.are intellectual.
d.create happiness.
e.create prosperity.
974.The word tallies in line 5 means
a.keeps count.
975.The author’s definition of happiness in lines
11–12 is related to the definition of good in that
a.living a good life will bring you happiness.
b.happiness is the same as goodness.
c.happiness is often sacrificed to attain the
d.all things that create happiness are good
e.happiness is a virtue.
976.In lines 13–18, the author’s main purpose is to
a.show that different people have different
definitions of happiness.
b.define virtue.
c.prove that his definition of happiness is valid.
d.explain the relationship between happiness
and goodness.
e.provide guidelines for good behavior.
Good things are commonly divided into three classes: (1) external
goods, (2) goods of the soul, and (3) goods of the body. Of these, we
call the goods pertaining to the soul goods in the highest and fullest
sense. But in speaking of “soul,” we refer to our soul’s actions and
activities. Thus, our definition [of good] tallies with this opinion
which has been current for a long time and to which philosophers
subscribe. We are also right in defining the end as consisting of
actions and activities; for in this way the end is included among the
goods of the soul and not among external goods.
Also the view that a happy man lives well and fares well fits in with
our definition: for we have all but defined happiness as a kind of good
life and well-being.
Moreover, the characteristics which one looks for in happiness are
all included in our definition. For some people think that happiness
is a virtue, others that it is practical wisdom, others that it is some kind
of theoretical wisdom; others again believe it to be all or some of these
accompanied by, or not devoid of, pleasure; and some people also
include external prosperity in its definition.
Questions 973–976 are based on the following passage.
In this excerpt from Book One of his Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle expands his definitions of good and happiness.
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I have said that all branches of knowledge are connected together,
because the subject-matter of knowledge is intimately united in itself.
.. . Hence it is that the Sciences, into which our knowledge may be
said to be cast, have multiple bearings on one another, and an inter-
nal sympathy, and admit, or rather demand, comparison and adjust-
ment. They complete, correct, and balance each other. This consider-
ation, if well-founded, must be taken into account, not only as
regards the attainment of truth, which is their common end, but as
regards the influence which they excise upon those whose education
consists in the study of them. I have already said, that to give undue
prominence to one is to be unjust to another; to neglect or supersede
these is to divert those from their proper object. It is to unsettle the
boundary lines between science and science, to disturb their action,
to destroy the harmony which binds them together. Such a proceed-
ing will have a corresponding effect when introduced into a place of
education. There is no science but tells a different tale, when viewed
as a portion of a whole, from what it is likely to suggest when taken
by itself, without the safeguard, as I may call it, of others.
Let me make use of an illustration. In the combination of colors,
very different effects are produced by a difference in their selection and
juxtaposition; red, green, and white, change their shades, according to
the contrast to which they are submitted. And, in like manner, the drift
and meaning of a branch of knowledge varies with the company in
which it is introduced to the student. If his reading is confined simply
to one subject, however such division of labor may favor the advance-
ment of a particular pursuit, a point into which I do not here enter,
certainly it has a tendency to contract his mind. If it is incorporated
with others, it depends on those others as to the kind of influence
that it exerts upon him. Thus the Classics, which in England are the
means of refining the taste, have in France subserved the spread of
revolutionary and deistical doctrines... . In a like manner, I suppose,
Arcesilas would not have handled logic as Aristotle, nor Aristotle have
criticized poets as Plato; yet reasoning and poetry are subject to sci-
entific rules.
It is a great point then to enlarge the range of studies which a Uni-
versity professes, even for the sake of the students; and, though they
cannot pursue every subject which is open to them, they will be the
gainers by living among those and under those who represent the
whole circle. This I conceive to be the advantage of a seat of universal
learning, considered as a place of education. An assemblage of learned
Questions 977–984 are based on the following passage.
Written by John Henry Newman in 1852, the following passage presents Newman’s idea of the purpose and benefits
of a university education.
ETTM_06_293_428.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 1:57 PM Page 322
977.The main idea of the first paragraph (lines 1–18) is that
a.each science should be studied independently.
b.the sciences are interrelated.
c.the boundary lines between each of the
sciences should be clearer.
d.some sciences are unduly given more
emphasis than others at the university level.
e.it is difficult to attain a proper balance
among the sciences.
978.By the Sciences (line 3), the author means
a.the physical sciences only.
b.the social sciences only.
c.the physical and social sciences.
d.all branches of knowledge, including the
physical and social sciences and the
e.educational methodologies.
979.The word excise in line 9 most nearly means
980.By using the word safeguard in line 18, the
author suggests that
a.it is dangerous to limit one’s education to
one field or area of specialization.
b.it is not safe to study the sciences.
c.the more one knows, the safer one will feel.
d.one should choose a second area of special-
ization as a backup in case the first does not
work out.
e.each science has its own specific safety
men, zealous for their own sciences, and rivals of each other, are
brought, by familiar intercourse and for the sake of intellectual peace,
to adjust together the claims and relations of their respective subjects of investigation. They learn to respect, to consult, to aid each other.
Thus is created a pure and clear atmosphere of thought, which the stu-
dent also breathes, though in his own case he only pursues a few sci-
ences out of the multitude. He profits by an intellectual tradition,
which is independent of particular teachers, which guides him in his
choice of subjects, and duly interprets for him those which he chooses.
He apprehends the great outlines of knowledge, the principles on
which it rests, the scale of its parts, its lights and its shades, its great
points and its little, as he otherwise cannot apprehend them. Hence it
is that his education is called “Liberal.” A habit of mind is formed
which lasts through life, of which the attributes are, freedom, equi-
tableness, calmness, moderation, and wisdom; or what in a former dis-
course I have ventured to call a philosophical habit. This then I would
assign as the special fruit of the education furnished at a University, as
contrasted with other places of teaching or modes of teaching. This is
the main purpose of a University in its treatment of its students.
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981.The purpose of the second paragraph (lines 19–34) is to
a.introduce a new idea.
b.develop the idea presented in the previous
c.state the main idea of the passage.
d.present an alternative point of view.
e.compare and contrast different branches of
982.The word apprehends as used in line 50 means
983.Which of the following best describes the
author’s idea of a liberal education?
a.in-depth specialization in one area.
b.free education for all.
c.a broad scope of knowledge in several disciplines.
d.training for a scientific career.
e.an emphasis on the arts rather than the
984.The author believes that a university should
(1) have faculty representing a wide range of
subjects and philosophies, (2) teach students
how to see the relationships among ideas, (3) teach students to understand and respect
other points of view, and (4) teach students
liberal rather than conservative ideals.
a.1 and 2 only
b.1, 2, and 3
c.1 and 4
d.4 only
e.all of the above
Without a doubt, one of the most interesting mythological characters
is the Greek god Prometheus. A complex character with an undying
love for the human beings he created, Prometheus embodies a rich
combination of often-contradictory characteristics, including loyalty
and defiance, trickery and trustworthiness. He shows resilience and
resolve in his actions, yet weakness in his fondness for humankind.
To reward Prometheus (whose name means “forethought”) and
his brother Epimetheus (“afterthought”) for helping him defeat the
Titans, Zeus, the great ruler of Olympian gods, gave the brothers the
task of creating beings to populate the land around Mount Olympus.
Prometheus asked Epimetheus to give the creatures their various char-
acteristics, such as cunning, swiftness, and flight. By the time he got
Questions 985–992 are based on the following passage.
The following passage tells of the mythological Greek god Prometheus.
ETTM_06_293_428.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 1:57 PM Page 324
to man, however, there was nothing left to give. So Prometheus
decided to make man in his image: he stood man upright like the gods
and became the benefactor and protector of mankind.
Though Prometheus was particularly fond of his creation, Zeus
didn’t care for mankind and didn’t want humans to have the divine gift
of knowledge. But Prometheus took pity on mortal men and gave them
knowledge of the arts and sciences, including the healing arts and
Always seeking the best for his creation, one day Prometheus con-
spired to trick Zeus to give the best meat of an ox to men instead of to
Zeus. He cut up the ox and hid the bones in layers of fat; then he hid
the meat and innards inside the hide. When Prometheus presented
the piles to Zeus, Zeus chose the pile that looked like fat and meat.
He was enraged to find that it was nothing but bones.
To punish Prometheus for his deceit and his fondness for humans,
Zeus forbade men fire—a symbol of creative power, life force, and
divine knowledge. But Prometheus would not let his children be
denied this greatest of gifts. He took a hollow reed, stole fire from
Mount Olympus, and gave it to man. With this divine power, creativ-
ity, ingenuity, and culture flourished in the land of mortals.
Again Zeus punished man for Prometheus’s transgression, this time
by sending the first woman, Pandora, to Earth. Pandora brought with
her a “gift” from Zeus: a jar filled with evils of every kind. Prometheus
knew Zeus to be vengeful and warned Epimetheus not to accept any
gifts from Zeus, but Epimetheus was too taken with Pandora’s beauty
and allowed her to stay. Eventually Pandora opened the jar she’d been
forbidden to open, releasing all manner of evils, including Treachery,
Sorrow, Villainy, Misfortune, and Plague. At the bottom of the jar was
Hope, but Pandora closed the lid before Hope could escape.
Prometheus drew Zeus’s greatest wrath when he refused to tell Zeus
which of Zeus’s sons would kill him and take over the throne. Believ-
ing he could torture Prometheus into revealing the secret, Zeus bound
Prometheus to a rock where every day an eagle would come to tear at
his flesh and eat his liver, which would regenerate each night. But
Prometheus refused to reveal his knowledge of the future to Zeus
and maintained his silence. Eventually, Prometheus was released by
Heracles (also known as Hercules), the last mortal son of Zeus and
the strongest of all mortals. Soon afterward, Prometheus received
immortality from a dying centaur, to take his place forever among
the great gods of Olympus.
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985.The main idea of the first paragraph (lines 1–6) is that Prometheus
a.is disrespectful of authority.
b.is the mythological creator of humans.
c.has many admirable characteristics.
d.should not have been so fond of humans.
e.is a fascinating character because of his
986.The author’s primary purpose in this passage
is to
a.demonstrate the vengeful nature of Zeus.
b.show how much Prometheus cared for
c.create in readers an interest in mythology.
d.relate the story of Prometheus.
e.prove that Prometheus, not Zeus, was the
creator of man.
987.Based on this passage, it can be inferred that
Zeus disliked humans because
a.Prometheus spent too much time with
b.Prometheus cared for humans more than
he did for Zeus.
c.humans could not be trusted.
d.humans did not respect Zeus.
e.he did not create them.
988.Zeus becomes angry at Prometheus for all of
the following EXCEPT
a.creating man.
b.giving man fire.
c.being excessively fond of humans.
d.refusing to reveal which of his sons would
kill him.
e.tricking him into taking the undesirable
part of an ox.
989.Based on the passage, the relationship between
Prometheus and humans can best be
described as that of
a.parent and child.
b.close friends.
c.master and servant.
d.bitter enemies.
e.reluctant allies.
990.The word transgression as used in line 33
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991.The fact that Zeus included Hope in Pandora’s
jar (lines 38–41) suggests that
a.Zeus really did love humans as much as
Prometheus did.
b.while Zeus was a vengeful god, he did not
wish humans to live in utter despair.
c.Zeus was just playing a trick on humans.
d.Zeus was trying to make amends with
e.Zeus wanted to drive Prometheus away
from humans.
992.The content and style of this passage suggest
that the intended audience
a.are experts on Greek mythology.
b.are religious officials.
c.is a general lay audience.
d.are family members and friends.
e.is a scholarly review board.
When one thinks of student-led rebellions and the changes they can
create, one typically thinks of the struggles of the twentieth century,
such as the Civil Rights movement or antiwar protests of the 1960s.
But there have been less dramatic, though no less passionate, rebel-
lions led by young activists in previous centuries—rebellions that had
lasting impact on the world around us. One such example is the Pre-
Raphaelite Brotherhood.
In the mid-1800s, the art world in England was rattled by the ini-
tials PRB, which stood for Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. The PRB
was founded by William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais, and Dante
Gabriel Rossetti. These three burgeoning artists (the oldest of whom
was 21) and their disdain for the artistic conventions of the time would
have a dramatic influence on the art world for generations to come.
The PRB was formed in response to the brotherhood’s belief that
the current popular art being produced in England was lacking in
meaning and aesthetic honesty. During the era leading up to the
PRB, the Royal Academy dominated British art. The Royal Academy
advocated a style that was typically staid and relied heavily upon the
use of dark amber and brown tones to depict overly idealized land-
scapes, carefully arranged family portraits and still lifes, and overly
dramatic nature scenes such as boats caught in stormy seas. By con-
trast, the PRB believed that art should present subjects that, by their
very nature, had greater meaning and more accurately depicted real-
ity. The PRB was committed to bringing greater integrity to art and
even went so far as to publish The Germ, a journal that extolled the
virtues of the PRB’s aesthetic principles.
To develop subjects with greater meaning, the PRB initially turned
to ancient myths and stories from the Bible. Many of the PRB’s bib-
Questions 993–1001 are based on the following passage.
The following passage describes an influential group of nineteenth-century painters.
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993.The word upstart in line 58 means
c.beginning from an advanced position.
d.suddenly raised to a high position.
e.receiving numerous honors.
994.In the opening paragraph (lines 1–7), the
author characterizes the PRB as all of the fol-
lowing EXCEPT
lically themed paintings portrayed the religious figures as regular peo-
ple. This departure from the convention of the time is notable in John
Everett Millais’s Christ in the Home of His Parents. In this painting, Jesus
is portrayed as a young boy in his father’s carpentry shop. Everyone in
the painting, including Christ himself, looks like a common person of
that time period, complete with dirty feet and hands. This realism—
especially as it related to the Biblical figures—was not well received by
many in the art world at the time. Later works done by fellow PRB
members, and those inspired by them, utilized themes from poetry, lit-
erature, and medieval tales, often with the aim of highlighting the
societal and moral challenges of the time.
With the goal of bringing greater honesty to their work, the PRB
ignored the convention of painting an imagined or remembered land-
scape or background. Instead, PRB members would hunt (sometimes
for weeks) for locations to incorporate into their paintings and then
paint them in exacting detail.
One of the most distinctive aspects of PRB works—in contrast to
both the works produced during the early nineteenth century and the
art of today—is their dramatic use of color. By committing themselves
to the accurate depiction of nature, the PRB members brought a fresh-
ness and drama to their work through the copious use of color. Further
enhancing their work was a technique they used that involved apply-
ing the colored paint on top of wet white paint previously applied to
their canvases. The effect was to make the colors even brighter and
more dramatic. Even today, more than 150 years later, PRB paintings
have a luminescence beyond those of other works from the same time
period. It is believed that their paintings have this quality today
because the white layer underneath the colored paint continues to add
brightness and life to the paintings.
Originally founded by three upstart young men, the PRB had a
tremendous influence on an entire generation of artists. William Mor-
ris, Ford Maddox Brown, and Edward Burne-Jones are just a few of
the significant artists of the time whose work was dramatically influ-
enced by the PRB.
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995.The word burgeoning in line 11 means
996.The PRB believed artists should do all of the
following EXCEPT
a.paint meaningful subjects.
b.paint existing rather than imagined landscapes.
c.use vibrant colors.
d.choose subjects that address social issues.
e.portray people and nature in an idealized
997.According to the passage, the art world
a.disliked the PRB’s emphasis on realism.
b.disdained the PRB’s choice of subject matter.
c.appreciated the PRB’s attention to detail.
d.embraced the PRB’s style, especially their
use of color.
e.was offended by the PRB’s attempts to
change the Royal Academy’s style.
998.The PRB’s rebellion was rooted in
a.a fascination with religious and mythologi-
cal subjects.
b.similar artistic rebellions in Europe.
c.a belief that their peers’ work lacked
d.a distrust of realistic landscapes and poetic
e.a conflict over the use of color in painting.
999.According to the author, one of the most dis-
tinguishing features of PRB works is their
b.contrast to Royal Academy art.
c.everyday subject matter.
e.vibrant colors.
1000.The author’s main purpose in this passage is to
a.describe the lives of the founders of the
b.describe the artistic principles of the PRB.
c.compare and contrast revolutions in art.
d.describe the controversy created by the
e.describe how the PRB influenced future
1001.It can be inferred that members of the PRB
a.were more socially conscious than mem-
bers of the Royal Academy.
b.were more educated than the members of
the Royal Academy.
c.were more popular than members of the
Royal Academy.
d.were bitter about being excluded from the
Royal Academy.
e.had a great deal of influence within the
Royal Academy.
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1002.The passage suggests that falling asleep during
a morning class
a.means that the topic does not interest you.
b.is a symptom of sleep deprivation.
c.indicates that you should drink a
caffeinated beverage at breakfast.
d.means that you have a sleep disorder.
e.requires a visit to the doctor.
1003.The image of burning the candle at both ends
(lines 7–8) most nearly refers to
a.an unrelenting schedule that affords little
b.an ardent desire to achieve.
c.the unavoidable conflagration that occurs
when two forces oppose each other.
d.a latent period before a conflict or collapse.
e.a state of extreme agitation.
Experts say that if you feel drowsy during the day, even during boring
activities, you haven’t had enough sleep. If you routinely fall asleep
within five minutes of lying down, you probably have severe sleep dep-
rivation, possibly even a sleep disorder. Microsleeps, or very brief
episodes of sleep in an otherwise awake person, are another mark of
sleep deprivation. In many cases, people are not aware that they are
experiencing microsleeps. The widespread practice of “burning the
candle at both ends” in Western industrialized societies has created so
much sleep deprivation that what is really abnormal sleepiness is now
almost the norm.
