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IIBUi!,BLAnDij(Jtj iNDIE 
Volume 102 — Special Supplemenl 


SCIENCE SCIENTISTS 
the NETHERLANDS INDIES 




Camp of the Dutch Central Sumatra Expedition of 1877/79 near the summit of Mount Kerintji in Central Sumatra (from Veth’s “Midden Sumatra I. 1881 


Science and Scientists 
the Netherlands Indies 


edited by 


Pieter Honig, pi d. 

Member oj the It nurd far the Setkerlands India, SHrinnm and Curaqno; I'ice- 
Chdirman, Sr.lherliinde ('ouneil, I nutitiite of I’arifir Relationn; Prexidenl, 
Intern. Sneict// of Sugar Cane T<‘< hnolngi.^ln; Dircelor, llubber Research 
Insllliitc, liuitrnzorg;lale Director of the Experiment Station of 
I he .Java Sugar Industrp, Pasoeroean; .isso<'iate EdtUrr, 

' S atuurn'etensvha ppelijic Tijdsehrift roof \eii. I nd i'e'; etc. 


and Frans Verdoorn, pld. 

Itotoniiul .iilriser to the Hoard for the Seth. Indies, .Surinam and i'urarao; 
Managing Editor, '(.’hnaina Itotanira,’ M Series of Plant Science 
Rooks,' and 'Annale.s Crgptoijamiei el Phi/lopath<dogiri',- Itibhographer, 
Arnold Arboretum of Harvard Universilp; lion. Seeretarp, Rot. 
Section, Intern. Union of Riologieal Sricnees; .Issociaie Editor, 
'Rryologisl,' 'Earlowia,’ ' S atuurwe.tensehapindijk Tijd- 
sehrift Voor Sederlatui.srk Indie ; etc. 



1945 


NEW YORK CITY 

Board for tlie Netlierlands Indies, Surinam and Curagao 



PubUshed MCMXLV 
by the Board for the Netherlands Indiesi 
Surinam and Curasao 
of New York City 


All rights reserved 


New York, N. Y.: G. E. Stechert and Co. 

31 East loth Street 

New York, N. Y.: Van Riemsdyck Book Service 
441 Lexington Avenue 

Waltham, Mass. : The Chronica Botanica Co. 

Book Department 

San Francisco, Cal.: J. W. Stacey, Inc. 

244 Flood Building 

London, W. 1, England: Wm. Dawson and Sons, Ltd. 
43, Weymouth Street 

Groningen, the Netherlands: N. V. Erven P. Noordhoff 

Melbourne, C. 1, Australia: N. H. Seward, Pty., Ltd. 
457, Bourke Street 

Calcutta, India: Macmillan and Co., Ltd. 

294, Bow Bazar Street 

Batavia, Netherlands East Indies: 
Noordhoff-Kolff, Ned.-Ind. Uitgeversmij, 


Designtd by Prans Verdoorn 
Printed and Bound at The Riverside Press 
Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A, 



RERUM NATURAE SCRUTATORIBUS 


QUI 

IN FINIBUS MALESIACIS 
SECUNDO GENTIUM OMNIUM 
BELLO COMMOTO 
VITA AMISSA SUA 
LIBERUM AD VERA 
INDAGANDA MOREM 


PRO POSTERIS ASSERVARUNT 




’aven) (lithographed by Lauters) from Blvme's Rumphia (1835). 



EDITORS’ FOREWORD 


In this volume, “Science and Scientists in the Netherlands Indies/’ 
we have endeavoured to present*a picture of the development and status of a 
number of hrayiches of the natural sciences, pure and applied, in the Nether- 
lands Indies. The period during which this volume was prepared has been 
darkened by the military occupation of both the Indies and the mother coun- 
try. This circumstance made it impossible to obtain the degree of collabora- 
tion necessary for a really complete history of science in the Netherlands 
Indies. 

The present work consists of: 

1 ) Original articles, prepared especially for this volume, dealing with the development or 
status of various branches of science in the Netherlands Indies. 

2 ) Reprints of similar accounts previously published elsewhere, several of which originally 
appeared in J'tutch and are now being made available in English. 

h) A number of travel accounts and impressions by distinguished visitors in the past, often 
offering delightful glimpses (scientific and otherwise) of life and nature in the Nether- 
lands Imlies. 

4 ) A number of shorter articles - - notes, biographical sketches, reinews, etc. (“Serta 
Malesiana ”) - - comprising material often of interest from the viewpoint of the promo^ 
Hon of North A merican - Netherlands Indies relationships. 

5 ) A list of scientific institutions, societies, and workers in the Netherlands Indies at the 
time of the Japanese invasion. 

Although this volume offers much less than, might be expected from a 
complete history, it nevertheless presents certain informatioyi which would 
not ordinarily be contained in such a xvork. It is hoped that our effort 
xvill be of use and mterest to visiting civilians and members of the armed 
forces of North America, Great Britain , and other countries; mariy of these 
visitors are now receiving their first impressions of the Malaysian archi- 
pelago, hitherto a strange and distant land for most of them. Dr. George 
Sarton, revieivingVEV.KV.\L ' s Nusantara {Isis 3 t ^34) declared: '"My 
only regret is that the students of natural history are neglected. KuMPHiUS, 
one of the greatest heroes of the East Indies, is dismissed in a fexv words; 
other naturalists are disposed of in a footnote; the history of the famous 
gardeyt of Biiitenzorg is not told, etc. It is true the author refers to Chris- 
tiaan CijKMAN, the pioneer of vitamin research, but that is yiot enotigh. 
The scientific exploration of the East Indies is not explained as it should be 
and thus some of the brightest pages of Dutch history are left out.'' 

Although this volume is published by the Government of the Netherlands 
Indies, it aims to be much more than a government-inspired effort in a 
critical period. The editors have made every attempt to keep the work 
free of narrow political considerations, and laudatory statemejits concerning 
Dutch policies in the past have often been removed from the text. On the 
other hand, the editors believe that in the modern xvorld science and govern- 
ment can not be kept entirely separate, and many chapters report on the 
relations between the two, which xverc perhaps closer in the Netherlands 
Indies than in many other parts of the xvorld. 



The history of science in the Netherlands Indies during the nineteenth 
and early twentieth centuries is a remarkable illustration of international 
cooperation in science. Scientists of numerous nationalities came to the 
Indies to study for a longer or a shorter time, or to settle down and make a 
career. Until about igjo the Netherlands Indies were free of any narrow 
nationalistic concepts, and there was never any discrimination against 
foreign research workers nor any prejudice against the free expression of 
international cooperation; the Dutch have held and always will hold with 
Albert Verwey 5 words, '' De wetenschap heeft geen gevaarlijker vijand 
dan de aanmatiging van een exclusief mitionalisme." 

At the end of this volume a list of research workers hi the Netherlands 
hulies at the time of the Japanese invasion is given. Their number may 
seem impressive {even though our list inchules feiver routine workers than 
certain other lists of this type); hoivever, it should be realized that the number 
of workers engaged in research in the strictest sense of the word has never 
exceeded a few hundred. The achievements of this small group are due to the 
fact that the majority of them had studied abroad and had been selected with 
un us lull care. 

7 he scientists, of many different nationalities, who came to the Nether- 
lands Indies had varying educational backgrounds. Without doubt this 
diversity luis exercised a stimulating influence, resulting in greater origin- 
ality and initiative than would have been found in a group of individuals 
of less diverse backgrounds and origin. As a result of such various back- 
grounds , close ties were developed between scientists and research institutions 
in the Netherlands Indies and those of other parts of the world; these ties 
have been of the greatest benefit to us. 

Scientific research has contributed substantially to the development of the 
Netherlands Indies, as the senior editor has shown in more detail in an 
article in Nature {15 242 -244, ig4j). Many examples of this contribu- 
tion are given in the present volume, the influence of research having been 
especially noteworthy in the fields of public health, estate agriculture, and 
applied geology. 

Agricultural research has for the greater part been carried on through 
private institutions, but these institutions have devoted much of their 
ejffort to basic research. The findings of experimejit stations have been 
quickly applied to estate agriculture in the East Indies; a close and well 
organized cooperation between research ami practice has been of tremendous 
importance to all concerned. 

The experiment stations, in addition to their numerous purely scientific 
and technical publications, organized extension and information services 
which issued less technical bulletins and leaflets. These services actively 
cooperated with various societies of plantation workers, often helping in the 
preparation of programmes of meetings and conventions. There has 
always been an unusual interest among plantation employees and other 
European workers, even among those without college training, in the scien- 
tific periodicals published in the Netherlands Indies {cf. p. 464). A large 
percentage of the circulation of these periodicals was among the quarter- 
million Europeans living in the Netherlands Indies. At the time of the 
Japanese invasion, iq journals or serials devoted to agriculture and 
related subjects were issued, 4 devoted to medicine and pharmacy, 2 to 
veterinary science and practice, and 7 to general science. There was also a 
number of engineering journals, one of them divided into several sections. 
These figures show that the occidentals in the East Indies, especially those 
engaged in the fields of agriculture, public health, and industry, had a great 
interest in their profession and its advances. Almost every employee of a 



western enterprise subscribed to one or two technical journals in his field. 
Consequent to this interest^ the research workers in the Netherlands Indies 
received a strong stimulus, and most of them had a definite feeling {which we 
do not find everywhere) that their work was really bearing fruit. 

The natural sciences are, without doubt, essential to the cultural and 
material development of a country. It should he recognized that the scien- 
tific work referred to above and in the following pages is based for the 
greater part on the methods and results of western science." This kind of 
work and research may often seem alien to the East, and to some it may 
seem somewhat arbitrarily transplanted to oriental surroundings, but never- 
theless it has been of great benefit to the people of the Malaysian islands. 

At the present time, when the right of peoples to self-government is being 
so much discussed, we may be permitted to ask whether scientific studies 
should be pursued in the same way as in the past — in a part of the world 
where nature and custom do not inevitably impel the rational recognition 
and application of facts established by the pure ami applied sciences. To 
the implied question — ■ namely, whether or not the occidental has the right 
and duty to continue his work as in the past — this hook may offer a partial 
reply. 

Only modern research can ansiver today's demand for a higher level of 
material well-being, for "freedom from want," that now basic governmental 
principle in every country where living standards are diverse. Only 
modern research seems able to help eradicate the poverty and privation 
among large groups of the population hi many countries — a poverty and 
privation which would seem fundamentally unnecessary in this twentieth 
century. Science and its exponents will doubtless continue to have a great 
mission in the Far East. 

We hope that there may be, among readers of this volume, some who will 
feel drawn toward the Malaysian islands, some ivho will feel that they 
have a training and knowledge which can be used therefor the good of man- 
kind. We also trust, and confidently, that the spirit of humanism and 
honest internationalism, unhampered by prejudices of race, creed, or 
personality, will guide the future of science and its applications in the 
Netherlands Indies. 


The Board for the Netherlands Indies, Surinam, and 
Curasao is not in any way responsible for any of the 
statements made in this volume. The opinions expressed 
are those of the authors or editors, and are not neces- 
sarily those of the Government of the Netherlands Indies. 




Figure 3. — An early Dutch representation of some of the principal palms of the Netherlands Intdies, banana, etc. In the background a 
native is pictured with a trunk of the sago palm. — From **De eerste Schipvaerd der Hollandsche Natie naer Oost-Indien ...” in "Begin ende V'oort- 
gangh van de Vereenighde Nederlantsche Geoctroyeerde Oost-Indische Compagnie” (1646). — Courtesy Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University 


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 


The Editors of “Science and Scientists in the 
Netherlands Indies’’ would like to express their 
appreciation for the assistance and advice ren- 
dered l)y a number of colleagues. Mrs. J. A. C. 
Fagginokr Auer (Belmont, Mass.), Dr. Lily 
M. F^erry (Arnold Arboretum of Harvard Uni- 
versity) and Dr. I). J. .Stki ik (Mass^ichusetls 
Institute of 'rechnology) translated several of 
the articles in this volume. Most of the proofs 
were faithfully road and cheeked b>- .Mrs. F. 


Verdoorn, Phil. nat. dra., Associate FMitor of 
Chronica Botanica, assisted by Miss Lola E. 
Wilson and K. Walter Baron, Bibliographer 
of Chronica Botanica. In addition to the 
numerous correspondents in the United States, 
Great Britain and Australia who helped us with 
the preparation of the addre.ss lists {cf. p. 425) we 
should like to extend sincere thanks for their dis* 
interested help in the planning and editing of 
this volume to: 


Ai.uxander L. ter Braakk, Mill, Khk. (Tin rroccssiiiK Corporal ion). 

Dr. F. E. Hrascii (Library of (loiiKress), 

Dr. Jan O. M. Hroek (University of California), 

Mr. James F. Knceks (Hoard fur tlie Netherlands Indies, Surinam and (iiiragao), 
Mrs. C. DE Groot (Central Depository Lil)rary for the Netherlands Indies). 

Mrs. Natalie Gurney (.Soiithea.st Asia Institute), 

the late Mr. G. 11. C. Hart (Hoard for the Netherlands Indic.s, Surinam and Curacao). 
Dr. K. VON HKiNE-tircLDERN (.Southeast Asia Institute). 

Dr. A. \V. (h T. Herre (Stanford University), 

Dr. H. Landheek (Netherlands Information Hnreau), 

Dr. J. Maas (Hoard for the Netherlands Indies, Surinam and Curacao). 

Dr. Elmer D. Merrill (Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University), 

Dr, Ernst Mayr (American Museum of Natural History). 

Dr. F. H. Myers (Hopkins Marine .Station), 

Dr. Horace I. 1’olkman (Library of ConKress), 

Dr, G. Sarton (Harvard University). 

the late Mr. P. 11. Sitsen (Board for the Netherlands Indies. Surinam and Curacao). 
Dr. A. C. Smith (Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University). 

Dr, 1. Snapper (Mount .Sinai Hospital), 

Dr. H. Staueper (Stanford University). 

Mr. Norman Taylor (Cinchona Institute), 

Dr. T. A. Tengwall (Hoard for the Netherlands Indies. .Surinam and Curacao), 

Dr, S. van Valkenuurg (Clark Univer.sity), 

Dr. F. 11. VisMAN (Board for the Netherlands Indies, Surinam and Curacao), 

Lt. Anthony de Vos (Royal Netherlands Air Force), 

Dr. F. W. Went (California Institute of Technology), and 
Dr, J. H. Wkstermann (Government of the Netherlands Indies) 


The endpapers have been designed by Dr. 
Erwin Raisz of the Institute of Geographical 
Exploration of Harvard University. The vig- 
nettes of Malaysian animals have been drawn by 
Lieutenant Anthony de Vos and are being re- 
produced by the kind permission of the Editor of 
Nature Magazine. The Netherlands Information 
Bureau of New York City has been very helpful 
in supplying us with suitable illustrations. Many 
of the older prints which we have reproduced have 
been taken from material kindly lent by the 
Library of the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard 
University. This library has a unique collection 
of Malaysian literature and has often been con- 
sulted in the course of the preparation of this 
volume. 


A number of the articles in this volume have previously 
been published elsewhere. Some were originally pub- 
lished in Dutch and have now been translated into English 
(cf. p. vii). In certain cases the English of articles previously 
published in Netherlands or Netherlands Indies periodicals 
has been improved somewhat, but only insofar as the un- 
written rules of bibliography permit. The spelling of 
scientific (plant and animal) names has been corrected in 
several instances but in the case of literatim reprints we 
have, of course, not tried to bring ‘ old-fashioned” names 
in conformity with today's rules of scientific nomenclature, 
riace names have, as a rule, also been left in the form in 
which they were given in the original publications. In most 
cases the typographical style of material which has appeared 
in jirini before has been made uniform with that followed 
in the present volume; in a few’ cases, however, we felt that 
it was better to retain the style of the original publication. 



Fk;uri: 4. — Batavia in the seventeenth century (from Johan Niruhok’s “Zee en Lanircizc, 1682). 


TABLE of CONTENTS 


Editors’ Foreword vii 

Acknowledgments xi 

Table of Contents xii 

List of Illustrations xx 

List of Contributors xxiii 


ON LIVESTOCK AND THE VETERINARY 
SERVICE IN THE NETHERLANDS 
INDIES h\ S. Bakker, Vet. I)., Govt. 


Wterinary Service, Batavia 1 

Statistical Data 1 

()xi>n and Buffaloes 2 

Dairy Farming 2 

Veterinary' .Service 2 

Wterinary Institute 

Ventral Dept, of the Institute. ... ^ 


ON THE MINERAL RESOURCES OF THE 
NETHERLANDS INDIES AND THEIR 
INDUSTRIAL POSSIBILITIES by 
R. W. van Bemmelen, Ph.D., Chief, 
V^olcanological Survey, Dept, of Mines, 
Bandoeng; translated by Mrs. J. A. C. 
Fagginger Auer, Belmont, Massachu- 
setts ^ 

Processing of Petroleum, Coal, and 


Ore b 

Metal and Machine Industry 6 

rhe Chemical Industry 7 

Building Materials 8 

Export 8 


LE JARDIN BOTANIQUE DE BUITEN- 
ZORG ET LES INSTITUTIONS DE 
BOTANIQUE APPLIQUfiE AUX IN- 
DES NfiERLANDAISES pur Charles 


J. Bernard, Dr, es Sc., C.eneve (Suisse); 
Ancien C'hef du Ministere de T Agricul- 
ture, Buitenzorg et Directeur de la 
Station Experimentale du The, Buiten- 
zorg Iff 

ON THE CLIMATE OF AND METEORO- 
LOGICAL RESEARCH IN THE NETH- 
ERLANDS INDIES by C. Braak, Ph.D., 
Dept, of Climatology, Royal Meteoro- 
logical Observatory, De Bilt, Nether- 
lands: late Director of the Royal Mag- 
netical and Meteorological Laboratory, 

Batavia — ■ 15 

General Features of the Indian 

Climate lb 

Comparison of the Climate with 
that of the Neighbouring 

('ountries lb 

Observations 18 

Wind and Air Pressure 18 

Temperature and Humidity 19 

Rainfall • • • 

Cloudiness and Sunshine, Haziness ^0 

Thunderstorms 21 

The Climate of Batavia and Ban- 
dung 21 

VOLCANOLOGY IN THE NETHER- 
LANDS INDIES by Alexander L. ter 
Braake, Min. Eng., President and Gen- 
eral Manager of “Tin Processing Cor- 
poration,” Galveston, Texas; formerly. 
General Manager of the Banka Tin 
Mines 22 



XIII 


Table of Contents 


EARTHQUAKES IN THE NETHER- 

^ LANDS INDIES by Lieutenant Colonel 
C. P. Brest vaA Kempen, Eng. (Delft), 

R. Neth. Indies Army Engineers; trans- 

lated by H. Stauffer, Ph.D., Research 
Associate in Geology, Stanford Univer- 
sity, California 35 

DIVERSITY AND UNITY IN SOUTHEAST 
ASIA by Jan O. M. Broek, Ph.D., As^- 
ciate Professor of Geography, University 
of California, Berkeley, Calif.; formerly. 
Research Associate, Institute of Pacific 
Relations, sometime Associate, Navy 
School for Military Government, Co- 
lumbia University, etc 36 

Regional Diversity in Southeast 

Asia 38 

Regional Problems 42 

R6le of Raw-Materials Export. ... 44 

New Opportunities 44 

Toward a Regional Bloc 46 

Local Unity 46 

THE ORGANIZATION DEVISED BY THE 
INTERNATIONAL RUBBER REGU- 
LATION COMMITTEE FOR THE 
CONDUCT OF RESEARCH AND 
PROPAGANDA, UNDER THE 1934 
AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE GOV- 
ERNMENTS OF FRANCE, THE 
UNITED KINGDOM, INDIA, THE 
NETHERLANDS, AND SIAM, TO 
REGULATE THE PRODUCTION AND 
EXPORT OF RUBBER by G. E. 
Coombs, B.A., Scuretary, British 
Rubber Producers’ Research Associa- 
tion, London; formerly, Manager, Hol- 
land America Plantation Co., Kisaran, 

S. O.K 

Introduction 

The 1934 Agreement 

The Examination of the Possibili- 
ties adumbrated in the 1934 

Agreement 

The Recommendations of the Mc- 

Fadyean .Sub-Committee 

The Organization as Finally Set Up 

The Impact of the War 

Finance 

Summary 

Appendix (i): The Constituent 

Units of the Organization 

International Rubber Re- 
search Board 

International Rubber 
Propaganda Commit- 
tee 

National Research Units 
National Propaganda 
Units 

. Appendix (ii): Interim Short Title 

List of Publications emanating 
from the Laboratories of the 
British Rubber Producers’ Re- 
search Association, on work 
conducted to the end of 1943 . . 
Appendix (iii) : Re.search and Prop- 
aganda Programmes 1940 .... 
Appendix (iv): Income accrued to 
the end of 1941 

THE WORK OF THE WEST JAVA RE- 
SEARCH INSTITUTE IN BUITEN- 


ZORG 6y Ch. Coster, Ph.D,, Director, 
Experiment Station West Java, Buiten- 
zorg; formerly, Chief Forester, and 
Director, Graduate .Sethool of Forestry, 

Madioen 55 

Tea 55 

Botanical investigations 55 

.Selection 55 

Chemistry of tea 56 

Preparation of tea 56 

Agricultural investigations 56 

Plant-pathological inves- 
tigations 56 

Rubber 56 

Botanical investigations. . 56 

Selection 57 

Chemistry 57 

Preparation of rubber 57 

Agricultural investigations 57 

Plant-pathological inves- 
tigations 57 

Cinchona 58 

Botanical investigations. . 58 

.Selection 58 

Chemistry 58 

Agricultural inve.stigations 58 

Plant-pathological inves- 
tigations 58 

References 58 


A HISTORY OF THE VISITORS’ LAB- 
ORATORY (“TREUB LABORATOR- 
lUM”) OF THE BOTANIC GARDENS, 
BUITENZORG, 1884-1934 by K. W. 
Dammerman, Ph.D., Late Director, 
Govt. Botanic Gardens, Buitenzorg, 
sometime Head, Zoological Museum, 

Buitenzorg 59 

48 List of Scientists who worked in the 

48 Foreigners’ Laboratory at 

49 Buitenzorg between 1884 and 

1934, with some notes about 

their researches 63 

49 

A SHORT HISTORY OF BERI-BERI IN- 

49 VESTIGATIONS IN THE NETHER- 

50 LANDS INDIES by W. F. Donath, 

50 M.D., Nutrition Research Institute, 

51 Batavia, and A. G. van Veen, Ph.D., 

52 Eijkman Institute, Batavia 75 

52 AN AMERICAN PLANT HUNTER IN THE 
NETHERLANDS INDIES by David G. 

52 Fairchild, Ph.D., Sc. D., President Emer- 

itus, Fairchild Tropical Garden, Inc., 
Coconut Grove, Fla.; late Principal 
52 Agricultural Explorer, United States De- 


53 partment of Agriculture 79 

I. Buitenzorg and Doctor Treub 

53 (1895-96) 79 

H. Rambles in Sumatra (1926). .. . 86 

HI. Gardens of the East from the 
Air (1940) 95 


FELIX ALEXANDER VENING MEINESZ, 

53 EXPONENT OF INTERNATIONAL 
COOPERATION THROUGH GEO- 

54 SCIENCE by Richard M. Field, Ph.D., 
Director, Summer School Geology and 

54 Natural Resources, Princeton Univer- 

sity; (diairman, Commission on Con- 
tinental and Oceanic Structure, Interna- 
tional Union of Geodesy and Geophys- 



Table of Contents 


XIV 


ics; Member, Div. of Foreign Relations, 

National Research ( oimcil;i tc 

Bibliography 


THROUGH BANTAM AND THE PRE- 
ANGER REGENCIES IN THE EIGHT- 
IES by Henry O. Forbes (1851M932), 
Ll.D.. Hon. F. /. S., late Director, I ni- 

versity Museums, Liverpool 

On the roatl 1 he Suiulanese 
language hivery mail a na- 
turalist Bird-lileat C>enteng 
- \Veaver-l)irds' nests - A 
native rural bazaar- hor- 
est devastation - Cieological 
Hit' ol the liistrict A 


wonderful case of mimicry In a 

spider 

Leav’e Genteiig - Native black- 
smiths at Sadjira- Hot springs 
of Tjipanas — Birds ;uid 
plants at d'jipanas — Invita- 
tion to Kosala — The Kosala 
estate — 'I'he curious disease 


Lata — d'he Wau-wau — 
Birds — Bees — White Ants 

— Great trees — Long drougdit 
and its consequences — . Lhe 
Ilemileia vastatrix, a fungo><-l 
blight and the bulTalo disease 

— Flora and F'auna of Kosala 
Mountains -- Singular living 
ants’ nests and their develop- 
ment -- Ore h iris at Kosala and 
some curious devices for se- 
curing self-fertilisiition — An- 
cient remains in the forest — ■ 
d'he Kanrigs and their curious 
rites — rile Badui - - Religion 
and superstitions of the people 
of Bantam — Leave Kosala. . . 


104 


104 


no 


Leave Buitenzorg for the Preanger 
Regencies • Journey to Ban- 
dong in a Post-cart - - Bandong 
— Thenr'e to Pengelengan — - 
Visit to tbe famous (’meboua 
Gardens of the (joverninent — 
Plant-life in the surrounding 
mountains — Lhe Upas tree — - 
Crater Hora — Landslips and 
the power of rain — Interest- 
ing birds — d he Badger- 
headed Mydaus — The Ban- 
teng, or wild cattle — Wild 
dogs — Leave Pengelengan 
for Batavia 118 


ON VETERINARY SCIENCE AND 
PRACTICE IN THE NETHERLANDS 
INDIES by J. Frickers, Vet. D., Chief 
Veterinarian to the Government of 
Surinam; C. H. Haasjes, Vet. 1)., Prac- 
tising Veterinarian, Shelby, Mich., Col- 
laborator of “Biological Abstracts," 
etc.; and H. Preston Hoskins, Vet. D., 
Editor of the “North American Veter- 


inarian" 123 

MISSIONARY PHYSICIANS AND HOS- 
PITALS IN THE NETHERLANDS 
INDIES hyK.P.Groot,M.D 126 


PREHISTORIC RESEARCH IN THE 
NETHERLANDS INDIES by Robert 


von Heine-Geldern, Ph.D., Research 
Associate, East Indies Institute of 
America: Research Associate, Dept, of 
Anthropology, Anu'rican Museum of 
Natural History, New York; Professor, 
Iranian Institute and School on Asiatic 


Stu< lies. New’ York 129 

The Beginnings 129 

Divelopnunt of Systmnatic Ri- 

si'arch 130 

Research on Mesolithic 
and Earlv Neolithic 

cultures 13(1 

Research on the Neolithic 

of Indonesia 134 

Research on the “Bronze 

Age” of Indonesia.. 142 

Early Chinese contacts. . 147 

Iron Age 147 

Urn burials 148 

Studies on megaliths, 
primitiv'e stom* sculp- 
tures and rock graves 148 
Survival of prehistoric art 

styles 152 

Discoverv' of the Palaeo- 
lithic 153 

Progress and organization 

of research 157 

The F'uture of Prehistoric R('search 

in Indonesia 157 

Conservation 157 

Prevention of unscientific 

e.xcav’ations 158 

I’ublii ation of discoverii'S 158 

Re.search 159 

Notes 160 

Bibliography 162 


RESEARCH ON FISH AND FISHERIES 
IN THE INDO-AUSTRALIAN ARCHI- 
PELAGO by Albert W. C. T. Herre, 
Ph.D., Curator of Ichthyology, Natural 
History Museum, Stanford IJniversity, 
('alifornia; late Director of I-'ishei i(‘s. 
Bureau of Science, Manila 167 

AGRICULTURE IN THE NETHERLANDS 
INDIES by Pieter Honig, Ph.D., ]\Iem- 
ber of the Board for the Netlu-rlamls 
Indies, Surinam and ('urayao; Vice*- 
( hairman, Netherlands Council, Insti- 
tute of Pacific Relations, President, 
Intern. Socie ty of Sugar Cane Technol- 
ogists, Directe)r of the Rubber Rese arch 
Institute, Buitenzorg; late Director of 
the E.xperiment Station of the Java 
Sugar Industry, Pase)ere)ean 175 


Chapters in the History of Cinchona 

I, A SHORT INTRODUCTORY REVIEW 
by Pieter Honig, Ph.D., Member e>f the* 
Board for the Ne the rlanels Indies, Suri- 
nam and ('urae.ao; Vice-Chairman, 
Netherlands Council, Institute of Pacific 
Relations, President, Intern. Sexiety of 
Sugar Cane 'Fe-chnologists, Director of 
the Rubber Research Institute, Buiteii* 
zexg; late Director of the Experiment 
Statit;n of the Java Sugar Industry, 
Pasoeroean 181 



( IH iS I l>r. pluinti. hon. c., i.»u 

lusw^nov, Govt. ( indiofia nwt.tttons 
java; \alv CVivi \\\syvt'lot \()\ S\A\t'At 

Rirc, Dept, of Agriculture, Bultcn/org; 

Kditor “Oost-Indischc Gulturcs^^ otr. 1 


'■’j / I , ... 1 •. i' i 

GaU'A.vt^.rs at tt. . 

\OtV, ^ UWvl^UN *'t 


References. 


231 

.m 


in, JUNGHUHN AND CINCHONA CULTI- 
VATION by P. van Leersum (1854- 
1020), late Director, Government Gin- 
chona Plantations, Java; late Professor 
of Idiarniacy, Utrecht University, etc.; 
translated by Lily M. Perry, Ph.l)., 
The Arnold Arboretum, Harvard Uni- 


versity 190 

Introductory 190 


Refutation of some Objections 
which have been made in pub- 
lished articles regarding cin- 
chona cultivation in Java by 
Fr. Junghuhn 191 

IV, CINCHONA CULTIVATION AFTER 

JUNGHUHN’S DEATH by K. W, van 
Gorkom (1835-1910), Dr. pharm. hon. 
c,, late Inspector, Govt. Cinchona Plan- 
tations, Java; late Chief Inspector for 
Sugar and Rice, Dept, of Agriculture, 
Buitenzorg; Fditor “Oost-lndische 
Cultures”; etc 196 

V, MODERN DEVELOPMENTS by Nor- 

man Taylor, Director, ( inchona Prod- 
ucts Institute, New York City; for- 
merly, Curator of Plants, Brooklyn 
Botanic Garden; sometime Editor, 
“Journal Intern. Garden Club,” 
“Gartlen Dictionary”; late Botanical 
Editor, “\\'eb.ster's Dictionary,” etc.. . 203 

Chapters in the History of Chemistry in the 
Netherlands Indies 

I, HALF A CENTURY OF PHYTOCHEMI- 

CAL RESEARCH by D. R. Koolhaas, 

Ph.D., Chief, Technical and Scientific 
.Section, Industry Div., Dept, of Eex)- 
nomic Affairs, Batavia; late Director, 

Lab. for Chemical Research, Buitenzorg 207 
Literature Cited 214 

II, RESEARCHES BY VISITORS FROM 

ABROAD AT BUITENZORG (1884 
1934) by D. R. Koolhaas, Ph.D., Chief 
Pc'chnical and .Scientific Section, Indus- 
try Div., Dept, of Economic Affairs, 
Batavia; late Director, Lab. for Chemi- 


cal Research, Buitenzorg 215 

Literature Cited 217 


FORESTRY IN THE OUTER PROVINCES 
OF THE NETHERLANDS INDIES by 
C. van de Koppel, For. Eng. (Wag.), 
Re.search Associate, Colonial In.stitute, 
Amsterdam; late Chief, Museum for 
Economic Botany, Batavia; late Chief 
Forester, Govt. Forest .Service of the 
Neth. Indies 217 

ASTRONOMY IN THE NETHERLANDS 
INDIES by Gerard P. Kuiper, Ph.D., 

Profcs,sor of Astronomy at Yerkes and 
McDonald Observatories, University of 


THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ZOOLOG- 
ICAL MUSEUM AT BUITENZORG by 
M. A. Lieftinck, Ph.D., Chief, Zoological 
Museum, ( fO\'ernment Botanic (Lirdens, 
Buitenzorg; latf Assistant, Zoological 
Mu.seum of th(‘ Univt rsity of Amster- 
dam; and A. C. van Benunel, Ph.D., 
Ornithologist, Z(K)Iogical Mu.seum, Gov- 
ernment Botanic Gardens. Buitenzorg. 226 

NOTES JAVANAISES par Jean Massart 
(1865-1925), Dr. en med. et en sci. nat., 
feu Directeur de I'lnstitut Botanique 
Leo Errera, et Professeur de Botanique, 


Universite Libre, Bruxelles 231 

Dans la For^t vierge 237 


WALLACE’S LINE IN THE LIGHT OF 
RECENT ZOOGEOGRAPHIC STUD- 
IES by Ernst Mayr, Ph.D., Associate 
('urator, Whitney- Rothschild Collec- 
tion, American Mus(>um of Natural 
History; sometime Jesup Lecturer, 
Columbia University; late As.st. Cura- 
tor, Zoological Museum, University of 


Berlin 241 

Is Wallace’s Line the Boundary 
between the Oriental and tlie 

Australian Regions? 241 

Celebes 242 

Les.ser .Sunda Islands. . . . 242 
Does Wallace’s Line Indicate a 

Major Faunal Break? 242 

I'he G<‘ology of the Malay Archi- 
pelago 242 

rh(' Efficiency of the Water Bar- 
riers between the Lesser Sunda 

Islands 244 

The Ea.stern Counterpart of Wal- 
lace’s Line 246 

Should an Internu'diate Zoogeo- 

graphic Region be Recognized? 246 

Weber’s Line 247 

Unsolved Prol)lems of Indo-Au.s- 

tralian Zoogeography 249 

Summary 249 

Postscript 249 

List of Literature 250 


CLIMATE AND SOIL IN THE NETHER- 
LANDS INDIES by E. C. J. Mohr, 
Ph.D., Extension Agronomist, Colonial 
Institut(‘ of Amsterdam; late Director, 
(ieneral Agricultural Experinumt Sta- 
tion, Buitenzorg; late Geologist and 
Pedologist, Dept, of Agriculture, Buiten- 
zorg; Special Profi'ssor of .Soil Science, 
University of Utrecht 250 

THE RELATION BETWEEN SOIL AND 
POPULATION DENSITY IN THE 
NETHERLANDS INDIES by E. C. J. 
Mohr, [’h.I9., Extension Agronomist, 
Colonial Institute of Amsterdam; late 
Director, General Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station, Buitenzorg; late Geologist 



Table of Contents 


XVI 


and PedoloRist, Dept, of Agriculturej 
Buitenzorg; Special Professor of Soil 

Science, University of Utrecht 

Java 

The Small Sunda Islands 

Sumatra 

Celebes 

Borneo 

The Moluccas 

New Guinea 


254 

254 

260 

260 

260 

261 

261 

261 


Governor General of the Netherlands 


Indies, Brisbane, Australia; formerly. 
Paleontologist, Bataafsche Petroleum 
Mij.; Member of the Council, Neth. In- 
dies Society for Nature Protection 279 

Short Historical Outline and Prob- 
lems of Paleobotanical Sci- 
ence 279 

Paleobotanical Research in the 
Netherlands East Indies and 
its p-uture Possibilities 281 


DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL STORES 
AND PULPWOOD SUPPLIED FROM 
THE PINUS MERCUSII OF NORTH- 
ERN SUMATRA by D. G. Moon, Mech. 

Eng. Lond., Consulting Engineer, J. P.. 
Sirrine & Co., Greenville, S.( some- 
time Consulting Engineer to Nether- 
lands Indies Govt.; formerly, Chief 
Engineer, Union Bag and Paper C orpo- 
ration, Continental Paper and Bag C o., 
Mexican Central Railroads, etc., etc. . . . 263 

History of Pinus Mercusii 263 

Early Investigations 263 

Practical Opc^ration 263 

Capactiy of Naval Stores 263 

Pulp\V(?od [nvestif^ations 264 

/Voposed Pulp and Paper Mill. . . . 264 

Forest Growth Control 264 

Tapping and 'I'hinning Operations. 264 
Used as Pr(x\ucers for Many Y ears . 264 

Labor 265 

Does not as Readily Work for 

Wages 265 

Supervision 265 

Divided into Areas of 6000 Acres. . 265 


THE HOT SPRINGS CONFERENCE AND 
AGRICULTURE IN SOUTHEAST 
ASIA by Hendrik Riemens, PY'.I)., Fin- 
ancial Attache, Netherlands Panbassy, 
Washington, and Member, Netherlands 
Economic Mission in the Western Hemi- 
sphere; formerly, ('ommercial Secre- 
tary, Netherlands Legation, Washing- 
ton, D.C 283 

RECENT RESEARCH AT THE DELI 
TOBACCO EXPERIMENT STATION 
byP. A.RoelofseUjPh.D., Director of the 
Tobacco Expenment Station, Medan; 
formerly, iVlicrobiologist, P^xperiment 
Station (Vntral and East Java at Ma- 
lang; late Assistant, Laboratory of 
Microbiology, Technical College, Delft. 285 

Agricultural Department 286 

Botanical Department 286 

Entomological Department 287 

Agrochemical Department 288 

TAGEBUCH EINER REISE IN NORD- 


RECENT STUDIES OF SEDIMENTS IN 
THE JAVA SEA AND THEIR SIGNIF- 
ICANCE IN RELATION TO STRATI- 
GRAPHIC AND PETROLEUM GEOL- 
OGY by Earl H. Myers, Ph.D., Micro- 
paleontology Laboratories of Hopkins 
Marine Station, Pacific Grove, Cali- 
fornia; formerly. Research Associate, 
Scripps Institution of Oceanography 
of the University of California 265 

RABIES RESEARCH IN THE NETHER- 
LANDS INDIES by the late Maria J. 
Otten-van Stockum, M.D. (fMay 26, 
1940), late Assistant, Pasteur Institute, 
Bandoeng, Java; with a foreword by 

Dr. I. Snapper 269 

Results of Antirabic Treatment 
with live and formalized 
monkey fixed virus in the light 
of a new method of analysis of 


rabies statistics 270 

Conclusions 279 

Explanation of protocols 279 

Literature 279 


PALEOBOTANICAL RESEARCH IN THE 
NETHERLANDS INDIES, ITS PAST 
AND ITS FUTURE by O. Posthumus, 
Ph.D., Director, General Agricultural 
Experiment .Station, Buitenzorg; for- 
merly, Geneticist, P2xperiment Station 
for the Java Sugar Industry, Pasoeroe- 
an; late Assistant in Plant Morphology 
and Paleobotany, University of Gro- 
ningen; translated by J. H. Wester- 
mann, Ph.D., Aide to the Lieutenant 


SUMATRA i?onF. Schneider, Forstingen- 
ieur, Eidgenossische Zentralanstalt fiir 
das Forstliche Versuchswesen, Ziirich. 289 

RUMPHIUS, THE BLIND SEER OF AM- 
BOINA by M. J. Sirks, Ph.D., Professor 
of Genetics, University of Groningen; 
formerly. Geneticist, College of Agricul- 
ture, Wageningen; Secretary, Sixth In- 
ternational Botanical Congress, Int. 
Union of Biological Sciences, etc.; Asso- 
ciate Editor of Genetica, etc. ; sometime 
Assistant to the late Dr. J. P. Lotsy, 
etc.; translated by Lily M. Perry, Ph.D., 

The Arnold Arboretum, Harvard Uni- 


versity 295 

Appendix (F. Tobler on Rumphius’ 
work and interest in the man- 
grove vegetation) 307 


MEDICAL CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE 
NETHERLANDS INDIES by 1. Snap- 
per, M.D., Director of Medical Educa- 
tion, and Chief of Second Medical 
Service, Mount Sinai Hospital, New 
York; Clinical Professor of Medicine, 
Columbia University; formerly. Profes- 
sor of Medicine at the University of 
Amsterdam and Peiping Union Medical 


College; etc 309 

Introduction 309 

Smallpox Vaccination 310 

Scientific Contributions 312 

Beri-beri 312 

Malaria control 312 

Amebiasis 313 

Cholera 314 

Plague 315 



XVII 


Table of Contents 


Mite Fever 317 

Leptospirosis 317 

Filariasis 318 


Miscellaneous (Salinonel- 
lac, Rabies vaccina- 
tion, Yaws, Preven- 
tive medicine on large 


estates) 318 

Summary 3 IQ 

References 319 


THE GEOLOGY OF THE NETHERLANDS . 


INDIES hy B,. Stauffer, Ph.D., Research 


Rataafsche Petroleum Mij 320 

Introduction 320 

Development of Geological Knowl- 


General Setting in (Robal Geology 321 

Structure 321 

General 321 

Sumatra 322 

Java 322 

Lesser Suiida Islands from 

Bali to Banda 323 


Sumba- Timor- Fenimber- 
Kei-Ceram-Buru ar- 


chipelago 323 

New Guinea 324 

Halmaheira 324 

C'elebes 324 

BoriK'o 327 

Unconformities 127 

Stratigraphy 327 

Paleogeography 327 

Pearly Paleozoic 329 

Oystalline schists 329 

Carboniferous and Per- 
mian sediments 329 

Triassic sediments 329 

Jurassic deposits 129 

Cretaceous 330 

Tertiary 330 

Quaternary deposits 331 

Igneous rock 331 

Economic Geology 131 

Tin 331 

Gold and silver 332 

Iron ore 332 

Nickel ore 332 

Platinum 332 

Tungsten ore 332 


Lead ore 332 

Manganese ore 332 

Monazite sand 333 

Copper ore 333 

Bauxite 333 

Diamonds 333 

Iodine 333 

Sulphur 333 

Phosphatic limestone. . . . 333 

Limestone 334 

Clay 334 

Kaolin 334 

Tras 334 

Petroleum 3v34 

Asphaltic rocks 335 

Coal 335 

Literature 335 


A BOTANICAL EXPLORATION TRIP IN 
SOUTH SUMATRA hy C. G. G. J. van 
Steenis, Ph.D., Herbarium and Museum 


for Systematic Botany, Govt. Botanic 


Gardens, Buitenzorg; formerly, Assist- 
ant, Herbarium, University of Utrecht; 
Editor “Natuurwctenschappelijk Tijd- 

schrift voor Ned. Indie,'’ etc 335 

Introduction 335 

Topography and Geology 336 

Earlier Collections 337 

The Author's Route and Collec- 
tions 338 

Sketches of the Vegetation 339 

The vegetation of the 

Ranau 339 

'The flora of the sandy 

beach 339 

'The sawahs 339 

'The hot springs Wai Panas 340 

The secondary growth 340 

The primary forest be- 
tween 500 and 1000 

m altitude . 340 

The gorge of Air Telanai . . 342 
The mountain forest of Bt 

Pakiwang 342 

'The mountain forest of 

G. Raja.... 342 

Trip to G. Pesagi 343 


HISTORY OF RUBBER CULTIVATION 
AND RESEARCH IN THE NETHER- 
LANDS INDIES by T. A. Tengwall, 

Ph.D., Rubber Adviser to the Board for 
the Netherlands Indies, Surinam and 
('uragao. New York (dty; formerly. 
Director, Res(‘arch Dept., Firestone 
Plantations Co., Liberia; Director, 
Institute for 'Tropical Agriculture, Anta- 
lya, 'Turkey; Vice-Director, Experiment 
Station West Java; etc 344 

HYDRODYNAMIC RESEARCH IN THE 
NETHERLANDS INDIES by H. Vlug- 
ter, Mech. Eng. (Delft), Director, Hy- 
drodynamical Laboratory, Bandoeng: 
translated by D. J. Struik, Ph.D., 
Professor of Mathematics, Massachu- 
setts Institute of 'I'echnology, ('am- 
bridge. Mass.; formerly. Special Lec- 


turer, University of Utrecht 351 

Fixed Dams 351 

Movable Dams 356 

Siphons 356 

Measuring In.stallations 356 

Riverbed Improvements 357 

Special Problems 357 

MEDICAL EDUCATION IN THE NETH- 
ERLANDS INDIES hy A. de Wawt, 

M.D., Professor of Physiology, Medical 
College, Batavia 359 

EXPLORATIONS IN CELEBES hy Alfred 
Russel Wallace (1823-1913), Ll.D., 
D.C.L., O.M., F.R.S., etc.. Noted 
British Biologist 362 


THE PUZZLE OF PITHECANTHROPUS 
by Franz Weidenreich, M.D., American 
Museum of Natural History, New York 
City, Hitchcock Professor, University 
of California 1945; formerly, hon. 
Director, Cenozoic Research Laboratory 
of the National Geological Survey of 
China; late Professor of Anatomy, etc. 



Table of Contents 


XVIIX 


at the Universities of Strassburg, Heidel- 
berg and Frankfurt a. M 380 

References 389 

A SHORT HISTORY OF GENERAL BOT- 
ANY IN THE NETHERLANDS IN- 
DIES by F. A. F. C. Went (1863-1935), 
Ph.D., For.Mem.R.S., etc., late Pro- 
fessor of Botany, University of Utrecht, 
President, R. Academy of Amsterdam, 
etc.; and F. W. Went, Ph.l)., Professor 
of Plant Physiology, ('alifornia Institute 
of Technology, Pasadena; formerly. 
Head, Treub Laboratory, Buitenzorg; 
corresponding member, R. Academy of 
Amsterdam 390 


The Tjihodas Biologidil Station and 
Forest Reserve 

I, A NATURALIST’S PARADISE by F. W. 
Went, Ph.l)., Pnd'essor of Plant Physi- 
ology, California Institute «)t 'I'echnol- 
ogy, Pasadena; formerly. Head, Treub 
Laboratory, Buitenzorg; corrt'sponding 
mtunber, R. Academy of Amsterdam . . . 403 


Societies. . . 
Address List 


428 

429 


Serta Kfalesiana 


THE BOARD FOR THE NETHERLANDS 
INDIES, SURINAM AND CURACAO 
by James F. Engers, Board for the Neth- 
erlands Indies, Surinam and Curasao, 

New York City 461 

THE CENTRAL DEPOSITORY LIBRARY 
FOR THE NETHERLANDS INDIES 
IN NEW YORK CITY by Pieter Honig 
and Frans Verdoorn, Board for the Neth- 
erlands Indies, Surinam and Curasao, 

New York City 462 


A CARD INDEX OF WAR-TIME LITERA- 
TURE ON TROPICAL AGRICULTURE 
OF INTEREST TO THE NETHER- 
LANDS INDIES by Frans Verdoorn, 

Chronica Botanica, Waltham, Mass.. . . 465 


RECENT BIBLIOGRAPHIES ON THE 

NETHERLANDS EAST INDIES 465 


II, THE FAUNA OF TJIBODAS by K. W. 

Dammerman, Ph.l)., late Director of 
the Govt. Botanic. Ciardens at Buiten- 
zorg, sf)metime Head, Zoological Mu- 
seum, Buitenzorg 404 

III, THE FLORA OF TJIBODAS by W. M. 
Docters van Leeuwen, Ph.l)., For. 
Mem. Linn. Soc., Special Reader in 
Botany, University of Amsterdam; 
formerly, Director of the Govt. Botanic 
Gardens at Buitenzorg and Professor of 
Botany, C.'ollege of Medicine, Batavia. . 409 

IV, THE BOTANICAL GARDEN AT TJI- 

BODAS by P. Dakkus, ( urator of the 
Botanic Gardens, Buitenzorg, Java 414 

WILD LIFE CONSERVATION IN THE 
NETHERLANDS EMPIRE, ITS NA- 
TIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL AS- 
PECTS by J. H. Westermann, Phd)., 

Aide to the Lieutenant (jovernor Gen- 
eral of the Netherlands Indies, Brisbane, 
Aust.; formerly, Pahrontoh)gist, Bataaf- 
sche Petroleum Mij.; fornu'rly, Bibli- 
ograidier, Geological Institute, Utrecht; 
Member of the Council, Netherlands 


Indies .Society (A Nature Prott‘Ction. . . . 417 

Introduction 417 

National .'\sp<'cts 417 

The Netherlands 417 

riie Netherlands Fast In- 
dies 418 

Surinam 422 

( ura^ao 422 

International As{)ects 422 

Conclusion 424 


SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTIONS, SOCIETIES 
AND RESEARCH WORKERS IN THE 
NETHERLANDS INDIES, compiled by 
Frans Verdoorn, Ph.D. and J. G. Ver- 
doom, Phil. nat. dra., Editors of ( hron- 


ica Botanica 425 

Institutions 426 


SMALL INDUSTRIES IN INDONESIA by 
Bruno Lasker, American Council. In- 
stitute of Pacific Relations, New York 
City 467 

IN MEMORIAM P.H. SITSEN 5y Adriaan 
van der Veen, Board for the Nether- 
lands Indies, Surinam and Curasao, 

New York City 469 

IN MEMORIAM G. H. C. HART by Adriaan 
van der Veen, Board for the Nether- 
lands Indies, .Surinam and ('ura^ao. 

New York City 470 

THE TOPOGRAPHICAL SERVICE OF 
THE NETHERLANDS EAST INDIES 
by S. van Valkenburg, Sclu.)ol of (ieog- 
raphy, Clark University, Worcester, 
Mass 471 


THE CONTRIBUTION OF PROFESSOR 
RAYMOND KENNEDY TO INDO- 
NESIAN ETHNOLOGY by E. Adamson 
Hoebel, Dept, of Sociology and Anthro- 
pology. New \h)rk University 472 


THE SNELLIUS EXPEDITION by L. Lek, 

La Jolla, ( alif 475 

EDUCATION IN THE NETHERLANDS 
INDIES, A SYMPOSIUM by B. Land- 
heer, Netherlands Information Bureau, 

New York City 474 


INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF THE 
PROTECTION OF COASTAL FISH- 
ERIES ("Protection ol ('oastal Fisheries 
under International Law” byS. A. RlES- 
knff-xd) by Albert W. C. T. Herre, Stan- 
ford University, ( alifornia 475 


THE UNRRA by J. J. Polak, Board for the 
Netherlamls Indies, Surinam and 

Curasao, W'ashington, D.C 477 

Summary of Recent Activities. . . 478 



XIX 


Table of Contents 


THE INSTITUTE OF PACIFIC RELA- 
TIONS hy Horace Belshaw, Institute of 
Pacific Relations, New York City 478 

NETHERLANDS AND NETHERLANDS 
INDIES COUNCIL OF THE INSTI- 
TUTE OF PACIFIC RELATIONS hy 
James F. Engers, Board for the Nether- 
lands Indies, Surinam and Curasao, New 


York City 479 

THE SOUTHEAST ASIA INSTITUTE (for- 
merly, the Kast Indies Institute of 
America) AND ITS ACTIVITIES by 
Natalie Gurney, The Southeast Asia 
Institute, New York C.'ity 480 

THE NETHERLANDS STUDIES UNIT AT 
THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS by 
B. Landheer, Library of Congress, 
Wavshiugton, D.C 481 

THE COOLIDGE FOUNDATION 482 

ACTIVITIES OF THE NETHERLANDS 
INDIES LABORATORIES by C. L. 
Mantell, Netherlands Indies Laborato- 
ries, New York ('ity 482 


A FISHERIES PROGRAM FOR THE 
NETHERLANDS EAST INDIES hy 
Earl H. Myers, Hopkins Marine Station, 
Pacific Grove, California 483 


AN ATLAS OF THE NETHERLANDS IN- 


DIES L. Rutten 484 

THE PACIFIC WORLD SERIES 486 


LISTS OF THE MAMMALS OF THE JAP- 
ANESE WAR AREAS hy G. H. H. Tate . 486 

NOUVELLES ETUDES SUR L»AGRO- 
LOGIE ET LA PfiDOLOGIE DES 
INDES NEERLANDAISES (“Studien 
over de Bodemkunde van Nederlandsch 
Indie” by C. H. Edelman) par Ch. 
Bernard in Rev. Int. Ind. Agric 486 

THE NETHERLANDS INDIES IN THE 
TWENTIETH CENTURY (“Daar werd 
wat groots verricht — Nederlandsch- 
Indie in de XXste eeuw,” edited by 
W. IL VAN Helsdingen and H. Hoo- 
oenuerk) by D. Friedman, Netherlands 
Information Bureau, New York City. . 487 



Fiovrk .S. — Sf.vkntkkniu CKNitkY Hos-i'iTAL IN Batavia (from Johan Niei hof’s “Zee en Lantrei/e." 1682). 

I.IST oj ILLUS1'R\'ri()NS 


I. Camp of the Dutch ('entral Suma- 

tra Rxpeilition of I 877 79 near the 

Summit of Mount Kerintji ll 

Fi(i. 2. Landscape with Fi<us near Buitcn- 

zor^ in the earl\' Nineteenth Cen- 
tury VI 

Imo. .L An early Dutch Representation of 

some of the jirincifial Palms of the 

Netherlands Indies x 

Fig. 4. Batavia in the Seventeenth Cen- 

turv XU 

Fig. 5. .Seventeenth Centurs’ Hospital in 

Bata\ ia XX 

I'lG. 6. Latin .School in Batavia in the 

Seventeent h ( ent ury xxiii 

Fig. 7. Frontispieceof Rl.mpuii s’ “D’Am- 

boinsche Rariteit kamer ” xxiv 

Fk;. 8. I'he Royal MeteoroloKical Ob- 
servatory in Batavia 1 7 

Fig. 9. Air Pressure and Wind in Decem- 
ber -February 1 8 

Fig. lO. Air Pressure and Wind in June- 

August 1 9 

Fig. 1 1. Lhe Bromo, after an old h rench 

Print 2,J 

Fig. 1 2. Active Volcanoes in the Nether- 
lands Indies 24-25 

Fi(,. l.L Srjlfatara near the Top of Mount 

Papandayan 27 

Fi(.. 14. I'he Island of Krakatau 29 


Fig. 1 5. Mount Merapi and the Destruc- 
tion by Ladoes in Decemlter 19.^0 40 

Fig. 16. The Crater Lake of the Kloet \01- 

cano 31 

Fig. 17. The Bromo ('rater 32 

Fig. 18. Mount Tjikoeraj 33 

Fig. 19. Seismic Maj) of the Netherlands 

Fast Indies between 34 and 35 

Fk;. 20. X'olcanoes, Orientation Map 37 

Fig. 21. Rainfall Map 39 

Fk.. 22. I\)pulalion Densit\ Mai) 

Fig. 23. Population Change Map 43 

Fig. 24. Languages .Map 45 

I-'k;. 25. Religions Map 47 

I'lG. 26. A Night (Crossing of the I jitarum 

River 107 

Fk.. 27. A Herd of Holstein Cattle 124 

I' k;. 28. A View of the Veterinary Research 

Institute at Buitenzorg 125 

Fig. 29. Objects from the (ioewa Lawa 

(Bat Cave) near Sampoeng 131 

Fk;. 30. Mest^lithic Implement of “Suma- 

tra Type, ’’C.unung Poiulok, Perak, 
Malaya 132 


Fk;. 31. Implements of Stone and Bone of 
Hoabinhian I'ype from the (ioewa 
Mardjan, near Pocger, Besoeki 132 
Fig. 32. Stone Implements from the Liang 
Karrassa (Ohost C'ave) near 
Maros, Srjuth west Celebes 133 



XXI 


List of Illustrations 


Fig. 33. Arrow Heads of Stone and Bone, 
Fragment of a Ray-Sting, and 
Stone Implements from Southwest 

Celebes 133 

Fig. 34. Stone Points from Timor 134 

Fig. 35. Points, Knives, Scrapers, etc. of 
Obsidian from the surroundings of 

Bandoeng 135 

Fig. 36. Stone Tools and Weapons from 
Galoempang, West Central Cele- 
bes 136 

Fig. 37. Potsherds with Incised Cxeometric 
Designs from Galoempang, West 

Central Celebes 137 

Fig. 38. Adzes of Jasper and Agate, West 

Java 139 

Fig. 39. Adze of Agate, We.st Java 139 

Fig. 40. Pick-Adzes of Silex and Chalce- 
dony, West Java 140 

Fig. 41. Stone Ax from Borneo 141 

Fig. 42. Stepped Stone Adze from Mina- 

hassa. North Celebes 142 

Fig. 43. Bronze Socketed Celts, West Java 143 

Fig. 44. Bronze Axes from Rot i 144 

Fig. 45. Bronze Drum from Bontobangoen, 

Island Salajar 144 

Fig. 46. Detail of Bronze Drum from the 

Island of Sangean, near Soembawa 145 
Fig. 47. Earthenware Flask from an Urn 
Burial near Lesoengbatoe, South- 
west Sumatra 146 

Fig. 48. Stone Statue of a Man Riding on a 
Buffalo from Pematang, Pasemah, 

Southwest Sumatra 150 

Fig. 49. Painting on the Inner Wall of a 
Stone Chamber-Grave from I'and- 
joeng Ara, Pasemah, Sumatra. . . . 151 

Fig. 50. Tjandi Soekoeh, 15th Century 

A.D., Central Java 153 

Fig. 51. Two Implements of Deerhorn from 
Ngandong and Barbed Spearhead 
from Sidoredjo, Central Java. ... 155 

Fig. 52 and 53. Palaeolithic Implements 

from the Region of Patjitan, Java 156 
Fig. 54. The Laboratory for Marine Biol- 
ogy 169 

Fig. 55. The Pasar Ikan at Batavia in the 

Seventeenth Century 170-171 

Fig. 56. The Pasar Ikan with Native Fish- 
ing Craft in the Twentieth Century 173 

Fig. 57. Rice Fields in the Preanger 176 

Fig. 58. A Tea Plantation in Java 177 

Fig. 59. The Experimental Gardens of the 
Govt. Botanic Gardens in Buiten- 

zorg in 1892 178 

Fig. 60. Frontispiece of one of the numer- 
ous reports issued on the develop- 
ment of Cinchona cultivation 187 

Fig. 61. First Page of Junghuhn’s “Pre- 
liminary Guide to Cinchona Cul- 
tivation" 193 

Fig. 62. Stripping Cinchona Bark 201 

Fig. 63. A Camp of Cinchona Prospectors, 

West Java 205 

Fig. 64. A View in the Laboratory for 

Chemical Research in Buitenzorg 213 


Fig. 65. The Bosscha Observatory at Lem- 

bang 222 

Fig. 66. A map of the Southern Sky, show- 
ing DE Houtman and Keyser’s 
Nomenclature of the far-southern 
Constellations, reproduced from 
Doppelmayer’s Atlas Novas 

Coelestis (1742) 224-225 

Fig. 67. A Diorama of Proboscis-Monkeys 
in the Zoological Museum, Buiten- 
zorg 228 

Fig. 68. A Diorama of Otters in the Zoolog- 
ical Museum, Buitenzorg 229 

Fig. 69. Zoogeographic Borderlines in the 

Malay Archipelago 243 

Fig. 70. Inter Island Straits in the Lesser 
Sunda Islands and their Efficiency 
as Distributional Barriers for 

Birds 244 

Fig. 71. Comparative Density of the Popu- 
lation surrounding the Merapi .... 256 
P'lG. 72. Graph showing the relation be- 
tween the Land under Cultivation 

and the Sawahs 259 

Fig. 73. Probable CourvSe of Isohalines in 

the Java Sea 266 

Fig. 74. Foraminifera, the so-called “Oil 

Bugs" of the Petroleum Industry 267 
Fig. 75. (iraph showing a Hypothetical 

Method of Rabies Treatment. . . . 275 


Fig. 76. View of Amboina 296-297 

Fig. 77. Georg E. Rumph 301 

Fig. 78. Rumphius* Tomb in Amboina. . . 303 
Fig. 79. The College of Medicine in Batavia 311 
Fig. 80. The Main Tectonic Features of the 

Dutch East Indies 322 

Fig. 81. Geology of Sumatra 323 

Fig. 82. Geology of Java 324 

Fig. 83. Geology of New Guinea 325 

Fig. 84. Geology of Celebes and the Moluc- 
cas 326 

Fig. 85. Geology of Borneo 328 

Fig. 86. Minerals in the Dutch East Indies 331 
Fig. 87. The Limburg Rubber Plantations 346 
Fig. 88. The Hydrodynamical Laboratory, 

models 352 

Fig. 89. The Hydrodynamical Laboratory, 

models 353 

Fig. 90. Model of the Kaliwadas Dam — 353 

Fig. 91fl. Model of the Setail Dam 354 

Fig. 916. Model of the Gembong Overflow. 354 
Fig. 92. Most Favorable Shape of Down- 

vStream Pools behind Spillways. . . 355 
Fig. 93. Drainage from the Batang Tabir. . 356 
Fig. 94-97. Complete Model of the Kali- 
wadas Dam 357 

Fig. 98. The Olbroeg Dam, a good Example 

of Undersluicing 358 

Fig. 99. Plate Construction with Under- 
sluicing for a Model of the Tee- 

koeng Dam 359 

Fig. 100. Treatment for Worm Disease in a 

Javanese Village 361 

Fig. 101. Mr. Wallace's Routes in the 

Minahassa 365 

Fig. 102. Pithecanthropus rohustusi^knWW) 383 



List of Illustrations 


XX n 


Fig. 103. Mandil)le Fragment of ^fegiln- Img. 116. 

thropus palaeojavanictis (lateral 
view) , comiiared with t hat of Pithe- 
canthropus, modern man, male !• ic. 117. 

gorilla, male orang-utang, and 

male ('himpanzee 384 h u;. 118. 

Fk;. 104. Mandilde Fragment of Mcf’an- hu;. 110. 

thropus palacojavanicus (viewed 
from above), compared with that Fig. 120. 

of modern man, male gorilla, and 

male chimpanzee 385 

Fig. 105. Lower Molar of Gigantopithcciis, Fig. 121. 

male gorilla. Sinanthropus pekin- Fig. 122. 

ensis, and recent man 385 h IG. 123. 

Fig. 106. .A.n Earl>’ Dutch Representation hiG. 124. 

of some Important Fruit Trees 

and a Palm 391 h ig. 125. 

Fig. 107. The Government Botanic Gardens 

in 1891 393 Fig. 126. 

Fig. 108. The Famous Old Canarium Ave- Fig. 127. 

nue in the Govt. Botanic Gardens 394 
Fig. 109. A View in Buitenzorg (Botanic Fig. 128. 

Gardens and Palace of the Gover- 
nor General) 395 

Fig. UO. A Group of Pandanus Species in I'lc. 129. 

t he (dovt . Botanical Giardens 397 

Fig. 111. I'he Visitors’ Lal)oratory in the 

('xovt. Botanic ( hardens 398 Fig. 130. 

Fig. 112. Nymphaeas and Palms in the h'lG. 131. 

Govt. Botanic (Lirdens 199 

Fig. 113. A lypical Ficus (“Waringin") in Fk,. 132. 

the Go\'t. Botanic Gardens 401 

Fig. 114. 'I'he Dormitory and Curator’s Res- 
idence in the Mountain Gardensof I'lG. 133. 

the (iovt. Bot.inic (Tirdens at I'ji- 

tx)das 405 l-'u,. 134. 

Fig. 115. Mount Pangerango, a l>eautiful 
extinct \()lcano with a \er\ rich 
vegetation Ill 


The Biological Laboratory in the 
.Mountain Gardens of the Govt. 

Botanic Gardens at 'rjil)odas 415 

Calcareous 'Terraces of the Tinggi 

Radja, Fast .Sumatra 419 

Nat ure Reserves of Java (1929) ... 420 
A Herd of Cervus hippalaphus in 

t he I liang Reserve 421 

I 'aranus komodoensis, an extremely 
rare and interesting lizard pro- 
tected by law 423 

The Salalc seen from Buitenzorg. . 432 

Early Map of Borneo (1646) 434 

Aerial View of the Borobudur. . . . 436 
'Two Beliefs from the First Gallery 

of the Borobudur 438 

One of the Oil Refineries in Palem- 

bang 440 

Map of Java (1646) 442 

'The Malabar Radio Station near 

Bandoeng 444 

One of the Beautiful Botanical 
Habitus Drawings by Payen from 

Bti viids Rumphia 446 

Radio Research Lal)oratories of 
the (.'lovernment Postal Adminis- 
tration in Bandoeng. 448 

“.Saved b>’ (Grasping a Fern ’’ 450 

,\n Ivarlv Dutch Map of Bali 

(1646)..' 452 

One of the Buildings of the ICxjieri- 
periment .Station West Java, 

Buitenzorg 454 

Prinuwal Forest along the dji- 

tarum in West Java 456 

.\ ( iroup of Dutch Sailors and 
Merc hauls in ('hile (1600) oti their 
Way to t he ICast Indies 458 




Figure 6. — Latin School in Batavia in the sevenieenih century (from Johan Nieuhof’s "Zee en Lantreize," 1682). 


LIST of CONTRIBUTORS 


Bakkkk, S., 1 
Rklshaw, H., 478 
Remmel, a. C. van, 226 
Remmelkn, R. W. van, 5 
Bernard, C. J , 10, 486 
Rraak, C., 15 
Bra ARE, A. 1.. ter, 22 
Brest van Kemten, C. P., 35 
Broek, J. O. M., 36 

Coombs, G. E., 48 
Coster, Ch., 55 

Dakkus, P., 414 
Dammerman, K. W., 59, 404 
Doctkrs van Leeuwen, 

VV. M., 409 
Donatu, W. F., 75 

Enoers, j, F., 461, 479 

Faocinger Auer, 

Mrs. j. a. C., 5, 126, 359 
Fairchild, D. G., 79 
Field, R. M., 99 
Forbes, H. O., 104 
Frickers, j., 123 
Friedman, L)., 487 

Gorkom, K. W. van, 182, 196 
Groot, K. P., 126 
Gurney, N., 480 


IIaasjes, C. H., 123 
Heine-Gei.dkrn, R. von, 129 
Herre, a. W. C. T., 167, 475 
IloEBER. E. A., 472 
IIONIG, P., 175, 181, 462 
Hoskins, H. P., 123 

Koolhaas, D. R., 207, 215 
Koimm-l, C. van de, 217 
Kuiimck, G. 1’., 221 

Landheer, B., 474, 481 
Lasker, B., 467 
Leersi'm, P. van, 190 
Lek, L., 473 
Liemtnck, M. a., 226 


Mantell, ('. L., 482 
M assart, j., 231 
Mayr, Ernst, 241 
Mohr, E. C. J., 250, 254 
Moon, I). (L, 263 
Myers, E. H., 265, 483 


Otten-van Stockum, 

M. J., 269 


Perry, L. M., 190, 226, 295 
1\)lak, j. j., 477 
Posthumus, O., 279 


Riemens, H., 283 
Roelofsen, P. a., 285 
Rumitiius, G . E., 295 
Rutten, L., 484 


Schneider, F., 289 
SiRKS, M. j., 295 
Snapeer, L. 75, 269, 309, 359 
Stauffer, H., 35, 320 
Steenis, C. G. G. j. van, 335 
Struik, L). j., 351 


Tate, G. H. H., 486 
'I'aylor, N., 203 
'rENGWALL, T. A., 344 
'I'obler, F., 307 


Valkenburg, S. van, 471 
\'een, A. van der, 469, 470 
Veen, A. G. van, 75 
Verdoorn, F., 425, 462, 465 
\'i<;rdoorn, j. G., 425 
Wut.TER, IL, 351 


Waart, a. de, 359 
Wallace, A. R., 362 
WeIDEN REICH, F., 380 
Went, F. A. F. C., 390 
Went, F. W., 390, 403 
Westermann, j. H,, 279, 417 






()^ LIVESTOCK Al^D THE VE1'EHmAin SEKVICE 
IN THE NETHERLANDS INDIES 

l,y 

S. Bakkkr, VcI.I).* 

(lOvL Veterinary Serrire, Italaria 


According to the Annual Report ol the Nc'ther- 
lands Indies Veterinary Service, the livestock 
at the end of 1937 consisted of: 671,362 horses, 
4,413,606 oxen, and 3,197,354 buffaloes in all 
8,282,322 animals. 

riiis total of over eight and a (piarter million 
does not convey much, for in order to obtain a 
correct view of a country’s actual wealth in this 
respect it is necessary to take into consideration 
the extent ot its area and the density of its popu- 
lation. It would tlu'refore be wrong to conclude 
from this number that the Dutch Hast Indies are 
richer in catth* than, for example, the niotht'r 
country, because the latter’s stock comprises 
only about two and a half million head. To 
ascertain the relative wealth in livestock we 
must calculate separately the number of ani- 
mals per sq. km. for each of these countries, ainl 
then we shall see that in Holland there is an 
average of seventy head per sq. km. and in the 
Netherlands Indies 4.3. 

Seventy-five per cent of the livestock in the 
Netherlands Indies is found in Java, M.adura, 
Bali and Lombok, where the relative density is 
43 head persq. km., which means that these places 
are not far behind (iermany, Uruguay, Great 
Britain and Ireland. The Netherlands Last 
Indies as a whole can in this respect be likened 
to Brazil and Japan, but thev are far behind 
Holland. 

Comparing livestock figures with the number 
of inhabitants, the Netherlands Indies show that 
for every one hundred inhabitants there are 
seventeen head of cattle, but notwithstanding 
the greater wealth of cattle in Java, Madura, 
Bali and Lombok, this figure increases to only 
17.4 for these places on account of their greater 
population density. In the Netherlands this 
figure is 33.25. According to this calculation 
the Netherlands Indies equals Italy. It com- 
pares favourably with C'hina and Japan, but is in 
a position inferior to that of other Asiatic coun- 

* Reprinted from (he Bull, oft hr ( olon. Inst.of .X msterdam 
2 : 19.1 202 ( 19 , 19 ). 


tries, such as .Siam, India and t'eylon. It may be 
said that as a rule the number of animal-s per sq. 
km. increases in proportion to the density of 
population. In the Dutch East Indies this is 
shown by the fact that 75% of the livestock is 
found in Java, Madura. Bali and Lombok 
the most pojtulated parts, while in Sumatra, 
( elebes, !b)rneo and the Timor Archipelago, 
where the population is scarce, there is only 25% 
of the total st(K'k. Exceptions to the above ruh 
are Japan, with a crowded population and few 
cattl<‘, an<l Uruguay, where the opposit(‘ is the 
case. 

rile valui* of the stock to the inhabitants can- 
not easily be reckoned in guilders, as to a native 
a guilder has a value totally different from that 
which it has to a Hollander. The cost of main- 
tenance for a native agriculturalist with a wife 
and two children may be reckoned at twimty- 
five cents per day, which means that such a 
hou.sehold can live for four days on one guilder. 
Taking the income of a Netherlands farmer with 
a similar family at twenty-one guilders per week, 
then one guilder is sufficient to keep him for 
only a third of a tiay. Estimating the average 
value of cattle in the Netherlands Indies at 
twenty guilders per head, and in the Netherlands 
at two hundred, we see that the selling price of 
such an animal in tlu' Indies is sufficient to keep 
a farmer’s family for eighty days, while in the 
Netherlands the sale price is equal to subsistence 
for only about sixty-six days. It therefore fol- 
lows that, although the average price of an ox in 
money is much lower in the Indies than in the 
Netherlands, this animal is of rtdatively greater 
value there economically. Dr. J. Merkens, 
Director of the Netherlands Indies Veterinary 
vSehool at Buitenzorg, uses another standard to 
compute the worth of animals to the native. 
He expresses their value in working days, and 
taking the present price at an average of twenty 
guilders apiece, this represents for an adult 
native earning fifteen cents per day no less than 
one hundretl and thirty-three working days. 


1 




Althcju.nh tlio application oi llu'so and similar 
compulations is, naturally, unstable owin^ to the 
fact that the various j)ai ts of the etpiations used 
may widely vary, indcpencUmtly from the others, 
with the rise and fall of prices and values, enough 
has been said to prove that cattU* in the Nether- 
lands Indies may be regarded as of considerable 
value. This is also broui>ht out clearly by the 
words rojo koyo, “basis of prosperity” — an ex- 
pression much employed by the population of 
East and C’entral Java to desijj;nate cattle. 