Many studies make it clear that sleep deprivation is dangerous.
Sleep-deprived people who are tested by using a driving simulator or
by performing a hand-eye coordination task perform as badly as or
worse than those who are intoxicated. Sleep deprivation also magni-
fies alcohol’s effects on the body, so a fatigued person who drinks will
become much more impaired than someone who is well rested. Driver
fatigue is responsible for an estimated 100,000 motor vehicle acci-
dents and 1,500 deaths each year, according to the National Highway
Traffic Safety Administration. Since drowsiness is the brain’s last step
before falling asleep, driving while drowsy can—and often does—lead
to disaster. Caffeine and other stimulants cannot overcome the effects
of severe sleep deprivation. The National Sleep Foundation says that
if you have trouble keeping your eyes focused, if you can’t stop yawn-
ing, or if you can’t remember driving the past few miles, you are prob-
ably too drowsy to drive safely.
Questions 1002–1005 are based on the following passage.
The following passage is an excerpt from the National Institutes of Health that describes the effects and potential
consequences of sleep deprivation.
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1004.In line 16, the term impaired most nearly
1005.The primary purpose of the passage is to
a.offer preventive measures for sleep deprivation.
b.explain why sleeplessness has become a
common state in Western cultures.
c.recommend the amount of sleep individu-
als need at different ages.
d.alert readers to the signs and risks of not
getting enough sleep.
e.discuss the effects of alcohol on a sleep-
deprived person.
The history of microbiology begins with a Dutch haberdasher named
Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, a man of no formal scientific education. In
the late 1600s, Leeuwenhoek, inspired by the magnifying lenses used
by drapers to examine cloth, assembled some of the first microscopes.
He developed a technique for grinding and polishing tiny, convex
lenses, some of which could magnify an object up to 270 times. After
scraping some plaque from between his teeth and examining it under
a lens, Leeuwenhoek found tiny squirming creatures, which he called
“animalcules.” His observations, which he reported to the Royal Soci-
ety of London, are among the first descriptions of living bacteria.
Leeuwenhoek discovered an entire universe invisible to the naked eye.
He found more animalcules—protozoa and bacteria—in samples of
pond water, rainwater, and human saliva. He gave the first description
of red corpuscles, observed plant tissue, examined muscle, and inves-
tigated the life cycle of insects.
Nearly two hundred years later, Leeuwenhoek’s discovery of
microbes aided French chemist and biologist Louis Pasteur to develop
his “germ theory of disease.” This concept suggested that disease derives
from tiny organisms attacking and weakening the body. The germ the-
ory later helped doctors to fight infectious diseases, including anthrax,
diphtheria, polio, smallpox, tetanus, and typhoid. Leeuwenhoek did not
foresee this legacy. In a 1716 letter, he described his contribution to sci-
ence this way: “My work, which I’ve done for a long time, was not pur-
sued in order to gain the praise I now enjoy, but chiefly from a craving
Questions 1006–1009 refer to the following passage.
In the following passage, the author gives an account of the scientific discoveries made by Antoni van Leeuwenhoek
in the seventeenth century.
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1006.According to the passage, Leeuwenhoek would
be best described as a
a.bored haberdasher who stumbled upon
scientific discovery.
b.trained researcher with an interest in
c.proficient hobbyist who made microscopic
lenses for entertainment.
d.inquisitive amateur who made pioneer
studies of microbes.
e.talented scientist interested in finding a
cure for disease.
1007.In line 3, inspired most nearly means
1008.The quotation from Leeuwenhoek (lines 23–28) is used to illustrate
a.the value he placed on sharing knowledge
among scientists.
b.that scientific discoveries often go unrecognized.
c.that much important research is spurred by
professional ambition.
d.the serendipity of scientific progress.
e.the importance of Leeuwenhoek’s discover-
ies in fighting infectious diseases.
1009.The author’s attitude toward Leeuwenhoek’s
contribution to medicine is one of
a.ecstatic reverence.
b.genuine admiration.
c.tepid approval.
d.courteous opposition.
e.antagonistic incredulity.
after knowledge, which I notice resides in me more than in most other
men. And therewithal, whenever I found out anything remarkable, I
have thought it my duty to put down my discovery on paper, so that all
ingenious people might be informed thereof.”
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1010.The first paragraph (lines 1–13) of the passage
serves all of the following purposes EXCEPT to
a.provide statistical information to support
the claim that teenagers do not exercise
b.list long-term health risks associated with
lack of exercise.
c.express skepticism that teenagers can
change their exercise habits.
d.show a correlation between inactive
teenagers and inactive adults.
e.highlight some health benefits of exercise.
1011.In line 5, sedentary most nearly means
Almost 50% of American teens are not vigorously active on a regular
basis, contributing to a trend of sluggishness among Americans of all
ages, according the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Ado-
lescent female students are particularly inactive—29% are inactive
compared with 15% of male students. Unfortunately, the sedentary
habits of young couch potatoes often continue into adulthood.
According to the Surgeon General’s 1996 Report on Physical Activity
and Health, Americans become increasingly less active with each year
of age. Inactivity can be a serious health risk factor, setting the stage
for obesity and associated chronic illnesses like heart disease and
diabetes. The benefits of exercise include building bone, muscle, and
joints; controlling weight; and preventing the development of high
blood pressure.
Some studies suggest that physical activity may have other benefits
as well. One CDC study found that high school students who take part
in team sports or are physically active outside of school are less likely
to engage in risky behaviors, like using drugs or smoking. Physical
activity does not need to be strenuous to be beneficial. The CDC rec-
ommends moderate, daily physical activity for people of all ages, such
as brisk walking for 30 minutes or 15–20 minutes of more intense
exercise. A survey conducted by the National Association for Sport
and Physical Education questioned teens about their attitudes toward
exercise and about what it would take to get them moving. Teens
chose friends (56%) as their most likely motivators for becoming more
active, followed by parents (18%) and professional athletes (11%).
Questions 1010–1013 are based on the following passage.
The following passage discusses the findings of several recent health surveys investigating the physical activity level of
American adolescents.
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1012.Which of the following techniques is used in
the last sentence of the passage (lines 23–25)?
a.explanation of terms
b.comparison of different arguments
c.contrast of opposing views
d.generalized statement
e.illustration by example
1013.The primary purpose of the passage is to
a.refute an argument.
b.make a prediction.
c.praise an outcome.
d.promote a change.
e.justify a conclusion.
Passage 1
Elective and cosmetic plastic surgery is one of the fastest growing
segments of healthcare, second only to geriatric care. As the baby
boomers (those born between 1945 and 1965) reach their half-century
mark, more Americans are seeking cosmetic procedures that mini-
mize the visible signs of aging. The demand for self-improvement has
increased as the job market has become more competitive and a high
divorce rate spurs the search for new personal relationships. Increased
discretionary wealth and a wider acceptance of cosmetic techniques
have also contributed to the spike in cosmetic surgery.
In the 1980s, I was just beginning as an internist, working in a pri-
vate practice. Then in my late twenties, I felt pity for my patients who
talked to me about a surgical fix for their wrinkles or other signs of
aging. I felt that if they had a developed sense of self-esteem, they
would not feel the need to surgically alter their appearance. I also felt
a certain degree of envy for my cosmetic-surgeon colleagues, some of
whom worked across the hall. To my “green” eye, they looked like
slick salespeople reaping large financial rewards from others’ insecu-
rity and vanity. It was difficult for me to reconcile the fact that patients
were willing to fork over thousands of dollars for cosmetic fixes, while
primary care physicians struggled to keep their practices financially
Since that time, my attitude has changed. Although cosmetic sur-
gery sometimes produces negative outcomes—the media often high-
lights surgery disasters—for the most part, the health risk for cos-
metic procedures is low and patient satisfaction is high. Often, people
who have been hobbled by a poor self-image all of their lives walk
Questions 1014–1022 are based on the following passages.
These two passages reflect two different views of the value of cosmetic plastic surgery. Passage 1 is an account by a
physician who has practiced internal medicine (general medicine) for more than two decades and who has encoun-
tered numerous patients inquiring about cosmetic plastic surgery procedures. Passage 2 is written by a professional
woman in her mid-forties who has considered cosmetic plastic surgery for herself.
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away from cosmetic surgery with confidence and the motivation to
lead healthier lives. In addition, reconstructive surgery for burn and
accident victims or those disfigured from disease restores self-esteem
and well-being in a way that other therapies cannot. I believe it is
time for members of the medical community to examine the benefits
and results of cosmetic surgery without prejudice or jealousy.
Passage 2
Beauty is only skin deep, or so goes the old adage. However, in a cul-
ture increasingly fixated on youthfulness and saturated with media
images of ideal-looking men and women, cosmetic plastic surgery
seems like the norm instead of the exception. Nearly 6.6 million
Americans opted for cosmetic surgery in 2002, with women account-
ing for 85% of cosmetic-surgery patients, according to the American
Society of Plastic Surgeons. Once the province of older women, cos-
metic surgery is increasingly an option for 35- to 50-year-olds, who
made up 45% of cosmetic-surgery patients in 2002.
Coming of age in the 1970s, I grew up believing in the spirit of fem-
inism, a ready warrior for equal rights for women in the home and
workplace. I believed that women should be valued for who they are
and what they do, and not for how they look. But as I approach my
mid-forties, I look in the mirror and wonder about the reflection I see.
Although I adhere to a healthy lifestyle, eat well, exercise regularly,
and feel energetic, the reality is that I am beginning to look, well,
Because I am a successful professional, I have the means to afford
elective surgery. And like Pandora’s box, once I opened the door to anti-
aging surgical possibilities, it seems almost impossible to close it again.
In 2002, more than 1.1 million Americans had Botox injections—
a procedure that erases wrinkles by paralyzing facial muscles. I find
myself asking: Why not me? Is it time to jump on the bandwagon?
In a competitive culture where looks count, is it almost impractical
not to?
What stops me? Perhaps it is queasiness about the surgeon’s scalpel.
Risks accompany any kind of surgery. Perhaps I find the idea of para-
lyzing my facial muscles somewhat repellent and a betrayal of the
emotions I have experienced—the joys and losses of a lifetime—that
are written in those crow’s-feet and worry lines. Perhaps it is my
earlier feminist fervor and idealism—a remnant of my youth that I
believe is worth preserving more than wrinkle-free skin.
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1014.The word adage (Passage 2, line 1) most nearly
1015.The argument of Passage 1 would be most
effectively strengthened by which of the following?
a.information about making plastic surgery
more affordable
b.anecdotes about incompetent plastic surgeons
c.facts to support the author’s claim that
health risks are low for cosmetic
d.a description of the author’s personal expe-
rience with patients
e.a description of the psychological benefits
of improved body image
1016.In the second paragraph of Passage 1 (lines
10–21), how would the author characterize the
motivation of cosmetic plastic surgeons?
1017.Which audience is the author of Passage 1
most likely addressing?
a.burn or accident victims
b.women with poor body image
c.plastic surgeons
d.healthcare providers
e.baby boomers
1018.In Passage 2, line 2 saturated most nearly
1019.The author of Passage 2 implies that feminists
of the 1970s held which of the following
a.All women should have the right to safe,
affordable cosmetic surgery.
b.Looks should not be a factor in determin-
ing a person’s worth.
c.Cosmetic surgery is a beneficial tool in that
it increases a woman’s self-esteem.
d.To be fair, men should be judged by their
looks, too.
e.Women should do whatever is necessary to
compete in the job market.
1020.Which aspect of the cosmetic plastic surgery
trend is emphasized in Passage 1, but not in
Passage 2?
a.professional envy among doctors
b.nonsurgical techniques like Botox injections
c.media’s role in promoting plastic surgery
d.surgical risks
e.cost of procedures
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1021.The two authors would most likely agree with
which statement?
a.Cosmetic surgery takes away individuality.
b.Ideals of beauty are not culturally
c.Plastic surgeons prey off of vulnerable
d.American society is highly competitive.
e.The benefits of plastic surgery outweigh the
1022.The approaches of the two passages to the
topic are the similar in that they both use
a.first-person experiences.
b.second-person address to the reader.
c.references to other sources on the subject.
d.a summary of types of plastic surgery.
e.statistics on patient satisfaction.
Once people wore garlic around their necks to ward off disease. Today,
most Americans would scoff at the idea of wearing a necklace of garlic
cloves to enhance their well-being. However, you might find a number
of Americans willing to ingest capsules of pulverized garlic or other
herbal supplements in the name of health.
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), which includes a
range of practices outside of conventional medicine such as herbs,
homeopathy, massage, yoga, and acupuncture, holds increasing
appeal for Americans. In fact, according to one estimate, 42% of
Americans have used alternative therapies. A Harvard Medical School
survey found that young adults (those born between 1965 and 1979)
are the most likely to use alternative treatments, whereas people born
before 1945 are the least likely to use these therapies. Nonetheless, in
all age groups, the use of unconventional healthcare practices has
steadily increased since the 1950s, and the trend is likely to continue.
CAM has become a big business as Americans dip into their wallets
to pay for alternative treatments. A 1997 American Medical Associa-
tion study estimated that the public spent $21.2 billion for alternative
medicine therapies in that year, more than half of which were out-
of-pocket expenditures, meaning they were not covered by health
insurance. Indeed, Americans made more out-of-pocket expendi-
tures for alternative services than out-of-pocket payments for hospi-
tal stays in 1997. In addition, the number of total visits to alternative
medicine providers (about 629 million) exceeded the tally of visits to
primary care physicians (386 million) in that year.
However, the public has not abandoned conventional medicine for
alternative healthcare. Most Americans seek out alternative therapies
Questions 1023–1032 are based on the following passage.
This passage describes the public’s growing interest in alternative medicine practices in twenty-first-century United
ETTM_06_293_428.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 1:57 PM Page 337
1023.The author’s primary purpose in the passage is to
a.confirm the safety and effectiveness of
alternative medicine approaches.
b.convey the excitement of crossing new
medical frontiers.
c.describe the recent increase in the use of
alternative therapies.
d.explore the variety of practices that fall into
the category of alternative medicine.
e.criticize the use of alternative therapies that
have not been scientifically tested.
1024.The author describes wearing garlic (line 1) as
an example of
a.an arcane practice considered odd and
superstitious today.
b.the ludicrous nature of complementary and
alternative medicine.
c.a scientifically tested medical practice.
d.a socially unacceptable style of jewelry.
e.a safe and reliable means to prevent some
forms of cancer.
as a complement to their conventional healthcare, whereas only a small
percentage of Americans rely primarily on alternative care. Why have
so many patients turned to alternative therapies? Frustrated by the
time constraints of managed care and alienated by conventional med-
icine’s focus on technology, some feel that a holistic approach to
healthcare better reflects their beliefs and values. Others seek thera-
pies that will relieve symptoms associated with chronic disease, symp-
toms that mainstream medicine cannot treat.
Some alternative therapies have crossed the line into mainstream
medicine as scientific investigation has confirmed their safety and effi-
cacy. For example, today physicians may prescribe acupuncture for
pain management or to control the nausea associated with chemother-
apy. Most U.S. medical schools teach courses in alternative therapies,
and many health insurance companies offer some alternative medicine
benefits. Yet, despite their gaining acceptance, the majority of alter-
native therapies have not been researched in controlled studies. New
research efforts aim at testing alternative methods and providing the
public with information about which are safe and effective and which
are a waste of money, or possibly dangerous.
So what about those who swear by the health benefits of the “smelly
rose,” garlic?
Observational studies that track disease incidence in different pop-
ulations suggest that garlic use in the diet may act as a cancer-fighting
agent, particularly for prostate and stomach cancer. However, these
findings have not been confirmed in clinical studies. And yes, reported
side effects include garlic odor.
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1025.The word conventional as it is used in line 7
most nearly means
1026.The author most likely uses the Harvard sur-
vey results (lines 10–13) to imply that
a.as people age they always become more
b.people born before 1945 view alternative
therapies with disdain.
c.the survey did not question baby boomers
(those born between 1945–1965) on the
d.many young adults are open-minded to
alternative therapies.
e.the use of alternative therapies will decline
as those born between 1965 and 1979 age.
1027.The statistic comparing total visits to alterna-
tive medicine practitioners with those to pri-
mary care physicians (lines 23–25) is used to
illustrate the
a.popularity of alternative medicine.
b.public’s distrust of conventional healthcare.
c.accessibility of alternative medicine.
d.affordability of alternative therapies.
e.ineffectiveness of most primary care physicians.
1028.In line 28, complement most nearly means
1029.The information in lines 30–35 indicates that
Americans believe that conventional healthcare
a.offers the best relief from the effects of
chronic diseases.
b.should not use technology in treating illness.
c.combines caring for the body with caring
for the spirit.
d.falls short of their expectations in some
e.needs a complete overhaul to become an
effective system.
1030.The author suggests that cross[ing] the line into
mainstream medicine (lines 36–37) involves
a.performing stringently controlled research
on alternative therapies.
b.accepting the spiritual dimension of pre-
venting and treating illness.
c.approving of any treatments that a patient
is interested in trying.
d.recognizing the popularity of alternative
e.notifying your physician about herbs or
alternative therapies you are using.
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1031.In lines 49–54, the author refers to garlic use
again in order to
a.cite an example of the fraudulent claims of
herbal supplements.
b.suggest that claims about some herbs may
be legitimate.
c.mock people who take garlic capsules.
d.offer a reason why some Americans are
drawn to alternative health methods.
e.argue that observational studies provide
enough evidence.
1032.Which of the following best describes the
approach of the passage?
a.matter-of-fact narration
b.historical analysis
c.sarcastic criticism
d.playful reporting
e.impassioned argument
Questions 1033–1040 are based on the following passage.
In this excerpt from John Steinbeck’s 1936 novel In Dubious Battle, Mac and Doc Burton discuss “the cause” that
leads hundreds of migratory farm workers to unite and strike against landowners.
Mac spoke softly, for the night seemed to be listening. “You’re a mystery
to me, too, Doc.”
“Me? A mystery?”
“Yes, you. You’re not a Party man, but you work with us all the time;
you never get anything for it. I don’t know whether you believe in what
we’re doing or not, you never say, you just work. I’ve been out with you
before, and I’m not sure you believe in the cause at all.”
Dr. Burton laughed softly. “It would be hard to say. I could tell you
some of the things I think; you might not like them. I’m pretty sure you
won’t like them.”
“Well, let’s hear them anyway.”
“Well, you say I don’t believe in the cause. That’s not like not believ-
ing in the moon. There’ve been communes before, and there will be
again. But you people have an idea that if you can establish the thing, the
job’ll be done. Nothing stops, Mac. If you were able to put an idea into
effect tomorrow, it would start changing right away. Establish a com-
mune, and the same gradual flux will continue.”
“Then you don’t think the cause is good?”
Burton sighed. “You see? We’re going to pile up on that old rock
again. That’s why I don’t like to talk very often. Listen to me, Mac. My
senses aren’t above reproach, but they’re all I have. I want to see the
whole picture—as nearly as I can. I don’t want to put on the blinders of
‘good’ and ‘bad,’ and limit my vision. If I used the term ‘good’ on a thing
I’d lose my license to inspect it, because there might be bad in it. Don’t
you see? I want to be able to look at the whole thing.”
Mac broke in heatedly, “How about social injustice? The profit sys-
tem? You have to say they’re bad.”
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1033.In lines 15–17, Doc Burton argues that
a.even if the cause succeeds, it won’t change
b.the cause is unstoppable.
c.the supporters of the cause should establish
a commune.
d.the cause itself is always changing.
e.change can only come about gradually.
1034.The cause the men refer to throughout the
passage is
Dr. Burton threw back his head and looked at the sky. “Mac,” he said.
“Look at the physiological injustice, the injustice of tetanus [ ... ],the
gangster methods of amoebic dysentery—that’s my field.”
“Revolution and communism will cure social injustice.”
“Yes, and disinfection and prophylaxis will prevent others.”
“It’s different, though; men are doing one, and germs are doing the
“I can’t see much difference, Mac.”
[ ... ] “Why do you hang around with us if you aren’t for us?”
“I want to see,” Burton said. “When you cut your finger, and strepto-
cocci get in the wound, there’s a swelling and a soreness. That swelling
is the fight your body puts up, the pain is the battle. You can’t tell which
one is going to win, but the wound is the first battleground. If the cells
lose the first fight the streptococci invade, and the fight goes on up the
arm. Mac, these little strikes are like the infection. Something has got
into the men; a little fever has started and the lymphatic glands are shoot-
ing in the reinforcements. I want to see, so I go to the seat of the wound.”
“You figure the strike is a wound?”
“Yes. Group-men are always getting some kind of infection. This
seems to be a bad one. I want to see, Mac. I want to watch these
group-men, for they seem to me to be a new individual, not at all
like single men. A man in a group isn’t himself at all, he’s a cell in
an organism that isn’t like him any more than the cells in your body
are like you. I want to watch the group, and see what it’s like. Peo-
ple have said, ‘mobs are crazy, you can’t tell what they’ll do.’ Why
don’t people look at mobs not as men, but as mobs? A mob nearly
always seems to act reasonably, for a mob.”
“Well, what’s this got to do with the cause?”
“It might be like this, Mac: When group-man wants to move, he makes
a standard. ‘God wills that we recapture the Holy Land’; or he says, ‘We
fight to make the world safe for democracy’; or he says, ‘We will wipe out
social injustice with communism.’ But the group doesn’t care about the
Holy Land, or Democracy, or Communism. Maybe the group simply
wants to move, to fight, and uses these words simply to reassure the brains
of individual men. I say it might be like that, Mac.”
“Not with the cause, it isn’t,” Mac cried.
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1035.Doc Burton is best described as
a.an objective observer.
b.a representative of the government.
c.a staunch supporter of the cause.
d.a visionary leader.
e.a reluctant participant.
1036.According to Doc Burton, the strikes are like
the infection (line 42) because
a.the strikes are life-threatening.
b.many of the strikers are ill.
c.the size of the group has swollen.
d.the strikes are a reaction to an injury.
e.the strikes are taking place on a
1037.By comparing group-men to a living organism
(lines 48–50), Doc Burton
a.reinforces his idea that individuals are lost
in the larger whole.
b.shows that group-men are constantly
changing and growing.
c.supports his assertion that the strikers are
like an infection.
d.explains why he is with the strikers.
e.reflects his opinion that the strikes’ success
depends on unity within the group.
1038.According to Doc Burton, the main difference
between group-men and the individual is that
a.individuals can be controlled but groups
b.individuals do not want to fight but groups
c.individuals may believe in a cause but
groups do not.
d.groups are often crazy but individuals are
e.people in groups can reassure one another.
1039.It can be inferred from this passage that Doc
Burton believes the cause
a.is just an excuse for fighting.
b.is reasonable.
c.will fail.
d.will correct social injustice.
e.will make America a more democratic
1040.Doc Burton repeats the word might in lines 56
and 62 because
a.he doesn’t believe Mac is sincere about the
b.he really wants Mac to consider the possi-
bility that the group is blind to the cause.
c.he is asking a rhetorical question.
d.he doesn’t want Mac to know the truth
about the cause.
e.he wants Mac to see that he isn’t really seri-
ous in his criticism of the cause.
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HIGGINS: If you’re going to be a lady, you’ll have to give up feeling
neglected if the men you know don’t spend half their time snivel-
ing over you and the other half giving you black eyes. If you can’t
stand the coldness of my sort of life, and the strain of it, go back to
the gutter. Work ’til you are more a brute than a human being; and
then cuddle and squabble and drink ’til you fall asleep. Oh, it’s a fine
life, the life of the gutter. It’s real: it’s warm: it’s violent: you can feel
it through the thickest skin: you can taste it and smell it without any
training or any work. Not like Science and Literature and Classi-
cal Music and Philosophy and Art. You find me cold, unfeeling, self-
ish, don’t you? Very well: be off with you to the sort of people you
like. Marry some sentimental hog or other with lots of money, and
a thick pair of lips to kiss you with and a thick pair of boots to kick
you with. If you can’t appreciate what you’ve got, you’d better get
what you can appreciate.
LIZA (desperate): Oh, you are a cruel tyrant. I can’t talk to you: you
turn everything against me: I’m always in the wrong. But you know
very well all the time that you’re nothing but a bully. You know I
can’t go back to the gutter, as you call it, and that I have no real
friends in the world but you and the Colonel. You know well I
couldn’t bear to live with a low common man after you two; and it’s
wicked and cruel of you to insult me by pretending I could. You
think I must go back to Wimpole Street because I have nowhere
else to go but father’s. But don’t you be too sure that you have me
under your feet to be trampled on and talked down. I’ll marry
Freddy, I will, as soon as he’s able to support me.
HIGGINS (sitting down beside her): Rubbish! You shall marry an
ambassador. You shall marry the Governor-General of India or the
Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, or somebody who wants a deputy-
queen. I’m not going to have my masterpiece thrown away on
LIZA: You think I like you to say that. But I haven’t forgot what you
said a minute ago; and I won’t be coaxed round as if I was a baby or
a puppy. If I can’t have kindness, I’ll have independence.
HIGGINS: Independence? That’s middle class blasphemy. We are all
dependent on one another, every soul of us on earth.
LIZA (rising determinedly): I’ll let you see whether I’m dependent on
you. If you can preach, I can teach. I’ll go and be a teacher.
HIGGINS: What’ll you teach, in heaven’s name?
LIZA: What you taught me. I’ll teach phonetics.
Questions 1041–1049 are based on the following passage.
This excerpt is from the final scene of George Bernard Shaw’s 1916 play Pygmalion, when Professor Higgins learns
just how well he taught Liza.
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1041.In lines 1–15, Higgins contrasts the life of the
gutter with his sort of life, which is best
described as
a.the life of an ambassador.
b.the life of the rich and famous.
c.the life of a tyrant.
d.the life of a scholar.
e.the life of the working class.
1042.Wimpole Street (line 23) is most likely
a.a fashionable area.
b.where Professor Nepean resides.
c.where Higgins teaches.
d.where Freddy lives.
e.where Liza grew up.
1043.Liza wants Higgins to
a.appreciate her work.
b.help her find a suitable husband.
c.marry her.
d.teach her everything he knows.
e.treat her with more respect.
1044.The word common in line 21 means
e.shared by two or more.
HIGGINS: Ha! ha! ha!
LIZA: I’ll offer myself as an assistant to Professor Nepean.
HIGGINS (rising in a fury): What! That impostor! that humbug! that
toadying ignoramus! Teach him my methods! my discoveries! You
take one step in his direction and I’ll wring your neck. (He lays hands
on her.) Do you hear?
LIZA (defiantly resistant): Wring away. What do I care? I knew you’d
strike me some day. (He lets her go, stamping with rage at having for-
gotten himself, and recoils so hastily that he stumbles back into his seat
on the ottoman.) Aha! Now I know how to deal with you. What a fool
I was not to think of it before! You can’t take away the knowledge
you gave me. You said I had a finer ear than you. And I can be civil
and kind to people, which is more than you can. Aha! That’s done
you, Henry Higgins, it has. Now I don’t care that (snapping her fin-
gers) for your bullying and your big talk. I’ll advertise it in the
papers that your duchess is only a flower girl that you taught, and
that she’ll teach anybody to be a duchess just the same in six months
for a thousand guineas. Oh, when I think of myself crawling under
your feet and being trampled on and called names, when all the
time I had only to lift up my finger to be as good as you, I could just
kick myself.
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1045.In lines 43–46, Higgins proves that
a.he is a bully.
b.Liza can’t teach with Professor Nepean.
c.Professor Nepean is a fake.
d.he and Liza depend upon each other.
e.he knows better than Liza.
1046.Higgins’ use of the word masterpiece in line 30
implies that
a.he is an artist.
b.he thinks Liza is very beautiful.
c.he thinks of Liza as his creation.
d.he is in love with Liza.
e.Liza is his servant.
1047.Which of the following best describes what
Higgins has taught Liza?
a.the history of the English language
b.how to speak and act like someone from
the upper class
c.how to be independent of others
d.how to understand literature and philosophy
e.how to appreciate scholarly work
1048.In lines 37–61, the main reason Higgins is so
upset is because
a.Liza threatens to teach his methods to others.
b.he realizes he has been a bad teacher.
c.he realizes he is as abusive as someone from
the gutter.
d.he realizes he cannot control Liza.
e.he realizes Liza does not love him anymore.
1049.The passage implies that Liza’s most signifi-
cant transformation in the play is from
a.lower class to upper class.
b.ignorant to educated.
c.oppressed to empowered.
d.single to married.
e.cold to compassionate.
Miss Temple, through all changes, had thus far continued superin-
tendent of the seminary; to her instruction I owed the best part of my
acquirements; her friendship and society had been my continual sol-
ace: she had stood me in the stead of mother, governess, and, latterly,
companion. At this period she married, removed with her husband (a
clergyman, an excellent man, almost worthy of such a wife) to a dis-
tant county, and consequently was lost to me.
From the day she left I was no longer the same: with her was gone
every settled feeling, every association that had made Lowood in some
degree a home to me. I had imbibed from her something of her nature
and much of her habits: more harmonious thoughts: what seemed
better-regulated feelings had become inmates of my mind. I had given
in allegiance to duty and order; I was quiet; I believed I was content: to
Questions 1050–1057 are based on the following passage.
In this excerpt from Charlotte Bronte’s novel Jane Eyre, the narrator decides to leave Lowood, the boarding school
where she has lived for eight years.
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the eyes of others, usually even to my own, I appeared a disciplined and
subdued character.
But destiny, in the shape of the Rev. Mr. Nasmyth, came between me
and Miss Temple: I saw her in her traveling dress step into a post-chaise,
shortly after the marriage ceremony; I watched the chaise mount the
hill and disappear beyond its brow; and then retired to my own room,
and there spent in solitude the greatest part of the half-holiday granted
in honor of the occasion.
I walked about the chamber most of the time. I imagined myself only
to be regretting my loss, and thinking how to repair it; but when my
reflections concluded, and I looked up and found that the afternoon was
gone, and evening far advanced, another discovery dawned on me,
namely, that in the interval I had undergone a transforming process;
that my mind had put off all it had borrowed of Miss Temple—or rather
that she had taken with her the serene atmosphere I had been breathing
in her vicinity—and that now I was left in my natural element, and
beginning to feel the stirring of old emotions. It did not seem as if a prop
were withdrawn, but rather as if a motive were gone; it was not the
power to be tranquil which had failed me, but the reason for tranquility
was no more. My world had for some years been in Lowood: my experi-
ence had been of its rules and systems; now I remembered that the real
world was wide, and that a varied field of hopes and fears, of sensations
and excitements, awaited those who had courage to go forth into its
expanse, to seek real knowledge of life amidst its perils.
I went to my window, opened it, and looked out. There were the two
wings of the building; there was the garden; there were the skirts of
Lowood; there was the hilly horizon. My eye passed all other objects to
rest on those most remote, the blue peaks: it was those I longed to sur-
mount; all within their boundary of rock and heath seemed prison-
ground, exile limits. I traced the white road winding round the base of
one mountain, and vanishing in a gorge between two: how I longed to
follow it further! I recalled the time when I had traveled that very road
in a coach; I remembered descending that hill at twilight: an age seemed
to have elapsed since the day which brought me first to Lowood, and I
had never quitted it since. My vacations had all been spent at school:
Mrs. Reed had never sent for me to Gateshead; neither she nor any of
her family had ever been to visit me. I had had no communication by
letter or message with the outer world: school-rules, school-duties,
school-habits and notions, and voices, and faces, and phrases, and cos-
tumes, and preferences, and antipathies: such was what I knew of exis-
tence. And now I felt that it was not enough: I tired of the routine of
eight years in one afternoon. I desired liberty; for liberty I gasped; for
liberty I uttered a prayer; it seemed scattered on the wind then faintly
blowing. I abandoned it and framed a humbler supplication; for
change, stimulus: that petition, too, seemed swept off into vague space:
“Then,” I cried, half desperate, “grant me at least a new servitude!”
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1050.Miss Temple was the narrator’s
d.teacher and friend.
e.all of the above
1051.While Miss Temple was at Lowood, the narrator
a.was calm and content.
b.was often alone.
c.had frequent disciplinary problems.
d.longed to leave Lowood.
e.felt as if she were in a prison.
1052.The word inmates in line 12 means
1053.Mrs. Reed (line 49) is most likely
a.the narrator’s mother.
b.the headmistress of Lowood.
c.the narrator’s former guardian.
d.the narrator’s friend.
e.a fellow student at Lowood.
1054.It can be inferred from the passage that life at
Lowood was
a.very unconventional and modern.
b.very structured and isolated.
c.harsh and demeaning.
d.liberal and carefree.
e.urban and sophisticated.
1055.After Miss Temple’s wedding, the narrator
a.realizes she wants to experience the world.
b.decides that she must get married.
c.realizes she can never leave Lowood.
d.decides to return to her family at
e.determines to follow Miss Temple.
1056.The passage suggests that the narrator
a.will soon return to Lowood.
b.was sent to Lowood by mistake.
c.is entirely dependent upon Miss Temple.
d.has run away from Lowood before.
e.is naturally curious and rebellious.
1057.In line 59, the narrator reduces her petition to simply a new servitude because she
a.doesn’t believe in prayer.
b.is not in a free country.
c.has been offered a position as a servant.
d.knows so little of the real world.
has been treated like a slave at Lowood.
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MRS. PETERS: Well, I must get these things wrapped up. They may
be through sooner than we think. (Putting apron and other things
together.) I wonder where I can find a piece of paper, and string.
MRS. HALE: In that cupboard, maybe.
MRS. PETERS (looking in cupboard): Why, here’s a birdcage. (Holds it
up.) Did she have a bird, Mrs. Hale?
MRS. HALE: Why, I don’t know whether she did or not—I’ve not
been here for so long. There was a man around last year selling
canaries cheap, but I don’t know as she took one; maybe she did.
She used to sing real pretty herself.
MRS. PETERS (glancing around): Seems funny to think of a bird here.
But she must have had one, or why would she have a cage? I won-
der what happened to it.
MRS. HALE: I s’pose maybe the cat got it.
MRS. PETERS: No, she didn’t have a cat. She’s got that feeling some
people have about cats—being afraid of them. My cat got in her
room and she was real upset and asked me to take it out.
MRS. HALE: My sister Bessie was like that. Queer, ain’t it?
MRS. PETERS (examining the cage): Why, look at this door. It’s broke.
One hinge is pulled apart.
MRS. HALE (looking too): Looks as if someone must have been rough
with it.
MRS. PETERS: Why, yes.
(She brings the cage forward and puts it on the table.)
MRS. HALE: I wish if they’re going to find any evidence they’d be
about it. I don’t like this place.
MRS. PETERS: But I’m awful glad you came with me, Mrs. Hale. It
would be lonesome for me sitting here alone.