As mentioned previously, the livestock is 
unequally distributed over the Archipelago. In 
Java and Madura its density increases from 
West to East, except in the case of buffaloes, 
which are more numerous in the West, d'he fob 
low'ing table proves this; 


If vve leave C'entral and East Java out of con- 
sideration, the greater part of the stock of oxen 
is in Bali, which has 208,301 head of cattle, and 
Lombok, which has 105,702. Over fifty per cent 
of the total number of horses is founcl in the 
Residency of 'Fiinor and in Celebes, while buf- 
faloes are more equally distributed, being most 
numerous where the population is most dense. 
The uses to which native cattle are put are many. 
Horses are employed for riding, driving and car- 
rying (pack horses), and some few are butchered, 
but, contrary to the European custom, they are 
practically mwer used for work on the land. 
Owing to the increase of motor transi)ort they 
are much It'ss in recjuest than formerly, although 
they are still in demand in the more primitive 
regions. Horse-breeding is mostly carried on in 
the 'I'imor Archipelago, where the animals are 
alloweil to grow up in a half wild state; nuinbers 
of them are purchased by Arab dealers who send 
them to the big towms in Java where, after being 
broken in, they are put to the above-mentioned 
uses. During 1937, 11,683 horses were exported 
from 'I'inior. 

Oxen and buffaloes are mainly employed by the 
natives for agriculture and transport, and their 
manure is a valuable asset. About ten per cent 
are destined for slaughtering purposes. In 
Lombok, in the Timor Residency and in some 
other parts of the Islands where the inhabitants 
have not yet ac(iuired the habit of using the 
plough, the soil is prepared by chasing buffaloes 
over the inundated paddy fields {sawnhs). In 
regions where ^nla nmnkok (or “cup sugar,” a 
kind of native Javanese sugar) is manufactured, 
these large beasts are sometimes employed to 
turn the sugar cane mills. In more primitive 
regions, such as .Sunil)awa, buffaloes are still 
used as beasts of burden. In Madura and in the 
Madurese parts of East Java, the popular sport 
of kerapan, bull racing, is cultivated, while in 
Surnbawa l3uffalo races are in vogue. Another 
favourite sport, also of Madurese origin, is 
adnean sapi — i)ull fighting. As with horse- 
racing in other parts of the world, betting on a 
large scale takes place in this connection and 
prizes of considerable value are awarded. Opin- 


ions differ as to the significance of these sports jn 
helping to improve the stock, but on the whole 
not much importance is attached to this question. 
Dairy farming has not yet reached the Eu- 
ropean standard. Dairy stock is to a great ex- 
tent in EuropC'an and Chine.se hands and, except 
here and there, is not intensively exploited. The 
principal reason for this is that a dairy farming 
class such as we have in Europe does not exist in 
the Indies, d'he owners of cows lack both train- 
ing and experience, and therefore are not expert 
as dairy farmers. I'hat the dairy stock is im- 
proving, however, both in. quantity and quality, 
can be seen from the fact that within the last 
twenty years it has increased sixfold, while milk 
production has risen from about four million 
litres in 1908 to twenty-six million in 1936. The 


annual sale value of fresh milk may be estimated 
at about four million guilders. 'I'hese figures are 
small in comparison with those of the Nether- 
lands; but in studying them we must not lose 
sight of the fact that the native population coii- 
sumes practically no milk, the sale of which is 
principally confined to Europeans and, to a 
le.sser degrer*, to Chinese living in the large towns. 
A small (luantity is used in pn-paring other dairy 
products. 'I'here is certaiidy an opportunity here 
for enlarging the dairy farming industry. 

d'he above description shows the position oc- 
cupied by livestock in native economy, and we 
think it may now prove of interest to give the 
reader some particulars about the Veterinary 
Service, its personnel and its work. 

Veterinarians may be divided into four cate- 
gories; 

a. Veterinary surgeons in Government service 
and their assistants, (k)nsidering the expanse 
of the Netherlamis Indies, the staff cannot be 
called very large. It consists of; 

The H<-ad of the civil veterinary service, five 
Inspectors and thirty-two districts surgeons. 
As assistants there are fifty-eight Indonesian vet- 
erinary surgeons and two lumdreil and twenty- 
six cattle overseers. 

Government veterinary surgeons arc; educated 
professionally in the Netherlands at the Veteri- 
nary Department of Utrecht University. I'he 
University course lasts five and a half years and 
has gradually become so comprehensive that 
specialization is increasingly necessary, d'hese 
veterinary surge<nis are appointed district chiefs; 
from their number the Inspectors are selected 
and the Head of the .Service is chosem from among 
the latter. 

To this category belong the bacteriologists, 
who are attach<‘d to the Netherlands Indian 
Veterinary Institute which is situated at Huiten- 
zorg, Java. Their training is the same as that of 
the Government veterinary surgi'ons, but in ad- 
dition they take a special course in bacteriology. 
'I'heir assistants are Indonesian veterinary sur- 
geons who in time will also become bacteriologists. 

1'heir task consists of making serums ami vac- 
cines, and preparations such as tuberculin and 



Horses 

Oxen 

Uuffalocs 

Total 

U fit Java 

65,212 

86.069 

862,052 

1,013.333 

Cfntral Java, including SurukarUi and Jogjakarta 

67.808 

952.893 

782,841 

1.803,542 

Easi Java, including Madura 

87,896 

2.498.144 

370,878 

2,956,918 




3 


Bakkkr: On Livestock and the Veterinary Service 


mallein, in order to facilitate the diaj^nosis of 
various infectious cattle diseases. Further, they 
are entrusted with the examination of specimens 
of diseased substances sent to llunn, and the 
testing of various medicines for curing cattle 
diseases indigenous to the Netherlands Indies. 

Indonesian veterinary surgeons study for four 
years at the Netherlands Indies Veterinary School 
at Buitenzorg, and after that they are attached to 
a district veterinary surgeon. The best of them 
may act as deputy district chiefs. The training 
of a cattle overseer consists of practice under a 
Government or native veterinarian, or he may 
follow an eight months’ course at the Veterinary 
School. His duty is to see that the veterinary 
rules and regulations are observed, and in gen- 
eral to execute the orders of Government and 
Indonesian veterinary surgeons. 

b. Veterinary surgeons employed by the 
municipal councils, and their assistants, com- 
prising Indonesian veterinary surgeons, over- 
seers, meat inspectors, etc. 

The number of these municipal veterinary 
surgeons is twenty-three, and their work, which 
is spt'cialized and mostly connected with pulilic 
hygiene, is done indepeiulently, except that ad- 
ministratively they are subject to the municipal 
council. Larger municipalities tunploy fully 
qualified veterinary surgeons with Indonesian 
veterinarians as assistants. In small towns this 
service is in the hands of Indonesian veterinary 
surgeons. 

c. X'eterinary surgeons for the Army — nine 
in number. 1 hey are trained at the Veterinary 
Department of the University of Ulncht and 
sent out from the Netherlands as first lieutenants, 
'file Chief of this service holds the rank (;f 
Lieut. -Colonel. 

d. Private veterinary surgeons — usually re- 
tired Government veterinary surgeons or Indo- 
nesian veti-rinarians. 

I here are tourteen of these veterinary surgeons 
in private practice in the Netherlands Indies. 
The number is small compared to that of their 
compeers in the Netherlands, where there are 
sevi'ral hundred, d'he reason for this is that there 
is no country practice for them in the Indies. 
Besides being too little acquainted with Western 
veterinary customs, native farmers have no 
money to spare to call in an expert to attend their 
animals. If a native ri'quires practical help to 
cure a sick beast, he goes to a dukun (native 
healer), who UMially proceeds to treat the animal 
by means of amulets or charms, or by administer- 
ing herbal extracts. I'or such assistance the 
dukun receives a very small sum of money Jir 
payment in kind in the form of rice, fruit, clothes, 
and the like. Owing to these primitive condi- 
tions private veterinary surgeons are found only 
in the big towns, where they make a living by 
treating doim-stic animals b(.-longing to Eu- 
ropeans, Chinese and wealthy natives. On the 
east coast of Sumatra some of the large planta- 
tions have their ((Wn vi-terinarians to take care 
of the livestock, whieh they keep on the estates. 

I he .Staff (jf the \ eterinary Institute alriady 
mentioned consi-ts of .a Director, three bacteri- 
ologists, four Indonesian veterinary surgeons, 
ami various other enijiloyec's. The N’eterinary 
Scliool has a Director, three instructra's, tw(» 
assistant instructors (Indontsian veterinarians) 
besides other enqjloyt-es. 

I he veterinary service’s work comprises com- 
bating infectious cattle disease's and rabies 


amongst dogs, cats and monkeys; preventing the 
spread of these diseases by animals transported 
overseas (quarantine, isolation and similar 
measures); improvement of cattle and fxjultry 
breeding; hygiene; scientific research; prepara- 
tion of serums and vaccines; the training of 
native surgeons and other persons connected 
with the Service. Originally the latter was 
centralized, which meant that veterinary sur- 
geons worked under an Inspector who was the 
head of, on an average, seven of them, d he 
Inspector himself was subordinate to the Chief 
of the Service who, subject to the autluxity of 
the Director of Economic Affairs, was (‘utrusted 
with the general direction. Administratively 
the veterinary surgeons were responsible to the 
Resident under who.se jurisdiction they worked. 

When, in the Government reorganization of 
1928-.^(), the Provinces of West, East and Cen- 
tral Java were brought into existence, tcjgether 
wi th provincial and district councils, the con- 
nection between the Central Department and 
the Inspectors became looser. These latter were 
given the title of Chief of the provincial veteri- 
nary .service and each assigned a Province; the 
veterinary surgeons, bearijig the title of pro- 
vincial or district veterinary surgeons while in 
office in the Province, were given charge of dis- 
tricts. 1 heir salaries and expi'uses w ere now 
paid by the Province. 

'Pile Prijyince of East Java was divided into 
seven districts. Central Ja\a into six, ami West 
Java into five. Each veterinary surgeon still had 
the usual staff of assistants. ( )n account of this 
reorganization part of the Government’s vet- 
erinary task was decentralized and transferred 
to these autonomous authorities. 1 his part 
conijirised local cattle breeding, hygiene and 
training of overseers and meat inspectors. A 
share of the activities in combating cattle dis- 
eases was also transferred to the provincial au- 
thorities. 

'file part of the Government’s duty not trans- 
ferri'd was that referring to measures relating to 
more than one autonomous region. For in- 
stance, cattle breeding in general; animal hy- 
giene; prev(‘ntion of infectious disea.ses and the 
spri'ad thereof by animals transported overseas; 
c'ducation of Indonesian veterinary surgeons and 
others conneett'd with the work; preparation of 
serums and vaccines, and scientific research at 
the Veterinary Institute. 1 his combined 
method of working, whereby the Central De- 
partment deals with general (juestions and the 
provinces, districts and municipalities are en- 
trusted with the local application of these meas- 
ure.s, is satisfactory. For instance, with regard 
to cattle raising, provinces and districts have an 
opportunity of buying suitable stock for breed- 
ing purposes, establishing cattle unions and 
funds, and making rules and regulations likely 
to prove beneficial locally. It stands to reason 
that provincial and district bodies acquainted 
with local usage and customs an- better able 
than the ( entral Department to juilge which 
l>reetis of cattle are most in demand with the 
population, where such breeds, when purchased, 
can be placed to the best advantage, and the 
special conditions under which the animals 
should be put at the breeder’s disposal anci looked 
aftiT generally. 

As mentioned above, geni-ral decisions as to 
cattle rearing and breeding remain with the 
Central Department authorities, who have the 



Bakki'K: On Livestock and the Veterinary Service 


4 


power to regulate the iini)ort of pedigree rattle 
from countries outside the Netherlands Indies 
and to tletermiiu' how such animals shall be 
disposed of. This prevents the Inspectors from 
acting on their own initiatiNe and making pro- 
posals to their provincial governments about the 
import and introduction of breeds which miijht 
disturb previous, long-estaldished brcH-din^ meth- 
ods, and thus break thi- much-valiuul uniformity 
obtained by continual crossing with special 
breeds. When, however, as a rt-sult of consulta- 
tions between the C'entral and autonomous au- 
thorities, a special brt'ed for the improvement 
of the livestock is once chosen, them the local 
bodies are free to act independently. 

I'he Central Department deals not only with 
the import and distribution of foreign breeding 
stock, but also with the placinji of such animals 
indigenous to the Netherlands Indit's. For in- 
stance, there is the well-known despot on the 
island of Sumba, whence comes a griMt part of 
the country’s breedinj^ stcKk, the on^ole cattle. 
The amount of stock available there and the fact 
that more than one autonomous rej^ion has to f)e 
supplied must be taken into account, and there- 
fore applications for these animals are always 
dealt with l)y the Central Departnu'iU. 

With regard to animal hygiene, local duties 
consist (T making regulations: establishing 
slaughter-houses; supers ising the inspection of 
milk and rnt'at; inspectit^n of dairies, and meat 
Stalls, estal)lishm('nts for the hire of carts and 
carriages, and piggeries. 'I his work has been 
transferred to the municipal and regency councils. 
The provincial administrations are not directly 
responsible for tin* acti\'ities l)Ut in cases where 
smaller councils have no veterinary ht'lp, th<‘ 
provincial authorities may instruct their ex- 
perts to jx’rform such local tasks on payment of 
a certain fee. 

The Central l.)e[)artment takes the lead with 
regard to veterinary hygiene too, but this nn'rely 
tneans that the general regulations made by 
Government ordinance must be observed by the 
local authorities when making their own regula- 
tions. Animal hygiene is more decentralized 
than cattle breeding. 

I'he training of p{*rsons below the rank of 
Government veterinary surgeon is another of 
the Central Department's duties which have been 
partly decentralized. Training of Indonesian vet- 
erinary surgeons remains with the Veterinary 
School, and although it is the lixal authorities' 


business to see to the training of cattle overseers 
and inspectors of cattle and meat, the latter can 
also l)e eilucatetl at the school, which is naturally 
preferable, as this institution was (‘stablislu'd for 
this particular purpose and has special teachers. 

rhe task of combating cattle diseases, which 
comprises, of course, the making of local regula- 
tions for that purpose, has also been transferred 
to the local districts. For instance, the province 
(»f East Java has a regulation for optional pre- 
ventive measures against tuberculosis in milch 
cows. As such regulations very often involve 
questions of far-reaching intervention in native 
affairs, they can be enforced only after approval 
by the Governor-tieneral. Local funds provide 
money for indemnity payments for animals that 
have to be killed, for curative medicines and 
prophylactics against various infectious cattle 
diseases, and also for combating rabies. 

General regulations for the prevention of cattle 
diseases are made by the ('entral authorities, 
riiese are promulgatt'd by ordinance, Govern- 
ment decrees or by decisions of the Director of 
Economics. 

riiere has been no question of transferring 
authority to local govt‘rnments regarding the 
prevention of infectious cattle diseases and rabies 
amongst dogs, cats and monkeys by such ani- 
mals being transported overseas. This power 
has been reserved by the Central Service because* 
of its access to the most up-to-date information 
on infectious c attle diseases in foreign c:ountries 
and its knowle dge e)f the dangers involved in the 
import of animals therefrom. These quarantine 
rc'gulations might interfere with international 
trade and shipping interests, and therefore* it 
stands to reason that the execution of such regu- 
lations cannot be transfe-rred to the autonomejus 
regions. 

Finally, de'centralization has not bee*n limite'd 
to Java and Madura, but in 1937 was also intro- 
duced in the Outt'r Provinces. On July 1st, 1938, 
two group communitie*s were* established, one* 
in Minangkabau on the west coast of Sumatra 
and the other in Bandjar, comprising the South 
and F^astern Divi.sion of Borneo. In both of 
these, as in the Java Pre^vinces, government and 
Indonesian veterinary surgeons, under the super- 
vision of an Inspector, are placed at the disposal 
of the authorities administering the* government 
in these areas. The Government intends to in- 
crease the* number of this kind of administrative 
unit. 


ON THE MINERAL RESOURCES OE THE NEI’HERLANDS 
INDIES AND THEIR INDUSTRIAL POSSIBILITIES 
by K. W. VAM Bemmelkn, Pli.D.* 

Chief, Volcanolajkal Survey, Dept, of Mitu's. Ilaniloeiui 
Iramhited by Mrs. .1. A. (>. Ka(;<;i,'v<;i;m Vijer 
lielnionl, MasxarhusHls 


In tinifs of great eeonoinie and industrial 
changes, it is necessary to ccjiisider the natural 
causes that underly innovations. 

The Netherlands East Indies find themselves 
in a situation that necessitates their obtaining 
from other countries a large number of industrial 
products formerly imported from Europe. 
Naturally, this need raises the question: To what 
(‘Xtent is it possibh* to provide at least a few of 
these products by the development of home in- 
dustries? 

This question, raised after the last war,' now, 
under new circumstances, presents itself with 
increased urgency. 

The desirability - in fact, the necessity 
of a gradual industrialization of Java particu- 
larly is, therefore, generally admitted. 


valued at d62,S65,000 guilders; the islands of 
the Netherlands Archipelago (exclusive (T )ava) 
977,816 tons valued at 166,008,000 guilders, 
making a total of 2,124,227 tons valut'd at 528,- 
873,(K)0 guilders. 

These imports fall into two categories: — 

I. Commodities mainly of organic origin (animals and 
plants, food and table luxuries, animal and vegetable prod- 
ucts, wood, cork, weaving material, furniture, hides, leather 
and leather products, yarns and dry goods, cordage, paper, 
and articles made of paper, etc.). 

II. Commodities mainly of mineral origin (minerals, 
chemical products, china and porcelain, glass and articles 
made of glass, metal of every variety, carriages, vehicles, 
ships, instruments, apparatus, tools). 

A light indusiry, manufacturing articles of the 
first grou)), can surely be developed in the Nether- 



Weight in Tons 

\'ai.ue in Guilders 

IN 1939 

Java and 

Outer 

Java and 

Outer 


Mapoera 

POSSESSIO.NS 

Madoera 

Possessions 

Minerals 

253.964 

195,125 

6,503,000 

6,131,000 

Chemical products etc. 

181,798 

69.692 

37,925.000 

11,517,000 

Ceramic and porcelain 

23,780 

14,184 

2,490,000 

1,281,000 

Glass and articles made from gla.ss 

17,700 

5,650 

3,590,000 

1,20U000 

Metals but not gold and silver 

177,050 

131,419 

32,973.000 

26,221,000 

Vehicles, carriages, craft 

Machines, implements, appliance.'', 

15,868 

5,989 

28.557.000 

4,645,000 

tools 

30,503 

27,155 

37.828.000 

23.529,000 

Total 

700,666 

449,214 

149,866,000 

74,525.000 

General total 

1,149,880 

224.391.000 


rhe question ol the extent to which importa- 
tion can be replaced by home production raises 
a comprehensive problem in which, besides 
technical matters, economic, .social, and political 
considerations have a part. In the following 
pages, certain aspect. s of the (jucstion, especially 
those connected with the providing of minerals, 
will be discussed. 

Stati.stics show that importations into the 
Netherlands East Indies during 1939 wi're as 
follows: Java and Madcxra, 1,146,411 tons 


* Rased on the author's "Delfstoffen van Nederlandscli 
Indie als Grondstoffen der inhccmsche Industrie” (Na- 
tuurwet. Tijd.schrift voor Ned. Indie 101:11-19, 1941).— 
Gratelul acknowledgment is made of the assistance rendered 
by Dr. J. Maas (Hoard for the Netherlands Indies. Surinam 
and ( uracao) in making this account ready for press. 

‘ The plans which were worked out during and shortly 
following the First World War and which have to some ex- 
tent materialized include the following: the exploitation of 
water power in the Outer Possessions for a nitrogen plant 
(Assahan River in Sumatra and Mamasa River in Celebes), 
the manufacturing of glass (.Sumatra's east coast), the 
cement industry in Java (Proepoek, Tjibadak), ceramics 
(Kediri, Malang), acetic acid factory (Tjilatjap), iodine 
factory (Gedangan), asphalt industry of the municipality 


lands East Indies. However, the supplying of 
raw materials for these products is chiefly an 
agrarian problem and therefore requires no fur- 
ther consideration at this point. 

In 1939, the importation of articles of the 
second group was as follows: 1,149,880 tons or 
54.1 per cent of the total weight, valued at 224,- 
391,000 guilders or 42.3 per cent of the total 
value of all imports, as shown in the above 
table. 

Domestic mineral raw materials have a very 


of Cheribon at Palimanan (Cheribon), India rubber factory 
(Bandoeng), Insulinde oil factories, factory for railroad 
material (Cheribon), blast furnaces (Lampongs), cannery 
( Bandoeng) , a number of factories for building material?, and 
a factory for making fireproof brick, N.I.C.K.I. (Retnbang). 

Most of these plans did not materialize or the industries 
failed during the crisis of 1921-1923. 

In many instances, one of the main reasons for these 
failures was the lack of sufficient preparatory study to 
determine the actual presence of raw material, the quantity 
in which it was prc.?ent. and its usefulness for industrial 
purposes. From these experiences of twenty years ago, 
the lesson to l>e learned is this: before everything else, 
study the available (juantity, (jualitv, and position of the 
raw material. 



VAN F^fmmki.kn: Mineral Resources and their Industrial Possibilities 


6 


significant connection with the plans to develop 
industries producing articles belonging to the 
second group. 

To this category belong: — 

1. ProccssinK of petroleum, coal, and ore. 

2. Metal and nuicliine industry, 

3. Chemical industry, 

4 . Ceramic industry, 

5. Uuildinji material industry. 

Processing of Petroleum, Coal, and Ore: — 

The nioist iinpt)rtant processing of indigenous 
material is the manufacture from Netherlands 
Indies petroleum in the refineries of the large oil 
companies of dozeits of products for immediate 
use. These industries are known as “Overseas 
plants” liecause their perfecting resulted from 
the use of oNcrseas science and tt'chnitpie. 

Coal mined in the Netherlanils East Indies is 
prepared for the market by the simple process of 
washing. I'rtjcessing of coal dust into briquettes 
is done at Tandjok Priok.^ 

Netherlaiuls Indii'scoal cannot — or only with 
difficulty ('an be — made into coke. Therefore, 
it caniKit easily be used as a basic material for 
chemical and metallurgic industries.* 

However, it is not imp(.)ssible that the exces- 
sively large quantities of interior coal and lignite 
found in the Netherlands East Indies (Sumatra 
and East Borneo) may still In* used as raw mate- 
rial for such industries (oil deriN'ed from C(.>al, f<jr 
instance). 

In thinking of supplying power for industry, 
one should note the possibility of using volcanic 
energy. W itness the steamdrilling operations at 
Kawah Kamodjan to supply motive power for 
low-pressure turbines. 

Tin is tile most important ore produced in the 
Netherlands iiiast Indies. In 1937, the Nether- 
lands East Indies mined 39,760 tons of tin, al- 
most 18 per cent of the world’s production for 
that year, d'his nu^al is used very little in the 
country itself; therefore, it is mainly an article of 
export. Bangka ore is smelted into tin on Bangka ; 
charcoal is used in the process. Billiton ore — 
until the invasion of Holland — was smelt(.*d, for 
the most part, at Arnhem; since' the invasion, 
this has been done in Malakka. 

The bauxite ore of Bintan is still the most im- 
portant raw material for the Japanese aluminum 
industry. In 1939, its production amounted to 
more than 230,000 tons, d'he plans of the Billi- 
ton Company — alre^ady far advanced — to 
erect a factory for aluminum oxide (Ab C 3 ) and 
another for electnnnetallurgic aluminum on the 
Assahan River in order to use the energy of the 
Assalian waterfalls had to be abandoned because 
of the war. Howevi-r, the foundations of this 
industry sei-m to be sound; it is expected th.at the 
delay is otdy temporary. The metal to be pro- 
duced will 1 h* used for manufacturing articles for 
the home market in a factory near l)j<jkja. Five 
thousand tons a year — production and sale — 
seems to lx- the minimum requirement for the 
success of the undertaking. 

Although the quantity (jf bauxite reserves thus 
far discfA’ered is small compared with the world 
reserves (circa 20 million tons and 1000 million 
tons respec tively), it may be c<msidered siiffu ient 

• In I9 V>, the coal import fit the Nethf-rlands Itast Indies 
was 69,H0l tons wortti 1.0.S.S,. 119 guilders. 

» In 1939. tlie coke import of the Netherlands East Indies 
wa.s .5.462 tons valued at 191.214 Kuilders. 


to maintain the present production for some 
decades. 

The nickel ore of Middle and Southeast 
Celebes may possibly be concentrated in the 
future at the mine itself into less voluminous 
products, according to the Stiirzelberg or Renn- 
process. The total nickel ore reserves of the 
Netherlands East Indies thus far discovered arc 
still small, somewhat in exce.ss (jf a million tons 
of ore with an average of not quite two per cent 
of Ni. d'he quantity of nickel metal which might 
be produced from this ore would amount to 
scarcely one-sixth of the entire production of the 
world in one year (117,000 tons in 1937). The 
possibilities of other nickel (jre deposits, however, 
are now being investigated. 

In 1939, the nickel ore production amounted 
to only 23,535 tons, but it increased rapidly in 
1940. 

In addition to nickel ore, manganese ore is 
now f(jund in the Netherlands East Indies (12,- 
074 tons in 1939). Gold and silver ore arc also 
present (2,525 and 19,222 kilograms respectively 
in 1939). The manganese reserves at present 
known are small,* as arc the better known gold 
and silver reserws. 

h'inaily, the Netherlands Indies reserves of 
iron ore should be mentioned. A couple of 
hundred million tons of the lateritic type with a 
content of 40 to 50 per cent of iron ore arc? here 
available. 

Extensive plans for the processing of domestic 
iron ore were worked out for CeK’bes and south- 
east Borneo after tile last world war (note Re- 
ports and ('omrnunications concerning Nether- 
land Indies Minerals and their Use Nos. 7, 8, 9, 
and 15), but the y were iK'ver carried out. 

One of the chief difiiculties was the dependence 
upon the importation of coke, fur Netherlands 
Indies coal cannot be made into coke. It is pos- 
sible that, in the future, through new processes 
to be developed (such as tlu' .Stiirzelberg or the 
Keiin-proeess, which use rotating ovens and arc 
able to use inferior coal), ore may' lie meltetl at 
the mine, or at least processed into semi-manu- 
factured material (i e. puddle, and sponge iron). 

New attention is being given the titanium iron 
ore of Java. Plans have been laid out for inan- 
ufacturing cast steel on a small scale; titanium 
oxyde could be a by-product, partly to take the 
place of lead and zinc white. 

Metal and Machine Industry: — The possi- 
bility that the Netherlands ICast Indies will be 
able to find in its own soil enough ore t(» supply a 
metal and machine industry is true principally 
for tin, aluminum, and pi-rhaps iron ami nickel. 
Copper, lead, and zinc ores are found in these 
regions in only small quantities. Nor are the re- 
serves of steel-improving metals, sm h as man- 
ganese, chromium, wolfram, and molylxlenum 
of great importance. Mon/over, the metallurgy 
<jf steels and other alloys is a very specialized 
.science which demands an extensive professi(jnal 
knowledge and thorough preparation. Perhaps, 
ill the future, it may be possible to manufacture 
certain iron alloys (with manganese, chromium, 
nick(4, and others) on a modest scale in the 
Netherlands East Indies, but the metal and 
machine industries in that country will have to 
depend mainly upon the import. ition of various 

* Eurlhor pxploratinns of the manganese ore reserves are 
now being conducted. 



7 


VAN JiiiMMKLJiN: Mineral Resources and their Industrial Possibilities 


metals and metal alloys. Whether or not such 
industries will have a chance to develop will de- 
pend chiefly upon the availability of inexpensive 
energy (coal, fuel oil, water power, and others), 
cheap and well trained laborers, and adequate 
home markets. 

The Chemical Industry:- The chemical in- 
dustry in the Netherlands East Indies will, in 
the beginning, have to concentrate also on those 
products for which there is a local market. 

In 1939, some of the chemical products im- 
ported were the following: 1,834 tons of sulphur 
valued at 158,516 guilders, 3,898 tons of alum 
at 286,190 guilders, 20,884 tons of calcinated 
and caustic sodium at 2,130,211 guilders, 1,565 
tons of raw and refined sulphuric acid at 145,235 
guilders, 320 tons of acetic acid at 72,241 guil- 
ders, and 1,235 tons of formic acid at 392,098 
guilders. 

It might be possible to subject a number of 
chemical products to a process of total or partial 
refining. For instance, the mother liquid of the 
solar evaporation ponds could be further con- 
centrated in pans heated by steam. By this 
method, not only hous('hold salt and gypsum 
can be manufactured, but (dauber’s salt (Na 2 .S() 4 ' 
10 H 2 ()), magnesium sulphate (MgSCb- 7 H 2 ^^). 
magnesium chloride and [lotassium chloride. 

(dauber's salt might be used in glass factories; 
and, for potassium chloride, products of the 
domestic chemical industry might be sub- 
stituted. 

A chemical industry in this country, however, 
will have to recognize that, wliile large sums of 
money will lie lU'i'ded to start the basic industries 


deficient in potassium. Ikdassiuni made in this 
way may also be used for the manufacture of 
glass. The husks of kapok and coconut, usually 
thrown away, can likewisi* be u.sed for the man- 
ufacture of pota.ssium. 

The sulphur of the Kawah I’oetih or other 
E. Indies volcanoes can serve as raw mati'rial for 
the manufacture of sulphuric acid.® This sul- 
phuric acid may be used for making fertilizers, 
like ammonium sulphate, and for tin* manufac- 
ture of alum and aluminum sulphate. 

IMans for building an ammonium sulphate fac- 
tory with a capacity of 40 to 45,000 tons a year 
at Tjepoe are well under way. 

Moreover, sulphuric acid may be used for the 
manufacture of hydrochloric acid from Madoera 
houstdiold salt, (dauber’s salt is a by-product 
which may be used in glass factories. 

Likewise, experiments might be made in ex- 
tracting leucite (KAlSi^Oe) from rock forma- 
tions — like those found in Moeriah and the 
Ringgit in Java — rich in potassium in order to 
us(* the mineral as a basic material in the prepara- 
tion of potassium fertilizer. 

'I'he construction of large water works, like 
those already built on the Assahan for the man- 
ufacture of aluminum, makes it possible to supply 
power simultaneously to several industries in 
need of inexpi-nsive electrical energy {i.e., man- 
ufacturing of cyanamid, electrolysis of house- 
hold salt for the pn'paration of .sodium hydroxide). 

I'he manufacturing of ammonia in the Nether- 
lands East Indies might develop into an impor- 
tant key industry through which a number of 
other, domestically marketal)le chemicals, such 
as ammonium suli)hate, ammonium phosphate. 


Import op Fertilizer 

IN I9i9 

Weiout in Kiloi.rams I 

Valve in Guilders 

Java and 
Madoera 

Gl'TER 

Possessions 

Java and 
Madoera 

Outer 

Possessions 

Chili salpetre 

547,100 

1 13,067 

3.1,025 

805 

Guano 

626,957 

402.606 

53.558 

35.320 

Potassium fertilizer 
.Superphosphate and double super- 

3,21.1,508 

3,771,546 

213.298 

289,634 

phosphate 

3,957,156' 

518,107 

287,978 

30,931 

Sulphate of ammonia 

80,948,721 

11,836.808 

5,573,880 

759,1 18 

Fertilizers n.o.s. 

24,282,580 

19,005,356 

2.192.616 

1,036.191 

Total 

1 19,576,022 

3.5.547.490 

8. .154,355 

2.151.999 

General total 

1 155.123.512 

1 10,506,354 


(sulphuric acid, sodium, ammonia, and so on), 
the sales-possibilities of its products and by- 
products in the local market will be small. 

The importation of fertilizer (potassium, 
superpho.sphate, sulphate of ammonia, etc.) is 
very important to the agriculture of the Dutch 
East Indies. 

A result of the investigations of the last ten 
years into the possible presence of natural phos- 
phate in Java is the conclusion that the island 
has a reserve of about 500,000 tons of calcium 
phosphate and 100-150,000 tons of aluminujn 
pho.sphate. This will make it possible to supply 
from local sources the greater part of the phos- 
phate now being im[)orted, for a period of at 
least fifteen to twenty years (see the above table). 

Plans have already been made to extract 
potassium from molasses, which owes its richness 
in potassium to the great potassium content of 
the soil in which the sugar cane grows. This 
potassium can be used later as fertilizer for soils 


anmionium chloride, and ammonium nitrate, 
could be produced. 

Amttionium can be made by leading steam over 
cyanamid, and also according to the Haber- 
Bosch process. For the latter coke, which must 
be imported, is needed. 

('austic soda, for which there is great demand 
by the local soap manufacturers, can be made by 


* It is necessary to point out in connection with tin's fact 
that the known reserves of rich sulphur depo.sits are rather 
small (somewhat in cxce.ss of one million tons with a content 
of 50 to 60 per cent sulphur. Note Reports and Communi- 
cations etc. Nos. 1.17, and 22.) However, when the supply 
of sulphuiic mud of low sulphur content is taken into ac- 
count, the quantity of sulphur which can he found in this 
country is consiilerably laiRcr. Accordins to tests now be- 
ing made in Java, it is still possible to concentrate sulphuric 
mud with a content of 20-25 per cent sulphur and get 
satisfactory results. The sulphur of the Kawah Poetih 
factory is already being used by the sulphuric acid fac- 
tories for the oil refineries in the Netherlands East Indies. 



VAN Bemmhi.i n: Mineral Resources and their Industrial Possibilities 


8 


combining sodium carbonate with calcium 
hydroxide. 

Moreover, it is possible to find in the Nether- 
lands East Indies the raw material for the small 
chemical industries material like the deposit 
of Iron-ochre and calcium iron-alum which arc 
formed in the mineral springs near Tjiater on the 
northern slope of the T angkoeban Prahoe. 

In our review, we must limit ourselves to in- 
dicating certain possibilities. Most of the min- 
erals for a chemical industry are present in the 
Netherlands East Indies. 'I'o what extent such 
an industry can actually be built up in that coun- 
try is determined by other factors, such as cal- 
culations concerning productivity, the tlesira- 
bility of making oneself independent of foreign 
producers, and so on. To avoid disapi^ointment 
and to understand thoroughly the technical and 
economic demands that will be made upon the 
industries to be founded, it will be necessary to 
postpone the carrying out of plans until an ex- 
haustive study of the quality, quantity, and ac- 
cessibility of the mineral materials in relation to 
their present position has been concluded. 


products. According to Davis,® the quartz- 
sands present in the Netherlands East Indies can 
be used for the manufacturing of half white glass 
and white glass, but the manufacturing of crystal 
or half crystal from quartz-sand now known to 
exist in the Netherlands East Indies must be con- 
sidered impossible. 

A glass factory, which will use as raw material, 
for th<* manufacture of cheap and coarse glass 
containers for chemicals, the dune sand found 
in the region, is to be built near d'oeban. More- 
over, it is plannt'd to produce ten million beer 
bottles yearly ; this will take cart* of two-thirds ol 
the home need. 

Different kinds of native clay are available for 
the making of pottery. But, in connection with 
this undertaking, besides a technical re.search 
into the quality of the material, a geological 
survey into the available quantity should be 
made. 

Porcelain clay (kaolin) is found in large (plan- 
titles, particularly in Bangka and Billiton. 

Building Materials: Industries for the man- 



Ceramic Industry: The raw^ materials neces- 
sary for ceramics are undoubtetlly present in suf- 
ficient quantity in the Netherlands East Indies to 
take care of most of the home needs; in 1939 this 
called for an import valued at 8,562,CX)0 guilders. 

Some small and some large manufacturers have 
already started the industry through the making 
of glass and pottery on a small scale; it is effec- 
tively supported by the ceramic laboratory of the 
Department of Economic Affairs at Bandoeng. 

The essential basic materials for glass are 
quartz-sand (for the silic acid) and certain addi- 
tional secondary materials .such as so<Ja, Glauber's 
salt, and other minerals containing sodium (to 
supply Na/)), potassium, and potash-feldspar 
(supplying KjD), limestone (supplying CaO), 
and red lead (supplying PbO). Other essentials 
are smelting-accelerators (borax, fluorspar, and 
potassium nitrate), means of refining, discoloring 
and coloring matter, and other special by- 


ufacture of building materials — cement, trass, 
lime and limestone, brick, and tiles, and so on - 
have been established in the Netherlands East 
Indies for a long time. They depend mainly 
upon local raw materials, and are always de- 
pendent upon home market possibilities. 

Expansion of the cement manufacturing is still 
possible, as is seen in the fact that in 1939, the 
Netherlands East Indies impf)rted 161,369 tons of 
Portland cement valued at 2,098,000 guilders. 

Thus far too little attention has been paid|to 
the home production of natural stone for store- 
fronts, (kK)rsteps, office buiklings, and so on. 

Export: - It is evident from this statement 
that the Netherlands East Indies produce only 
a small amount of minerals. I'he only trump- 

• Ingenietfr in Nederl.-lndi'i, 6. No. 5, May 1939, 

Part I. 



9 


VAN Hemmelkn: Mineral Resources and their Industrial Possibilities 


cards on the world market are petroleum and 
tin, while bauxite and nickel-ore are significant, 
especially with respect to the mineral deposit 
conditions in East Asia7 

Countries with a large domestic production 
and reserve of minerals, particularly coal, coke, 
and iron ore, occupy a stronger position in the 
industrial competitive struggle than countries 
like the Netherlands East Indies, which have to 
import most of the raw material for their heavy 
industries. Apart from the possibility of es- 
tablishing ci'rtain industries devoted to metal 
manufacturing, metal processing, and the build- 
ing of tnachinery to cart* for local and rt'gional 
needs, it cannot l)e t'xpected that a territory like 
th(* Netherlands East Indies will have a chance 
to develop an important heav'y industry de- 
pench'iit partly on export. 

As far as tlie chemical industry is concerned, 
possibilities for further devc-lopment do exist, 
l)ecause the Netherlands East Indies import 
various chemicals (sulphur, alum, gypsum, 
sodium, potassium h'rtilizer, superphosphates, 
ammonium sulphate, and other synth<*tic fer- 
tilizers) in ratlu'r large (iuantitie.s, even though 
the basic material for the possible manufacture 
of a numbi-r of these chemicals is actually present. 

Likewise, the ceramic, glass, and building ma- 
terials industries may be further (h'veloped with 
the help of hoim* raw materials. 

It is, howe\(*r, ne('essar>' to establish an ef- 
ficient coordination between the ;id\ isory bodies 
.tnd those* intere.sted in a general way. 

(are should be taken that the same mistakes 
made'in the period during and immediately fol- 
lowing the* world war of 1914 1918 are not re- 
peated. 'I'lien a number of industries were started 
with a certain lack of insight into the ([uality, 
(luantity, and position of the ne-cessary mineral 
raw materials. Hence the disastrous results men- 
tioned in the beginning {Nole /). 

rile Department of Mining, particularly the 
former Exploration Department and the pre.sent 
('•eology Department, as well as the private 
mining companii*s, have tried for several decades 
to trace the minerals of the Netherlands East 
Indies, to test them, and to take stock of them. 
Until about 1930 these activities were concerned 
chiefly with petroleum, coal, and ore. After 
that, the anorganic, non-metallic raw mat<-rials 
were examined, first incidentally, but for the 
past few years more systematically, d'hrough 
the publication of the Reports and Communica- 
tions concerning Netherlands Indies Minerals 
and their Applications No. 22 (Minerals in Java, 
except petroleum, coal, and ore), a beginning of 
the systematic stock-taking of this group of 
minerals was made. 

rile following minerals were dealt with: nat- 
ural gas, alum, alumite, barite or heavy spar, 
diatomaceous earth, phosphate, gabbro, .serpen- 
tiiie, gypsum, granite or diorite, etc., ri'sin (fos- 
sil), iodine, rock formation containing potas- 
sium, limestone, kaolin, carbonate, (piartz-sand 
and quartz .sandstone, marble, obsidianite, 
ochre, oil shales (with ichthyol-like component.s), 

^ In connection with this statement, compare R. W. van 
Hhmmblen: 

"The Division of Minerals over the Eiirth as a F.actor in 
World Economy." published in the liconomisch Wefkblnd 
of October 18 and 25, 1940, and in the K oloni ale Stud iin 
No. 5, 1940, as well aa "The Mineral Position of East Asia 
^particularly that of Japan)" Economisch Weekblad No. 
■16, Nov. 15. 1940. 


pumistuff, trass, Euller’s earth, and sulphur. In 
this publication many suggestions concerning the 
possible use of these minerals were mentioned. 
Those who wish to execute certain plans in this 
field should formulate their plans and thus lead 
to a more precise definition of the requirements 
regarding quality, quantity, position, price, and 
so on, as a guide for further exploitations. 

Reliable suggestu)ns regarding the possibilities 
of the East Indies soil’s producing minerals of 
value for imlustry are possible only when st(x:k 
of all available minerals has been taken. Such 
a survey can be made only through a systematic 
geological exj^loration of these regions a work 
which will demand many years of scientific study. 
Undoubtedly, the Department of Mining has 
already done a great d(‘al of good work in this 
respect. Lhe efTf)rts of the former Department 
of Exploration were focussed primarily upon find- 
ing certain minerals, such as petroleum, coal, 
and ore, suitalile for export aiul not particular!)’ 
upon producing goods for home use. because 
formerly market possil)iliti(*s were exc(>edingly 
limited. 

In this respect, a great change has recentl) 
taken place. 'I'hat is why many minerals and 
non-metallic minerals to which no attention was 
formerly paid may now be considered for produc- 
tion. 1'he older reports of the G<*ological Mining 
<‘xploratiotis of large territories in tlie Nether- 
lands East Indies give little or no data about 
minerals which, on account of changi*d conditions, 
became or will liecome important. We are 
thinking, for imstance, of b.-iuxite, of raw' mate- 
rial for the chemical, ceramic, and glass industries, 
(tf building materials, and so on. It is not at all 
impossible* that industrial raw materials will be 
found in Java and the Outer Posstssions; they 
may supply the necessary and much-d(‘sired 
foundations for the d<'V(*iopmt*nt of the industrial 
{)roC(*ss. 

A dialinction may t)e made in this connection between; — 

1. minerals siKnibcant for military defence, for the pro- 
duction of which financial considerations are of minor im- 
portance, and 

2. minerals which, as basic material for industry, are 
important for the economic defence of the Netherlands 
East Indies, 

Let us consider the first catt*gory. Hecause of 
urgency, the (icological .Service might t*ven now- 
express its opinion concerning the possibility of 
home production with the aid of available geo- 
logical mining data, supplemented by investiga- 
tions of short duration of the known sources. 

riu* registration and listing of the second group 
of minerals is also urgent. It can be accom- 
plished only with the aitl of systematic geological 
maps. In order to attain practical results with 
map making, it is possible, guided by geological 
insight, to investigate first those territories where 
certain minerals can be I'xpected. Furthermore, 
the interest of the population for certain minerals 
may be aroused and priv^ate initiative enlisted 
in the detailed search for certain possibilities. 

Through the making of systematic gt'ological 
maps, the bx’ussing of too much attention on the 
finding of specific minerals, as distinguished from 
minerals in general, will be prevented. For this 
reason, in times such as these*, when the demands 
for mineral raw material for home industry are 
growing, the progress of systematic mapping 
which takes many years to complete should not be 
neglected. In the first place, a naxiern geological 
map <if Java, (he nerve centre of the Netherlands 



Bp^rnakii: Le Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg 


10 


East Indies, should be made because Java will 
probably be, in the near future, the first part of 
the Indies to underijo tlie process of industrial- 
iziition. 

Before finishing this short discussion concern- 
ing the industrial minerals of the Netherlands 
East Indies, one more general remark should be 
made. It is essential that the scientists in these 


territories should cooperate in helping the 
Netherlands East Indies through this difficult 
pha.se of its existence so that a stronger country 
shall grow up, less dependent upon foreign 
markets. These islands will then possess new 
reserves of strength which can be made available 
for the rise and rebuilding of its mother country. 


LE JARDIN nOTANlQUl-: DE BUITENZORG ET LES 
INSriTUTIONS DE BOTANIQUE APPLIQUEE AUX 
INDES NEERLANDAISES 

par 

Charles J. Bernard, Dr. es Sc.* 

(leneve (Snisse): Ancien Chrf da Minislhe de VAnrieuKnre, Bnilenzorg 
el Direclear de la Slalion h'xphimerdale dii The, liiiitenzonj. 


Monsieur le President, Me.sdarneset Messieurs, 

Je vous remercie d'avoir bien voulu me confier 
la tdche de parler a votre grande seance annuelle. 
J'ai choisi un sujet c^ui, je I’espere, vous interes- 
sera; il me tient a cteur, parce qu’il a etc pendant 
presriue 30 annees le centre de mon activate et 
que j’ai aime le pays dont je vous entretiendrai, 
que j’ai admire les institutions qui en ont fait la 
grandeur, les homines qui ont, dans ces regions 
lointaines, travaille avec acharnement pour faire 
ceuvre utile. 

Je voudrais pourtant, en commenoant, rap- 
peler le souvenir de mon venere et regrett^ 
niaitre Robert rnoDAXi-t placer cette conference 
sous son egide, dans cette salle ou si souvent je 
I’ai entendu donner ses precieiises lemons, et au 
sein de cette Societe botaniijue qu’il avait su 
rendre si viv'ante et qu’il a preside<‘ longtemps 
avTC I’autorit^ et I’enthousiasme dont beaucoup 
d’entre vous se souviennent. Je vous remercie, 
M. le President, do m’avoir donne cette occasion 
de rendre ici un respectueux hornmage k la 
memoire de mon cher maitre. 

J’entre maintenant dans le cceur de mon sujet, 
sans perdre mon temps a des preambules, car j’ai 
beaucoup de cho.ses k vous raconter et mon temps 
est limite: le Jardin botanique de Buitenzorg 
{Ilortus bogoriensis, comme on le voit indique 
sur les etiipiettes des herliier.s), < st une in.stitution 
de reputation mondiale, dont vous avez certaine- 
ment tous entendu parler, dont vous avez vii de 
belles photographies, et qui est comme un 
paradis ou tous les botanistes ont reve d’entrer un 
jour pour faire connaissance avec la nature 
tropicale. 

Et ils sont heureusement nombreux dans 
notre pays, ceux qui, dans les belles annees 
prosperes d'autrefois, ont pu rcaliser ce reve, 
soit en obtenant une bourse de voyage suffisante 
pour passer quelques mois k Java, soit en s’en- 
gageant pour un temps plus ou moins long dans 
une des institutions scientifiques de ce beau pays. 

Vous comprendrez .sans peini; I’emotion du 
ieune botaniste qui, frais debarque, apres un 
long voyage de trois ou (juatre semaines, se hiite 
vers la petite ville de Buitenzorg, enfouie dans 

• Conference donnd'c h. la stance du 18 mai 1936 de la 
Soci6t6 Botanique dc Geneve (Bull. Sr^c. Bot. Geneve 
28:77-93). 


de grands arbres, au pied des volcans jumeaux 
converts de foret vierge, le Salak et le Gcdeh . . . 
son emotion, quand il arrive dans ce centre sci- 
entifique dont, aU cours de .sc'S 6tudes, il a tant 
entendu parler!. . .son Emotion, quand il penetre 
dans les larges avenues de ce jardin, comme dans 
un lieu etrange, dont il pent faire connaissance 
enfin, autrcnu'nt qui* dans des livres ou d’apres 
des images. A certaine.s heures du jour, quand 
il entre sous les voutes sombres des bambous, le 
long de I’etang ou sommeillent les larges feiiilles 
des Vuloria regia, ou se balancent les parasols 
des Lotus, entre les piliers immenses de I’allee 
des Canarinm, dans cette atmosphere humide 
et chaude a Todeur si particuliere, il vit un jicu 
les impressions di* Siiulbad le marin, penetrant 
enfin dans les jardins fantastiques des contes 
des Mille et une nuits. 

Au cours de son voyage, Ic botaniste a vu en 
pas.^ant les jardins de Peradeniya, de vSingapore 
et ces beaux pares, ou il s’est promi'ni^ en rick- 
shaw ou en v'oiture et qui auront etc sa premiere 
impression tropicale, restent bien vivants dans 
son souvenir; peut-etre, au jiremier abord, sera- 
t-il un peu de^u par le Jardin de Buitenzorg, qui 
est rnoins «parc», moins arrange pour le public; 
mais, quand il aura constate I’ordre scientifique 
qui regne dans les divers quartiers ou sont 
groupees les families, quand il aura passe (juel- 
ques heures dans le quartier fiTestier ou sont 
reunie.s les plantes du sousbois, quand il aura 
visite la nouvelle partie du jardin, avec quelques 
hectares de foret reconstituee, quand il aura vu 
ce mervcilleux musee vivant que constitue la 
palmeraie, quand il aura rev6 sous les allees de 
bambous, de fougcres arborescentes, de Ca- 
nariunt, de palrniers royaux, quand il aura de- 
couvTTt, blotties dans les herbes la delicate 
Thismia ou une pfile orchidee saprophyte, quand 
il aura aper(,u au pied d’une liane les boules 
brunes d'unc Rnfflesia et ailleurs rimmense in- 
florescence d’un A morpho phallus, le voile im- 
rnaculc d’une Diclyophora et, le soir, la vague 
lueur d’une Mycene lumineuse, quand il aura 
6te ainsi d’enchantement en enchantenient, alors 
il cornprendra tout le charme de ce monument 
botaniiiue, il cornprendra que tous ceux qui y 
ont v6cu, qui y ont travaille, qui y ont cherch6 et 
trouve des tresors scientifiques, aient pu lui 
donner leur admiration et leur reconnaissance 



11 


Bernard: Le Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg 


et aicnt tout fait pour contribuer, chacun dans 
son domaine propre, k sa reputation. 

Le Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg, fonde en 
1817, fut tout d’abord un beau pare relevant de 
I'aclministration de I’lnstruction publique; avec 
son personnel tres restreint, il travaillait surtout 
conime centre de collaboration avec les Instituts 
scientifiques hollandais; il etait le point de depart 
et d’organisation des expeditions botaniques qui 
sc proposaient d ’explorer Tune ou I’autre des 
regions plus ou moins connues de Timmense 
domaine de Indes Neeriandaises. Des travaux 
scientifiques sortaient deja de Buitenzorg, sur- 
tout des contributions li la connaissance de la 
florc; Scheffer avait rnenie public, en 1876, le 
premier volume des Annales du Jardin Botanique 
de Buitenzorg, qui devaient devenir par la suite 
un des plus importants periodiques botaniques, 
certainement le plus important des periodiques 
traitant de la botanique tropieale. 

Apres la mort de Scheffer, un jeune botaniste, 
Melchior Treub, dont les origines suisses vous 
sont certainement connues, et qui avait d6ji\ 
public d’interessants memoires sur divers sujets 
de botanique generale, fut envoye k liuitenzorg 
pour prendre la direction du jardin botaniejue; 
il y arriva en 1883 et resta pres de 30 ans k la 
tete de cette institution; on pent dire qu'il I’a 
recreee dans la forme qu’elle a prise peu a peu et 
dans le developpement qu’elle a acquis par la 
suite. 

Barler de I’leuvre de Treub, e’est faire I’liis- 
toire du Jardin et reciproquemeiit, car I’un ne 
va pas sans I’antre et Ton pent dire que toute 
I’activite scientifique et administrative de ce 
grand savant out tendu perfcctionncr, k or- 
ganiser sur Line base bien determinee et logique 
rinstitution qu'il dirigeait et k mettreen pratique 
les principes qu’il avait fixes a son developpe- 
ment rationnel. 

Treub n’etait pas un systematicien et il s’61eva 
tout d’abord contre I’idee que son jardin bo- 
tanique nedevait ^trequ’une sorted ’intermediaire 
destine recolter des plantes et k les envoyer en 
Hollande pour y ctre etudiees; il pensait au 
contraire que ce devait et pouvait devenir un 
centre de recherches, ou Ton poursuivrait sur 
place, dans des conditions naturelleset normales, 
I'ctude du riche materiel qui sc'rait plus facile k 
examiner k I’etat frais que deteriore par un long 
sejour dans I’alcool ou entre les feuilles grises du 
papier d’herbier. Treub pensait que ce principe 
devait etre vrai non seiilement pour I’anatfimie 
et I’embryologie, mais aussi pour la physiologic, 
et il pressentait le nombre immense des pro- 
blemes qui se posent concernant la vie des plantes 
tropicales et dont les donnees ne pourraieiit etre 
realisees dans un pays temper^. Pour demontrer 
la justesse de ses id6cs, il a preche d’exemple. 
Je ne vous donnerai pas la liste detaillee des 
travaux de Treub; ils sont connus de la piupart 
d’entre vous; vous savez que, des son arriv6e k 
Buitenzorg, il se mit k etudier les problemes les 
plus varies et que, depuis 1885, moment o6 
parut le deuxieme volume des Annales, il publia 
dans ce pcri(Klique chaque ann6e un ou plusieurs 
memoires sur des chapitres importants de la 
science botani(]ue; non pas seulenient de simples 
notes d ’observations, mais des 6tudes d’ou il 
pouvait tirer des conclusions venant appuyer 
telle ou ti'lle th6orie g6n6rale. V'ous connaissez 
ses recherches morphologiques sur le developpe- 
ment du prothalle des Lycopodes; sur la nature 
et I’anatomie des lianes; celles sur Dischidia et 


Myrtnecodia qui ont bouleverse les id6es qui 
avaient cours alors sur la myrm6cophilie; ses 
etudes sur I'apogamie, la polyembryonic; ses 
observations basees sur I’embryologie, pour 
etablir la place des ('asuarinees et des Burman- 
niacees dans le systeme vegetal; vous n’ignorez 
pas qu'il a signalc la presence d'acide cyanhy- 
drique libre dans certaines plantes et qu'il en a 
tir6 des conclusions importantes quant a la 
theorie de I’assimilation. Travaux toujours 
originaux, interpretations sou vent geniales, con- 
clusions qui sont devenues classiques, 

J’ai dit tjue Treub n’etait pas systematicien; 
il ne faudrait pas croire cependant qu’il negligeat 
cette partie de la science botanique, bien au con- 
trairc; il savait qu’elle etait indispensable a tons 
les chercheurs, dans quelque domaine qu’ils se 
soient specialises et il deplorait que les collections 
de Buitenzorg aient etc juscju’alors si mal entre- 
tcniies; aussi fit il bien vitc installer des locaux 
appropries pour les collections de I'herbier; toute 
une pleiade de systematiciens, fonctionnaires du 
jardin ou botanistes de passage se mirent a la 
besogne pour etudier le materiel; plusieurs ex- 
ploratt'urs, et le service forestier surtout, con- 
tribuerent k enrichir I’licrbier et le musec; des 
monog rapines de families furent publiees, des 
observations furent notees dans le nouveau 
periodique, les lames hogorienses et dans le Bul~ 
lelin du Jardin botanique^-, Tr1';ub lui-meme 
publia une interessantc; etude, pleine d’aper^us 
ingenieux, sur «la foret equatoriale comme as- 
sociation*; il fit des recherches dont je parlerai 
plus loin sur la nouvelle flore du Krakatau; il 
s’interessa personnellement aux etudes de plusi- 
curs botanistes sur la mangrove et d’autres 
formations vegetales int6ressantes, etc., etc. 

On con(,'oit (lue, dans ces conditions, si le jardin 
de Buitenzorg attirait les botanistes par sa situa- 
tion au centre de la vegetation luxuriante des 
'IVopiques, comme aurait pu les attirer tout 
autre jardin k Ceylan, au Bresil, en Afrique equa- 
toriale, e’est pour le genie de Treub surtout que 
de nombreux naturalistes vinrent travailler k 
Java; ils n’ignoraient pas qu’ils y seraient aid6s, 
pilotes par le grand savant, si bien au courant de 
toutes les possibilites de travail, de tous les pro- 
blemcs qui arretent ^ chaque pas les nouveaux 
Venus. 

Trei'b avait trouve les services du Jardin 
botanique plus ou moins bien installes dans les 
locaux d6satTectes d’un ancien hopital militaire; 
tout son elTort tendit d’abord vers une ameliora- 
tion des instruments de travail et vers une nieil- 
leure organisation de radministration. 11 se fit 
amenager un bureau convenable et construire 
une confortable niaison dans le jardin, tout contre 
le niur de verdure d’une allee de Gnetums, cette 
liane curieuse qui est une enigme pour tous les 
botanistes quand ils ne la connaissent quo par 
les livres. II organisa mieiix la repartition des 
plantes dans le jardin et fit augnienter le nombre 
des individus cultives, proxenant tie toutes les 
parties de rArchipel; il crea des laboratoires 
commodes (jamais luxueux) pour les services en- 
tomologiques, pour I’ctude du riz et du cafe, pour 
la chimie veg6tale, la pharmacologie, etc. 

Knfin, placedevant la multiplicitedes problemes 
scientifiques qui se posaient, il comprit qu’il ne 
pouvait les rKsoudre seui ou aM*c I’aide de qut I- 
ques collaborateurs et il eiitreprit de faire 6cole, 

* Plus tard, dans un nouveau periodique, Trrubia, furens 
consiKnfes los observations faites aux Indes-Nt“t‘rlandaiset 
dans Ic domaine do la /wlonie. 



Bkknakd: Le Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg 


12 


d’aincnor a lui des savants de tons les pays, de 
mettre leur disposition des locaux bien anie- 
nages; il fonda done eet Institut qu’il nomma le 
Laboratoire des Etran^ers et qui, reconstruit 
il y a quel(|ues annees, s’appelle maintenant le 
Treub-Laboratorium, on de nonibreux savants 
sont venus de partout pour se mettre au courant 
des secrets de la nature tropicalt^. Je ne saurais 
iei vous donncr une enumeration de tous ceux 
qui, au cours du dernier demi-siecle, sont venus 
k Buitenzorg et je ne pourrais vous donner un 
aper(,u meme sommaire de leurs travaux; tous 
ont rerolte un riche materiel d’etudes et de de- 
monstration qui a enrichi leurs musees et la- 
boratoires; tous ont publie, a la suit** deleur sejour 
dans le beau jardin tropical, d’importants me- 
moires qui ont fait honneur a eux-memes, i 
rinstitution <iui leur avait fait un bienveillant 
accueil et au savant maitre qui les avait aides de 
son experience. 

Parmi tous ces savants, je ne vous citerai que 
les naturalistes suisses qui ont visite Buitenzorg, 
en partie gr^ce une bourse de voyage instituee 
par la Societe Suisse des Sciences naturelles k la 
suite d’un voyage de propagande que 'Freub 
avait entrepris dans divers pays pour les con- 
vaincre qu’il serait utile pour leurs biologues de 
completer leurs etudes dans une region toute 
nouv’elle pour eux et ou ils rencontreraient toutes 
facilites de travail. Je ne manquerai pas de rap- 
peler tout d’abord Hi.inricu Zollinger, qui fit 
ses etudes ri;ni\ersite de Geneve, fut I’elev'e 
et I’ami d'A. P. de G.^ndolle et, encourage et 
probablement aussi aide par de ('.wdolle, partit 
en 1841 pour java, ou il sejourna a deux repris**s; 
il y mourut en 1859, age de 41 ans, apres avoir, 
au milieu de grandes difficultcs matcrielles, 
poursuivi un labeur scieiitifique *:onsiderable. 
Sa tornbe avait ete bien negligee, mais en 1919, le 
Gouvernement des Indes Neerlandais<*s la fit 
remettre en etat et depuis, elle a ete bien entre- 
tenue; le Grou|x* de Batavia de la Nouvelle 
Societe Helv(!*tique a consacre un de ses bulletins 
k notre compatriote. L*.‘s Prof. .S( hroeter et 
Ern.st ont visite a deux reprises le jardin de 
Buitenzorg; les Prof. Senn et TscHiKCH, D' 
Pernod, les explorateurs P. et F. Sarasin, J. 
Koi x, WiRZ, ont fait aux Indes Neerlandaises 
des sejours plus ou nioins prolonges; enfin de 
nombreux biologues Suisses, dont je parlerai 
tout k I’heure, ont ete au service du jardin bo- 
tanique ou d'autres institutions scientifiques de 
Java et de Sumatra et ont eu I’occasion de travail- 
ler a Buitenzorg. 4'ous ont fait honneur k nos 
ecoles Suisses de biologie et ont su faire reuvre 
utile; ils ont trouve lA-bas un riche materiel 
d’etude, qui donne un dementi aux paroles d’un 
des grands pontifes de notre petite science bo- 
tanique, k (|ui Ton demandait s’il n’irait pas un 
jour k Buitenzorg et qui repondait, en des termes 
dont je ne vous rapfx-llerai pas la forme Rabelaisi- 
enne: «Aller a Buitenzorg? Mais non, il ne s’y 
trouve plus une plante qui n’ait dejA ete etudiee 
par quelques botanistes.» 

Eh bien, je vous assure que ces mots sont <le- 
pourvus de tout sens et qu’il y a encore beaucoup 
k faire 1^-bas et surtout qu’on peut y faire b(>au- 
coup parce que, dans ce centre scientifique, tout 
est organi.s^ |X)ur faciliter les recherches. Ils s’en 
souviennent, t*ms ceux qui ont **u I'avantage 
de se promener avec Treub dans les allees du 
jardin, aux premieres heures fraich<-s du matin; 
c’6tait un emerveillement <le I'entendre disserter 
sur mille prf;blemes, citer maintes observations 


inedites, dont chacune pouvait etre le point de 
depart de nouvelles rechercht'S . . . et ceux qui 
ont fait avec Backer la d^licieuse excursion du 
littoral et d** la mangrove pres de Batavia; k 
tout moment cet ingenieux botaniste attirait 
I’attention de ses compagnons sur un point non 
encore elucide de la structure de telle ou telle 
plante, sur un probicme a resoudre de biologic 
ou de geobotanique . . . tjue les j(‘unes botanistt‘S 
qui en ont la po.ssibilite aillent sans aucune in- 
quietude a Buitenzorg; ils n’y manqueront pas 
de sujets de travail, ils n’auront qu'A ouvrir les 
yeux, ils pourront A chaque pas faire des ob- 
servations originales; t“t, aides par des hommes 

f ileins d 'experience qui ne leur menageront pas 
esconseils, ils ne reviendront pas les mains vicles. 

Le Laboratoire des Etrangers etait une des 
fiertGs de rKKUB; il avait pour lui une affection 
toute particuliere; c’est aussi pour aider ses 
hotes qu'il crea cette mervei Meuse succursale du 
jardin de Buitenzf)rg k Tjibodas, un jardin de 
20 ha. a 1500 m. d'altitude sur le volcan Gedeh, 
dans un climat para*lisia(iue, avec un laboratoir** 
bien installe, une *'onfortable maison d 'habita- 
tion, a la limite d'une reserve de fori'd vi(‘rge, 
d’une etendue de pres de 300 ha, et *jui, s'elevant 
jusqu’au sommet de la montagne, k 3000 m., pre- 
sente toutes les formations vegetales de la foret 
tropicale, caractere democratique' , comme 
<lisait Treub, jusqu’a la flore v'olcanique et 
alpine du somm»*t. On se represent** les sensa- 
tions du botanist** installe a I'jibodas qui, sortant 
du bungalow pittoresque, n’a que cent pas a 
faire pour .s** promt*ner sous les sombres fron- 
daisons de la foret vierge, dans le fouillis des 
lianes, des rotins, etc., pour admir**r les epiphytes, 
les dentelles des Ifymenophyllum, les Asplenium 
nidus, les Rhododemirons aux fleurs vivement 
c*)lor<*s et, sur le sol, les Hepatiques aux teintes 
glauques, et tout d'un coup la tete rouge d'un 
Bdlanophora ; plus haul, apres les rochers humides 
tapissees d'un** sphagnaie vertical**, apres les 
sources chaudes ou des algues resistent a une tem- 
perature incrcjyable, c’est la splendeur des clairi- 
eres couvertes Primula imperialis, la primev*^*re 
aux 5-6 verticilles superposes, sur une hampe pou- 
vant atteindre un metre; enfin, la flore de haute 
montagne, avec ses Vaccinium geants et V Ana- 
phalis au feuillage feutre, qui est une sorte 
d’Edelw'eiss arborescent; sur le sol, des formes 
alpines, rabougries appartenant a diverses especes. 

Je ne veux donner qu’un exemple, mais bien 
frappant, de la collaboration intime de Treub 
avec les visiteurs du jardin; j’ai dit dej?l que, sans 
etre systematicien, il s’inter**ssait vivement aux 
problem(*s de geobotanicjue; f>n concevra done 
sans peine que le jeune savant, qui venait d’ar- 
river k Java, fOt frappe par I’eruption du Kraka- 
tau, I’affreuse catastropli** qui, en 1883, provoqua, 
par suite de I’exploaian et du ras de maree, la 
mort de 30,000 {x*rsonne«* Toute la region en- 
vironnante et en partkulier les debris *<survi- 
vants* du grouix* d’iles furent r(*couverts d'une 
couche enorme de cendres iiu:andevS('ent**s, d** 
sorte que toute trace de vie fut aneantie sur ces 
rrx'hers abrupts. Le geologue Verbeek, qui 
visita h* Krakatau quelques mois apr**s I’eruption, 
n’y rencontra plus aucune trace de vegetation. 
Apres quelques annees, en 1886, Treub, sup- 
posant que les premiers vestigts ti’une nouvelle 
vegetation pouvaient etre apparus sur I’lle de- 
vastee, se rendit sur place avec quelques-uns de 
ses collaborateurs et fit les premit'res constata- 
tions: il n*)ta l**s plantes, (*ncore rar**s, qui s** mon- 



Hkknakij: Le Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg 


traient ici et et publia dos ap(‘r(,us ingenieux sur 
la inaniere dont It'S vegetaux ^;taient revenus pcu 
k p(‘U sur les lieux d(* la catastrophe; d(‘puis lors, 
tous les dix ans environ, il convia les bolanistes 
etrangers qui se trouvaient k Buitenzorg, a re- 
peter avec lui I’excursion au Krakatau, pour 
constater les progres de la nouvelle flore; chaque 
fois d’interi'ssantes observations ^taient faites et 
consignees dans des publications im{X)rtantes. 
Kn 18d6, ce fut Penzig et en 1906 les Prof. 
Campbell et Pmlle, avec notre compatriote 
le Prof. Ernst, qui eurent la chance d’accom- 
pagner I'ricub dans cette interevssante excursion. 
Apres le depart de Treub, ses successeurs con- 
tinuerent la tradition etablie par lui: de nouvelles 
expeditions eurent lieu, qui etudierent aussi h* 
d6veloppenient de la nouvelle faune et Ton put, 
en 1929, i I’occasion du 4"’*= Pan-Pacific Science 
('ongress, tenu a Batavia, et qui fut, a bien des 
egards, une sorte d’apotheose de I’o'uvre de 
Treub, faire paraitre une publication definitive 
decrivant la flore et la faune recon.stituees du 
Krakatau. Le nombre des especes vegetales 
avait passe tie 26 en 1886 k plus de 300 en 1929. 
Sans doute, on a pu discuter les conclusions 
tirees par Treub et ses collaborateiirs; il n'en 
reste pas rnoins que mil n’a pu demontrer Tin- 
exactitude de CCS theories qui expliquent la re- 
population, en un temps relativement court, 
d’une lie totaleinent devastee, la formation (Tune 
vegetation drue, ou apparurent peu a jieu de 
noinbreuses espect's animales. Mais surtout, 
cette etude montre la belh* collaboration que le 
1 )irecteur du jardin sut maintenir avec les savants 
botanistes qui venaient travailler pres de lui et 
la manitVe genereuse dont il les faisait profiter de 
sa riclu* (“xperienc(“ iiersonnelle. 

Treub se rendit bien vite coinpte qu'il ne 
pouvait faire de son jardin tropical et de ses 
laboratoires bien installes urn* instituti<jn de 
science pure, avec des savants planant audessus 
de toutes les contingcnces pratiques. Il vit de 
suite les irnmenses services que ses laboratoires 
pouvaient rendre k Tagriculture et a Tindustrie. 
J'ai d6ja dit qu'il avait cree des laboratoires de 
recherches et d’avis pour le riz et le cafe, deux 
cultures inip(^)rtantes de la population indigene. 
En outre, il chargea ses laboratoires botaniques 
d'entreprendre pour toutes les plantes de grande 
culture des etudes de physiologic et de phyto- 
pathologie; le musee zool(3gique se consacra tout 
specialement aux insectes nuisibles a Tagricul- 
ture: le laboratoire de pharmacologic fit nombre 
d’observations pratiques; le laboratoire de chimie 
agricole entreprit les premieres recherches sur 
le caoutchouc et devint par la suite le laboratoire 
de chimie industrielle et d'analyse; un des 
chimistes collabora aux etudes sur les vitamines 
et prepara le produit applique maintenant en 
grand contre le beri-beri; plus tard fut fondee 
une station experimentale avec instituts sp6ciaux 
de phytopatholo^ie, de selection, d'agroge(dogie 
etc. De plus, Treub developpa Tannexe du 
jardin botanique, dite le «jardin de culture*, on il 
fit planter, sur des parcelles de quelque eteiidue, 
toutes les plantes utiles susceptibles de vivre 
sous le climat de Buitenzorg; on y trouve des 
individus en quantite sutfisante pour faire des 
experiences soit sur place, soit dans les labo- 
ratoires avec les produits obtenus; ce jardin est 
un veritable mus6e vivant, oii se rencontrent des 
types historiques: les plus anciennes plantes de 
th6 intrcKluites k Java en 1826 par graines im- 
portees de ('hine et du Japon; les premiers 


Palaquiutn mis en culture pour la production de 
la gutta-percha; quelques vieux individus du 
premier stock de graines d'Hevea irnportees il y 
a environ 60 ans; des Ficus et d’autres plantes k 
caoutchouc qui ne presentent plus qu’un interet 
historique; les premiers palmiers a huile importes 
aux Indes Neerlandaises et qui, selection nes, ont 
found des graines pour les irnmenses etendues 
plantees d'Elais k Sumatra; les types de cafeier 
importes pour 1 utter contre la malaiiie des feuilles 
(Ilemileia), les hybrides, les grefTes; les premieres 
greffes reussies i.\'IIevea\ des Krythroxylon coca, 
des cacaoyers de divers types, des agaves, des 
ccx'otiers; enfin toute la collection des Legumi- 
neiises utilisees comme engrais vert et dont Tap- 
plication, vivement pr6conisee par les services 
agronomiques officiels et prives, a certainement 
contribue a sauver plusieurs cultures en ame- 
liorant la cejnstitution chimique et physique du 
sol, I'n le protegeant contre Terosion et en di min ri- 
ant les frais d'entretien des jardins. 

L cnorme extension que prirent les cultures 
europeennes et les innombrables avis demandes 
aux services agricoles du jardin botanique se d6- 
velopperent a tel point que le personnel, absorbe 
d’autre part ixir les soins a donner aux cultures 
indigenes, ne pouvait plus, rnalgre tout son de- 
vouement, suffire k la tache. Treub reussit a 
convaincre les entreprises de cultures qu'elles 
devaient organiser, k leurs frais, des stations ex- 
I)erimentales qui travailleraient en collaboration 
avec les services de Buitenzorg et sous le controle 
du Directeur du jardin. C'e furent d’abord les 
stations pour le sucre et pour le tabac, dont le 
personnel travaillait une partie de Tannee dans 
les centres de culture, le reste du temps dans le 
laboratoire mis i\ leur di.six)sition k Buitenzorg: 
la station pour le cafe, qui travaillait pour les 
cultures du Gouvernement et pour les plantations 
privees; la station pour la culture du the, que 
j’ai eu Thonneur de diriger pendant 20 ans et 
qui, par unc entente avec le Gouvernement, don- 
nait aussi des avis aux indigenes planteurs de 
the; la station pour Tindigo, qui disparut lorsque 
la culture de cette plante succomba devant Tap- 
parition de Tindigo artificielle; la station pour le 
cacao dans le centre de java; plus tard naquit 
encore la station pour T6tude du quinquina, 
enfin, en 1914, celle pour le caoutchouc. 