MRS. HALE: It would, wouldn’t it? (Dropping her sewing.) But I tell
you what I do wish, Mrs. Peters. I wish I had come over sometimes
when she was here. I—(looking around the room)—wish I had.
MRS. PETERS: But of course you were awful busy, Mrs. Hale—your
house and your children.
MRS. HALE: I could’ve come. I stayed away because it weren’t cheerful—
and that’s why I ought to have come. I—I’ve never liked this
place. Maybe because it’s down in a hollow and you don’t see the
road. I dunno what it is but it’s a lonesome place and always was.
I wish I had come over to see Minnie Foster sometimes. I can see
(Shakes her head.)
Questions 1058–1065 are based on the following passage.
In this excerpt from Susan Glaspell’s one-act play Trifles, Mrs. Hale and Mrs. Peters make an important discovery in
Mrs. Wright’s home as their husbands try to determine who strangled Mr. Wright.
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MRS. PETERS: Well, you mustn’t reproach yourself, Mrs. Hale.
Somehow we just don’t see how it is with other folks until—some-
thing comes up.
MRS. HALE: Not having children makes less work—but it makes a
quiet house, and Wright out to work all day, and no company when
he did come in. Did you know John Wright, Mrs. Peters?
MRS. PETERS: Not to know him; I’ve seen him in town. They say
he was a good man.
MRS. HALE: Yes—good; he didn’t drink, and kept his word as well as
most, I guess, and paid his debts. But he was a hard man, Mrs. Peters.
Just to pass the time of day with him—(shivers). Like a raw wind that
gets to the bone. (Pauses, her eye falling on the cage.) I should think
she would’a wanted a bird. But what do you suppose went with it?
MRS. PETERS: I don’t know, unless it got sick and died.
(She reaches over and swings the broken door, swings it again. Both women
watch it.)
MRS. HALE: You weren’t raised round here, were you? (MRS. PETERS
shakes her head.) You didn’t know—her?
MRS. PETERS: Not till they brought her yesterday.
MRS. HALE: She—come to think of it, she was kind of like a bird her-
self—real sweet and pretty, but kind of timid and—fluttery. How—
she—did—change. (Silence; then as if struck by a happy thought and
relieved to get back to everyday things.) Tell you what, Mrs. Peters, why
don’t you take the quilt in with you? It might take up her mind.
MRS. PETERS: Why, I think that’s a real nice idea, Mrs. Hale. There
couldn’t possibly be any objection to it, could there? Now, just what
would I take? I wonder if her patches are in here—and her things.
(They look in the sewing basket.)
MRS. HALE: Here’s some red. I expect this has got sewing things in it.
(Brings out a fancy box.) What a pretty box. Looks like something
somebody would give you. Maybe her scissors are in here. (Opens
box. Suddenly puts her hand to her nose.) Why—(MRS. PETERS
bends nearer, then turns her face away.) There’s something wrapped
in this piece of silk.
MRS. PETERS (lifting the silk): Why, this isn’t her scissors.
MRS. HALE (lifting the silk): Oh, Mrs. Peters—it’s—
(MRS. PETERS bends closer.)
MRS. PETERS: It’s the bird.
MRS. HALE (jumping up): But, Mrs. Peters—look at it! Its neck! Look at
its neck! It’s all—to the other side.
MRS. PETERS: Somebody—wrung—its—neck.
(Their eyes meet. A look of growing comprehension, of horror. Steps are
heard outside.MRS. HALE slips box under quilt pieces, and sinks into
PETERS rises.)
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1058.Based on the passage, the reader can conclude
a.Mrs. Peters and Mrs. Hale are old friends.
b.Mrs. Peters and Mrs. Hale both know Mrs. Wright very well.
c.Mrs. Peters and Mrs. Hale don’t know each
other very well.
d.Neither Mrs. Peters nor Mrs. Hale likes
Mrs. Wright.
e.Neither Mrs. Peters nor Mrs. Hale has children.
1059.Mrs. Hale says she wishes she had come to Mrs.
Wright’s house (lines 30–31 and 37–39) because
a.she realizes that Mrs. Wright must have
been lonely.
b.she enjoyed Mr. Wright’s company.
c.she always felt at home in the Wrights’ house.
d.she realizes how important it is to keep
good relationships with one’s neighbors.
e.she had a lot in common with Mrs. Wright.
1060.According to Mrs. Hale, what sort of man was
Mr. Wright?
a.gentle and loving
b.violent and abusive
c.honest and dependable
d.quiet and cold
e.a strict disciplinarian
1061.In lines 60–62, Mrs. Hale suggests that Mrs.
a.had become even more like a bird than
b.had grown bitter and unhappy over the
c.was too shy to maintain an intimate friendship.
d.must have taken excellent care of her bird.
e.was always singing and flitting about.
1062.The phrase take up her mind in line 64 means
a.worry her.
b.make her angry.
c.refresh her memory.
d.keep her busy.
e.make her think.
1063.It can be inferred that Mrs. Wright
a.got the bird as a present for her husband.
b.was forced into marrying Mr. Wright.
c.loved the bird because it reminded her of
how she used to be.
d.had a pet bird as a little girl.
e.fought often with Mr. Wright.
1064.When the women share a look of growing com-
prehension, of horror (line 82), they realize that
a.Mrs. Wright killed the bird.
b.Mr. Wright killed the bird, and Mrs. Wright
killed him.
c.they would get in trouble if the sheriff
found out they were looking around in the
d.there’s a secret message hidden in the quilt.
e.they might be Mrs. Wright’s next victims.
1065.The stage directions in lines 83–84 suggest
a.the women are mistaken in their conclusion.
b.the women will tell the men what they
c.the women will confront Mrs. Wright.
d.the women will keep their discovery a
e.the men had been eavesdropping on the
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Passage 1
I see by your eagerness, and the wonder and hope which your eyes
express, my friend, that you expect to be informed of the secret with
which I am acquainted; that cannot be: listen patiently until the end
of my story, and you will easily perceive why I am reserved upon that
subject. I will not lead you on, unguarded and ardent as I then was, to
your destruction and infallible misery. Learn from me, if not by my
precepts, at least by my example, how dangerous is the acquirement of
knowledge, and how much happier that man is who believes his native
town to be the world, than he who aspires to become greater than his
nature will allow.
When I found so astonishing a power placed within my hands, I
hesitated a long time concerning the manner in which I should employ
it. Although I possessed the capacity of bestowing animation, yet to
prepare a frame for the reception of it, with all its intricacies of fibers,
muscles, and veins, still remained a work of inconceivable difficulty
and labour. I doubted at first whether I should attempt the creation of
a being like myself, or one of simpler organization; but my imagina-
tion was too much exalted by my first success to permit me to doubt
of my ability to give life to an animal as complex and wonderful as
man. The materials at present within my command hardly appeared
adequate to so arduous an undertaking; but I doubted not that I should
ultimately succeed. I prepared myself for a multitude of reverses; my
operations might be incessantly baffled, and at last my work be imper-
fect: yet, when I considered the improvement which every day takes
place in science and mechanics, I was encouraged to hope my present
attempts would at least lay the foundations of future success. Nor
could I consider the magnitude and complexity of my plan as any
argument of its impracticability. It was with these feelings that I began
the creation of my human being. As the minuteness of the parts
formed a great hindrance to my speed, I resolved, contrary to my first
intention, to make the being of a gigantic stature; that is to say, about
eight feet in height, and proportionably large. After having formed
this determination, and having spent some months in successfully col-
lecting and arranging my materials, I began.
No one can conceive the variety of feelings which bore me onwards,
like a hurricane, in the first enthusiasm of success. Life and death
appeared to me ideal bounds, which I should first break through, and
pour a torrent of light into our dark world. A new species would bless
Questions 1066–1072 are based on the following passages.
In Passage 1, an excerpt from Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein, Victor Frankenstein explains his motive for creating his
creature. In Passage 2, an excerpt from H.G. Wells’ 1896 novel The Island of Dr. Moreau, Dr. Moreau explains to
the narrator why he has been performing experiments on animals to transform them into humans.
ETTM_06_293_428.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 1:57 PM Page 351
me as its creator and source; many happy and excellent natures would
owe their being to me. No father could claim the gratitude of his child
so completely as I should deserve theirs. Pursuing these reflections, I
thought, that if I could bestow animation upon lifeless matter, I might
in process of time (although I now found it impossible) renew life
where death had apparently devoted the body to corruption.
These thoughts supported my spirits, while I pursued my under-
taking with unremitting ardour. My cheek had grown pale with study,
and my person had become emaciated with confinement. Sometimes,
on the very brink of certainty, I failed; yet still I clung to the hope
which the next day or the next hour might realize. One secret which
I alone possessed was the hope to which I had dedicated myself; and
the moon gazed on my midnight labors, while, with unrelaxed and
breathless eagerness, I pursued nature to her hiding-places. Who shall
conceive the horrors of my secret toil, as I dabbled among the unhal-
lowed damps of the grave, or tortured the living animal to animate the
lifeless clay? My limbs now tremble, and my eyes swim with the
remembrance; but then a resistless, and almost frantic, impulse urged
me forward; I seemed to have lost all soul or sensation but for this one
Passage 2
“Yes. These creatures you have seen are animals carven and wrought
into new shapes. To that—to the study of the plasticity of living
forms—my life has been devoted. I have studied for years, gaining in
knowledge as I go. I see you look horrified, and yet I am telling you
nothing new. It all lay in the surface of practical anatomy years ago,
but no one had the temerity to touch it. It’s not simply the outward
form of an animal I can change. The physiology, the chemical rhythm
of the creature, may also be made to undergo an enduring modifica-
tion, of which vaccination and other methods of inoculation with liv-
ing or dead matter are examples that will, no doubt, be familiar to you.
“A similar operation is the transfusion of blood, with which subject
indeed I began. These are all familiar cases. Less so, and probably far
more extensive, were the operations of those medieval practitioners who
made dwarfs and beggar cripples and show-monsters; some vestiges of
whose art still remain in the preliminary manipulation of the young
mountebank or contortionist. Victor Hugo gives an account of them in
L’Homme qui Rit. ... But perhaps my meaning grows plain now. You
begin to see that it is a possible thing to transplant tissue from one part
of an animal to another, or from one animal to another, to alter its
chemical reactions and methods of growth, to modify the articulations
of its limbs, and indeed to change it in its most intimate structure?
“And yet this extraordinary branch of knowledge has never been
sought as an end, and systematically, by modern investigators, until I
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took it up! Some such things have been hit upon in the last resort of
surgery; most of the kindred evidence that will recur to your mind has
been demonstrated, as it were, by accident—by tyrants, by criminals,
by the breeders of horses and dogs, by all kinds of untrained clumsy-
handed men working for their own immediate ends. I was the first
man to take up this question armed with antiseptic surgery, and with
a really scientific knowledge of the laws of growth.
“Yet one would imagine it must have been practiced in secret before.
Such creatures as Siamese Twins ... . And in the vaults of the Inquisi-
tion. No doubt their chief aim was artistic torture, but some, at least,
of the inquisitors must have had a touch of scientific curiosity ... .”
“But,” said I. “These things—these animals talk!”
He said that was so, and proceeded to point out that the possibili-
ties of vivisection do not stop at a mere physical metamorphosis. A pig
may be educated. The mental structure is even less determinate than
the bodily. In our growing science of hypnotism we find the promise
of a possibility of replacing old inherent instincts by new suggestions,
grafting upon or replacing the inherited fixed ideas. [ ... ]
But I asked him why he had taken the human form as a model.
There seemed to me then, and there still seems to me now, a strange
wickedness in that choice.
He confessed that he had chosen that form by chance.
“I might just as well have worked to form sheep into llamas, and
llamas into sheep. I suppose there is something in the human form
that appeals to the artistic turn of mind more powerfully than any ani-
mal shape can. But I’ve not confined myself to man-making. Once or
twice ... .” He was silent, for a minute perhaps. “These years! How
they have slipped by! And here I have wasted a day saving your life,
and am now wasting an hour explaining myself!”
“But,” said I, “I still do not understand. Where is your justification
for inflicting all this pain? The only thing that could excuse vivisection
to me would be some application—”
“Precisely,” said he. “But you see I am differently constituted. We
are on different platforms. You are a materialist.”
“I am not a materialist,” I began hotly.
“In my view—in my view. For it is just this question of pain that
parts us. So long as visible or audible pain turns you sick, so long as
your own pain drives you, so long as pain underlies your propositions
about sin, so long, I tell you, you are an animal, thinking a little less
obscurely what an animal feels. This pain—”
I gave an impatient shrug at such sophistry.
“Oh! But it is such a little thing. A mind truly open to what science
has to teach must see that it is a little thing.”
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1066.In the first paragraph of Passage 1 (lines
1–10), Frankenstein reveals that the purpose
of his tale is to
a.entertain the reader.
b.explain a scientific principle.
c.teach a moral lesson.
d.share the secret of his research.
c.reveal his true nature.
1067.The word baffled in line 23 means
1068.During the creation process, Frankenstein
could best be described as
1069.From Passage 2, it can be inferred that Dr. Moreau is what sort of scientist?
b.calculating and systematic
c.careless, haphazard
d.famous, renowned
1070.These things that the narrator refers to in Passage 2, line 35, are
a.Siamese twins.
d.creatures Moreau created.
e.tyrants and criminals.
1071.From the passage, it can be inferred that Dr. Moreau
a.does not inflict pain upon animals when he
experiments on them.
b.has caused great pain to the creatures he
has experimented on.
c.is unable to experience physical pain.
d.is searching for a way to eliminate physical
e.has learned to feel what an animal feels.
1072.Based on the information in the passages, Dr. Moreau is like Victor Frankenstein in that
he also
a.used dead bodies in his experiments.
b.wanted his creations to worship him.
c.made remarkable discoveries.
d.kept his experiment a secret from everyone.
e.had a specific justification for his pursuit of knowledge.
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1073.The swing style can be most accurately charac-
terized as
a.complex and inaccessible.
b.appealing to an elite audience.
c.lively and melodic.
d.lacking in improvisation.
e.played in small groups.
1074.According to the passage, in the 1940s you
would most likely find bebop being played
b.a large concert hall
c.music schools
d.small clubs
Jazz, from its early roots in slave spirituals and the marching bands of
New Orleans, had developed into the predominant American musical
style by the 1930s. In this era, jazz musicians played a lush, orches-
trated style known as swing. Played in large ensembles, also called big
bands, swing filled the dance halls and nightclubs. Jazz, once consid-
ered risqué, was made more accessible to the masses with the vibrant,
swinging sounds of these big bands. Then came bebop. In the mid-
1940s, jazz musicians strayed from the swing style and developed a
more improvisational method of playing known as bebop. Jazz was
transformed from popular music to an elite art form.
The soloists in the big bands improvised from the melody. The young
musicians who ushered in bebop, notably trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie and
saxophonist Charlie Parker, expanded on the improvisational elements
of the big bands. They played with advanced harmonies, changed chord
structures, and made chord substitutions. These young musicians got
their starts with the leading big bands of the day, but during World War
II—as older musicians were drafted and dance halls made cutbacks—
they started to play together in smaller groups.
These pared-down bands helped foster the bebop style. Rhythm is
the distinguishing feature of bebop, and in small groups the drums
became more prominent. Setting a driving beat, the drummer inter-
acted with the bass, piano, and the soloists, and together the musicians
created fast, complex melodies. Jazz aficionados flocked to such clubs as
Minton’s Playhouse in Harlem to soak in the new style. For the young
musicians and their fans this was a thrilling turning point in jazz history.
However, for the majority of Americans, who just wanted some swing-
ing music to dance to, the advent of bebop was the end of jazz as main-
stream music.
Questions 1073–1077 are based on the following passage.
The following passage describes the transition from the swing era to bebop in the history of jazz music.
ETTM_06_293_428.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 1:57 PM Page 355
1075.According to the passage, one of the most
significant innovations of the bebop musi-
cians was
a.to shun older musicians.
b.to emphasize rhythm.
c.to use melodic improvisation.
d.to play in small clubs.
e.to ban dancing.
1076.In the context of this passage, aficionados
(line 23) can most accurately be described as
a.fans of bebop.
b.residents of Harlem.
c.innovative musicians.
d.awkward dancers.
e.fickle audience members.
1077.The main purpose of the passage is to
a.mourn the passing of an era.
b.condemn bebop for making jazz inaccessible.
c.explain the development of the bebop style.
d.celebrate the end of the conventional swing
style of jazz.
e.instruct in the method of playing bebop.
The late 1980s found the landscape of popular music in America
dominated by a distinctive style of rock and roll known as glam rock
or hair metal—so called because of the overstyled hair, makeup, and
wardrobes worn by the genre’s ostentatious rockers. Bands like Poi-
son, White Snake, and Mötley Crüe popularized glam rock with their
power ballads and flashy style, but the product had worn thin by the
early 1990s. The mainstream public, tired of an act they perceived as
symbolic of the superficial 1980s, was ready for something with a bit
of substance.
In 1991, a Seattle-based band named Nirvana shocked the corporate
music industry with the release of its debut single, “Smells Like Teen
Spirit,” which quickly became a huge hit all over the world. Nirvana’s
distorted, guitar-laden sound and thought-provoking lyrics were the
antithesis of glam rock, and the youth of America were quick to pledge
their allegiance to the brand-new movement known as grunge.
Grunge actually got its start in the Pacific Northwest during the mid
1980s, the offspring of the metal-guitar-driven rock of the 1970s and
the hardcore, punk music of the early 1980s. Nirvana had simply
brought into the mainstream a sound and culture that had gotten its
start years before with bands like Mudhoney, Soundgarden, and Green
River. Grunge rockers derived their fashion sense from the youth cul-
Questions 1078–1083 are based on the following passage.
This passage details the rise and fall of the Seattle grunge-music sound in American pop culture of the 1990s.
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ture of the Pacific Northwest: a melding of punk rock style and out-
doors clothing like flannels, heavy boots, worn-out jeans, and cor-
duroys. At the height of the movement’s popularity, when other Seattle
bands like Pearl Jam and Alice in Chains were all the rage, the trap-
pings of grunge were working their way to the height of American
fashion. Like the music, teenagers were fast to embrace the grunge
fashion because it represented defiance against corporate America and
shallow pop culture.
Many assume that grunge got its name from the unkempt appear-
ance of its musicians and their dirty, often distorted guitar sounds.
However, rock writers and critics have used the word grunge since the
1970s. While no one can say for sure who was the first to characterize
a Seattle band as “grunge,” the most popular theory is that it originated
with the lead singer of Mudhoney, Mark Arm. In a practical joke
against a local music magazine, he placed advertisements all over Seat-
tle for a band that did not exist. He then wrote a letter to the magazine
complaining about the quality of the fake band’s music. The magazine
published his critique, one part of which stated, “I hate Mr. Epp and
the Calculations! Pure grunge!” The popularity of grunge music was ephemeral; by the mid to late
1990s its influence on American culture had all but disappeared, and
most of its recognizable bands were nowhere to be seen on the charts.
The heavy sound and themes of grunge were replaced on the radio
waves by bands like ’N Sync, the Backstreet Boys, and the bubblegum
pop of Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera.
There are many reasons why the Seattle sound faded out of the
mainstream as quickly as it rocketed to prominence, but the most
glaring reason lies at the defiant, anti-establishment heart of the
grunge movement itself. It is very hard to buck the trend when you are
the one setting it, and many of the grunge bands were never comfort-
able with the celebrity that was thrust upon them. One the most suc-
cessful Seattle groups of the 1990s, Pearl Jam, filmed only one music
video, and refused to play large venues. Ultimately, the simple fact that
many grunge bands were so against mainstream rock stardom even-
tually took the movement back to where it started: underground. The
American mainstream public, as quick as they were to hop onto the
grunge bandwagon, were just as quick to hop off, and move on to
something else.
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1078.The author’s description of glam rockers (lines 2–7) indicates that they
a.cared more about the quality of their music
than money.
b.were mainly style over substance.
c.were unassuming and humble.
d.were songwriters first, and performers second.
e.were innovators in rock and roll.
1079.The word ostentatious in line 4 most nearly
1080.In lines 25–26, the phrase the trappings of
grunge refers to
a.the distorted sound of grunge music.
b.what the grunge movement symbolized.
c.the unattractiveness of grunge fashion.
d.the clothing typical of the grunge move-
e.the popularity of grunge music.
1081.Which of the following is NOT associated
with the grunge movement?
a.Mr. Epps and the Calculations
b.Pearl Jam
d.Green River
e.White Snake
1082.Which of the following words best describes
the relationship between grunge music and its
mainstream popularity?
1083.In line 41, the word ephemeral most nearly
c.a fluke.
Passage 1
There is little information available about the legendary blues guitarist
Robert Johnson, and the information that is available is as much
rumor as fact. What is indisputable, however, is Johnson’s impact on
the world of rock and roll. Some consider Johnson the father of mod-
ern rock; his influence extends to artists from Muddy Waters to Led
Zeppelin, from the Rolling Stones to the Allman Brothers Band. Eric
Clapton, arguably the greatest living rock guitarist, has said that
“Robert Johnson to me is the most important blues musician who
Questions 1084–1092 are based on the following passages.
In Passage 1, the author describes the life and influence of blues guitarist Robert Johnson. In Passage 2, the author
provides a brief history of the blues.
ETTM_06_293_428.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 1:57 PM Page 358
ever lived. ... I have never found anything more deeply soulful than
Robert Johnson.” While the impact of Johnson’s music is evident, the
genesis of his remarkable talent remains shrouded in mystery.
For Johnson, born in 1911 in Hazelhurst, Mississippi, music was a
means of escape from working in the cotton fields. As a boy he worked
on the farm that belonged to Noel Johnson—the man rumored to be
his father. He married young, at age 17, and lost his wife a year later
in childbirth. That’s when Johnson began traveling and playing the
Initially Johnson played the harmonica. Later, he began playing the
guitar, but apparently he was not very good. He wanted to learn, how-
ever, so he spent his time in blues bars watching the local blues legends
Son House and Willie Brown. During their breaks, Johnson would go
up on stage and play. House reportedly thought Johnson was so bad
that he repeatedly told Johnson to get lost. Finally, one day, he did. For
six months, Johnson mysteriously disappeared. No one knew what
happened to him.
When Johnson returned half a year later, he was suddenly a first-
rate guitarist. He began drawing crowds everywhere he played. John-
son never revealed where he had been and what he had done in those
six months that he was gone. People had difficulty understanding how
he had become so good in such a short time. Was it genius? Magic?
Soon, rumors began circulating that he had made a deal with the devil.
Legend has it that Johnson met the devil at midnight at a crossroads
and sold his soul to the devil so he could play guitar.
Johnson recorded only 29 songs before his death in 1938, purport-
edly at the hands of a jealous husband. He was only 27 years old, yet
he left an indelible mark on the music world. There are countless ver-
sions of “Walkin’ Blues,” and his song “Cross Road Blues” (later reti-
tled “Crossroads”) has been recorded by dozens of artists, with
Cream’s 1969 version of “Crossroads” being perhaps the best-known
Johnson remake. Again and again, contemporary artists return to
Johnson, whose songs capture the very essence of the blues, trans-
forming our pain and suffering with the healing magic of his guitar.
Passage 2
There are more than 50 types of blues music, from the famous
Chicago and Memphis blues to the less familiar juke joint and
acoustic country blues. This rich variety comes as no surprise to
those who recognize the blues as a fundamental American art form.
Indeed, in its resolution to name 2003 the Year of the Blues, the
107th U.S. Congress declared that the blues is “the most influential
form of American roots music.” In fact, the two most popular Amer-
ETTM_06_293_428.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 1:57 PM Page 359
ican musical forms—rock and roll and jazz—owe their genesis in
large part (some would argue entirely) to the blues.
The blues—a neologism attributed to the American writer Washing-
ton Irving (author of The Legend of Sleepy Hollow) in 1807—evolved
from black American folk music. Its beginnings can be traced to songs
sung in the fields and around slave quarters on Southern plantations,
songs of pain and suffering, of injustice, of longing for a better life. A
fundamental principle of the blues, however, is that the music be
cathartic. Listening to the blues will drive the blues away; it is music
that has the power to overcome sadness. Thus “the blues” is something
of a misnomer, for the music is moving but not melancholy; it is, in
fact, music born of hope, not despair.
The blues began to take shape as a musical movement in the years
after emancipation, around the turn of the century when blacks were
technically free but still suffered from social and economic discrimi-
nation. Its poetic and musical forms were popularized by W.C.
Handy just after the turn of the century. Handy, a classical guitarist
who reportedly heard the blues for the first time in a Mississippi
train station, was the first to officially compose and distribute blues
music throughout the United States, although its popularity was
chiefly among blacks in the South. The movement coalesced in the
late 1920s and indeed became a national craze, with records by blues
singers such as Bessie Smith selling in the millions.
The 1930s and 1940s saw a continued growth in the popularity of
the blues as many blacks migrated north and the blues and jazz
forms continued to develop, diversify, and influence each other. It
was at this time that Son House, Willie Brown, and Robert Johnson
played, while the next decade saw the emergence of the blues greats
Muddy Waters, Willie Dixon, and Johnny Lee Hooker.
After rock and roll exploded on the music scene in the 1950s, many
rock artists began covering blues songs, thus bringing the blues to a
young white audience and giving it true national and international
exposure. In the early 1960s, the Rolling Stones, Yardbirds, Cream, and
others remade blues songs such as Robert Johnson’s “Crossroads” and
Big Joe Williams’ “Baby Please Don’t Go” to wide popularity. People all
across America—black and white, young and old—listened to songs
with lyrics that were intensely honest and personal, songs that told
about any number of things that give us the blues: loneliness, betrayal,
unrequited love, a run of bad luck, being out of work or away from
home or broke or brokenhearted. It was a music perfectly suited for a
nation on the brink of the Civil Rights movement—a kind of music
that had the power to cross boundaries, to heal wounds, and to offer
hope to a new generation of Americans.
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1084.In Passage 1, the author’s main goal is to
a.solve the mystery of the genesis of Johnson’s talent.
b.provide a detailed description of Johnson’s
music and style.
c.provide a brief overview of Johnson’s life
and influence.
d.prove that Johnson should be recognized as
the greatest blues musician who ever lived.
e.explain how Johnson’s music impacted the
world of rock and roll.
1085.The information provided in the passage sug-
gests that Johnson
a.really did make a deal with the devil.
b.was determined to become a great guitarist,
whatever the cost.
c.wasn’t as talented as we have been led to
d.disappeared because he had a breakdown.
e.owes his success to Son House and Willie
1086.The word neologismin Passage 2, line 10,
a.a new word or use of a word.
b.a grassroots musical form.
c.a fictional character or fictitious setting.
d.the origin or source of something.
e.the evolution of a person, place, or thing.
1087.In Passage 2, the sentence People all across
America—black and white, young and old—
listened to songs with lyrics that were intensely
honest and personal, songs that told about any
number of things that give us the blues: loneli-
ness, betrayal, unrequited love, a run of bad
luck, being out of work or away from home or
broke or brokenhearted (lines 42–47), the
author is
a.defining blues music.
b.identifying the origin of the blues.
c.describing the lyrics of a famous blues
d.explaining why blues remakes were so popular.
e.making a connection between the blues
and the Civil Rights movement.
1088.In the last paragraph of Passage 2 (lines
37–50), the author suggests that
a.the blues should be recognized as a more
important and complex musical form than
rock and roll.
b.the golden age of rock and roll owes much
to the popularity of blues cover songs.
c.music has always been a means for people
to deal with intense emotions and difficulties.
d.a shared interest in the blues may have
helped blacks and whites better understand
each other and ease racial tensions.
e.the rock-and-roll versions of blues songs
were better than the originals.
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1089.Both authors would agree on all of the follow-
ing points EXCEPT
a.listening to the blues is cathartic.
b.Robert Johnson is the best blues guitarist
from the 1930s and 1940s.
c.the blues are an important part of Ameri-
can history.
d.“Crossroads” is one of the best-known
blues songs.
e.blues music is deeply emotional.
1090.The passages differ in tone and style in that
a.Passage 1 is intended for a general audience
while Passage 2 is intended for readers with
a musical background.
b.Passage 1 is far more argumentative than
Passage 2.
c.Passage 1 is often speculative while Passage
2 is factual and assertive.
d.Passage 1 is more formal than Passage 2,
which is quite casual.
e.Passage 1 is straightforward while Passage 2
often digresses from the main point.
1091.Which of the following best describes the rela-
tionship between these two passages?
1092.Which of the following sentences from Passage 2 could most effectively be added to
Passage 1?
a.In fact, the two most popular American
musical forms—rock and roll and jazz—owe
their genesis in large part (some would argue
entirely) to the blues.(lines 7–9)
b.A fundamental principle of the blues, however, is that the music be cathartic. (lines 14–16)
c.Thus “the blues” is something of a misnomer,
for the music is moving but not melancholy;
it is, in fact, music born of hope, not despair.
(lines 17–19)
d.It was at this time that Son House, Willie
Brown, and Robert Johnson played, while the
next decade saw the emergence of the blues
greats Muddy Waters, Willie Dixon, and
Johnny Lee Hooker. (lines 33–36)
e.After rock and roll exploded on the music
scene in the 1950s, many rock artists began
covering blues songs, thus bringing the blues
to a young white audience and giving it true
national and international exposure. (lines
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The composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s remarkable musical tal-
ent was apparent even before most children can sing a simple nursery
rhyme. Wolfgang’s older sister Maria Anna, whom the family called
Nannerl, was learning the clavier, an early keyboard instrument,
when her three-year-old brother took an interest in playing. As Nan-
nerl later recalled, Wolfgang “often spent much time at the clavier,
picking out thirds, which he was always striking, and his pleasure
showed that it sounded good.” Their father Leopold, an assistant con-
certmaster at the Salzburg Court, recognized his children’s unique
gifts and soon devoted himself to their musical education.
Born in Salzburg, Austria, on January 27, 1756, Wolfgang was five
when he learned his first musical composition—in less than half an
hour. He quickly learned other pieces, and by age five had composed
his first original work. Leopold settled on a plan to take Nannerl and
Wolfgang on tour to play before the European courts. Their first ven-
ture was to nearby Munich, where the children played for Maximillian
III Joseph, elector of Bavaria. Leopold soon set his sights on the cap-
ital of the Hapsburg Empire, Vienna. On their way to Vienna, the fam-
ily stopped in Linz, where Wolfgang gave his first public concert. By
this time, Wolfgang not only was a virtuoso harpsichord player but
had also mastered the violin. The audience at Linz was stunned by the
six-year-old, and word of his genius soon traveled to Vienna. In a
much-anticipated concert, the children appeared at the Schönbrunn
Palace on October 13, 1762. They utterly charmed the emperor and
Following this success, Leopold was inundated with invitations for
the children to play for a fee. Leopold seized the opportunity and
booked as many concerts as possible at courts throughout Europe.
After the children performed at the major court in a region, other
nobles competed to have the “miracle children of Salzburg” play pri-
vate concerts in their homes. A concert could last three hours, and the
children played at least two concerts a day. Today, Leopold might be
considered the worst kind of stage parent, but at the time it was not
uncommon for prodigies to make extensive concert tours. Even so, it
was an exhausting schedule for a child who was just past the age of
needing an afternoon nap.
Wolfgang fell ill on tour, and when the family returned to Salzburg
on January 5, 1763, Wolfgang spent his first week at home in bed with
acute rheumatoid arthritis. In June, Leopold accepted an invitation for
the children to play at Versailles, the lavish palace built by King Louis
XIV of France. Wolfgang did not see his home in Salzburg for another
Questions 1093–1101 are based on the following passage.
This passage describes the formative experiences of the composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
ETTM_06_293_428.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 1:57 PM Page 363
1093.The primary purpose of the passage is to
a.illustrate the early career and formative
experiences of a musical prodigy.
b.describe the classical music scene in the
eighteenth century.
c.uncover the source of Wolfgang Amadeus
Mozart’s musical genius.
d.prove the importance of starting a musical
instrument at an early age.
e.denounce Leopold Mozart for exploiting
his children’s talent.
1094.According to the passage, Wolfgang became
interested in music because
a.his father thought it would be profitable.
b.he had a natural talent.
c.he saw his sister learning to play.
d.he came from a musical family.
e.he wanted to go on tour.
1095.What was the consequence of Wolfgang’s first
public appearance?
a.He charmed the emperor and empress of
b.Leopold set his sights on Vienna.
c.Word of Wolfgang’s genius spread to the
d.He mastered the violin.
e.Invitations for the “miracle children” to
play poured in.
1096.The author’s attitude toward Leopold Mozart
can best be characterized as
a.vehement condemnation.
b.mild disapproval.
c.glowing admiration.
e.veiled disgust.
three years. When they weren’t performing, the Mozart children were
likely to be found bumping along the rutted roads in an unheated car-
riage. Wolfgang passed the long uncomfortable hours in the imaginary
Kingdom of Back, of which he was king. He became so engrossed in
the intricacies of his make-believe court that he persuaded a family
servant to make a map showing all the cities, villages, and towns over
which he reigned.
The king of Back was also busy composing. Wolfgang completed his
first symphony at age nine and published his first sonatas that same
year. Before the family returned to Salzburg, Wolfgang had played for,
and amazed, the heads of the French and British royal families. He had
also been plagued with numerous illnesses. Despite Wolfgang and
Nannerl’s arduous schedule and international renown, the family’s
finances were often strained. The pattern established in his childhood
would be the template for the rest of his short life. Wolfgang Amadeus
Mozart toiled constantly, was lauded for his genius, suffered from ill-
ness, and struggled financially, until he died at age 35. The remarkable
child prodigy who more than fulfilled his potential was buried in an
unmarked grave, as was the custom at the time, in a Vienna suburb.
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1097.In line 40, the word lavish most nearly means
1098.The author uses the anecdote about Mozart’s
Kingdom of Back to illustrate
a.Mozart’s admiration for the composer
Johann Sebastian Bach.
b.the role imagination plays in musical composition.
c.that Mozart was mentally unstable.
d.that Mozart was an imaginative child.
e.that Mozart’s only friends were imaginary
people and family servants.
1099.The author suggests that Mozart’s adult life
a.was ruined by repeated illness.
b.was a disappointment after his brilliant
c.was nothing but misery.
d.ended in poverty and anonymity.
e.followed the pattern of his childhood.
1100.In line 57, the word lauded most nearly means
1101.Each of the following statements about Wolf-
gang Mozart is directly supported by the pas-
a.Mozart’s father, Leopold, was instrumental
in shaping his career.
b.Wolfgang had a vivid imagination.
c.Wolfgang’s childhood was devoted to his
musical career.
d.Wolfgang’s illnesses were the result of
e.Maria Anna was a talented musician in her
own right.