On se rendra compte sans peine de Tenormite 
de cette organisation et des difticultes que Treub 
eut surmonter pour la mener k bien: surcharge 
lui-meme par son travail scientifique et par la 
surveillance des travaux de ses collaborateurs, 
submerge par Torganisation de ses divers services 
qui, de jour en jour, devenait plus absexbante, 
il avait, toujemrs perdu au milieu de Tadministra- 
tion hybric^e du D^partement de TInstruction 
publique, k I utter pour son ceuvre, pour la coor- 
dination des efforts de son nombreux personnel, 
k lutter avec des chefs, responsables il est vrai, 
mais souvent incompetents Aussi comprit-il 
bient(')t qu’il ne pouvait, dans ces conditions, 
s’organiser au mieux de Tint^ret general et 
songea-t-il a la n6cessite de grouper tout ce qui 
touchait de pres ou de loin k Tagriculture, et 
d’en former un nou^'eau Departement, compre- 
nant, outre les instituts dejd nommes, le service 
vcten'naire, le service forestier et les etablisse- 
ments existant deja ou k fonder pour Tenseigne- 
ment agricole. Vous vous doutez bien que cela 
n'alla pits sans peine, car la reorganisation est une 
des choses les plus difticiles qui soient: aux Indes, 
comme ailleurs, s6vit la routine et quand on 



liKRNARD: Le .Tardin Botanique de Buitenzorg 


14 


parlo d cnlcvcr i\ un chef de Dopartcment un de 
ses services pour le placer sous le controle d’unc 
adniinistratiou plus competent(‘, aussitot ce 
chef, menie s'il ne s'iiiteressait Ruerc au service 
en question, crie I’accaparement et ne veut pas 
lecher une seule parcelle de ses prerojia lives; cc 
sont les questions de prestige et de personnes qui 
pri merit toujours et partout sur les questions de 
logi<)ue et de bon sens L’atTaire se conipliquait 
encore parce que, acceptee tinaleiiient aux hides, 
elle devait etre approu\6e en Hollande; bref il 
fallut A Tkki H des luttes epiiisantes et une perse- 
verance inlassable pour atteindre son but: il 
I'atteignit pourtant et le 1" jamier 1905, le De- 
partenient tie TAgricultuie etait institue. Tins 
tard, on lui adjoignit encore 1’ Industrie et le 
Commerce, avec le bureau de statistiqiie, le 
controle des poids et mesiires, le niusee de bo- 
tanitjue ^*('()nomique, les pecheries, etc., etc. Plus 
tard enfm, sous I'influence de la crise qui sevit 
actuellement, on crut necessaire de coordonner 
certains services ou de les combiner pour realiser 
les economies et les restrictions indisponsables; 
on pensa ainsi augmenter leur ellicacite et on 
donna au Departimeiit le nom de Departement 
des Affaires economiques; question de mots, (jui 
ne changea pas grand chose h son activate. 

Des 1905. le Departement s'etait developpe 
peu jk peu n(;rmaK nient; c'est surtout par la col- 
laboration de ses services et de radministration 
civile (ju’on reussit faire progO'Sser les cultures 
indigenes, grfice r\ rexcellent corps des ingenieurs 
agricoles charges de donner regulierement des 
informations aux petits agriculteurs, grt^ce au.ssi 

renseignement agricole qui forma les fonction- 
naires indigenes, l.e service forestier s’ameliora 
lui aussi et travailla utilemeiit a la formation de 
grandes reserves forest ieres, au reboisement de 
regions iniportantes, A I’exploitation rationiulle 
des forets; une station experimentale fut installee 
et contribua largement au developpement normal 
de ce service; il en fut <ie rneme du service vete- 
rinaire, avec son Ial)oratoire pour la preparation 
des serums, sa pi>iiclinique et son ecole m<;yenne 
pour la formation de veterinaires, specialij^s 
dans les Cjuestions concernant les aniniaux do* 
nie.stifiues des tropiques, rameliorati<;n des races, 
le traitement des maladies, etc. 

hes plantations de ca<mtchouc et de gutta- 
percha et rexploitali<)n des forets de teck, bieii 
dirigees, donnereiit dans les bonnes annees de 
beaux b6nefices au G(juvernement ; helas, depuis 
que la situation econoinitjue est devijiue si 
precaire, cctle source de revenus s’est peu a peu 
tarie; esperons (jue le temps des vaches grasses 
finira par revenir. 

I'ki.Lii, qui avait compris que pour toutes les 
branches de I’activite econ<miique les niernes 
ni^'lhodes devaient etre appliquees, avait pense 
qu’un s<-rvice (Je recliercl.is it d’inforniations 
scientifiques serait utile aux [jecheurs et il installa 
^ Batavia un aquarium et un laboratoire d’oce 
anographie qui fit uuvre utile et acrjuit une 
grande in fjortance; cet institut travailla en 
intime C(;Ilaljorati(yn avec le service tl’hygiene 
en vue de la lutte contre la n alaria, par des 
modifications apportees a la biologic des poissons 
dans les viviers au Nor<J de liatavia, viviers on 
pullulaient les larves de n.oustirjues; la cr-llabora- 
ti(;n des deux services reussit as^ainir dans un 
delai Iris court cette j-artie ins-alubre de I'ile; 
n ais ( 'eit Ifk une cjuestion ia({uelle je ne ni’ar- 
ret. ai [at, car die pourrait 4 elle seule faire 
I’objt l (I'une conference. 


Bref, le Departement de TAgriculture qui, it 
sa fondation en 1905, roulait sur un budget 
d’environ sept millions de florins, s’dait d6- 
v'cloppc i\ un tel point que, lorsque j’en etais le 
Directeur en 1930 et que nous fetions le 25“'® anni- 
versaire de sa fondation, il pouvait dispenser de 
33 millions de florins. On voit la progression et 
le beau developpement de cette organisation au 
cours de ce ciuart de siecle; malheureiisement, 
plus tard, les economies et les restrictions, les 
diminutions de personnel ont bien dil intervenir 
et ce budget, cpii permettait un si niagnificiue 
cssor des divers services, a du etre reduit de 
pres de 50%. 

('omme je I’ai dit, il existait au debut, entre le 
Departement et les Stations exiierimenlales 
privies pour les grandes cultures eiiropcennes, 
un lien plus ou moins solidiq fREUii avait obtenu 
cpjc CCS stations, eiitretenues par les contributions 
des planteurs, travaillassimt sous sa direction; il 
voulait ainsi soustraire le personnel scientificiuc 
it I’influence trop directe des interels di* la pra- 
tique et assurer I'independance scientili(iuc‘ des 
employes; mais peu a ptai, les planteurs trou- 
verent cju’ils avaient trop p<‘U a diri* dans ces in- 
stitutions, pour Ii'squelles ils s’imposaient de 
lourds .sacriffees et ils exinimerent le desir de les 
voir s’installer pri-s des centres de cultures; ils 
pourraient ainsi prendre une part plus grande 
aux ri'chercht'S et experii-nces et surtout mieiix 
organiser les a|)plications pratiques. L(' sucri^ 
et le tabac de Sumatra se separcreiit les premiers 
du Departement: des stations experinientalcs 
privees se fonderent jiour le cafe, li- caoutcliouc 
dans le centre et Test de Javai, une grande station 
fut etablie pour toutes les cultures autn's (pie le 
tabac a Medan, sur la cote orientale de Sumatra; 
la station pour le the et celle pour le quinquina 
furent les dernicres a suivre (c rnouvenumt et 
c’est en 1926 seulemeiit, eiue la station pour le 
the rompit le dernier lien qui I’attachait au De- 
partement de I’Agriculture; bien entendu, toutes 
ces stations sont toujours en collalior.ation intime 
avec les services du Gouve rnernent ct elles con- 
tinuent it profiter des avantages offerts par le 
centre scientifique de Buitenzorg: I’herbier, le 
nius6e zoologique, les biblic^thecpies, le nombreux 
perscjimel bien dresfro aux recherches de physio- 
logic c't de phytopiathologie. Une as.s(.)ciation 
groupe le personnel technique du Departcmient 
et des Stations experimentales et le reunit une 
fcjis par an nee en des seances ou sont traites des 
subji ts interessants et cpii assuri nt uri contact 
permanent et une collabcjration feconde en re- 
sultats pratiques. 

Je pense que beaucoup d 'entre vous savent ce 
qu’a ete, dans les 50 dernicres ann6es, le travail 
de ces stations experimentales; de toutes sont 
sort is de nombreux mcimoires sur les problemes 
les plus divers (]ui se posent pour les cultures 
tropicales: le travail du sol et les engrais; la se- 
lection; le traitement uUerieur des jflantes; les 
sc-mis, pepinieres, greffes, la taille; les dcjiimiages 
caus6s ()ar des irrsectes, des cham|)ignons, cles 
defauts de culture, etc.; la rto^te du produit, et 
son traitement dans les usines; enfm les cpiestions 
economiepjes. I'ous ces sujets sont traites devant 
les assemblees de planteurs, puis dans de nom- 
breuses publications, les unc's de caractere plus 
scientificpie, les autres nettement pratiques. Le 
travail de i es institutiems, leur organisation, ont 
fait radmiration de tons cemx ejui S(mt venus 
visiter les hides Neerlandaises et on les a sou vent 
cities en exernple dans beaucoup de [lays ou, sur 



15 


ilRAAK: The Climate and Meteorological Research 


leur inodelc, des institutions analogues ont ete 
fondles. 

All cours des anuses ecoulees, de nombreux 
biologues Suisscs ont travaille dans les labora- 
toires agricoles soit gouvi'rnementaux, soit 
priv6s; je noninierai d’abord un ties pionniers dcs 
rcchcrchcs agronomiques, Ic I)’’ Zehntnkk, qui a 
longtemps dirige une station de recherclies dans 
le centre de Java; puis un de ses collaborateurs, 
le regrette \Vurth, trop tbt enleve h ses 
cheres etudes et qui fut un sp^cialiste eminent 
de la culture du cafe; dans le caoutchouc se sont 
distingucs Vischkr, Stkinmann, Schweizer, 
Bouilioff, k Sumatra Heusser et Frey; dans le 
cacao Bally et Hallauer, dans le tabac, Diem 
^ Sumatra, von Sprecher Java, en chimie 
Long et Zimmermann, en min6ralogie Schei- 
bener; en systernatique Hociireutiner, qui 
travailla ^ ans k rilerbier de Buitenzorg; en 
phytopat hologie Gaum Ann et Paravkini; rnoi- 
meme, j’ai dirige pendant 20 ans la station ex- 
perimentale pour le the et j’ai eu le plaisir de 
com|)ter parmi mes collaborateurs deux com- 
patriotes, le D' Staub cjui a etudie la fermenta- 
tion du th6, plus tard le D'' Menzel, entomo- 
logue, (|ui a etudie avec passion les insectes 
nuisibles du theier et du quinquina. Je pense que 
tons ont ernporte de leur sejour Java un bon 
souvenir, souvenir de travail utile et interessant, 
souvenir d’une vie large et agreable, comme eux- 
nit^mes ont laisse l;\-l)as une reputation de bons 
travailleurs, Malheureusement, les conditions 
ont tellement change, le personnel des instituts 
agronomiques a ete tellement reduit, on a si 


parcimonieusement rcmplace ceux qui s'en al- 
laient que, sauf deux ou trois cornpatriotes qui 
continuent k exercer k Java une f^conde activity, 
tous sont rentres au pays; comme, dans les cir- 
constances actuelles, si difficiles dans tous les 
pays, on n'engage plus guere que les biologues 
Hollandais, ce debouche, comme tant d’autres 
est malheureusement ferm6 k nos jeunes na- 
turalistes, dont la situation, au debut de leur car- 
riere devient de plus en plus pr^caire, puisqu’ils ne 
peuvent plus trouver les possibilites de travail 
offertes autrefois k leur activite dans les pays 
etrangers qui leur sont maintenant fermes. 

Si, Mesdames et Messieurs, je n'ai pas traite de 
sujets vraiment botaniques, qui auraient peut- 
etre interesse davantage les membres de notre 
societe, si je ne vous ai pas parlc des plantes, si 
je ne vous ai pas decrit les recherclies faites au 
laboratoire ou a I'herbier par les nombreux 
savants qui ont etudie la flore tropicale, je pense 
vous avoir cependant indiqu6 les possibilites 
botaniques qui ont existe, qui existent encore 
dans ce grand et riche doniaine des I rides Neer- 
landaises et I’organisation des recherches k 
Buitenzorg, tant au point de vue purernent sci- 
entifique qu’a celui de Tapplication pratique, 
dans I’interet des cultures, 

Je voudrais avoir reussi k vous intcresscr, k 
vous faire admirer I’ceuvre coloniale des Hol- 
landais, k vous faire aimer ce beau pays, je 
voudrais avoir inculque aux jeunes biologues le 
desir d’y aller completer leurs etudes, entreprise 
qui, malheureusement, est bien plus difficile 
pour eux que pour leurs dcvanciers imni6diats . . . 


ON tiif: climate of and meteorological 

RESEARCH IN ITIL: NETHERLANDS INDIES 

hy 

C. Braak, Ph.D.* 

Dl’pL of Clirnntolofiy, Ihyal Meteorokujical Ohscrvalory, De Dill, IXelherlands; late 
Direclor of Ike Royal Maynelical and Meteorological Observalor}', Batavia. 


'I'he most prominent quality of the tropical 
climate is its monotony, its uniformity from day 
to day. d'he sudtien changes of temperature and 
wind, charactt'iistic of the climates in the temper- 
ate zone, are absent in the Fast Indies and the 
weather hardly counts as a topic of conversation. 

Where no oppressive heat is felt, as is the case 
in the tropical mountains, the climate is the finest 
an inhabitant of the temperate zone can imagine. 
Still, in this ideal climate one longs at first for the 
changes between the mild south and the cold 
north wind, the regular succession of the seasons, 
of storm and calm weather. In the long run, how- 
ever, one is no longer aware of this privation, and 
gets so accustomed to the fine weather that after 
a long residence one prefers the Indies to the home 
country and does not repatriate any more. 

'fhe climate of the tropical zone, which covers 
nearly half the globe, is rather uniform, but its 
differences are often overlooked by meteorologists 
and physicians, who, dealing with the influence of 
climate on man, do not make sufficient distinction 

* Reprinted from ".Science in the Netherlands E.ast In- 
dies." pp. .SO-64 (Amsterdam: Kon, Ak, Wet., I.C.O. Com- 
mittee, 1929). 


between a climate with a mean temperature of 
20’^ C. and another with one of 26°. 'Phis dif- 
ference can only be appreciated by those who, 
after a re.^^idence in the hot tropical plains, visit 
the highlands with their bracing climate. For in- 
stance, when one leaves Batavia, which has a 
mean temperature of 26°, and visits Bandoeng, 
which has a mean temperature only 4° lower, 
the sensation of oppression, which is felt in the 
plaiiKs, vanishes entirely, and many Europeans, 
who left Batavia on account of the oppre.ssive 
heat, feel quite at ease and cheerful at Bandoeng 
and prefer a stay there to one in Holland with its 
more inhospitable climate. 

Apparently one degree of temperature counts 
more in the case of temperatures approaching the 
limit of human endurance, as in the low-lying 
plains, than at lower temperatures. 

'Phis great sensibility to temperature dilTcr- 
ences involves, that in describing the climate of a 
tropical country, stress should be laid in the first 
place on the temperature conditions, and es- 
pecially on the variation in connection with 
height, because the variation in a horizontal di- 
rection is slight. 



Hhaak: The Climate and Meteorological Research 


li 


General Features of the Indian Climate: The 

(iiniensions of tJic islands of tht* East Indian Ar- 
chipelago arc still small enough to allow ot an 
effective interchange of air with the surroundi/ig 
seas, ('onsequently the ('liniate resembles that of 
the ocean near the equator. Abundant rainfall, 
light wiruls, high temperature and high humidity 
are therefore the principal features «)f the climate 
of tht' E. Indies plains. 

This, ho\v(‘ver, is only approximately true, the 
exceptions to the general rule being l)y no means 
negligible. 

I he influenct' ot the cont intuits ol Asia and 
Australia renders the Archipelago the most typi- 
cal monsoon region in the worhl. 1 he change of 
the monsoons causes an annual v.iriation in the 
climate, which is fairly small in the northern, but 
considerable in the southtun jxirt of tlu^ Archi- 
pelago. 

Atidt'd to this seasonal variation an* the local 
differences, which are relatively large on account 
of the mountainous character ot th<‘ country, 
which makes rainfall anti cloinlint'ss to a high 
degree dt pendent upon the direction of tht' wind. 

•Mort'ovt r. in successive years tlilferences occur 
in th(‘ force of the monsoons which are closel\ 
connected with the general air-circulation, ('on- 
sequently the differences betwetm the seasons 
may vary appreciably, so that in some years the 
farmer will wait in vain for tht‘ dry season, 
whereas in other N tuirs he will look out for months 
and months for the first gooti shower. 

With the exct'ption of the fluctuations of rain- 
fall. the variations from day to day are trifling. 
Disturbances, such as the low-pressure systems 
of the higher latitudes, which maki“ the weather 
\ery variable, are practically unknown. Ihe 
deviations of air pressun* <lo not even excee<l a 
few millinu-t res, and hardly afte< t the weather. 

•Stnjng winds are excejitional. By lar the most 
important are the variations in rainfall, and it is 
chiefly by the intensity of the tro|)ical cloudbursts 
that the inhabitants of this land of eternal sum- 
mer are remimled of the powa-r of the elements. 

The variati(tn of the phenomena is very much 
the same from day to rlay. When tin- sun has 
risen in the chair sky and has stirn il the air liy its 
heat, the small cumulus clouds begin to app<-ar, 
usually at about 9 o’l hK'k; at th<‘ same time the 
monsoon, w hich had almo.st comph-tely died dow n 
during the night but had kept blowing in the 
higher air layers, springs up again. Windforce 
and cloudiness increase as the sun climbs higher, 
the clouds grow densi-r and darker, pih- them 
selves up to higher and higher levels, till in the 
afternoon coruhmsation sets in, and the refreshing 
rain falls down with a pattering sound on the 
thick foliage, or till, towards tlie close of a rainless 
day, the clouds gradually dissolve with the de- 
clining force of the sun beams. I'hi-n the evening 
succeeds the short summer day, the sky clears up, 
the wind abates and the clomlless and calm tropi- 
cal night begins, bringing relief after the oppres- 
sive heat of tin* day. 

'I’he uniformity of the temperature conditions 
makes the differences betwei n the climate of (he 
higher regions and that of the low plains the more 
prominent. In addition to the decrease of tem- 
perature of from 5 I 2 to 6° C. for a ris<* of 1000 
metres, the climate also changes in other respects 
with increase of height. In the mountains cloudi- 
ness inen-ases and at first also the amount of rain. 
On reaching higher levels the intensity of the 
rains becomes smaller, but the total duration of 


sliow(‘ry weather increases, instead of the heavy 
tropical cloudhursts light showers becoming more 
frvquvnt. 

The weather is very variabh* on the bi^h moun- 
tain tops. W hen the air is calm and the intensely 
radiating sun is not ob.si'ured by clouds or fog, 
one feels almost too hot. Rut as .soon as a fresh 
breeze springs up and l)lows away tin* thin laye r 
of warm air that surrounds the mountain, tlu' 
temperature may fall several degrees, and one 
sudd<*nly feels shiva-ry. When the clouds cover 
the summit and shut out tlu' sunlight, the weather 
becomes at once chilly and dull, but when the 
mist has cleared and the atmosphere is again 
filled with light, the depressing state ot the 
weather changes as if by magic into tht* m«*rriest 
summer day. 

riiundt'r is vt-ry Irequeiit lui the mountain 
slopes but it is si'ldom observed dii the high tops. 
The thunderclouds, which originatt* on tlu* hiwft 
slopes, rept'lled as it wt*re by the mountain, takr 
tlieir cour.st* towards the plain. It olten occurs 
that on all sides high clouds tower abovi* the sum 
mit, whereas tht* l.ittt*r is left tret* and still basks 
in th«* sun. 

Comparison of the Climate with that of the 
Neighbouring Countries: Although the ht*at of 
the coa.st plains is far from pleasant, yet tht 
climatt* compares favouraltiv' with that ot our 
nt*ighbours at a gre.iter distanct* trom the etiu.a- 
tor. 

As a matt(*r of fact, the mt*an annual tempt*r- 
atun* tlt*crt*ast*s as tht* latitudt* incrt*ast*s, but the 
favourablt* effect of tht* cooler winter months is 
more than counterbalanct'd by the unbearable 
tit*at of tht* hottt*st summer months. In thisca.se 
a mort* equal)le tt*m[)i'raturt* distribution ovt*r the 
year is bettt*r than the mon* usually prai.sed vari 
ety. 

V\e may ( onclutle frtim the wet-bulb tempera- 
tures th.it there exists on both siiit*s ol the equa- 
tt>r a zone with mort* oppressive vveatlur in tin 
hottest nninth than is found on the t*quator. Pin 
following figures, whit'h rt*pre.sent the mean wt*t- 
bull) temperatun* in the hotti*st month, mav 
servt* as a proof. 

Fiatavia ShatiKliai Manila IloiiKkotiK I’ort- Darwin 

24."4 24.°H 25.°2 2.S.'"4 2,S.°4 

NIia-trauK (Annain ) U()inl)ay Madras ( 'alculta 

25.°‘> 26.''2 26.“4 

Lahore Hanoi (Tonkin) 

26.°6 26. "'9 

Whereas at Batavia the maximum heat, al- 
though disagret able, can lit* endurt*d w ithout too 
much discomfort, tin* .saint* canimt be said ol 
most t)f tht* otht*r places. At C alcutta for instance 
the climate is almost unbearabit* at the most op- 
pressive time of the yt*ar. 

There is still aimther tliffert*nct* of much impor 
tance in favour of tin* East Indies. It is the fact 
that, owing to tin* small ilistance from tin* 
etiuator, practically no destructive trtipit'al cy- 
clones trccur in tlu* Archipelago, and, mor(*over, 
the heavy storms of the ti*mperate zone need not 
be guarded against. Wind spouts can develop a 
destructive force, but they are so local and there- 
fore so rare, that they need .scarcely be tak«*n into 
account. For th«*se reasons, then* is no safer place 
for navigation at sea than thi'se regions and on 
land less strong building con.structions are suffi- 
cient as compared with oth(*r [larts of the world. 









Braak: The Climate and Meteorological Research 


18 


Observations : — The period of regular and trust- 
worthy meteorological observations begins with 
the fourulation of the Observatory at Batavia in 
1866. Under its first director, Dr. Bergsma, a 
system of 74 rainfall stations was established in 
Java and of 44 on the other islands, in addition to 
the meteorological and magnetical observations, 
made at the Observatory. 'I'he number of these 
stations has been regularly increased in course of 
time and at the present moment the Observatory 
recei\es the obser\ations from more than 3000 
rainfall stations. Dr. van der Stok compiled the 
observations made on board men of war from 
1814 till 1890 and published the results in “\\ ind 
and Weather, Currents etc.”, Batavia 1897. Since 
1908 a great many observations of the upper air 
were made, particularly by Dr. VAN Bemmelen, 


and Australia, which in the summer of their hem- 
isphere draw the air from the opposite hemi- 
sphere across the eejuator, thus causing one mon- 
soon season with SK. wind on the southern and 
SW. wind on the northern hemisphere, and one 
with NK. wind in the N., passing the equator and 
changing to NW. in the southern part of the 
Archipelago, d'he monsoon changes do not occur 
exactly at the same time, over tlie whole region 
and in various years, most frequently, however, 
in March or April and in November. 

Two charts are inserted here, representing the 
mean air pressure and mean wind tiirection and 
force in the west-monsoon months, December — ■ 
February, and the east-monsoon months, June 
August, which were compiled at the Royal Dutch 
Meteorological Institute from observations, made 



comprising observations of wind, temperature and 
humidity up to great heights. As director of tin* 
Observatory, VAN Bemmelen established a system 
of secondary meteorological stations, distributed 
over the whole archipelago, their height ranging 
from sea level to a height of 3000 metres, on 
Mount Bangerango. A number (.)f 42 of these was 
in operation in 1918. 4 hese observatifnis pro- 

vided the material for my treatise r)n the “('limate 
of the Netherlands Indies” from which the greater 
part of the contents of this paper has been taken. 
Several treatises, based on the rainfall observa- 
tions, were written by Dr. VAN Bemmelen and 
Dr. Boerema. Dr, Boerema has taken charge 
of the observations of the intensity of the sun- 
light; a great many of thes<* are available and are 
being compiled for publication. A gootl deal of 
work has been done with more or less success on 
the problem of seasonal weather forecasting; 
Dr. Berlage, who took over this investigation 
during the last two years has made some valu- 
able progress. 

Wind and Air Pressure: — The monsoons are 
very well developed in the Archipelago. The 
trade wind system of the tropical oceans is dis- 
turbed by the influence of the continents of Asia 


on board of ships. 

In the open sea the steadiness of the monsoons 
Is fairly great, reaching abf)ut 909f when the east 
or west monsoon havi* attained their full develop- 
ment. 

In those months tin* wind system is also very 
regular, with respect t(; the wind ve locity, 1 he 
average wind force is remarkably high in those 
months, the mean wind velocity oleserved at 23— 
28 metres of height on the Indies lighthoiises in 
the oix*n sea being 9 metres per second in the 
most windy months. 

The lightships in the North Sea near the Dutch 
coast record no higher figure for the mean veloc- 
ity in the most stormy month. 'I'he nu-an veloc- 
ity for the whole year is even higher on the Indies 
lighthouses than on the Dutch lightships, Ix'ing 
from 6 to 7 metres per second in the first and from 
5 to 6 metres in the second case. How is it pos- 
sible that in spite of this the wind has the reputa- 
tion of being gent^rally light in the tropics? We 
get a satisfactory answer when we take into ac- 
count that the velocities observed in the Indies 
seas become smaller when reduced to normal 
height, and when we consult the wind observa- 
tions, made on land. At Semarang, quite close 
to the sea, the mean wind velocity is only 3.0 




9 


Braak; The Climate and Meteorological Research 


m. p. s., and at Batavia, at 10 km from the sea it is 

1.1 m. p. s., at the mountain station of Tosari 

2.2 m. p. s. 

A very important fact, in favour of the Archi- 
pelago, is the absence of very strong winds. In a 
period of 5 years, chosen at random, the highest 
daily mean of wind velocity was 3.2 m. p. s. at 
Batavia, against 12.8 m. p. s. at the Dutch Me- 
teorological Institute at de Bilt (Holland), the 
highest hourly means being 5.3 and 26.0 m. p. s. 
Whereas on the Dutch coast mean hourly veloci- 
ties of 32 m. p. s. have been observed, the highest 
hourly means observed on the lighthouses in the 
Indies seas are probably not much higher than 
16 m. p. s. 

This means that the wind velocity hardly ever 
surpasses that of a fresh gale, the consequence of 


known; the small aperiodic variations which 
occur are ups and downs of barometric pressure 
which are met with almost simultaneously over 
the whole Archipelago. 

The absence of great disturbances makes the 
regular diurnal variation and the variations of 
long duration the more prominent. The latter, of 
which those with a period of about 3 years are the 
most important, have a great influence on the cli- 
mate, though their amplitude is only 1 mm from 
maximum to minimum. These changes are used 
as a base for a long-range weather forecast. 

Temperature and Humidity: — The average an- 
nu^l temperature at sea level can be fixed at 
26 C. for the whole Archipelago, the deviations 
from this mean value being only a few tenths of a 



which is a high degree of security in navigation, 
in comparison with the regions of the tropical 
cyclones at some greater distance from the equa- 
tor, or with the temperate latitudes with their 
travelling systems of low barometric pressure. 

Land and sea breezes have a great influence 
near the coast, up- and down-valley winds in the 
mountainous interior. Where the monsoons are 
light, those winds dominate the whole wind sys- 
tem. On the west coast of Sumatra the influence 
of the land and sea breezes extends to a distance 
of more than 100 kilometres from the shore, in the 
Java Sea to some 70 km from the Java coast. At 
the base and on the slopes of the high v'^olcanoes 
the mountain and valley breezes are usually 
stronger than the monsoons. 

It is quite natural, after what has been said 
about the wind, that its cause, the differences of 
air pressure, are rck^tively small and that the vari- 
ations in the pressure system are much more reg- 
ular than in higher latitudes. I'he insignificance 
of these changes may be demonstrated by the 
fact that the highest barometer reading at Ba- 
tavia, 764.4 mm, does not differ more than 12 
•um from the lowest, 752.4 mm. Barometric lows 
such as occur in temperate latitudes are un- 


degree for the various stations. The temperature 
is fairly uniform during the whole year. There is 
a slight variation, however, lower temperatures 
occurring in the winter season of the correspond- 
ing hemisphere, higher temperatures in the sum- 
mer .season. In July and August the temperature 
falls about l.°5 C. from Pontianak and Menado 
in the north to Kupang and Ambon in the south; 
in January and February there is a still smaller 
fall in the opposite direction. Besides this annual 
variation of winter and summer, the temperature 
becomes relatively high twice a year in the mon- 
soon changes, shortly after the sun has passed the 
zenith. 

The highest temperatures arc observed on the 
north coast of East Java and in Madura, towards 
the close of the dry season; Surabaja has a mean 
temperature of 27. ‘'5 in November. 

The lowest temperatures are found in the south- 
east in the dry .season; Kupang has a mean tem- 
perature of 25. '’0 in July. At that time of the 
year the weather is strikingly cool, when meas- 
ured by the tropical .standard, in the southeast- 
ern part of the Archipelago, owing to the cooper- 
ation of low temperature and low humidity. 

The temperature in the higher zones of the 
country can be calculated from the sea level tern- 





Hraak; The Climate and Meteorological Research 


JO 


pcratiirc with a fair dfgTco ot arrurary, hy sul)- 
tractiiig 0. 0 (\ for (‘Very 100 niotri-s of hoight. 
'I'hus taking 26. 2 as a moan tcmporaturo at 
Ifataxia (8 m) wa* find lor Ikindung (780 m) 
21. '0, for'I'osari (1785 ni) 15. 8, tlu* actual figuros 
being 22.-1 and 15. 0. 

One of the principal characteristics ol tlu trop- 
ical climate lies in tlu- slight changes ol temper- 
aturt', not onl\' from season t() stason, but also 
from da>’ to da>'. baking tlu- dillerences lu-twet-n 
tlu“ mean temperature of the hottest and coolest 
da\’ at Bata\ia for e\'er\’ month, we get an a\i*r- 
age of oid\- 2.' 7 ('. for tliis tnontliK osi illation ol 
temjierat lire-. I'he dillerence betwa-t-n tlu- higlu-st 
and lowest dail\’ means ol the whole serit-s of ob- 
serxations, being 28. 7 and 22. 8, is only 6. ‘4. 
'bhe a\erag(' dillerence lor the \ ear is 4. 5. 

'I'he principal temperature changes are due to 
the diurnal \ariation. bhe <l<dl>- oscillation at 
Batavia is 7.' 8 for the w hole year, \ arying from 
5. 8 in F(“l)ruary to 8. 0 in August aud S<-ptember. 
In the interior it is ga-neralK greater, at Bandung 
for instance 9.‘\S for tlu- w hole year, 6. 9 in Janu- 
ar>' and 4. 4 in August. 

bhe highi'st maximum temperature has been 
obseiwed at Sawahan, in C’l-ntral Ja\a, viz: 88. ' 6 
(Octol.u-r), tlu- lowest minimum temperature 
— 2‘ was ol)P(-rved on the level parts of the high 
plat(-au of Pengalengau (1550 m) in thi- dry sea- 
son. Probably still lower temperatures have oc- 
curred in sheltere<l basins of great height <luring 
calm dry nights. 

GeneralK' speaking, the mean monthly \alues 
(jf relativ(- humidity do not \ary greatly, bhey 
lie, as a rule, bc-twt-en 85% and 9(/%, with the ex- 
ception of the dr\' motUhs in the region with a 
w’eIl-develo|)ed dr\’ season. At the coast stations 
the mean relative hutnidit\- in the <lriest months 
varies from 87% at barakan in b^ast Borneo to 
67G Pasuruati on th(- north c(»astof Hast java, 
'bhe highest mean monthly figures ar(- 96% in 
September and December on .M. Singgalang in 
Central Sumatra, 95% in February at Kawahtji- 
w ich'i in the mountains of W est jas a, aiul 94br in 
January on .M. Pangc-rango in West java. 

bhe lowest N'early a\(-rage, 77^>, is found at 
PasLiruan; the highest average, 98%, on the sum- 
mit of M. Singgalang, one of the W(-tt<-st p«)ints in 
the wr;rld. 

bhe absolut(- minimum ol relativa- humidity, 
6%, has been obser\ efi on .M. Pang<-rango. 

Rainfall: bhe Archipi-lago iscliaracterized by 

abundant rainfall. A gr<-at part of the mountain- 
(Uis regions receives more than 8000 millimetres a 
year, and more than 2000 millimetres fall in large 
areas of the coast plains. A y<-arly amount of 
less than lOOO rnillinielres isquite <-xc<-ptional and 
has been (jbs<-rv(-d at only two stations on the N. 
coast of Fast ja\'a, at Waingapu on the isle of 
Sunilia, and in tlu- Palu IFiy m-ar Donggala (Cele- 
bes). 'bhe smallest annual amount on record is 
580 mm, at Palu, situated at tin- extre-mity of the 
Palu Bay; the highest amount, 6880 mm, has 
been measured at Kranggan f( Vntral java) in the 
mountain saddle V\’. of M. .Slamat. 

bhe highest monthly tfttals are found, where a 
wet monsoon current is force<i up against a moun- 
tain slope. In some cast-s an average of 1000 mm 
falls in f)ne month, ff>r instance on the NVC slope 
of M. bjerc-UK- in West java (.Sadareke 1002 mm 
in January), and the \V. slope of M. Muria in 
C(-ntral java (Batealit 1001 mm in January). On 
these mountainsides the highest amounts in 24 


hours generally (-xceed 850 mm; on the W . slopi 
of M. .Muria they e.xceed 400 mm. 

\’ery small (|uantiti(-sof rain fall in the dry .sea- 
son in the SF. of tin- Archipelago. At Kupang in 
bimor 69 nmi of rain fall during the 6 consecut ive 
driest months. At Kupang rain falls onci- in 8 
years on an average, in August and .S(-pt(-mbi-r. 
In 1914, an extia-nn-ly dry year, the monthlv rain- 
fall at a few stations on the N. coast of Fast java 
was 5 mm or h-ss during 6 nu)nths. 

'bhe tuonsoons cause- gre-at differences of rain 
fall In-tween the wind ami lee side-s ol the moun- 
tains. .•\n e-xtri-nu- case is tound on M. Idji-n in 
Fast java, where in August the mean raintall at 
.Asembagus (40 m high) and Kajumas (980 m), 
on tlu- N. side-, is 1 and 18 mm re-spe-ct i\'el>’, 
wh<-r(-as418 mm falls at Pakudo (660 m) on tlu- 
.S. side. 

bhough the rainfall is .so considerable, the time 
during which it falls is rel.ativ(-ly short, on account 
of tlu- great intensity, bhe gri-at(-st amount ol 
rain fails eluring heat thunderstorms and tlu-n-- 
fore the rainfall has usu.ally a wt-lbdefined diurnal 
variation, most of tlu- rain falling in the alternoon. 
Hence (-ven in the rainy si-ason the earlv' morning 
hours are practically rainh-ss in tlu- more sheb 
t(-red parts of the interior. At Buitcmzorg, in 
July S(-ptemlH-r, the i)robability of rain is 
nearlv 100 times greatt-r between 4 and 8 in tlu- 
afternoon than betweeti 8 and 10 in the inorning. 

d'lu- highest rainfall intensities during short 
p(-riods are very much the same in the tropics and 
in temperate latitud(-s; tor longer intervals, how- 
<-ver. the tropical intensitit-sare higlu-r. 1 lu- prin- 
cipal difb-n-nce with the t(-mpt-rate latituch-s con 
sists in the much gia-ater frequency of heavy 
showers in the tropics; the [)ercentag(- of rain, tlis 
charg<-d by showers of at h-ast 1 mm per minute 
during a |K-riod ol not Ic-ss than 5 minutes is 10 
times as large in the Indies as in Bavaria (( u-r 
many). 

Cloudiness and Sunshine, Haziness; In tlu 
.SF. part of the Archipelago the mean percc-ntagu-s 
of sunshine (-xc(‘ed 90%; in tlu- driest months. 1 he 
sun burns the whoh- ciav’ in tlu- clear or lightlv’ 
clouded sky, the riv(-rs <iry up, tlu- gra.ss withers 
and the soil cracks. .Nature lies asleep for the 
greater part, tlu- gr(-{-n trt-es contrasting strangely 
with the poor veg(-tation on the (h-sr)late fi«-lds 
and along the scorched roads. 

In tlu- rainy season, howi \«-r, and in tlu- other 
parts wher<- the rains arc- more (-{]ually distributed 
over the year, tlu- climate is not jjarticularly 
sunny, though geiu-rally si)eaking the percentage 
of sunshine is higlu-r than in the summer months 
of WCstern b.uropc-. Poutianak m Borneo, for 
instance, has an annual pt-rci-ntage (jf 59%, whit h 
isabrnit 10%, more- than at de Bilt in Holland in 
June and July. Batavda has 50% in tlu- rainy 
iiwdithsof December and January. 

A characteristic b-ature of the tropics is the 
well-mark<-<l diurnal variation of the cumulus 
clouds, blu-y usually begin to lorm at about 9 
oh'Iockand grow elenser and dark(-r, till in the afte-r- 
noon corulensation sets in or till the clouds grad- 
ually dissolve- in tlu- <-vening or in the afternoon. 

'bhe ch-aring up of tlu- sky is a common occur- 
rence- in the aft(-rno(»n in coast places, lii the in- 
terior, and particularly in the mountains, tlu 
()(-rcentag<- of sunshine (h-e reases gradually dur- 
ing the afteriuK)!!, thus re-iuie-ring this part of the 
day rather dull and chilly. In contrast, howe-ver, 
to tlu- afternofin, the- mornings in these regions are 



21 


Bkaak; The Climate and Meteorological Research 


gfiK-rally l)riglit; tlic early niorriinj' hours are 
(‘Xtrcancly pleasant in the niountains. Hardly any 
wind is felt, so that one ean fully enjoy the hrae- 
ing inlluence of the eool air, the heat of tin* morn- 
ing sun being sufficient to reino\-e any disagree- 
able sensati(ni of cold. 

Ihe degree ol cloudiiK'ss increases with the* 
height above s(‘a le\el. d he following annual 
me, ms of sunshine j)ercentage at some stations in 
West Java m.'iy serve as an example. 

Batavia (H in high) 6X%, Buitenzorg (240 in) 
^ ■5%- d jipetir (570m)52';/;., Basirsarongg(“ (1200m) 
49/),, 'I'jibodas (1400 m) 43%, Mount Bangerango 
(.f020 m) 41%. In the dry season, however, the 
summit of Mount Bangerango reaches above the 
zoiK' ol maximum cloudinc'ss, tin' jx^rcentages for 
the months July Sejiteniber being 79. 76. 6.^, 61. 
57 and 61V)i resin'cti\-ely. 

I he intensity of the tropical sunshine has ofttm 
been oxcrestimated. In reality it is .scarcely 
higher at noon than in the tmnperate latitudes in 
th(' midsummer, and with the same height of the 
sun it is ex'eii less high at Bat.ivia than at Wash- 
ington, on account of tln^ greater amount of 
moisture in the tropics. I he intensitX' incrt‘as(‘s 
with the height above sealevel, being about 30f) 
higher on the summit of M. Semeru (3670 m) 
than ;it Bataxia. Notwithstanding its incTea.se 
with h(‘ight the intensity of tlu' light can lie 
borne ima h betP'r in the mountains th.in in the 
Iil.iins, because it is combined with a loxver air 
temperature. 

d'here exists a typical difTerenci* between the 
W(‘t .'ind the dry se.ison. with regard to the trans- 
parmicy of thi* air. In the rainy season the .lir is 
transparent and the contours of the mountains 
are sliarpi)' outlined in the clear morning sky. 
I'his is most obxious towards the end of the wet 
season, when the cloudiness lii'gins to decrease. 
In the dry season, howexer, the sky loses its clear 
blue I'olour and assumes a hazy white tint, tlu* 
outlines ol the mountains becoming indistinct, 
riierefore, a man xvho wants to see Java at its 
b(“st and is not .afraid of .some rain shoukl see it 
in the west monsoon, or better still, in the months 
tollowing it (M.arch May), before the really dry 
sea.son, w luai the transparent air shows the colour 
elfc'cts of the luxuri.mt landscapi* to thi-ir be.st 
.advantage. 

Thunderstorms: Thunderstorms are gener- 

.dly ol liaapient occurrence in the .'\rchi()elago. 


heard on 322 days of the vaair, in the rainy season 
daily, and ex'en on most days in tlu- dry .season. 
It is hi-ard betwei-n .S and 6 in the afternoon on 
2.'>() days a year, but ne\a-r from 3- 8 .a.m. The 
numlier of days with thunder is less high at 
Batavia, but yet 6 times as high as in Holland, the 
numbers being 133 for Batax ia and 22 for de Bilt 
(Holland). 

h'ortunately tlu- d.anger of being struck by 
lightning seems to be n-latively small in the troll- 
ies. Though the cases of damage liy lightning 
are not at all rare, yc-t the effect of the lightning 
discharge's is geiu-rallx' not so serious as in the 
te'inperate I.atitudi-s. I he following case- may be 
nu-ntioiu-d as an (-xample. Excry year some 
Kanari trees, bonU-ring the famous axenue in the 
botanical gardens at Buitenzorg, are struck by 
lightning, d'his f)(-come.s appari-nt by the fact 
that tlu- h-ax'es ol some- of the- branclu-s wither and 
fall off; luivvewcr, neither the trees nor the 
branches die. In most case's the branches bud 
anew ,ift('r a month or longer. 

The Climate of Batavia and Bandung : W e- shall 
e oncluele this pape-r with some climatoleigical data 
of Batavia and Baiulung. Bataxia may be taken 
as a repre-sentatixe- of the xvarm coast plains, 
Bandung of the plateaus in the interior at moder- 
ate- height. 

rhe lu-at is very uniform at Batavia, the most 
sultry months lu-ing those of the monsoon change 
in the- first part of the year, April and May, which 
e-ount many a day wlie-n complaints abeiut the 
he-at are ge-ne-ral. During the remaining part of 
the- y<-ar, with tlu- e.xception of some days in the 
se-cond monsoon change, those- days are rare, anel 
lu-althy pe-rsons bear the- lu-at without eliscom- 
fort. As a rule, the- nights are- neit so cool that a 
bl.inket is ne-ecssary, with the exce-ption of the 
rainy we-ather in the- we-st meinseiem, ,enei the latter 
part e)f the- night in the drie-st perieiel eif the east 
nmnseiein, wlu-n raeliation lowe-rs the teinpe-rature 
more- than normally. The mean memthly xalues 
e)f air te-mpe-rature anel we-t-bulli tetnperature- in 
re-latixe humielity anel sunshine in %, and 
rainfall in millinu-te-rs are- gix t-n be-leixx . 

riu- nie-an elaily maximum eif te-mpe-rature 
xaries from 31.1 in Se ptember anel October, and 
28. "8 in Fe-bruary, the nu-an elaily minimum be- 
twe-en 23. '3 in April and 22. ‘ 1 in .August. The 
eeirre-sponding xalue-s feir the we-t-bulb te-mpe-r- 
ature- are- 26, 5 in .April anel 25. ‘'"3 in August feir 



.Ian. 

Kol>i. 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

•Vint. 

Sept . 

ekt. 

Xov. 

Dec. 

War 

.\ir (e-niiu-raturc . 

25 4 

2.5 4 

25 8 

26 2 

26 4 

26 0 

25 8 

25 9 

26 2 

26.. 1 

26 0 

25 7 

25.9 

\V(-t-hiilh li-iiip, , . 

2.e Q 

24 0 

24 2 

24 5 

24,4 

24 0 

2.1 5 

2,1 .1 

2.1 .X 

2-18 

24 0 

2.1 9 

2.1 9 

Kcl. humidity 

H7 


86 

85 

84 

84 

81 

79 

78 

80 

8,1 1 

85 

8.1 

.Siiushiiic 

US 

47 

61 

68 

69 

69 

72 

74 

71 

66 

5 7 

48 

i 62 

Rainfall 

.114 1 

M2 

207 

1.19 

107 

96 

70 

42 

7,1 

114 

146 

199 

1828 


part ie ularly ein the- slope-s of the high meumtains. 
The seaseins nuist fax'our.able to tlu-ir fennuitiein 
are- the- meinsoein e hange-s, w he-n the- air ise alm anel 
relative-ly warm anel the- xe-rtical air curre-nts ri.se 
te) great altituele-s. 

By far tlu- greater part of the- tiumele-rstorms 
are- he-at thunelersteirms. riu-y are, e'einseejue-ntly, 
relative-ly simrt-lixeel anel eif relatixely small 
exte-nsiem. 

Ne-ar the- foeit of the high \-ole'anoes where 
nearly exa-ry afterne)e)n high clouels are- feirmeul on 
the- meHint:iinsieIe-s, thuneie-r is he-arel alme)st exery 
day. At Buite-nzeirg, feir instanee, thuneler is 


the- maximum, anel 22. 9 in April, 21. ‘4 in .August 
for the minimum. 

The gre-at unifeirmity in the te-mpe-rature xaria- 
tion from elay tet day allows e)f a thoreuigh accom- 
moelation te) the climate- with respe-ct te) clothing 
anel me)de- eif lix ing, anel it is preibably due to this 
that e ases of sunstre)ke are ce)mparatively rare. 

'riie winel is light .as a rule, there are well- 
eie-fine-el mon.seieiiis anel xvell-eiex’e-le)peel land and 
se-a breeze s. 'I he lanel breeze is hardly felt at the 
surfae'e, the sea breeze b!e)ws with fairly ge)od 
xigour, particularly in the- last memths e)f the dry 
seasexn, e-xe'e-pt exnly em very cle)uely elays. 



TER Braakk: Volcanology in the Netherlands Indies 


22 


In the months of April — October the rains are 
concentrated chiefly on the afternoon hours, and 
are rare in the morning hours. In the west mon- 
soon, however, the fairly freejuent rains in the 
morning not seldom give some trouble to persons 
going to their offices. 

Bandung, lying at 700 metres abov^e the sea, 
may serve as a representative of the Preanger 
Uplands, which constitute the fairly level central 
part of West Java, the height varying between 
500 and 700 metres. By its moderate temper- 
ature the climate difft'rs essentially from that of 
the low plains. 

In consequence of tlie sheltering influence of 
the surrounding mountains, the rainfall is rela- 
tively small on these high plains and they receive 
a greater amount of sunshine than corresponds 
with their height. The climate is praised gener- 
ally; it is cool but not too cold for people who ad- 
here to habits contracted under tropical condi- 
tions. 

Mean values of air temperature, wet-bulb 


temperature, relative humidity, sunshine and 
rainfall at Bandung follow here. 

The mean daily temperature maximum varies 
from 28. °7 in October to 26.° 1 in January, the 
mean daily minimum from 19. °2 in January to 
16.°7 in July and August. 

Though an air temperature of 22° and a wet- 
bulb temperature of 20° is by no means low ac- 
cording to non-tropical standards, the more or 
less oppressive sensation that is given by the 
Batavia climate, is entirely abs(‘nt at Bandung, 
at least in the conditions under which Kuropeans 
liv’e and work there. At this height above sea 
level one again begins to enjoy the sunlight in- 
stead of shutting it out as much as possible, as is 
done at Batavia. 'I'he morning is mostly clear 
and calm, though fog or low-drifting clouds are 
by no means rare. In the course of the day the 
cloudiness increases gradually. During the whole 
year the probability of rain is much higher in the 
afternoon than in the morning. 



Jan. 

Febr. 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Year 

Air temperature 

22.0 

219 

22.0 

22.3 

22.3 

22.0 

21.9 

22.0 

22.4 

22.5 

22,3 

22.1 

22.1 

Wet-bulb temp 

20,2 

20,3 

20,4 

20.6 

20.4 

19.7 

19. 1 

18.9 

19.3 

19.8 

20.2 

20.2 

19.9 

Rel. humidity 

84 

86 

85 

84 

83 

81 

77 

75 

75 1 

78 

83 

84 

81 

Sunshine 

52 

.51 

55 

61 

66 

70 

77 

75 

70 

62 

54 

50 

62 

Rainfall 

193 

181 

243 

229 

133 

92 

65 

58 

91 

170 

227 

216 

1898 


VOLCANOLOGY IN THE NETHERLANDS INDIES 

Alexander L. ter Bra are, Min. Eiif;.* 

President and General Manager of * Tin Processing CorpornUon* 

Galveston, Texas: formerly, General Manager of the Banka Tin Mines 


Volcanic activity has played an important part 
in the destiny of the Indonesian archipelago. It 
has to a great extent influenced the recent geo- 
logical history of the entire region and is re.spon- 
sible for its remarkable fertility. Without the 
decomposition of volcanic ashes, Java’s rice 
wonder would not have b(;en a reality nor Java’s 
population as dense as it now is. 'I’he high moun- 
tain tops have attracted the abundant rainfall 
and otherwise influenced Jav;i’s climate and 
vegetation. No irrigation would have been pos- 
sible without the volcanoes. 'I'hese giants 
dominate the majestic landscajje of Java, Suma- 
tra, and many of the minor islands. There are 
few scenes as beautiful as the Sand Sea, with the 
ominous-looking Bromo crater on one of its 
sides and the typical outline of the Smeroe, the 
highest mountain in Java, in the background. 

Beyond a doubt, the mysterious subterranean 
forces have always been a source of great interest 
to the local population. I'hey dreaded the terrific 
phenomena — the earthquakes, the showers of 
ash, the mudstreams, the hot clouds, the lava 
flows. They prayed to Allah for the protection 
of their lives and property. They learned to 
interpret the significance of the mountain’s 
activity; they became familiar with the sulphur 
emanations, the steaming wells, the fuming 


* Original contribution, especially Prepared for “Scienceand 
Scientists in the Netherlands Indies.” 


lakes, and the hundreds of other signs of volcanic 
life. The village elders knew how to predict the 
volcano’s behavior; they passed their knowledge 
on to the younger generation. 'I'hey were the 
first interested observers, the forerunners of the 
present volcanologists. 'I'hey preceded the 
trained scientists, the well-equipped students of 
the modern decennia. 

Scant and not very reliable data concerning 
the volcanic activities in Java prior to the six- 
teenth century have been compiled. It is known 
that in those days the country suffered from 
outbursts of the same volcanoes that have de- 
vastated it in recent times. After the Kuropean 
colonists — Spaniards, Portuguese, and Dutch- 
men — reached the archipelago, information, 
and that of a more reliable character, increased 
until in our titne a well organized Government 
Volcanological Survey has taken up the scientific 
study of tne volcanoes and is watching the dan- 
gerous ones. 

A most disastrous event was the immediate 
cause of the institution of this Survey. On May 
20, 1919, the contents of the Kloed crater lake, 
estimated at about ten billion gallons of water, 
were suddenly thrown out over the wall, mainly 
onto the southwestern slopes. Absorbing on its 
way the large quantity of loose material accumu- 
lated in the course of many years, it formed a 
tremendous flow of mud and rock which, moving 
with great velocity, reached the surrounding 





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no naptions known afialhe 

^rrt Q 3 JobcCo ,i.mO iQg, ./ 'A 

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r'K.i/'Rii 12 , /\(:tivk voman'OI'S in iHi; Nin 11 kk lands Indins ( 1929) fnm N WiNr 
usioNB "Vniranic ScieiuT in I'asl and I'rescnt” {i« "Science in tli,. Netherlands Kasi' 
Indies . ,S(-« avo I he .. ... . . 


allows the year (,f (he latest eruption. Since the puldirat; 
;'»vcof course taken place: under ihe nres..m 


TKR Hraake; Volcanology in the Netherlands Indies 


26 


plains in a very short time, devastateil the town 
of Rlitar ami several villages, and caused the 
death of 550 people. It was a repetition of an 
earlier disaster when a large flow (d mud from the 
Sineroe volcano destroyerl the town of Loemad- 
jang. 

Only shortly after this Kloe<l eruption in 1919, 
the Survey was instituted as a part of the Nether- 
lands Indies Bureau of Mines. Dr. G. L. L. 
Kemmerlini'i was its first chief. During the 
twenty-two years of its existence, or until the 
occupation of the Indies by th(‘ Japanese, the 
Survey lived up to the importance of the task 
laid out for it. V'olcanic life was studied thor- 
oughly throughout the Indies; useful observa- 
tions of many kinds were made; engineering 
works were planned and afterwards executed for 
the safety of the population; and a constant 
watch was lu‘ld over the treacherous individuals 
in the volcanic family. 

Many reports on volcanic activity have been 
written, and numerous puldicationson thissubject 
have been put out during the last twenty-two 
years. Kf.mmi:rli.ng, 'Paverni:, Nelmann van 
Padang, Escher, van Ivs. and .Steun have 
been the principal authors of books and articles. 
Wing Easton has given a number of valuable 
summaries of what has been achieved. Many 
of these studies have been published in the tri- 
monthly bulletin of the Netherlands E;ist Indies 
Volcanological Survey, issued in Bandoeng, 
Java, by the Government Bureau of Mines. 
The present article will condense some of these 
findings. 

'I'he work done by tlu; \'olcanological Survey is 
varied. Primarily, tin* Survey collects detailed 
information on vulcanologic phenomena, using 
it as fundamental material for a thorough stmly 
of volcanic activity, d'here is hardly another 
field of science w here the need for accurate data 
is comparable to the difticulty of experinumta- 
tion. A v(jlcanol(jgist has to travel a long and 
hard road before* he reaches his goal. He must 
not shrink fiami observing volcanic phenomena 
on the spot, often with real danger to his life. 
His task is to observe, measure, com|)are the 
variable signs of active volcanic life, and detect 
the laws which govern it. Occasionally, how- 
ever, he is asked t(; make actual use of his ex- 
perience and knowledge in telling civil service 
officials which ([uick measures to take in order 
to protect the local population from the threat- 
ening dangers. In exceptional cases he is calle<l 
upon to assist engineers in designing daring pro- 
jects for the more permanent protection of life 
and property. 

Lo(jking at a map of the Malay archipelago, 
one detects three bow-shaped lines of volcanoes: 

a. a lunK and practically unbroken row extends from 
North Sumatra over Java and the les.ser Soenda 
islands to the Banda archipclaKo; 

b. a second, but short ran^je is found in llalmaheira 
and the adjacent islands; 

c. a third line of volcanoes, bcRinning in North Celebes, 
extends over the Sangir islands into Mindanao. 

In .South Gelebes, there is a cluster of extinct vol- 
canoes which have no connection with other 
groups. The map accompanying this article 
shows clearly how the ninety-nine active vol- 
canoes in the Netherlands East Indies are dis- 
tributed. 

'I his distribution is closely related to the tecton- 
ic structure of the entire region. It i.s evklent 
that the yr)ung and active volcanoes are confined 


to the unstable area of the latest geological pe- 
riod. rhe junction of the circumpacific zone 
with the Mediterranean and South Asiatic 
mountain ranges of the Tertiary Age has made 
the Indonesian archipelago a wx'ak spot in the 
earth’s crust, where the possibility of volcanic 
activity is imminent. It is, however, important 
to observe that there is an outer row of Islands — 
Soembawa and d'imor where the magma has 
not briikeii through during the recent [leriod of 
mountain building, and that there is an inner 
row of islands which show many signs of vol- 
canic life. Brouwer, who has made a thorough 
study of this tectonic and volcanic relationship, 
explains the phenomenon by assuming two 
geanticlines in the southeastern archipelago, 
which show, with regard to the Australian con- 
tinental mass, the same characteristics as the 
successive folds of the experiments on moun- 
tain-building, with regard to the moving re- 
sistant iKxly. 'I'he overthrusting folds near the 
stable Australian submarine bank have de- 
veloped an increas(*d thickness of the crust 
which has a greater resistance to ascending 
magma. I'he simpler tectonic structuri; of the 
inner row' of islands facilitated the creation of an 
outlet for the magmatic pressure. 

It would be utterly impossible for the Service 
permanently to observe all volcanoes known to 
l)e active. Only those which are very active and 
which menace j)opulated districts receive con- 
stant attention from the trained ol)servers be- 
longing to the Survey’s personnel. Restricted 
funds and a consequently limited stalT make it 
impossible to include as highly eruptive a vol- 
cano such as the Doekono in the program of unin- 
terruptt'd (djservation. In its isolated location 
in Halmaheira no habitated places or other 
economic values are threatened l)y its numerems 
ash showers and lava flows. Occasional excur- 
sions are made to such live individuals. A con- 
sideral)le number of volcanoes in densely popu- 
lated Java or in adjacent islands, however, are 
subject to continuous or semi-continuous control 

Of outstanding significance to the scientific 
world at large during recent years has been the 
activity of Krakatau, located in the .Soenda 
Straits, between Java and .Sumatra. It has been 
carefully studied by the .Survey. Everyone 
knows that Krakatau startled the world by its 
phenomenal erupti(m in 1883. In May of that 
year, the first phase eruptive activity was re- 
l)orted. lCru|)tion continued with short pauses 
during the following months. In August it cul- 
minated in the disappearance of the Perwoebatan 
and Danan volcanoes and in the destruction of 
the basaltic Krakatau volcano. An immense 
underwater caldera was formed, and the southern 
half of the mighty cone with its bare perpendicu- 
lar wall was left as a somber monument to one of 
nature’s most destructive calamities. More than 
30,000 people lost their lives and extensive 
damage was caused. 

For more than forty years Krakatau was 
thought to be extinct. Scientists were greatly 
interested in watching how an i.sland which has 
been completely rolibed of its vegetation and its 
animal lilt* was furnished with a new flora and 
fauna. Their studies and conclusions have been 
published with the volcanological observations. 
Interest was again kindled when, two days 
before the close of 1927, old Krakatau showed 
new life. Submarine activity was observed first. 
Gradually, out of basaltic bombs, ashes, and old 




Figure 13. — Solfatara near the top of Mount Papandavan (West Java). — CourUsy Netherlands Information Bureau, New York City. 



IKK l^KAAKi:: Volcanology in the Netherlands Indies 


2 » 


material, tlure was built a voli'anie ('one whic'h 
appeared above the surface on January 26, 
1928. It was subuK'r^ed again by surf action, 
but a year later it reappeared; it is still there. 
“Anak Krakatau,” the child of Krakatau, was 
born. 

From the first birth-pangs until it was thir- 
teen, the baby volcano has been closely watcheel 
by the e.xperts of the \ olcanological Survey. 
Fvery detail of its activity has been observed 
and recorded. Nuim rous excursions havt* been 
made, first to near-by \'erlaten-eiland at a dis- 
tanci' of relative safety; later, between eruptions 
and not without personal risks, to the active cone 
itself. A number of time's the island has be(“n 
carefully sur\'eyed and mapped and the con- 
stant change of its topography registered in de- 
tail. Neptune tri(‘d to reclaim part (^f his lost 
territory by attacking the new shore lim*; he 
succee'ded temporarily in breaking the crater 
wall. Shortly afterwards the then crescent- 
shaped island changed its appearance again; lU'W 
outbursts of bombs and aslu's closed the gap, and 
the crat(“r lagoon became a crater lake. 

Accurate soundings and astronomical Ix'arings 
have disclosed that Anak Krakatau lies about 
midway between the former craters of the IVr- 
boewatan and I3anan volcanoes, which disap- 
peared in 1883, and that it is situated near the 
rim of the gargantuan (aldera which rc'sulted 
from the catastrophic collapse of this volcanic 
group. 

When Anak Krakatau was l)eing built, the 
eruption products of the countless explosions 
went high into the air. Water and boml)S were 
thrown to heights of 4,0{)() feet and more. Dur- 
ing this submarine action the huge fountains of 
water formed a fantastic display. Later, when 
Anak Krakatau had risen from the deep and had 
become an islancl, the eruptions were charac- 
terized by black columns of eject(‘d matt'rial, 
ashes, and bombs. Most of these fell into the 
sea and were carried away by the heavy curri'iit ; 
however, even the larger bonil)s floated until 
they lost their gas content. On only one occa- 
sion was a flow of lava observed during the sub- 
marine stage; at least the water was illuminated 
from below, an effect which was strongest near 
the crater. Numerous other features which have 
greatly contributed to man’s knowledge of the 
mysterious and ominous forces of nature’s under- 
world have been observed, studied, and recorded. 

But Anak Krakatau, tlunigh vary spectacular, 
has been only (me of many subjects of study. 
The Netherlands Indies Volcanological Survey, 
during the twenty-two years of its existence, 
never ran short of material for observation. 
One feature, which was given an important place, 
and for g(K)d reasons, is the rise and behavior 
of lava plugs inside volcanic craters. 'I'he phe- 
nomen(m has been minutely studied in the Merapi 
crater, a unique example of plugs. However, the 
same feature has been (d)serv('(i in many other 
cases, and it appears mjt to be exceptional. On the 
contrary, it is a rather natural development. A 
plug is the result of the slow' rise of a tough mass 
of molten lava through a narrow crater passage. 
Its surface consists of a shell of solid material, 
cracked, by coolifig, into cohesive blocks. The 
hot and viscously fluid inner part occa.sionally 
bursts through the outer carapace and flows out, 
either into the crater bowl or, in case the plug 
bulges over the rim, along the slope of the vol- 
cano. Its vi.scouH character does not allow it to 


descend far, but parts of the.se lava-tongues often 
snap off and cause the much-dreaded avalanches 
and the a('('()mpanying hot gas and ash clouds. 

Except for that part of the survey which is 
more or le.ss pronouncedly morphological and 
structural, the studies mainly concc-rn features 
which are indirectK' connected with the magma 
and for that reason aia' mostly physical, chemi- 
cal, .seismical, hydraulical or meteorological. 
'Ihese an* the particular volcanic phenomena 
which hav'e been responsibU* for numerous dis- 
asters. Consequently, the Survay has spent 
much time and energy (jbserving tlu'se phenom- 
(‘na, interpreting them, and trying to find the 
means of prevvnting catastrophies. I'wo phe- 
nomena have been exct'ptionally important: 
mudstreams or “lahars,” and hot ash and sand 
clouds or “ladoes." d'hey hav(‘ be(“n the cause 
of many casualties and of extensive material 
damage in java and elsewhere. 

I'w'o active v'olcamx-s in central Java have 
demonstrated these significant features; the 
Kloed, w hi( h has an unfavourable reputation for 
its destructive nnidstreams, and the Merapi, hot 
.'ish clouds from which have annihilat(‘d many a 
life. In re('ent years these two volcanoes have 
been excellent fields of study, although the same 
phenomena have Ixon ol)serve(l on many other 
voh'anoes. 

The h(»t ash clouds, well-known from Mont 
PeEe in Martini(iue under the nanu' of “nueesar- 
dentes” and studied by A. Lacroix, received par- 
ticular attention during the eruption of Merapi 
in 1930 1931. The Merajji studies have rev(>aled 
that these ash clouds or “ladoes,” as they ar(' lo- 
cally ('ailed, are masses of rapidly expanding su- 
perheated steam and other gases which, by their 
int(*nsiv(‘ turbulence, are able to carry a mixture 
of coarse and fine material far into the lower 
country. It is of great imp<.)rtance for the futuia; 
prote(’tion of the p('ople living on its slopes to 
know whether the catastrophic r(‘sults of the 
“ladoes” in those years w(‘r(‘ caused liy a pri- 
mary direction of downward slanting eruptions, 
as, according to l.Av KOix, was the case w'ith tlu' 
“nue('s ar(l(“ntes” of Mont Pelee in 1902, or 
whether the destruction came from the gases 
escaping from the descending masses ol hot 
material. In the former cas(‘ the northwest, 
west, southwest and souih slopes of the V'olcano 
would be unsafe for a distance of approximately 
six miles from the top. In the latter case the 
course of (h ep ravines and the existem e of high 
ridges could be a great protection. 

During the eruptive phases of 1930 and 1931 
many “ladoes” were obs(*rved l)y a number of 
trained voh anologists. Their findings have been 
discussed by Escukk, Kkmmkrlino, (}rani)- 
JKAN, Lacroix, and Nkumann van Padang. 
Although the writers on the subject do not con- 
cur ('ompletely in their opinions, it seems probable 
that both types of clouds played a r61(‘ in the 
destructive activity of the Merapi during these 
months. During the Merapi eruption, (jRAND- 
JKAN observed the “nuee ardente d’explosion 
dirige,” the prototype of which caused the Mar- 
tinique disaster, and described it in detail. He 
saw several “flashes,” originating from the lava 
at the top, directed downwards and consisting 
of gas shots, rapidly expanding into voluminous 
clouds. In his opinion the gas pressun* within the 
viscous pr(jp of lava which was pressed from the 
crater became so great that the lava exphxU'd 
at its weakest point and gave birth to a flashing 





Figl-re 15. — Mount Merapi and the destruction by l.adoes i'eight areas' in December 10.^0. (From VulkanoL Meded.. 











Figure 16. — The crater lake of the Kloet volcano. A tunnel lias been constructed to carry the water away 
above a certain level. {From “Java seen from the^Air”.) 



liRO- 


l Unrlf^v \'i'lherlti»(l.\ I ujorniation Hiirrau, .\ rw I ork ( ily. 






FiOfRK 18, - Mount Tjikokkaj r2818 m .), with kiuefiklus f“SAWAHs"} in the foreground, a tyimcai. Javanesi 

^'etherf antis Information Bureau, New York City. 



TKR Braake: Volcanology in the Netherlands Indies 


34 


tuMiii of which carried parts ol the blasted 
la\a. 

There seems to be suiticient evidence, however, 
that nunii-rous “nuees ardentes d’avalanche” 
have caused much more damage than the cloud- 
type just described. 'They are the bursts 
from lava fragments crushed on their way down- 
ward. Ni:i mann' van Badang tells of a thun- 
dering flow of hot stones and sand which he saw 
descending a steep ra\ine close to thi* observa- 
tion post of the Survi'N at Maron. No “mice 
arilentc," no hot flow of gasi'S preceded this ava- 
lanche, but a cloud of sand and aslu*s lagged ap- 
proximately a mile and a hall behind it. He also 
records the important fact that most of the 
damage was found near and on both banks of the 
deep gullies, (‘specially where these gullies 
changed their course. rh(‘ ash clouds did nr)t fol- 
low the curves but continued at each bend in tht‘ 
original direction. 

NictMANX VAN Badang obseivTd that ex- 
plosions in the mass of lava caused the formation 
of clouds of pine-trei^ shap(‘ and the ejection of 
lava fragnu'Uts which d(‘scended at great speed 
ahead of the cloud. A flow of red-whitish ma- 
terial from the explosion point followed, accom- 
panied by white and dark brown balls of v’apors 
which rotated in diflerent diri'Ctions. 'This mass 
of dust and gas, rcsemliling an emulsion, Irawlled 
downslope at an estimat(‘d vehxity of 250 feel 
per second. After the cloud had clearc'd away, 
its path was littered with white dust and several 
pieces of r(xk. Loud rumbling was heard pre- 
ceding these “laiUxs.” 

Analyses of gas samples tak(‘n from tin* hot 
“ladoe” material have rev'ealed an unexjX'Ctedly 
high percentage of carbonyl sulphide in these 
gases. Some samples contained more than three 
per cent (.)f this unusual compound. It is as- 
sumed that partly charred timber and sulphur 
present in tlu* volcanic piaxlucts could combine 
at the existing temperatures. Sinc(‘ the minimum 
formation temperature of ('arbonyl sulphide is 
400° centigrade, and trees were not completely 
charred or burned, it is cstimatc.-d that the tem- 
perature of the “ladoe" had been approximately 
450' centigrade. This gas may have been the 
cause of the numerous explosions which occurred. 

The accompanying photograph shows clearly 
the course of the destructive avalanches and the 
scorched path of the hot clouds. 4'hirteen v il- 
lages were entirely destroyed and twenty-three 
were seriously damaged. More than 1350 
lives were hjst; approximately 2100 animals were 
killed. 

It has been a great disappointment to the per- 
sonnel of the Volcanological .Survey that so 
serious a loss of life could not havt; been pre- 
va-nted, especially since Mount Merapi is the 
only volcano of its kind where an eruptiejn has 
followed years of regular observations. Its ob- 
servers were at their post on the .sloj)e of the vol- 
catuj. They showed great courage and did what 
was humanly p(jssible to warn the authorities 
and population of the forthcoming dangers. 
A number of macrotremors registered on the 
seismograph had indicated the possilnlity of an 
eruption, ('ontrary to the current ideas among 
volcamdogists, the eruption did not at oncer set 
in at full strength; tlu* catastrophical eruptive 
phase came later. 4'he lava of Mount Merapi 
at first came slowly out of the mountainside and 
flowed downward. Bart of it was a stream; part 
of it crumbled off and was destroyed by small 


local explosions. d'wc'Uty-three days after the 
magma had made its appearance, the first ash 
cloud came rushing down one of the raviiU'S and 
extended a distance (jf live miles. The next day 
the catastrophic “nuee ardente" came down and 
reached the tmormous length of seva-n and a half 
mill's. 

(ieneration upon generation of laborious javai- 
nese have plowed, planted, and harvested the 
fertile rice fields on Mount Merapi’s slopes. 
Their acquiescent attitude towards acts from 
Above makes them accept the tragic reality 
of vaflcanic danger more easily than Western 
people do. 'They are also scejitical about the 
wisdom of Western science and ingenuity and 
are difficult to convince that an I'arly evacua- 
tion of their belov'ed villages and abandonment 
of a few personal belongings, are the wisest things 
they can do under the circumstances. As sixin as 
the danger has passed, there is hardly anybody 
who can prevent them from returning to the dan- 
ger zone and from repairing the damage to home 
and field. 

Nev(‘rtheless, in 1934 many villagi'rs showed 
that they had learned their lesson by obeying 
when they were ordered to leave. In one case it 
was in the wry nick of time, for twenty minutes 
later the singeing ash cloud rushed through the 
“dessa" and nothing luit scorched earth was 
left, 'riiis ewnt certainly should have giv'en the 
population some faith in the preventive meas- 
ures of the Volcanological Survey. This faith 
will undoubtedly facilitate the Survey’s task in 
the future. However, the trickiness of the vol- 
cano may annul the now existing but still feeble 
confidence in the predictions of the volcanolo- 
gists. 

Dr, Kkmmi.RLIM; has given a very detailed 
description of the “lahars" which have been S(.i 
terribly destructive during and after tlu* 1919 
eruption of the Kloed. He has clearly pointed 
out that these “lahars" are of twa) types: the 
eruption type or hot “lahars" and the common 
type or cohl “lahars." 

The history of Mount Kloed’s activ'e life has 
revealed that the crater lake has been thrown 
out at each eruption. 'Through all ravines 
originating near the crater, great masses of hot 
mud and sand descended into the fertile low- 
lands, although the volume of these masses 
varied greatly. It has been shown, howev'er, 
that the combined effect of the repeatedly oc- 
curring cold “lahars," which used to wash (he 
accumulated loose material down along the 
slopes of the volcano with every heavy rainstorm, 
has been more serious than that of the occa- 
sional hot ones. Barticularly during the first 
years following a new eruption the tonnage of 
material which is transported to the plains sur- 
rounding the volcano is enormous. 