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Time is running out for the old-growth forests of Finland. The vast
majority of Finland’s valuable old-growth forest is owned by the state
and logged by the state-owned company Metsähallitus. Metsähallitus’
logging practices include clear-cutting, logging in habitats of threat-
ened and vulnerable species, and logging in areas of special scenic or
cultural value—including in areas that are critical for the reindeer
herding of the indigenous Sami people.
Despite being involved in a dialogue process with two environ-
mental organizations (the World Wildlife Fund and the Finnish
Association for Nature Conservation) to try to reach agreement
regarding additional protection for old-growth forests, Metsähallitus
is now logging sites that should be subject to negotiation.
In June 2003, Greenpeace and the Finnish Association for Nature
Conservation (FANC) presented comprehensive maps of the old-
growth areas that should be subject to moratorium, pending discus-
sion and additional protection, to all those involved in the dialogue
process. Metsähallitus then announced a halt to new logging opera-
tions in these mapped areas. Sadly, the halt in logging was short lived.
In August and September 2003 logging took place in at least six old-
growth forest areas in northern Finland.
It seems Metsähallitus wants to have its cake and eat it, too—friendly
talks with environmental groups at the same time they keep logging
critical habitat. To be blunt, their commitment to the dialogue process
has proven untrustworthy. The new logging has been without con-
sensus from the dialogue process or proper consultation with the
Sami reindeer herders. Now there’s a risk the logging will expand to
include other old-growth areas.
Greenpeace investigations have revealed a number of companies
buying old-growth timber from Metsähallitus, but the great majority of
the timber goes to Finland’s three international paper manufacturers,
Stora Enso, UPM-Kymmene, and M-Real. Greenpeace recommends
that companies ask for written guarantees that no material from any of
the recently mapped old-growth areas is entering or will enter their
supply chain, pending the switch to only timber that has been inde-
pendently certified to the standards of the Forest Stewardship Council
in order to stop this risk to protected forests.
Questions 1102–1105 are based on the following passage.
This passage is adapted from an article by the environmental protection organization Greenpeace, regarding Fin-
land’s destruction of old-growth forests.
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1102.According to the passage, which is NOT a
logging practice engaged in by Metsähallitus?
a.employing the clear-cutting method
b.logging in the habitat of reindeer
c.logging near scenic Finnish vistas
d.logging within in the boundaries of the
indigenous Sami
e.logging in traditional Norwegian fjords
1103.As used in line 15, moratoriummost nearly
a.an oral presentation.
b.a bipartisan meeting.
c.a cessation or stoppage.
d.an increase in volume.
e.an autopsy.
1104.The author’s tone may best be classified as
a.casual sarcasm.
b.urgent warning.
c.furtive anger.
d.cool indifference.
e.reckless panic.
1105.The primary purpose of this passage is to
a.alert citizens that their forests may be in
b.expose the logging industry as bad for the
c.encourage consumers to boycott Finnish
wood products.
d.agitate for change in Finland’s illicit logging
e.rally support for Greenpeace international
Coral reefs are among the most diverse and productive ecosystems on
Earth. Consisting of both living and nonliving components, this type
of ecosystem is found in the warm, clear, shallow waters of tropical
oceans worldwide. The functionality of the reefs ranges from provid-
ing food and shelter to fish and other forms of marine life to protect-
ing the shore from the ill effects of erosion and putrefaction. In fact,
reefs actually create land in tropical areas by formulating islands and
contributing mass to continental shorelines.
Although coral looks like a plant, actually it is mainly comprised of
the limestone skeleton of a tiny animal called a coral polyp. While
corals are the main components of reef structures, they are not the only
living participants. Coralline algae cement the myriad corals, and
other miniature organisms such as tube worms and mollusks con-
tribute skeletons to this dense and diverse structure. Together, these
living creatures construct many different types of tropical reefs.
Questions 1106–1110 are based on the following passage.
This passage describes the Great Barrier Reef and its inhabitants.
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1106.Which of the following statements does NOT
describe the Great Barrier Reef?
a.The Great Barrier reef is a colorful and
active underwater structure.
b.The Great Barrier Reef is a producer of
small islands and landmasses.
c.The Great Barrier Reef is threatened by
d.The Great Barrier Reef is the cause of much
beachfront erosion in northeastern Australia.
e.The Great Barrier Reef is home to endan-
gered sea turtles.
1107.Based on information from the passage, 4,020
kilometers would be approximately how many
1108.In line 6 of the passage, putrefaction most
nearly means
1109.The primary purpose of this passage is to
a.inform the reader that coral reefs are a
threatened, yet broadly functioning ecosystem.
b.alert the reader to a premier vacation desti-
nation in the tropics.
c.explain in detail how the Great Barrier Reef
is constructed.
d.recommend that tourists stop stealing coral
off the Great Barrier Reef.
e.dispel the argument that coral is a plant,
not an animal.
The Great Barrier Reef is the world’s largest network of coral reefs,
stretching 2,010 kilometers (1,250 miles) off Australia’s northeastern
coast. From microorganisms to whales, diverse life forms make their
homes on the reef. Over 1,500 fish species, 4,000 mollusk species, 200
bird species, 16 sea snake species, and six sea turtle species thrive in the
reef ’s tropical waters. The reef is also a habitat for the endangered
dugong (sea cow), moray eels, and sharks. In addition to teeming with
animal life, the coral reef offers the viewer a spectrum of brilliant
colors and intricate shapes, a virtual underwater garden.
Although protected by the Australian government, the Great Barrier
Reef faces environmental threats. Crown-of-thorns starfish feed on
coral and can destroy large portions of reef. Pollution and rising water
temperatures also threaten the delicate coral. But the most preventa-
ble of the hazards to the reef are tourists. Tourists have contributed to
the destruction of the reef ecosystem by breaking off and removing
pieces of coral to bring home as souvenirs. The government hopes
that by informing tourists of the dangers of this seemingly harmless
activity they will quash this creeping menace to the fragile reef.
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1110.According to the passage, all of the following
are a threat to a coral reef EXCEPT
c.erosion and putrefaction.
d.rising water temperatures.
e.crown-of-thorns starfish.
Passage 1
PHI, the Divine Proportion of 1.618, was described by the astronomer
Johannes Kepler as one of the “two great treasures of geometry.” (The
other is the Pythagorean theorem.)
PHI is the ratio of any two sequential numbers in the Fibonacci
sequence. If you take the numbers 0 and 1, then create each subse-
quent number in the sequence by adding the previous two numbers,
you get the Fibonacci sequence. For example, 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21,
34, 55, 89, 144. If you sum the squares of any series of Fibonacci num-
bers, they will equal the final Fibonacci number used in the series times
the next Fibonacci number. This property results in the Fibonacci
spiral seen in everything from seashells to galaxies, and is written
mathematically as: 1
+ 1
+ 2
+ 3
+ 5
= 5 8.
Plants illustrate the Fibonacci series in the numbers of leaves, the
arrangement of leaves around the stem, and the positioning of leaves,
sections, and seeds. A sunflower seed spiral illustrates this principle,
as the number of clockwise spirals is 55 and the number of counter-
clockwise spirals is 89; 89 divided by 55 = 1.618, the Divine Propor-
tion. Pinecones and pineapples illustrate similar spirals of successive
Fibonacci numbers.
PHI is also the ratio of five-sided symmetry. It can be proven by
using a basic geometrical figure, the pentagon. This five-sided figure
embodies PHI because PHI is the ratio of any diagonal to any side of
the pentagon—1.618.
Say you have a regular pentagon ABCDE with equal sides and equal
angles. You may draw a diagonal as line AC connecting any two ver-
texes of the pentagon. You can then install a total of five such lines, and
they are all of equal length. Divide the length of a diagonal AC by the
length of a side AB, and you will have an accurate numerical value for
PHI—1.618. You can draw a second diagonal line, BD, inside the pen-
tagon so that this new line crosses the first diagonal at point O. What
Questions 1111–1118 are based on the following two passages.
The following two passages tell of geometry’s Divine Proportion, 1.618.
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occurs is this: Each diagonal is divided into two parts, and each part is
in PHI ratio (1.618) to the other, and to the whole diagonal—the PHI
ratio recurs every time any diagonal is divided by another diagonal.
When you draw all five pentagon diagonals, they form a five-pointed
star: a pentacle. Inside this star is a smaller, inverted pentagon. Each
diagonal is crossed by two other diagonals, and each segment is in PHI
ratio to the larger segments and to the whole. Also, the inverted inner
pentagon is in PHI ratio to the initial outer pentagon. Thus, PHI is
the ratio of five-sided symmetry.
Inscribe the pentacle star inside a pentagon and you have the pen-
tagram, symbol of the ancient Greek School of Mathematics
founded by Pythagoras—solid evidence that the ancient Mystery
Schools knew about PHI and appreciated the Divine Proportion’s
multitude of uses to form our physical and biological worlds.
Passage 2
Langdon turned to face his sea of eager students. “Who can tell me
what this number is?”
A long-legged math major in back raised his hand. “That’s the
number PHI.” He pronounced it fee.
“Nice job, Stettner,” Langdon said. “Everyone, meet PHI.”
[ ... ] “This number PHI,” Langdon continued, “one-point-six-
one-eight, is a very important number in art. [ ... ] PHI is generally
considered the most beautiful number in the universe.”
[ ... ] As Langdon loaded his slide projector, he explained that
the number PHI was derived from the Fibonacci sequence—a pro-
gression famous not only because the sum of adjacent terms
equaled the next term, but because the quotients of adjacent terms
possessed the astonishing property of approaching the number
Despite PHI’s seemingly mystical mathematical origins, Langdon
explained, the truly mind-boggling aspect of PHI was its role as a
fundamental building block in nature. Plants, animals, even human
beings all possessed dimensional properties that adhered with eerie
exactitude to the ratio of PHI to 1.
“PHI’s ubiquity in nature,” Langdon said, killing the lights,
“clearly exceeds coincidence, and so the ancients assumed the
number PHI must have been preordained by the Creator of the
universe. Early scientists heralded one-point-six-one-eight as the
Divine Proportion.”
[ ... ] Langdon advanced to the next slide—a close-up of a sun-
flower’s seed head. “Sunflower seeds grow in opposing spirals. Can
you guess the ratio of each rotation’s diameter to the next?”
“PHI?” everyone said.
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1111.The tone of Passage 2 may be described as
a.fascinated discovery.
b.blandly informative.
c.passionate unfolding.
d.droll and jaded.
e.dry and scientific.
1112.According to both passages, which of the fol-
lowing are synonyms?
a.pentagon and pentacle
b.pinecones and sunflower seed spirals
c.Divine Proportion and PHI
d.Fibonacci sequence and Divine Proportion
e.Fibonacci sequence and PHI
“Bingo.” Langdon began racing through slides now—spiraled
pinecone petals, leaf arrangement on plant stalks, insect segmenta-
tion—all displaying astonishing obedience to the Divine Proportion.
“This is amazing!” someone cried out.
“Yeah,” someone else said, “but what does it have to do with art?”
[ ... ] “Nobody understood better than Da Vinci the divine struc-
ture of the human body. [...] He was the first to show that the
human body is literally made of building blocks whose proportional
ratios always equal PHI.”
Everyone in class gave him a dubious look.
“Don’t believe me?” [...] Try it. [...] Measure the distance from
your shoulder to your fingertips, and then divide it by the distance
from your elbow to your fingertips. PHI again. Another? Hip to floor
divided by knee to floor. PHI again. Finger joints. Toes. Spinal divi-
sions. PHI. PHI. PHI. My friends, each of you is a walking tribute to
the Divine Proportion.”
[ ...] “In closing,” Langdon said, walking to the chalkboard, “we
return to symbols.” He drew five intersecting lines that formed a five-
pointed star. “This symbol is one of the most powerful images you
will see this term. Formally known as a pentagram—or pentacle, as
the ancients called it—the symbol is considered both divine and
magical by many cultures. Can anyone tell me why that may be?”
Stettner, the math major, raised his hand. “Because if you draw a
pentagram, the lines automatically divide themselves into segments
according to the Divine Proportion.”
Langdon gave the kid a proud nod. “Nice job. Yes, the ratios of line
segments in a pentacle all equal PHI, making the symbol the ulti-
mate expression of the Divine Proportion.”
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1113.In Passage 2, line 20, ubiquity in nature of PHI
most nearly means its
a.rareness in nature.
b.accuracy in nature.
c.commonality in nature.
d.artificiality against nature.
e.purity in an unnatural state.
1114.Both passages refer to the “mystical mathemati-
cal” side of PHI. Based on the two passages,
which statement is NOT another aspect of PHI?
a.PHI is a ratio found in nature.
b.PHI is the area of a regular pentagon.
c.PHI is one of nature’s building blocks.
d.PHI is derived from the Fibonacci
e.PHI is a math formula.
1115.Which of the following techniques is used in
Passage 1, lines 13–18 and Passage 2, lines 25–27?
a.explanation of terms
b.comparison of different arguments
c.contrast of opposing views
d.generalized statement
e.illustration by example
1116.All of the following questions can be explicitly
answered on the basis of the passage EXCEPT
a.What is the ratio of the length of one’s hip
to floor divided by knee to floor?
b.What is the precise mathematical ratio of
c.What is the ratio of the distance from one’s
shoulder to fingertips divided by elbow to
d.What is the ratio of the distance from one’s
head to the floor divided by shoulder to the
e.What is the ratio of each sunflower seed
spiral rotation’s diameter to the next?
1117.According to both passages, the terms ancient
Mystery Schools (Passage 1, lines 42–43), early
scientists (Passage 2, line 24), and ancients
(Passage 2, line 49) signify what about the
Divine Proportion?
a.Early scholars felt that the Divine Propor-
tion was a magical number.
b.Early scholars found no scientific basis for
the Divine Proportion.
c.Early mystery writers used the Divine Proportion.
d.Early followers of Pythagoras favored the
Pythagorean theorem over the Divine Proportion.
e.Early followers of Kepler used the Divine
Proportion in astronomy.
1118.Which of the following is NOT true of a regular pentagon?
a.It is considered both divine and magical by
many cultures.
b.It is a geometric figure with five equal sides
meeting at five equal angles.
c.It is a geometric figure whereby PHI is the
ratio of any diagonal to any side.
d.If you draw an inverted inner pentagon
inside a pentagon, it is in PHI ratio to the
initial outer pentagon.
e.A polygon having five sides and five inte-
rior angles is called a pentagon.
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Ivory skin, ivory teeth, Ivory Soap, Ivory Snow—we hear ivory used
all the time to describe something fair and pure. But where does
ivory come from, and what exactly is it? Is it natural or man-made?
Is it a modifier meaning something pure and fair, or is it a specialized
and discrete substance?
Historically, the word ivory has been applied to the tusks of elephants.
However, the chemical structure of the teeth and tusks of mammals is
the same regardless of the species of origin, and the trade in certain
teeth and tusks other than those of the elephant is well established and
widespread. Therefore, ivory can correctly be used to describe any
mammalian tooth or tusk of commercial interest that is large enough
to be carved or scrimshawed. Teeth and tusks have the same origins.
Teeth are specialized structures adapted for food mastication. Tusks,
which are extremely large teeth projecting beyond the lips, have
evolved from teeth and give certain species an evolutionary advantage
that goes beyond chewing and breaking down food in digestible
pieces. Furthermore, the tusk can be used to actually secure food
through hunting, killing, and then breaking up large chunks of food
into manageable bits.
The teeth of most mammals consist of a root as well as the tusk
proper. Teeth and tusks have the same physical structures: pulp cavity,
dentine, cementum, and enamel. The innermost area is the pulp cav-
ity. The pulp cavity is an empty space within the tooth that conforms
to the shape of the pulp. Odontoblastic cells line the pulp cavity and
are responsible for the production of dentine. Dentine, which is the
main component of carved ivory objects, forms a layer of consistent
thickness around the pulp cavity and comprises the bulk of the tooth
and tusk. Dentine is a mineralized connective tissue with an organic
matrix of collagenous proteins. The inorganic component of dentine
consists of dahllite. Dentine contains a microscopic structure called
dentinal tubules which are micro-canals that radiate outward through
the dentine from the pulp cavity to the exterior cementum border.
These canals have different configurations in different ivories, and
their diameter ranges between 0.8 and 2.2 microns. Their length is dic-
tated by the radius of the tusk. The three-dimensional configuration
of the dentinal tubules is under genetic control and is therefore a
characteristic unique to the order of the mammal.
Exterior to the dentine lies the cementum layer. Cementum forms
a layer surrounding the dentine of tooth and tusk roots. Its main func-
tion is to adhere the tooth and tusk root to the mandibular and max-
illary jawbones. Incremental lines are commonly seen in cementum.
Questions 1119–1127 are based on the following passage.
The following passage describes the composition and nature of ivory.
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1119.In line 5, what does the term discrete most
nearly mean?
1120.Which of the following titles is most appropri-
ate for this passage?
a.Ivory: An Endangered Species
b.Elephants, Ivory, and Widespread Hunting
in Africa
c.Ivory: Is It Organic or Inorganic?
d.Uncovering the Aspects of Natural Ivory
e.Scrimshaw: A Study of the Art of Ivory
1121.The word scrimshawed in line 12 and line 53
most nearly means
1122.Which of the following choices is NOT part of
the physical structure of teeth?
a.pulp cavity
Enamel, the hardest animal tissue, covers the surface of the tooth
or tusk that receives the most wear, such as the tip or crown.
Ameloblasts are responsible for the formation of enamel and are lost after
the enamel process is complete. Enamel exhibits a prismatic structure,
with prisms that run perpendicular to the crown or tip. Enamel prism
patterns can have both taxonomic and evolutionary significance.
Tooth and tusk ivory can be carved into an almost infinite variety of
shapes and objects. A small sample of carved ivory objects includes
small statuary, netsukes, jewelry, flatware handles, furniture inlays, and
piano keys. Additionally, warthog tusks, and teeth from sperm whales,
killer whales, and hippopotamuses can also be scrimshawed or super-
ficially carved while retaining their original shapes as morphologically
recognizable objects.
The identification of ivory and ivory substitutes is based on the
physical and chemical class characteristics of these materials. A com-
mon approach to identification is to use the macroscopic and micro-
scopic physical characteristics of ivory in combination with a simple
chemical test using ultraviolet light.
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1123.As used in line 13, what is the best synonym
for mastication?
1124.Which sentence best describes dentinal
a.Dentinal tubules are a layer surrounding
the dentine of tooth and tusk roots.
b.Dentinal tubules are micro-canals that
radiate outward through the dentine from
the pulp cavity to the exterior cementum
c.Dentinal tubules are responsible for the
formation of enamel and are lost after the
enamel process is complete.
d.Dentinal tubules cover the surface of the
tooth or tusk that receives the most wear,
such as the tip or crown.
e.Dentinal tubules are extremely large teeth
projecting beyond the lips that have
evolved from teeth and give certain species
an evolutionary advantage.
1125.According to the passage, all of the following
are organic substances EXCEPT
1126.According to the passage, how can natural
ivory be authenticated?
a.by ultraviolet light
b.by gamma rays
c.by physical observation
d.by osmosis
e.by scrimshaw
1127.According to the passage, which statement is
NOT true of enamel?
a.It is an organic substance.
b.It is the hardest of animal tissues.
c.It should never be exposed to ultraviolet
d.It structure is prismatic.
e.It is formed with the aid of ameloblasts.
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The scientific method usually refers to either a series or a collection of
processes that are considered characteristic of scientific investigation
and of the acquisition of new scientific knowledge.
The essential elements of the scientific method are:
Observe: Observe or read about a phenomenon.
Hypothesize: Wonder about your observations, and invent a hypothesis, or a guess, that could explain the phenomenon or set
of facts that you have observed.
Test:Conduct tests to try out your hypothesis.
Predict: Use the logical consequences of your hypothesis to pre-
dict observations of new phenomena or results of new measurements.
Experiment: Perform experiments to test the accuracy of these predictions.
Conclude:Accept or refute your hypothesis.
Evaluate:Search for other possible explanations of the result until
you can show with confidence that your guess was indeed the
Formulate new hypothesis:as required.
This idealized process is often misinterpreted as applying to scien-
tists individually rather than to the scientific enterprise as a whole. Sci-
ence is a social activity, and one scientist’s theory or proposal cannot
become accepted unless it has been published, peer reviewed, criti-
cized, and finally accepted by the scientific community.
The scientific method begins with observation. Observation often
demands careful measurement. It also requires the establishment of an
operational definition of measurements and other concepts before the
experiment begins.
To explain the observation, scientists use whatever they can (their
own creativity, ideas from other fields, or even systematic guessing)
to come up with possible explanations for the phenomenon under
study. Deductive reasoning is the way in which predictions are used
to test a hypothesis.
Questions 1128–1136 are based on the following passage.
This passage is about the process by which scientists prove theories, the scientific method.
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In the twentieth century, philosopher Karl Popper introduced the idea
that a hypothesis must be falsifiable; that is, it must be capable of being
demonstrated wrong. A hypothesis must make specific predictions;
these predictions can be tested with concrete measurements to support
or refute the hypothesis. For instance, Albert Einstein’s theory of gen-
eral relativity makes a few specific predictions about the structure of
space and flow of time, such as the prediction that light bends in a
strong gravitational field, and the amount of bending depends in a pre-
cise way on the strength of the gravitational field. Observations made
of a 1919 solar eclipse supported this hypothesis against other possi-
ble hypotheses, such as Sir Isaac Newton’s theory of gravity, which did
not make such a prediction. British astronomers used the eclipse to
prove Einstein’s theory, and therefore eventually replaced Newton’s
Probably the most important aspect of scientific reasoning is verifi-
cation. Verification is the process of determining whether the
hypothesis is in accord with empirical evidence, and whether it will
continue to be in accord with a more generally expanded body of evi-
dence. Ideally, the experiments performed should be fully described
so that anyone can reproduce them, and many scientists should inde-
pendently verify every hypothesis. Results that can be obtained from
experiments performed by many are termed reproducible and are given
much greater weight in evaluating hypotheses than nonreproducible
Falsificationism argues that any hypothesis, no matter how respected
or time-honored, must be discarded once it is contradicted by new
reliable evidence. This is, of course, an oversimplification, since indi-
vidual scientists inevitably hold on to their pet theories long after con-
trary evidence has been found. This is not always a bad thing. Any the-
ory can be made to correspond to the facts, simply by making a few
adjustments—called “auxiliary hypothesis”—so as to bring it into cor-
respondence with the accepted observations. The choice of when to
reject one theory and accept another is inevitably up to the individual
scientist, rather than some methodical law.
Hence all scientific knowledge is always in a state of flux, for at any
time new evidence could be presented that contradicts long-held
The experiments that reject a hypothesis should be performed by
many different scientists to guard against bias, mistake, misunderstand-
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1128.Which step in the process of scientific method
do lines 63–72 speak of?
a.operational definition
1129.What is the tone of this passage?
1130.In line 63, the word falsificationismmost
nearly means
1131.Which statement is NOT true?
a.Reproducible results can be obtained by
experiments performed by a variety of
b.An auxiliary hypothesis can be made to
correspond to the facts.
c.Einstein’s theory of relativity makes space
and time predictions.
d.Peer review is usually not a valuable tool
for scientists.
e.Experiments are a necessary element in the
scientific method.
1132.According to the passage, which is true of a
a.It is not a necessary process in the scientific
b.It cannot be discarded by a competing theory.
c.It is a guess.
d.It can make a broad and general prediction.
e.It is always considered auxiliary.
ing, and fraud. Scientific journals use a process of peer review, in which
scientists submit their results to a panel of fellow scientists (who may or
may not know the identity of the writer) for evaluation. Peer review may
well have turned up problems and led to a closer examination of exper-
imental evidence for many scientists. Much embarrassment, and wasted
effort worldwide, has been avoided by objective peer review, in addition
to continuing the use and proving the necessity of the scientific method.
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1133.What is the best title for this passage?
a.The Theory of Relativity
b.The Scientific Method: A Step-by-Step
c.The Two Stages of Proving Theories
d.How to Form a Hypotheses
e.Evaluating Data with the Scientific Method
1134.What is meant by the term operational defini-
tion in line 28 of the passage?
a.scientific law
c.clear and practical definition
d.scientific method
1135.What do lines 36–50 of the passage indicate?
a.The theory of general relativity is a hypothesis.
b.Karl Popper proved the theory of relativity
to be incorrect.
c.Einstein was the father of the scientific
d.Space and the flow of time theories are still
in a state of flux.
e.Sir Isaac Newton’s theory of gravity dis-
proved Einstein’s theory.
1136.Which is NOT a step used in the process of
scientific method?
The roots of the modern-day sport of lacrosse are found in tribal stick-
and-ball games developed and played by many native North American
tribes dating back as early as the fifteenth century. The Native Amer-
ican names for these games reflected the bellicose nature of those early
contests, many of which went far beyond friendly recreational com-
petition. For example, the Algonquin called their game baggattaway,
which meant “they bump hips.” The Cherokee Nation and the Six
Tribes of the Iroquois called their sport tewaarathon, which translated
into “little brother of war.” Rules and style of play differed from
tribe to tribe and games could be played by as few as 15 to as many
as 1,000 men and women at a time. These matches could last for three
days, beginning at dawn each day and ending at sunset. The goals
could be specific trees or rocks, and were a few hundred yards to a few
miles apart. Despite these differences, the sole object of every game
Questions 1137–1141 are based on the following passage.
The following passage describes the Native American games that were predecessors to the modern sport of lacrosse.
ETTM_06_293_428.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 1:57 PM Page 379
1137.In line 4, bellicose most closely means
d.family minded.
1138.The passage describes the early versions of
lacrosse as
a.strictly regulated competitions.
b.intense games played against the Pilgrims.
c.serious and meaningful matches.
d.played only by the best athletes selected
from each tribe.
e.friendly exhibitions.
1139.Which of the following titles would be the
most appropriate for this passage?
a.Little Brother of War
b.Lacrosse: America’s Most Violent Sport
c.The Origins of the Modern Lacrosse Stick
d.Deganawidah and the Six Tribes
e.Hockey: The Little Brother of Lacrosse
1140.In line 15, the author’s use of the phrase by
any means necessary emphasizes the
a.unpredictable nature of the game.
b.mild nature of the game.
c.violent nature of the game.
d.fact that both women and men participated
in the games.
e.importance of scoring goals.
1141.The author’s main purpose for writing this
passage is to
a.illustrate the differences between the early
games and today’s lacrosse.
b.condemn the violent tactics often used by
the Native American players.
c.show how ancient games influenced many
games played today.
d.teach the reader about the Iroquois Cre-
ation Story.
e.describe the importance of these games in
Native American culture.
was the same: to score goals by any means necessary. Serious injuries
caused by blows from the heavy wooden sticks used in the games were
not uncommon, and often expected. Not surprisingly, the Native
Americans considered these precursors to today’s lacrosse excellent
battle preparation for young warriors, and games were often used to
settle disputes between tribes without resorting to full-blown warfare.
For the Six Tribes of the Iroquois, certain matches of tewaarathon
held religious significance, as well. One of the most important gods
the Iroquois worshipped was the Creator, Deganawidah. In Iroquois
legend, the Creator united the Six Tribes into the one nation.
Tewaarathon was played to please the Creator, and the competition was
viewed as a re-creation of the Iroquois Creation Story, where super-
natural forces of good and evil battled each other in an epic struggle.
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Today, watching Venus and Serena Williams dominate the sport of
women’s tennis with their talent and flair, it is hard to imagine that
just over 50 years ago African-American tennis players were barred
from competing on the grandest stages of their sport. Jackie Robin-
son broke the color barrier in Major League Baseball in 1947, but the
walls that kept African-Americans from playing professional sports
did not come tumbling down overnight. Almost four years passed
after Jackie Robinson’s major league debut before a female African-
American made a similar impact upon the sport of women’s tennis.
That woman’s name was Althea Gibson.
Althea Gibson was born on a cotton farm on August 25, 1927, in
Silver, South Carolina. The early stages of the Great Depression forced her
sharecropper father to move the family from the bucolic Silver to the
urban bustle of New York City when she was just three years old. As a
child growing up in the Harlem section of Manhattan, Althea found
she had an affinity for athletics. Basketball and paddle tennis were her
favorite sports, and she excelled at both. In fact, her talent at paddle
tennis was so remarkable that in 1939 she won her age group at the New
York City paddle tennis championships. Shortly after, a very good friend
of Althea’s suggested that she try lawn tennis. She showed an incredible
aptitude for the sport, and her play caught the attention of members
of the predominantly African-American Harlem Cosmopolitan Tennis
Club, who helped her raise money to become a member. At the age of 14,
Althea took her first real tennis lesson at the club under the tutelage
of one-armed tennis coach Fred Johnson. She would never look back.
A year later, in 1942, the major governing body for African-American
tennis tournaments—the American Tennis Association (ATA)—
sponsored the New York Girls Singles Championship at Althea’s club.
With her aggressive and dominating style of play, she won the title eas-
ily. It was her first of what was to be many victories, on and off the court.
Althea dropped out of high school shortly after winning the New
York Girls Singles Championship. She found the classes boring and
wanted to concentrate on tennis. Her decision raised many eyebrows
among members of the ATA, who had hoped that she would become
one of the sport’s new stars. She was encouraged to leave New York City
and move to Wilmington, NC, to live with the family of Hubert Eaton,
a wealthy doctor who was active in the African-American tennis com-
munity. Dr. Eaton welcomed Althea into his family. He not only offered
her guidance with her tennis career, but he also convinced her to finish
the remaining three years of high school. While living with the Eaton
family in Wilmington, she would travel around the country to compete
Questions 1142–1150 are based on the following passage.
This passage details the life and career of Althea Gibson, an African-American pioneer in the sport of tennis.
ETTM_06_293_428.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 1:57 PM Page 381
in ATA tournaments. By the time she graduated in 1949, Althea had
already won the first two of what would be ten consecutive ATA national
titles. She was regarded by many as one of the most impressive young
talents in the female game, but because of segregation she was not per-
mitted to practice on any of the public courts in Wilmington. She was
also yet to be invited to any of the major segregated tournaments.
By early 1950 Althea was making some headway. She was the first
African-American to play in the national indoor tournament, where she
finished second. Althea believed her two national championships and
her strong showing at the indoor tournament were proof that she was
one of female tennis’s elite players. She and the ATA tried to lobby the
United States Lawn Tennis Association (USLTA) for an invitation to the
1950 U.S. Nationals, but despite the ATA’s efforts and Althea’s obvious
merit, the USLTA failed to extend her an invitation.
Not every member of the USLTA was pleased with the organiza-
tion’s decision. Former U.S. National and Wimbledon champion Alice
Marble wrote a scathing editorial in the July 1950 issue of American
Lawn Tennis magazine criticizing the USLTA’s segregationist stance.
Ms. Marble wrote, “The entrance of [African-Americans] into national
tennis is as inevitable as it has proven in baseball, in football, or in
boxing; there is no denying so much talent. ... If Althea Gibson rep-
resents a challenge to the present crop of players, then it’s only fair that
they meet this challenge on the courts.” The editorial caused a national
uproar that quickly led the USLTA to finally extend Althea an invita-
tion to play in the 1950 U.S. Nationals tournament. This invitation
would open many doors for Althea, and the following year she was the
first African-American to compete at Wimbledon.
It took a few years for Althea to adjust to the world-class level of play.
She won her first major tournament in 1956 and would dominate the
sport for the next five years, winning six doubles titles and a total of 11
Grand Slam events, including the U.S. Nationals and Wimbledon twice.
Yet even at the height of her career as an international tennis champ,
Althea was forced to endure discrimination. She was often refused hotel
rooms and reservations at restaurants simply because of her skin color.
Althea once said that her extraordinary success was the product of
being “game enough to take a lot of punishment along the way.” The pio-
neering example set by Althea Gibson paved the way for future genera-
tions of African-American tennis players, and proved that beyond her
tennis glory she was a true champion of the human spirit.
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1142.What is the main purpose of the passage?
a.to glimpse a piece of the past
b.to glorify athletes
c.to disparage segregation
d.to teach the history of tennis
e.to tell the story of Althea Gibson
1143.The word bucolic in line 13 most nearly means
1144.All of the following questions can be answered
based on information from the passage
a.what factors influenced the USLTA to invite
Althea Gibson to the U.S. Nationals?
b.did Althea play in another ATA tournament
after she was invited to the U.S. Nationals?
c.why did Althea go to live with Dr. Eaton?
d.to what specific types of discrimination was
Althea subjected?
e.how many times did Althea compete at
1145.Which of the following best describes the
USLTA’s change of heart regarding Althea’s
a.buckling under the pressure of public opinion
b.a calculated strike against segregation
c.a sudden recognition of Althea’s abilities
d.a bold marketing strategy
e.a desire to diversify the women’s game
1146.The author uses Althea’s quote about being
game enough in line 77 to illustrate that
a.Althea’s career was plagued with injuries.
b.the sport of tennis is more grueling than
people realize.
c.Althea believed the discrimination she
faced served only to make her a stronger
d.Althea was often fined for yelling at the
e.Althea believed talent was more important
than mental toughness.
1147.Althea’s achievements are best described as
a.remarkable displays of talent and athleticism.
b.groundbreaking triumphs in the face of
c.important events that led to immediate
civil rights reform.
d.one woman’s fight against the world.
e.historically insignificant.
1148.Which statement best summarizes Alice Marble’s quote in lines 60–64?
a.Baseball, football, and boxing are more
entertaining than tennis.
b.Talent should dictate who could be a cham-
pion at a USLTA tournament, not race.
c.There are players in the U.S. Nationals who
do not deserve to be there.
d.The USLTA should do away with invita-
tions and make the tournament open to
e.The ATA and USTLA should merge for the
benefit of the sport.
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1149.Why did Althea’s friend suggest that she try
lawn tennis?
a.Lawn tennis is a more competitive game
than paddle tennis.
b.The friend preferred playing lawn tennis.
c.There was more money to be made playing
lawn tennis than paddle tennis.
d.The friend thought Althea might enjoy
playing lawn tennis, and excel at it.
e.The friend was looking for a tennis partner.
1150.All of the following statements are supported
by the passage EXCEPT
a.Alice Marble was a white tennis player.
b.Dr. Eaton’s guidance helped Althea’s career.
c.Althea won the New York Girls Singles
Championship when she 15.
d.the public tennis courts in Wilmington
were segregated.
e.Althea Gibson won more Grand Slam titles
than any other female tennis player.
Professional baseball suffered during the two years the United States
was involved in World War I. Many Americans who were preoccupied
with the seriousness of the war raging overseas had little concern for
the trivialities of a baseball game. After the war ended in 1918, many
Americans wanted to put those dark years behind them and get back
to the normal activities of a peaceful life. One of those activities was
watching baseball. In the summer of 1918, ballparks that just one
year earlier had been practically empty were now filled daily with
the sights and sounds of America’s favorite pastime. That year, the
Cleveland Indians and New York Yankees were two of the strongest
teams in baseball’s American League, but one team stood head and
shoulders above the rest: the Chicago White Sox.