It should be borne in mind that the "lahar" 
phenomenon is genetically connected with the 
strato-type of volcano, which consists partly 
of loose volcanic prijducts easily eroded by the 
heavy tropical rains. It is further olivious that 
a scarcity of vegetation promotes the formation 
of “lahars." ('onseipiently, the danger of cold 
“lahars" increases immediately after each erup- 
tion, since part of the vegetable life on the vol- 
cano's slopes will have been destroyed. 

As Kkm.mkri.in(; pointed out, it depends 
greatly upon the amount of water inside the crater 
at the time of the eruption, whether a real mud 
stream will flow down the mountain’s slope's or 











■55 


Brest van Kf<;MPKN: Earthquakes in the Netherlands Indies 


whether an ash cloud will result from the volcano’s 
activ ity, or perhaps both phenomena occur. 'I'he 
upper layers of water in tin* crater will be thrown 
out without a sufficient rise of temperature to cause 
a rapid evaporation of this water. At the bottom 
of the crater, howev(a‘, this water will b(* heated 
and transformed into steam, with the result that 
th(‘ freshly ejected material will form a ch)ud of 
ashes or a “nuee ardent(“.” The latter will not 
have the devastating effect of the Miaapi 
clouds previously described, because th(“ Kloed 
crater is wide and has no l)luj.; bufyiny ova-r the 
wall. 'This bufeiny plu^ is tyi)ical of the Merapi 
and essi-ntial for the formation of lava ava- 
lanches and their accomi)anyiny “ladoes.” 

This important fact has made the authorities 
(hcide to take steps permanently to drain the 
KhKal’s crater lake. A difficult task was laid 
on the shouklers of those who had to carry out 


this seemingly fantastic idea, which included 
the drilling of a system of tunnels through the 
side of this active volcano. Many difticulties 
had to be overcome, but the staff of tin* Govern- 
nxait Bureau of Mines succeeded. Ever since 
the completion of this jof) the crati'C lake of 
Mount Kloed has been of minor dimensions. A 
future eruption will provi' whether the i^opula- 
tion has benefited from this coijperation of vol- 
canologist and engineer. 

'The Japanese inv^asion has interrupted this 
iinjKirtant scientific work, which was of great 
prai'tical significance. But thi* time will come 
when Dutch and Indonesian volcanologists 
mount again their remote and often dangi'rous 
observation posts and continue their task for the 
bimefit of this beautiful tidpical country, its 
population, and tin- world at large. 


ivvin riQUAKikS IN Tiiih im:tiii:i{l\M)s indjks 

hy Lieutenant Colonel C. P. Brest van KemiuvN, h^nj?. (Delft) * 
n. i\clh. Indies Army Kmjineers 
fransUded hy II. Sta« FKi;n, I’h.D. 
llcsearch Associair in (icoUxjy, Shinford I riicersily, ('nlifornia 

W ITH A FOt.DI NO M A — 


'I'hree tvpes of carllnjuakes can be distin- 
guished: those caused first l>.v structural move- 
ments, second b\’ violent eruptions of volcanoes, 
and thiril by the colla[)se of abandoned mines and 
subterranean caves. Tectonic and volcanic 
earthqtjakes are nearly exclusivel)' restricted to 
geosvnclinal areas, where at present the earth 
crust is in the process of folding, faulting, rising, 
or subsiding. .Such a region is represented by 
parts of the Netherlands ICast Indies, where the 
Alpine-Himalayan geos>'ncline merges into the 
circum-pacific moving bell. 

'The following lines present some earllnpjakc 
|)roblems in the seismic regionsof the N.E.l. and 
tlieir relation to its inhal lil ant s. 

It is obvious that the buildings in tho.se regions 
must lie constructed in such a w.ay as to with- 
stand the effect of sev ere shocks in order to avoid 
loss of life and property. Architects and engi- 
neers reipiire accurate information on the move- 
ment of the ground during previous earthquakes. 
This information consists mainly of the maximum 
acceleration, the amplitude, and the period of the 
mov ements. 

d’he maximum acceleration or intensity of (he 
ex()ected movement of the eartli’s crust is indi- 
cated on (he attached map (I'ig. l>y zones of 
different intensity. This map has been compiled by 
Dr. II P. Bkrlaof., scientific collaborator of the 
Koval Magnetic and Meteorological (Observatory 
in Batavia and the writer. The tiles ol the ob- 
servatorv supplied abundant information regard- 
ing earthquakes in (he N.E.l. during the last 
-150 years. 

* Tl>e folIowiiiK article is a tran.slation of an account, put)- 
lislicd in the N aluurwet. Tijdschn'fl voor Nederl. India 
I (January 1942). Dr. 11. Staucfer, who kindly pre- 
pared the translation and supervised the rcdrawiiiK (with an 
l-iiRlish text) of the map accompanying this account, has 
kre Illy re luced the lir.st part of the original article as thi.s 
deals with earthqu.akcs in general. The parts referring to 
the Nellierlands Indies are, however, given in full. 


The locations of the epicentra, depth of origin, 
and di'pth of se.abottom have been taken from 
majis ^ and 5 of (he “ .Atlas van Tro{)isch Neder- 
land" published in 1958 bv' the Royal Nether- 
lands (_ieograi)hical Societv in cooperation with 
the 'I'opographical Serv'ice of the N.E.l. 

The inhabited places are shown on the map by 
small black septarcs to differentiate them from 
(he black circles which indicate (he locations of 
the epicentra of the heavy earthquakes. The 
zones of intensitv' are shown graphically by dif- 
ferent patterns with the maximum intensity of 
movement to be expected. It must be remem- 
bered that the area of maximum movement of an 
earthejuake is very small compared to the total 
surface where the movement can be ob.scrved. 

The coastal areas where seismic tidal vvav^es 
can be expected are also shown on (he map. 

As indic.ited by the map the gcosynclinal 
ocean-bottom along the west coast of Sumatra, 
south coast of java and Lesser Soenda Islands 
reaches a maximum depth ot 7000 meters, while 
on (ho.se islands steep and high mountains occur, 
such as the Barisan in Sumatni and mountains 
along the whole length of Java. In such a deep 
.sea and high coastal area the map shows a max- 
imum of epicentra; the most destructive earth- 
quakes occur here. 

In the area of the Banda Sea, structural move- 
ments of the earth’s crust have resulted in the 
forming of a structural graben, wherein’ this 
small water body reaches a maximum dejith of 
7000 meters. Conseipiently, the islands in this 
region, Alor, Wetar, Leli, Babar, Tanimbar, Kai, 
C'erani, Ambon, and Bocroc, are centers of .seismic 
activity. Especially the tliree last-named islands 
are often subjecteil to violent eart hqu.ikes. In 
addition, frequent destructive earthquakes have 
been recorded from North Celebes, including the 
whole northern peninsula and a large jiortion of 
central C'clebes. Furthermore, the northern -most 



Hkoi k: Diversity and Unity in Southeast Asia 


peninsula of Ilalmaheira and the northern part of 
New (iuinea also belong to the most active seis- 
mic regions in the N.E.l. To the north of Celebes 
extends the C'elebcs Sea, 4800 meters deep at a 
distance of 100 kilometers from the coast. Some 
mountain ranges in New (iuinea are over 4000 
meters high, while to the north, only 15 kilo- 
meters from the \ ogelkop and Tanah Merah Bay 
the Pacific Ocean reaches a depth of 2000 meters, 
which increases to 4000 meters near the equator. 

Along the east coast of the Peninsula of .Ma- 
lakka, in the residenc\' of Dutch West Borneo, in 
British North Borneo, and in southern New 
(iuinea are large areas free from earthquakes. 
Presumably those areas were folded ami uplifted 
from the early geos\ lu linal sea in older geolog- 
ical periods, but are at present structurally and 
seismically inacti\e. 

In using this map it should be remembered that 
the z<.)nes of intensity are l.)ounded by lines, but 
actiKilh- those zones merge gradually into each 
other. As a matter of fact, there are transition 
zones estimated 40 to 50 kilometers wide and the 
axes of these zones would be represente<l b\ the 
b()imdar\' lines of our map. 

The maximum horizontal accelerations as 
shown on the map were calculated by using the 
deduction of intensity grades according to the 
scale of Cancani or Kossi-Forcl to values for hori- 
zontal accelerations. The accurac)' of the results 
according to this deduction is only approximate, 
as use can only be ma<leof rather incomplete data. 


46 


(For further details I refer to “ De Ingenieur in 
Ned. Ind. 1946, no. 9, p. 1204”). ( onsequently 
the attached seismic map can only l)e considered 
as a preliminary one. 

The accurate information about the movement 
of the ground which the engineer must have in 
order to plan his buildingsand other constructions 
is obtained by instruments none of which are as 
yet used in the N.F.l. In other countries with 
frequent earthquakes such as Japan and Califor- 
nia, those instruments have already been in oper- 
ation for about ten \ ears. 

The few' seismographs in the Netherlands In- 
dies Archipelago are very sensitiv'e for micro- 
seismic movements, but useless for recording 
violent earth shocks with near epicentra. In 
this case the needles are thrown outside the re- 
volving cylinders and the registration of the 
earthquake becomes impossible. 

It is imperative that in the densely-populated 
areas of the N.E.I. a number of seismographic 
stations should be constructed, where destruc- 
tive shocks also can be recorded. F.u'h station 
should be provitled with three seismographs, 
orientated N -S, F -W, and vertical in order to 
register the amplittide and periods of the move- 
ments. Further, an accelerometric seismograph 
is recpiired to record the maximum acceleration. 
.Ml in.struments shouUl be constructed in such a 
way that even during heavy cartluiuakcs they 
will continue to function normally. 


DIVEKSITV AND UNITY IN SOUTlIEASr ASIA 

hy 

Jan 0. M. Broek, Ph.D.* 

\saoi iale l^ntffssor of (Icotjraphy, University of Unlifornuu Ihrkeley, 

Untif.: formerly, Ueseareh . t.s.vw., Inst. Pneijic Hetalions; sornelinie ti‘- 
soeiale. Navy Sefi(H>l for Military (jovernment, Uolunihia Uriiversily, etc. 


The first half of the 1940’s may prove to be the 
most momentous i)eriod in the history of South- 
east Asia. At the beginning of this decade the 
lands between China, India, and Australia were, 
with the excei)tion of the buffer state Thailand, 
under the direct control of Western nations. 
Then, in a few months, the 150 million inhabi- 
tants of this region were brought under the rule of 
Japan. Will the expulsion of the Japanese mean 
a full turn of the wheel of fortune, a return to the 
situation of 1940? Obviously not; the war has 
brought such changes in economic, cultural, and 
political relations and mental attitudes, in the 
Ivast as well as in the West, that a return to the 
status quo of [)rewar \ears is not only undesirable 
but impossible. 

The colonial question is therefore of greater 
imiKjrtance than ever. It is perhaps to be ex- 
pected that the discussions should center on the 
subject of fM)litical independence, but it is unfor- 
t unate that this topic proves so absorbing that 
little attention is being devoted to equally impor 

* Reprinted, with kind permission, from the (ifographicul 
Review ,t4:175-iy,S (ty44). -The maps contained in this 
article are based on material collected for a re.search project 
on .Soulhca.st Asia financed hy the Rockefeller foundation 
and the Cooliclkic foundation and sponsored by the Ameri- 
can Council of the Institute of Pacific Relations. Copy- 
right. 1044, hy the A merit an Ceographital Society of New 
York. 


tant economic and social issues. The ant icolonial 
tradition in American history naturally expresses 
itself in a strong emotional protest against the 
existence of dependent areas. This attitude can 
be a powerful lever for progress if it is understood 
that we are dealing here not w ith a fort uitous and 
immoral political relationship but with a deej)- 
rooted cultural and economic complex. The colo- 
nial relation is essentially one form of the accul- 
turation p>rocess, and as such it is a transitor\- 
phase. It was as a dependency of Rome that 
Western Europe was “exploited,” but also en- 
riched, by the more advanced Mediterranean 
civilization. In time it threw off the Roman yoke, 
and eventually it surjfassed the old Emifire. 

Southeast Asia is now' in the stage of “imperial 
devolution.” The preoccupation with the politi- 
cal aspect f)f this process obscures, however, the 
problem in its totality. If one looks at Thailand 
or at some of the republics of troi)ical America, 
it is plain that for the masses a higher standard of 
living and more democratic jfrocedures do not 
automatically result from political sovereignty. 
The Philippine commonwealth, while moving rap- 
idly to political independence, has remained eco- 
nomically dependent on the United .States, In 
the other parts of .Southeast A.sia prosperity was 
not based so overwhelmingly on the right of free 
access to one market, but collectively these lands 



' U c / 


fND/A^; 


( ^ P N / A 


SOUTHEAST ASIA 


VOLCANOES 


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Canton y FoA^^SA 


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A ■> I . WeU •* 


F i ' -f ^ 


;;p™iF 5 “:w :rF'.":] iz cir;:;t:.'',t ^ t'f °''' "" ■'"''-x -- 

Mded; the uplands are doniiiuUed by erosional activity, and relatively extensive rrristv .1 nVa,* ' 't ^''^veinenta in those shelves have 

tficJ^unda shelf on the west and the Sahul shelf un I he east and continued to the north in tT *pi the zone 

enients are reflected in the mountainous island chains, separate.! by deep sea basins The dist r bn, ‘‘’^'” 7 ' continuing vertical 

n'*' V (Handbuch der rcgionalen (ieologie. No. . 1 ). Heidelberg P i pn l 1 ff A "" 

7 ' • ■^^'' Vulkanisrnus. Vol. 2 , Part 1 . Stuttgart 1921 „n 1 SQ ff fKiri ! 7 = 7 . i . F 77 7 ^ Chihpjunc Islands on p. 14 ; F. voN 

'.V u 7 ;FaF 77 i 7 F 7 rFiy 77 ' . 7 T;i;;r;;i 7 Foi' 7 ‘LVF'’?u’ F''' 7 '=‘'"'' -'"F ..oFr; 7 r„',;^s 177 :! 



Br()i;k: Diversity and Unity in Southeast Asia 




were in the ‘vinie position to the Western coun- 
tries as the Philippines were to the United States. 
Japan granted “independence” generously all 
over vSoutheast Asia, l)ut at the same time it in- 
sisted on a “co-pr()spcrit\ sphere” in which, obvi- 
ously, it would rule while t he native])eoples would 
remain the hewers of wood and drawers of water. 
In turn the Western nations have attempted to 
counteract Japanese propaganda strategy by also 
making political promises. Thus we may antici- 
pate the strange iihcnomenon that after the defeat 
of Japan the amliition of the native |)eoples for 
{)olitical freedom will be stronger than e\er but 
their economic dependence on the Western na- 
tions will be the suirne, if not greater, than before. 
This divergence of political ideals and economic 
realities will be the most baffling problem of post- 
war tropical Asi.i. 

A one-sided approach, focusing on political 
doctrines, must inevitably lead to disillusionment . 
dhe peoples of the liberated countries will dis- 
cover that inde[)endence has not diminished the 
need for markets, ('apital, and trained personnel 
and that it has not solved the problem of security. 
.■Xnd the .American people, once again, will l)e dis- 
mayed by the persistence of evils that were sup- 
posed to disappear when this war for freedom had 
been won. 

It is often assumed that independent so\'er- 
eignty for all peoples must be the ultimate aim of 
a just world order. Yet the Soviet Union, with 
its great variety of peoples, shows a markedly 
ditTerent, and apparently satisfactory, solution 
on the basis of equal j)art nership. We cannot a 
priori rule out the po.ssibility that some peoples 
of .Southeast Asia may i)refer a similar interde- 
pendent relationship. However, whether the 
future is to l)e one of ecptal partnership or of inde- 
pendenc'e, there must be a period of preparation 
before such adult .status can be attained. The 
roads to this goal as well as the time recpiired to 
reach it will differ for different peoples, deixmding 
as much on their social-economic structure as on 
their political cohesion. 

These considerations are all too often forgotten 
in the oratorical demands for freedom now and 
everywhere. Modern means of communication 
have made the earth a unity, but they have not 
created uniformity. The recent distovery that 
the earth is “glol)al” does not change the fact 
that peoi)les are first of all a piart of their local cul- 
ture pattern, each with its own interdependent 
relationships of man to man and man to nature, 
its own traditions, institutions, and ways of mak- 
ing a living. Terms such as “democracy,” “self- 
determination,” and “independence” receive 
their meaning from local experience, not from 
global charters. Instead of offering universal, 
ready-made schemes that are likely to prove mis- 
fits, we must analyze the specific regional prob- 
lems and lay plans accordingly. 

Regional Diversity in Southeast Asia: In 

recent years various plans have l»een advanced 
to fu.se the former dependencies into one or 
two [)olilical units administered or supervised 
by an international authority or mandatory 
power until the countries are ready for complete 
self-rule. ‘ Ou'l^e aside from other difficulties, 
such schemes do not take sufficient account of 
the diversity of Southeast Asia. 

‘ .Sec, for instance, “Tlic United .States in a New World, 
II: Pacific Relations." Forlune, Supijlcnient, August, 1942; 
Ki,v Uci.Hr.KTsoN: Total I'cacc. (larden City, N. Y., 194.}, 
C3i)ccially i)i). 32.} 334. 


The natural environment shows a great variety 
of conditions. The dominant fact is the fragmen- 
tation of the lowlands by either seas or mountains. 
Great plains at one time existed where we now 
find the drowned Sunda and .Sahul shelves, but 
(he present plains beyond the anqihibious coastal 
swamps arc relatively small. Within the low'- 
lands there are stnjiig contrasts in soil fertility.* 
The best soils are those derived from volcanic de- 
posits, These are found along the inner curve of 
the great southern island arc, from Sumatra east 
to the “fishhook” around the Banda .Sea, and in 
the northern arc (part of the Hast Asiatic island 
festoons) running from h'ormosa through the 
Philippine Islands south to northern Celel)es and 
Halmahera (Fig. 20). 

Ill contrast, lirilish Malaya, Borneo, and west- 
ern New (Viiinea are nonvolcanic; moreover, the 
heavv equatorial rains have thoroughly leached 
the soils, limiting the range of suitable crops and 
resulting in lower yields than in the volcanic 
lands (Fig. 21 ). 

Burma, Thailand, and French Indochina have 
no active volcaiuu's, and their alluvial deposits 
arc on t he whole less rich t haii t ho.se of, say, Java ; 
on the other hand, their soils arc less leached than 
those of the eijualorial zone. 

.Settlement, largelv determined liy the search 
for wet rice fields, retlects (hose differences. The 
poimlation is highly concentrated on (he alluvial 
jilaiiis, except those of New (biinea, Borneo, 
.Sumatra, and Malaya, where swamps or leached 
soils prevail (l-dg. 22). I'Atenial forces have ac- 
centuated rather than smoothed out the con- 
trasts. The C'hinese arts of ilike building and 
intensive farming have enlarged the canning 
capacity of the Red River della and the Annam 
coast; Java and Luzon, the most favored islands 
of Malaysia, have become centers of colonial de- 
velopment and have seen their populations in- 
crease lenfohl since the beginning of the nine- 
teenth century. In the.se three areas populatifui 
pressure h.is reached t he danger point . In Lower 
Toiigking and Java the average density to a 
square mile is about 1000 people. In central 
laizon it is 600, but unsatisfactory conditions ol 
land tenure add to a [iressure that otherwise 
would seem comparatively moderate. 

There are signs, however, that the peak of con- 
centration has been reached. The census figures 
of recent decades indicate — even if ample allow- 
ance is niatle for i^rrors in enumeration that 
the average annual rate of jiopulation growth has 
been much higher in certain sparsely i)oi)ulated 
areas than in tlie traditional cores (Fig. TI). This 
is not to say that the trend is toward an even 
distribution throughout the region; even a small 
absolute increase in numbers in an almost 
empty district will result in a substantial percent- 
age of growth. It does mean, however, that the 
spread of modern civilization, in such forms as 
roads, hygiene, or development of resources, 
raises some potent ially favoralile areas to a higher 
level of op|)ortunity, either for the local jiopula- 
tioii or for immigrants. The high rate of increase 

* Iv. C. J. Moiir: Climate and Soil in the Netherlands 
Indies. Bull. Cr.lanUil Insl. of Amsterdam, Vol. 1, 1937" 
I93H. i)p. 241 -251; idem: Ue hodem der Irnpen in iiet alne- 
nieen, en die van Nederlandsch-lndic' in bet bijzondcr, 2 
vols. (in 6 parts). Koninklijke Vereenininf: “ Koluainal In- 
slituiU'' Medcdeflint' No. m, Afd, Handelsmtiseum No. iz, 
Ani.sterdani, 1933 193H (translatefl by Rohkrt L. Picn- 
DMtTON 1944; "The Soils of Ivinatorial Regions, With 
Particular Reference to the Netherlands East Indies." 
Edward.s Brothers, Ann Arbor, Mich.). 




J 1^' Unstmo and T g ‘■r TAvLouMW^rVlTv'InMn “‘'•"’'"I''’" '7"' ' ""'Paralive Wall Atlas o( Asia (Clintttle), cditad by 

r Hkaak- Klim .^Mnrly.^yyy.y^l '' I ^siH Mcan AnpiKal Rainfall, roinpilod by A. J. Ukruertson and E. G. R. Taylor 

WaRon ]' Y Insniinde (Ilandbiicli di-r Kliinatologie, V<.l. 4. l>ai (R) Berlin. I9J1 The rainfall for the drv 

-a^^:ed^ • : ;;i N--.hcrn Hemisphere and April to .September L the So.uhent HeUspheJe Th^^ 

S'‘nda Islands h' VO a ^000. V‘‘7 ' \ ' Indochina, the northwestern I'liilippincs. and the middle part of the Lesser 

ir-Piacs) he rkin aS d. ir Z h 1 , ' ’7" "r* min-bcarinK winds (Kurina coast, western PhTl- 

otma o ia^ ‘^'"a ’ K "■"'I ‘”^d often is Rreater than the precipitation 

areas "-'-J- T ^ have a less pronounced dry season and are'ransil^;;^;!? J; the 

f'' tobcr the soi Ihea,?^nn ’** •'^■‘^iruic (N.W.) monsoon from November to April; from May to 

'vestert, lava an Provails which brings ram to the .south coast but in general is drier than the northwest monsoon As a result 

'«-en J‘Z jinrCtaSy'^r'l'"""' *" bo: 



Brokk: Diversity and Unity in Southeast Asia 


40 


in southern Sumatra and, especially, in Min- 
danao reflects the immigration of Javanese and 
Filipinos respectively, in western Malaya and 
eastern Sumatra around Medan the rate is also 
strongly influenced by iminigration, but here 
most of the immigrants have been “birds of 
passage" who arrived in large numbers during 
the boom years of rubber estates and tin mines 
and left in times of depression such as the early 
1930’s. Elsewhere the high rates ()f growth, if 
not the result of erroneous census estimates, seem 
to be largely caused by increase of the lo<'al pop- 
ulation. 

It should be repeated that the sparse settlement 
of, for instance, the plains of Borneo and New 
Guinea is no accident; their carrying capacity is 
inherently lower than that of the present areas of 
concentration. Proper regard for the rights of 
the local populations demands extensive reserva- 
tion of aralfle lands for their future needs. This 
means that the area available for resettling the 
surplus population of the present crowdecl dis- 
tricts is much more restricted than would apj)car 
at first glance. It underscores the invalidity of 
Japanese claims for living space in these southern 
regions and serves as a warning against schemes 
for colonization b\’ European refugees after the 
war. 

The racial distribution also reflects the natural 
environment. The rugged and heavily forested 
uplands act as barriers between the lowlands. 
This is particularly true of the mainlattd, where 
north-south ranges have imposed a linear pattern 
on the migrations. In the archipelago the sea 
has acted as a link rather than as a barrier, so 
that here we find a more nearly concentric pat- 
tern of coastal and int erior peoples. The con.secu- 
tive eastward migrationsof diflerent racial grou|)s 
have all left their mark on the region, from the 
oldest recognizable clement, the Negrito, in re- 
mote jungle retreats, to the latest, an(l dominant, 
group of Mongoloid peoples. Of more signifi- 
c.ance for the postwar world, however, are the lan- 
guage groups, because these are an important 
factor in the pattern of nations, existing or 
emerging, in .Southeast Asia (Fig. 24). 

The isolated valle>s of the Irrawaddy, the 
.Menam, the .Mekong, and the Red River and the 
narrow coastal j)Iain of Annam have served as 
migration routes, as cultural cores, and as politi- 
cal key areas for, respect ively, the Burmese, Thai, 
(Cambodians, and .'\nnanicse. The numerous 
migrations and cultural impacts have created a 
highly complex situat ion. The early settlers have 
either been absorbed l)y the later groups or been 
pushed into the uplands. The Mon- Khmer 
peoples now appear as fragments all over Further 
India, their once solid hold on the region ripped 
apart by invasions of Burmese, Thai, and Anna- 
mese. The continental offshoot of the Malayo- 
Polynesian language group in French Indochina 
(the (?ham and related pco})les) now lives on as 
a much reduced group in the mountain reftige of 
the central Annamese range. The most recent 
immigrants seem to be the Miao-Yao tribes, who 
have been moving into the northern part of our 
area during the last centuries, probably under 
I>ressure of the Chinese proper. 

In contrast with the extreme complexity of the 
mainland, the island world is rather simple in its 
basic language features, demonstrating again the 
unifying function of thesea. Over the entire area, 
from the Malay Peninsula northward to include 
part of Formosa and eastward to include the 


Moluccas (with the exception of northern Ilal- 
mahera, of “Papuan" speech), the languages be- 
long to one common stock, the so-called Malayan 
division of the Malayo-Polynesian group. 

Within this division there exist, of course, a 
multitude of languages: in the Philippine Islands 
there are at least 60 different languages and dia- 
lects, and in the Netherlands Indies some 25 lan- 
guages and about 250 dialects are reported.'' 

The social craz>' quilt we see today in .South- 
east Asia is, however, only partly a result of the 
wanderings of W'hat are now considered the in- 
digenous peoples. One can go even further and 
say that the differences between them would be 
rather small had it not been for the impact of 
outside forces, first of more advanced (Iriental 
civilizations, later of the Western world. 

Before the Westerners found the way to tropi- 
cal Asia, it had l)een for centuries a “colonial 
area " for both Hindus and Chinese. That meant 

just as it tloes today — on the one haiid ex- 
ploitation by profiteering merchants and tribute- 
seeking conquerors, but on the other hand ( ul- 
tural enrichment, whether directly through active 
proselytizing or indirecth through imitation and 
adaptation. It was particularly the Hindu ex- 
pansion in the early centuries of our era that in- 
troduced to the primitive, pagan, tribal societies 
of Southeast Asia the higher forms of religion, 
philosophy, literature, architecture, and politic’al 
and social organization. 'I'he temples and palaces 
of present-day Burma, Thailand, and Bali and 
such classic monuments as Angkor in C'ambodia 
and Borobudur in Java are symbols of I he mighty 
impulses that came from India. These cultural 
.a<lvanccs were fairly strong in the lowlands but 
weak and retanled in the uplands The cultural 
influence of China was, on the whole, limited but 
predominates among the Annarne.se in the coastal 
area of French Indochina; here Confucianism, 
Buddhism, and ancestor worship mingle in true 
Chinese fashion and the Annam court and the 
mandarin bureaucracy bear clearly the stamp of 
Chinese tradition. 

Eater, about the fourteenth century, another 
outside force, Islam, made its impact on the re- 
gion. Although its source was in the Near East, 
the new religion and its concomitant social- 
economic tenets were carried to the Indies by 
Mohammedan merchants from northwestern 
India. It spread .steadily from the trade centers 
along the .Strait of Malacca eastward and north- 
ward, and by the time the Portuguese arrived, 
Islam was dominant in the coastal regions of the 
Indies and had pushed north as far as Mindanao. 

The political upheaval caused by the advent of 
Islam no doubt facilitated the penetration by Eu- 
ropeans, who could play the contending factions 
against one another. And, more important, the 
geographical limits of Islam at the time of the 
European invasion go far toward explaining the 
present peculiar position of the Filipinos in .South- 
east Asia. It is well known that Moslems are vir- 
tually immune to Christian missionary activity. 
S|)anish colonial policy, which placed much stress 
on the spreading of the Christian faith, was very 
successful among the animist population of the 
Philippine Islands (except for the remote moun- 
tain t ribes) but was never able to convert the Mo- 
hammedans of Mindanao, Palawan, and Sulu. 


* Census of the Philii)i)ine8, 19.t9, Vol. 2, p. 333; “Atlas 
van Tropisch Nederland," Koninklijk Nederlandsch Aard- 
rijkskundiR Cienootschap in collaboration with the Toi)o- 
jcrafische Dienst in Nederland.sch-lndit?, 1938, Sheet Qb- 




s were calculated for adminltrative districts «f Southeast Asia the year 1940 or 1941 was 

stance, the rather low density of the Annam coastal rS wh^re i r'^ sake of uniformity explains, for in- 

rrowded coastal strip. The scale of the map rerjuired. of course some ceneraS^^^^ sparsely settled uplands adjacent to the 

^ttes (Tonxking, Cochinchina, Java). Cities, where thev formed sen^nte there were many small districts with differing den- 

of Philippine Sialistics, 1940 p 1- Malayan Y' ear Bonk were included in the adjacent districts. — Sources; 

Indies] 1930 (figures (if this census were muUiplL’db^^^^^ 182-194; Verslag 

r ^ ^fituese and Other Foreign Asiatics” to obtain the 1 040 a ^ P^'Pulation. 1. 1 3 for “ Kuropeans,” 

Of lL~ i‘e?' 193.3-1935 and 1936-1937. pp. 71-72 and 50-51 (estimate 1^4? on rate Year 
<'t India. 1931. Vol. XI. Burma. Part 2. pp. 2 -3 (estimate coninnte^n K^ of increase between census years 1929 and 1937); Census 

-cas were, however, excluded f^m the c^sur\4^rrp1a^^^^^^^^ 1921 and 1931. Certaik remote 




Uroek: Diversity and Unity in Southeast Asia 


42 


The so-called Moros are to this day a Kroup apart 
from the Filipinos, and it appears that this Mos- 
lem minority has ^rave misgivings regarding its 
future position in an independent Philippine 
commonwealth. As to the remainder of the coun- 
try, it must be said in justice to the Spaniards 
that it was they who, by their conversion policy, 
westernized the Filiinnosand thereby created the 
spiritual ( onditions that led to the revolt against 
Spain and subseejuent !>• made possilde the rajtid 
progress in self-government under the American 
regime. This is too often forgotten by those who 
criticize what they consider the political or edu- 
cational backwardness in the Indies or Malaya. 
It is interesting to note that in the Moro jirov- 
inces of Cotabato (Mindanao) and Sulu the rate 
of literacy is the lowest in the Philippine Islands: 
although on the average 50 percent of the Philip- 
pine population over 10 years of age can read and 
write, the percentage is 20 or less for these two 
provinces.'* 

There are other asiiects of Western colonial 
policy that have tended to increase the contrasts 
between the parts of Southeast Asia. The trade 
of each of the count ries shows t hat t here has lieen 
very little exchange within the region. What 
intraregion.il commerce did exist was either for 
trans-shipment at Singapore or shipments of rice 
from the surplus lowlands of ('ochinchina, Thai- 
land, and Hurma to such ileficit areas of [danta- 
tion econoniN' as Hritish Malaga and Sumatra. 
French Indochina and the Philippines, because of 
protectionist policies, had between one-half and 
three-fourths of their trade with France and the 
United States respectively, British Mala\a and 
the .Netherlands Indies were less dependent on 
their home countries, partly because of the world- 
wide demand for their products and partly be- 
cause of a long tradition of free trade. Thailand, 
being outside any empire structure, also had more 
di\ersitied trade, but this too was largely with the 
industrialized countries of the middle latitudes. 
Only Burma had its major market and supply 
area close by, nanieh' in India, which took more 
than half its trade. Thus the commercial struc- 
ture of the countries of Southeast Asia shows 
great similarity to that of the raw-materials- pro- 
ducing countries of Latin America: they face the 
world, turning their backs to one another. 

Fach colonial power has ruled, develoi^ed, or 
exploited its empire according to the ideologies 
and soci.al and economic practices of the home 
country. The Americans have stres.sed political 
development, the French cultural assimilation, 
the British and Dutch economic progress, the 
former more in a laissez faire manner, t he latter in 
a more paternal form. \o doubt the foreign 
domination has created greater unity within each 
dependency. If the manifold peoples of the 
Netherlands Indies now begin to feel the bonds 
of an Indonesian nation, if the native leaders on 
the Peninsula look forward toward a unified 
national M.ilay state, it is due to the unification 
under Western rule and the penetration of West- 
ern ideas of nationalism. At the s;ime time, how'- 
ever, this rising national consciousness within 
each dependency sharpens the division between 
the political units of Southeast A.sia. For in- 
stance, the Malayan peoples of the Peninsula, 
the Indies, and the Philippines have many basic 


* Census of the Philippines, 1939, Vol. 2, pp. 298 IT. ami 
38.SfT. Literacy for females is particularly low: 13.1 percent 
in Cotabato and 16. 1 per cent in .Sulu. It may be added that 

literacy in the panan Mountain Province is 29.1 per cent. 


cultural traits in common, but the different forms 
of colonial rule have created divergent interests 
that cannot be ignored. It seems out of the ques- 
tion that the Filipinos, eagerly awaiting their in- 
deitendence, would agree to be [tart of a Malayan 
superstate, especially if this were placed under in- 
ternational super\ision. And even if they were 
willing, the Indonesians would most likely reject 
the .scheme because the^- would fear the power of 
the politically more advanced Filipinos and the 
po.ssible friction between Moslem and C hristian 
interests. A union of British Mala\a and the 
Netherlands Indies would not present these par- 
ticular problems, but — quite apart, of course, 
from Dutch or British objections it is doubtful 
whether the Indonesians would welcome the 
addition of a substantial and concent nited C'hi- 
ncse minority such as exists in British Malaya. 

On the mainland one finds similar hurdles in 1 he 
path toward a fusion. National consciou.sness 
among the Burmese, Thai, and Annarnese is rela- 
tively strong, rooted in old traditions and fortified 
by resistance to Western dominance. Jai)an re- 
warded rhailan<l by giving it parts of French 
Iiulochina (in Laos and Camltodia), of British 
.Malaya (the four northern states), and of Burma 
(part of the .Southern .Shan Slates). The anne.xa- 
tions ill Laos and part of the .Shan territor\' may 
have some ground in that the inhabitants show 
more affinity to the Thai than to the i)eoi)les of 
Thailand’s neighlior states. 'I'he other additions, 
however, are liased on tenuous claims of former 
suzerainty, 'rhere is little doubt that this gen- 
erosity of Jaitan is resented by I hailand’s neigh- 
bors. Whatever l^oimdaries result from the fut ure 
peace conferem'e, they will cause ill feeling and 
form a hindrance to close collaboration within a 
federat ion. 

Regional Problems: In view of these con- 
trasts ami divergent interests one may well ask 
whether there is any sense in dealing with South- 
east Asia as a regional unit. The answer is that, 
in spite of all the differences noted, there are cer- 
tain considerat ions of a broader nat ure .and of far- 
reaching significance that give validity to the 
concept. 

There is, in the first place, the “colonial” char- 
acter of the region. In recent years there has 
been increasing acce{)tance of t he t hesis t hat “the 
colonial jx^wers are not only in a position of 
trustees towards the colonial areas under their 
rule, but that they also owe a moral oldigation 
toward the rest of the world to account for their 
stewardship.”** Although an international ad- 
ministration over the whole region is neither a 
practical nor ;i desirable solution, there is much 
to be said for a regional sui)ervisory organ em- 
bodying this “third-party interest,” at least if 
this principle finds application to all colonial 
areas of the world. In this line of thought the 
colonial |)owers, after the expulsion of Japan, 
would resume charge of their respective depend- 
encies but would be accountable to an interna- 
tional authority. 

The function of this international liody should 
not, however, be limited merely to supervising 
the progress made toward self-government. Po- 
litical rights are meaningless unless they rest on a 


s "War and Peace in the Pacific: A Preliminary Report of 
the Kinlith ('onference of the Institute of Pacific Relations 
.... Mont Tremhlant, December 4 -14, 1942," Internati- nal 
Secretariat. Institute of Pacific Kelatiuns, New York, 1943, 

p. .36. 




iSio r? T 3'. i nt” 1^““''“ ' *'"■ NMlKTbnds t,i,li,.s the rale, of wowth refer to the period, 1921 10 “l and 

avLl! ' ’ he increase shown tn ,otttltern Sumatra (latmponus) i, dotihtless below the rale that prevailed in the 19 W, when 

Xr" riS:rr^“n:,r«'9Tn s ^''o?r 'r:Lm"B™aTnT4'’‘‘'‘ir "" “r-r "-i -rmri:: rw: 

onicial censuses Hntam. 0.4. -- 1 he map is based on the crude gain (or loss) between tl,e two most recent 




liRoi'K: Diversity and Unity in Southeast Asia 


44 


sound social and cconoiui(' foundation. If the 
outside powers, in the spirit of the Atlantic Char- 
ter, wish to have a part in the political develop- 
ment of the dependencies, they will als(j have to 
accept a share in the responsihilily for the ma- 
terial welfare of these lamls. It would he strange 
indeed if public opinion, say in the United States, 
could demand that full democracy be establishe*! 
in Malaya and at the same time disclaim any con- 
cern for the economic conditions in that country. 
This raises the tpiestion of the economic future of 
Southeast Asia to car<linal importance. 

R61e of Raw-Materials Export: - In the past 
the export of commodities gained from field, 
forest, and mine has provided the revenues with 
which to pay for improvements. A peasant soci- 
ety is naturally poor in caj)ital. The investments 
made b\ Westerners and, to a small extent, by 
Chinese and Indiaris (the latter mainly in Burma) 
have, no doubt , been profitable to them. But t he 
native peo[dcs have also gained on the whole, not 
only by better opportunities for employment, 
but especially by obtaining roads, ports, water- 
works, hospitals, experiment stations, and other 
durable improvements. There arc, of course, 
difTerences of opinion as to whether the native 
peoples have received their fair share of the 
l)rofits and, if not, how this should be corrected 
after the war. Nevertheless, improvement of liv- 
ing conditions will still depend largely on the im- 
port of capital, etiuipment, and servi('es. Will 
Southeast Asia be able to pay for these necessities 
in the traditional manner? 

We are now painfully aware that Southeast 
Asia had been developed into a veritable treasure 
house of raw materials. It produced almost all 
the natural rubber, cinchona i)ark, abaca (Manila 
hemp), kapok, teakwood, and pepper of the 
world, three-fourths of the copra and tapioca 
Hour, more than half the j)alm oil and tin, and 
one-third of the agave fibers (sisal and henequen). 
The region was also of great importance for 
natural resins and gums and for essential oils; for 
instance, most of the jelutong (an ingredient of 
chewing gum) and three-fourths of the citronella 
oil came from here. Another product, seemingly 
minor but actually highly inqwriant, was the 
versatile insecticide rolenone. Its production has 
expanded rapidly in the last ten years, and British 
Malaya and the Netherlands Indies had almost a 
mono})oly on the world market. 

In addition. Southeast Asia produced consid- 
erable quantities of cane sugar (14 per cent of the 
world production), tea (18 per cent), toliacco, 
spices, and rare metals such as tungsten (22 j)er 
cent),® 

Southeast Asia has experienced an extraor- 
dinary economic de^'elopment since about the 
middle of the nineteenth century. While the 
economy of Latin America stagnated because of 
the abolition of slavery and the instability of 
governments, colon i;d Southeast Asia, brought 
closer to Europe by the .Suez ('anal, became the 
great tropical supply center for Western industry. 
This paramount [)osition is now seriou.sly threat- 
ened from two directions: preparation for war 
and the war itself have led to the development of 
.synthetic substitutes in the industrial countries 
and the introduction or expansion of natural 


* The pcrcentaKes refer to 19.38 or 19.39 and are taken from 
the Slalisticol Year-Book of the League of Nations and the 
A ericuUural Export Crops of the Netherlands Indies (annual) 
for 1940. 


production in the tropical parts ol India, Africa, 
and, especially, .South America. Not all these 
ventures will succeed, but even if onl>' a part sur- 
vive the war, it will mean a considerable competi- 
tion for .Southeast Asia. This competition will 
not be merely on the basis of price and qualit\' — 
on which tropical Asia might, on the whole, have 
the stronger position but will also involve 
j)olitical and national considerations. The lesson 
of the danger of relying on distant countries for 
strategic raw materials ma\- result, in Euroite as 
well as in America, in the maintenance of home 
production of s\nthetics at whatever cost; con- 
cern for the large capital invested in the new in- 
dustries (for synthetic rul)ber in the United States 
some 625 million dollars) would certainly support 
such a policN’. Or, for instance, the “good- 
neighbor policy” toward Latin America might 
induce the United States to gi\e preference to the 
new or revived products of that region. ICxpan- 
sion of trade outlets in other countries may partly 
make up for the loss elsewhere. For instance, il 
China is helped to its feet and its transportation 
system and industry are developed, resulting iti 
greater consuming })ower, it ma\ become a sub- 
stantial customer for rubber, fibers, industrial 
fats and oils, and foodstuffs. Even .so, it is hard 
to see how' Southeast Asia can regain its former 
export volume. The rejiercussions on the social- 
economic structure wall be severe, unless, as sug- 
gested above, the more advanced nations recog- 
nize their responsil)ility for doing more than ex- 
pressing s>'mpath\’ with i)olitical ideals. 

New Opportunities: - - 'Phe future will demand 
a new approach. It is too early to draw' up any 
specific long-range jilans, and the problems differ, 
of course, for the different countries of Southeast 
Asia, but some brief suggestions may illustrate 
the possibilities. 

The decline of exporting may, to some e.xtent, 
prove a blessing in disguise ii countered b\' a con- 
structive readjustment policy. A shift in em- 
phasis from a few' export commodities to a more 
diversified agriculture would increase economic 
resistance in dei)ression years. The disastrous 
period of the early 1930’s taught a hard lesson, 
and some beneficial changes occurred, but they 
were minor compared with those that the post- 
war period will require. British Malaya, espe- 
cially, needs more home production of food; nor- 
mally it imported about two-thirds of its rice 
consumption. 

Another item for a long-range reconstruction 
program is resettlement, either to relieve (he 
population pre.ssure in overcrowded areas or to 
furnish a new livelihood for workers in depressed 
export industries. In the |)receding decade ener- 
getic' efforts were made to promote emigration 
from Java to Sumatra and from Luzon to Min- 
danao. The initial results were promising, but 
too small to afford any material relief as yet.^ 

^ The number of colonist.s leaving Java rose from 20,000 
in 19J7 to 53.000 in 1940. For a dest ription of the new re- 
settlement proKram sec " Agricultural Colonization and the 
Population of Java.” The Netherlands Indies, Dei)t. van 
Kconomische Zaken, Netherlands Indies, Vol. 6, No. 8, 1938, 
pp. 11 ff.; “Javanese Colonization in the Outer Provinces,” 
ibid.. No. 9, 19.38, p. 1.5; (1. H. C. Hart: Towards Kco- 
noinic Democracy in the Netherlands Indies. [Netherlands- 
Nelherlands Indies Tapey No. j). Netherlands-Netherlands 
Indies Council, Institute of Pacific Relations, 1942; Wmo 
Pekkkma: Colonization of Javanese in the Outer Provinces 
of the Netherlands Ka.st-lndies. Geogr. Journ., Vol. 101, 
1943, pp, 14.5 -153. In the Philippine commonwealth, under 
the auspices of (he National Land Settlement Administra- 
tion, it has l)een rei)orted that 1 1,500 persons were settled in 
Mindanao in 1939 and 1940. 




i.9«?i; Census or 




Hkoivk: Diversity and Unity in Southeast Asia 


46 


This work will have (o he resumed on a much 
lars^cr scale. 

The development of manufacturing industries 
is another approach to betterment, and more 
stimulating than the spread of subsistence agri- 
culture under the resettlement schemes. More- 
over, it will 1)C a necessity if the shrunken export 
markets do not pnnide enough moue\ to l)u\' 
manufactured goods al)road. The favorable re- 
sults obtained in Java in the l')d()’s under a social 
policy of encouraging small-scale factories lor the 
production of daily necessities are guideiM)sts for 
the future.** In addition to ja\a, central Luzon, 
lower Tongkiug, and possibL- the districts arouml 
Rangoon, Bangkok, and Singapore may well 
l)econic centers of consumers’ goods industries, 
selling on the Oriental |)rice level. This activity, 
in turn, induces the estaltlishment ol mort‘ basic 
industries, as the experience of Jav.i has shown. 
Such industrial centers will also suppK the outl\ - 
ing agrarian regions, an<l closer trade relations 
will result. This was already noticeable in the 
Netherlands Indies; under the stimulus of expand- 
ing f<tctor\ production, the xalue ot java’s ex- 
ports of manuf.ictured goods to the other islands 
rose from .14 million guilders in 1634 to 70 million 
in 1940. 

The question whether Southeast Asia will de- 
velop a hea\>’ indust r>- is still academic. The pos- 
sibilities cannot l)e disi'oimtetl luereh' l>ecau.se 
the region has little or no met<ilhtrgical coal and 
relatively small iron deposits. These twin ele- 
ments of the early Industrial Kevolution are be- 
coming less important as fechnolog\- adsaiu'es. 
Because of its hea\N’ rainfall and strong rebel. 
Southeast .Asia has consideral)le potential water 
power. In addition, metal aIlo\ sand plastics are 
I)ound to pla\ a much greater role than in theitast. 
The region has many metals, such as tin, alumi- 
num, chromium, manganese, and tungsten, and 
enormous forest reserves, which .someday will > ield 
t he raw material for various kinds of wood plastics. 

Induslrializat ion and the concomitant changes 
in social-economic organization will tend to lower 
the birth rate, as has happened in ot her <’ouut rics. 
It is onB’ b\ this proce.ss that we can hope to 
break the vicious ( ircle in which a rise in living 
standards is nullified b\ increased survival. 

The develo[)ment of manufacturing will, again, 
depend largeh on the assistance of the Western 
nations in supphing capital, eiiuipment, and 
technical assistance. Tins ma\' seem an invita- 
tion to the iire.sent industrial nations to cut their 
own throats, but experience has shown that the 
flow of trade among industrial countries is greater 
than that bctwe:?n industrial and raw-materials- 
pro hieing countries. 

Toward a Regional Bloc : Although .Southea.st 
Asia will thus be s' ill dependent on Western coun- 
tries, the iieoplesof the region can strengthen and 
s[)ced iq) their progress toward economic self- 
determination b\' regional collaboration.'-* A |)o- 
litical, territorial fusion directly after the war 
would, as discus.sed above, cause more harm than 
good; but a regional bloc, working along func- 
tional lines, appears as a distinct {lossibility. 

« 1’. It. W. SnsiiN: Industrial Develoiunent of the Neth- 
erlands Indies, lUtll. Neiliorlands-Nctherlanfis Indies 
(’onncil, Institute of I’acilic Relations. 

» HkC.so Laskkr: Welfare and Freedom in Postwar 
Southeast Asia. Arnrr. Counril Pnper No. J, .Aineriran 
( ounril, Institute of Parihe Relations, New York, n.d. 
(niinieographed); " Interralional A( tif)n and the Colonies.” 
P'uhiun Sot. Rrse(,r,h Ser. No. O 5 . 194.1. 


Ivven if an international colonial authority should 
not materialize, a purely regional organization 
for consultation and coordination could be .set 
up. The recently created Anglo-American Car- 
ibbean Commission is an example of such re- 
gional collaboration. A number of committees, 
acting under a secretariat as the regional clearing- 
hou.se, should examine the problems of the region 
as a whole, as well as the int raregional sources of 
friction. 

For instance, although the [)r()blem of raw ma- 
terials can, olniously, be solved onl\' by world- 
wide agreements, a united stand by the countries 
of tropical Asia would (onsiderably strengthen 
their position .it the conference table. Other re- 
gion.al topics needing discussion and, where fi'a- 
sible, a common polic\', are regulation ot immigra- 
tion, labor conditions, int raregional shipj)ing, 
and aviation, hurthermore, there should be a 
regular interch.inge of information on such mat- 
ters as education, public hygiene, nutrition, re- 
settlement. rur.il credit, agricultural methods, 
and industrial develo[)ment in order to promote 
the rapid sjiread of effect i\(‘ welfare policies. 

Local Unity: - 'Phis idea of community of in- 
terests whether from an internal or an ex- 
ternal viewpoint also appears in the character 
of .Southeast Asia as a transit area. 'Phis has 
long been recognized for the Mala\ Archipel.igo 
and the adjacent I’eninsula: these lands astride 
the e(|uator act as a liarricr guarding the gate- 
way between the Pacific and Indian Oceans and 
at the .same time form steppingstones between 
Asia and .Australia. Together with the other two 
bottlenecks of world shipiu’ng -- 1 he (_'aribt)ean 
with the Panama ('anal and the Mediterranean 
with the .Suez (faual -- Malaysia forms the trin- 
ity of strategic t horoughlares on which world sea 
power rests. French Indochina and the Philip- 
pines, flanking the South ( hina .Sea, guard the 
portals to the Malacc.i and Sunda Straits; Thai- 
land borders on the r’acific as well as on the In- 
di.in Oce.an and controls the Isthmus of Kra, the 
potential site for a canal linking the two oceans. 
This strategic position of Southeast Asia has been 
emphasized in recent years b\’ the emergence of 
Burma as a transit zone between ('hina and the 
Indian Ocean. Air transiiortation will (ertainly 
play a large role after the war, Imt it will not re- 
lilace land and sea transiiortat ion. It would seem 
that the future .sy.stem of skyways will even ac- 
cent uate t he posit ion of .Sout heast Asia as a cross- 
roads center. Here the great -circle route Irom the 
Pacific coast of America via Japan to Fast China, 
the l*hilippines, and .Singapore meets the trans- 
pacific ‘‘island hopping” line via Hawaii and also 
the route from Australia to India and l)e\ond to 
West Asia and Furofie. 

These functions give .Southeast Asia a vital 
pl.'ice in the world’s circulatory system and make 
its security a matter of internation.d concern. 
In this respect no part of the region can be sep- 
arated from the whole; when Japan iienctratcd 
into French Indochina, the entire structure of 
Western domination in Southeast Asia was 
doomed. In the same way, when Japan was ex 
pelled from the Philipihne Islands, its entire 
newly won empire startl'd to crumble. 

This strategic interdependence has even more 
direct bearing on the fate of the peojiles of .Sout h- 
east Asia as they approach the stage of self-rule. 
The historical development ixiints clearly to the 
eventual cmergeni'e of at least six national states 




information on cxT\aT./anll^w?thlurKVn!riTttrpoM 



Coombs: The International Rubber Regulation Committee 


48 


in this region. They will be flanked by Australia, 
India, and China, and to the north will be Japan, 
which in spite of defeat may remain a potentially 
formidable nation. If for the moment we leave 
open the question of Japan’s future power and 
omit Australia as actually only a small nation in 
terms of population and remote from most of the 
Southeast Asiatic countries, the contrast between 
Southeast Asia and its immediate neighbors be- 
comes even stronger. , 

The thought occurs that the fragmentation ot 
Southeast Asia into six separate states or more 
may create an “Asiatic Balkans,” destined to lie- 
come a pawn in an e\'entual struggle for political 
or economic supremac>' between its great neigh- 
bors. Speculation on such contingencies can 
hardly form a compelling argument for the estab- 
lishment of a regional bloc. We have seen, how- 
ever, that there are other and urgent — prob- 
lems that require regional solution. Cooperation 
on concrete questions of colonial emancipation, 
security, and welfare may gradually establish .i 


sense of unity that will transcend local diver- 
gences. It is through this organic evolution to- 
ward interdependence that Southeast Asia will 
liecome strong enough to ward off outside pres- 
sure and gain genuine freedom. 

The concept of the national sovereign state is 
essentiallv a product of European culture. No 
one will denv the stimulative qualities ol a vigor- 
ous national life, but neither can anyone fail to 
see what chaos has been caused by nationalistic 
anarchv. While the Western world is searching 
for an escape from this impasse, tropical Asia is 
struggling toward national self-determination. 

Must these peoples travel the same road as 
Euroj^ did, or will the\- be able to subordinate 
patriotism to collective regional interests.^ It 
seems not yet too late if the Western nations 
recognize their true rcsponsibilits to guide 
Southeast Asia toward a future in which “inler- 
dependence” will be as challenging a word as 
“independence” is today. 


I'/w Or^anizntion (hvised by 
the Internntioiml Rubber Reguhdiou 
CoininittBe for the (^oiidutT of Reseon h and 
Propaganda, under the 1934 Agreement between I he 
(fovernnients of FraiuT, the United Kingdom, India, the Nether- 
lands, and Siam, to regulate the Produ(‘tion and Export of Rubber. 

hy 

Iv Coombs, JCA.* 

Secretary, tirilish Hiibher Producers' Research Associafiori, London.: formerly, Matunfer, 
Holland Americn Rlanlalion (lo., Lisaran, S.O.k. 


Introduction: — The plantation rubber in- 
dustry is identified with the successful translation 
to the Far Eastern tropics of llevea brasilitnsis, 
a large forest tree indigenous to the Amazon 
X'alley. It had its genesis in the ex|)eriments 
set in motion hy (d.HMKNTS Makkh.\m, a British 
India Official in the 187()’s, and by 1940 some 
9,000,000 acres had been laid down to the cul- 
tivation, chiefly in the Malayan p(“ninsula, the 
Netherlands East Indies, French Indo-China, 
CeyltJii and S. India, capable of jmxlucing an- 
nually U million tons of raw rubber. 

Research played a conspicuous part in the 
development of the industry. From 1909/10 
when research stations were established in 
Malaya and Ceylon under the auspices of the 
Rubber Growers’ Assonation Inc., London, 
producers had progressively strengthened re- 
search directed to optimum economic production 
and 1940 found Malaya, the Netherlands East 
Indies and Ceylon well c([uipped with up-to-date 
research and experiment stations working to 
that end. Concurrently manufacturers and 
others, including thi; Rubber Growers’ Associa- 
tion, London, the London Advisory Committee 
for Rubber Research (( eylon & Malaya), 
London, the Research Association of British 
Rubber Manufacturers, Croydon, the (iovern- 


* Original contribution, especially prepared for " Scieme 
and Scientists in the Netherlands Indies." 


ment Rublier Laboratorit-s, Delft, the Rubber 
Department of the West java E.xperinu nt Sta- 
tion, and th(‘ Inti'rnational Association, Holland, 
had been conducting resi>arch on post production 
problems and it had become customary to dis- 
tinguish activities in the two fields as produc- 
tion- and consumplion-rest'arch. 

The field of ('onsumpt ion-research laid Irom 
time to time comt* under re\'iew by [irodiicers. 
who had to rectify the position when [irtKiuction 
and consumption g(jt <;ut ol Ijalaru'e, as to its 
adetpiacy in finding new outk'ts for their product. 
It was readily conceded that in this field the re- 
search organizations of the large manufacturers, 
particularly in North America, and of the makers 
of chemicals and accessory mati'rials used in rub- 
ber processing were of pre-emimnt im|)ortance 
in size, scope, and efficiency: that thi'ir research 
activities includeil research into luiulamental 
problems, the results of which recei\'ed consider- 
able publicity when that could be given without 
detriment to business interests and that with the 
supplementary information emerging in due 
course in the records of patent literature, the>' 
had contributed the bulk of the substantial 
public record of the scierua* of rubber itself and of 
the technology of manufacture. But it was fi lt 
that in some respects the interests of produciTs 
and manufacturers might be temporarily diver- 
gent in that much of the manufacturers' research 
was directed to the durability of rubber goods. 



49 


4:oombs: The International Rubber Regulation Committee 


thereby braking rubber consumption: that there 
were fields of research which were not their 
primary concern, notably the exploration of rub- 
ber as a base from which to make new materials: 
that in the translation of laboratory results to 
industry producers might be expi-cted to under- 
write the hazards attendent on development, and 
that above all they should create an organization 
which could conduct fundamental research with- 
out regard to whether or when the knowledge so 
obtained would lead to commercial results and 
which for that reason had not been a priority in 
manufacturers' research programm<‘S. Super- 
imposed on these considerations were the results 
of research activities directed to synthetic al- 
tcrnativ(‘s which had thrown into bold relief 
certain relative imperfections of natural rubb<*r 
when called to meet exacting specifications for 
soU'ent resistanci' etc. and the need to augment 
researcfi in this (Jirirtion was cl(‘arly in<Jicat(‘(i. 

Propaganda had similarly played a part in the 
development of the industry. Manufacturers 
gem'raily had conducted wide-scale puVdicity for 
proprietary rubber goods, and producers, notably 
the Ruliber Growers’ Association, London, whih* 
conducti/ig a general campaign to make the popu- 
lace ruhher-mimicd had amongst other things 
participated in national and international ex- 
hibitions, had stationed (dfu'ers at various times 
in Australia, Belgium and France, and America 
had issued in the aggregate some million hand- 
books and pamphlets, including 14 in foreign 
languages, had initiated work on rubber roads, 
constituted a t('chnical consultant service and 
co-(jperated with manufacturers in publicity for 
rubber flooring etc. 

With a prospect of the Agreement to regulate 
output being renewed (as it was in 1938) op- 
portunity was taken to explore the possibility of 
creating an international organization to be 
financed by all subscribers to tlu* Regulation 
Agreement which would ensure an extension of 
tundaniental research and a con.sequeiit broaden- 
ing of the foundation of the research structure; 
which would integrate the current activities of 
producers in the fields of apjilied research and 
propaganda and by effective co-ordination over 
the wholt* field not only preclude unnecessary 
duplication but ensure maximum economy and 
efficiency. 

The 1934 Agreement: Ihuler Article 19 of 
the Inter-Governmental Agreement to regulate 
the Production and Export of Rubber, signed in 
London on 7th May, 1934, “Tlu“ contracting 
Governments, recognizing that a natural bal- 
ancing of production and consumption can be 
hastened by research with a view to developing 
new applications and by propaganda, declared 
that they would consider the possibility of 
(i) levying and collecting a uniform cess on the 
net exports from their respective territories dur- 
ing the jieriod of thi* Regulation for the purjiose 
<4 supporting such rt'search and propaganda, and 
(b) co-operating in the constitution of an Inter- 
national Rubber Research Board to plan the 
ri-search and propaganda.” 

The responsibility for examining the pos.si- 
bilities amf advising the signatory (iovernnients 
as to appropriate action to be taken devolved on 
the International Rubber Regulation Com- 
mittee. 

'Phe problems resolved themselves in the main 
into I'xamining the possibilities of creating an 


organization of requisite scope which would 
utilize special talent in the Netherlands, France 
and Great Britain, adequate to supplement the 
progressive research work of the manufacturers 
especially in the direction of fundamental re- 
search and not only enlist their goodwill but 
stimulate their co-operation ; which would explore 
fully the scientific basis underlying the competi- 
tive position of natural rubber in relation to syn- 
thetics, and which would indirectly giv’^e further 
concrete expression of the spirit of international 
co-operation for the common good expressed in 
the 1934 Agreement, 

The Examination of the Possibilities adum- 
brated in the 1934 Agreement: The following 
in brief outline covers the more important steps 
in the exiimination of the possibilities set out in 
Article 19 of the Agreement. 

In May 1934 the International Rubber Regu- 
lation C'ommittee invited the Rubber Growers’ 
Association and its opposite number in Holland 
the International As.sociation — both of which 
were conducting consumption research and propa- 
ganda, to consider Article 19 and make recom- 
mendations thereon. These two Associations in 
joint report acknowledged the necessity for 
augmenting the respective services, approved the 
principle of cess collection, suggested that a ce.ss 
of Id per 100 lb. annually on exports would pro- 
vide sufficient funds and that separate Associa- 
tions .should be entrusted with the responsi- 
bilities of the .scheme by expanding their respec- 
tive organizations within the limits of the ce.ss 
income which would accrue nationally and by 
conducting their work on a co-ordinated pattern. 
This joint report indicated that the French 
growers would support the propo.sals and ask the 
Rubber (^rowers’ Association to administer cess 
funds of French incidence. 

In December 1934 the International Rubber 
Regulation Committee consulted Sir Fk.\nk 
Smith, then Secretary of the Department of 
Scientific and Industrial Research (England), 
who advised that any scheme of such importance 
should .see continuity for a minimum period of 
10 years, that an annual income of £100,000.- 
per annum, would not be out of proportion, and 
that due regard should be paid to the necessity 
of setting on foot long range (fundamental) in- 
vestigations. 

In January 1935, with the above-mentioned 
reports before them the International Rubber 
Regulation Committee set uj) a .Sub-Committee 
under the Chairmanship of .Sir ANDRiiW Mc- 
h.\i)YK,\N, the other members being: — Messrs. 

D. Boi.dkrhky, L. P. lk Cosquino dk Bossy, 

J. Cl. Hay, H. Eric Millicr: “to consider the 
joint report of the Rubber (7rowers’ Association 
and the International Association, Holland, the 
note by .Sir Frank Smith, the opinions expressed 
by members ... to prepare a scheme for research 
and propaganda as contemplated in Article 19 
of the Agreement whic h in their view the Com- 
mittee would be justified in recommending to 
the different ( '.overnrnents.” 

()ver the period Fi'bruaryv March 1935 this 
.Sub-( ommittee held st'veral meetings, examined 
N'arious witnesses and drew- up its report. 

The Recommendations of the McFadyean 
Sub-Committee : — For research, the McFadyean 
Sub-Committee recommended a major departure 
from that adumbrated in Article 19 of the Agree- 



CooMns: The International Rubber Regulation Committee 


50 


iniMit. Whereas the latter suggested the possible 
creation of a centralized planning and executive 
International Rubber Research Board (which, 
to hav(“ (‘tisured unfettered working, would have 
entailed the pooling, at least in part, of funds of 
national incidence and the appointment nf a prin- 
cipal technical officer charged to direct work over 
the whole international field) the Sub-('oinmit- 
t(‘e recoinmeiuled the cri-ation of three national 
autonomous research hoards chargi'd to satisfy a 
Board, international in character and elected 
therefrom, as to the co-ordinative pattern of their 
programmes as a whole. In short for research 
the Sub-Committei' ri'comniended a policy of 
decentralization. 

In brief the Sulothnnmit tee’s recommenda- 
tions were: — 

A. That the siKnatory r,overninent.s should guarantee 
to continue tlie collection of an export cess for a period of 
10 years irrespective of the fate of the International Rub- 
ber Regulation Agreement and that in the first instance a 
cess of Id per lOOlbs. should be collected, the rates to be 
reviewed from time to time in consonance with the require- 
ments of the scheme as shown in its actual working. 

B. That National Research Boards .should be set up, 
each responsible for the administration of cess income ac- 
cruing nationally and charged 

(»■) to co-operate with each other in the conduct of re- 
search; 

(ii) to submit their programmes (as to the measure of 
their co-ordination) and relative budgets of exiienditure to, 

C. An International Rubber Research Board representa- 
tive of and elected from the -I National Research Boards 
(ultimately constituted as to 3 members each of the British 
and Netherlands Boards and 2 of the French Board) 
charged 

(») to co-ordinate as far as pos.sible by continuous con- 
tacts with each national board the research programmes 
undertaken by them, 

Hi) to appoint a (ihairman for an International Rubber 
Propaganda Committee. 

(iff) to decide on the proportion of Cess Income to be 
allocated for propaganda activities, 

(iv) to advise the Governments periodically on the ade- 
quacy or otherwi.se of Cess Income and to be the clearing 
house for all reports thereto. 

D. That as regards the British Research Unit a cen- 
tralized Institute should be set up under the control of a 
Board whicli should combine responsibility for representing 
producing territories and for working the Institute. To 
these ends the Sub-Committee recommended the appoint- 
ment to the Board of 4 apjiointees of the Colonial (office 
with the consent of. and on behalf of, the (jovernments of 
the producing countries within the Umpire which would 
contribute the funds, and 2 members nominated by the 
Rubber Growers’ Association. The Sub-Committee recom- 
mended that of the former two should be conversant with 
the chemical and physical aspects of rubber science, an- 
other with the administialion of schemes of scientilic re- 
search and another of admitted business and administra- 
tion capacity and experience. 

E. Tliat for Propaganda, planning and management 
should be centralized in an International (iomniittee as 
follows; — 

( hairman appointed by the International Rubber Re- 
search Board, 

2 Nominees each of the Rubber Growers' Asvsociation and 
Netherlands Rubber Research Board, and 

1 nominee of the French Rubber Resi-arcli Board. 

Tliis Committee to be financed at the discretion of the 
International Rubber Research Board uji to one-fifth of the 
total Cess Income, and to be served by a full time propa- 
ganda oflicer directive over the whole International field. 

E, That tlie then current consuinj^tion-rescarch and 
propaganda activities being carried out by producers be 
absorbed and where pos.sibIe be integrated into the con- 
solidated programme of the new organizatioms with the 
merging of tlie finance. 

G. That in the event of tlie French interests not electing 
to create their own Unit but placing their funds under 
British administration corresponding representation should 
be made for them on the appropriate governing board. 


II. That the co-operation of manufacturers should be 
provided for by the appointment of an Advisory Com- 
mittee. 

It was found in Riving practiral clfcct to these 
recomniendations that cli'-eentralization was nec- 
essary for Propaganda, similar to that rt'corn- 
niended for Research. 

On the 26tli March 1955 the report of the Mc- 
1'adykan Sub-Committee was accepted by tlie 
International Rublier Regulation ('ommil tee and 
forwarded to the signatory governments with the 
recommendation to instituti' tin* proposi'd organ- 
ization 1st October, 1956. 

(9n 50th June, 1956, it was decided to send the 
report t* the Rubber (irowers’ Association in- 
viting aeceptanee: this was readily forlheoming 
during the next few months. 

By 26th January 1957, the C Io\'ernments of 
liriti.sh North Borneo, Ceylon, Malaya and 
Netherlands Fast Indies had undertaken to col- 
lect th(> cess “so long as the export of rubber was 
regulated,” the Government of India and l^iirma 
having agn-ed for tin* present period only. 

Meanwhile negotiations for a prolongation of 
the Inter-(7ov«‘rnmenlal Agreement 1954 ex- 
piring on 5 1st December 1958, had been under 
way and a revised agreement extending the period 
to 51st December 1945 was implemented. 

The Organization as Finally Set Up: Ihe 
scheme on p. 51 shows the organization as 
finally set up. The composition and sectional 
repri'Sentation in the \'arious units are given in 
Appendix (i). It .should be explained that the 
International Rubber Research Board was not 
tlu* centre of directive control but aeti'd as a co- 
ordinating clearing house to tht* International 
Rubber Regulation ('onimittet*. 

The Impact of the War: — The invasion of the 
Low ('ountru'S in June 1940 dismemben'd the 
organization and robbed it of its represi'iitativi* 
International character just as it was getting 
into its stride. By that date tlu* International 
b(.idies and all tin* relative units within the com- 
pass of the executive staffs then collected were 
fulfilling the duties assigned to them. 

The Int(“rnational Rubber R(*seareh Hoard 
and the International Rubber Propaganda ('om- 
niittee had met in France, Holland and hhigland, 
and the Directors of Research and officers re- 
sponsible for Propaganda had followed a .sc hedule 
of freciueiit meetings iti the three countries in 
rotation, as a result of which the activities cur- 
rent under the auspices of the Rublier Growers’ 
Association and the International Association, 
Holland, had been sifted and decisions come to as 
to continuity and develo[miciit. Nc'w projects 
and staffs neces.sary to handle ihi'iii had liec'U dis- 
cussed and co-ordinated programmes preserving 
necessary flexibility were lieing worked out. 
'Phe British Research Unit harl made plans for 
the erection of laboratories contiguous to new 
ones projected by the Research Association of 
British Rubber Manufacturers; the Netherlands 
Unit liad decided to rebuild and ri* i-quip in 
Amsterdam, and the P'reneh with the co-opera- 
tive help of her sister organizations had become 
installed in well-equipped laboratories in Paris. 

The consolidated programmes of re.search 
which had been built up gradually had enu'rged 
with a bias towards fundamental research, the 
British Unit having stressed this as being an in- 
dispensable preliminary to the likelihood of dis- 



51 


(’ooMHs: The International Rubber Regulation Committee 


National Governments 


j iCess collections instituted i Dct. tojO) 

International Rubber Regulation Committee 
(1) International Rubber Research Board 


Rksicarcu 


2) British Unit 

Hiitisli Riil)l)fr Rcst-arch Hoard (Constituted 8 April 
1937) 

Incorporated as The British Rubber Producers’ Re- 
seat eh Association (2 7 Jan. 1938) 

(3) Netherlands Unit 

Rubber lomiidation (Stiehling), Ainslerdaiu. (Incor- 
porated Oct. 1936) and includinK tlie Rubber I)e- 
partiueiU of the West Java I'ixperiment Station. 

( 1) French Unit 

InstitLit 1‘rain.ais du <'uoutchouc, Paris (Incorporated 
Oct. 1936), 


(Constituted 4 June iQjij) 

_ I 

PkoI’AOANDA 


(5) International Rubber Propaganda Committee 
(Constituted 27 June 193 7) 

(6) British Unit 

1 he Hriiish Rubber Publicity Association ((ionstilulcd 
Aptil, 1938) 

(7) Netherlands Unit 
As for research. 

(8) French Unit 
As for research. 


As to research (2) (3) and (4) integrate programmes and satisfy (1) as to o.-ordination, and as to prop- 
aganda (6), (7) an<l (8) integrate programmes and sati.sfy (5) as to co-ordination and (1) as to linance. 


i'n\a‘ring ( lin s to lart;c* scale tiiov uses and to tin* 
possil)ilitit*s ett niodilj’iny tht* raw product in- 
cludiiio the directions in whicli ct'rtaiii syntlictic 
materials wt-rc showing advantages and which 
contemporary dcvclo[)nu'nts in Germany of 
which tlu* N i‘l hcrlauds Lhiits had lirst haiul 
knowledge - had iiccentnatetl. In brief the 
programmes for 1940, which is the latest period for 
consolidated records, were those indicated in 
Appendix {Hi), 

1 os.iibilii ies of eontiniied collaboration with 
Holland and h ranee were susiiended from jnne 
GMO. In 1941, however, the Royal Netherlands 
Government setjuest rated the Rubber-.Stiehting, 
Amsterdam, then in oeeupii-d territory anil ri*- 
eonstituted it as the Nelherlands lndi(*s Rublier 
Research Institute, Huiteiizorg, absorbing tin* 
Rubbei 1 G'partmeiil ol the W est |a\a Kxperinient 
Station. Ihus the fabric' of British/Netherlands 
collaboration was preserxed. 4 his continued un- 
til Japan invaded Java. Fortunately a jiartial 
lireserx'aLion of the I ntc'rnational character of the 
.‘'Chenie was made possible l»y the elosi* contact 
wdiieh the Board of the British Research Unit has 
been able to maintain with the scientific oflieers 
of till* Royal Netherlands (ioxerimient in I.on- 
don, and by the attendance of an oliieer of tliat 
Government at the meetings of the liritish Board. 

1 h(“se events brought added responsibilities 
to the British Board, who, anticipating delay 
and rising costs of building, decided to rent and 
equij.) modern factory premi.ses readily eoinerti- 
ble to laboratories at Welwyn Garden ('ily, 
Herts. By tile end of 1941 they had eonipleled 
th(-ir (-(inipniiMit in its main es.sentials, had eon- 
solidati'd their research team, and concurrent 
with the pursuit of their own research programme 
had been aide to undertake special work of direct 
valiu* to the war effort. 

C oineideiit with the termination of the pi*riod 
to which this note relates, the cessation ol rubber 
supjdies from Malaya and the Neth<*rlands Ivast 
Indies resulted in an insistent drive in the U.S.A. 
for the uiass-produiTion of synthetic materials^ 
carrying with it the mobilization of possibly the 
greatest concentration of rc.seareh talent on any 


single problem in industrial science. W hat may 
emerge therefrom directly or indirectly in its 
ellect on the plantation industry remains to be 
Seen. I he British Unit aeei*pts its new responsi- 
bilities and is doing useful work in helping various 
(»overimient Defiartnients to deal with urgent 
servici* problems; it is howeV(*r also keeping in 
view (he time when the Plantation Rubber 
areas now und(*r Japanese domination will again 
lie treed, and when international eo-op(*rat ion 
can b(‘ resumed to Inrthei the work for which the 
Re.'-eareh organizations were established. 

Meiinwhile the list ol publications dealing 
with iundamental research imdi'rtaken l.iy the 
Britisli I nit, gi\en in Appi'iidix {ii) will serve 
to indii'ate (he range and scope of results at- 
tained to date till the fuller neords of their 
Netherlands and Fri'iu h colleagiu's are available. 

On the Propaganda side the British Ruldu-r 
Publicity .Association shortly after the outbreak 
of the war, and having released its senior e.xi'cu- 
tix'i* oHicer for active .ser\ ice, niowd to ( loydon 
in olliees proximate to thi* Research Association 
of British Rulibi'r Manufacturers, and took oxer 
a section of the “Fiupiiries" xvork connected xvith 
the substitution of materials renileiad unaxail- 
able in normal rnl)ber iiroeessing. 

1 he A^.sociation suljseijuently returned to 19 
Feiicluirch vStreet, and haxing secondi'd its re- 
maining executixi* oHicer to the Ministry of Sup- 
ply for rubber salxage work, is axvaiting more 
propitious times to resume its aetix ities. 

Finance; As nu'iitioued i^reviously, the 
funds xisualized as being necessary to place the 
consolidated seheine on a sound liasis xvere of 
such order as to meet axerage annual outgoings 

k'Blb,()()0 tor a perioii oj not less than 10 years. 

I ho agreement to implement cess collections 
on permissible cxpcjrts had incidence from 1st 
October 1956 and as from that date constituted 
part of the main instrument gox'erning the regu- 
lation ol production and export due to expire on 
51st December, 1958. d he lenexval of this in- 
strument to 51st December 1945 thus guaranteed 
(he proci'eds of cess collections for a pi*riod of 7 



Coombs: The International Rubber Regulation Committee 


52 


years and three months, and the scheme was 
launched on that basis with the safeguard that 
responsibility was placed on the International 
Rubber Research Board to advise the sub- 
scribing governments through the International 
Rubber Regulation Committee on the necessity 
to adjust the rate of cess in harmony with the re- 
quirements of the scheme. 

The International Rubber I^esearch Hoard had 
no fx:casion to seek such an adjustment since the 
financial position of the constituent organiza- 
tions was further strengthened by the receipt 
from the International Rubber Regulation ('om- 
mittee of substantial sums accruing to that body 
from French Indo-China under Article 6 of the 
Inter-governmental Agreement, and since, as 
evidenced in Appendix (iV), the average income 
from cess collections very closely approximated 
the target of £100,000 p.a. 

Under peacetime conditions accounts from the 
Netherlands and French organizations for the 
previous year would be presented to the Inter- 
national Rubber Research Board by the middle 
of the year. The invasion of the Netherlands 
and France in May and June 1940, precluded the 
receipt of accounts for 1939 and though cess col- 
lections in French Indo-Uhina and the Nether- 
lands East Indies no doubt continued until 
dates approaching occupation by the Japanese, 
namely 8th December, 1941 and 7th March 
1942, accurate information is not available. 
In the presentation of an overall statement it 
has therefore been necessary to compute data for 
French Indo-China and the Netherlands East 
Indies after 1938. The table shows that over the 
period 1st October 1936 to 31st December 1941 
(British Malaya was mx'upied 15th February 
1942) the British organizations received in the 
aggregate £556,500. — 80% to Research and 20% 
to Propaganda - and making allowances for 
computations the Netherlands and French or- 
ganizations had collected sums of tin* following 
order — £403,500 and £60,000. 

The funds entrusted to the British Research 
Board have been conserved to ensure continuity 
of the scheme within the present annual limits 
of expenditure, for a period of 10 years. The 
British Propaganda Unit has similarly conserved 
its funds. 

Summary: — In the foregoing a brief outline 
has been given of the reasons which led ponlucers 
of plantation rubber to consider the necessity of 
broadening the basis of consumption research 
and propaganda and how it became possible un- 
der the aegis of the “Inter-governmental Agree- 
ment to regulate the Production and Export of 
Rubber 1934” renewed in 1938, further to give 
effect to the spirit of co-operation which made 
that instrument possible to formulate and 
finance a comprehensive .scheme with a bias on 
fundamental research, on International lines. 

.Steps in the evolution of the scheme inv^olving 
the absorption of current dispersed activities of 
producers in the fields of consumption-n*search 
and propaganda and bringing them into a more 
comprehensive co-firdinated plan have been 
indicated. 

It has l)een related that the plan emerged as 
autf)nomous Briti.sh, Netherlands and French 
research and propaganda organizations working 
to a co-ordinated programme and presenting 
consolidated reports to the signatory Govern- 
ments of the 1934 Agreement. An indication of 
the range of activities then in course of evolution. 


as presented by programmes of work under way 
to the end of 1940 and by some of the research 
results already published, has been giv'en. 

Funtls which have been plact'd at the disposal 
of those responsible for administering the scheme 
have been shown to be of the order of I’ 1,000.000 
to the end of 1941 . 

While under normal conditions it would be far 
too early to attempt an apprai.sal of the success 
of the undertaking and while its dismemberment 
has .set the clock back considerably, the organiza- 
tion ma<le possible by the 1934 Agreement is 
capable of reconstruction after the war and 
thanks to the continuity of work conducted by 
the British Rubber Producers’ Research Associa- 
tion should then be able rapidly to make up 
leeway. 

Throughout the intervening period the British 
Unit will consider itself the trustee f(jr the C(j- 
operative organization set afoot and for its ob- 
jective to increase the industrial eminence of 
plantation rubber. Already the broad gaugt* 
of its work is attracting attention in the U..S.A. 
and members of its staff have established contacts 
with leading scientists there in their particular 
fields: liaison with the available Netherlands 
scientists is active and intimate despite the 
stress of the times, and valuable ground work is 
being covered. 

Appendix (i): The Constituent Units of the 
Organization: — 

International Rubber Research Board. — Elected 
by the British Rubber Research Board, after- 
wards legally constituted as The British Rubber 
Producers' Research Association: Mr. H. Eric 
Millkr, Sir Fr.xnk .St()CKI).\i.i:, and Mr. W. J. 
Gali.aghkk. 

Elected by the Netherlands Rubber Research 
Board, legally constituted as De Rubber-.Stichting, 
Amsterdam: Jonkheer Mr. W. J. dk Jongf,, Prof. 
Dr. L. P. i.E CosQUiNO dk Hussy, Prof. Dr. 
VAN Ithrson, Jr. with Dr. P. J. H. van Ginni;- 
KEN as alternate. 

Elected h\’ the French Rubber Research Board, 
constituted as Institut Francais du Caoutchouc, 
under the legally constituted parentage of the 
Union des Planteurs de Caoutchouc en Indochine: 
M. Philippe I.anglois, and Profess<jr I. oi ls 
Blaringhem. 

The Board elected Mr. 11. Eric .Miller and 
Jonkheer Mr. W. J. dp: Jonge: as (.'hairman and 
\'ice-('hairman respect ivel\', and appointed .Mr. 
(i. E. Coombs as .Secretary, with offices at 19 
Fenchurch .Street, London, E. C. 3. 

International Rubber Propaganda Committee. 
— Chairman of the Committee, appointed b\ the 
International Rubber Research Board; Mr. H. 
Eric Mili.er. 

Nominees of the Rubber (irowers’ Association 
(Incorporated): Mr. James Fairbairn, and Mr. 
F. E. Maguire. 

Nominees of the Netherlands Rubber Research 
Board (Rubber-.Stichting, Amsterdam): Jonk- 
heer Mr. W. J. DE Jonge, Dr. P. J. H. van Gin- 
NEKEN, with Prof. Dr. G. van Itkrson, Jr. as 
alternate. 

Nominee of the French Rubber Research 
Board (Institut Fran(;ais du Caoutchouc, Paris); 
M. P. Petithuguenin. 

Jonkheer Mr. W. J. de Jonge was elected 
Vice-Chairman and Mr. (i. E. Coombs was ap- 
pointed Secretary, with offices at 19 Fenchurch 
.Street, London, E. C. 3. 



( ooMBs: The International Rubber Regulation Committee 


53 


National Research Units: • 

British Rubber Research Board (1937), The 
British Rubber Producers’ Research Association 
(1938). Appointments by His Majesty's Secre- 
tary of Slate for the Colonies: Mr. H. Eric 
Millkr, Sir Frank Stockdalk, Professor VV. N. 
Haworth, and Professor E. K. Ridkal. 

The Board elected Mr. H. h>Ric Mh.lkr and 
Sir Frank .Stockdale as Chairman and Vice- 
Chairman respectively, and appointe<l Mr. 
(j. E. Coombs as Secretary, with offices at 19 
Fenchurch Street, London, E. C. 3. Mr. J. 
Wilson, M.C., M.Sc., was appointed Director 
of Research. 

Nominees of the Rublier Crowers’ Association 
(Incorporated): Mr. P. J. Burgess, and Mr. 
W. J. Callagher. 

Netherlands Rubber Research Board. Nomi- 
nees of His Excellency the Governor-tieneral of 
the Netherlands East Indies and representing: 
Raden Adipati Ario Soejono (Vice-President), 
and Prof. J. van C'»elueren. 

The Netherlands Organization for Applied 
Science Research: Prof. Dr. (i. van Iterson, Jr. 

The Colonial Institute: Prof. Dr. L. P. le 
COSQIJINO DE BuSSY. 

Nominees of International Rubber Associa- 
tion: Jonkheer Mr. W. J. pe JoNtiE (President), 
Mr. J. C. S. Kastei.eijn, Mr. P. van Leeuwen 
BooMKAMPand Mr. P. H. B. van Groin Sorters. 

The Board appointed Mr. W. R. Benz as 
Secretary, with offices at Heerengracht 182, 
Amsterdam. 

Dr. A. VAN Rosse.m was the Board’s first 
Director of Research: Dr. R. Houvvink was 
later appointed as Director General of Research 
and Propaganda. 

French Rubber Research Board. -Hon. Presi- 
dent: Professor JisAN Perkin. President: M. 
Philippe Langlois (alternate French Delegate 
to the I.R.R.C.). 

Representative of His Excellency (iovernor- 
General, Indo-China: M. H. Gouruon. 

Representatives of Union des Planteurs de 
Caoutchouc en Indochine: Monsieur P. Petit- 
HUGUENiN and Monsieur M. Bos. 

Representative of Syndicat des Planteurs de 
C aoutchouc de I’lndochine: Monsieur P. Blan- 
ch akd. 

Representative of Research Consultative Com- 
mittee: Professor CiL Dukfkaisse. 

The Board appointed Dr. L. Enderlin as 
•Secretary, with offices at 43 Boulevard Males- 
herbes, F'aris. 

National Propaganda Units: 

The British Rubber Publicity Association. - 
Nominees of the Rubber Growers’ Association 
(Incorporated) on the International Rubber 
Propaganda C'ommittee: Mr. Jame.s Fairbairn, 
and Mr. F. E. Maguire. 

Other Members: Mr. E. Jago, Mr. A. ('. 
.Matthew, and Mr. F. G. Smith. 

The Board elected Mr. James Fairbairn and 
Mr. F. E. Maguire as Chairman and \'ice- 
Chairman respect ivel>-. Mr. G. S. Cook was 
appointed Secretary, with offices at 19 Fenchurch 
Street, London, E. C. 3. 

Netherlands Propaganda Unit. - First Direc- 
tor: lug. J. CL P'oL. 

French Propaganda Unit. First Director: 
M. L. DE Mongeot. 

Appendix (ii): Interim Short Title List of 
Publications emanating from the Laboratories 


of the British Rubber Producers’ Research As- 
sociation, on work conducted to the end of 
1943 : 

"Ela.stic Recovery and Plastic Plow in Raw Rubber." 

"The Proteins of Hevea Brasiliensis.” 

"P'ractionation of Rubber." 

"The Molecular Weights of Rubber and Related Materials" 
- I. Experimental Method?. 

"The Molecular Weights of Rubber and Related Mate- 
rials" -II. Osmotic Pre.ssure and \'iscosity of .'dilutions 
of Raw Rubber. 

" Relation between Molecular Weights and Physical Proper- 
ties of Rubber Fractions." 

" Crystallisation Phenomena in Raw Rubber." 

"Analytical Methods in Rubber Chenii.stry" Part I. 

"The Kinetics of the Polymerisation of Isoprene on .Sodium 
Surfaces." 

"The Proteins of llevea Brasiliensis." 11. Analysis of a 
Product Isolated from Crepe Rubber. 

".Studies in the Sterol (iroup." XLIll. The I'nsaponifia- 
ble Portion of the Acetone Extract of Plantation Rubber. 

“.Analytical Methods in Rubber Chemistry." IV\ The 
Determination of Peroxidic Oxygen. 

"The Number of Configurations of a Co-operative As- 
sembly." 

"The Molecular Weights of Rubber and Related Materials." 
HI. A Correction of Part II; I\'. The Micellar Theory 
of the Structure of Rubber. 

"Rubber, Polyisoprencs, and Allied Compounds.” I. The 
Synthesis of Ia)w-Molecular Polyisoprencs of the Rubber 
and the S<iualene Type. 

"The Course of Autoxidati(>n Reactions in Polyisoprencs 
and Allied Compounds." I. The Structure and Reac- 
tive Tendencies of the Peroxides of Simple Olefins. 

"The Course of Autoxidation Reactions in Polyi.soprcne 5 
and Allied Compounds." 11. Hydroperoxidic .Structure 
and Chain Scission in Low-Molecular Polyisoprencs. 

"The Autoxidisability of the Alkyl Groups in Xylene." 

"The Interaction Between Rubber and Liquids." I. A 
Thermodynamical Study of the .System Rubber-Benzene. 

"The Caoutchol Component of Natural Rubber." A cor- 
rection. 

"Analytical Methods in Rubber Chemistry." V. Estima- 
tion of the Oxygen of Highly Autoxidised Rubber con- 
tained in Carboxyl. Ester, Carbonyl, Epoxide and 
Hydroxyl (iroups. 

"The Phosphatides of Hevea Bra.siliensis.” 

"Thermodynamic .Study of the Elastic Extension of 
Rubber." 

" The Interaction Between Rubber and Litjuids." II. The 
Thermodynamical Basis of the .Swelling and .Sfdution of 
Rubber;- - 

(i) -Methylenic Reactivity in Olefinic and Polyolefinic 
.Systems. 

(It) The Course and Mechanism of Autoxidation Reactions 
in Olefinic and Polyolefinic .Substances, including Rubber. 

(hi) Ionic and Radical Mechanisms in Olefinic Systems, 
with special reference t<» Processe.s of Double- Bond Dis- 
placement, Vulcanisation and Photogelling." 

" Rubber, Polyisoprencs, and .Allied Compounds." 11. The 
Molecule-linking Capacity of Free Radicals and its Bear- 
ing on the Mechanism of \'ulcanisalion and Photo- 
gelling Reaction.?. 

"The Interaction between Rubberand Liejuids." III. The 
.Swelling of Vulcani.sed Rubber in X’arious Licpiids. 

"The Crystal .Structure of -Isoprene .Sulphone." 

"The Elasticity of Network of Long-Chain Molecules. I." 

"The (-’ourse of Autoxidation Reactions in Pol> i.sojirenes 
and Allied Compounds." I\'. The Lsolation and Con- 
stitution of Photochemically-foriiied Methyl Oleate 
Peroxide. 

W Observations on E'ish-Oil Acids. 

"The ('ourse of Autoxidation Reactions in Polyisoprencs 
and .Allied ('oinjiounds. ’ \’l. ^The Peroxidation of 

Rubber. 

"The Vapour-Pressure Equations of .Solutions and the Os- 
motic Pressure of Rubber." 

"Characteristics of Wild Rubbers." 

"Why is Rubber E;iastic?" 

"Interaction between Rubberand Liquids." 1\’. Factor.? 
Governing the Absorption of Oil by Rubber. 

"Rubber. Polyisoprene.s. and .Allied ('ornpounds." IV. 
The Relative Tendencies towards Substitutive and Ad- 
ditive Reaction during ('hlorinati<in. 



Coombs: The International Rubber Regulation Committee 


54 


“The Course of Autoxidation Reactions in Polyisoprenes 
and Allieil Compounds.’’ HI. The Oxidation of Rubber 
in the Prosonce of Acetic Acid or Acetic Anhydride. 
“The Elasticity of a Network of l.oiiK-Chain Molecules, 
II.’’ 

“The Physical Chemistry of Rubber Solutions.’’ 

“Rubber, Polyisoprenes and Allied Compounds.’’ V. The 


Chemical Linking of Rubber and of other Olefins with 
Phenol-Formaldehyde Resins, 

“Tlie vStatistical Length of Paraffin Molecules.’’ 

“The Course of Autoxidation Reactions in Polyi.soprenes 
and Allied Comj)ounds.’’ I’art VTI. Rearrangement of 
Double Bonds during Autoxidation. 


Appendix {Hi): Research and Propaganda Programmes 1940 : — 




Netherlands 



British 


French 



Holland j West Java 


1. Research: — 


i 


Funiinmenlnl. 




Oxidation of rubber 

X 

1 


1 lydrogenat ion of rubber 

X 



Fundamental factors governing oil absorption . 

X 



The at('niic struct me of rubber 

X 



The factors governing the equilibrium state of solii- 




tions of rul)ber 1 

X 



The effect of light on rubber 

X 


X 

The non-rul)ber constituents of commercial rubber i 

X 



Polymerization 

X 

X 


Research on synthetic.s 

X 

X 


Vulcanization 


X ! 


Freezing raw and vulcanized rubber. . 

X 

X j 


Elasticity and plasticity 

X 

X 


Sound and vibration absorption 


X 1 


Swelling of rubber 


X 


The process of coagulation. . 



X 

Spectrography 



X 

Research on colloidal chemistry of latex 


X 


Applied. 

1 i 



I’o.silex 

i * 

: 


Latex tliickening and pastes 


X ' 


Rubber powders 


X ' 


Direct use of raw coagulum. 



X 

Attachment of rubber to metal 


X 


Heat sensitive latex 


X i 


Development, 




Commercial development of rubber resins... 

X 



Expanded chlorinated rubber . . 

X 



Rubber/resins moulding powders 

X 



2, Propaganda: — 




Agriculture 

• X 

! X 1 

X 

Building industry 

i ^ 

1 


Railways 

i X 



Roadways (rubbcr/asphalt). . , 


1 X 


Engineering 

1 ^ 



Noise abatetnent 

! X 

! X 

X 

Rubber in the home 

i X 


1 

Synthetic rubber (collection of data), ... 


X 


.School educational scheme 

X 

X 

X 

Military purt)oscs 



1 X 

Dissemination of research results 

X 

X 1 

X 

Propaganda in Belgium, .Scandinavia and Argentina.. , 


1 


Proijaganda in rubber in agriculture in America 

X 

! ! 



Appendix {iv): Income accrued to the End of 1941 (ex[)ressed in £ sterling): — 


Period 

Cess ('oli.ections 

French Indo-China: Art. 6 (ir 
Inter-governmental Ai.reement 

Briiish 

Neiher- 

I-AMJS 

Fhe.nth 

Total 

British 

Nether- 
lands 2 

French 

Total 

1.10. 19.16 









to 









31 12.1936 

11,000 

8.000 

1,500 

20,500 

43,000 

31,000 

2,500 

76,500 

193 7 

.s.s,.soo 

40,000 

4,000 

99,500 

62,000 

46,000 

4,500 

112,500 

1938 

39,000 

27..'iOO 

5,500 

72.000 

112,000 

84,000 

9,000 

205,000 

1939 

44,000 

31,000 I 

6,500 1 

81,500 1 

59,000 

42,000 1 

8,000 1 

109,000 1 

1940 

67,000 

48,000 » 

9,500 1 

124,500 1 





1941 

61,000 

46,000 1 

9,000 1 

119,000 I 






280,.SOO " 

200,500 > 

36,000 i“ 

517.0001 

~276.000^" 

~ 203d)()0 1 ' 

24.000‘r' 

503,000 1 


> Computed. 

* Paid to Rubber Crisis Centrale, Java: the organization for the collection of various cess collections levied in respect 
of N.E.I. Rubber. 



rilE WORK OF THE WESI' ,I\V V RESEARCH 
INSTI1TJTE EN RI'I TIONZORC 

hy 

ClI. C.OSTKR, Ph.D.* 

Dirrcfor, Kspcrinu-nl Sltilion Wrsl Jura, Ihiileiizoni: 

Jornurly, Chief Forester, and Director, Craduate Sehoot of Forestry, Madioen. 


I he W(?st-Java Researcli Instituti' is a private 
institution serving all the tea plantations of tin* 
Netlierlands Indies (138,000 ha3), cinchona cul- 
tivations to the extent of over 17,000 ha., and 
the rubber i)lantations of the western half of 
Java and South and West Sumatra (160,000 ha.). 

The work ()f the Institut(‘ embraces funda- 
mental botanical and chemical research and [)lant 
selection, besides special agricultural, technical, 
and f)hytopathoIogical studies of more or l(‘ss 
local problems, ami advisory work. I shall con- 
fine tnyself here to a consideration of the more 
KU'ueral and fundamental researclu's. 

Tea 

1. Botanual investij^ations. - Dr. Iz. dk IIaan 
has been engaged in a study of the anatomy of 
tlu‘ tea plant and published a first paper on the 
stem and leal in 1930 [1], Leav(*s from planta- 
tions at high altitudes are thicker and stronger 
than those Ironi low-lying plantations. 

Transpiration of tea shoots (bud and fourth 
leal) was particularly high in the morning [2], al- 
though the moisture-content of the h'af remained 
fairly comstant throughout the day. 'I'he stomata 
are open to the gn*atest extent in the morning 
hours, but close rajiidly with the fall in the rate 
of transpiration when the leaves are plucked. 
An average bud-and-fourth-Ieaf shoot w<‘ighing 
3.37 grams evaporated 1.5 gm. of water per hour 
m the morning. The temperature of leaves ex- 
posed to the sun was several clegrees abovt* the 
air-tem|)crature, but fell 1 to 2^' C. in the shade, 
owing to (waporat ion. 

D(‘ficiency symptoms in tea have been .studied 
by means of .sand and water cultun's [31. (Growth 
IS greatly retarded by nitrogen deficiency, the 
leaves are small and light yellow in colour, and 
dormant buds predominate so that few’ tU’W' 
leaves are fornual. .Sulphate deficiency also 
causes retardation of growth and yellowing of 
eaves, but the ratio of dormant to growing 
buds is normal (1 :1). With phosphate deficieiu'y 
the leaves are dark green to dull blue-green, 
whilst magnesium diTiciency causes a light- 
yellow coloration of the old leaves except for the 
parenchyma along the nerv’es, which remains 
green. Symptoms of calcium (h*ficit“ncy are 
most noticeable on half-grown leaves; the colour 
IS normal with light green at the leaf edges, and 
Cessation of grow th of the nerves causes the h'aves 
to bend. 

A .separate study of potash deficiency, which is 
widely distributed in West Jav’a and West 
.Sumatra, has appeared [4]. d'he leaves of the 
lower branches fall off, and the old leaves go 
d.ii k brown at the edges and die. Deficiency 
symptoms occur on seals with less than 0.007 
per cent, potash solulile in 25 per cent. H('l. 
iIk^ ash of potash-deficient (old) leaves usually 

/■ permission, from the Em[>. Journ. 

AKr. 10 (37);22-.R) (1942). 

* I hectare = 3.47 acres. 


contains le.ss than 10 per cent. K.D, as against 
20 per cent, in normal leav’es. Ilea\'y apiilica- 
(ions of sulphate of potash eliminale the de- 
ficiency symptoms and bring production up to 
normal. 

Vegetative reproduction of (<'a is of great ini- 
porlance for selection, and methods have been 
rievised with a view’ to securing rapiti multiplica- 
tion. 1 he usual method of budtiing requires 
bud-wood several years old. More rapid meth- 
ods include whip grafting [5] and proiiagation 
by cuttings [6, 7]. In whip grafting, a young, 
green scion shoot from w hich a strip of bark 2-3 
mm. wide has been removed is placi’d sidew’ays 
against a stock .stripped of a similar width of 
bark. Aftvr about 10 days the bark of the slock 
is ringed just above tin* graft. When the bud 
has swollen, the stock can be rcmioved above the 
graft; 80-90 percent, of such grafts are successful. 

Propagation by cuttings can also be \'ery suc- 
cessful if the light, temperature, and moisture 
relationships are canfully controlled in the .seed- 
bo.xes, which are cooled with running water. 
In'atment of cuttings, bc'forc setting out, with 
hortomono-A solution (1 :240) has had good re- 
sults, but heleroauxin, which was quite effective 
in 1939, was ineffect i\'e in 1940, probably ow'ing 
to deterioration of the product. 

1 land-pollination is a most valuable aid in 
selection work. In the field of floral biology the 
following observations have been made [8]. The 
period from flowering to ripening of fruit at 
Buitenzorg is about 8 months. rwenty-four 
hours after the bud has opened, tlu‘ corolla and 
stamens begin to fall off, and the proca^ss is ('om- 
pleted in 3 days. 'I'hi' presence of the corollas 
greatly encourages the visits of insects, .and their 
remowal liefore tin* flowar-lnids open practically 
prevents all pollination. The technifiue of cross- 
ing thiTefore consists in st'jiarating the corollas 
from the stamens before the buds optai, and in 
pollinating the stigma-lobes with (he pollen of the 
male jilant. ( losure ot the polliinited bud is 
unnecessary; by this means seed with a ger- 
minating jiower of about 15 p('r cent, has been 
obtained. 

2. Fclectiofi. Purpo.seful selection of tea in 
Java dates only from 1915. I'he early selections 
of types were done by eye, but a systian gradually 
developed of selection according to jiroductivity 
ba.sed on pluckings from indi\idual bushes. 
This .system has been perfected by W'ei l.E.NsiECK 
[9|. In all, about a million plants were jiKlgeil l)y 
eye, from which aliout 44,000 were selected .by 
individual pluckings. From the.s(‘, 2100 mother 
trees were finally selected from the majority of 
which clones were madi'. 

For determining individual production fiv(‘ or 
six te.st pluckings, wdiich in this case ari- made in 
one year, are sufficient. The recpiirtauents which 
must be satisfied by a mother tree are: a mini- 
mum yield of 50 gm. of moist leaf per plucking; 
production at least three times that of all the 



CosTi : r: The West Java Research Institute 


56 


original material, and a number of mother trees 
amounting to not more than 1 per cent, thereof; 
the desired type and a constant yield. 

In this way clones were selected with yields 
100 per cent, greater than those* obtained from 
ordinary nursery stock. A large scheme is in 
operation for the local testing of clones in repli- 
cated experimental plots. 

A number of artificial crossings between se- 
lected clones has recently been carried out; the 
seedlings therefrom will alst) be tested. It has 
already been clearly shown that the progeny 
of high-yielding clones produce more than ordi- 
nary seedlings. 

3. Chemistry of tea. - Dr. W. B. Dkijs has 
been studying the chemistry of tea and tea 
preparation for 5 years. 

rhe young green leaf used in preparing black 
tea contains in the dry matter 20-33 per cent, of 
tannins, of which 16 30 per cent, is insoluble in 
gelatine. The greater part of the tannins can 
be obtained only in an amorphous state, and 
consists largely of a gallic ester of catechin. 
There has also been separated 0- 1-0- 15 per cent, 
of crystalline tea-catechin, uf) to 0*3 per cent, of 
the gallic ester of tea-catechin, and 0*1 0*4 per 
cent, of gallo-catechin. The changes undergone 
by these tannins during the preparation of the 
tea have a great influence on the quality of the 
)roduct, particularly on the colour of the ill- 
usion. 

During withering the green leaf loses 20-30 
per cent, of water, and becomes supple and easily 
rolled. At the same time, starches are hydro- 
lysed, whilst proteins are more or less decom- 
{Kised and the activity of various oxidizing fer- 
ments, of which catalase and peroxidase are the 
most important, increases. During the first hour 
of fermentation the activity of the oxidizing 
ferments greatly decreases as a result of chemical 
reactions caused by the mixing of the leaf-juices, 
and the colour of the leaf turns brown. High 
temperatures also inactivate the ferments. Dry- 
ing fermented tea in vacuo at room-temperature 
increases the activity of those ferments which 
effect the oxidation of tannins. Loss of tannins 
occurs during rolling and the subsequent fer- 
mentation and drying; of the tannins remaining 
in the black tea, 40-50 per cent, are extracted 
in the infusion. 

4. Preparation of tea. The results of several 
extensive inquiries undertaken by different tea 
concerns from 1936 to 1941 have been collated 
and published [10, llj. Studies have also been 
made on the deleterious effect of prolonged 
withering on the quality of tea [12]; on the effect 
of elevation of plantation and factory on quality 
[13], showing that preparation in a factory at a 
high altitude was generally beneficial, whilst the 
leaf from a highly situated plantation was of 
appreciably better grade than lowland leaf; and 
on the grading of rolled leaf and the machinery 
used for it [14]. 

5. .Agricultural investigations. — 'I'he first 
pluckings after pruning, the different plucking 
methods, and the length of the plucking cycle 
have l)een the subjects of many experiments 
[15, 16], In a lowland plantation a lengthening 
of the plucking cycle from 3 4 to 10-11 days in- 
creased the amount of commercial leaf in a 
coarse plucking and reduced it in a fine plucking. 
'\ he duration of the plucking cycle will thus vary 
with the nature of the pluck. The quality of the 
product falls when the plucking cycle is pro- 
longed. 


Two papers on planting distances [17, 18] have 
.shown that production from a tea plantation is 
higher during the first 10 years the closer the 
planting. .Subsequently yields level out, but 
with heavy fertilizing closely planted gardens 
maintain their supremacy. Thinning of closely 
planted gardens according to the productivity of 
individual bushes is not generally practicable, 
and thinning by eye probably has little influence 
on total production, 

A number of fertilizer experiments with sul- 
phur, which greatly increast'd the acidity of the 
soil and the av^ailability of soil minerals, showed 
that sulphur appreciably increased the growth 
of the bushes and, in many cases, the production 
over several years [19]. Sulphur applications are 
particularly successful on young volcanic .soils 
with over 5. Liming, on the other hand, is 
harmful. 

A large number of fertilizer experiments has 
made possible a classification of West-Javan tea 
soils according to fertilizer requirement [20]. 
In general, orgatiic nitrogen (oil-cake) is less 
effectiv'e than inorganic. The normal optimal 
fertilizer application for fully grown tea gardens 
is 300-500 kg. of sulphate of ammonia and 100 kg, 
of double superphosphate per hectare per year 
(2*4 4*0 and 0-8 cwt. per acre, respectively). 

6. Plant-pathological investigations. — The most 
serious insect pest of tea in Java is Ilehpeltis, 
against which a very effective and economic 
counter-measure has been found in the dusting 
of gardens with derris pow'der [21J. ('anker of 
the branches is a common, but not invariable, 
result of the lesions made by llelopeltis in shoots 
and branches. 

On the mycological side much attention has 
been paid to various root-fungi, 'i'he red root- 
fungus Ganoderma pseudoferreum can be effec- 
tively controlled by isolating and digging up at- 
tacked bushes; the (let(*rmining factor here is 
the cost. No satisfactory control has been dis- 
covered for the black root-fungus {Rosellinia 
arcuata), which is po.ssibly di.sseminated by 
spores as well as by root-contact underground. 
Another red root-fungus Poria hypolatentia and 
'bitten-off ' di.sease, caused by a species of Pythi- 
um, have al.S(j been studied [22, 23]. 

Rubbkk 

Owing to lack of staff, publication of the re- 
sults of many rubber investigations is much in 
arrears and references to the literature cannot 
often be given. 

1. Botanical investigations. A series of in- 
vestigations has been made of deficiency symp- 
toms which are externally similar to those of tea. 
With phosphate deficiency, the* leaves are a 
darker green, with the older oiu's tint(*d brown - 
red, and stiffer than normal. Incomplete N-P 
and sulphate nutrition greatly checks growth 
in both length and thickness. 

Hevea seedling plants can be divided [24], The 
‘twins’ so obtained grow normally and display 
identical characteristics of growth and produc- 
tion, thus making it possible to carry out strictly 
comparable experiments. .Several such plants 
were budded with a certain clone, whilst the 
twin plants were grown as unbudded seedlings. 
Budded plants on high-yielding root-stocks gave 
considerably higher production than on low- 
yielding stocks (arranged according to the pro- 
ductivity of the twin plants). 

The mutual influence of stock or scion on the 
performance of the other has also been .shown 



57 


( ostkk: The West Java Research Institute 


in other ways, but the relationships between the 
two are still very complex. There is much di- 
verse evidence that self-budding has no effect on 
growth or yield. Attempts to propagate llevea 
by cuttings have usually failed. 

2. Selection. — .Selection of Hevea has doubled 
and trebled the yields of old estates. In the last 
10 years a definite 'ceiling' seems to have been 
reached. The clone Tjirandji I, which was put 
on the market in 1928, is still one of the highest 
yielders. 

Nevertheless a great deal of work has been 
done to improve other qualities, especially re- 
sistance to bark diseases, wind damage, &c. 
'Phe W est-Java Station performs 50,000 crossings 
between the best clones every year, with an 
average success of about 5 per cent. These 
.seedling families are te.sted for yield while at the 
same time they are .serving as material for further 
selection of superior mother trees. 

I'he .seedling families of good clones akso seem 
to he good yielders, although they have not 
reached the level of the highest-yielding cloru‘s. 
They are, however, as su.sceptible as the older 
clones to bark diseases and have other undesir- 
able qualities, and require just as much nurtur- 
ing. There are also possibilities of raising yields 
by seh'ction ot the seed-bed by the ‘testatex’ 
or othi'r method of determining th(“ flow' of latex, 
and subsequently in the growing plantation by 
selective* thinning on a yield basis. 

Since newly selected material needs local test- 
ing of its reaction to local factors, particularly 
climate, soil type, and altitude*, a large and in- 
creasing number of local trials have* been made. 
At the end of 1940 the West java Station had 
charge of .12 local trials and 3 experimental rub- 
ber plantations of about 300 hectares. 

An arrangement was made in 1940 with sta- 
tions in C'eylon, Malacca, and Sumatra for the 
e.\change of promi.sing new material so that a 
wider basis of selection could be secured. 

3. Chemistry. - A great many papers have* 
been published in the Archief voor de Rubber- 
l ultuur on the chemistry, physics, ami technology 
of rubber latex. Without referring specifically 
to these, it may be said that the main lines of 
research have been on the physical and chemical 
properties of latex and rubber, the bacteriology 
of the rotting process, possibilities of modifying 
the rubber molecule, technical applications of 
rubber, the conservation and creaming of latex, 
and the effect of different processes on the 
properties of rubber. 

4. Preparation of rubber. — In recent years 
there has been a noticeable development in 
smoking- and drying-sheds in the direction of 
‘tunnel’ sheds. By improv^ed insulation and air 
circulation the drying-time could be considerably 
shortened in many crepe drying-sheds. 

Recent research has shown that wet sheets 
can be completely smoked in a few hours and can 
afterwards be rapidly dried. In this way the 
total time of smoking and drying can be com- 
I)res.sed into two days. 

Packing rubber in three-ply boxes is costly and 
unneces.sary Methods have been developed 
for packing sheet rubber in gunny or in other 
sheets [25], but it remains to be seen whetln*r 
these ch(*ap and adequate methods are acceptable 
to the consumer. 

Rubber mould can be prevented by the use of 
disinfectants, especially paranitrophenol, but a 
better way is to keep the relative humidity of 


the atmosphere in the packing-s}n*d below* 70 
per cent. [26]. 

The question of coagulator assumes impor- 
tance in war-time. A bacteriological method of 
preparing acetic acid from latex st*rum and 
spirit has been worked out [27], and has been 
testetl by several concerns. Coagulation with 
sulphonated oil has also been shown to be feasible, 
ami the method is under investigation [28]. 

5. Agricultural investigations. -One of the 
most important problems is to raise the produc- 
tivity of old plantations up to modern standards. 
Prolonged experiments with the ‘two-cut’ tap 
(one made 60-80 cm. above the other) and with 
the ‘high’ tap (with a second cut at 2-3 metres 
height) indicate that yield-increases of 20-40 
per cent, can thereby be obtained for .several 
years |29]. Another method of increasing pro- 
duction, at any rate in places where labour is 
abundant, is to reduce the tappings from, say, 
320 to 160 trees, so that tapping can be com- 
pleted in the early morning. The more careful 
work that is thus jwssibk* al.so helps to increa.se 
yields. 

A test of different tapping sy.stems that has 
gom* on continuously for 15 years has giv'en the 
following results [30]. The yields from the more 
inten.sive .system (.S/2, d/2, 100%)^ were about 
15 p(*r cent, higher than from the lighter systems 
(.S/3, d/2, 67%).* Period tappings for 20-30 
days gave yi<*l(i increases of 7 per cent, and 4 per 
cent, over tappings on alternate days. Brown- 
bast attacks havT been highest with the intensive* 
tapping systems, but it has bt*en found that l)y 
halving the length of the cut attacked trees can 
be* maintaineel in regular prexiuction. 

A large number of fertilizer trials has shown 
that on certain soil types a complete NPK 
fertilizer gives e*xcellent results, on other types 
only NP is effective, and on yet othe*r (rich) soils 
no fertilizer re.si3onse is obtained. On stiff, im- 
permeable soils the construction of blind drains, 
which are filled with loppings from the vegeta- 
tion, have appreciably increased yields over con- 
siderable periods. 

The Research Station has evolved a system of 
spacing and thinning budded plantations, 
whereby at first 400-500 tr(*(*s are maintained 
per hectare, and a thorough and rapid thinning 
is made at the end of the fifth year so that by 
the eighth year the number of trees is reduced to 
abour 270 j)er hectare. This number is then 
gradually reduced to 180. Large numbers of 
stems in the early years give higher yields, but 
bark renovation is less .satisfactory. 

Since rubber is planted in the Netherlands 
Indies up to an altituth* of 700 metres, it is in- 
teresting to compare its behaviour in the plains 
and in the elevated plantations [31]. Growth of 
the same clones umier similar soil and climatic 
conditions was slower at 515 metres than at 250 
metres altitude. I'he criterion of tapability 
(45 cm. girth at ^2 ni(*tres ht ight) was also 
rt'ached 2 years later, and susceptibility to 
brown bast was greater, at the higher altitude. 
Production, how'cwr, was about tht* same. 

A comparative test of topping at 3 5 metres 
height young rubber trees that had not formed 
side branches showed that topping first increases, 
but subsequently reduces, density of growth. 

6. Plant-pathological investigations. - Root- 

i. f. a half-spiral cut tapped every otiier day. 

•'/'.**. a third-s|)iral rut tapped every otlier day at 67 per 
cent, of (he intensity of the standard S/2, d/2 sy.stem. 



Coster: The West Java Research Institute 


58 


fungi are the chief pests of rul)l>er plantations. 
The white root-fungus Fomes lignosus occurs 
everywhere in young, and also in older, planta- 
tions. In young plantations where the roots of 
separate trees do not touch, control l)y removal 
of affected trees is elTective, but in old plantations 
the root-necks of neighbouring trees must be ex- 
posed. ('areful removal of root-residues in clear- 
ings is necessary, as isolated roots can continue to 
live in the ground for several years. 1 he fun- 
gus spreads more rapidly through clean-weeded 
ground than under a cov(‘r of Centrosema piibes- 
cens. 

Tlie red root-fungus Ganoderma pscudoferrenm 
occurs in the heavier soils and attacks older trees. 
The infection comes mostly from Alhizzia fakata, 
which greatly favours the spreading of this fun- 
gus. Exposure of the root-ne('ks gives elba tiv'e 
control. 

Cinchona 

The results of cinchona investigations are 
circulated only to interested parties, and there- 
fore no tiU'ralure references are give/?. 

i. Botanical investijiations. - Monthly anal- 
yses of hark have shown that th(‘ quinine- 
content undergoes periodical lJuctuations durinfr 
the year. In a 16-years' study, an increase in (lie 
quinine-content of clones was ob.ser\’ed in the 
early years, but in unmanured plantations a de- 
cline S(‘t in about the fifth to seventh year and 
persisted with irregular variations. Manuring, 
however, maintained the quinine-content or 
reduced the rate of decline. Dilferent clones 
behaved differently. 

'File (juinirK'-content of the bark from the same 
seedling variety or clone varies according to the 
soil ami environmental conditions. A high con- 
tent is found where vertical growth is stunted. 

In these areas llelap(dtis attacks are common, 
which further restrict growth and increase the 
quinine-content. 

The quinine-content of the underground bark 
of the S'uccirubra stock of the graft depends on 
that of the overground bark. 'I'he contimt of 
the root-liark is 1158 times that of tin* over- 
ground bark raised to the power 0-46. 

2. .Selection. — Sek-ction of cinchona was 
begun shortly after its introduction into Java by 
selection of mother trees with high quinine- 
content. rile original low content of quinine 
has been rai.sed to 12-15 per cent., and some 
clones an- known with 17 or 18 per cent. ITo- 
ductive capacity has Ix'en doiililed or trebled. 

d'he basis of selection is not only the quinine- 
content of the bark, but also the yield of quinine, 
which is influenced by tlu* thickness and water- 
content (jf the bark and tlu? growth of tlu* tree. 
Resistance to di.seases and pests is also taken into 
consideration. 

Artilicial pollination of clones has been very 
succe.ssful. Cinchona is heterostyle, so that 
only long-styled clones or varieties can 1«‘ 
crossed with short-styk'd. The valuable varieties 
thus produced give promise of high yields in 
plantations, besides forming the basis of further 
selection. A few nurseries have l/een planted 
with the desired combination of clones. 

3. Chemistry. - A method has been devised 
for determining the (piinine-content of small 
(2 gm.) samples of bark. 'I'he micro-chemical 
detection of bark alkaloids in living tissue has 
been studied, but without definite results. 

When bark is dried at too high a temperature. 


a partial decomposition of the alkaloids occurs. 
A method is being devised for determining the 
loss by decomposition on drying. 

The coarser pieces of bark have been found to 
contain more quinine than docs powMery ma- 
terial; conse/iuently samples for analysis must be 
v'ery carefully prepared. 

4. Agricultural invest! tiations. — During re- 
cent years a method has been worked out in con- 
junction with the Forest I'xperiment Station for 
estimating the stock of bark and quinine in a 
plantation. 'Fhe Forest Station constructed 
locality, class and yield tables, such as are com- 
monly used in forestry, for various clones and 
varieties. These w'ere supplemented by tables of 
quinine-content of bark, according to clone, age, 
and the manurial condition of the land. Fhis 
w'ork is not yet comideted. 

A few te.sts of spaeing and thinning have in- 
dicated that closely spaced plantations give the 
highest yields, but there is a wide range in the 
optimal density of plants. 

Analy.ses of neighbouring patches of .soil of 
varyi/ig productivity showed that the productive 
soils were characterized almost without excep- 
tion by a hi^di content of organic matter, high 
nitrogen, and low carbon-nitrogen ratio. They 
also usually had more citric-soluble pho.sphate, 
more lime, and a higher hydrolytic acidity than 
the le.ss productive .soils. 

5. Flant-pathological investigations. — Cinchona 
is susceptible to many disea.se.s. Attacks of 
Rhizoctonia solani, which can be controlled with 
‘.superol,’ occur in .seed-beds, and striped canker 
causi'd by a Phytophthora is wide.spread. I'he 
black root-fungus Roscllinici circuata is also com- 
mon. 'Fhe most serious insect pests are Ilelo- 
peltis and Pachypeltis, which can be controlled 
in young jilantations by powdering with derris 
preparations. 'Fhere are several harmful cater- 
pillars, but it is found that in serious attacks 
these are usually parasitized and the attacks 
come to an end without control measures btang 
taken. 

Reffremes: — 

(Note. .\.R. = Arclu'ef voor de Riibbercultuur. .A.T. = 
.\tcbicf vuor do Thcecultuur. ICC. - Dc Ber>;ciilturi-s.) 

1. Iz. i)K IIaan, Do analoniisclio boiiw van de lluTi>lant. 

I. StcHKcl cn blail. A.T. p. .318. 

2. De physi'ilonic van waternfuific van dc thcclool. 

A.T. 19.38, p. 71. 

3. (iobroksvcrscliijnsolen bij thee voroDrzaakl door 

o«‘n lokort aan do bolan>^ri)ksto itiiiK'ralo voodinn.^^Htoffon 
mot uit/.ondcrinM: van kalium, A.T. 1941, ji. 1, 

4. - - and .V. b'. .Sr iioOKKL, Kaligobrok in do tboecultuur. 

A.T. 1940. p. 4.5. 

5. J. 11. VAN KmijKN, ICon nieuwo onlmothodo voor tliee. 
A.T. 1940. p. 16. 

6. - - • and Iz. DR Haan, Voorloopigo mededooling inzako 
bet stokkon van thoo. A. T. 1939, p. 75. 

7. J. II. VAN Emdkn, Medodceling inzakc hot stokken van 
thoo. 11. A.T. 1941, I). 33. 

8. ,S. J. VVellensikk. 13ioeml)iologic cn kruisingslcchnick 
bij thoo. A.T. 1938, p. 127. 

9. Ondorzookingon over riuanlitatiovo tliooselcctic. 

IV: Mocdcrhoomscicclic. A.T. 19.38, p. 2. 

10. 11. A. Leniokk, ICmiuolc rollon on natsnrtatio 1937 van 
hot Proofstalion Wost-Java. .\.T. 19.38, p. 226. 

11. ■ Kmiuote fermentatio I0.l8. A.T. 1939, p. 248. 

12. Do invlood van oon langdnrigo vortlonsing op de 

kwalitoit van do thoo. A.T. i938, p. 141. 

1.3. Hijdrago tot do konnis van don invlood van do 

hoogtoligging van oen thooaanplant on do hoogtoligging 
van oon thoofahriok op do kwalitiot van dc thoo. A.T, 
1939, p. 117, 

14. Hot sorlooron van gorold, nat thcoblad. A,T. 

1938, p. 253. 

15. Til. Cr. 1C lloEDT, P. M. H. II. Trili witZ and A. F. 
StiiooKEi., Bosproking van eonige plukproevon op 
ondornoniingon on in de [iroofluinen van hot proef.station 
VVost-Java. A.T. 1938. p. 148. 

16. A. E’. SciiuoKEL, riukproblenien in de theecultuur. B.C. 

15e. jaurg. p. 2, 



Dammkkman: A History of the Treub Laboratory 


17. Til. G. E. IIOEDT and A. F. Schoorel. Plantvprband vn 
uitdunning in de theecuUuur. A.T. 19.^8, p. 310. 

18 . A. Pfaltzer, Verdc'regcgevensvandeplantwijdteprocf 

op Pasir Junghuhn. A.T. 1940. p. 118. 

19. A. F. Schoorel and J. C. van Schoonnevelpt. Gege- 
vcns over enkele zwavcl- en kalklMMueslingsprof-ven in 
den produceerendcn thecaanplant. A.T. 1939, p. 145. 

20. A. F. Schoorel, Kcsullaten van beineslingsprneven in 
dc thcecultuur. Voordrarht gehouden on de vore 
W.J.L.V. dd. 15 Maarl 1941. U.C. 1941, j). 518. 

21 . Iz. DE Haan, Hclopellisbcstrijding in dc thecciillunr 
door niiddcl van dcniHprci)araten. A.T. 1939. p. lOl 

22. A. F. Schoorel and K. B. Bolpijn, De steeiiroode 
wortelscliiniinel {I'oria hy point erilia). A.T. 1939, ]>. 19. 

23. A. Pfaltzer, Een vooilooiiigc mededceling over de z g* 

‘Bilten-olf disease,' ecu ziekle bij theekweckplantcMi' 
B.C. No. 43, 1940, p. 1304. \ ^ 


24. Til D. E. IIoedt, Hevcatweelingen als plantmateriaal 
voor de Firaklijk. B.C. 1938, p. 782. 

80 Lenk.er, Verpakking van rubber. B.C. 1940, p. 

26. - — Het gedurende langen lijd bewaren van rubber. 
II. B.C. No. 4, 1940, p. 102. 

27. L. N. vS. llo.MANS, Bereiding van verdund azijnzuur uit 
spiritus. B.C. 1940, p. 676. 

28. ( ,. b:. VAN (bi s. Nieuwe coaguleerniiddelen voor latex. 
B.(-. 1941. p. 42. 

29. J. C. VAN SCHOONNEVELDT, Tapproeven met twee sneden 
l)ij oculatics. A.R. 1941, No. 3. 

30. (i. An. IIeuhel, Kesultaten verkregen met vijf verscbil- 
Icnde tapsystemen. A.R. 1940, p. 571. 

31. M. J. Dijkman and J. S. Voli.ema, Resultaten van een 
hooggelegen lieveadoonentoelstuin. A.R. 1940, p. 557. 


A 1I1ST()R\ jOK TJIh: VI.Sl'POBS' J.ABOBVrOUV (“TBIdiB 
bABOBA'IOBIliM") Oh’ 'I'liK lUH AMC OABDIiNS, 
BUITIvAZOHti, J881 1931 

kv 

K. \\ . Damaiebman, Ph.L).* 

/y(//c Director, (torf. DoUimc (Umlcns, limfenzonj, sometime 
Head, /ooto'.iieat Museum, Huitenzonj 


In November 1934 it was cxaclly Hfty y(*ar.s 
ago that the h'ort'igners’ lalxualoty of the Cion-- 
ernment Botanical (jardims at Buitciizorg was 
founded. Tliis day was not celeliralcd iii any 
festive manner, owing to the fact (hat under 
str(*ss of circumstances the laboratory has no 
permanent h’ader just now and had at (he tim<‘ 
no foreigners working there. Vet I (hink we 
cannot allow this date to pass unnoticed, if it 
W(‘rc only to honour the man who brought aliout 
the e.xistence of the laboratory and thus created 
one of the most valuable di‘partments of (he 
Botanical (iardens, an institute that has greatly 
contributed to enhance thi; glory of (he Buiten- 
zorg scientific centre even far abroad. 

It is (herelore not without reason th.at in tin* 
report of the Botanical (.'.ardens for 1884 
IkI'I'b fiegan the chajiter about the bot<uiic;d 
station with the remark that this new paragraph 
was likely henceforth to rank among the most 
important items in his reports. At the sanu' 
time the hope was expn'ssicl that the visits of 
foieign scientists might not only sca ve to uphold 
the glory ol llu' Botanical (kirdens Imt that 
through them the “Annales du Jardin Bota- 
niciue ’ might be enriched with inijiortant con- 
trilmtions aliout in\'e,stigalions made' or started 
at Buitenzorg. d'hese expectations may cer- 
tainly be said to have beiai fulfdled. 

On November 14, 1884 the buildings of the 
Military Medical Service at Buitenzorg (situated 
between the curator's house and tlu‘ jHcsent 
Zoological Museum) wer<‘ handed o\’er to the 
Botanical dardensand the former hospit.d-room 
was made into a botanical station. 'I'his ol<| sta- 
tion is thi‘ building situated on the West of the 
square now surrounded by the buildings of the 
Laboratory for Chemical Investigation. The 
founding of the station w.as made known by 
means of a circular, written in l-'rench, in which 
the great importance of “studying on the spot” 
and the further ad\antages offered by the Bo- 
tanical (kirdens W(>re pointed out. On January 10, 

* Itppnntcd from llip author's "Ttir Duiti(|iiagrnary of 
(lie Foreigners' Laboratory at Buitenzorg. 1884 -1934 " 
Aytn. (hi Jardin Hot. Buitenz. 45:1 54 (1935). 


1885 (he laboratory was oiiened to visitors. 

rims the first botanical station in the tropics 
was founded. It was precuninent ly meant for 
use l)y foreign botanists, who wanted to work in 
the Botanical Gardens. In the al)o\e-mentioned 
rejiort d'KHcn states, moreov<‘r, that it might be 
reasonalily exjiected that the lu'wly-founded 
laboratory will attract visitors, since the Botani- 
cal (jardens ofler an opportunity for botanic’al 
study in practically every respect. 

Beloit' that date one single foreign scientist, 
biraf zi' vS(.)1.ms-Lai H.\( H, v isited the Botanical 
(•ardens in 1883 84 in order to make certain in- 
vestigations. llis (h'seription of the Gardens and 
his advice to others to visit Buitenzorg have 
certainly contributed to the fact that soon after- 
wards many others follow<‘d his exampU'.' 

In the very first year after the foundation no 
less than five students ma<l(' use ol this new 
“workshop,’’ although in the old room there 
weri' only lour tables available. Of tlu'se five 
two were Dutch and thrc'e foreigners. 'I'he 
Dutchnu'ii wt're Dr. S. II. Kookoiiks of the 
Netherlands Indian Forest Service, who was the 
very first worker to find a plact' in the new lab- 
oratory; the otln'r w.as Prof, J. F. Eijkman, 
lormer professor ol chemistry and ph.irmacology 
at the Fniversity ol Tokyo. FiJK.vi.VN, who after 
a nine years’ stay in Japan was on his way back 
to Europ(', visiteil Netherlands India and in the 
Bot.aiiical Gardens carried out iihytochemical 
investigations.^ No doubt his visit has been the 
first impulse to the foundation of the Pharma- 
cological Idioratory of the Botanical Garden.s, 
vvhicli took place In 1888. Of the thri'e foreigiu'rs 
who in this first year worked at the station we 
mention in the first place Prof. K. VON (4oEBLL, 
at the time professor of botany at the Fniversity 
ol Kostock. 'I'his well-known botanist, who had 
primarily intended to make his investigations in 
(k'ylon, changi'd his pirns when he heard of the 
foundation of (he Buitenzorg .station and pre- 
ferred to come to Java. Of tin* two othc'r foreign- 

‘ Botanisclio Zeitung. Jg. 42. 1884. 

’ J. F. Eijkman. Ecu bezuekaan 'h Lands I’lantentuin te 
Buitenzorg; 's-(travenhagc. 1887. 



Dammerman: A History of the Treub Laboratory 


60 


crs, both Russians, one was a botanist, the other 
a zoologist. 

It is obvious that from the very beginning this 
botanical station rightly deserved the name of 
“foreigners’ laboratory’’ and also, that from the 
beginning not only botanists but also zoologists 
and chemists were among its visitors. From the 
first a laboratory-register was made, in which 
every visitor wrote a short entry concerning the 
duration of his stay, together with the principal 
subjects studied by him. 

In order to enable also Dutch botanists to 
profit by th(‘ existence of this laboratory and the 
other institutes at Buitenzorg Trei B managed 
to raise, during his stay in Holland, a fund that 
was to pay for regular trips of botanists to Buiten- 
zorg. By means of this “ Buitenzorg founda- 
tion’’ ^ together with a yearly subsidy from the 
Government the possibility has been created to 
send a botanist to Buitenzorg every two years. 
As it was at that date regretted that two years 
were to elapse before the first Dutch botanist 
was to go and work at the Buitenzorg station a 
sum of / 2400. — was collected privately to enable 
one to start for Buitenzorg immediately. Thus 
Dr. J. G. Boerlage, conservator of the National 
Herbarium at Leyden, could accompany Treub 
on his voyage back to Java, in 1888, as the first 
visitor on behalf of the Buitenzorg foundation. < 

Through Treub’s untiring attempts means 
were found also in many other countries to send 
investiptors to Buitenzorg regularly in the course 
of the following years. One of the first countries 
w’hich showed activity was Germany and from 
this country a great numl)er of sci(*ntists have 
until this day visited Netherlands India, so that 
among the numerous visitors of the Foreigners’ 
laboratory the (iermans take a foremost place, 
not only as to number but also as to the scientific 
fame of those who visited Buitenzorg. Other 
countries followed suit; as a rule it was either 
the Government or the National Academy of 
Sciences that more or less r(‘gularly jjrovided 
the means for such a voyap* and stay in the 
tropics. Germany was soon followed by Austria, 
Russia, Belgium and Switzerland. 

I'he (ireat W ar has put a stop to this, as it has 
done to many another ideal or spiritual thing, 
and the ensuing economical downward progress 
has prevented many countries from continuing 
what they had started so enthusiastically. 

In 1890 an important extension t(x)k place by 
the foundation of a botanical laboratory by the 
side of the botanical station, which laboratory 
was to investigate the conditions of life, anatomy, 
and diseases of tropical economic plants. The 
two institute's were placed under one he'ad, as a 
department of the Botanical Gardens, named 
“Botanical laboratories.’’ Thus a chief of the 
Foreigners’ laboratory was appc)interl and the 
first to take office as such was Dr. j. M. Janse, 
who subsecpiently became professor of botany 
at the University of Leyden, 


’ For further particulars see the Report of the Govern- 
ment Botanical Gardens for 1888. 

‘ Altoxether there have been sent out for the Buitenzorg 
oundation until 19.54 besides Dr. Bokrlagi': 21 Dutch 
students, viz . F. A. F. ('. VVknt (1890), J. C. Costerus 
(1892), E. Gii.iAY (1895), F. ('. PMTc;t,K (1897). A. 11. 
Schmidt (1898), S. L. .Schouten (1901). J. (\ Schoute 
(190J), A. A. Folle (1906), Fh. van Harreveld (1907), 
J. Kuyper (1910), A. H. Blaauw (1911), Mej. J. Wester- 
DijK (1913), Mej. C. Sluiter (1915). Mej. H. C. C. la 
RivifeRE (7919), II. Boschma (1920), Th. .Stomps (1923), 
O. POSTHUMOS (1925). B. M. Danser (1925), (i. L. Funke 
( 1927), Mej, B. Folak (1930), Mej. A. Kleinhoonte (1932). 


The next year was not less important in tht* 
history of the Botanical Gardens. After the 
reservation of a large stretch of primeval forest 
situated above the mountain-garden of Tjibodas, 
in 1889, that garden also obtained a botanical 
station in 1891, where the flora and fauna of the 
adjoining forest could be studied. The station 
contained both working and sleeping accommo- 
dations for a small number of visitors. 

In the next few years the new Botanical lab- 
oratory occupied itself practically exclusively 
with the investigation of plant-ilisc-ases whereas 
the investigation of more particular problems was 
left to the many foreign visitors who came to 
work at Buitenzorg or Tjibodas. To what ex- 
tent this study of the diseases of economic plants 
predominated is i)roved by the fact that the said 
laboratory is often mentioned under the name' of 
Fhytopathological laboratory, as e.g. in the report 
on the organization of the Botanical Gardens in 
1898 by Treub (Bulletin No. 1 de I’lnstitut 
Botanique de Buitenzorg). 

It is selfevident that during tin* first period 
the Foreigners’ laboratory was still rather primi- 
tive; only in the year when the new Botanical 
laboratory was opened were the buildings pro- 
vided with gas which was generated from petrol 
in a private plant. Some years were to elapse 
before waterpipes were laid (1893), the water 
being supplied from cisterns in wdiich rainwater 
was collected. The old gas plant stood on the 
spot where later on the new Treub laboratory 
was to arise, and after gasworks had been con- 
structed at Buitenzorg (1902) it was removed to 
Tjibodas, where it ceased to function after the 
building of the new laboratory there. 

If one considers th(‘ unfavourable circum- 
stances under which the first scientists had to 
work in the tropics, as compared with the many 
comforts and the superior equipment of present- 
day laboratories, one can but admire the work 
that was done in those days. 

In 1891 the Foreigners’ laboratory was en- 
larged wdth one room for making plant-physi- 
ological experiments in the dark, while at the 
same time, owing to the* (‘ver greater use made 
of photography as a means of investigation, a 
dark room was furnished for the exclusive use of 
the visitors. 

The number of visitors increased steadily and 
in 1890 amounted to 12. It is evident that four 
tables were insufficient for so many workers, 
hence they had often to be accommodatt'd else- 
where. During the first ten years of its existence 
the Buitenzorg station was visited by 46 people. 
Of these the greatest number were (x'rmans, 
sixteen in all. There were 14 Dutch and the others 
were representatives of practically all European 
nations, Austrians, Russians, Englishmen, orn* 
Belgian, one Dane and one Swede, an interna- 
tional party indeed. 

The lack of room was imi)roved when by means 
of rebuilding the laboratory a fifth and later on a 
sixth place could be addt-d to the four already 
existing and when in 1896 a new building was 
made, which became the seat of the Botanical 
laboratory, three more tables were here put at 
the disposal of foreign scholars, whereas one more 
separate room was reserved for scientists that 
came for special investigations in the Botanical 
Gardens. The Botanical laboratory that for- 
merly, together with the office of the Gardens, 
had been housed in a part of the former hospital, 
was now established in the east-wing of the build- 


61 


Dammerman: A History of the Treub Laboratory 


ing that had been put in its place and which, 
later on, was occupied by the Analytical lab- 
oratory. 

Still more accommodation for foreign workers 
was obtained when the new Zoological Museum 
was built in 1901. There a room with three 
working-tables was reserved as a laboratory for 
foreign zoologists, who until then had been put 
up in the Botanical station. 

The last zoologist still to enjoy the hospitality 
of the Botanical station was Ernst Haeckel 
from Jena, who also witnessed the institution of 
a priv'ate laboratory for foreign zoologists. This 
fact gave rise to his writing in the guest book of 
the Foreigners’ laboratory the following words: 
“Das neue Zoologische Laboratorium, dessen 
Mauern ich jetzt aus dem Boden wachsen sehe, 
wird dann auch den Zoologen eine ebenso 
giinstige und unschatzbare Gelegenheit zu ana- 
tomischen und physiologischen, ontogenetischen 
und phylogenetischen Forschungcn bieten, wie 
bis jetzt das Botanische Laboratorium der wis- 
senschaftlichen Pflanzenkunde die grdssten Dien- 
ste geleistet hat. Indem ich Herrn Professor 
I'recr den dankbarsten Erfolg fur seine aufop- 
fernde 'Liitigkeit auch in dieser Beziehung 
wiinsche und ihm fiir seine freundliche und 
zuvorkommcnde Unterstiitzung nochmals den 
herziichsten Dank ausspreche, hoffe ich dass das 
Biologische Institut von Buitenzorg noch fiir 
lange Zeit das beste Central Institut fiir das 
Studium der Tropennatur l)leiben und von Eu- 
ropiiischen Naturforschern imrner fleissiger be- 
sucht werden wird.” 

It is a pity that this wish has not been fulfilled, 
for when later on, in 1912, the museum had to 
be eidarged as there was lack of room, the pri- 
vate laboratory for foreign zoologists was again 
abolished. Yet in this period from 1901-1911 
no less than 23 zoologists, taxonomists included, 
have made use of the Zoological laboratory. It 
is to be regretted that the existence of a separate 
zoological laboratory could not be maintained 
and that no attempts have ever been made to 
stimulate its more independent existence under 
a separate* leader as has bc'en the case with the 
Botanical station. 

In the Pharmacological laboratory (later 
Phytochemical laboratory) foreigners have also 
repeatedly worked. The first to make investiga- 
tions especially in this laboratory was Prof. 
P. C. Plcgge, from Groningen, who died only a 
few weeks after his arrival at Buitenzorg in 1897. 

The years that record the greatest number of 
visitors were 1898 and 1899, when a great many 
scientists stayed at Buitenzorg. It was once 
more an international party that worked here 
in 1898: Dr. Nyman from Cpsala, Prof. Molisch 
from Prague, some Germans, Dutch and Swiss, 
among which latter were Prof. ('. Schroter from 
Zurich, Dr. Racthorski from the Experimental 
Station at Tegal, Prof. Biro from Budapest and 
two Russians. Among the Dutch there was also 
a medical colleague, Dr. A. W. Nieuwenhius, the 
well-known Borneo explorer, who at Buitenzorg 
made an investigation on a skin disease caused 
by a fungus. There were not only botanists but 
also chemists and zoologists, the investigations 
were idant-physiological, biological and chemical, 
whereas embryological, anatomical and taxo- 
nomic studies were made of plantsand animals. It 
must have been a great satisfaction for Treub, 
the founder of the station, to witness how his 
call had been answered and how various and 


divergent scientific problems were tackled by 
such an international congregation of learned 
men. .So he could rightly testify in the Report 
of the Botanical (iardens over 1897 that this 
institute had become ‘‘an international scientific 
station whose fame was ev*er inert'asing in conse- 
quence of the continuous visits of foreign 
scholars.” 

While we have seen how in 1901 a centre was 
created for zoological investigations, it soon ap- 
peared that there was also need of a marine 
station, where visitors of the Botanical Gartlens 
might find an opportunity for observations and 
studies in loco. 

The marine station that (from 1884-1891) 
existed at Batavia in the Iniilding of the Royal 
.Science Society, and that had offered this op- 
portunity, albeit on a small scale, to several 
Dutch and foreign scholars, had ceased to exist 
since its founder and leader, Dr. C. Ph. .Sluiter, 
had left for Amsterdam, where he was appointed 
professor of zoology. 

So there were made attempts in Holland to 
collect money for the erection of a small station 
at the seaside for the study of marine fauna. 
In 1904 /2500. had been brought together for 
this purpose. At the same time the necessity of 
a laboratory near the sea had been proved with 
a view to the interests of tlu* fisheries. These 
two plans were then combined and in 1905 th(* 
Fisheries Laboratory arose in Batavia, which 
also offered accommodation for foreign zoologists. 

After the departure of Dr. Janse in 1899, 
who, w^hen in Holland, was appointed professor 
of botany at Leyden, there ensued a period of 
some lack of continuity as to the leadership of 
the department of ‘‘Botanical laboratories.” 
Dr. j. VAN Breda de Haan was in the following 
year appointed to succeed Dr. Janse. He had 
been chief of the Laboratory for the investigation 
of Deli Tobacco, and in 1905. when he was made 
chief of the Rice Experimental Station, he again 
passed on his task at the laboratory to Dr. C'h. 
Bernard. Again Bernard had to resign office 
when, at the end of 1907, he was made chief oi 
the Tea Experimental Station. His successor. 
Dr. 11. P. Kuyeer, was exjiected to be the right 
man for the task awaiting him. However, as 
early as January 1909 he dii*d and was succei'ded 
by Dr. P. J. .S. Lramer, botanist at the ('offee- 
culture laboratory, lowards the end of the same 
year Dr. Cramer also left Netherlands India, 
to go to Suriname for a pi-riod of three years as 
Director of Agriculture. 

Only after the leave of Dr. C ramer, whose 
place was taken by Dr. ( . J. J. van Hall, some 
stability came again in (lu* leadership of the 
Botanical laboratories. At the same time, how- 
ever, the real Botanical laboratory was .segregated 
and its work w'as officially confined to the study 
of plant-diseasr*s, which had practically been the 
case from the very beginning. For the care of 
the Foreigners’ laboratory and the assistance 
given to the foreigners in their investigations 
was hardly to be combined with a thorough 
study of plant -diseases, for the purpose of which 
one has often to be absent from Buitenzorg for 
some length of time in order to make local studies. 

So the Foreigners’ laboratory and the lab- 
oratory at Tjibodas were now put together under 
one head, and in 1910 Dr. F. C'. von Faber, 
former botani.st at the above mentioned lab- 
oratory for Coffee culture, was appointed to this 
position. At the same time this reformed de- 



Oa.mmI'Rman; A History of the Treub Laboratory 


62 


partniont of “Botanical laboratories’’ was 
char^etl with the task of general anatomical, 
physiological and biological investigation of tin; 
tropical flora. 

With Dr. VON FAni:R a new period of con- 
tinuity in the leadership of the Foreigners’ lab- 
oratory was initiated. And now that the head 
was no longer concerned with ])lant disease's, more 
time could be devoted to general botanical in- 
vestigation, for which there was very good rea- 
son, since this re'Search-work .should not be left 
merely to occasional foreign visitors. Indeeil, 
for the leading of the laboratory and enlightening 
of foreign investigators it is highly tlesirable that 
at th(‘ head of the Botanical laboratories there 
should be a man of some wider knowledge, who 
is familiar with the different biological probhmis 
that may occur in the tropics. 

As mentioned above, fornu'r investigations at 
the Botanical laboratory had mostly been con- 
cerning plant-diseases. Only Dr. Bi-knakd, 
during the short period when he was at the head 
of the institute, had also occupi(‘d himself with 
purely botanical subjects. As such we may 
mention his studies about saproi)hytes, frt'sh- 
water algae, the physiology of latex-producing 
plants and some Javanese phalloids. 

Only after the appointment of Dr. von Faui.r, 
and when a separate <lepartment h^r plant pathol- 
ogy had been institutc'd, lould the new task of tlu' 
Botanical laboratories be fidly attended to. 
Von Fahi;r has indeed interested himself in 
various subjects and many problems have* beetj 
tackled by him. We may more particularly 
mention here:- symlnosis of st'veral tropical 
plants with bacteria that live in hereditary com- 
munity with the higher plants; about iridescent 
bodies in the cells of red algae; an investigation 
concerning the movements of JUopliytum and 
Miniosa-, the i)hysiology of the tropical fort'st; 
the physiology and biology of mangrove plants 
and crater plants, espc'cially those of the solfa- 
tara’s. 

Although it seemed that with the appointment 
of a separate head non-taxonomic botanical in- 
vestigation at tin- laboratory was to enter a 
periotl of prosperity, the (ireat War put a sudden 
stop to the co-oi)eratH)n of foreign investigators, 
for not only during the war but for a long time 
afterwards this was wanting. In May 1914, just 
before the outbreak of the war the new laboratory 
intended for investigators from elsewhere could 
yet l)e festively initiated. For the erection of 
this laboratory the “('ommittee for homage to 
Treub,’’ which had been formed in 1911 in order 
to do hoiujr to tin* memory of I'ri'.ub, had col- 
lected f 17,000. This lal)oratory was therefore 
named “Treub laboratory,” in honour of the 
man who had not only been the moving power 
in facilitating the visits of botanists, but who 
had always untiringly continued his attcMUjits to 
draw hither more and mort! students from all 
countries. 'The solemn inaugurati«)n of the build- 
ing took place, in the presence of the (lovernor 
General, l)y the then Director of the Botanical 
Gardens, Dr. j. (’. KoNiNCsm-Kcii R, who in a 
speech entitled “ Horrea replenda” |)ointed out 
how this lalioratory, meant for scientific research- 
work, was to serve in constantly adding to our 
knowledge of tropical jilant-life. 

I'he centenary of the Botanical Gardens oc- 
curred during the Great War, in May 1917. 
Circumstances did not allow then to celebrate 
this memorable fact except for the publication of a 


simple Memorial volume. Vi‘t a committee was 
formed for the olb'iing of a token of homage. 
'I'his committee collected / 23, 000. — ■ for the pur- 
po.se of building a modern laboratory in the 
mountain-garden at 'Fjibodas, as a worthy 
counterpart of the 'freub laboratory at Buiten- 
zorg. Only after the war, in August 1920, could 
this new lalioratory la* opened, and thus physi- 
ological work connected with the study ot moun- 
tain flora could lx* pursued to bi*tter advantage. 

When the new Talxiralory for the Investiga- 
tion of the Sea was built at Batavia, tlx re was 
also arranged for a special room with three tables 
for the accommodation of foreign studi*nts. Dr. 
Th. Mortknskn from C'openhagen was the first 
foreign guest of the new laboratory on his return 
from the Kei islands with the Danish expi-dition 
in 1922. 1 le was engaged in the study of artiffi ial 
fertilization of different (‘chinoderms. 