The Chicago White Sox, called the White Stockings until 1902,
were owned by an ex-ballplayer named Charles Comiskey. Between
the years 1900 and 1915 the White Sox had won the World Series only
once, and Comiskey was determined to change that. In 1915, he pur-
chased the contracts of three of the most promising stars in the league:
outfielders “Shoeless” Joe Jackson and “Happy” Oscar Felsch, and sec-
ond baseman Eddie Collins. Comiskey had to wait only two years for
his plan to come to fruition; the 1917 White Sox, playing in a park named
for their owner, won the World Series. Two years later they had the best
record in all of baseball and were again on their way to the Series.
Baseball players’ salaries in that era were much different than the
exorbitant paychecks of today’s professional athletes. Often, ballplayers
would have second careers in the off-season because of their mediocre
Questions 1151–1159 are based on the following passage.
The following passage chronicles the 1919 Chicago White Sox baseball scandal.
ETTM_06_293_428.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 1:57 PM Page 384
pay. To make matters worse, war-torn 1918 was such a horrible year for
baseball attendance that many owners cut player salaries for the follow-
ing season. However, it is said that in all of baseball there was no owner
as parsimonious as Charles Comiskey. In 1917 he reportedly promised
every player on the White Sox a bonus if they won the American League
Championship. After winning the championship, they returned to the
clubhouse to receive their bonus—a bottle of inexpensive champagne.
Unlike other owners, Comiskey also required the players to pay for the
cleaning of their uniforms. The Sox had the best record in baseball, but
they were the worst paid, were the most discontented, and wore the
dirtiest uniforms.
Comiskey’s frugality did not sit well with the players. They were
most upset with the fact that he did not raise salaries back to their
1918 levels, even though the ballpark attendance figures for 1919
were higher than any previous year. One player, Eddie Ciccotte, felt especially ill-treated by Comiskey. The owner promised the
pitcher a bonus of $10,000 if he won 30 games, but after Ciccotte
won his 29th game he was benched by Comiskey for the rest of the
Gamblers were such a common sight around the Chicago ballpark
that Charles Comiskey had signs proclaiming “No Betting Allowed
in This Park” posted conspicuously in the stands. The money with
which these gamblers tempted the players was hard to refuse, and it
was rumored that to supplement their income some of the lower-paid
athletes would offer inside tips to the bettors. But the gamblers’ mingling
with ballplayers wasn’t solely confined to the White Sox. In 1920, alle-
gations involving gambling among Chicago Cubs players brought to
light a scandal that would shock Chicago and the rest of America:
Eight members of the White Sox had thrown the 1919 World Series.
The exact facts regarding the scandal will never be known, but the
most accepted theory is that just prior to the World Series, White Sox
player Chick Gandil had approached a gambler by the name of Joseph
Sullivan with a proposal that for $100,000 Gandil would make sure
the Sox lost the Series. Gandil needed to recruit other players for the
plan to work. It was not hard for him to do—there were many under-
paid players on the White Sox who were dissatisfied with the way
Comiskey operated the team. Ultimately, the seven other players who
allegedly were involved in the scheme were Eddie Ciccotte, Happy
Felsch, Joe Jackson, Fred McMullin, Charles “Swede” Risberg, Buck
Weaver, and Claude Williams.
They were successful. The Chicago White Sox, heavily favored to
beat an inferior Cincinnati Reds team, lost the nine-game World Series
in eight games, due in most part to the inferior play of the eight con-
spiring players. When the scandal made headlines the following year,
ETTM_06_293_428.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 1:57 PM Page 385
1151.According to the passage, who was the sup-
posed ringleader of the Black Sox scandal?
a.Charles Comiskey
b.“Shoeless” Joe Jackson
c.Eddie Ciccotte
d.Eddie Collins
e.Chick Gandil
1152.In line 29, the word parsimonious most nearly
1153.According to facts from the passage, what was
the name of the White Sox ballpark?
a.Chicago Park
b.Comiskey Park
c.Sullivan Stadium
d.White Sox Park
e.Sox Field
1154.In line 54, the word thrown refers to
a.losing intentionally.
b.pitching a baseball.
c.projecting upon.
d.dashing upon.
e.abandoning something.
1155.According to the passage, how many World
Series did the White Sox win between 1900
and 1919?
the press began to refer to them as the Black Sox, and the ignominious
label would be used to describe them forever.
When the eight players stood before an Illinois grand jury, it was
determined that that there was not enough substantial evidence for
any convictions, and the players were all eventually acquitted of any
criminal wrongdoing. Interestingly enough, Charles Comiskey paid
for the players’ high-priced defense lawyers. Unfortunately for
Comiskey, there was to be no similar reprieve from Major League
Baseball: Every single one of the accused players was banned from the
game for life. Comiskey’s once-mighty team was decimated by the loss
of its most talented players, and the 1921 White Sox finished the sea-
son in seventh place.
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1156.All of the following questions can be answered
based on information from the passage
a.who was the second baseman for the 1915
White Sox?
b.did the White Sox play in the American
League or the National League?
c.what was the original name of the White
d.how many games did Eddie Ciccotte pitch
in 1918?
e.why did many baseball owners lower player
salaries for the 1919 season?
1157.In line 70, word ignominious most nearly
1158.The last paragraph of the passage suggests that
Charles Comiskey
a.thought the team was better off without the
eight players.
b.hoped all eight players would be convicted
and sent to jail.
c.wanted the players involved in the scandal
to return to the team.
d.was contemplating retirement.
e.had a plan to get the White Sox back to the
World Series.
1159.The passage as a whole suggests that
a.The White Sox probably fixed the 1917
World Series, too.
b.Charles Comiskey may have been partly to
blame for his players’ actions.
c.ballplayers betting on games was a highly
unusual occurrence.
d.baseball never recovered after World War I.
e.Charles Comiskey often bet against his own
ETTM_06_293_428.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 1:57 PM Page 387
Passage 1
Reader, have you ever been at Plymouth? If you have, your eye must
have dwelt with ecstasy upon the beautiful property of the Earl of
Mount Edgcumbe: if you have not been at Plymouth, the sooner that
you go there the better. You will see ships building and ships in ordi-
nary; and ships repairing and ships fitting; and hulks and convict ships,
and the guard-ship; ships ready to sail and ships under sail; besides
lighters, men-of-war’s boats, dockyard-boats, bum-boats, and shore-
boats. In short, there is a great deal to see at Plymouth besides the sea
itself: but what I particularly wish now is, that you will stand at the bat-
tery of Mount Edgcumbe and look into Barn Pool below you, and
there you will see, lying at single anchor, a cutter; and you may also
see, by her pendant and ensign, that she is a yacht.
You observe that this yacht is cutter-rigged, and that she sits grace-
fully on the smooth water. She is just heaving up her anchor; her fore-
sail is loose, all ready to cast her—in a few minutes she will be under
way. You see that there are ladies sitting at the taffrail; and there are five
haunches of venison hanging over the stern. Of all amusements, give
me yachting. But we must go on board. The deck, you observe, is of
narrow deal planks as white as snow; the guns are of polished brass;
the bitts and binnacles of mahogany: she is painted with taste; and all
the moldings are gilded. There is nothing wanting; and yet how clear
and unencumbered are her decks! Let us go below.
There is the ladies’ cabin: can anything be more tasteful or elegant?
Is it not luxurious? And, although so small, does not its very confined
space astonish you, when you view so many comforts so beautifully
arranged? This is the dining-room, and where the gentlemen repair.
And just peep into their state-rooms and bed-places. Here is the stew-
ard’s room and the buffet: the steward is squeezing lemons for the
punch, and there is the champagne in ice; and by the side of the pail
the long-corks are ranged up, all ready. Now, let us go forwards: here
are, the men’s berths, not confined as in a man-of-war. No! Luxury
starts from abaft, and is not wholly lost, even at the fore-peak. This is
the kitchen; is it not admirably arranged? And how delightful are the
fumes of the turtle-soup! At sea we do meet with rough weather at
times; but, for roughing it out, give me a yacht.
Passage 2
My very first sea voyage was in a small merchant vessel out of New
York called the Alba. I was only 12 years old at the time, and full of
Questions 1160–1170 are based on the following passages.
The following passages detail two very different perspectives of life aboard a ship in the age of sail. The first passage
describes an English pleasure yacht in the early 1800s. The second passage recounts a young boy’s impressions of the
first time he set sail in a merchant vessel.
ETTM_06_293_428.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 1:57 PM Page 388
dreams of boundless adventure upon the high seas. I was to serve
as the ship’s boy. I was given the post by my Uncle Joseph, the weath-
ered old captain of the Alba who uttered few words, choosing to speak
more with his menacing gaze than with his mouth. The moment I
stepped upon the bustling deck my Uncle Joseph set me straight
about shipboard life. There were to be no special privileges afforded
to me because of our relations. I was to live and mess in the ’tween
decks with the other seamen, and because I was his nephew, I would
probably have to work twice as hard as the others to prove my worth.
From that point on I was to refer to my uncle as “Sir” or “Captain,” and
only speak to him when he addressed me. He then told me a bit about
the Alba. I learned that she was a cutter, and all cutters were fore-and-
aft rigged, and possessed only a single mast. After my brief lesson, he
then sent me below deck to get myself situated.
What I found when I dismounted the ladder below was an entirely
different world than the orderly brightness of the top deck. Here was
a stuffy and dimly lit space barely tall enough for me to stand up
straight in. It was the middle of July, and the heat was oppressive.
There seemed to be no air at all, there certainly were no windows, and
the stench that rose up from the bilge was so pungent it made me gag.
From the shadows, a pair of eyes materialized. They belonged to a
grimy boy no older than me.
“Hello mate, you must be the new lubber just shipped aboard. I’m
Nigel. Follow me, we’re just in time for dinner.”
My new friend led me into the tiny dining room where the crew
messed. The men ate shoulder to shoulder on wooden tables bolted to
the deck. The horrific smell of so many men crammed together was
overpowering. We received our food from the ship’s cook, a portly
man in a filthy apron who, with the dirtiest hands I’d ever seen, ladled
us out a sort of stew. We found two open spots at a mess table and sat
down to eat. The stew was lukewarm and the mysterious meat in it was
so tough I could barely chew it. I managed to swallow a few spoonfuls
and pushed my dish aside.
With a smile that was graveyard of yellow sincerity, Nigel pushed
the dish back to me and said, “I’d get used to the grub, mate. It ain’t
so bad. Besides, this is the freshest it’ll be on the voyage.”
After dinner, Nigel showed me our berth. It was a tiny lightless cub-
byhole near the bow of the boat that was barely six feet long and only
five feet high. There was a small area where I could stow my clothes,
and at night we would string up our hammocks side by side with two
other boys, both of whom were on duty at the moment.
That night when we were under way, the boat ran into a vicious
Atlantic storm. The waves tossed the Alba around like it was a tiny raft.
The ship made such noises; I was afraid it would simply break apart at
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1160.According to both passages, it is not uncom-
mon for ships to
a.meet rough seas.
b.run out of fresh drinking water.
c.not return home for quite a while.
d.leak in heavy weather.
e.have children onboard.
1161.In the last sentence of Passage 2, the narrator
suggests that he
a.may never recover from the seasickness.
b.does not like Nigel.
c.made a mistake taking the voyage aboard
the Alba.
d.should have eaten the stew.
e.should have stayed in school.
1162.Which statement best summarizes the narra-
tor’s description of Plymouth in lines 3–8?
a.The port at Plymouth is full of rowdy
b.Plymouth is a dreary and overcrowded
c.Plymouth is a deserted and overindustrial-
ized area.
d.There are many interest sights to behold at
e.The British Royal Navy anchors at
1163.What do the yacht in Passage 1 and the Alba in
Passage 2 have in common?
a.They were both built in England.
b.They both have only a single mast.
c.They are both made of iron.
d.They both have lifeboats.
e.They are both fast.
1164.How do the yacht in Passage 1 and the Alba in
Passage 2 differ?
a.The yacht does not carry cargo.
b.The yacht is much bigger than the Alba.
c.There are no passengers aboard the Alba,
only crew.
d.The yacht is much more luxurious than the
e.The yacht is much faster than the Alba.
1165.Why does the captain in Passage 2 (lines
13–14) demand that his nephew call him “Sir”
or “Captain”?
a.The captain wanted his nephew to under-
stand who was in charge.
b.The captain did not want any member of
the crew to know the narrator was his
c.The captain was afraid that if he showed
affection to his nephew, he would lose his
authority over the crew.
d.The captain was not really the narrator’s
e.It was important that the crew understood
that the boy was no more privileged than
anyone else aboard.
any moment. The seawater that crashed upon the deck leaked through
the planks and dripped upon my head. It would have bothered me if
I were not already horribly seasick. As I lay there miserably rocking
back and forth in my damp hammock, I asked myself, “What have I
gotten myself into?”
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1166.In Passage 1, line 26, the use of the word repair
most nearly means
b.fix things.
c.sit in pairs.
d.get dressed.
1167.The narrator of Passage 1 most probably
a.is a seasoned sea captain.
b.is very wealthy.
c.is an experienced yachtsman.
d.suffers from seasickness.
e.was in the Royal Navy.
1168.In Passage 2, line 36, the narrator describes
Nigel’s smile as a graveyard of yellow sincerity.
What figure of speech is the narrator employing?
1169.Together, these two passages illustrate the idea
a.the reality of two seemingly similar situa-
tions can often be extremely different.
b.boating is a very dangerous pastime.
c.dreams sometimes fall very short of reality.
d.Plymouth is much nicer than New York.
e.hard work pays off in the end.
1170.The word berth,found in Passage 1, line 31,
and Passage 2, line 39, most nearly means
a.a sailor’s hometown.
b.the sleeping quarters aboard a boat.
c.the kitchen aboard a boat.
d.the bathroom aboard a boat.
e.the lower deck of a boat.
Could good dental hygiene be man’s earliest custom? The findings of
paleontologist Leslea Hlusko suggest that 1.8 million years ago early
hominids used grass stalks to clean their teeth. Many ancient hominid
teeth unearthed in archaeological digs have curved grooves near the
gumline. Hlusko posited that these grooves were evidence of teeth
cleaning by early man. However, critics pointed out that even though
the use of toothpicks is still a common practice among modern man,
similar grooves are not found on modern teeth.
Hlusko, convinced that she was on the right track, experimented
with grass stalks to see if they might have been the cause of the
grooves. Unlike the wood used for modern toothpicks, grass contains
Questions 1171–1174 are based on the following passage.
The following passage examines the possibility that early humans used toothpicks.
ETTM_06_293_428.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 1:57 PM Page 391
1171.In line 5, the word posited most nearly means
1172.Each of the following reasons is provided as
evidence that early man used grass stalks as
toothpicks EXCEPT the
a.width of the grooves on ancient teeth.
b.location of the grooves on ancient teeth.
c.ready availability of grass.
d.ongoing use of grass toothpicks.
e.abrasive quality of grass.
1173.Dr. Hlusko’s approach to determining the
source of the grooves on ancient teeth can best
be described as
1174.The passage suggests the theory that early man
used grass stalks as toothpicks is
a.a possibility.
b.very probable.
c.absolutely certain.
hard silica particles that are more abrasive than the soft fibers found
in wood. A stalk of grass is also about the same width as the marks
found on the ancient teeth. To prove her theory Dr. Hlusko took a
baboon tooth and patiently rubbed a grass stalk against it for eight
hours. As she suspected, the result was grooves similar to those found
on the ancient hominid teeth. She repeated the experiment with a
human tooth and found the same result.
It seems that our early human ancestors may have used grass, which
was easily found and ready to use, to floss between their teeth. As
Hlusko suggests in the journal Current Anthropology, “Toothpicking
with grass stalks probably represents the most persistent habit docu-
mented in human evolution.”
ETTM_06_293_428.QXD:RE_edition.QXD 7/1/08 1:57 PM Page 392
From year to year, the economic well-being of many Americans
changes considerably, even though the median income of the popu-
lation as a whole does not vary much in real terms from one year to
the next. One measure of economic well-being is the income-to-
poverty ratio. This ratio measures a family’s income compared to the
poverty threshold (the income below which a family is considered
to be in poverty) for that family. For example, the poverty threshold
for a three-person family in 1994 was $11,817. A three-person family
with an income of $20,000 would have an income-to-poverty ratio
of 1.69 (
Between 1993 and 1994 roughly three-quarters of the population
saw their economic well-being fluctuate by 5% or more. Conversely,
from year to year less than a quarter of Americans had stable incomes.
In the 1990s, fewer people saw their incomes grow than in the 1980s,
and more people saw their incomes decline. Although the state of the
economy is a notable factor in determining if incomes rise or fall,
changes in personal circumstances are just as important. People had
a good chance of seeing their incomes rise if they began to work full-
time, the number of workers or adults in their house increased, they
married, or the number of children in the household decreased. Con-
versely, people could expect a decrease in their income if they ceased
to be married or to work full-time.
Another factor that affected the direction of change in family
income was the family’s place on the economic ladder. The closer a
family was to poverty, the more likely they were to see their income
rise, whereas 45% of families at the top of the economic ladder (those
with income-to-poverty ratios of more than 4.0) experienced income
decreases in 1994. While age, gender, and race play a significant role in
determining one’s place on the economic ladder, these factors are not
good predictors of a rise or fall in income. The only population