During Dr. Von Fahi:r’s absence on leava* to 
Europe ('ii. Costkr of the Netherlands Indies 
Forest .Service was put in charge of the Botanic.d 
laboratories of the Gardens. During this time, 
March 192.S to June 1926, he studi.-d the follow- 
ing subjc'cts;- jH-rkxlical llowering, esiiecially ot 
Dendrohium irumcnatum\ annual rings and 
physiology of the secondary growth; diurnal 
fluctuations of the longitudinal growth of plants; 
and some minor investigations. 

The post-war years were hardly projiitious for 
lasting revival of scientific work, evi'ii in 1918 
not a single foreigner pursued his studies in the 
Botanical Gardens. Only in 1927 and 1928 some 
new life sprang up in 1928 there worked as 
many as 7 peoph* in the rreiib laiioratiiry — and 
1929, the year of the 4th Pacific Scii'iice ('ongri*ss, 
held in Java, was even a “top year” in many 
respei'ts, but then the relapsi* was the greater in 
the following live years. Economising measures 
cut deep. Aftt-r Dr. von Faukr’s leaving in 
1930 Dr. F. W. Went, botanist attaclurd to the 
Director of tlu* Botanical Gardens' lalioratory, 
took over the leadership of the laboratory, and 
when he went to America at the end of 1932 
Dr. II. J. Lam, botanist at the Herbarium of 
Buiti'iizorg, was appointed. When after only six 
months the latter also h'ft and w'eiit to Holland, 
to become Director ot the National Herbarium 
at Leyden, further-reaching economy caused the 
position of i:hief ot the Treub lalxiratory to be 
abolished. 

Thus it is that the end of this short historical 
survey of the Foreign(‘rs’ laboratory shows no 
cheerful features, but still we must not lose 
hope, but live on in the expectation that bi'fore 
long this lalxiratory may again have a leader of 
its own and that the gri'at importance of this 
institute, even though its program is not a 
practical one, may be recognized. For a very 
great part of the fame that the Botanical Gar- 
dens enjoy all over the world is based on the fact 
that such a splendid oiiportunity exists here 
for foreign invi'stigators to come and study. 
More than 250 visitors stayed here during the last 
fifty years for some length of time and all of them 
have had part in building up the name not only 
of the scientific institutes at Buitenzorg but also 
of Netherlands India. 

It should therefore la* remembered what 
'rREUH has written, by way of introduction, in 
the guest book of the h'ort'igners’ laboratory, viz. 
that the gardens at Buitenzorg offer several ad- 
vantages to foreign botanists, but that this on 
the other hand enjoins an oldigation to further 



6 .^ 


r)AM\fKRMAN: A History of the Treub Laboratory 


their investigations l)y all means possible. 

And has not 1). G. FaihchjM) on his visit in 
1896 written in this same guest book the fol- 
lowing words:- “I feel deeply indebted for the 
privilege granted me of spending <‘ight months 
in the most complete and best equipped of 


Botanical (/ardens in the world. I say this only 
after visiting over thirty-five of the best -known 
gardens in Europe and the Ivast. 

I look iorward to the time when they shall l)e- 
come the great intmnational centrum for liio 
logical investigation in the tropics ..." 


LIST OK SCIENTISTS WHO WORKED IN THE EOREIONICRS' LABORATORY 
at Buitetizorg between 1884 and 1934, with sonic notes about their rcsearclies^ 


1883—1884 

For the sake of completeness the first scienti.st who 
studied at the Botanical Gardens of Buitenzorg before the 
opening of the Foreigners’ laboratory is also recorded:- 

H. (rKAK zu SoLMS IvAUBACii. professor of botany at Gbt- 
tingen, who paid a visit to Java from October 1883 until 
March 1884. He made several provi.sional researches and 
collected a considerable amount of material for later studies. 
He made a.o. a study of the suViterranean adventitious 
buds of Psilolutn triquetrum and described .some new fungi. 

1885—1886 

S. H. Koorders of the Netherlands Indian Forest 
Service visited the Botanical Gardens from January until 
March 1885 in order to get an insight of the Malay tree 
species. Moreover, he investigated the develoimient of 
the germ and the structure of the seed of the teak tree 
(Teclona grandis) at different stadia. 

Dr. A. Korotnefk from Moscow was the first zoologist 
who occupied a place in the laboratory for some time 
between May and August 1885. He studied mainly the 
nervous system of terrestrial I’lanaria. the fresh-water fauna 
and the anatomy of a peculiar species of whip-scorpion 
{Thelyphonus sp.). 

Dr. N. Douurowine from Moscow stayed for two 
tuonths between May and September 1885. In the first 
place he wished to make a general survey of the Nether- 
lands Indian lloru by means of the Buitetizorg Garden be- 
fore making an e.vpedition through the Archipelago. In the 
second place he intended to bring together collections for 
the Botanical Museum of Moscow. 

J. F. Eijkman, formerly [iroie.ssor of chemistry and 
pharmacology at the University of Tokyo, occupied hitii.self 
during liis stay from October 1885 until February 1886 with 
preliminary researches of iilants which are of interest from 
a phytochcinical iioinl of view. The alcaloid content of a 
great number of [ilants was studied, wliereas non-alcaloidsor 
substances not yet specilied were e.xtracted from Briuea, 
Samadfra, Nuuelea, Melia, Sariocephalus, Cratneva, 
fera etc. An intere.sting colouring substance was found in 
Orophea chrysocarpa and Cyathocalyx sumalrana, a similar 
peculiar sub.stance and a strongly lliiorescent matter in 
Cargalia maritima and Diaspyros sapota. The existence of 
fluorescent substances was also proceed in the barks of most 
of the Aurantiaccae and Solatiaceae. most jirominent in 
those of Aegle marmelos and Solandra gnindijlora. From 
the leaves of Chavka Belle an essential oil which has the 
same taste and odour as that of the leaves was .separated. 
Furthermore the fat-content and the melting-point of some 
fat samples were ascertained, a.o. of I’alaquium jaranteum. 
Guantilative determinations of cocain were made from 
Erylhroxylon coea cultivated in Java and other Ilrythroxylon 
species occurring in the Garden. Moreover, he made 
microscopic .sections of plants of pharmacognostic import- 
ance, especially those which produce balsam, resin, tannin 
or es.sential oils. 

Dr. K. VON (tI)KBKL, at tliat lime i)rofessor of botany at 
the University of Rostock, stayed at Buitenzorg from 
November 1885 until March 1886 making mor|)hological 
and biological researches with plants. The leaf formation 
and devcloi)tncnt of gemmae of epiphytic liverworts was 
studied, especially of some new forms of Tjibodas and envi- 
ronments. The development of the prothallium of the Hy- 
inenophyllaceae and other fern species was investigated and 
the formation of the sporophylls of II rlminthostachys and 
the ferns generally; the heteroi)hylly of Bolypodititn; the 
anatomy of Marattiaceae, Nephrolepis and other ferns. 

• Only the scientists engaged in laboratory researches are 
mentioned, those who made purely taxonomic studies at the 
Herbarium or Zoological Museum are omitted. 


Further researches were made into the morjihology of the 
llowers of tropical ( yperaccae and Gramineae; the devxlop- 
ment of the flower of Ltmuoeharis-, tlie development of the 
seed and embryo of Crinum-, morjihology of the Utriculariac 
and the development of the inlloresccnce of Javanese Urtica- 
ceae. 

Dr, O. WARBi Rf, trom Hamburg studied from January 
until December 1886 esiiecially the plant families in which 
lianas occur and made anatomical, laological and morpho- 
logical investigations thereupon in connection with some 
physiological ptoblems. More particularly anatomical 
work was done on the formation of the wood and the struc- 
ture of the root. Investigations of a more biological kind 
concerned the dilYerent ways of a<iaiitalion of the climbing 
of the lianas, their dispersal, combination and presumable 
origin in the different families, their ctirrclations and the 
phenomena of reduction; the distribution of the lianas 
generally and of special families i)articularly. Morphologi- 
cal problems studied were among others;- the setjuence of 
short and long branches, the morphological significance of 
climbing organs, the formation of wings etc. Furthermore 
some physiological experiments were made upon the move- 
ment of sap, the irritability of twining branches and the 
swinging movement of tendrils. Also researches were made 
upon the structure of the wood of species related to lianas; 
upon the buttresses of stems and roots; aerial roots of stems 
and branches; the development of the buds of ( aesalpinia- 
ceae and Guttiferae; diseases of Uinchona and cauliflory. 

Dr. H. Mavr, professoral the “ Forstakademie" of Mtln- 
chen, stayed only a short tinre during 1886 at Buitenzorg. 
On his return voyage from America and Japan for the 
imrpose of studying the forest vegetation of those countries, 
he used his short slay to make an herbariunr collection of 
economic plants. 

Dr. J, VAN EiaKiv, a surgeon of the Netherlands Indian 
army, occupied himself from October until December 1886 
witli bacteriological investigations of beri-beti and cul- 
tured two cocci found in tissues and body fluids of corpses as 
well as of living persons. Infection exiierimetits with these 
cocci w«'re made in the beri-beii hospital. 

1888—1889 

Dr. 11. B. (ii’i'PY, an English naturalist, visited the 
Botanical (iardetis in 1888 and a number of seeds of shore 
plants collected by him on the Cocos-Keeling islands and 
tloated for a considerable time on seawater were sown out 
in the tiarden. Many of them germinated i)roving how 
I mg some species can staiitl this exi>crinient . 

Dr. J. G. Boeklaok, curator rtf tlic Leyden Herbarium, 
was the first student who was sent out by the Dutch Buiten- 
zorg fund. He left Holland togetlier witlr Tri:i n, alter the 
latter's leave, arriving at Buitenzorg in April 1888, tor a stay 
of about four months. .\s before bis arrival be liad already 
begun a work dealing with the plant goriora of Netherlands 
India he used the oirirortunity given by the Bulaniea 
Gardens to study these genera in loco and to trace t lie char- 
acters by which they are distinct. In tire environment of 
Buitenzorg the wild species of plants were eolleeted witli the 
intention to publish lists of these plants. During his stay 
at Tjibodas chielly the mountain Hora was made a subject 
of study and a rich collection of rare plant forms was made. 

Mrs. A. \Vi' iu;r-van Bosse for .some weeks between the 
months of July and September 1 888 made an investigation of 
parasitic algae wdiich are found in the mountain garden at 
Tjibodas, chiefly Myeoidea parusitieti occurring on leaves 
and of some aerial algae of the genus Treutepohlia. On a trip 
to Garoet Mrs. Weber made a colleciion of algae, mainly 
those which are found in the hot siirings at Tclaga bodas. 

Dr. Max Weber, professor of zoology at the municipal 
University of Amsterdam, also made use of the laboratory 
for about two months. During his stay he made a study 



Dammi rmain: A History of the Treub Laboratory 


64 


of tlie anatomy and the life-history of / emnocephala. an 
aberrant Treinatod found on Telphusii, and the anatomy of 
fishes with accessory resi)iratory organs. Further represen- 
tatives of different groups of animals were collected with a 
fiiunistic purpose and more especially the fresh-water fauna 
was studied. 

Dr. -A. TseniKtH, " Do/ent ” at (lie University of Berlin, 
iM-cnpivd himself from November 1SH8 until February 
1889 witli studies on the anatomy and the development of 
the glands of many plant families; the occurrence of re.sin 
in plants with and without glands; the occurrence of secre- 
tions in fruits and seeds during the development and the 
germination. He investigated also the morphology and 
physiology c>f the germination of tropical seeds; development 
of the fruit and seed of .Stryihnos and some species of 
Myri.slica; the anatomy of some useful and medicinal plants. 

Prof. E. Sei.knka from Erlangen investigated in the 
laboratory the embryology of ajies, shrews and some rep- 
tiles from April until July 1889. 

1889—1890 

Dr. U. K.\rstkn from Rostock during his long stay from 
November 1888 until March 1890 .studied the tropical 
vegetation in the Buitenzorg (iarden. In the laboratory 
researches were made chiefly upon the development, 
morphology and biology of aerial algae of the genera ChrooU- 
Pux and PhycopfUi^, and the embryology and taxonomy of 
the genus Gnetum. Further studies were made of the dis- 
tribution, development, morphology and biology of the 
rhizophores and the plants associated with them. .Also ex- 
periments were made upon the purpose and signirtcance of 
aerial roots and cultivations to study the aiipearance of 
these roots in seedlings. Moreover, the root formations, 
which do not .serve nutritive purposes, were investigated, 
riiey occur in many monocotyledons (especially Pandana- 
ct'ae and Palmae) and in some dicotyledons at the stem or 
root system. 

Prof. Dr. \\ . S( iiiMPKR from Bonn made the following 
investigations during his stay in Java frotn October 1889 
until March 1890;- .Structure and life-history of beach vege- 
tation; for these studies trips were made to Priok, Tjilin- 
ijing, the Island of Leiden and the '* Duizend-eilanden,” the 
rhizophore regions of Pasuruan and Probolinggo, the dunes 
of Wodjo at the south coast of Java, the coastal forests of 
Nusa Keinbangan and the rhizophore regions along the 
" K-inderzee. ' 

He studied the alpine flora of Java from a biological and 
plant-geographical standpoint, taking into account the 
<orresi)onding vegetation of the solfataras and the lava 
fields of the Guntur, To study the alpine flora in loco the 
Pangerango and Gede, the Tjikorai, the Tengger and the 
.Ardjuna mountains wereclimbed. AI.so the solfataras of the 
Salak. Telaga bodas and Kawah manuk and the craters of 
the Tangkuban Pralm, Guntur and Papandajan were 
visited. 

Moreover, different aspects of tropical plant-life were 
.studied; the development of buds and the mode of ramitica- 
liun. 

Prof. Dr. E. .Siaiil from Jena, during the four and a half 
months (November 1889— March 1890) he spent in the 
Botanical (/ardens at Buitenzorg, wanted [irimarily to get 
an insight into the flora of the tropics. More particularly 
tile biology of the shade-plants (luminous plants, aniso- 
phylly) were investigated; the flowing off of the rain-water 
from the leaves; protective colours among plants and the 
biological .significance of variation movements. 

Dr. .A. .SiRt'BEiJ. from Frankfort a/M. made use of the 
Botanical laboratory from April 1889 until February 1890. 

I he purpose of his journey to Netherlands India was to get 
an insight into the animal world of the tropics, special at- 
tention being paid to the various conditions of life of the 
animals. For more extensive studies of a biological and 
geographical nature numerous data were collected on habi- 
tat, food, mode and time of propagation, care of the brood, 
influence of heat, draught etc., with reference to terrestrial 
as well as to fresh water animals. Further material was ob- 
tained for the following researches:- embryology, anatomy 
and life-history of Ihelyphottus; embryology of different 
Laceriilia; taxonomy, anatomy and life-history of terrestrial 
Planaria of West Java; structure and life-history of some 
lielminthes; the mollusc fauna of the environments of Uui- 
terizorg and embryology of Manis javanicii. 


Dr. G. Lapterhac H from Breslau, on his way to tierman 
New Guinea to make a botanical exploration, spent some 
ten days in January 1890 in Buitenzorg for a provisional 
orientation. A.s he returned from New Guinea on account 
of ill-health he had to give up his original plan to occupy 
again a table in the laboratory for some months and was 
obliged to go back to Europe. 

Dr. H. Dkiesi jt and Dr. ('. Hkrhsi from Jena made use 
of the laboratory for ten days only during January 1890 to 
get a provisional ac<iuaintance with some faunistic problems. 

Dr. F. A. F. ('. Wen I from the Hague worked in the Bo- 
tanical laboratory at Buitenzorg from March until July 1890, 
being rovided with a grant from the Dutch Buitenzorg 
fund. Various botanical trips were made with the aim to get 
a proper idea of the peculiarities of the tropical vegetation 
and to get aciiuainted with different tropical cultures. Mure 
particularly the following problems were investigated in the 
laboratory or materials collected for future researches in 
Holland:- the physiology and biology of the adhesive roots 
of epiphytes and climbing plants; the shedding of branches 
by Caslillva elastica and some other trees and the closing of 
the wounds made thereby; the extrafloral nectaria and their 
development in the species of the genus Fagram-, the aecid- 
ium galls of Albizzia monlami. 

.\. Brewer from Halle a/S. occupied himself during some 
five weeks in the months of August and September 1890 
with a provisional study of the structure and the diseases of 
the sugar-cane. 

Dr. J. F. VAN Bkmmelkn from Amsterdam intended to 
stmly, during the months of July and .August 1890, the em- 
bryology of tortoises, either of a fresh-water or of a terres- 
trial species. P'orwantof material this investigation yielded 
no results but at the south coast of Java a complete series of 
einbryological stadia of Cheloniu viridis was obtained, .Also 
embryos of different snakes and lizards were collected. 
Furthermore, the development of the wings of Fapiliu aga- 
memnon and Htmbyx Itifenestrala was investigated. 

S. H. KooRDERSof the Netherlands Indian Forest Service 
concluded bis researches begun in 188.S on the embryology 
of the teak tree [Teclomi grnndis), during the months of 
November and December 1890. 

J. Z. Kanneoieter from Amsterdam made use of the 
laboratory in January and February 1890 and later on from 
October 1890 until April 1891 to arrange his zoological col- 
lections made in Sumatra and Java. 

1891—1892 

Brof. Dr. W. Tichomirow, Russian Councillor of State 
and professor at the I ’niver.sity of Moscow, stayed at Buiten- 
zorg for several weeks in 1891. He was charged by his 
government to report on the tropical botanical institutions 
visited by him and in conseiiuence of Ins report the Russian 
Government gave evidence of its appreciation of the Buiten- 
zorg Botanical Gardens. 

Dr. Tti. Vai.eton, bacteriologist of the Experiment Sta- 
tion for sugar-cane at Pasuruan, visited Buitenzorg in March 
1891 for some weeks with the purpose of following the bac- 
teriological re.searches of the sugar-cane made by Dr. Janse, 
then ( bief of the Botanical laboratories. 

Dr. Cahi. W. S. Aurivii.i.ius from Upsala stayed at 
Buitenzorg during the months of May and August 1891 to 
collect fresh-water animals (especially crustaceans and mol- 
luscs) as well as insects. 

Arthur Ward from Oxford occupied himself from Nov- 
ember 1891 until January 1892 mainly with a study of the 
morjihology and anatomy of representatives of various 
typical tropical plant families. 

Prof. G. Hahkreandi, profe.ssor of botany at the Univer- 
sity of Graz, studied during his stay at Buitenzorg from 
November 1891 until February 1892 chiefly the following 
problems:- anatomical and physiological researches of tropi- 
cal leaves; in addition to a series of experiments about 
evaporation, the structure and function of the water absorb- 
ing and secreting organs of the leaves in different plant 
families was investigated. Furlber he made experiments on 
the adaptive phenomena of epiphytic plants; observations 
about the anatomy and development of some mangrove 
plants; the stimulative movement and transmission of the 
stimulation in Oxalis sensitiva. 

Dr. J. t'osTERUS from Amsterdam, having the oppor- 
tunity to visit the Botanical station by a grant from the 



65 


Dammkkman: A History of thelTreub Laboratory 


Buitenzorg fund, investigated during his stay from Febru- 
ary until June 1892 the structure of the flowers of GVam- 
ntntophyllum speciostim, tlie lowest part of the inflorescence 
of which shows always the same div'ergence. He also made 
studies on the mode of germination of the seeds of differ- 
ent tropical plants, and the quantity of organic matter 
which accumulates during the daytime in the leaves and 
disappears during the night; the times of the day in which 
tlie maximum of assimilation jiroducts is attained in differ- 
ent plants and the influence of cloudiness on this process. 

Prof. F. KamiiiNSKI from Odessa worked in the Botanical 
station for more than one month (May — ^June 1892), 
studying mainly the morphology of U tricularia species. 

Prof. Kkasnow from ('harkow returning to Russia 
from a journey to Sachalin and Japan, where he had made 
plant-geographic:il studies, stayed at Buitenzorg about four 
weeks in October and November 1892 to investigate the 
tropical flora and the genera which the tropics and the 
temperate zones have in common. 

Thanks to the jihotographic room attached to the labora- 
tory ho returned to his country with a collection of photo- 
graphs of the most characteristic forms of tropical nature 
and of the natural plant groups, descriptions of which only 
give a very feeble image. 

[1892—1893 

Dr. R. Skmon, professor at Jena, arrived at Buitenzorg 
in the month of November 1892 on his home-voyage from 
.\ustralia. New (Ininea etc. and set about the collecting of 
animals for anatomical and embryological researches 
{Mauis, Tupaja and Lacertilia;. 

In March 189,1 Prof. Si;mon was again in Buitenzorg for 
a short time upon hi.s return from Ambon before going back 
to Germany. In Buitenzorg and Tjibodas he made chiefly 
faunistic and embryological sttidies. In connection with his 
voyage and stay in the Moluccas he recommended some 
localities for further marine zoological investigations, such 
as Ternate, Batjan and Lontor, es[)ecially during tlie Fast 
monsoon (May — <.)ctober). 

Ur. P. Ankma from Batavia, during the month of June 
189.1, started mictdchemical investigations of the localisation 
of the alcaloids in the Strychnos -species represented in the 
garden. He planned to continue these researches later 
especially with reference to the aiti)earance of the alcaloid 
during growtli. 

Prof. W. KLuKiiNiiiAL from Jena on his way to Ternate 
stayed at the Botanical station a few weeks in November 
and 13eceniber 189.1 and spent his time mainly in collecting 
different animal species. 

1893—1894 

Prof. Ur. I/. VON (j-gAKF from Graz made a study of the 
terrestrial Planaria from November 189J until January 1894 
in connection with a monograph of this group already nearly 
completed. He brought together also an extremely rich col- 
lection of the said animals whereas further a collection was 
made of the most divers*- and important zoological objects 
for the use of the Zoological-zootomical Institute at Graz. 

Prof. Dr. J. WiKSNEk, professor and director of the Botan- 
ical-phy.siological Laboratory at Vienna, occupied himself 
during his stay at Buitenzorg from November 1893 until 
February 1894 in the first place with a study on the relation 
between the intensity of the light and the form and develop- 
ment of the plants in the tropics in connection with his 
former photometric researches. As a base, determinations 
of the intensity of the daylight at different hours of the day 
were used after the method of Bunsen- Roscoe. These deter- 
minations were made together with Dr. FtCDOR. Moreover 
he studied:- the position taken by leaves in connection with 
the incident light-rays; the protection of the chlorophyll; 
the chiefly ombrophilous character of the plants growing in 
Buitenzorg; the germination of the Viscum- and Leranthus- 
species in comparison with the F'uropean Viscum album: 
the mechanical action of tropical rains on the plant growth; 
the anisophylly; the une<iual growth of the wood of different 
trees and of the bark of Annonaceae and Tiliaceae; and 
finally the growth movements of some flower parts. 

Ur. W. Fir.pOR from Vienna stayed at Buitenzorg from 
November 1893 until February 1894 and investigated more 
particularly the movement of the air and the water in the 
wood of various trees using closed mercurial manometres; 


the development of the germ of some orchids; the biological 
phenomena of Cotylanthera, and collected material for a 
future anatomical and taxonomic study of this plant. 

Prof. Ur. Gr. Krai'S from Halle remained at Buitenzorg 
from November 1893 until February 1894. The aim of his 
stay in the first place was to get a profier idea of the tropical 
plant world. More particularly the following subjects were 
studied:- the “grand period" of growth of the sprouts of a 
bamboo species IDemlnHuUnnus gigun/cuv); tlie .secondary 
growth of the stem of different palms, material being alsi> 
collected for anatomical researches of tliose stems; the heat 
liberated in the flowers of Gyeadaceae and Pahiiae; the di- 
urnal .swelling of Hie wootl of various trees; the height ot 
numerous trees in the Botanical Garden. 

Dr. V. SciiiFFNEK from Prague stayed at the Botanical 
station from November 1893 until July 1894 and made an 
exten.sive collection of the mos.ses and liverworts occurring 
at Buitenzorg and Tjibodas. 

Ur. Th. Adf.NSamer from \’ienna remained at Buitenzorg 
irom Uecember 1893 until March 1894 to bring together 
material for zoological studies, a.o. ('estodes from Python 
and I'aranus were collected. 

Tlie priest J. J. Hoevf.naars from Surabaya worked in 
the laboratory from October until November 1894 identify- 
ing idarits in order to obtain a survey of the tropical flora. 

Ur. A. WiEi.EY from Oxford on his way to the .South- 
sea islands stayed for a short time in the laboratory (Novem- 
ber 1894) and collected various zoological materials. ,\t 
Tjibodas he di.scovered the young of Pfruhaeta in the hutnus 
of epiphytic ferns. 

1894—1896 

Ptol. \'. I'ouLsEN, profes.sur from Gopeiihagen, re- 
mained at Buitenzorg from Uecember 1894 until February 
189.S, enabled by the Garlsberg fund. The aim of Ids 
visit was chiefly to get material of saprotihytes without 
chlorophyll and to study these plants in connection with 
his former publications on this subject. X’arious less ex- 
tensive anatomical researches were also commenced, more 
especially those on the extrafloral nectaria and of .some in- 
teresting lichens. Moreover, the opportunity was u.sed 
to get .acquainted with the plants and their products which 
are important from a phartnacological standpoint. 

Ur. J. Massaki from Bru.ssels occupied hiimsclf during the 
seven months which he stayed in Java, from ,\ugust 1894 
until February 189.S, chiefly with a study of the tropical 
flora. He investigated from a physiological [mint of view 
the conditions of the pollination of Dentlrobium trumenaliim, 
the gernnnation of Coios nunfera and the differentiation 
shown by the branches of .several liana.s. F urther on he made 
observations at Tjibodas on plagiotropic brandies, on pin- 
nate leaves, eiiiphyllous jilants and Hymenolichens. 

Ur. M. MtvosHi from Tokyo devoted his short stay, from 
February until March 1895, at the Botanical Garden mainly 
to the study of the characteristic habitus of troiiical plants, 
especially of Palmae, Pandanaceae and orchids, as a iireiiara- 
tion for a future more prolonged yd.sit. 

1896—1896 

Ur. K. tiiEiAY, teacher at the Agricultural .School at 
Wageningen, to whom the biennial subvention of the Dutch 
Buitenzorg fund had been granted, stayed at Buitenzorg 
from September 1895 until January 1896. In the first [ilace 
he occupied himself with an investigation about the inten.sity 
of the assimilation in the tropics in comimrison with that of 
plants in Kurope. He worked with a plant which is also 
much used in Kurojie for this [uirpose, i.e. the sunflower, 
IJelianthtis annuus. A .second investigation referred to the 
evaimration of plants in the Buitenzorg climate, for this 
study also the s:iid plant being again used, in order to com- 
pare tropical conditions with conditions in N. Europe. 

Ur. G. Holtkrmann from Ghristiania occujiied himself 
during his stay of some eleven months from July 1895 until 
May 1896 with the study and the culture of different fungi. 

J. Z. Kannecieter, curator of the Berkenstein museum 
at Rijsenburg near Utrecht, who also formerly in the years 
1890 and 1891 visited Buitenzorg, made use of a place in 
the Foreigners' laboratory during some two months in 1896, 
between Ins voyages to Nias and Pulu Tello. 

Ur. A. G. Voroerman, inspector of the Givil Health 
Service, stayed twice, in Ajiril and November 1896, each 



Dammi rman: A History of the Treub Laboratory 


66 


tinif fi»r a win k, in tiie laboralnry with llw purpose of 

makint; microscopical and microclicmical rcscarclies about 
rice and corn siHH'ies. 

I)r. 1). (1. Kaikchu.i) of till’ department of Agriculture 
at Wasliiiiftton stayed at the Botanical station from Ajiril 
until December 18‘)6 and studieil the following subjects:- 
the relation lictween the fiuuti of termites' ncstsand the food 
of these insects; the behaviour of the nuclei at the develop- 
ment of I’hytol^hysii /'rca/'u ; moriiholony of some Colic 
maceae; morpholotty and mitosis in differcnl Crvmnoasci; 
morphology of a new species of I'.nlyloma causing a kind of 
witches' broom on SclitKinrlln found at Tjibodas; mitosis 
m a new siiecies ol I'.Mthiisiiliiini livinu on the leaves of 
Ciil fxiiidrid hint i'dIhIii. 

1896—1897 

I’rof. O. 1‘ENZit., professor of botany at the University of 
Cienoa. devoted himself from November 1890 until March 
1897 to the following pioblems:- the micromycetes and jiref- 
eralily the Myxomycetes of the environments of Buiten/.oig 
and I jibodas, The last-named are worked out sejiarately 
as a Contribution to the " h'lora of Buiteiuorg.” Of some 
very iieculiar siiecms matciial was collected for the study of 
their development. Further investigations were made on 
acarodomatia; morphology and anatomy of Voaudzeia sub- 
fernoovi; subsidiary woik on the jirotection of the flower- 
buds of Clcrodcmlron and other Verbetiaceae. and on the 
germination of some Fuphorbiaceae. 

Dr. O, ('i..AinRl.\t’ of the Botanical Institute at Brussels 
stayed at Builenzorg from September 1896 until March 
1897 and occui>ie(l him.self mainly with a study of the locali- 
zation of the alcaloids in dilTen-nt i)lants (coffee, tea a.o.) 
and of their physiological siKtuhcance. 

Dr. .A. J. Kwart from Liverpool during his stay from Nov- 
ember 1896 until the end of March 1897 chietly made investi- 
gations about the a.ssimilation and the signihcance and ac- 
tion of chlorophyll by means of the bacteria method of 
I’rof. KNr.Ei-MANN, and the iihysiology of the hooks of 
various climbing plants such as I'nnirin and others. 

Dr. llj. Moi.i.kk from Lund, who remained seven months 
and a half until September 1897, used his time mainly for 
collecting various materials on behalf of the Natural History 
Museum at Lund. Moreover, Dr. Moli.er paid spei ial at- 
tention to the beach Hora of Balabiian ratu and to the tissues 
of mosses which function as water receiitacles. 

I’rof. P. (’. PiAU.i.E from ('ironingim, sent out tty the. 

" Buitenzorg fund." arrived at Ruitenzorg in May 1897 
for the purpose of collecting for .some four months a great 
many phytochemical and jiharmacological data and materi- 
als. He worked mainly in the I’h.armacological laboratory 
but died a few weeks after his arrival, 

1897—1898 

Prof. 11. Moi.isdi from Prague made during his stay from 
November 1897 until January 1898 researches into the 
irreparation of indigo viewed from plant -jrhysiological 
standpoint; tlie flowing of water from cui-otl stems of 
lianas; the "ideeding" of trees well provided with leaves; 
tlic obtaining of sugary sajr from various palms; the cause 
ot the occurrence of ” tabascliir” in bamboo; the peculiar 
symbiosis of tire leaves of fimvolviilaceae and a fungus; 
and luminous fungi. 

Macro- and miciochemical investigations about a new 
plant . ontaining cumarim- i .\g,ertitiim i nnyzoidcs) were car- 
ried on: about a new plant containing indigo (luhitfs 
rcliKtiisii)-, al)Out t)rle.in, a colouring substance of fiixa 
Orfllnua; about a ebromogen in the cells of Acanthaceae 
and I tticaceae containing cystolitlis; about tfie secretion of 
mucilage in ferns, Lytupudium spalnhtle and ('ommclina. 

Dr, .A. W. Niec'wknih IS was temirorarily connected with 
the lalroratory from November 1897 until May 1898 to 
make reseat ( lies into t be plant organisms which cause the cu- 
tanc'ius disease known as "Tima inihritatn" and named 
lif'dirK in< etiiial Borneo, Tlurorganism causing the dis- 
ease, a p.ii asitic fungus living in t lie human skin, was studied 
by mil losrope and could be cultured on an arlil'icial med- 
ium in I Ilf laboratory. I be fungus rai'ied in the laboratory 
proved to be able to iitoduce on tlie human skin tlie sym(»- 
toms of " Y'rnra imbriaitn." 

Dr. M. l<Aeiui)RSKi of the Kxiieriment Station at Kagok 
Ml 1 egal St udied in March 1898 the occurrence of leptomine 


in a great number of various idants. I le investigated further 
the “protocorms" of Ttifiiiojdiylluin and Aeranlhus and the 
.so-called "food-bodies" of .some siiecies of l^eca. 

Prof. Dr. L. Biro from Budapest made use of his short 
.stay in 1898 to collect and to study ]irovisionally various 
interesting forms of animal life. 

1898—1899 

Dr. Krik Nyman from I'psala during his lung stay, from 
the end of 1897 until the beginning of 1 899, in the hi st place 
brought together an extensive collect ion of liiological ob- 
jects for the botanical lectures at tiie University of Upsala. 
Further on he made observations on some biological siili- 
jects namely on nect.iria. floral as well ns extratloral ones, 
also on flower biology. Also Dr. Nvman occupied himself 
with a study of lower cryptogams, especially fungi. 

Ma.x Fi.kiscui-k from Berlin arrived in 1898 and worked 
at tlie Botanical station. During liis .several scars' sojourn 
in java he studied chietly mosses and worked out e.g. the 
Miisci lor the " F'loia of Buitenzorg." 

Prop. M. W'estkrxuikk, luofessor of botany at Freiburg 
(Switzerland), remained from Dctoln'r 1898 until February 
1899, He devoted himself to embryological studies, par- 
ticularly of antipods; tlie physiological and anatomical rela- 
tions of tlie junction of branches and stalks and pending 
organs; tlie anatomy of hnodendron aufr(i( tuointn and some 
mosses; the mode of secondary growth in vascular cryirto- 
gams and the mechanism of the shedding of leaves in many 
plants. For fulutc study of these and other problems and 
for demonstration at lectures materials were collected. 

Prof. P. KNi.' iiifrom Kiel, who died shortly after his visit 
to Buitenzorg, from November 1898 until March 1899, 
studied at Buitenzorg the inflorescences of about 200 plant 
siiecies and ascertained liieir pollinators. Particularly tlie 
following problems were worked out;- the indorescences of 
palms; the relation between (lowers and birds in the Malay 
.Archipelago; archocleistogamous flowers; stem and ground 
flowers; biological and statistical researche.s into tlie pollina- 
tion iit flowers by insecls in Java; biological studies alioiit 
the inHorescences of species of the genera Ca.xsid and Mus- 
saendd-, pollination by bat.s and snail.s. 

Prof. C. ScHRdii.R and M. Pernod from /iirieli used 
their short stay in January 1899 not only for a general sur- 
vey of till- tropical flora but also to bring together important 
collections at Buitenzorg and Tjihndas. 

Prof. vS. Nawaschin from Kiew, sent out by the Imperial 
Academy of .Sciences at St. i’etersburg, during liis slay of 
four months till April 1899 in the first place occupied liiiiuself 
witli critical collection of materials for future more detailed 
researches on floral develuiunent. For this purpose different 
families of monocotyledons were selected. e.R. complete 
material tor such a study of various palms was brought to- 
gether. In connection with his wcll-kuown study on tlie 
fertilization in the i.iliaceae Prof. Nawaschin devoted 
special attention to many representatives of this family, 
particularly the arboreous Pracacnn'i and Cordyline'^ and 
file two species of aioriosu cultivated in the Botanical 
Darden. 

W. Karawaiew, assistant at the Zoological laboratory of 
the University at Kiew, occupied liimself from December 
1 898 until April 1 899 with zoological subjects. 1 le prepared 
and fixed embryos of variotis common lizards and some 
snakes. A rich material of lizards proved to be obtainable 
in the most diverse stadia of development. Of Manis only 
two rather old embryos of the same stadium could he col- 
lected. Further he coliccled material of 'rhelyphodiis and 
scorpions injected according to the method of Prof, Kovva- 
i.EWMCY and fixed, moreover, dilfetenl objects for histological 
purposes. 

Dr. S. Kaestner from Leipzig came in 1899 to collect 
embryological maleiial of animals. His original intention 
was to stay only a few weeks but as Buitenzorg proved to be 
a very rich locality also for zoological jmrjioscs he jirolonged 
his sojourn to about two months. 

To Prof. Max Weiu-r, the leader of the Sihoga expedi 
lion, and to Mrs. Wkhkk hospitality in tlie Buitenzorg labo- 
ratories was afforded in the beginning of 1899 for a few 
weeks. More particularly the iihotograpluc room was of 
some use for the preparation of the pbotograpbic work 
during the expedition. 



67 


Dammkkman: A History of the Treub Laboratory 


1899 — 1900 

Dr. K. (iiESKNHAt.p:N from Miinclieii durinK his stay at 
HiiitcnzorK from October 1890 until February 1900 devoted 
his time chiefly to some problems rcRardiiiK the orsan- 
oKraphy and anatomy, Ki'owth and life-history of epiphytic 
ferns. During his visit to Sumatra these investiKalions 
were amplified by observations about the influence of the 
monsoon and trade-winds on the habit and dispersal of 
epiphytic ferns, more ))articularly of species r)f Nipludobus. 
.At Tjibodas and during liis voya!.;es in Sumatra the moss 
flora of the luimeval forest was studied and a rich material 
of jiieat interest for the kimwledne of the bioloKy of the said 
mosses was collected. 

Dr. F. Mkad VViia ox of Harvard I'niver.sity at ( am- 
bridt;e. Mass. (H.S.A.) occupied himself from October 1899 
until Marcli 1900 chiefly with researches concerninH the 
most im]K)rlant crops of (he tropics, more especially with 
siiRar-cane. 

T.kon Tynakki from .\ntweip remained a lotm time at 
Huilen/.orK from .September 1899 until .April 1900 and ac- 
quainted himself w'itli the tropic.al cultures in view of the 
establishment of a botanical garden for practical ;ind 
scientihe [Uirposes in (he CotiKo, with the oiKani/.ation of 
which he was charKcd. 

Dr. .A. II. S(HMiiii Ironi l.'trccht, to whom the subven- 
tion of tlie HuitenzorK fund for 1898 was Ktanted, remained 
duriiifi two months, from Decembet 1898 until I-'chruary 
1899; after the ending of the Sibogti e,\pedition he (ante in 
Mtircli 1000 again to Huitenzorg tor a two months’ stay. 
He investigated luminous bacteria occurring on the skin of 
seafislies. J le succeeded in growing Pholohai itrium jitvaueiisis 
on artific ial media, which in no way lcs,scned the luinines- 
cerice. During liis second sojourn at Huitenzorg he studied 
chielly the microbes occuning constantly in the liquid con- 
tent of tlie .vamng llower-lurds of Sputhndea < timpaviildtii. 
It i>roved that as a rule always the same si>ecies of b.'tcte- 
ritim, which w.tsalso found in tlie atmosphere, is present in 
tliese buds. 

Dr. A. I’KKM'JK from Berlin stayed about ten months till 
November 1900 at Huitenzorg. His chief .aim was to get 
.u-quainted with the tropicttl crops and their ctdiivaiion. 
Further he made researches concerning the fermcnitition of 
cacao; tlie anatomy and tlie economic value of the bark 
libres of Hoehmeriaceae; the [(reparation of rtiinie libres; 
rational methods of tapiiing tiibber latex; fermentation of 
coffee; ('('onoinic value of some kinds of resin; prciiaration of 
canangti oil; some kinds of yeast occuning in fermenting 
fruits. 

1900 — 1901 

Prof. E. HaI'CKKI. from Jena stayed from October 1900 
until January 1901. (.)ne of the chief aims of his sojourn 
was the study of the fresh water [dankton of Java. Further 
on lie uccuiiied himself with tlie making of illustrations of 
interesting forms for his work "Kunstformen der Nalur.” 
He also used (he oi)((oriunity to make ob.servations concern- 
ing the embryology of the vertebrates and articulata and to 
collect material for the Zoological Institute at Jena. 

Dr. E. I’Ai.i.A from Graz devoted his stay of three months 
at Huitenzorg (till February 1901) mainly to a study and the 
ta.vonomy of some cryiitogamic families. 

Dr. A. W. NiI'.uwp.nih'IS remained at Huitenzorg during 
five months from January until M;iy 1901 after his last 
voyage to Borneo. He used this oiiportunity to study in the 
laboratory another skin disease which produces parasitic 
growths in the sole and the p;ilm of the hand. Its cause 
proved to be ahso a fungus (Tinea alhi^ena). 

The abbot U. LiiOKfi from Marseille stayed seven months 
till July 1901 and in the first place [laid his attention to the 
morphology of the lianas and of various s()ined organs. The 
spathe of the Aroids provided another subject of study, from 
which a rich material could be prepared and taken home 
for future investigation. 

The barone.s8 Dr. M. voN Fi^xkiT i. stayed at Huitenzorg 
from January until August 1901. The chief theme of her 
researches was the study of the extra-floral organs which 
secrete sugar in connection with the tinimals which visit 
these flowers, especially ants. Contrary to other observa- 
tions no [irotection of the flowers by the ants against dam- 
age by bumblebees, wasiis etc. could be determined. 

I'he mode of dispersal of the fruits of Thuarea sarmenlosn 


was motive for an anatomical and biological investigation; 
further the cauliflory and the nyctitropic movements of 
flowers which are favourable for autogamy were studied. 

Dr. .S. L. Sr iioi'TEN from Utrecht remained at Huitenzorg 
from July until November 1901 wdiicli visit was enabled by 
a grant from (he Huitenzorg fiiiul. Besides a mote general 
study of tropical nature he [laid siiecial attention to the 
culture of algae, (he biology of parasitic fungi, to which 
study a fungous disease of Con horns tapsulnris offered an 
opportunity; and finally to the origin of mutations in lower 
organisms, ijarticularly Rhir.opus oryzne. 

'I'lie Russian zoologist Dr, D. Pkpam hknko was the lirsi 
scientist who could ramtiniie his researches in the new 
Zoological laboratory established in 1901. He reiimieri to 
Europe with a rich scientific rnateiial. 

('. L. Makpa it. one of the entomological specialists of the 
U.S. Department of .\griculture at Washington, also workei] 
in the new' Zoological labor.itory during a few weeks in 1 901 . 
The material collectt'd during his voyage in Java and sent 
rcgidarly to Huitenzoig was (ueiiareii in the iiroiier w.ty for 
future investigation and could be taken along to the .States 
without d.inger of losing its value. 

1901 — 1902 

Dr. O. SeiKK who stayed in Jay.i till M.irch 1902 made a 
study in charge of the French Ministry of the Colonies ol 
rubber-iirodticing plants and occupied hiimself further on 
mainly with investigations concerning the anatomy ot the 
Apocynaceae. 

Dr. 1‘ . DiKKt KX 1 roll I lyouvain paid a visi I ot eight months 
(till .A|>ril 1902) to Java enabled by a subvention granted 
by the Belgian (joveriunent. In connection with his iiiono- 
gratdi on I’enti lUiuni. A sperKtHns. etc. further material for 
these investigations w-as collected. .A study of the develoii- 
ment ol the [(ollen, the ovultim and the embryo w.is madi' 
and a collection hrought. together of objects of didactic 
value which could serve for demonstration at lectures. 

Dr. F. H. La.no Ironi Miinchen during his stay from ,Sep 
leinber 1901 until February 1902 devoted himself chiefly to 
anatomical rcseatehes of epiphytic orchids. 

Dr. (r. \ ui.KE.ss from Berlin used his .sojourn of more than 
six months (till July 1902) for the investigation of the 
[iheiiomena occurring at the shedding of the lea\es and the 
formation of new ones of tropical trees, lie studied also at 
tegular inter vals the formation of theannual rings and .some 
chemical physiological changes connected with the periods 
of rest and growth. The different modes of branching and 
also the formation of short- and long-living leaves formed a 
suliject of his investigations. .Also a collection of economic 
idants and of demonstration niaterials was brought together 
for the Berlin Botanical Museum. 

Dr. C'. DAWVPoiq-' worked in the Zoological laboratoiy 
making a scientilic voyage to Netherhinds India in charge of 
the Academy of .Sciences at St. I'etersbutg. This naturalist 
stayed at Huitenzorg from May until July 1902 and oceuiiied 
hiniself mainly with the embtyology of Theiyphonus and the 
[(reservation of material to be w'orked out later on in Euro|)e. 
He investigated ahso certain otgan.s of numerous insects and 
i*edi[)alpi the structure and the function of which is still in 
sufliciently known. .At the end of July he set out on a voy 
age to the eastern [(art of the .Archiiielago returning to 
Huitenzorg the first of ( )ctobcr and alter a stay of only a few 
days he travelled back to Kuiaipe. 

1902 — 1903 

I’rof. M. Hpsi.kn from Mtinden (Hannover) stayed dm 
ing more than five months from October 1902 until February 
1903. In (he first [dace he devoted his attention to the 
various lyi)es of root system of a great many woody [dants, 
the Botanical gardens at Huitenzorg and Tjihodtis and the 
Economic garden ofYering a rich material. In the last 
named garden the influence td lime on a number of economic 
plants was investigated and the [leculiar .secretion of silicic 
acid by a s[)ecies of Costus was also studied. 

In comidiance with a charge of the Ministry of the Gol- 
onies in Germany a siiecial study was made of the organiza- 
tion of the Forest Service and the culture of teak wood, a 
visit being paid to Genlral Java for this [(uri)ose. 

Dr. W. Ht’ssE from Berlin remained also from October 
1902 until February 1903 which stay wtis intorru[)ted twice 
by a trii) to the Preanger and Ea.st Java. .At Huitenzorg 



Dammkrman; A History of the Treub Laboratory 


68 


thf chemical and physiological processes occurring when 
drying cloves were studied. Further he made researches 
into Andropo^urt Sorghum and more i)articularly about the 
plant and animal parasites of this crop. As far as time was 
left some ob.servations were made on lichens and algae 
occurring on leaves. The aim of the visit to the I’reanger 
and Fast Java was to get acajuainted with the culture of 
cinchona, tea. ct)lfee and sugar-cane. 

Dr. J. C. Scuouiii from Groningen, who stayed at Bui- 
tenzorg from February until June 1903. occupied himself 
chielly with a study of the secondary growth of palms mak- 
ing a corresponding research of the tree ferns. Further 
the formation of the stem of Pandanaceae was investigated 
and finally some material was collected for future research of 
non or feebly geotroitic roots in view of the statolith-theory 
of H.\bkri.andt and Nkmec. 

Prof. D. Bois from Paris devoted himself at Buitenzorg 
during more than one month from February until March 
inu3 mainly to taxonomic studies and tlie collection of an 
e.xtcnsive herbarium. 

Dr. Ch. S. SARt;t' n i . Director of the Arnold Arboretum at 
Jatitaica I’lain, Mass., in the beginning of 1903 remained 
some weeks spending some time at Tjibodas too. He studied 
various forms of trees esi)ecially conifers. 

Dr. N. F. .SvKDia.ifs from I' psala stayed in 1903 also a 
short time in the laljoratory and spent liistime mainly on an 
investigation of the tlowers and getmination of Stryrhnns, 

Dr. I'h. Welvrrs from Amsterdam and Mr.s. C. J. 
Wkkvers-ukGraakk worked in Buitenzorg from December 
1902 until .April 1903 investigating the significance of caf- 
fein and theobfomin in the metabolic iirocesses of the plant; 
this research was made in the l^x))erimentaI gardens. At 
Tjibodas an investigation into the formation of anthocyan 
was carried out. 

1903 — 1904 

Prof. F. Hiunricurr from Innsbruck paid a visit from 
November 1903 until January 1904. His aim was to study 
the parasitic phanerogams of the troiiics especially the 
Rafrtesiaceac and Balanophoreae. A new species of lirug- 
offered material for fuither histological researches. 
His investigations incltided also the stttdy of nectaria in 
Diospyros discidur, the hydrenchyma and the fruit of 
llydrolen spinoui and the peculiar hydrenchyma of HImlu- 
d endrum java n i c u m . 

Dr. H. WiNKi.RR from Tiibingen stayed at Buitenzorg 
from November 1903 until May 1901. The chief purimse of 
his stay were ecological and plant-geograiihical researches. 
Besides during his stay at Buitenzorg on several trips to the 
vulcanoes of Java material was collecttrd. In the Foreigners’ 
laboratory tfie legenerative jiower of different [ilants was 
investigated by him, e.g. of I'hancra. The fertilization of 
Wikslroinnia indica and other Thymelaeaceae was another 
object (jf study, the result being that ijarthenogenesis prob- 
ably occurs here. The dimorphism of the flowers of Arach- 
nanthe Lowei was investigatetl, and the anisophylly and the 
expansion of the internodes of (Silliiarpa hrxandra; the 
formation of tyloses in Ipomoea viulan'a, etc. 

In charge of the German Government this visitor studied 
tlie culture of coca and cinchona for which purpose a visit 
was [laid to various estates in Central and Fa.st Java. 

Dr. F. Ra.mai.rv of the I 'niversity of Colorado at B(mlder 
tU..S..A,) remained from February until Ai)ril 1904. The 
chief aim of his visit was to bring together a collection of 
different trojiiral plants interesting from a morphological 
and biological i)oint of view. A great many j)lmtographs 
were taken in the Botanical Garden and at Tjibodas to 
serve as demonstration material. 

■A. Jcjii.N from Cairo also used his short sojourn in August 
1 904 for collecting and becoming acapiainted with the tropi- 
cal flora by making triy>s in the environment. 

Prof. K. Kraki'KLI.n, Director of the Natural History 
Museum at Hamburg, worked from February until April 
19(J4 in the laboratory for foreign zoologists and made vari- 
ous ct.)llecti<ms; he yiaid particular attention to the detritus 
forms. 

1904 — 1905 

Prof. \V. Dki mur, professor at Jena, during his stay from 
tJetober 1904 till January 1905 made a special study of the 
presence of amylum in the leaves of tropical plants and 


investigated some of the external conditions influencing it. 
F'urther he studied the evaporation of plant jiarts exposed 
directly to the sun-rays. A trip to Central and Fast Java 
was made to get an insight into tea, cacao and cinchona 
culture and to collect soil samples. 

Prof. M. Golenkin, Director of the Botanical Garden at 
Moscow, remained at Buitenzorg from December 1904 until 
May 1905. He brought together a collection of demonstra- 
tion material for his lectures and made the necessary pro- 
visional studies about the development of some iilants be- 
longing partly to the mosses and ferns, partly to the phaner- 
ogams. special attention being paid to the parthenogenesis 
of angiosperms. The remarkable fact was discovered by 
him that the iiollen tubes of Agathis iienetrate into the 
young prothallus fee<iing on it in the way of fungous fila- 
ments. On his trips in the environment of Buitenzorg he 
discovered the two remarkable mosses Trrubia insigiiis and 
Ephemeropsis tjibodensis on the Salak on the west as well 
as on the north side, hitherto found only on the Gede moun- 
tain. 

1905—1906 

Prof. .A. Fn(;ler. Director of the Berlin Botanical Garden 
stayetl at Buitenzorg from December 1905 until February 
1906. He studied the different indigenous .\raccae of Java 
and found in the Herbarium among the material not yet 
identified a great number of new syiecies belotiging to this 
family, especially from Borneo, and among the genera 
Rhaphidophora, S( hismaloglossis and llomalomena. (.)b- 
servations made by him in ICiuope on the development of 
the roots, leaves and buds were coiilimied with regard to tlie 
species represented here. 

Finally during his excursions in J.iva he had an oppor- 
tunity to study the troiiictil flora and to make inten-sting 
comparisons with similar regions of .Africti. 

Prof. D. 11. Campukll frtmi Stanford Fniversity, Cali- 
fornia, collected from March until June 1906 a great ([Uan- 
tity of material for a study of tlie development of the 
Uphioglosseae, particularly the germination stadia and 
prothallia. .At Tjibodas lie brought together a rich c.ollec 
tion of liverworts and their different stages, h'inally he ob- 
tained at Buitenzorg material for a study of the embryo-sac 
of many angiosperms. e.g. of Piperaceae, Cyclanthaceae, 
.Araceae and Pandanaceae. 

I’rof. A. Frnst from /iirich remained in Netherlands 
India ten months, till June 1906, and was able to comidete 
the most important parts of the program drawn up by him. 
During his stay at Tjibodas and his excursions to Krakatau, 
East and Central Java, Celebes and Lombok and finally 
during his stay at Padang he was able to get a proper idea of 
the tropical flora, the interesting habit of the mangrove, 
the virgin forest, and the alpine flora being especially stud- 
ied. Moreover, he brought together a rich collection of 
demonstration material and a great many photographs 
chiefly concerning ecology. 

Further he devoted his time jiarlly to different physio- 
logical problems and jiaid attention to spermatogenesis and 
sporogenesis of the liverw'orts, the embryology of different 
.Asclepiadeae. Apocyneae, Rajfleita Raima, K. Ilasseitii etc. 
He also collected material for a study of sapropliytes, of tlie 
idasmodesmata of I'kytophym Trcnbii, the development of 
Hymenolichenes etc. 

A. A. Ptu.i.K enabled by a grant from the Buitenzorg fund 
.studied the tropical flora from a taxonomic and ecological 
point of view from March to July 1906. He was able to 
make interesting comparisons between the flora of Java and 
Surinam. Moreover, he collected material for investigat- 
ing the embryology of some palms and of Ri.stia Stratiote.s 
and the presumable apogamy of various species of Elato- 
ilemnia, Trema, Vtllebrunta and Diuspyrus. 

Dr. L. P. DE Bussv, zoologist at the E.xperiment Station 
for tobacco at Medan, worked in the Zoological laboratory 
from July until the end of December 19U6. He. occupied 
himself with zoological problems of a general nature con- 
cerning Ins own sphere of activity as well as with collecting 
material for a study of the embryology of different reptiles. 

Dr. P. IWANOEE, delegate of the Imperial Academy of 
Sciences at Petersburg, stayed on Java from Augtist until 
December 1906 and worked in the Zoological laboratory as 
well as in the Fisheries laboratory at Batavia. ,At Buiten- 
zorg he collected mainly cmbryological material of myria- 
pods, spiders and other articulata and had a prominent sue- 



6 ') 


Dammkkma.n: A History of the Treub Laboratory 


cess with reference to the Scolopetufrelliclae. a small Rroup 
little known in this resfiect. At Batavia he occupied himself 
w'ith the collection of plankton and continued the study 
commenced in Biiiten/orK .ibout the development of 
Lint ulus. 

1906—1907 

IJr. M. KoiikNicKE from Bonn arrived at Buiten/.oru in 
October 1900 and departed in March 1907. He devoted his 
lime to various problems of the bioloKy of parasitic plianero- 
nams, ciiiefiy the life-history, the anatomy and histology of 
the Loranlhaceae; to the comparative embryology of the 
sexual cells of the Balanophoraceae, etc. h'urther he stud- 
ied the biological development of alRae, fuiiKt and bacteria 
living in the tissues of hiKhcr plants, the Kcrminalion of 
different orchids and finally the rattan culture. 

11. Mokin from Miinchen, the aim of whose voyage was 
chietly to make illustrations for the new edition of “ Brelim’s 
Tierleben," spent his time. ,\iiril to July 1907, partly in the 
Botanical, partly in the Zoolo^jical laboratory. Durinj* his 
stay he ac(|Uaintcd himself with the tn>pical flora and fattna 
.ind tlie principal emits of Java. He made a ureal many 
sketclies and ithotonraphs in relation to the above-men- 
tioned work and to other publications. 

Miss A. T/. VON Gk.M'.venii/ and Miss Iv. SiriN remained 
in Java in l'K)7 tor a few months to study the tropical flora 
and to collect material. 

Dr. I’H. VAN I lAUKEVi-.i.p from Groninnen stayed at 
BuitenzoiK from May until Seittember 1907. He obtained 
interestinu results of his re.searches upon RUttation. He col- 
lected furthermore material for a study of the aetenchyma 
of h'ft'luuiii olcnucd and Jiissiacu rfprus and endeavoured 
to decide whether Cassythu filtformis is a inn* parasite or 
not. 

Trof. M. MiYosiii from Tokyo, who paid a visit to Buiten- 
/utR IvVelvc years earlier, remained on hisret urn voyaue from 
Europe in 1907 from .September until October. He made 
some investigations iiiion tht“ sttucturr' of the leaves of 
tru])ical plants and studied the economic plants. 

I’rof. Til. BAKiiot’K ()1 Harvard I'niversity (r.S..\.) 
diirinu his stay in tlie ZooloRical laboratory at Builen/ory 
in 1907 and a voyaRc throtiKh the Moluccas broURht to- 
gether important collections for the Harvartl Museum. 

h'k. Mr Ik, entoinoloRist of the lixiierimeiit .Station of the 
Hawaiian .SiiRar Planters’ Association at Honolulu, re- 
mained also in 1907 soint* time in the abovr'-nient ioned 
laboratory, llis chief aim was to detect parasites of differ- 
ent insects which are very no.xious in Hawaii. 

1907—1908 

Prof. h'. t'zAiMtK from Gzernowit/. (.\usiria-HunKary;. 
durinu his slay from November 1907 until February 190.S. 
made observations and experiments upon climbinR plants; 
on the pulvini of the leaf joints of Menispermaceae, tendrils 
of Enlada, to produce by experiment free windinus and 
.inisnphylly in windiiiR .Xsclepiadeae and related species. 
Furllier he occupied himself with troiusms of the aerial roots 
of epiphytic orchids and the supply of Water by the.se 
"ruans; dorsiventrality of I'.hilostftnmu-, observ'ations upon 
sleepiiiR movements; the sensibility of pinnate leaves when 
irritated by shocks, and the structure and the tissue ten.sion 
of the false stem of the ZiiiKiberaceae. 

Prof. F. VON 1 liiii.MtL from Vienna visited Java from 
November 1907 until March 1908. The chief purpose of 
tiis voyaRC was to get an insiuht into the tropical fuiiRous 
veyetation and to brinn toRcther by extensive collectinR a 
rich mateiial for future study. This was completely 
achieved thanks to the Rreat wealth of the Javanese fuiiRous 
flora, particularly at 'I'jibodas. 

Prof. H. Fin iNc; from TiibinRen remained from October 
1907 until .April 1908 and inve.stiRated the inlluence of the 
l)ollen on the dowers of trrehids. The principal aim of these 
lesearches was to analyze the chanRcs of the parts of the 
dower wdiich arc produced by the pollination and to deter- 
mine the factors to be considered. This aim was achieved 
in a satisfactory way. He also made numerous observations 
upon the stipul.ir orR.ins at dur.siventral branches of tropical 
plants and the relations between epiphyllic lichens and the 
leaves on which they occur. F'urthermore he made studies of 
Hymcuolicheues at Tjibodas; of the development of some 
tropical fruits; of the latex system of the most important 
rubber-produciiiR plants; the relation of that system to tlie 


secondary Rrowth and its reReneration after .severe wound- 
ing and on the inlluence of the tapping cuts on the trans- 
port of food in the stem of Uevea. 

Prof. G. Tiscui.kk of the Dniversity at Heidelberg occu- 
pied himself from August until December 1908 with the 
biology and the developmental history of the pollen of some 
species of Cassitr, re.searches tin the roots of mangroves and 
orchids especially with reference to the statolith-theory 
of geotropism; the cause of the sterility of Musa and Atta- 
na.'isa-, the amylum content of the pollen of .some tropical 
plants, iiarticularly in aneniophilous plants and the signifi- 
cance of r,eguminosae, which gather nitrogen, for the crops 
cultivated on a large scale in Java (coffee, tea, cacao, gutta- 
percha. rubber, coconut). 

Prof. M. SlKui-M Ki of the rniversity of Krakati worked 
during the months January until June 19(18 in the Zoologi- 
cal laboratory. He studied tuainly tlie adaptation of the 
troiu'ctil fauna to tree life and investigated therefore the 
development of If nun, Plyduizoiin and iiiuko. I'urther he 
devoted hitnself to the embryology of a species of Rhaco- 
phorits which study lirotight to light very retnarkable facts, 

1908 — 1909 

Dr. H. VON Bi:ui'.NHKK(,-G<)ssi.i',k, a Gertnan naturalist 
and surgeon, worked from Dctobiu 1908 until March 1909 in 
the Zoological laboratory on histological :ind embryological 
subjects. 

Prol. \V. Ma(.ni. s frotn Berlin stayed only a few weeks at 
Buiten/org (Febiuary 1909) and occupied hitnself cliietly 
with the collection of galls produced by plant or atiimal 
organisms. 

Prol. W. .Vknoi.di Iroin ('harkow and his assistant 
S. L. Stki i.iN remained in Netherlands India for about live 
tnonths (Janu.ary -Jutie 1909). During their stay they 
brought toRclher a rich collectioti of detuonstration mate- 
rial. The lirst-named contintied his studies on the algae for 
which a good opportunity presented itself dtiritig a trip with 
the re.se.trch vessel "Gier” to the " Duizend eilanden." I'dr 
thesatne imrpose he undertook a voyage to the .Vru Islands. 

Dr. K. Domin, lei'tuter at the I'niversity of Prague, in- 
terrupted his voy.ige to .Vustralia for three tnonths from 
August tintil Novetnber 1909 to obtaiti ;i knowledge of 
tropical plant life at Buitenzorg and rjibodas. .V special 
study ot the stipular formations was undetttiketi, many tiew 
oli.ser\’ations being made. 

Prof. W. KoiHi-.ki frotn Riga remained from jantiary 
itntil November 1909 and rliiting this time he tnade many 
trips through the .Vrclupelago. Staying twice at rjibodas 
he brought together a tine collection of Hymetiophyllaceae, 

h'urther he accompanied Dr. .Vknoi.pi to the "Duizend ” 
and .Vrtt Isles and studied more iti detail the mangrove of 
Nusa Kembangan At Buitenzorg he occuiiied himself 
with (he syslentatic anatomy of the Lfracaena.^ and the 
Cordyliites. Mort'over, tnuch materi.d was collected for 
diffeient .scientitic in.slilutes. 

1909 — 1910 

Plot. Dr, 11. Mimik of the I'niversity at Leipzig arrived 
at Buitenzorg September 1909 st.iying till March 1910. He 
occupied himself esiiecially with the followi ng in vest iga lions 

The biology of Myrmetodiu fthtuata and II ydnnphytnm 
moulauum, particularly in view of the biological signihc.ince 
of the tubers of the,se so-called " inyrmecophilous plants’’; 
microbiological investigations on the humus of epiphytic 
ferns and orchids, the micro-organisms occurring then-in 
br-ing cxaminetl on their ability to attack cellulose and to 
assimilate nitrogen. 

Further he worked on the organ sensitive for light of a 
small (ish often found in the water of rice-lields and the 
structure of (he climbing organs of plants belonging to tlie 
genus Kandia. 

Dr. J. Kt.vPKk from I’trecht, sent out by the Dutc h 
Buitenzorg fund, stayed in Netherlands India from January 
until June 1910. Though he c:ame with the- main luiriio.se to 
get ac(|uainted with the tropic'al cultures he spent one and a 
half months in the laboratory for fondgners engaged in 
physiologicrd research. He studied the inllm-nce of the 
temperature on the respiration of tretpical idanls chietly in 
order to make a compaii,son between the pc-culiarilies of 
the phenomenon hero and in a temperate climate. More- 
over, he occupied himself with a study of tlie shedding of the 
leaves of Gonalopus Bnivini. Furthc-r embryological mate- 



Dammikman: a History of the Treub Laboratory 


70 


rial of some I’iltosporac'eae, Nepenthes and Cnrica Papaya 
was collected by him. 

Dr. OsK.\R W.M.THKR. Taiian.\ a. Kk.\snossei.ski, 
N. Maximow and \V. Mali'icwski, all four from St. Petera- 
burR, remained at BiiitcnzorR from June until Aumist 1')10 
and devoted llieir lime mainly to a research upon the 
Iireseticc of iirussic acid in the urowinR points of Pajnbusa. 
.\lso anatomical and ta.xonomic demonstration material 
was collected by them. 

1910—1911 

brof. Dr. ti. K.1.EUS. professor of botany at the I'niver.sity 
of lleidelhern, studied diirinn his stay at Huitenzorn from 
October 1910 until February 1911, the periodical phenomena 
of troiucal plant life especially in connection with external 
factors. Numerous experiments and observations made by 
him led to the conclusion that periodicity of tropical plants 
iletiends on external and not on unknown internal factors 
I “ l'erio<lizii;it aus inneren (iriinden” according to Schim* 
I’hR). In '(mnection with these researches slmlies were 
made about thi.- vuoblem of the i>eriodical formation of wood 
in the tropics Renerally and that of Japanese and Furopean 
trees RrowiiiR in the mountain Harden at Tjibodas [larticu- 
larly. .\ larne collection of wood of caulillorous plants was 
takmi aloiiR to Kiirope to study the anatomical ditTerences 
of vewetalive and fructiferous branches. Of the subsidiary 
invesliRations made in BuitenzorR are to be mentioned;- 
ttie Rcrminalion of seeds with an e.xceiuionally liard seed- 
coat and the regenerative power of tlie seetl-lobes; the 
development of some fresh-water I’eridineae; Flanellates in 
[londs and rivulets at BuitenzorR and Batavia. 

I’rof, Dr. it. Sknn, professor of botany at the I'niversity at 
Basle, stayed in the laboratory for foreiRtiers live months. 
October 1910 Februtiry 1911, on account of ilie Swiss 
BuitenzorR fund. The physioloRy of Trenlepahlia and other 
( hroulepidaceae w:is studied esiiecially in view of the 
phy.sioloRical siRnilicance of the lipoclu'ome. This investi- 
Ralion Rave interestinR results e.R. wivli reference to the 
oriRin of llie lipochromeand its nutritive value for the plant. 
The studies were continued in Fairope with material sent by 
the laboratory, lie also studied transversally lieliotropic 
curvatures of the leaf-blade, a phenomenon observed in the 
leaves of Drymo^lossum pilnselloides, and later [rroduced 
experimentally, and the reproduction of the Rhodophyc'eae 
especially of tlie Renus Polysiphonia. This alRa was found in 
fresli water on one of the coral islands in the l>ay of Batavia. 
Tliese researches were also continued in ICurope with mate- 
rial rcRularly sent from Buitenzorg. 

For einbryoloRical investiRations material of Annonaceae 
and .Anacardiaceae w'as li.xed and taken along. 

Dr. S. V. Simon, lecturer of botany at the University of 
Cidttingen, investigated during his stay from October 1910 
until July 1911 tlie periodical phenomena of tropical [dant 
life. For this purpose the flowering, the development of the 
leave.s, the formation of the annual rings, foimation and 
accumulation of reserve substances, in a series of plants were 
studied. Besides this extensive investigation also other 
problems were tackled, namely:- the growth phenomena of 
the seedlings of lirut’utera eriopelala and the influence of the 
substrate on the anatomy of this and other mangrove 
plants; the regeneration of tapiung wounds in Hevea hrasili- 
ensis, the influence of the tapping on the growth of the plant 
was studied simultaneously. 

On request of the Ministry of the Colonies at Berlin Dr. 
.Simon also made a study of rice culture on Java. 

Dr. W. K. Brock, lecturer of botany at the University of 
(.liessen, came to Java in the first place as a delegate of the 
“ Kolonial-Wirtschaftliche Koinitee” at Berlin to the Fibre 
congress at .Surabaya. His .sojourn at Builenzorg in the 
middle of 191 1 in the Foreigners' laboratory lie spent chiefly 
to collect material for further studies and for demonstration 
for the said committee. 

Frof. Dr. fk van Itkkson, professor at the Institute 
of Technology at Delft, also came to Surabaya mainly 
as a delegate of the Dutch (iovernment to the Fibre congress 
but devoted some time in August 1911 at Builenzorg for re 
searcli-w<jrk of a iJiirely botanical nature. Same firovisional 
observations were made on the decom[) 0 .sition of cellulose by 
aerobic bacteria the fact being ascertained that this sub- 
stance is oxidized by the same microbe as in the temperate 
zone. 

At Tjibodas material of Nepenthes ftitchers was collected 
tor a more detailed study of the anatomical structure. Also 


a collection of economic plants and their products was 
brought together. 

I’rof. Dr. H. Ukcomie, director of the Botanical division 
of the “Mus6e d'Histoire Naturelle” at I’aris, and his col 
laborator Dr. .V. FiNicr stayed for five w'ceks, August - 
September 1911, at Builenzorg. 

Their work was chiefly in the field of taxonomy and was 
aimed, among other things, at the ijreparation for a more 
prolonged sojourn in French Indo-China, 

Dr. C. F. Mii.t.sPAt'ott, director of the Botanical division 
of the Field Museum of Natural History at Chicago, tluring 
December 1911 brought together a large collection ol 
flowers, fruits and seeds for the said institute. 

R. Sakai and F. Sknijon, two Japanese botanists, also 
stayed in December 1911 and made a collection of eco 
nomic plants for tlie Bureau of forestry at Tokyo, 

Dr. D. Dii Lani.k, formerly connected with the Fxpeti- 
ment station at Salat iga, before returning to Futope worked 
during the montlisof A[>ril and May 1911 in the Zoological 
laboratory and <.>ccupied himself with different forms of 
the fresh-water fauna. 

1911 — 1912 

Dr. A. 11. Bl,A.\t;\v from Utrecht having been granted the 
subvention of the Biiitenzorg fund remained from Novem- 
ber 1911 until March 1912. 

in the first tdace his .aim was to obtain a general imiires 
sion of the tropical flora and to make mimir researches. 
Some data were collected about the sleeping movements 
of Point iana, Phyllanllius and Mimosa pudiai which indi- 
cated in which way to stiuly this problem in hothouses in 
h'uroi)e. 

Further on he made colour-photogratdis of tropicid life ttv 
use at lectures in Furope. (ienerally satisfactory results 
were obtained with l.umiere's aiilocliromatic as well as 
with plates of Dufay. 

.At Tjibodas a short study w.is made of the growth of the 
aerial roots of Cissus papillosa-, mode of growth, distribu 
tion ol growth, influence of light and shade on growth, 
the conditions for the formation of lateral toots etc. in 
the virgin forest were studied. Un behalf of the Botanical 
laboratory at Utreclil embryological material of some I’ro- 
teaceae and Icacinaceae was collected and a collection of 
fruits on formalin and dried seeds was brought logetber. 

Prof. \\'. Fatten, director of the Biological De])ariment ol 
the Dartmouth University (Hanover, N.H., IJ.S.A.), worked 
for three weeks, April and May 1912, especially on the 
anatomy and embryology of the arachnids and myriapods, 
more [tarticularly concerning the nervous system and Hie 
organs of sense. Besides, a large collection of anatom 
ical material was brought* together for future investiga- 
tion. 

Dr. J. Vkrmoesen, mycologist from the Uongo colony, 
stayed at Buitenzorg from April until May 1912 and came 
mainly to study the injurious fungi of tropica! crops. The 
material collected on his voyage through Java was worked 
out in tlie Foreigners’ laboratory and special studies were 
made upon the germination of the spores of Uslilagineae. 

Prof. Dr. H. von Uuttel Reepen from Oldenburg mak- 
ing a voyage in charge and support of the Humboldt Acad- 
emy at Berlin arrived at Builenzorg in April 1912. His aim 
was among other things to investigate the social life of 
termites and other insects. He collected for this study 
a great many data and much material at Buitenzorg and 
Tjibodas. 

Dr. H. But'UER, reiiorter for agricultural affairs of the 
Government of Kamerun (West Africa), returning from an 
official voyage to German New Guinea, wislied to obtain an 
itpsiglit into the organization of the Department of Agricul- 
ture .at Buitenzorg. Moreover, in the Foreigners’ laboratory 
in July 1912 a study was made on the pollination and the 
causes of sterility of the oil palm {liUteis Ruineensis) a siil)- 
jecl about which nothing was known yet. Important data 
which should enable him to continue these researches with 
success in Kamerun were collected. 

1912 — 1913 

Prof. A. Na THA.N'soiiN occupied liimself Iroin October 1912 
until February 191.J mainly with the gathering of materials 
and data for his work on the “ Phylogenetische Morjihologie 
der Angiospermen.” .As he was, however, not able to ac- 



71 


DAMMkkMAN: A History of the Treub Laboratory 


l OiiJpIish tills work acrordinn to his original plan, ho had 
the iiilcntion (o revisit Uuitenzorn. 

Dr. W. Kakawaikw, :t Kiissian zoolonist, visit ins lor the 
seeoiid time the Rottinieal (hirden at Biiitetizorjt. reiiiaineil 
trom Deceiidter 1012 until Jtiniiary I'tld. Ills researehes 
were ehietly in the field of myniieeolojry. At Hiiitenzorg 
and <111 vtirioiis trijis an extensive inalerial was brought to- 
ilet her and tiinong tlie large number of species some new 
ones were detected. During a voyage to .Ambon and the 
Aru islands, regions which are Icrra ium^nita from a myrme- 
eological standpoint, mncli material wdiicli will be worked 
mt later monograidiictilly was cadlocted. 

Dr. J. Naukn of tlie “ 1 bichster lAirbwetke” during tlie 
iUontli of h'el)tuary 1 'D 3 made an inv(>stigation into the 
origin of indigo in huli^offru. These studies were of a 
iiitrely chemical nature, 

D. S( ii.vM rr.k, m.aking a voyage in charge of the "In 
..titut international d’agticulture” at Rome, studied trop- 
ical crops at Huitenzorg from hAdituary until April l'M3, 
and worked in the Foreigners' labor.itory on some idant- 
diseases and collected mttterial on this subject. 

Prof. Dr. V. N. Lt’ni.MKNk'o, director of the Imperial 
Kotanicttl (larden at A'altti (Crimea) stayed at Ruitetizorg 
(or two months, March-May l'>13. Researches were 
made urxm t hi' formation and the occurrence of chroniato- 
iihoric siibstanci's in dilTerent plants. He studied mainly 
the formation of yellow and red I'olours in fruits and in 
some definite jiatts of vegetative organs. Ftirthei an in- 
ve.sfigation was made into the maximum ijuantity of 
chloropliyll produced by the action of various factors tliglU 
and temperiiture) in tropical plants. For this purpose about 
si.xty stjccies of plains were examined spe< tro.si'ojiicmlly and 
microcliemically, the quantity of chloroidiyll in the leaves 
tieirig fletermined by tire sriectrocoloiimetric method. 

W. P. Tho.mpson was able to work in the laboratory from 
January until May l‘M.3 by a grant from a fund of the 
Harvard University at Cambridge (I ’..S.,\.). 1 le investigated 
the genus (iiu'tum moriiliologically as well as biologically 
and gathered a large collection of different develoirmental 
stadia of mah' and female (towers in order to study the iml 
linalion and fertilization. For more precise stmlies on the 
cytology of tlie etiibryo-sac much material was fixed. Also 
different dicotyledonous (dants were investigated anatomi- 
cally on their phylogeny, e.^. Piperaceae, Magnoliaceae etc. 

Dr. J. DimosciiPi.-UiiPAk, assistant at the Rotanical 
laboratory of tlie University at Miinchen, studied during 
his stay from April until July 1913 the following problems: 
the cleistoganiy, especially of RhcUki tuberostr, the regener- 
.Ltive [lower of seedlings of the mangrov'e; the aiiisophylly 
111 the genus I'lpfr; ditfcrenl biologi<.-al characteristics of 
swamp aiul aquatic plants; the vegetaiive dcveloimient ol 
the llowers of Opuntia puhem’iis. Moreover, plants and 
materials were collected for the Botanical Darden and 
the Laboratory for [ilanl-physiology of the University at 
Miinchen. 

F. P. Jkpson, Govern tnent entomologist at Suva, h'iji 
islands, stayed five months at Rtiitenzorg, from February 
until July 1913. His chief aim was collecting and [lossibly 
sending to the Fiji islands the natural enemies of Cosmopo- 
lites sordulus, a lieetle causing much damage to the banana 
< ulture on the .said isl.inds. 

Mr. Jei’Son discovered in Java as the [irincijial enemy of 
Cosmopolites another beetle, I’laesius jnrunus. By exjieri- 
ment the beetles ke[)t in moist soil proved to be able to live 
about 130 days without any food; therefore a great chance 
existed that a large number of these beetles, if .sent to F'iji, 
should arrive alive. Still other enemies were found in Java, 
a.o. Chrysopila jerrugiuosa , Lcploi hints Iridens, L. nnieolor. 

1913—1914 

Miss Dr. J. Wksiekpijk, director of the Phytoiiatholog- 
ical laboratory "\V. (.'. Scholtcn" at Amsterdam, came in 
October 1913 sent out by the Ruiten/org fuml and stayed in 
Java until June 1914. .She <)ccu[)ied herself ehietly with the 
I'ollection ol material of [riant -diseases of tro[>ical croirs. 
( 'onsequently Mi.ss VVi;si iikpijK spent a great deal of her 
lime visiting estates; besides, diseases and [rests were studied 
at the various extrerirnent stations. However, the Foreign- 
ers’ laboratory remained the centre where different im- 
(rortant injurious fungi were cultured and where the cirllec- 
lions were arranged. A more s[recial study was made of a 


Ilymcntonyies bearing sclerotia which is very detrimental 
to numerous cullivateil plants. 

II. A. Gleason, a.ssislant-irtofessor of botany at the 
University of Michigan. visite<l Biiitenzorg and Tjibodas 
from December 1913 until Fefituary 1UI4. He siMiit his 
time mainly on a survey of tro[>i<'al [riant life and the cul 
ture and the use ol food cro|is. h'urtlier he broiight to- 
gether much [rhotographic and other material for cduc.i- 
tional [rurposes. 

B. If. (Jfii K. ahsofrom Michigan I niversit v, investigated 
in February 1911 the [rhysiological and e<-ologic.d signitieance 
of the leaves and the s|Kiio|)hylls ol I h'ymoglossum heleen- 
phyllum. He also made many |)hologra[rlis ami collecteil 
material concerning plant ecology. 

Miss Dr. L. Werner from Berlin during 1914 studied the 
embryology of orchids and used her stay at Hniten/org to 
make researches into the [rollination and lert ilizat ion of 
various s[)ecies reirresented there. Moreover, riiuch material 
was ti.xed for futirre eytological invest i, gat ion. 

Prof. Dr. ( ). PoRSi ti, |)rofcs.sor at the University at 
( zernowitz (.Austria-Hungary), devoted liis stay ol four 
months, February— June 1914, ehietly on a sttidy of the 
biology of different tro()ical [dants. Much demonstration- 
material was collecti'd for lectures, as well as tor his 
own irrvestigations. namely com|>arative rnoridiological- 
phylogenetic studies, material of vatimrs [ilants. h’urtlier on 
he was interested also [rartictilarly in tlie following [rroli- 
lerns; the nior|ihological and phycsiological anatomical 
ada[)tations of tro[iical flowers to the pollination by bees 
and birds; the structure of diffi-rent (lowers to [itevetU 
autogamy; the coru[)atative rnortrlrology ol the lloral cne- 
taria in connection with their [diylogerretic [rosiiion; the 
[>hylogeny of the (lower of the .Vristolochiaci'ae. 

Dr, H. (’A.MMEKLoiiEk collected nialerial for scientific 
reseatihes in Funqre from February until May 1914. In 
the lirst [dace he was interested in the deveio|)tnerUal histor y 
of Sdaphihr, the .indrogyno[)hore of some Uaiqiaridaceae; 
investigations on the flower of some .\nnonaceae. .As 
demonstrator of Prof. Dr. PciRSi ii he assisted him in the 
collecting and pte[)ating of [dant material; further he made 
a great many photograidis of interesting [rlants. 

Prof. Dr. J. Wai.iiier, professor ol geology at the Univer- 
sity of Halle, remained at Buitetizorg about two rriontlr.s, 
Se[)tember- October 1U14. and studied the formation of 
lalerite. 

Prof. Dr. h). Gdi.ustein, [rrofessor at the University of 
Berlin, who like Prof. Waliiier stayed some time at 
Biritenzorg on his home voyage from .Australia to Lunqie, 
made investigations irr tire Foreigtrers’ laboratory on the 
iufiueni'e of sunlight upon certain argentiferous s.ilts. 

1914—1916 

Dr. K. ZiM.MERMANN', zoologist and teacher at (he " Kaiser 
Wilhelmschtile’’ at Shanghai, arrived in 1914 continuing 
alsoin 191.S his studies on the anatomy of the light rece;)tive 
organ ol Jlaplot hiliis poiuhox, a small s[)ecies of lisli com- 
mon in stagnant water. 

1). r. Ffl.L.wVAV, entomologist of the f’'-\i)erinient station 
at Hawaii, came to Jav.i in 1915 fur the stiecial [)Ui[)ose of 
sttidying the [larasites of ftuit (lies. These insects cause 
much damage in Hawaii and by their activity the fruit- 
growing there has so nnich declined that a s|ieci,il investiga- 
tion of tlie natural enemies ol these n<i\ious insects became 
necessary. Hes[)ent his time at ifiiiti'tizorg collecting data 
about the life-history of a number of .minial s[iei ies which 
probably could lie intrsiduced into the Hawaiian islands as 
[larasiles of the fruit (lies. 

Prof. Dr. A. Li-muiR, [irofessor of meiliciiie at the Univer 
.siiy of tfdttingen, stayed at Buitetizorg from July until 
.\ugustl9l5 and was mainly interested in the medicinal herbs 
of the natives, material and data of which were collected. A 
collection of edible Iruits ami s[nces was also brought to- 
gether. I’rof. Lehek occu[>ied himself, moicover, with 
gathering statistical data on the nutrition of tlie [leoide, 
and the biology and [>athology of tin- frei' and indenlureil 
labourers on the instates. 

1916—1916 

F. Bley, a student of botany at Ziirich, worked a long 
time from .August 1915 until Imbruary 1920 in the Treub 
laboratory on the embryology of Liiuremhrrgiti. a marsh. 



/)amm»;k.va\: A History of the Treub Laboratory 


plant of the Dienn plateau, a tliesis for a doctorate under 
Prof. Ernst at Zilrich. 

Misy C. SiA iiKk was enabled by a Rrant from the Buiten- 
zorti fund to work in the Treub laboratory fnan .September 
l‘>15 until .\pril 1916. She undertook as a special research 
the study of fungi (Hcurring in the soil. For this purpose 
satnv)les were taken with sterilized soil drills of as many 
kinds t)f soils as possible from West, Central and East Java. 
Of the inoculations made in the laboratory various species 
of fungi could be isolated, a provisional survey of the differ- 
ent mycoflora’s being obtained. 

Besides the.se researches Miss Si.i'Iikk intended to obtain 
an in.sight into the tropical flora and crops for which 
purpose different e.’cperiment stations were visited. To 
study the flora trips were made to the Dieng plateau, the 
mangrove of Tjilatjai) and the island of Nusa Kambangan, 
Tjibodiis, Garut and environments, the Tengger mountains 
and the Idjen plateau. Being charged by the Institute of 
Tropical hygiene at Amsterdam she occupied herself, more- 
over, with the culture of fungi parasitic on men. 

C. GravI'MIoksi , a Dani.sb chemist from .Varhu.s, worked 
from December 1916 until January 1917 in the Treub lab- 
oratory as well as in the Herbarium with the aim of getting 
a thorough knowledge of the taxonomic and other charac- 
ters of the oil-containing seeds of various jungle trees, par- 
ticularly trees belonging to the families of the Dipterocar- 
paceae and Sapotaceae. Employed by a commercial enter- 
prise ordering great (luantities of raw materials from Borneo 
for the oil industry and having to contend always with many 
difficulties resulting from the ignorance of the botanical 
origin etc. of the said material, he was convinceil that a 
previous exact study only could solve these dilTiculties. 

J. VAN Barks, director of the Geological institute of the 
Agricultural college at Wageningen, made for the Dutch 
Government a geological study tour to Java between .August 
and December 1916. He ma<le his chief study of the tropi- 
cal weathered soils and for the arrangement of his collec- 
tions a place in the Treub laboratory was given to him. 

1917 

Frof. Ur. G. A. MacGaixi.M of the Gniversity of New 
York investigated in 1917 the occurrence of parasitic worms 
in different tropical reptiles. An interesting material was 
collected to be worked out by him later on. 

I’rof. Dr. Kkita Shibaia of the T'niver.sity of Tokyo con- 
tinued during some weeks, January —February 1917. in the 
Foreigners' laboratory his investigations on the occurrence 
of flavones in tropical plants, already commenced in Japan. 
Moreov'er, during various trips through Java he collected 
materials of cultivated and pharmaceutical plants. 

Dr. Miisunaga Fujioka of the Forest Experiment Sta- 
tion at Tokyo was principally interested in different physio- 
logical problems concerning the tropical virgin forest. As 
the chief of the Botanical laboratories had occupied himself 
during a long time with the physiology of the tropical jungle, 
trips were made in his company to acquaint Dr. FujutKA 
with the peculiarities of the virgin fore.st. 

Dr. P. A. A. F. Eyken studied by order of the Chief In- 
spector of the Civil Health Department at Batavia the bio- 
logical purification of the Great Pond in the Botanical 
Garden. For some time, July — August 1917, he had an 
opportunity to investigate the great purifying power of the 
said pond; bacteriologically as well as chemically the results 
were surprising. 

1919—1920 

Miss 11. C. C. LA RiviftKKof the Botanical laboratory at 
Leyden was sent out by the Dutch Buitenzorg fund remain- 
ing at Buitenzorg from December 1919 until September 1920 
and making studies of the anatomy of the lianas. Her chief 
aim was to collect material and to make a provisional survey 
for future more detailed study at Leyden. Further, various 
trips were made e.g. to Tjibodas, Garut, Tjilatjap and the 
Tengger mountains to get acquainted with the tropical ffora. 

Dr. W. .Skifkiz from Baltimore worked in the laboratory 
from .September until November 1920 studying the phenom- 
ena of periodicity in tropical plants. 

To Prof. Dr. E. Nkvvion IlARviiy of Princeton University 
hospitality was granted during the second half of 1920 in 
the Laboratory for marine investigations at Batavia to col- 
lect marine luciferous organisms. With the research-vessel a 
short trip was made for collecting Pyrocypris. 


At Buitenzorg he studied also .some luminous terrestrial 
animals. 

Dr. W. BomLiOFK, physiologist for the rubber culture, 
worked in the Treub laboratory from 1917 until 1920 and 
made the following investigations on lla’ea brastltensis: on 
amyliim; the origin of the latex by reason of experiments 
with girdled tree.s; some data about the renovation of the 
bark; on the correlation between the production and the 
number of rows of latex vessels; on the transpiration. 

K. Blky, who had investigated from 1915 on with differ- 
ent interruptions in the laboratory the embryology of 
Lauremhernia javanica left Buitenzorg in March 1920 to 
finish his studies in Switzerland. 

VV'. ( oRNiiLis made use four times of the research-vessel of 
the Laboratory for marine investigations at Batavia in 1 92i). 
He tried to ascertain the position of the rests of old riverbeds 
at the bottom of the Java sea by a surv^ey of the proble of 
the sea-bottom with an instrument constructed by him and 
mounted aboard the ves.sel. 

1920 — 1921 

Dr. .\. Rant, temporarily adjoined to the Director of 
the Botanical Gardens, made use. of a place in the laboratory 
for the culture of fungi. He occupied himself mainly with 
an investigation of the Ambm.sia fungi of the termites and 
the root tubers of Casuarina and ('. muntuna. 

Dr. Kjint was appointed in June 1921 as teacher at tlie 
Schoiil for Indonesian physicians at .Surabaya. 

(.'. VAN Zije. pharmacist from Malang, was acting tem- 
porarily during the leave of Dr. von FabiiR in 1920 and 192 1 
as chief of the Botanical laboratories. He made several 
microcliemical researches and investigated Javane.se beetles 
on cantharidin; he succeeded in demonstrating its presence 
in Horia debyi and Cissites niaxillosa. A short article on this 
subject w'as published in the journal “Treubia.” A meth- 
od w'as worked out to localize the aluminum in plant tissues 
and to use benzidin-hydrocliloride as a reagent on ligneous 
elements instead of phloroglucinol. Besides these studies 
he occupied himself with the collection of data and material 
of some Zingiberaceae. of ('hinese drugs, and various itch- 
ing hairs which are of importance from a forensic point of 
view. 

Dr. O. Arrhenius of the University at Stockholm studied 
in 1921 the acidity of cultivated soils, especially rice-lields. 
Further he worked on the influence of the concentration of 
hydrogen ions on the life of earthworms. Observations were 
made upon the carbonic-acid content of the atmosphere in 
different plant associations, the correlating factors, light in- 
tensities and the formation of humus being also studied. He 
investigated also the osmotic pressure in different plants and 
worked out a new method to determine this pressure. 

Materials for cytological, anatomical, bacteriological and 
phytochemical researches were taken along to Sweden. 

1921 — 1922 

Dr. r. Yami'ulsky of the Columbia University of New 
York and former assistant at the Rubber Experiment .Sta- 
tion at Medan, Sumatra, made an investigation from Octo- 
ber 1921 until April 1922 upon the development of the 
leaves, the morphology and the anatomy of lilaeis Ruineen- 
iis. Further he studied the different varieties of this oil 
palm. 

Dr. Hj. Jknskn of Copenhagen, who joined the Danish 
expedition to the K.ci islands, worked at Buitenzorg in 
January and June 1922 on the preparation of the mate- 
rial destined for the museums in Denmark. 

Dr. Th. Mortensen arrived in January 1922 as the 
leader of the Danish expedition to the Kei islands, sent out 
by the Ra3k-0r8lcd fund at Copenhagen. Also after the end- 
ing of the expedition material of Phorids and pseudoscor- 
ponids was collected at Buitenzorg which, together with 
material of the same groups from Amboina, Kei and Banda, 
shall be worked out by Danish and Dutch specialists. 

Moreover, some observations were made on pseudo- 
cephalic moths and mimicry and much material for the 
Copenhagen museum was brought together. 

Dr. Morie.nsen was the first foreign guest in the new 
laboratory for marine investigations at Batavia. After his 
return from the Kei expedition he devoted himself in July 
and August 1922 to the artificial fertilization of various 
Kchinoderms which were collected by help of the motor boat. 



7.^ 


J^a.vimkr.man: A History of the Treub Laboratory 


Dr. 11. Hoschma, zoologist, :irriv«‘d in October l<>20froni 
Amsterdam and aided by (he HuitenzorK fund be remained 
until Septendjer ]<)22 in Netherlands India. DurinR the 
second half of 1 Q2 1 he was in charge of the Treub laboratory 
while Dr. V(jn Fabkr was still on leave. 

He spent his time in collecting the larvae of froxs, em- 
bryos of crocodiles and data about the coral-reef formation. 
In the first place he invesliRated the nutrition of the coral 
polyps, it becoming obvious that symbiosis of the coral 
polyps with zoo.xanthcllae is of the highest importance. On 
the island of Kdain in the liatavia bay the budding of corals 
was studied and much material collected, buddinn beinR also 
obtained by exiieriment. Observations were made about the 
variation of the colonies of reef corals in connection with 
different factors of growth. For other researches much 
other zoological material was brought tOKether. At Tjibodas 
a study was made of /Vnura larvae and the peculiar moiitli 
apiiaratus of the larva of Mennlophrys monlana. 

From January until July l'J22 Dr. Boschma attended as 
a Ruest the Danish expedition to the Kei islands. 

1923 

l*rof. Dr. Th. J. .Stomi'S, iirofessor of botany at the I’ni 
versity of Amsterdam, occupied himself from June until 
Seiitember l'i2,l chiefly witli the fixation of material for <>m- 
bryoloRical and cytoloRical invest iRations. Much material 
lias been collected further for the .\msterdam herbarium 
and museum. Prof. Siomhs spent a great deal of lus time 
at Buitenzorg and in Java generally in visiting the botanical 
garden ,and the imnintain garden at Tjibodas. Bandoeng 
and envirtjnments, ('rarul. Central Java. Pasuruan. the 
Idjen massive, the Tengger mountains, tlte south coast and 
the ct>ral-reefs in the bay of Batavia for the purpose of get- 
ting acejuainted with the flora of Java. .\lso a voyage through 
Stimatra was made. As a matter of course he interested 
liimself mostly in the irhenomena of variability of tro[)ical 
plant life. 

Mrs. Dr. TiiKki.A R. Rksvoi.i, of the Botanical laboratory 
of the (Jhristiania Cniversity remained in Java from Novem- 
ber 102.1 until January 1024. The main object of Imt so- 
journ was to obtain a general idea of the tropical flora. In 
connection with her studies on the mountain vegetation of 
Norway she devoted herself mainly to the flora of the vol- 
canoes. In the Treub laboratory she occuiried herself with 
an investigation ui)on the structure of leaf-lmds, chiefly of 
plants occurring in the rain forest. 

1924—1926 

H. Nakano twice paid visits to Buiten/org, once in 
February 1924 on liis way from hairope to Japan and for 
the second time during May and June of the same year. He 
occupied himself repeating the experiments made by Siahl 
on the at(enuate<l leaf lips. 

Prof. Dr. K. vON Goebki., professor of botany in Miln- 
chen, stayed from September 1924 until January 1925. In 
the year 1885 Prof. vON Gokhki. paid his first visit to the 
laboratory for foreigners and various publications have been 
issued by him on the biology of tropical plants, in 1924 be 
studied different other biological subjects and made re- 
searches on the movements of the leaves of Lcersia hexandra, 
on the phenomena of sexual dimorphism of inflorescences, 
the morphology of the inflorescence of IJrticaceae, the col- 
lecting and economy of water by lichens, the dispersal and 
biology of Javanese liverworts. 

Prof. Dr. 11. Winkler of the University of Hamburg 
also visited for the second time Netherlamls India from 
September 1924 until March 1925 with the main purpo.se to 
collect material for the Hamburg museum. At Buitenzorg 
he brought together also material for cytological and 
morphological investigations. In the beginning of Novem- 
ber he set out for an expedition to the Schwaner moun- 
tains in West Borneo and collected a great many plants. 
After his return he spent his time mainly ])reparing this 
material. 

Miss Dr. L. Mi/H-KR from Bonn visited Java to get a 
knowledge of the tropical flora. For four months, until 
December 1924, she studied at Buitenzorg and Tjibodas the 
problem of the secretion of water by leaves and flowers of 
tropical plants. 

Dr. O. PosTiiUMOs from Groningen sent out by the 
Buitenzorg fund remained about the whole year 1925 in 
Netherlands India making many excursions on Java and 
joined an expedition to Djambi for the collection of paleo- 


botanical material. .At Buitenzorg and Tjibodas he occu- 
riied himself with an investigation upon (he internal struc- 
ture of some Polypodiaceae not yet studied. Furthermore 
he collected much material for future study of this subject 
and i>aleontoIogical material among which a collectionjof 
petrified wood from Bantam. 

Dr. B. H. Danser came in 1925 aided by tlie Buiten- 
zorg fund and dev^oled himself to taxonomic and genetic 
studies and made experiments on the hybridization of 
Stiuhytarpheta-s^wc'w^. Afterwards he remained for some 
years temporarily crrnnected with the Herbarium at Buiten- 
zorg. 

.A. J. P. Oort, a student of Utrecht who stayed eight 
momhs, until March 1925. and Mis.s D. ,Sok(,I)ragek of 
■Amsterdam I'niversity, paid a vi.sit to the Treub lalroratory. 

They used their time in the botanical garden at Buiten- 
zorg as well as in (he forest of Tjibodas (o get an insiglit 
in tropical nature. Mr. OoRi investigated in the Treub 
laboratory al.so the formatir>n and disappearance of amylum 
in leaves in connection with evai»oration. 

1926—1927 

Prof. R. Naka/.awa, mycologist of the Institute for ex- 
perimental researclies in Formosa, stayed at Buitenzorg in 
March 1926 ami made mycological investigations. 

(j. FaiR( iiii D Jr. remained from April until May 1926 and 
collected tnucli material for entomological studies. 

Prof. Dr. B. B. Marcovitcu, chief of the subtropical 
division of the Institute of applied botany at Leningrad, 
paid a visit to Buitenzorg during August and .September 
1926 making a study of tropical crops. 

Prof. K. Koi'i’t’ER i , professor of botany at the University 
of Krakow, worked at Buitenzorg from April until October 

1926 with the supi>ortot the International Education Board 
of Rockefeller Jr. He studied mainly the following [trob- 
lems: the formation of tubers by different phanerogams; 
the relation of pl.ints and ants; flie extracellular oxidizing 
ferments in the phaneroganis. 

Prof. J. W. Harms, prote.ssor of zoology at the University 
ot Tubingen, arrived witli two assistants, 12r. B. Kgoert 
and H. Fkiedkk h, early in September 1926. In the labora- 
tory for marine investigations at Batavia tliey studieil 
various subjects, a.o. the propagation of Periophthalmus 
and IVdeophlhidmus. (.)n account of ill-health Dr. Eca.KR r 
was compelled to return rather soon to Europe. Prof. 
Har.ms and Mr. Frieprich remained until March 1927; 
so did Mr. F. Weyer who came to Java in tlie end of De- 
cember 1926 to take Dr. Eca.KRi’s place. Prof. Harms in- 
vestigated further among other subjects the biological prob- 
lem.s of the coastal fauna of Java and islands off the coast; 
the morphology and physiology ot Lingula and the relation 
between the senescence and the internal secretion in apes. 

Misses 11. VAN Blommesiein and C . J. Tonkes, both 
.students of the University of Utrcclil, worked in the Treub 
laboratory from January until April 1927 and studied 
various plant families. For the same purpose they visited 
also Tjibodas for some lime. 

Dr. J. H. F. Umdc;rove and Dr. J. M. v. d. \T.erk of the 
Geological .Survey at Bandung stayed for .some lime at the 
Laboratory for marine investigations at Batavia making 
studies of coral-reefs and (he occurrence of foraminifera. 

Prof. Dr. H. Burc.eee of the lhuver,sity of Wiirzhurg in- 
vestigated from October until the end of the year 1927 differ- 
ent sapropliytes and found the occurrence of a symbiosis of 
orchids with bacteria beside tiic mycorrhiza, both symbionts 
inhabiting different or the same organs of the plant. Re- 
searches in Plurope will elucidate the physiological relation 
between symbionts and higher iffanls. Also various Hepali- 
cae were collected for genetical researches. 

1927—1928 

Dr. G. L. Funke, teacher at the gymnasium of Schiedam, 
aided by the Buitenzorg fund, studied from November 

1927 until March 1928 the biology and anatomy of leaf- 
shedding Leguminosae and the anatomy of different families 
of lianas. He made observations on the longitudinal growth 
of climbing Araceae, the leaf joints of various plants, 
heterophylly of Pipcraceae, and investigated the physiologi- 
cal characters of two different races of Aspergillus oryzae. 

Prof. Dr. H. Kniei* of the University of Berlin was en- 
abled by the German troi)ical fund for botanists to work in 
Buitenzorg for live momhs, from November 1927 until 



I ) AMMi.KM \N : A History of the Treub Laboratory 


March 1^28. The following researches were made by him;- 
the propagation of riiylophthora Itibni, especially the rela- 
tion between the mode of life on Certain host-plants and 
the formation of zygotes; the sexuality of tlie Auricularia- 
ceae; further he occupied liimself with lire culture of Java- 
nese water fun^i (SaproleKuiaceae and Blast ocladiaceae), of 
Tuhisiiiila, the pure culture of rstilaitineae and searclied 
for the conditions by which copulation is achieved; the 
isolation of both tfie components of the Hymenolichens; 
moreover, he investiKated the conditions of germination of 
seeds of cosmopolitan plants, especially of weeds. 

Miss Or. M. Zt i-.r/KU of the (iovernment Health Deirart- 
inent at Berlin stayed from April until May l‘r28 in the 
laboratory at Builen/oi k si udying the occurrence of prot o/oa 
in plants, cliietly those in latex-containinn plants. 

1928—1929 

Prof. Dr. II. VON (ii i ritNBKKO of the Dniversity of 
Rostock arrived in November 1'>28 and remained until 
March I'D't. The oliject of his researches was to ascertain 
both (luautitatively and iiiialitatively the assimilation of 
tropical i)Iatits. Time, however, jitoved to be too short to 
solve this extensive problem s.itisfactorily, so the assiittila- 
tion of a few types only could be determined and material 
for future researches could be collected. Another subject 
studied by him was the inflore.scence and the llowers of 
Zinfjibcraceae. Gesneriaceae. .\raceae a.o., especially in 
view of the secretion of water. Kurther studies were made 
on the develoimiental history of the leaf-lips of Dioscorca 
and Smilax species, mycorrhi/.ae. cylolotty and develop- 
ment of the arillus. the mechanism of the openinn of fruits. 
rteotroiMsm of the roots of orchids, hydalhodes of ferns, fun- 
rjous yalls. and phanerogamous fiarasites. Kor all these in- 
vestigations much material has been brought togetirer. 

Btr)f. Dr. K\v.\n RoRinA of the I'niversity of Kyoto, 
Jairan, after attending the Fourth Pacilic .Science Congress 
worked for some two weeks. June 1'22'i. in the Treub labora- 
tory. He investigated the transpiration of cut leaves ot 
epiphytes. 

Prof. Dr. A. Thienemann of the Hydrobiological station 
at Plon (Holstein). Prof. Dr. F. Rtn inkk of the Hydrolho- 
logical station at Dunz (Austria). Prof. Dr. 11. J. Fei eruukn 
of the Zoological institute of the I'niversity at Munster, 
remained in Netherlands India from .Sei>teniber 1928 until 
the end of July 1929. The aim of their voyage was the 
limnological research of the tropics. Besides Java also 
Sumatra and Bali were visited. The brimks and ponds of 
the Botanical Garden and the lake of Tjigombong were in- 
vestigated in tlie first i)lace. llieii different lakes in Ivast 
Java in the neighbourhood of the Lamongan were the next 
objects and further those of Sarangan and Ngebel. The 
conditions of life, the cliemical compo.sition. tlie temi»era- 
ture. the sedimentation and the life-history of the organisms 
occurring in the lakes, rivers, brooks and springs in Java. 
.Sumatra and Bali were simlied. .\ more exact examination 
and preparation of the material collected at the various 
localities took place in the Treub laboratory. 

On the occasion of the Foutth Pacific .Science (Congress 
held in May 1929 in Java the Laboratory for marine investi- 
gations at Batavia was visited by many members of the said 
congress. 

Dr. Th. MoR tENsEN of the Zoological museum of Copen 
hagen stayed before the congress a feu weeks on the island 
of Onrust and occupied himself with the culture and study 
of echinoderm larvae. 

Dr. ll. Bust MMA from la-yden performed some investiga- 
tions alter the congress during a month on reef corals while 
awaiting the departure of the .Snellius expedition. 

1929—1930 

Dr. D, Stocker from Bremerhaven studied from October 
1929 until .March 19J0 the a.ssimilation and evaporation of 
sun- and shade-leaves and some herbs. In connection liere- 
wilh an investigation was made upon the variation in the 
carbon dioxide content of the air at Buiten/.org and Tjibodas. 
Further a number ot e.xcursions were made to obtain a gen- 
eral survey of the iilant-geography and associations in the 
tropics. 

Dr. G. KjEi-EtiERt. from Lidkdiiing, Sweden, used in 
.April 193t) a work-table in the Treub laboratory having 
spent about the wliole year before in Celebes (o study the 
flora of that island. 


Fr. Vickdoorn of Utrecht remained from April until 
.September 10.1(1 and collecti'cl in Java and Sumatra various 
bryophytes especially in view of the revision ami study of 
the variability of the Fnillaniaceae and LijeuMeaccae. 

1930 — 1931 

Prof. |.)r. G. Bi.tM from h'reilmrg (Switzerland) stayed 
from .August 1930 until Maicli I'Dl in Java and investigated 
.It Buiten/.org the suction force, the evaporation and os- 
motic pressure of a great many tropical jdants. 

I’rof. Dr. O. Renner, professoral the University of Jena, 
studied during his slay from November 1930 until March 
1931 the water intake of eiiiphytic algae, mosses, lichens and 
ferns; the t ransportation of water by aerial roots; the liiology 
of fern sporangia; the wax glands oi I'itus visited tiy ants. 

Prof. Dr. A. Frnst from Zilrich visited Java from Novem- 
ber 1930 until March 1931. 1 le investigated the pollination 
and fertilization of heterostylous Rubiaceae in connection 
with Ids tormcr rcscarclics on the same suhjcct. h’urthet 
he examined tlu‘ frnctihration of i'aulfrpa species discovered 
by him for the first lime in tropical lornis of this genus. Ik- 
collected also mueh material tor cmbryological and cytolo 
ical rescarchesof parasites and sapropliytes to be worked out 
after his return to Furopc. In connection with bis visit to 
Krakatau 25 years earlier lie made anew a tiiii to this island. 

.Mrs. I9r. M. Icrnsi-.Si iiwar/i:sha( n worked together 
with her husband and made herself a large colhictiun of cy- 
tological material, especially of palms, and cuUuted hetero- 
sporic mosses. 

.Miss Dr. B. Poi.AK from .\nisterdam, sent out by the 
Buitenzorg fund, stayed from h'ebniary 1930 until June 
1931. Tlie chief aim of her visit was to get an insight into 
the problem of the form.it ion of peat in tlie tropics. Besitles 
different localities in Java, tlie forest swamps in .‘sumalia 
and Borneo were visited. 

Miss K. Grace Wmiie from Wilson College, Uhamhers- 
bnrg, Pa. (U..S..A.). stayed only a short time, March- .Atuil 
1 93 1 , at the Laboratory for marine investigations at Batavia 
making compatalive anatomical studies of the Plagiosiotnes. 

Miss Dr. .A. G. Stokey, professor of botany at South Had 
ley. Mass. (U..S..A.), worked in the Bolaidcal lalioralory 
from May until July 1931. She studied the germination of 
lorn spores and the development oi tlie prothallia espeeially 
those of representatives of more inimitive families. 

Prof. Dr. R. Boi u.i.enne, director of the Botanical in 
stitute at laegc (Belgium) and .Mrs. M. Boi'll.LENNE re- 
mained from .April until November 1931. Prof. llofiL- 
EKNNE devoted himself mainly to the study of the interna 
and external factors infiueru:ing the formation ot roofs. 

Mrs. BciuiLl.t.NNE iierlormed in collaboralion with Dr. 
Kooliia.as, chief of the Pliylochcniical laboratory, some 
researches on the toxicity of the seeds of IPnhyrrhizus and 
of rotenone, the active principle of the Derris root. 

Dr. M. (,)(.Ai'A from Tokyo spent his lime, August — 
November 1931. chiefly in collecting Javanese ferns. 

Dr. (A .A. Gehi.sen, formerly a German idanter in Java, 
stayed only a short time at Buitenzorg, Septenilier — 
November 1931. examining the lotniation of roots in in- 
verse cuttings. 

Miss J. Collier of the Deparlmenl of Tropical Medicine 
at Boston worked for some weeks in 1931 in the Zoological 
Museum investigating the occurrence of protozoa in Hie 
intestines of termites and cockroaches in connection with 
the digestion of cellulose. 

1931 — 1932 

Miss Dr. L. It. van Lummel stayed from March 1931 tiiilil 
Dclober 1932 on the island of Uniiist and gatliercd 
observations on the peiioilical appi-arancc of luminous 
worms and on the disapiiearance of algae in corals by dark- 
ne.ss in connection w'itb the significance of tlicse algae as 
symbionts of the corals. 

Prof. R. Kolkwitz from Berlin remained from October 
1931 until March 1932 in Java slaying more than tlircc 
months at Tjibodas. He occufiied himself with a study of 
the algal flora of the water in connection with its mineraliza- 
tion; of atmopbylic algae of the virgin forest and of marine 
micro-algae. 

Prof. R. WoLiERLcK, professor of zoology at the Univer- 
sity 111 Leipzig, came to Buitenzorg after his voyage to 



75 


Dunath and van History of the Beri-beri Investigations 


North (>lebc8 and the Sandhi and Talaud arrliiptdaKo for a 
short time, July 10.^2, preparing for a trip to Central Ce- 
lebes. He paid also special attention to the plankton «)f the 
ponds in the Botanical Garden. 

Mi.ss Dr. A. Ki.kinuuon te of the Laboratory for technical 
botany at Delft came for the Riiitenzorn fund and remained 
from April until AuKUst 19.32. In the Treub laboratory she 
examined the formation of latex in //ercrt cuttings. Further 
she travelled in Java to oljlain an idea of the llora as well as 
of the work of the experiment stations, the different crops 
and some technical businesses. 

Prof. Dr. 1’. Mktzner, professor of botany at Cireifswald. 
worked at BuitenzorK from September 1932 until January 
I93t and studied tlic sleepinR movements of different trop- 
ical plants and non-tropical ones under tropical conditions. 
Moreover, he occupied himself with a study of epii)hyllous 
mosses and lichens and the anatomy of dorsiventral aerial 
roots. 

1933—1934 

I'rof.OuANO Te Yio. professor of zoology at the Uttiversity 
of IVipinK, spent some weeks, June July 1933, at BuitenzorR 
collcctiiiR material for the Natural History Museum ;it 
PeiiiiriK. 

Prof. M. Roeknukk of the .\nrienltural t'ollene at 
Bonn-Popi)elsdorl visited BmtenzorR for a second time 
from AuKUSt 1933 until February 1934. His first visit took 
place in 1906 1907. On this occasion he studied the de- 

pendence of the Lorantliaceue upon their host-plants, tlie 
physiology ot the germination of these parasites ;ind the 
sexual ratio of Curiia l^apaya. He made a long journey in 
Java, to the Celebes and Moluccas in order to get ac(iuainte<i 
with the different fornis ol vegetatifui and the various croi)s. 

Dr. F. A. .'^iiiM'-Kt from Freiburg (B.ivaria) st.ived at 
Biiitenzorg at the same time as Prof. Koeknicke. The pur- 
jiosc of his vi.sit was the study of mimicry and protective col- 


ours in tropical animals. Many peculiar examples could be 
observed and pictured, mucli material also for ftiture investi- 
gation being brought along. 

IvAR Elvers, botanist fron; the I 'niversity of .Stockholm, 
occupied himself during his stay from December 1933 until 
Ajiril 1934 with the collection of njaterial for cytological and 
embryological researches especially of Annonaceae and 
Myristicaceae. 

Prof. ('. F. McCUiNG. director of the Zoological labora- 
tory of the I’niversity of Pennsylvania, paid a sliorl visit to 
Buitenzorg, in July 1934, having remained a year in Japan 
as visiting professor at d'okyo. He brought together cyto- 
logical material of grasshoppers for the .study of the relatiorr 
betweerr the [trojrerties of the germ cells ami those of the 
organisms develoiring from them. 

Miss Th. FKfi.vioNr of the Institute Pasteur at Lille 
worked in the I'reub laboratory for a fr'w weeks. Novent- 
ber — Dcceridier 1934. after a voyage through California in- 
vestigatiirg rnycorthiza in C itrus. 

Idr. SiEiN.MANN, formerly connected with the Tea Ex- 
ireriment Station at Buitenzorg, stayetl as a guest in the 
laboratory during 1933 and 1934. Besides an extensive 
study of platrts and animals dejricted on ancient Hindu 
monuments in Java he made also investigations iiiion the 
maturation of tropical fruits, especially the occurrence of 
acet.ddehyd; on the mycorrlii/a in Java in connection with 
t he occur rerice of Kluzoitouta halaiuoUr, on adulterations 
.ind suri-ogales of tea. making further some ecological oh 
servations otr i)hytoidankton in certain fresh-water lakes. 

A work-table in the laboratory w'as also put at the dis 
posal of Dt. A. Rani during 1934 after his retirement. He 
spent his tiirre in culturing various termite fungi and the 
pure culture of I’stilagineae on rice and the witches’ broom 
of Mcluslotna mahilnilhrirum-, furthermore he made an inves- 
tigation of the fructilication of a cleistogamous i)lant, 

( I lion (I laurtfoliu. 


\ siioiir iiisroin ok bi:ju bkhi i,\\ i:si ica T l()^s 
lA TiiK m:ihi:bl\M)s im)iks 

hy 

W. F. Donatii, M,1), 

i\iitrili()n liesearcli Inutilufe, Batavia 
and 

A. il. van Veen, Ph. I). 

h'ijfanan Institiitc, Batavia 


For nearly a ta ntury phy.sieians in tlie Nether- 
lands Fast Indies have been interestt'd in l)(>ri- 
beri. Important contributions whieli ultimately 
solved the beri-beri problem havt* appeared in 
the “ Geneeskundij^ rijdschrift voor Netler- 
landsch-Indie” (Netherlands Indies Medical 
Journal). The first of these articles was pub- 
lished shortly after this Journal was established in 
1851. From the arlicics it appears that as far 
back as 1854 beri-beri in the Netherlands Fast 
Indies was considered to be a “cosmic tlisease,” a 
h\ l)rid of febris interniittens and ty phoid fever. 
Between 1860 and 1870 some clinicians saw an 
intimate kinship between the disease and rheuma- 
toid arthritis, and warmly rccommemled massaj^e 
as an effect ive cure. During the same period, dis- 
cussions regarding the relationship of beri-beri 
with kidney disease and with pernicious anemia 
took place, and the possibility that an inflamma- 
tion of the spinal meninges might underlie the 
heri-beri syndrome was considered. 


* The Editors of "Science and Scientists in the Nether- 
lands Indies” are under great obligation to Dr. 1. Snapper, 
who kindly translated, condensed, and edited the authors’ 
Report of 193X to the Ix'ague of Nation.s (Health Organiza- 
tion, Technical ( 'omtiiission. i)tJ. 33. 1938). 


In 1880 it yvas pointed out in the Dutch litera- 
ture that tlietary influenn-s might be resj)onsible. 
One author yvas ol the- opinion that beri-l)i‘ri was 
due to drit'd fish imported from C'hiiia, wliile 
other elinicians stressed their c.\peri(‘nee that the 
beri-beri patient recovered quickly when given a 
European diet, a fart yvhieh led tliem to belic've 
that lack of proteins and fats yvas the main ( ausa- 
tive factor. Soon, how('ver, interest in the possi- 
bilities of the nutritional etiology of heri-beri 
waned, and most authors devoted their attention 
to possible biological factors, d'lie theory that 
intestinal worms, especially Trichuris tritiiiuris 
and A ncylostoma duodcnalc, might cause beri-hcri 
was advanced and soon forgotten. About 1882 
the possibility that tlu' disease might be due to a 
miasmatic infection was fret'ly discussed. 

In view of the paucity of results aehic'Ved in 
coml)ating beri-beri yvhieh was raging among the 
troops on active service in Achin, the govt'rnnu nt 
tlecided to stuid the biochemist I^FKI'.i.uakino and 
the neurologist VViNKi.ivR from Holland to the 
Indies to study the problem. Fijkman, a young 
medical ofticer of the Netherlands Indies Army, 
was appointed assistant to these scientists. Act- 
ing as a ('ommittee, they' “isolated’' in 1887 a 



Donath and van \ kkn: History of the Beri-beri Investigations 


76 


special micrococ cus as 1 he causat i v'c organism and 
advised careful disinfection of all objects with 
which the l)erid)eri [patient had come in contact. 
On the authority of these scientists the infectious 
character of beri-beri remained an accepted 
theory for sev'eral years. 

Fhere were, how ever, a bwv dissenting opinions. 
One was defended, around 1887, with great fervor 
by VAN OiKRHN, a i)ract icing physician in Am- 
sterdam who had never been in the Netherlands 
East Indies and had never had any personal ex- 
perience with beri-lieri. He decided, after a criti- 
cal historical survev of the literature, that the dis- 
ease developed when peo|)le were fed on white 
milled rice. .Mt hough wrong in his cotitention 
that milled rice contained a toxic substance, his 
therapy was correct. He concluded Irom his 
study of th(' lit(‘ratnre that bc'ri-lu-ri does not 
occur as Imig as tin- natives eat hand-pounded 
rice, “gabah,” and that patients having the 
disease rapidly improve when fed with galtah. 
Unfortunately van Dikri.n was no (experimenter 
and had to found his theory by interpretations of 
the investigations of others. His correct con- 
clusions as to therapy vveri' si'veiA'ly criticized by 
the infectionists. In the ensuing battle of opin- 
ions, VAN Dikrkn not only attackt'd the latter 
but for many years continued to defend his toxin 
theory against the new discovaery that l)eri-beri 
was a deficiency disease. ( 'onsecpieiUly, it is 
often forgotten that van 1 )ii;ri;n’s theraiieutic 
solution of the beri-beri problem was sound, al- 
though his theory as to etiology was fallacious. 

'I'here wana* very few other authors who re- 
jected thi' infection theory. Ik^twcen 1898 and 
1896 it was generally accepted that acute beri- 
beri, (^specially, was highly contagious. de- 

.structive effect of methylene blue on l)eri-l)eri 
bacteria was carefully described and various 
reiiK-dies, such as bapatjeda (.Scaevola kocmigh) 
and diuretin, were recomimnided for the disease. 

Eijk.vian, in tht; meantime, had been appointed 
director of the newly establislual l.aboratory for 
Pathological y\natomy and Bacteriology at 
WeltevTeden after the departure of Pi' kci.haking 
and WiNKLiCR. During the jieriod of controver.sy 
between the supporters of the infec'tion theory, 
those of the toxin theory, and the few who as- 
sumed that malnutrition was a partial cause of 
beri-beri, he energetically continued investigat- 
ing the cause of the disease. In an article written 
in 1889 he coiu luded that, although no grounds 
exisltal for abandoning tlu* infection theory, 
neither could any positive arguments be ad- 
vanced in its favor. 

In the following year appeared his well-known 
work on polyneuritis gallinarnm and beri-beri, 
in which he drew attention to the great similari- 
ties and relatively small differences (even from 
the histohjgical point (d view) between chicken 
polyneuritis and human beri-beri. Carefully, 
step by step, he built up his dietary deficiency 
theory. In this classical publication he writes 
cautiously, “At the present time no facts are 
known wliich compel us to connect beri-beri with 
the diet as directly as wanild appear to be the case 
with chicken polyneuritis.” IvtjKMAN’s investi- 
gations were interrupted by illness, Init in 1891 
he resumed his work and showed that beri-beri 
in prisons was not caused by faulty drinking 
water. In 1892 he published a follow-up of his 
article on chicken polyneuritis, dealing at greater 
length with the pathological aspects of the 
disease. 

In 1894 Grijns, who was to become one of the 


out.standing defenders of Eijkman’s theories, 
was attached to the Laboratory for Pathological 
Anatomy and Ikicteriology at W(‘ltevr(‘den. 

In 1896 Eijkman again drew attention to pol- 
i.shed rict* as a cause of chicken polyneuritis. 
However, he then still assumed that a “poison” 
present in starch was tlu' causative factor and 
that there want* in or lU'ar tlu* rice husk one or 
more sub.stances which lU'Utralized or dc^stroyed 
the “poison.” According to him, the.se “ pro- 
tt"Ctiv(‘ substances” (later known as vitamins) 
occurred not only in the husks of rice, but also in 
other foodstutTs, such as meat. He considered 
that the “poison” was not pre-e.\istent in the 
milk'd rice, but a.ssumed that it might be formed 
during passage through tlu' digestive tract. 
Though he thought that the differences between 
the symptoms of human beri-lx'ri and those of 
chicki'ii polyneuritis were great, he ck'arly 
pointc'd out that his observations and the results 
of his investigations might be of ust' in reva'.ding 
the cause of human beri-beri. 

Eijkman'.s experiments in the Netherlands 
Indies were' interrui)ted when, in March 1896, 
he w«is obliged to go to the Netherlands on sick 
k'ave. In 1898, while profes.sor of l)acteriology 
and public health at the EiuN'ersily of Utn'cht, 
he was still (jccupied with the experiments he had 
started in the Indies. In an article on beri-beri 
and diet, which in some ways ma>' be regardc'd 
as the conclusion of his work in the Batavia 
Lal)oratory, he emphasized his theory that beri- 
beri was not caused by rice alone, as was com- 
monly supposed, but also by sago, lb' tlu'refore 
recommended that the main food in prisons 
should l)e unmilled rice. 

Notwithstanding the numerous fe\'ers(‘S he had 
experienced during his career in the Indies, 
partly because of unsatisfactory lu'alth, Iujkman 
built up his tlu'ory indefat igably and with ut- 
most caution, basing his ideas on the results of 
his own obser\ations and experiments rather 
than upon |)lausible hypotheses. In this resiaci 
he stood far al>ove most of his contemi)oraries. 

EtJKMAN was succeeded in the laboratory at 
Weltevreden by Koi.i., with whom Ghijns now 
bt;came associated. Gkijns continued Eijkman’s 
experiments and, on the basis of his (jwm observa- 
tions, promptly denied the production of a spt'cific 
beri-beri toxin. This was a furtlu'r st(‘p in the 
direction of the dietary deficiency theory. How- 
e\er, it was many years before Eijkman gava? up 
his theory that beri-l)eri toxin was productai from 
carbohydrates and was neutralized by the pro- 
tective substances in fooilsfulTs. 

In 1897 V(jRDKRMAN, who had been of great 
servic(‘ to nu'dical science in other fiehls, pub- 
lished an excellent report showing clinical e\'i- 
dcnccthat the use of polished rii easthe i)rinci])al 
article of human diet was followed !)>• beri-beri, 
and that the substitution of unmilled rice caused 
the disease to disappear. Eijkman recognized 
the significance of Vordi:rman’s clinical results 
in the light of his own ol)S(?r\ at ions on chicken 
polyneuritis. However, the conclusions of lUjK- 
MANand V'oknitRMAN were not generally accepted 
and xarious investigators ad\'anced objections. 

Van (ioRKi .vi criticizc'd the methods VhiRiucR- 
MAN had used in his investigations of the di(*ts of 
prisoners. He refused to admit a connection be- 
tween Eijk.man’s polyneuritis experiments and 
beri-beri, and canitinued to support the infection 
theory. Gravknsticin, although refusing to go 
beyond admitting that a better diet had a bene- 
ficial inlluenci' on the course of the diseast', was 



Donath aiul VAN \'kkn: History of the Beri-beri Investigations 


ablf to show a clear connection between diet and 
beri-b(‘ri during an outljrealc of the disease in the 
island of 'J'itawaai. Grfjns' expc'riinents, which 
showed that the inunj^t) bean (katjang idjo) act<‘d 
as a i)reventive and as a nanedy for chicktai poly- 
neuritis, failed to convince the opponents of the 
liietary theory; and in 1900 van dkk S( hki-ik, an 
(Xpert on tropical nualicine, declared that, in 
many cases, diet could not account for tlu' pres- 
ence of beri-b(*ri. 

In spit(‘ oi the differint; oi)inions ol other inves- 
tigators (ikijNS continued his research. In 1901 
he announct'd that chicken polyneuritis v\as not 
caused by a deficiency of proteins or salts, that 
tresh polished rice Cfjuld produce beri-beri just as 
surely as polished rice vvInVh had Ixaui .stored for a 
lon^ time, that the fatty substanci's of the rice 
tailed to jn'event polyneuritis, and that the suit 
stances in rice husks which prevent polyneuritis 
were mostly lost or destroyed in the usual process 
(j 1 converting .i>abah (threshed but induisked rici*) 
into iKiIished rice. Finally, he conlinm-d his 
torni(‘r conclusion that some kinds of legumes 
(katjany) had a curative effect on chicken pol\ 
neuritis. I’ urt hernion-, he asserted that polv 
neuritis ^^allitlarunl was not due to any form of 
starch. Here he disaKnaal with ICijkman, who 
at tlu' time still maintaimal th.it toxic substances 
probai)ly wiae formed in tlu' intestint's from 
special khids of starch. Ghjjn.s did not consider 
it necessary to assume the presence or the produc- 
tion (jf a t(J.\in presumed to l)e neutralized b\' the 
‘‘ protect i\e” substance. 

Alter two decades oi lix'ely contro\ers\' (1880 
1900), the supporters ol \ arious theories as to the 
etiology of beri-beri appear to have buri<‘d the 
hatchet temporarily, and pulilieations on the 
cause ol the disease became infre<[uent. One 
writer in iOO.l attril.uted the various manifesta- 
tions ol l.)eri-beri to poisoning by oxalic acid and 
certain organic substances which he thought W(‘re 
produced by fungi in the intestines. \ an 
(tOKKiM in 1904, alter another survey of the 
current state ol the beri-beri (pjestion, ai)parently 
->till championed the infeition theory. 

Interest in the beri-beri problem nwived aft«‘r 
1905, and both Fijkman'.s and Grijns’ opinions 
apiH-ar to have gained ground steadily. 4'he in- 
fection theory receded into the background, and 
the dehcieiicy tln'ory acfiuiretl more and more 
adherents, partly in consequence of llri.snoM' 
Por’s expi'rimeiits (1906-1907) which showi*d 
that (jRlj.N.s’ oliservations on the use ol katjang 
idj() in chicken pcjlyiumritis held good for human 
bmi-beri. Ihis conclusion .soon aflerwarils was 
borne out by other findings, similarly based on 
observatitms ol pri.soiu'is sullering from beri-beri. 

An article by J)onaih and .Si‘Kcv ron the jm)- 
tective action ol v'arious legumes and seisls of the 
Indies conlirmed, in the main, (ikijNs’and Ht'i.s- 
iloFF Pol’.s investigations. 4 he same conclu- 
sion was reached by Janskn in connection with 
other f(.)odstulfs rich in vitamin Bi. 

rile i:onnection between polyneuritis galli- 
narum and lieri-lieri gradually bi'caine more iw i- 
dent as Ilt'L.snorF Pol’s observations on the 
ellects ol aqueous extracts of katjang idjo 
in cases ol Imm.m beri-lieri were conlirmed 
!)}■ Gkijn.s and Kii.wir of Joni.f. .At (his 
sl.ige, hajKMAx’s iheor\- (as aniplilied by 
GiKijns, lli LsiioFF Pot., KiFWiT OF J()N(;f, and 
others) that beri-beri is c.iu.sed by dietary defi- 
ciency was generally aciepted, but even FljK- 
man’s colleagues disagreed <d)out se\ eral details. 

In 191 1, Grijns tried without sm'cess to i.solate 


the active principle of pee husks (dedek). His 
lailure is not surprising in \iew of the limited 
facilities and methods at his disposal. He was, 
however, able to show that the anti-neuritic 
princi()al in rice bran was not, as was frequently 
supposed, c.g. by SciiAi mann, made up of or- 
ganic phosphorus compounds. 

Hu -SIIOFF Pot, ('ontested once again the opin- 
ion that pol\ neurit is gallinarum v\as actualK 
a torm of “ ner\ c-starvation ” due to a deficiency 
of ct'rtain indispensablt* substances, either phos- 
phorus or other compounds as yet unknown. 1 le 
recalled earlier theories and, by feeding cocks 
with fermented Ixiiled or unboiled rice, attempted 
again to discover whethi'r micro-organisms or 
toxins might be responsible for chicken poly- 
neuritis. He failed to reach any definite conclu- 
sions, finding onl>’ that lermented rice which 
subsc“<[uently had been washed would cause poly- 
neuritis more readily than while rice which had 
been processed in the ordinary manner. Neither 
ferniimted rice water nor the org.anisms which 
liroduced the fermentati(tn made the birds more 
susceptible to the disease. 

(iKljNS, in another article, pointed out that 
Hi:i..shuff Poi.'.s extieriments in no w;iy contra- 
dicted tile “ ner\'e-starvalion ” hypothesis, even 
(hough nothing definite (ould as yet lie statixl 
concerning the substance lacking in the ner\es. 

Grijns |)ersisted in his opinion that some diet- 
ary di'liciimcy, and not a microlic, was iirobably 
the factor underlying both polyneuritis and beri- 
lieri. At (hes<inie time hajKMW drew attent ion 
(o (he difficull it‘s connect ed with (he exiilanalion 
of t he .qiparent cures of jiigeon polyneuritis In 
KCl, \a('l. and other substances. 

After Fi nk had introduced the notion of \ita- 
mins, the idi-a of “ protect i\ e” sulistances gradu- 
ally i)ecame familiar, and the theory of an un- 
balanced diet as the cause of i)olyneuritis galli- 
narum and beri-bi'ii gained new ground. 

In 1916 ICijKM.VN was able to exi)lain certain 
sym|)toms (concerned with inanition, I'tc.) which 
until thim had been obscure, and which Hi i.siluFF 
pot- and others had ci(e<l as e\dd(mce against the 
“nerve-starvation” (now modernized under the 
naiiK' “vitamin deticieiuw' ”) theor>'. Phis was a 
great step forward, and thenceforth, in the 
Netherlands Faist Indies, beri-beri research and 
the study of \'itamins were closel)’ linkixl. 

Ill the mi'antime, clinical eviihmce indiiating 
till' relationshi[) betweem beri-beri and milled rice 
had increased rapidly. In 1911 and in 1915 
Studies of beri-beri among miners at Billiton, 
made over the piireding fifty-year [leriod, dem- 
onstrated that a clear connection existed between 
beri-beri and the consumption ol [iroces.sed rice. 
At the same time, .Sciii FFNFR and Kta nfn pub- 
lished a scholarly and well-documented article in 
defense ol unhusked and parboiled rii e. 

In 1916. tether authors rej)orti‘d that the use of 
uidiuski'd, unmilled rici; and katjang idjo was 
effccti\e in curing beii-lieri in Javanese coolies 
on the I’kist ('oast of Sumatra, and that a diet of 
husked, unmilled rice, in place of polished rice, 
previmted the occurrence of the diseasic Good 
results also wm'e i^ibtained in .Sinalxing by chang- 
ing the diet of 8()() hiri'd coolies. In lialikiiapan, 
a diet of husked, uiimilled rice mi.xed with pol- 
isheil rice, and as much katjang idjo as [xissibh- 
in additional dishes, proveil to be successful. 

In 1918 it was pointed out that, while the vita- 
min deficiency theory was usually an adequate 
explanation of the occurrence of beri-beri, there 
were ca.ses in which the vitamin deficiency theory 



Donath and van Vi-aiN: History of the Beri-beri Investigations 


78 


aloiu* appart'iitly was insurticirnt to account for 
the (lis<‘as(‘, as in the outbreak in Achin in 1897. 
rile assumption that other complicatinji factors 
must be present continues to be accepti'd at the 
present time, and some factors in the etiolojjy of 
beri-beri are still obscure. 

At the same time, in a detailed report on the 
advantages and disadvantages of husked, un- 
milled rice as compared with polished rice, chloro- 
form and carl)on ti trachloridi' wert' recommended 
as preservatives for the unmilhal kind. 'The IMh. 
method lor the detertnination of the beri-bt'ii 
preventing properties ot riee was found to be un- 
satisfactory, and a better method, based on the 
dry weight of the alcoholic extract of rice, was 
proposed. 

It was (‘mphasiz(‘d that washing and steaming 
would deprive rice of its In-ri-bori preventing 
projierties, f.act which has since become gen 
erally recognized. During the following yt'ars, 
Jansen succeeded in perfecting a biological 
techniiiue that enable<l him, by nuxins of animal 
exj)erinieuts, to ('stimate the vitamin H| content 
not only of drdek .uul dedek extracts, but also of 
riee. 

Notwithstanding the gooil results obtained 
w ith husked, unmilled ric(' as a means of prevent- 
ing l)eri-beri, the use of this kind of rice in the 
army was temporarily abolished for technical 
and tactical re.asons. .As might have l)een ex- 
pectetl, Kjjkman at once oppo.s(*d (h(“ move, lie 
was of the opinion that polished rice, together 
with wholesome additional kxul, wouhl not con- 
stitute for the javam‘S(\ w host- staph- food is rice, 
a type of diet that would prevent l>eri-l)eri. He 
therefore predicted that the dis<ase would bioak 
out, and his prediction proved to be correct. 
In 1921 and 1922, the number of beri-beri cases 
in the arm\' had increased considerably, but a re- 
turn to a diet of unniilled rice with an ade(|uate 
IbO;, ( onlent ha<l an immediate benehci.il effect. 
Nowada\s the techni(|ue of nutrition has pro- 
gressed to such an extent that, since 198,1, the 
army in Java has again returned to a diet of pol- 
ished rice, together with adoitional foo<l of es- 
pecially good qualitw apparent l\ without any 
liarmful effects, though such a diet is not the 
cheap'est kind. 

Sriit'l F M'.K entirely agreed with Eijkman, but 
at the same time he pointed out that husked, 
unmilled rice might be replaced by j)artially- 
[xdished rice which not cmly still contained an 
adc-cpiate amount of vitamin H, that could be 
as.sessed by means of the test, but also had 
a much more attractive appearance. Kop pub- 
lidu-d a shcat report in 1920 in which lu- main- 
tained, contraiy to C UK k’s and Hi me’s statc-- 
meiits, that properly boiled potatoes contain a 
consideral)le ([uantity of vitamin lb, and accord- 
ingly he recommenoed that they be made the 
staple food for the army. His cipinion was cor- 
rect, prov ided the pcjfatoe.s wc-re [rroperly boiled, 
i.e. not boiled too long or boiled down. His 
rc-commeiiciat ion that boiled j^otatoes be made a 
staple food for the army was all right for that 
part of the army which would eat boiled pota- 
toes; Init as lor the native troops, it was obvi- 
ously an a priori impossibility, in view of (heir 
cu.->toms, tcj get tliem to eat pretatoes as their 
main focal in place cd rice. 

De Ra.vdi in 1921 and Biji.mkk in 1924, during 
New Guinea expeditions, demonstrated the im- 
portance of a cliet that would preve nt beri-beri. 

I he F.K.A.T.M. Congress, held in 'I'olvyo in 
1924, concluded that beri-beri must be included 


among preventable diseasc-s. Dr; Langen in 
various reports pennted out that, as husked, un- 
milled rice was not suited for transport and stor 
age, gabah (threshed rice) would be- much belter 
adapted for these- purposc-s. His proposal to 
utilize the- finest de-dek (bc-katoc-I), wliich is very 
rich in vitamins, involvc-d practical clifficultii-s 
that have not be-en ova-rconic- coinplc-tely even at 
the present time-. 

Aft(-r the- fundamental work of Eijkman and 
Grijns had laid (lu- loundations tor the recogni- 
tion of lu-ri lu-ri as a vitamin deficiency disease 
and the clinical proof had bc-c-n furnished bv 
physicians of tlu- Nc-therlands ICist Indies, an- 
otlu-r group ol scientists in the tropical Nether 
lancls succt-i-ded in isolating tlu- v itamin. J ansi n, 
alter showing that seerc-tin from gastric juice- and 
vitamin lb wc-re in no way connected, in 1920 
clescrib(-d tlu- first met hcnls ol extracting tlu- vita- 
min troni rica- husks (dedek), and cm[)hasizc-d the 
varying vitamin contc-nt of dc-dek. 

jANsi'iN usc-d a kind ctf ricc--l)ircl [Munia uuija) 
as an c-xpe-rinu-nf al animal and lonnd it much 
more- suitable- than c'oc'ks or j’'.g*“‘*ns, or the 
glatiks {Anindina oryzivorn) usc-d bv otlu-r inves- 
tigators. In 1920, he- and Mangkdi-.winoto 
showed that the- re-spiratory quotient was often 
reduced in ric(--ltirds (Java s[)arrows) c.ieficient 
in vitamin lb- 

In 192.b I ANSI, N published a detailc-d .article, 
of gre-al importimec- eve n ikjw, on the- lb content 
ol it large- nuinbe-r ol Indian loocistulls. In 1924. 
lu-showe-cl that the- e'onte-nts c)f vitamins A and lb 
and of e-nzynies and jirole-ins was as great in 
hundre-d-ye-ar-old rice- from Koiintji (Sumatra) 
as in ordinary rice. He- also indicate-cl how to 
Itrepare-, for various kinds of “State Itoarde-rs," 
ne-w die-ts that we-rc- more- a[)pc-tizing, more nutri 
live-, and cheaper, with the rc-sull that ove-r a 
million guilde-rs was save-d annutdly on prison 
die-ts alone-, a possil)ilit>' that so far had bee-n 
insuflicie-nt ly appre-e iated. 

Latc-r, Dgn.vih and Sput v r de-te-rmined the 
vitamin B content of a large- numlu-r Cif food 
stufTs, including boile-d milk, katjang bogor, and 
katjang idjo. A detailecl inve-stigation c.l the 
biological value- of prote ins and cd the vitamin 
.A, B|, and lb content of frt-sh, boiled, sttlfc-d, and 
drie-(l fish was carrie-d out by van Vei:n. He also 
deterrniru'd the- lb content of a large- numbe-r ol 
important foodstuffs consume-d by the popula- 
tion, the- army, and prisone rs, l lu- assays wc-re 
carried cjut on maize, sago, cassava, katjang idjo, 
katjang nu-rah, katjang ke-delee, etc. 1 heir 
vitamin content was e-xpre-sse-d in International 
( nits, to facilitate- the ealculation of rations. 

Finally J ANSEN and Donath suce-eeded in i.so 
lating vitamin lb in erystalline- although, as was 
late-r shown, not che-mically pure- form. I heir 
tests we-re confirme-el by ElJKMAN. At first, the- 
action ol tlu- crystalline preparation on lie-ri-be-ri 
gave- partially disappointing results; but late-r, 
far be-lte-r re-sulfs we re- oluaine-d afte r VAN Vl-.I-N 
had succe-eded in eliminating impurities from 
the e rystalline vitamin lb. 

At last the arguments were cicjscd. It was now 
proV(-d that vitamin B], the value of which was 
first demonstrated in chic-ke-n polyneuritis, was 
also the important fae tor in case-s ol human be-ri- 
be-ri, a fact vvhicdi until tlu-n had I)ee-n assunu-d 
but not proved. In re-cognition of his fundamen- 
tal work, which maele the ele-vi-lopment of mcjdern 
conea-pts of vitamins possible-, ElJKMAN was 
awareied the- Nobe-1 Brize- in 1929. He- clic-d in 
I9.J0. 




\\ \VIl:HI(:\^ PLANT III NTKR IN TIIL 
N i:Tlli:RLAN r)S i n dips 

hy 

David D. Faihcfiild, Ph.D., Sc.D. 

PfrsuIrnI Knwrilns. Fairrhihl Tropin,/ Can/rn, I nr., ( ioronul < irorc, In/r Princinal 

\uriru(tnn,f h'.rplorrr, I ni/ni S/o/r.s DrparInirnI of . \firirullurr. 

I. LI rri:A/()iu; a^d doctoh TRiajp> (1895-%)* 


On a i)caiitiiiil si)iiii^ morning I walked into 
the flaiihury Mijlani(<d Institute in ('..iioa. Its 
director, I’rolessor Ol io I'i.n/k,, was anxious 
lor me to niict a youiiL; lellow named Rapi'S 
wlu» worked in his laboratory, because Rapps 
exfx-cted to ^O out to JaN'-J in the near future. 
I'his yoiinj; man liad just ('ome throuydi a hor 
rible experience. While on his honeymoon, he 
and his bride had stayed iti a hotel lighted by 
Uas. It was Rapps’ first experience witli il- 
luminatin]i> ^as, and he had l)lowii out the lii;ht. 
flis jioor bride was as])hyxiati“d and he himself 
barely escaped death. 1 mention this as |)artial 
e.xpla nation ol certain incidents which oix urred 
when he reached Ruitenzor^. 

d'he great day finally arrived and I sailed off 
for java undiT Doctor d'Ri-.i’B’s chaix-ronage on 
a boat of the Netlunlaiifls-lndia Racket Hoat 
( Omp.iny. 

1 hat trip to Ja\a in the nineties held niori' of 
interest than any ocean \'oyage I have e\er 
taken. W'hen I boarded the iK)at in (ienoa and 
s.iw' the turbaned Sundanese stewards, the 
Malays in their Idue costumes, and the chil- 
dren’s ja'Aiiese nurses, or “liaboos,” in their 
sarongs, I realized that I was entering a new- 
world. Ry the time we reached Port Said, I had 
acijuired a considerable acipiaintance on tlu“ 
boat. 

I'aitering the Red Sea was a grc'at «‘\t*nt. 
When I came on deck the first morning “east of 
Suez,’’ the ladies la>' in the chairs all along the 

* Reprinted, with kind perniission of I li«* ropyi islit hoUl- 
• rs, fioin tlie nudior’s ‘'I’lie World was inv (farden ” i)i> 
fit 7y, 10,18 (New’ Volk: (’Maries Serilnier's Sons). 


deck clad in strange costumes or negligees - I 
Wiis not sure which. 'I'hey were nearly all bare- 
footed and the sarongs which thev wore were 
much shorter than the dresses of those days. 1 
took a hasty look around and decided that 1 had 
mistaken the hour; that men were not supposed 
to be on deck so early, 'riirniiig abruptly, I fled 
from what seemed a dc-finitely boudoir atmos- 
phere. Rut Tkia n reassured me, explaining 
that the women had ail donned native )a\anese 
costume simultaneously because it was a fixed 
rul(‘ ol the C'aptain that no lady could aiipear in 
native dress west of Suez. 

l-'roni hot Aden, we sailed dina tly across the 
Indian Ocean to the west ('oast of .Sumatra, an 
island which 1 believe holds mote tropic. d beauty 
and mystery than any othei spot in the worhl. 

1 he bewildering romanct' of the arrival in Pa- 
dang and my first evening among Ixtinboos, 
palms, and the noisy night insiets, comes liack 
to nu‘ oft('n. 1 do not understand how any one 
('an be content until he has experii-nced the 
wonder ot the trojiics. 

Round-the-world tourists of today who find 
the streets ol Ratavia iioisv' with motor tr.ilfu', 
policemen and bus(‘s, can h.ive no concei)tion of 
the sleepy .itmospheri’ which charac terized that 
old Dutch town in the' nineties. Its great open 
s(iuarc“, th(‘ Konings I’lein, was surrounded by 
enormous Fun.s trees and, in their shade, tnr- 
baiK’d Javanese wandc'red barefoot, swinging 
their bc'autiful liamhoo hats, or carrying on their 
shoulders loiig bamb<x» poles with baskets at 
each end. d'iiiy ponies trotti'd along, j)ulling 
some white-clad official sitting back to back vvitii 






FAik( hild: Buitenzorg and Doctor Treub (1895-96) 


80 


the (Irivi r in one of tfu* two-whi-elcd carts callc'd 
dos-i\-(los. 

In the hotel patio, tlu* j^lare of midday was 
temperc'd by the shade of ^ii^antic, overarchinj>; 
banyans, and an idyllic leisureliness pervaded 
(‘verythin^ everywhere. The “boys," in beauti- 
ful, handmade sarongs of brown and indij^o, 
came and went noiselessly across the patio aiul 
alon^; the verandah, speakinj* softly to each 
other in a lani^uaKc as musical as tin* speech of 
an Andalusian. Kvery afternoon after luncheon, 
a hush (U'sciMuled during the siesta hour. W’e 
drowsed happily, lisltMiinj.; to (lu* chatter of 
small parnjts in the branchi s of the trees and the 
occasional thud of a coconut as it fell to (he 
ground. 

I'he delight! ul village ol Huitenzor^, where I 
spent eij^ht months, lies in the saddh* between 
two smoking volcanoes, the vSalak and the 
Gedeh. A little railway train, manned by tur- 
baned natives, took me theri“. |(>ylnlly tooting 
its toy whistle, the train crossed the lowlands 
and wound up tlu* mountainside throu^^h the 
most fairylike and utterly delightful sciiiery. 
'Pile swampy plain was filh'd with giant ferns and 
Xipn palms, those stemless Oriental |)alms whose 
fronds resembh* giant cyc'ad leaves. A .strange 
mist hangs over these lowlands, makittg it an 
unhealthy place to live. 

.Soon the hills were reached, with their kam- 
pongs composed of pretty, little bamboo houses 
thatched with palm leaves and shaded by lofty 
clumps of feathery bamboo gently waving in the 
breeze, ('lean-sw(‘()t pathways l<‘d to the springs 
or brooks, where naked children and their 
mothers were taking a morning bath. Surround- 
ing every bamboo house was a bamlxto woven 
lu'dge, each one a different pattern. Hanging in 
little bamboo baskets from l)amboo poles were 
cooing doves, the favorite song birds of the 
Javanese. It s(‘emed a civilization dependent 
upon bamboo for both n<‘cessities and luxuries. 

Hefota* noon, I was installed at the one-story 
Hotel ( heniin de F<‘r in buitenzorg, and here I 
lived during the eight months of my sojourn. 
When I opened the simple woochui shutters of 
my room, 1 looked out on a thoroughfare crowd(‘d 
with traltic, but >'et a noiseless one. For al- 
though a human l)eing passed my window almost 
every .second throughout the day, he passcai 
silent 1)’, barefoott'd. 

My broad, hard bed was spotless, and on it 
lay one of th(»se curious, long, rouiul cushions 
with which the sleeper is supp(tsed to separate 
his knees at night for coolness. Festooned above 
the Ijed, on a metal frame, was a mosriuito net, 
another object which 1 had never seen before. 
Although this was in the days when few men 
bcsi(h'S Ross and I ni.onoi.i) Smiim had an idea 
that the mos<[uito could b«- anything but a 
nui.sanci', yet there was an undehned suspicion 
that the miasma the intangibli- something in 
the air which produced malaria was kept out 
at night by the me: hes of a moscpjito m-tting. 

Ihrcctor Tki.i n kindly insisted upon accom- 
panying nu- when I made my first visit to the 
(lardens. I must have delighted him with my 
a^toni.-hment wT.en he showed me the great 
avenue of huge ('anariuni trees {Canarium com- 
mune, Ja\'a Almond) which are so dramatically 
tropical with their weirdly buttressed root.s. 
'I'he trunk and limbs of the great trees were 
festooned with \ariegated climbing aroids 
{Pathos aureus and others) over whii h the liana, 


Rntada scandens, had climbed like .some gigantic 
reptile. At that tinu‘, this was undoubtedb' 
the most reniarkalde avenu(‘ of trc'es in all tlu 
world. 

Doctor 'rKKi’U next showial me an orchid with 
a thousand blossoms {(irammatophyllum spe- 
ciosum), and then took me to a tree from Africa 
which bore clust<‘rs of gold-(‘dgcd, .scarlet 
flowers. 'Phey wa-re the great, flaming, cup- 
shaped blossoms of the African Pulip tree 
{Spathodea campanulala). As he picked up a 
fallen flower, he (“xplained that, while in the Imd. 
the gorgeous, red corolla had bei-n lu‘ld in its 
en\-elope of sepals by tough leathery bracts 
which contained a watery fluid under prt'ssure. 
He had seen birds peck at these buds and had 
watched the fluid squirt from thtun. He thought 
the birds were frightened l)y the squirting fluid. 

I was so t'utranced by the Spathodea that it 
was the first flower which 1 photographed. Po- 
day this tree has been imported and is growing 
casually in Florida, so perhaps 1 do not quite 
appreciati- its rarity and bi“aut> as 1 did then. 

l)irector 'Pkki h next took me into tiu' tangled 
jungle ol (lu* rattan Palms. I brushed against a 
swaying tip and instant 1>' felt its grip upon nn 
shoulder. 'Pki-atH stooii smiling at me as I 
struggled to free myself. 'Phe strength and 
sharpne.ss of the clawlike spines was in sur{)rising 
contrast to the delicacy and harmless ap[)earaiic( 
of tlu* leaf tij). Phis tip is a climbing organ, 
(juite as delicate as the t(“ndril of the cucumlxn 
ami other such vines. 

'Phe Diri'Ctor kal me to the little laborator\ 
which was placed at the disposal of visiting 
scientists. It was a great moment wlum I sat 
at the tal)le designated as mine and realized that 
1 had come to sta>’. 

Everybody had a “boy,” so Tkiam turiu'd his 
own boy, M.vkio, o\(‘r to me*. I had m-ver had a 
servant of my own, and f(‘l( mysedf a prince. 
Incidentally. 1 have never had a servant since 
who cared for me as Mario did. h'rom mounting 
microtome sections on microscopic slides to 
managing a caravan across the mountains, he 
took cart* of (‘V(*rything. I shall never forget his 
tears as 1 bade* him a last fart'wcll when I left tin 
island. 

\s 1 learned a little Malay, 1 was astonished 
wht'ii chatting with the Javam*se, Sundanest*, 
and Madurese working in the garden to realize 
their knowledge of the jdants. i Rraiu had re- 
centl}’ d(‘C(»rated Maniri Oicoam, tlu* Javanese 
head gardener, with the “Silver Star of Merit." 
Okdam was a really remarkable botanist in man\ 
ways, familiar with evt'ry jilant in the garden, 
and knew not only its native name but its botani- 
cal naim* as well. He had that rare faculty of 
form memory. 

Everything wats new and lascinating. If 1 
had not Ix'en absorbed in my re.solution to dis- 
cover whether the ants and termites of the 
Dri(*nt were mushroom growers, I should have 
b<*en distracted and prol)ably would have doiu 
little of anything because of the wealth of 
novelty about me. 

Each nu)rning 1 rose early, as one do(*s in the 
tropics, and Mario would st'rve me with coffee. 
He would then run out in tlu* str(*et to secure a 
tiny dos-a-dos, and climb up in front with the 
ilriver to accompany me in tlu* cool air of sun- 
ris(* to the shady r<*C(*sses of tfu* marvellous botan- 
ical garden. 

Dn(* of tlu* Wonders of the tropics is the Palipot 



HI 


Fairchild: Buitenzorg and Doctor Treub (1896-96) 


palm {Corypha nmhrai ulifera) in bloom, as it so 
\'i\ idly ex(‘mplifi('s the stranj(i.‘ forces which move 
in the plant world. In the early sunlight, I 
stood one morning watching clouds of the small, 
white flow<ns drifting down from tlu* <‘normous 
flower cluster fifty feet abo\'e me in the crown of 
the immense palm. 'I'he ground was white with 
Idossoms, and myriads of bees wen* busily gath- 
ering honey. 'This was the clt)sing sc(‘ne in the 
life of this i)alm. Likt* the ( entury Plant, it 
hlooms i)Ut once and dies. d'he cn^amy in- 
tlorescenc(' weighed a ton or mon*, and the palm 
trunk supijorting it was two leet in diameter. 

1 was not ,i systematic botanist, and did not 
perhai)S fiilh appreciate tlie wealth ol specii-s 
which had Ixen gathered in this (iarden from the 
\ast archipelago which stretche<l away across 
the ja\a .St'a to that m\st(‘rious, unexplonwi 
island of New (liiinea two thousand miles away. 

I'hose were da\s when much attention was 
being paid to adaptations ol ail kinds ol plants 
to clim.ite. ( loTTI.Il'H I (AnKKLANDT had just 
described the leaf jxires which etiabhal j.)lants to 
e\aporat<' their moisture in thi‘ saturated at- 
mosplu're ol siu'h a place as Buitenzorg where 
th<‘re is o\’er three hundred inches of rainlall 
annually. 1 1 xdathodes, thes(* poia's are called. 
Many intricate contrivances to insure cross- 
l<M tilization 1)\' birds a;id l)<*es and other insects 
were also first descrilx'd about this time. 

( )ne morning, across the street from my window, 

I heard the rustk- of (h‘ad leaves in the native 
schoolyard. .\ giant Ficus tree had begun to 
ilrop its leaves, and a Javanese* coolii- was raking 
tlu*m up. Icvery dav' he naked them into wind 
rows and burned them. It made' im* homesick lor 
.tutumii days at home. But in java tin* moment 
a leaf fell, a new one pushed forth in its place, 
and in anotlu-r week the tree was in full leaf again. 

i Ri t'H bedieva-d that tropical trees which elre)p 
the-ir leaves had graduallv' worke*d tlu'ir wav 
northward into the* temperate* zone l)<*catise* the*\' 
hael at le*ast a Itrie*! eharmant perioel. and while* 
eletrmant e emiel stanel meere* cealel. 

rile* Beitanie* (Jarelen was full eif te*rmite‘s. 
.\tte*r the* first be*wilelermt*nt e»f sight-se*e*ing, I 
be'gan to se*arch for te*rmile* ne*sts with the hedp 
of Papa IlDA.N, the* Iavane*se* who ceille'e teel ma- 
terial feir the* scie*ntifie: me*n working at the 
<iarele*n. Papa IlD.W knew the*.se* inse-e ts we'll, 
for the y w(*re at work arenmel him everywhe*re. 
riu'ir narrow trails eil mud ceiuhl be feitinel on 
almeist e‘Vi*r>’ tre*e* in the* (iarele*n anel em e*ve'ry 
we>oele*n buileling, toei. Once* a runway was 
brejken, out swarme*e| the* te*rmitt*s b\' the* thou- 
sanels. 

rile* termites resemble* ants, although tlu'y 
be-leaig tf) ejuite* a eliffe*re*nt orele*r of in.se*cts, 
(Isoptmi), an order of straight boelie*el cre-ature's 
without the* waistline eif the eirelinary ant. As a 
matte*r eif fact, the* ants are* the natural e*ne*mie’s 
of the* te*rmite*s, anel tei de*fe'nd the'inselvi's against 
the' ants the* te*rmite's liave* armie'S of soleliers. 
It was easy tei te*ll the' se)lelie*rs freirn the' weirkers 
by their longish he*aels anel the' long pincer-like* 
jaws whieh the*y were' ceintinuall}' snapping. 
The* soldie*r.s we*re* e*.\e'ee'elingly vie ious and weiulel 
bury the ir pinee*rs in ejne*’s finge'r anel heilel em 
with bulleleig te-nacity. ('urieiusly eriemgh, the* 
soldiers were all blind, as were the* weirke'rs, but 
the' worke-rs’ heaels were smaller than those of the 
soldiers, anel their jaws, theiugh inceinspicuous, 
we-re* marve'llously e'epiippe'el with teeth devise'el 
feir sawing wooel. Beith worke-rs and seilelie'rs hael 


lemg antenna', rese'inbling strings eif tiny be'aels, 
which they wave'el continuously in the air. 

It weiulel take' me le>o tar afield tei discuss the* 
relic these inse*cls jilay in the* ee*onomy eif nature*, 
riie're is perhaps nei single* fae'tor more* important 
in the* e'omplicate*el phe*nome*na of the* treipical 
feire'St than the* te*rmite*. I*ivery falle*n tre*e*, 
eve*ry ele*ael branch eir twig, almeist e-verything 
maele eif woeiel, is ejnickly re*eluce*il to a pul|i by 
the mouth-parts of the* worke*r le*rmites anel 
passeel through tlie'ir elige*,stive* tracts with in- 
creelible* spe*e'el. Anothe*r amazing thing aliout 
the'.se* in.se*cts is the* fact that, apparently in orde*r 
to eligest these* e*hewe'el-up fragments eit weioel, 
the eiige*stive* traet of the te-rmite is inhaliite*el 
by spe‘e ie*s eif micreiscopic protozoans. 

The'ie is preibably no more* e*xtraorelinary e*.\- 
ample of archite*e*tural ability shown by any of 
the le}we*r animals than that e*\hibitt*d by the* 
termites all over the* world. Ivach siie*e’ies bnilels 
a elistinct tyjie' of ne*st. In Java, te*rniite* ne*sts, 
or mounels, were* to be* tounel he'ie* ami the*re* 
threiughenit the* Gareie n anel we re abunelant ne*ar 
the* karnpeings in the* ne*ighborhooel. Beleire* a 
we*e*k hael passe*el, i’apa liOAN anel I had ope'ued 
up many of the'se ne*sts anel I became* e*ngrei.sse*el 
in stuelying eine* of the* meist fascinating grouj^s 
of living eii'ganisms winch inhabit the* worlel. 

Almeist the* first mounel that we* uncnve*re*el 
e'eintaineel what 1 at once* fe*lt must be* a mush- 
room garele*n. Heiwev'er, it took me* six meinlhs eif 
constant work tei preive* lieyonel the* shaeleiw ol a 
eleiubt that I was right, anel sine-e* the*n othe*r 
se'ientists have* preivecl it e*ve*n mote* e'einclusive'ly. 

A le'nnite* nest is a elwe*lling, a feirtre*ss, anel a 
(ruck garele*n. Built intei the* ceimplieated, muel 
runways eif the* ne'st itse'll, are* the* gardens in 
whie*h the te*rmites greiw mushreieims to fe*e*el 
their yeiung. Each spe*cie*s of mushreieim-greiwing 
termite appare*n(ly deve'leips a diffe*re*nt form of 
garde*!!, lake eiur eiwn mushroom garele*ns, the*se* 
are* e'omposed eif elung. But the* te*rmites make* 
their fungus gareleais with an art anel skill in 
striking e'eintrast to our gloomy mushre.iom ce*l- 
lars. riu'irs are fragile, de*lie'ate alfairs, hemey- 
e'ombe*el with myriaels of passageways. lhe.se 
pathways through the mushroom gareien are 
•separate'el freim (*ach e)the*r by thin partitieins 
conijio.se'el of ceiuntless millions eif inelividual ele*- 
posits of e'.xe'feta workeel into posit iein by the; 
termite* workers. 'I'liis material is maele up of 
fragments ol elige'sted, de*ael weioel which that 
inelividual has preibably gathered freim .semie ele- 
e'aying feirest tre*e' hundreels eif yareis away, fh! 
this depeisit grenv the* tiiushreieims. 

Travelling back and feirth threiugh the long 
gallerie's or tunne'ls of mud which the' colony is 
continually cemstructing, the swift weirkers are 
able' tei secure their daily meals eif dead weioel 
from an ever-widening sectiein eif the feirest 
without going “out-eif-eioors," always preigre'ss- 
ing uneler cover from the* sunlight in their mud 
tunnels. Be*ing soft-bodie'el insects, the*y do neit 
re'lish the sunshine or e\*en the outer air unless 
the humidity is close to saturation. 

d'he're was .something utterly fascinating 
about these* garele'iis built within the* te'rmite 
stronghejlds. d'he*ir interior walls were ceivered 
throughout by pearly-white filaments eif fungus, 
which line'el the passageways as though with white 
velvet. 

I always be'lie*ved that these* fungus filame*nts 
we*re (U*liberate*ly maintaine'el a unifeirm le'iigth, 
perhaps she*are*el eilT by the* saw-like* jaws of the 



Fair(Hii-I): Buitenzorg and Doctor Treub (1895-96) 


<H2 


\v(jrkers, just as humans keep tlu‘ J^rass rut on 
their lawns. Here ami there on the white velvet 
eoverinjL^ of the mushroom ijanlens, ^listenini^ 
white bo(lii‘s, about half the size of the head of 
a [)in, ro.se on short stems. 

It was a ^reat day wln ii I hehl the first funi-UJi 
garden in my hatni and knew that I had been 
right in believing that the termites were mush- 
room-growers, and probal)ly mushroom-i-aters. 

I experienc(‘d the excitement which accompani(‘S 
any real discovery, great or small. But how was 
I to proce the us(‘ to which these rta-atures put 
their fungus gardens.'’ 'I'he instant a ray of light 
penetrated the darkm'ss of the mushroom gar- 
den, evt'iy creature s('uttled out of sight, or froze 
to immobility. 

If you see a rabbit in a lettuci- bed, you are 
pretty suri* that he is there to eat the lettuce'. 
But, if mjbody has si'cn him eat it, you would 
be obliged either to watch him until you did see 
him munching the leavi'S, or to kill him, cut him 
open, and identify lettuce leaves in his stomach. 

I tried my best to surprise* the* young termites 
actually b'e'eiing, but I cemld not ge-t my miero- 
scope in place (juickly enough. So 1 took the* 
other method. I killed and dehydrateal a num- 
ber of the young, and embe'dde'd them in paraffin. 

I tlie-n sectioned them with my microtome and, 
by means of Doctor Paul Mayer’s stains, I 
identified the presence- in their stomachs of the 
sporelike bodies whiedi eompeised the- pe-arly 
masses of the fungus gareiens. Of cenirse, this 
was to be expected, for why would these cre-ature-s 
build and tend such complicated gareiens and 
grow such luscious, little-, white e'abbages if the*y 
were- not to be eate-n? But just the- same it was 
nee'es.sary to pro\e- it. 

After making this discovery I ransacke-el the 
e'eiuntryside tei se-e if the-re were- other spe-e ie-s of 
termites, and whether eer ne)t they cultivate-el 
diffe-rent species eif mushreioms. 1 found that 
the-re were at le-ast two other specie-s of te-rmites 
which made their own pe-culiar fungus gardens, 
both strikingly different from the- erne I had first 
studieel, which was abeeut nine- inedies across, anel 
resembleel a birthelay cake with horizemtal gal- 
leries. On the- other hanel, the- other spe-cie-s ol 
termites built gardens with the- gallerie-s running 
pe-rpe-ndicularly. Many of these- weeulel be- scat- 
tereel in a grejup unele-r a mounel of eday. Seane-- 
times two forms eef garele-ns would lx- together in 
the same te rmite mound. Once- 1 founel a tiny 
garden no larger than a tennis ball. It was very 
delicate and had In-t-n built by an extreme-ly 
small species of termite about enie-te-nth the size 
of the other twe) spee ie-s. 

d'he.se- termite- siu-cie-s live-el side by siele-, ap- 
parenlly in peace- until I broke- o|)en the nests 
anel disturbe-el the-m. I lu-n the-y attackc-d eene- 
an(jthe-r and fought tee the- eleath. 1 used te) put 
the- soldiers eef the diffe-re-nt spe-cie-s two by two 
under a watch crystal and stuely ihe-ni as they 
kille-d each either. A curious fe-ature eef these 
combats was that, as I have- said, the soldier 
te-rmite-s were quite- blinei, d he-y use-d to waneler 
furiously areiunel the arena ejf the- watch-glass, 
snapping the-ir pincer-like-, sharp-e-dged jaw'S 
vie iously while- waving their antenna" in the- air. 
When the antagonists met it was usually ne-ar 
the rim ed the watch-glas.s. The antenna- anel 
legs would begin tee fly, she are-d eeff by the- snap- 
ping pincers. Invariably eene of the seelelie-rs w'as 
le ft ele-ad in the- are-na and the either crippled. 

It is finly whe-n a te-rmite le-ave-s his le-gitimate 


fielel eef ele-veeuring the ele-caving lore-st ti'e-e-s and 
e'einve-rting them intee mould, and turns his at- 
te-ntion to the- timbe-rs which man uses in his 
elwelling, that he be-ceeme-s a re-ally important 
anel elange-ious pe-st. 

rile- charae-fe-ristie's of the- te-rmite-s the-mse-Ke-s 
be-e-ame- a part of my stuely of the-ir gardens. ( )ne 
elay, while sitting on the verandah of the hotel, 
a swarm of llutte-ring, winge-el insects fille-d the- 
air. They we-re- te-rmites. The Malay “boys” 
arrive-d with broeims anel pails anel swe-|)t up the- 
insects by the bucketful as the-y lanele-el on the 
fleeor. rims e-nele-el the- last phase- of what haei 
Ix-e-n a marriage- flight. 1 watcheel the winge-d 
inse-cts chasing each othe-r along the- wall two by 
two. With a curious jerk of the-ir she)ulde-rs, 
the-y breike- off the-ir wings of flight and, soon 
afte-r mating, e-ach e-e)ui)le- prepared to begin a 
new te-rmite- e'eileiny by eligging a heele- soine-where 
in the grounel. d’hat creatures whieh have- once 
hael wings sheiuld throw the-ni off deliberate-ly 
and be.-gin a subte-rrane-an e-xisle-nee-, .se-e-ms 
amazing. 

Next morning I sent Papa Iidan out to .search 
feir the- que-e-n anel king of my termite e-olony; 
“the- Rajah,’’ he- e'alled the king. He seion 
brought me a pie-ce of elark breiwii clay, thicker 
anel slightly large-r than my hanel anel with 
nume-rous little- runways le-aeling into it. It was 
so harel that 1 had to bre-ak it with a hammer. 
Insiele-, lying side by side- in a royal chambe-r, 
we-re- the queen anel king. 'I'he- chamln-r was low 
anel broad, and the exits from it were- only large- 
e-nexigh to let the- worke-rs and soldie-rs pass. 
See e-neermous anel “different” were the king and 
que-e-n, that it was harel to l)e-lie*ve that they had 
any relation to the- e)ther te-rmite-s. d he- king 
was twenty time-s as large- as any solelier, and had 
gre-at facet e-yejs e>n e-ach side- of his he-ad, in e:on 
trust to the e-yele-ss workers and soldie-rs. 'I'he- 
que-e-n was an enormous creature-, quite as large- 
as my thumb anel seemething the- same shape, 
lake- the- king, he-r head had fae-et e-ye-s. 'I'he- pair 
lay he-lple-ss in this royal e-hambe-r. With my 
micreesceepe- I saw that, to all appe-aranee-s, the-ir 
le-gs had l)ee-n che-we-el ejff; at le-ast the y we-re- (|uite- 
inaele-quate- leer loe'omotion. 

It .se-e-me-el fantastic that this strange- ejue-e-n, a 
tlieeusanel times the- size e)t any worker, with her 
gre-at, puffy, cate-rpillardikc- white- body, e-ould 
be the mothe-r of the myriads of sejldie-rs, worke-rs 
and possilely inelividuals of other castes which 
maele- up the- te-rmite- colony. 

I teeeek the pains to di,ssect he-r earefully (later 
I e-ven embe-deleel another e|ueen in paraffin and 
se-e:tie)ned her) anel founel the- .soft mass which 
compo.se-d he-r body was almost e-nlirely made- 
up of e-ggs. Like- strings e)f graduate-d be-aels, 
smaller at the te)p anel growing large- at the- base-, 
the- e-ggs filled the entire- cavity e)f her body. .She- 
was the e-gg-laying apparatus of this se>cial or- 
ganism, this ceelle-ctivity, the group of busy 
inelivieluals which maele up the e-olony. 

One- day I timed another e|ue-e-n as she laiel egg 
afte-r e-gg. She averageel an e-gg a .seconel — over 
80,000 eggs pe-r elay. It is said that such a queen 
can live te-n ye-ars. If she- continue-d at this rate, 
she wenild be laying thirty milliem eggs a year. 
During this time, her consort would turnish the* 
sperms with which certain of tho.se eggs would be- 
fertilize-el, and from them would ilevelop the- 
nymphs which ce^mposeel a marriage- flight such 
as I had seen that evening in the- hejtel. 

It was with a certain sense of guilt that I spe nt 



Faikchii.I): Buitenzorg and Doctor Treub (1895-93) 


S.'S 


iiiy (lays many hours Hat on tlu' ^namd 
hcsido the termite nests in the (iarden and racked 
my brains devisin^^ means by which I inij'ht se(' 
tlu‘ workers le('dinj( the queen and kinj>. But I 
l)(‘lie\'ed that 1 was discovering S(jmething new, 
and the termites fascinated me completely. 

Recently', my friend, Mokton W hi-:i i.ki<, pub- 
)ish('d a deliglitiul satire on human .society en- 
titled, “ Koibles (jt Insects and ARm.’' In it he 
descrif)ed tin* termite method of practically 
(diminating the male from the social onh'r, at 
least reducing him to a single iiiah' for the whole 
colonv, V\’hi laj' k’s ehartning jiaptm was won- 
derfully uiuhTstanding, and serv(‘d to Kessen my 
teeling of guilt that I had played with the termites 
instead (»f mastering thi‘ r(dationshii)s of the 
hundreds of trees which had been colh'cled in 
|;l^.^. Anyway, baitomology. Botany, and 
I lort icult ur<' are as inseparable in their interests 
,is the l'hre(' Musketeers. . . 

One morning. Papa liDAN brought the branch 
Irom a gua\a bush into the laboiatory. d here 
seemed nothing unusual about it, but lu* poitPcal 
to an am.izing leaf insect nearly three indues hnig 
belonging to the family of Phnsviida'. It exactl\- 
matt died the under side of the guaxa h'al, and 
even had little spots which lookiul for all the 
world like “leal spots” produced by microsco[iic 
fungi, d'he creature crouched against the leaf 
and moved only when I touched it. 

Life in the dtdighlful laboratory was e(jualled 
in interest by life in the hottd. After a fatiguing 
morning in the (darden, I ustul to swing oH' the 
st(*p (jf the dos-a-dos just in time for the “rijst- 
taftd” at the long hotel table. At this amazing 
nu’al we piled our dec'p plates high with steam- 
ing rice, and, as the long line of tnrbaned waiters 
offered them, added in turn a liit of fried chicken, 
slices of egg, perhaps .a sardine, a meat-ball, (»r a 
fried banana, dhen came the sambalang, - a 
great tray containing red Macassar fish, tiny 
pickled ears of corn, burnt peanuts, roasted 
coconut, sweet mango chutney, a darkm' brand 
of Indian chutney as hot as liipiid fire, a p(‘- 
culiarly Havoiaul pickle made from iinetuni (a 
strange climbing shrub), and others which 1 
cannot now recall. After making our choice, we 
poured over the lu'aping mass a (juantity of curry 
sauce made fresh each day from ground-up 
cardamons and fiery-hot red peppers. I'he first 
numtfilul of this mixture brought the perspiration 
to oru^'s face and started something, whetlier it 
was digestion or not 1 do not know. However, 
in the end, one experiimced a .sense of well-being 
and drowsiness which admirably suited the 
tropical custom of a siesta after luncheon, and 
the hotel became as (juiet as tlie grax'e from two 
to four. 

It was after one of these enforced siestas, 
which I at first detested, that I saw niy finst 
mango.qeen {(Idrchiia nuini^ostana). A coolie 
passed through the patio balancing on his 
shoulder two liaski'ts hung from a bamboo pole. 
Seeing me, he held out a bunch of mangosteens, 
some dozen or more fruits tied togethiT artisti- 
cally by shreds of bamboo. 

Re.sembling an apple of deep brownish-puiqile 
tint, mangosteens have short stems and four 
thick, leaflike bracts which form a rosc'tte hold- 
ing the purj)le fruit. I’he Hower-end of the fruit 
is marked by the persistent stigma composed of 
seven triangular segments slightly raised al)ove 
the surface. 


Mangosteens have a ttmgh, firm shell, and 1 
had trouble breaking it opiii with my hands, 
rhe coolie showed me how to cut through the 
hard rind with my penknife and lift off the top 
as one would lift the cover from ;i sugar bowl, 
d'hert*, lying loostdy' in a pink cup, w('r(‘ five 
ivory-white segnumts glistening with moistuiac 
riiey Could be taken from their shell as easily as 
bonbons from a dish. Many of the segments are 
seedless, and the s(‘ed it sell, which is also edible 
when cooke(l, is thin, brown, smooth, and Hat. 
I'he meat has the consistency of a green-gage 
plum but a Hax'or which is indescril)al)ly de- 
licious. Like many tropical fruits, there is a 
sprightliness of flavor, a suggestion of the pine- 
a|)i)le, th(“ apricot, the orange. 

Of Course, I immediately wanted to see this 
fruit on the American market, but there wc're 
many’ difficulties t(j lie overcome. Ja\a in those 
days was almost as distant as the motm. During 
the nineties, I made several atteinjits to get liv- 
ing seeds to the I'nited States, even coating 
soiiK* with paraffin, although the best method 
prox’ed to be packing them in dry charcoal, 

I'he first serious efforts of the Office of I’lant 
Introduction wa're made in 1900. W’e soon found 
that the m.angostein was too tender to grow 
without protection e\-cn in southern Florida, and, 
conse(juent ly, includ(‘'l in our scheme the intro- 
duction of closely r<‘lated relatiws of the man- 
gostc'cn, hoping to find hardier stocks. Gorcinia 
tinctoria proxed the best “relatixe” which xxas 
ex|)erimented with; Garciuid hinuaio from the 
Bhilipiiines s<>emed unusually hardy in South 
Florida and should be further test('d as a stock. 
In fa< t then' are many interesting, fine fruitc'd 
strains of (i(ircinia wiiich deserve to lie studied. 

We mad(' repeated atti'Uipts to secure two 
species of Garcinid which are natixe to regions 
subject to frost, and xven' finally successful in 
groxxing Gdrcitiia niestoui from Oueensland. 1 lu' 
other specie's is G. multillord from m'ar Kiaying 
(how. 

From our i-xperiments we soon discoxi'red 
that there are definite problems to lie met during 
the ('arly stages of a mangost('('n’s e.xiste'nce. 
Not only is tin* xitality of the .seeds t'xtremely 
low, but the young plants haxe a very weak root 
system and art' t'asily checkt'd in groxvth. An 
ingt'iiious nu'thod was dexised to resuscitate 
dying set'diings by inarching tht'in on to a vigor- 
ous. rooted st'edling of some other specie's of 
Garcinia. 'This se't'med to rt'xixe the young, 
dying mangosteens much as blood infusions are 
able to save the live's of human beings, d'here 
may be more than an .in.ilogy here. 

deiday tlu'n' is a lu'althy orchard of man- 
g()St('('ns at the .Summit Fxpe'riment (larde'ti in 
Banama. But xxt' did not manage to e'stalilish 
this until 192.L aftt'r an ignominious defeat at 
the hands of the military regime in Panama xvlu'n 
xve m.ide a first attt'inpt in 190.S, as I shall re'late'. 

Dex'tor d'Kia n told me that he preferred 
another Jax'aiK'se' fruit, the pulassan, and I must 
confe.ss that it does run the mangoste'cn a close 
second. 1 he' pulassan and the rambutan are 
txvo tropical relatixe's of the' famous litchi eif 
South ( hiria, and art' all de'licious fruits xvhich 
w't're quite unknoxvn in the Weste'rn Ib niisphere 
in the ninetii'S. 

The fruit of the pulassan {NepheUum muUihile) 
is the size of a plum, and has a eh'e'p pink, pelibly 
surface, and a fairly thick skin. I he single 
see'd, with its surrounding t)nlp, comes out of 



Faik( Buitenzorg and Doctor Treub (1895-96^ 


8-1 


the shell like n ^jnjpr, ulthoufih it is drier. 

The rnmhutiin ( Xrplieli um luppaccum) is much 
like the pulassan f)ut is rovrn'd w ith soft, curled, 
tentacle-like hairs which make it sonicwhat rc- 
scniiilc a chestnut bur. rnfortiinateJy, both of 
these fruits prox'eil too fender for Florida. The 
litchi {Nephelium litchi), which resembles tlie 
pulassan in appearance, is hardaw and has bei-n 
successfully f>ro\vn in Florida. 

I (lid not ask the coolie why he had no durians, 
for I had already heard (hat none were alloweil 
in the hotel. 1 Ik* curious odor ol a ripe durian 
{Dnrio zihetkinus) is something which b-w Ku- 
ropeans can endure, llowc'ver, Alfrkd Rr.ssKi. 
W'all.acI'; declnred that it was worth a trip to the 
Fast Indies just to taste a durian. Others, too, 
have told me of their passion for (his fruit. I’it 
my shame I must eontt'ss that during my first 
stay in Java 1 could not lainj; mystdf to eat one. 
The prejudice' of the people around me was so 
f»reat, and the odor of rottinjt durians in th(' 
marketplace was so offensive, that to taste the 
fruit assunu'd the proportions of a major opera- 
tion which I could not force myself to unih'rgo. 

Wlu'ii I returned to Fuit('nzor}> later with Mr. 
F.\THR()1*, I slipped away one Sunday afti'rnoon 
to the native villajte, and tasted the* custard-Iik<' 
pulp of a durian. Its flavor was indescribably 
rich and sweet, and I enjoyed it at the moment 
but, like oth('r strongly flavored foods, such as 
raw onions for example, its odor returned to 
plague m«'. 

I can .still remember the expression on Mr. 
I.ATHRop’s face when I reached (he hotel that 
afternoon. 

“Fairy!” he shouted, “ N’oii’ve been ('ating 
durian! I smell it! \^)U get out of here and 
don’t ('onie near me until that stench has worn 
off.” 

In some n'spects, the durian is the most re- 
markable fruit in the world. 'I'he head-hunters of 
Horni'o will commit murder to possess it. 'The 
fruits weigh from five to ten pounds and are 
about the size of a small coconut, conijih'tely 
covered with sharp prickles. The species most 
(’ommonly cultivated is borne on a tall forest 
tree. Hecause of tfie weight and thorny surface 
of the fruit, it is dangerous to walk undc'r a 
durian tria* when the fruits are ripening. The 
seeds may be roasted and eaten like chi'stnuts. 

I have heard that the t hine.se obtain an oil from 
the fruits which they us<* for washing (njrposes. 

All (his, of Course, I (li«l not know (hat day as 
I watched the coolie pick up his baskets, bow, 
and trot away. By this time clouds were gather- 
ing over the Gedeh. Flashes of lightning shot 
through the dark mass which (’overed the moun- 
taintop. Rapidly the sunlight faded. Thunder 
rolled, and we were in for the afternoon down- 
pour which came daily about four o’clock. The 
deafening beat of falling water is as much a part 
of the tropics as the brilliant sun and waving 
palms. 

As (pjickly as it came, the storm pass«‘(l. 'I'he 
cool, refreshed world assunu'd a hue of greenish- 
gold in the evening sunlight a light unlike 
any seen in northern latitiuh'S. Soon it was 
night again in that land of brief twilight. 

f)ne afternoon, I heard a curious, ripping 
sound and glanced toward a tall coconut tree just 
in time to see one of th(' coolies dodge a falling 
leaf. It was amusing to realize that my idea of 
a leaf, built up by exclusive association with the 
tempr-rate zone, was an utterly inaderjuate con- 


ception. Imagine tht‘ incredulity of a Kansas 
hoy if you told him that lie uould eca-r run from 
a lalling leaf! 

One of (he delights of ja\a had bi'en making 
the aiajuaintance of (he coconut. It was an ex- 
citing ex()erience to drink thi' milk from the nuts. 
X’isions of Robinson ('rusoe alsvays came to m> 
mind. How little I dreamed that 1 would one 
day own a place in the Fnited States with coco- 
nut palms on it where I cr)iild drink coconut 
milk e\('ry <iay! 

It seems almost inexplicable now that it did 
not occur to me to busy nusc'lf introducing the 
coconut into .America, lint in those days there 
were no gardens or agencies in the Fnited Slates 
('(luippeei to handle tropic.d plants. In th(' entire 
tropical regions of .South Florida, there weri- only 
a few homesteaders and :i meager numlx'r of 
winter visitors who came merely for a brief sta\ 
at the lew hotels. 

F'ortunately, the coconut canu- into Florida 
Ironi tiu' West Indies almost on its own, so to 
speak, and there arc' now man\’ thousands grow- 
ing along the east coast. Their rustling fronds 
glisten in the sunshine and add greatly to tin 
beauty of our streets and homes . . . 

My fellow bo.arders at the I/o/el Chemin de 
Fer were a strange Tmt fascinating lot. My next- 
door neighbor on one side drank innumerabh 
“bitP'rtjes” and pestered me with strange in- 
(juiries about the F'nglish language, which hi 
thought he spoke quite wi'll. 

“ 1 am to be to are to want to go to bed. Thai 
is it ICnglish?” he once s.iid. 

My neighl)or on the other side was a B(dgiaii 
botanist named Fi.aitriai' from FiRRi.RA’s 
laboratory in Brussels; a brilliant, emotiftiial 
young man who wrote letters of forty pages in 
fine handwriting to his mother, .ind later, poor 
boy, died ot a brok('n heart soon .after his mother 
passed .away. 

Dk Mi nnick, another hotel guest, had been a 
Dutch lunctionnaire. He w.as interesti'd in 
schemes for utilizing the fibers of the K.apok or 
.Silkeotton tree which were thi'ii allowed to go 
to w'.aste. He complained bitterly that his 
countrymen invested their money in American 
railroad stocks, but had nothing for the de- 
velopment of the Dutch Fia.st Indies... 

This small Kroup was aUKinc-inod one morning by tlie 
arrival of Herr Rapps, the man I had met in Genoa who had 
blown out the gas and asphyxiated his bride. With his 
advent, our peaceful existence came to an end. Dk Mun.mck 
soon confided to me that Rapps’ bajtKaye consi.sted of two 
enormous cases of Marsala wine and innumerable white 
sailor-caps. It also transi>ired that he had come to collect, 
not plants, hut rejitiles for a brother in Berlin. 

Rapps sent word to tlie native ijuarter that he would buy 
live snakes and lizards, and swarms of natives appeared 
hearinR all manner of creeping thiiiKs. 1 le soon had a dozen 
Kreat, lonjj lizards which he fastened to the legs of. his sofa. 
When their activities kept him awake at night, he hung 
them out of the window, hut this mano uvre was not success- 
ful. for they soon scratched the plaster off the walls and he 
had to cut them loose. The natives would catch them and 
sell them to him again the following morning. It was a mad 
performance from first to last. 

Rapps also bought every available species of snake. We 
warned him about the deadly uler blang which, like the coral 
snake in Florida, has a mimic, a snake so nearly like it that 
it takes an expert to tell them aijart. 

I went into his disorderly bedroom one afternoon and saw 
a uler blang in a big candy jar with a cigarette stub holding 
the stopper open to give it air. I told Rapps that this wa.« 
the poisonous snake, but he scoffed at me and said that he 
knew snakes, and this was the harndess mimic. Nevertheless 



85 


Kairchii.J): Buitenzorg and Doctor Treub (1896-96) 


I took I Jie precaution of tyiriy dowti liic slo])()cr lieforc I left 
tliat niKlit and made liim ijroniise tliat he would test the 
snake tlic next day. 

In tlie morning, therefore, RAces bought a yoiniK ehieken. 
When I arrived, lie fiad tlie snake tied loosely to a stanchion 
t)n the verandali and the chicken held in his bare hand as he 
presented the bird for the snake to strike at it. The snake 
most certainly would have struck Raim’s’ knuckles had I not 
l)ulled him back and lielped him to arraiiKe a safer test. I 
pul the chicken in a box, covered it with a screen, and then 
pul the snake in too. In a few minutes the chicken was detid. 
Needless to say, Rapps' reimtation as a fierpetolonist sank 
rapidly to zero. 

llis behavior also went Irom bad to worse, lie dis>rraced 
hitnself at Tkkih’s immaculate retreat in the mountains by 
killinn a wild boar, dressint; it in the laboratory, and tryinn 
to make salt pork of it in a leaky flour barrel. 

Eventually R^vpps decided on an expedition to tlie little 
island of Nias off tfie coast of West Sumatra. After shipidnn 
llis batlly prejiared siiecimens to his brother, he dei>arted 
one day takinj; with fiim what wasleft of his Marsala. Sonie- 
liow, .somewhere, he completely disappeared on this expedi- 
tion. lie was not renretted, 1 fear, for Doctor Tuki h never 
could understand why Doctor Ppn/.k; .sent out sucli a man. 

MiKst ol the ('onA'orsatioii aniotttj I ki-t it anti 
llis associaft's concornod tlu* |)rnl)ltnns ol the 
Dutch Kast Indian planters, d'hosc wtav tin- 
early days of ruhln-r and Sumatra tobacco. Also, 
at that time, Java colTee culturt- was Ix-ing siiper- 
setled by plantations of the As.sam tea. 'Phere 
was much talk about which t\'pt- tif rubber tree 
would win out as the future source of rublter. 
IkI'A’U believed that the “parlor" rubber tree 
{Ficus eUistica) which was native to the Hast 
Indies, would hava- a better chance than ficvea 
brasiliensis from the Amazon. IIowe\«‘r. the 
Hevea now constitutes practically all of the 
rubber plantations of the world. 

Dccasionally I would f>o to the Hotel Bellevue 
to .see the sunset on the vSalak. It brought back 
memories ol the fascinating man to whom 1 owi-d 
th(‘ wonderful experience I was having. Mr. 
i.ATUKoe had descrilied this sct-ne when we 
parted that moonlit night in Naples, and no 
wonder the picture lingered in his mind. Phe 
music ol the bamlioo flutes drifted up at twi- 
light from the kampongs, while nativt- men, 
women and children liatfu-d in the- swift stream 
below, with charming decorufu and modesty. 
Kustling palms swayed above, and great, cloud- 
capped mountains raised their heads in the 
arches of the lovely rainbows which followed the 
afternoon rainsttnms. 

In the virgin forest on the slo[)es of the xolcano 
Ciedeh, 1 Ki:i)u had built a small laboratory where 
the air was cool and fresh. He suggested my 
g<jing there to carry on some microscoi>ical 
studies, and Mario che<‘rtully i)acked my e(|uip- 
nient into the .Standard Oil tins which wc-re uni- 
ver.sally used as containers. Loadc-d down with 
a hundred pounds of baggage on each end of a 
I)amboo pole, the coolies trotted off over the 
pass while Mario and I followed in a d(xs-a-(los. 

Phe rice around Buitenzorg had been har- 
vest(‘d, and the workers in the paddy fn-lds were 
planting the next crop, wa<ling knee-de(‘p in the 
mud. Pile terraces extended up the mountain- 
side almost to the summits <if the hills. As we 
drove up the Pontjak Pa.ss, the season seemed to 
change. The late summer landscape melted 
gradually into spring, and I saw demonstrated 
the relation between altitude and latitude. We 
were following the spring north, as tourists from 
Horida .so often do when they leave mid-summer 
verdure in Miami in March and find the cherry 
blo.s.soms just opening in Washington. 


A delusion comm<»n in thost- days was the be- 
lief thaf high altitudes in tropical mountains 
re.sembh- the ti-mperate zone, and that almost 
any northern plants could be grovMi in the 
tropics if jilanted high enough. .Similarl>’, it 
was siiiipost-d that the mountain plants of the 
tropics could lx- cultivated in temperate regions. 
Many years and many failures finally disixoved 
this th(‘ory. Aside from ci-rtain forms, the moun- 
tain species of the tropics cannot be cult iwited 
in the lowlands of the temperate zone. .More- 
o\'er, few of the temperati- s])ecirs are e\'er happ>' 
in the mountains of tlx- tropics. 

I recei\'<‘d my first impn-ssions ol a virgin, 
equatorial forest during the days I spent alone 
on the steep trails of tlx- (ii-deh. Ci.At ikiao 
joined me tlu-re t(t pursiX' the study ol the di- 
gestive juicf's of the wild pitcher-jihuUs, v\hile I 
<li.scover(>d some new and interesting forms ol 
parasitic fungi. In spare monienls, I proA'ed 
that my beloved tc-rmites were higher in the 
.social scab- than ants. I had brought with me 
nests of different sp«-cies of termites and put 
them beside nc-sts of the .same species Ii\ing then- 
in the mountains. 'Po my amazement, individu- 
als of the different m-sts did ixit fight each other, 
wherejis it is well known that the menilx-rs of an 
ordinary ant colony will at onci- fight the indi- 
\iduals of a neighboring c<ilony. It would ap- 
pi-ar, therefore', that the ants are still in the 
trilial stage, whereas termites might be said to 
have a higher or racial organization. 

1 had often heard ol the edible bird-nests 
which are so much usi-d liy the C hinese in soups, 
and enthusiastic when ('i.AriRlAU proposi-d a 
visit to the caves in southern java where thi- 
swifts live and build their ix*sts. Phese birds 
are a genus allii-d to the Pairopean swift. 

It was (piite a trip to the cavi-s, and then we 
had to descend far to rc-ach the bottom. Wi- 
crawled down on long, primitivi-, bamboo ladders 
and finally found oursi-lws walking on a sott 
mass of debris on the floor ol the great cavi-rns. 
We could Ix-ar the swirl ol tlx- swifts abovt- us as 
tfx-y escapi-d through an opi-ning higlx-r up in 
the cliffs. 

W e thiidc ol a bird-ix-sl as constructi-d of sticks 
or mud but, when I climbed up tlx- rock wall and 
pulh'd off one of those- t-dibk- nests, it was coin- 
post-d (»f a substance- as sott as some forms of 
mushreioms and it was almost transluce-nt. 
Phese ix-stsare-, in lae t, made- ol tlx- foamy salixa 
from the salivary glaixls of many spe-cie-s ol 
swifts which inhabit the caves of nunx-rous 
Orie-ntal islands anel the- mainlanel eif south- 
e-a.stern Asia as we-11. Plx-ir e-xploitation is a 
|)reifitable' iixlustry, atxi tlx- right to colle-ct ne-sts 
is .se)ld for a goe)el |)rie e-. 

'Phe ('aves also slx-lte-r aixl support a host of 
inse-cts, some of which 1 at once- be-gan to colle-ct. 
Howe-ver, when I found a huge centipeele within 
a fe-w inches of my Ix-ael, my arelor cexjled nio- 
nx‘ntaril>-. Armeel with .seuix- baml)oo pince*rs 
which Mario had maele- for me, 1 captured the 
creature-, whie'h had le-gs ix-arly twe) inehe-s 
long aiul vicious-bxiking jaws. I alsee took some: 
of the Itrownish, powdery material which cov- 
ereel the floor of the cave. When I examined 
it in Buitenzorg, it pro\e-el to be a writhing mass 
of tiny red mites! . . . 

My first informatieen about tlx- new quinine 
indu.stry came fre)m a lanky Hollaneler who ap- 
peared on the verandah of our hotel one day and 



Fairchild: Rambles in Sumatra (1926) 


86 


scttK d b(\sit](' 1110 for a oliat. Ho was a cinchona 
planter, ono of tlio first to succossfully }>row tho 
trees in Java, and li<' had built a factory to ex- 
tnict quinine from the bark. 

Hitherto (luinine hod eoiue hir^ely from (In- 
wild cinchona tn-t-s nf Ecuador, am/, as is (lie 
ease ol all wild eu/tiin s, (lie of Inirk could 

not 1)0 relied upon, ll varied with the- season 
arid the temper oi tire fndian bark yatliei'ers. 
-Sei'ds ol till' di/fer(‘iit .species had been sen! Ironi 
Fa uadnr lu st to Jamaica and I lien to the Orient 
for trial. In the ninetir: , tlnnr culture was beinj; 
attempted in British India, ('eyloii, and the 
mountains ol Ja\a. Although it may ha\e been 
some sjiecial climatic condition in western Java 
wliich was responsible for the success of cinchona 
culture thfi'e in contrast to the failuri' in other 
tropical nations, yet I am inclined to belii'vi' that 
it was the prrsistence ol tin* Dutch planters, as- 
sisted by j.io\ernm(‘nt investii^ators, which con- 
tributed to the success of the new venture. 

I he work of breeding the different specii's of 
cinchona and .sehotiim t^hi* best strains was just 
I'eyinniny wlun Doctor J. P. LoTsv arrived in 
Buiten 7 .oi |4 to find out in what part of the bark 
the alkaloid (pjinine was located and how it 


11. UAJMBLKS liN 

I Icre we w ere, five of us, in Sumatra. 'I'hc roads 
were ^ood, and w(' wanted to get into the coun- 
try. 1 lie only way to do so was to buy a car, so 
we picked u[) a second-hand Buick with the em- 
blem of a crouching tiger on it, pictures(}ue 
badge of tlie Di'li Auto ('lub. It was our faithful 
companion until months later we .sold it in Hast 
Java. 

( )ur letters entitled us to call on His Excellency, 
the Governor of Sumatra, and our American 
C onsul, Mr. I hill, arranged tlu* intervii-w. His 
Excellency had known Dr. d'KKi’H, and of course 
knew the .Minister of Golomes, my old accpiaint- 
ance. Dr. KoNiNGsmaouvR. He spoke with 
pride of the new health resort at Ikastagi he was 
building up and with a business-like despatch 
brought into our horizon the ('hief Forester of 
the Island, Mr. Brandis Hi vs, with whom we 
were, as it turned out, to spend many interesting 
days in Atcheen, one of the lesser-known parts of 
this great island. 

Mr. Br.vndis Bi v.s was contenijilating a visit 
to his forest statirms nortli from Medan and urged 
us to accompany him. As we sat in his office 
discussing the possiliilities, he n eh'd off a string 
ol names. We would go to randjoengpoera. 
thence to Bangkalanbrandan, from there by 
Koelasimpang, Langsar, Lhoseumawe to Bireuen 
and from Bireuen up into the mountains to 
lakengon and Laoet lawar. At I akerigon we 
would leave the auto and trek on foot and pony 
back two hundred miles or so through Kota Dah, 
Bang Aloj), .Simpangtiga, Kota Kenjaran and' 
Hlang Kedjeren to KoiHoe d'jaiie and round up 
in Kaliandjahe. 

Mr. Brandis Blys spoke English, as all I'du 
cated Hollanders do, I speak some Dutch and 
could help him out occa.sionally, but none of us 
talked Atchenese, and I shall never forget the 

* Reprinted, with kind permission of the copyriKlil hold 
ers, from tho author's “Kxi.lorinK for Plants, ” pp. .t.t6-.t«t. 

1 930 (New V(jrk; Marmillan). 


varied in amount from month to month. I had 
known Doctor Lotsv in Baltimore ami was much 
pleased when he invited me to visit liini at the 
plantation where he was establishing^ a head- 
(/uart(‘r.s. 

In a clearing in the primeval forest, the cin- 
chona trees had been j)lanted, and the govern- 
ment had built a tiny laboratory and dwelling 
hou.se. d'hrough the jungle ran crooked trails 
made by the small Java rhinoceros, an animal 
today exceedingly rare (if not extinct) in the 
island. 

I he great forest trees were laden with orchids. 

If any of them seemed especially interesting, in a 
lew minutes the skilled woodsmen had the tree 
lying at my feet. Botanizing through the 
branchrsof a tree in a tro].)ical forest is a fascinat- 
ing exp(‘rience. A we.alth of beautiful forms are 
found among the man>’ tiny orchids, ferns, 
lycopods, lichens and liromeliads. Numerous 
species of plants and animals live only in the 
aeiial world of the trt't'-tops, neither grow ing on 
the ground nor de.scending to it. Like the 
acpiatic flora and fauna of streams and lakes, 
they live their own peculiar existence , . . 


SUMATRA (1926)* 

bewildering sensation of that string of place 
names. It is curious now' as I look back, how 
they have since become a part of our lives, for 
we made the trip with him, at least some of us 
did, and we have seeds growing in h'lorida and 
Honduras and (.'uba and I’anama, with many 
of these unpronounceable looking names at- 
tached to them. Every one of these, strange to 
say, is spelled phonetically and a Hollander has 
no doubt in the world as to how to pronounce 
them. They are not like Newara Eliya, in ('(‘y- 
lon, which is pronounced in luiglish as though 
it were spelled Nuralia. 

In the interim before we started up the coast 
we had time to visit the Broef Station or I’ixiawi- 
ment Station of the great “A.XMGO.S.” (Alge- 
nieeneyereeniging Rubberplantersf )ost Sumatra). 
I his (leneral Association of Rublier Blant(*rs on 
Sumatra’s h.ast Coast is one of the greatest 
companii's now operating anywluTe in the tropics. 
As we drove in the direction of the Station we 
passed a beautiful white .stucco building in the 
suburbs of Medan. It was as attractive as an 
art inuseum, but as w'e were looking for an ex- 
periment station, we jiassed it and drove on, 
only to l)e turneil around and sent back to it by 
the next man we asked directions from. When 
we enp'ied the spacious hall and visited the 
beautifully equipped, spick-and-span labora- 
tt)ries, D()K.si;tt and I looked at (‘ach other and 
wondered. We had .seen beautiful (‘xperiment 
stations before, but one such as this had not 
even entered our imaginations. And here it was, 
on the very edge, so to speak, of the tropical 
jungles of an island about which it was difficult 
to learn anything in Ceylon, and in the suburbs 
of a town which thirty years ago was only a 
native kamj)ong. It was a palace of resiarch 
maintained by a great commercial Cfimpany 
that was developing the resources of Sumatra. 
As we w'ere shown the courtesies of the labora- 
tories and met the young resi'arch men who were 



87 


Kaikc iiiLi); Rambles in Sumatra (1926) 


working on (‘Vi-ry sort of <iucstion connected 
with the rubber and other plants in which the 
A.V.K.O.S. is inter(‘sh'd, I cr)uld not helj: re- 
joicin^^ to see the evolution of the new and 
modern method lor f7]an’s Cfjfjtrol of the vast 
r<‘sour('es of I Ik* Iropics. 

For countless .^cMierations those humans born 
within tlu* borders of the tropics ha\e been try- 
ing to cope with the jungle, and so far as one can 
judge, with mighty little succ(‘ss. 'I'heir houses, 
their tools, their sanitation and tlu'ir intellectual 
li\(‘S hav(‘ remained very close to savagery. The 
jungle has been so near to o\erw helming tlumi 
all the time; its weeds, its rejUiles, its insects, its 
fungi which attack thc'ir cultivated plants, and 
its diseases w hich atta(’k and kill or disable them, 
ha\i> all combined with a climate that stimulates 
indolence' to hold tremical men back. White' 
men liy the hunelreels of the)usanels have venture'el 
singly into its shaele-s, have cleare-el pate he's e)f 
lanel anel plante-el their creeps, eenly to leave their 
beenes seeniewhere in the' jungle. One coulel al- 
nieest paraphrase' Byhon’s saying “ Man's contreel 
steeps with the sheere-” anel apply it tee the- jungle- 
ratlu'r than tee tlu' se'a. Man has neew eerganizeal 
in great groups, in industrial armies as it were, 
anel teeday is conquering the jungle see fast that 
those' eef us whee lee\'e‘ its myste'ries anel its wilel life 
trendele lest tlu'sc' armies ek*slreey it ceeinple-te-ly. 

I his Preee'f Statieen with its leacterieeleegists anel 
chemists anel enteenieeleegists, repre'Sents part eef 
the gre'at fighting machine with whieh this in- 
dustrial army is ceembating its treepical enemies. 

I here is aneether point eef view also freem which 
such gigantic asseee iatieens eef capital as that rep- 
rese'titeel by the' AA.R.O.S. is interesting. 
Ameeiig the greew ing army eef seae'iitifie' disceeNere'rs 
threeugheeiit the- inelustrial, chernie’al and nu'die'al 
weerlel an inelivieJual may arise at any lime' with 
a ne'w idea, which, like' the ielea eef ( leeeeLeYi-'.AK, 
may make ne'cessary tee the' civilizatieen eef the 
great tempi-rate' regieeiis seeine as yet unsuspecte'el 
reseeurce eef the jungle', seeme tree perhajes. kneewn 
neew eenly in the elry teenie's eef a syste'matic fleera. 

I he' A.V.K.O.S. berms the link be'lwe'e'ii tin- lu-w 
disceevery and the- plantations eef raw mate-rial 
reepjireel tee jeut it intee actieen. 

I here is .seeiiU'thing e[uiti' Anu-rican, I finel, 
about the Heellaneler as yeeu meet him in his 
ceelonii'S. lb- is casual, since re, anel heespitable'. 
Or. lei-: JoNe; and his assistants wt-re- amusiel, I 
pre'sume, by my quc'St tor the re-lative'S eef the 
rnangeeste't'n but the-y sheewed me all tlie-y hael. 
anel there leer the first time- I saw the- “Assam 
Geleee-geeer ’’ {Garcinia atroviridis), useel, like- the 
(jeeraka" eef ( eyleen {Garcinin cambo^ia) in 
curries. Its rinel s[elits naturally intee se-gnii'iits 
een ri[)ening, anel the'.se', when elrieel in the- sun. 
turn black anel kee-j) tor wt'C'ks, ri'taining their 
incre'dible sourness to the' enel. 

I had not ceeme tee Sumatra tee stuelv the rule- 
be'r situatieen. If I hael been geeing tee'stuely it I 
sheeiild have eleene see when 1 first visiteel Singa- 
peere in 1896, at whie h time' Dr. I<idlI';v sheeweel 
me' the' trees een which he' was weerking eeut the- 
modern method eef tajeping. Hut who ceeulel ha\ e 
guesse-el theni that America weeulel ever have any 
tropieal territeery eer that she- weeulel ele-ve-leep a 
se-nse eel the impeertanee' eef the treepics. Our 
manufacturers were ge-tting the little- rubber 
tlu'y ne'e-de-el freem up the- Amazeen anel there' was 
not a single American who weeulel have- listeneel 
five minutes tee any talk I might have given him 
abeeut plantatieen rubbe'r in the Orie-nt. 


Heewe-\(-r, when the geneticist. Dr. I liassi^R, 
sheewe-el me seeme- eet his grafte-el eer bueleie-el rulebe-r 
tre-e-s anel teelel niv that as mue'h as fift\' grams eef 
rnhher liad lee-e-n take'/i from a budded tre-e- only 
seve-n ve-ars old, whe-re-as the' a\'erage‘ eel the se-e e/- 
ling trees in the- pkmtat ions was only -e-ve-n grams, 

I e'eeulel utiele-rsta nei what a e l ane'e there- ma\ be- 
in the- substitutieen eef bnelele'el tie-e-s tor st-e-elliiigs. 
Fate-r een, ne-ar Langsar, I .saw eene eef the- meere- 
(ereegr(-ssi\e- e-states, anel was sheewn a small com- 
mercial planting eef buelelt-el tree-s. While- ('very 
e-xperie-nce- eef the- eerchai'elist weeulel See-m tee peiinl 
lee tlu' aehantage' eef growing tre-e-s buelded with 
weeeed freem re-e'eerd latex be-are-rs ralhe-r than the 
hit-e)r-miss .se-e-dlings eef unkneewn ancestry, there 
api)e-ar tee be a geeeeel many jeteints still to settle- 
be teere- e-xtensi\ e- plant.it iems eel buelele-el rubber 
tre-e-s be-ceenie- a facteer in the rubber situatieen. 

I hat the- ine|ustr>' is peeinteel in this elire-ctieen 
se-e-ms ea-rtain.^ 

Sumatra se-e-ms tee be- the- rubber gre ewers’ 
p.araelise*. I juelge this freem the compariseens 
whie-h eene* eel tlu- preegre-ssive- planters elre-w be-- 
twe-e-n the- labeer ceenelitieens tlie-re-, and theese- in 
jav.a anel the- Malay Stale's. 'riu- Sumatra 
planter ceentracts with the Geeve-rnment her his 
labeer. guarante-eing ce-rt.iin ceemberts. In return 
he- is insure-d against ce-rtain de-fe-ctieeiis een the 
part eef the- labeere-rs, meest eef wheem he- brings 
trorn java. Me deee-s neet ha\e tee deal with .any 
labeer eerganizatieen eer with any nati\e' ehie-l in 
the- empleeynu-nt eer dismissal of his labeere-rs, .as 
the- plante-rs in Ja\a and the- iM.al.i\’ Peninsula 
must elee. d he' sup[.)ly eef Javanese- l.abor is tlui 
gre.atest facteer in the- rublee-r situatieen in the 
Orient, it weeulel se-e-m. \Mie-n eene compare-s the 
systematic agricultural h.abits and the te-.acha- 
bility eef the Javanese-, with the- cliaracte-rist ics 
eef almeest any (ether rae-e which today is tapping 
rubbe-r, I dee neet se-e how one- can tail tee appre-ciate 
the- advantage the-y bring. The- tapping eef rule- 
be-r is almeest a carpenter’s jieb. It reepiire-s a 
ste-aely, trained hand t(e push the- tl.it gieiigi' aleeiig 
the- upper e-dge eef the thick bark and pare eelf a 
thin shaxing freem it wilheeut eitlu-r cutting intee 
the- te nder greewing laye-r of cells, or cambium, 
eer h-aving seeme eef the- bark ley cutting toee lar 
freem it. 'bee dee eene- eer the- eetlie-r lerings burylls eer 
kiKets that interfi'i'e- with the tajeieing \'ears late-r. 

In .Siimalr.i tlie-re- is a syste-m eel pe-nalties ;md 
beenuse-s ele-pe-iieling upeen the- anueimt eer lae k eet 
these injurie-s, and an ins[)(('tor checks uje the 
weerk eel the- tap|eers and ke-e-jes a re-cord each 
oiie-'s weerk’. die' plantation I \ isited h.id 2490 
acre's, anel was eepe-ratcel by nine Fuieepeans wlue 
m.inag(-el the- niaehiner>' .anel the- 800 Jax.inese- 
tappers and ((elle-i teers, man>' eel the-in wfemen. 
rile- highe-st pa\' (ef the- t.api)(-rs amounts to aleeeut 
$7.00 a month, without leeod sup[)l\', .md a good 
tajeper will tap 400 tre-e-s a eliy aiui dee it in leeiir 
hieurs ot ceentinueeiis weerk. 

I shall neet feerge-t the sens.iti(ens this trip 
thneugh the largi- |el<mtation ne-ar l.iingsar gave 
nie-. M.in hael, in my lite-time-, substituted a 
feercst from the .'\mazeen for a prime\ al .Sumatran 
feerest, and had eleene- it see hurrii-dly that there, 
among the str.aight rows lef large- Hr.izilian rubber 
tre-e-s the- giant blacke-ne-el stumps eef the original 
.Sumatr.i tre-e-s we-re- still staneling. I was ri'- 
minele'el (ef an eve-ning in my eewn lueme in Wash- 


‘ I learni'd more about tin* hudde-d rubbe-r later troin 
Dr. t'k.VMKK in Uuilctizorn, to whom is ae:corde-d the hone)r 
of first leuelding riibbcM tre-e-s on any considerable' scale. . . 



I' AiKt "ji.i); Rambles in Sumatra (1926) 


in^ton, when Dr. lli Hi^k ol Para me of his 
(rip for the Hrazilian vioxernnunit, to si'c what 
I)lantation rublx'r in the Orient was likely to do 
to the Brazil rubber indusliy. “ Brazil ean never 
coinpete with the Orient, we hawn’t the labor.” 
was the way he put it. 

There is another ICxperinient .Station in Medan, 
that of the Tobaeeo Planters of Deli. I wantecl 
l)artieularly to see this, for it was the first of the 
private experinuMit stations that Dr. 'Tkki'H had 
just .succeeded in KetB”U started in 18^6 when I 
landed with him in java. It was his newest to> 
then, and Bkkd.v uk Haw was its first director. 

I ('ould not but recolU'Ct those early discus.sions 
around the dinner tabh- in java ;is Dr. Pai.m, the 
jirc'sent director, told me ol the widesjiread dis- 
tribution t)t mosaic diseases in the tropics, dis 
eases, tht' wry existence of which was not sus- 
pected in those days. As an indication ol the 
change that has conu* since the nineties, it is 
interesting to know that over a million dollars a 
year is spent by the private trojiical plant ex- 
periment stations in the Dutch l^ast Indies. 

* * * 

At last our cainj) etiuipmimt was ready for the 
trip with Mr. Brandts IB ys, and the cars were 
loaded with bed rolls in oilcloth covers, and tin 
cans full of clothing and supplies ol all sorts. 
I'ins full (»f alcohol, tins lull ol photographic 
films, tins full of food, e\erything in tins to pro- 
tect them from the tropical downpours. 'To dry 
plants betwei'ii shirts of paper is an easy matter 
in dry regions, M AiRt; in Morocco, for example, 
used newspapers, and e\<‘ry night used to .strirv 
his half-dried specimens all around his bedroom 
and the next morning gather them togetluT again 
into his wiri' pre.ss. .Such a method, howe\’er. 
does not work in the ilripping rain forests of 
Sumatra where all day long the relative humidity 
stands around 90^^, and in the morning may bi- 
as high as 99%. The s()eed with which a plant 
molds there is amazing. To prevent this the 
newest technique is to lay the sjiecirnens between 
the driers, and when a large [lackage has been 
made slip it into a tin ca.se, pour .some alcohol 
into the case and seal it uj). A pint ol alcohol 
in a fn<--gallon can will keep the plants Irom de- 
cay for a \'er\ long time. 'The drying process 
can later be completed Ijy artificial means. 

'There were so man\' tin cans (altogether too 
many, Doksi it maintained, and I believe he 
was right) that CikAiiwt and Dohsktt had to 
travel part way by train. I wanted to see the 
\'egeta(ion fringing the coast of .Sumatra and 
compare it with that of .South Klorida. I have 
always wondered if certain Asiatic species com 
posing the coastal swamp vegetation of Asia 
might not be introduced into the American man- 
grove swamps that hava- come to play such a part 
in the beauties of southern Floriila. 

The (lay was hot, but the roads were good and 
soon we were (raveling north through the low 
country near the coast, bound for Takengon. 
If one does not mind the heat, the low coun- 
try is by far the most interesting botanically, 
for there is where the strange palms, lianas, and 
dank tropical jungles are at their best. We 
passi-d through native pepper plantations, and, 
as I waded through the long grass to refresh my 
memory of this strange evergreen vine, hanging 
in tres.ses from the shade trees on which it is 
trained, 1 could not help thinking how strange it 
is that the tiny black fruits produced by this 
relatively uncommon \ine should have found 


88 


their way onto the tables ol civilized man 
throughout the world, becoming the universal 
com[)anion of salt, that essential mineral of our 
foods. Its appearance on man’s talile dates 
back far beyond Roman times and it is recorded 
that Attu.A the Hun demanded as part of the 
tributes in (he sacking of Rome, .^t)()0 pounds of 
lilack [)e[)per. 

Leaving the road we went by motorboat out 
into Aroe Bay where the m.ingrove \egetation 
with its long hanging fruits, ready to drop and 
float in the water, reminded us all ol the coastal 
mangroves ol Klorida. TAeii the stories ol croco- 
diles were niU wanting. In the swilt currents 
of the T>a\' many fatalities have occurred that 
were to tile aibantage of (hesi- water demons. 
■Sixteen natives were (-aten 1)\' these brutes in a 
single eddy. 

I was interested in the “Niri Boenga ” (Xylo- 
carpiis jfranaiiim), claimed to be the best of the 
tidal swamp tanbark trees, but 1 cannot see any 
early chance of its being utilized. In order to 
add its interesting form to our own mangrov-e 
swamjis I accepted .Mr. Bkandis Brvs offer of 
seeds for America. The two .Asiatic Rhizophorns 
{R. conju^ata and R. mucronala) were hi-re 
mingled, neither species however, producing 
trees so stately as our own mangrove {Rhizophora 
mangle), and although their aerial roots are as 
remarkalile, 1 am inclined to believe that so far 
as bizarre and fascinating forms are concerned, 
Florida can be proud of ha\ ing some of the finest 
mangrove swamps in the world. .May she long 
be alile to keep them. 'They are making land for 
future realtors to sell, jx-rhaps, but the\' furnish 
today OIK- of tin- most imiipii' plant sights in the 
world. 

1 have long ho|)(-d to .si'c the Nipa palm {Sipa 
fruticans) growing on the shores of Biscayne 
Bay. It inhabits the low salt marshes ol the 
Oriental tropics, where its masses of great i-rect 
leaves rising from th(- ground add much beauty 
to the ('oasts of this whole- region. I onC(‘ suc- 
ceeded in getting some s(‘(-ds of this palm started 
and Prof. ('has. 'T. .Si.vii'son of Little River, 
Florida, i-ven got oiu- of (h(-m to grow in his 
hammock, but do what he could, lu- was not able 
to |)rot(‘ct it from the crabs. It was exciting to 
se(‘ the nipa again and to arrange for another 
shipment of the heavy fruits, though a year latc-r 
th(- failure of the shipment was announced. 

Passing through a little \'illage wa- all scente<l 
a delightful fragranci* and found it came from 
the avenue (n-i-s lining th(- highway. They were 
covered with yellow blooms and thi- whoh- 
mak(‘-np of the tree S(-(-med to fit it in a pi-culiar 
way for the making of a tropical avenui-. It 
was Rterocarpus indiens, a leguminous species 
that (l(-ser\(-s to be- thoroughly tried out in .South 
Florida as a shade and av(-nue tre(-. More sei-ds 
must be secured, howcwr, as those we sent in 
fail(-d to grow. 

As we passed through a native market b>' the 
roadside and I got out to look at a strange Iruit, 
which to this day I have not Ix-en able to identify, 
Mr. Brandis Buys whispered to me that this 
was one of the places where tlu-y had had trouble 
with the natives, and a little further along tlu- 
road where we .stoppeil to changi- a tin-, I noticed 
that he kept a sharp eye on some surly-looking 
fellows in a hut m-ar by and he told me that he 
did not lik(‘ their looks. Asid<- from these in- 
cidents the wTole trip was through a seemingly 
friendly country. 



Faikchii.d: Rambles in Sumatra (1926) 


<S<> 


'I'fu* hotel at Lan^sar liad htnai kept for many 
years l)y a man who took an interest in inserts, 
and when he heard that (iKAlfAM was eolleetinji 
thetn he told us that near the oil field of Darat, 
when* om* of the wells burned ni^ht and day he 
had seen thr- j^reat Atlas moths so al)undanf that 
they fornu'd ^reat windrows on the j^round under 
the lights, and that he had seen tillers from the 
forest fet'ditiK <>n them. We noted this loeality 
oti our map as one to \'isit, hut were m‘\rr able 
to do so. 

I think the drive* Irom l.antisar to Lake* I'awar 
deserves to rank as one ot the great dri\'i*s of tin* 
world. It skirts the lowlands for al)out one 
hundred niih'S and then elimbs betwe-en moun 
tains almost ten thousand t(‘et high to the* (*n 
( hanting mountain lake*, or “la<K*t.” 'I'awar. 

I he lowlands wore* hot and it was afti*rnoon 
before w'e r(*arlied liir(*uen and began to climb. 
Roads in a tropical mountain r(*gion wlu re hand 
labor is clmap and bridging material e,\pt*nsi\-e 
are about the crookedest things in the world, 
riiey follow in and out every ra\ ine or gully on 
tlu* hillside. ()m'’s stee-ring wlmel is eonstantlx 
turning, and turns too sharp to make without 
backing are fr(*(jui'nl. d'he sun S(*t and a bri(*f 
twilight ensiK'd, followed by a rising moon, as 
we climb(*d up onto the ridge*, with tropical 
jungles stri*tching awa\ on eith(*r side*. As w<- 
dij)ped down intcj tlu* dee*}) shaeleews east bx* the* 
mountain, we heard a elistinct reear from the* 
forest. liKANDTS Bt'vs w hisp(*reel to me*, .is 
though he thought the* e*ry might al.irm .Mrs. 
I'aIR( HIM), “It’s a tige*r.’’ \\V we*re* ele*Iighte*d 
.md liste*ne*d tor the* ne*.\t scre*am. It was thrilling 
to be trav(*ling by moonlight threeiigh a jungle* 
infe*ste*d with man-eating tige*rs. I'xvo me*n anti 
lour l)ullocks had bei*n elraggcd otf this same* road 
by a man e*ating tigt*r the* month before* as the*x' 
we*re* elriving bullock carls to lbrt*uen. 

On a shai'}) high turn we sto|)i)e*el anel got eeiit. 
Ooing ujj into the* fore*st a hunelre*el y.irels to a 
little* lookout, we* saw beien't* us Lake* I'awar, 
shimmering in the* moonlight beloxv. D.irk 
mysterious mountains surrentnded this little* 
lake* in the* jungle, a fe*w white* he)uses on its shore* 
marke'd the* x'illage of rakengon. It was an e*n- 
ch.'inting tropical sct*nt*. 

In a fi*w minutes xve* iiulled Uj) befeere* the* jia.s 
sangrahan or ( iox’ernmt*nt eiwnetl rt*sthou.si* at 
l akengon. I )()ksi;tt and (jKAIIAM we*re* waiting 
lor us at the* door anel tlu* rijsllafel was re*.idy in 
the* kitchen. The* rijsttafe*! eef 'Fakenge)!!, this 
tiny si)(*e'k of a jilace* in Atclu*(*n seeme*el bette-r, 
xvith more* strange* things in it, th.in had the* 
fine*st ( eylon e urry we* had t*ate*n in Kanely, but 
(he*n the* tem|)e*r,iture hael some‘lhing to elei with 
it, for the* the*rme)me“te r ste)od at 54° K., anel we* 
rubbt'el our hanels te) warm them. 

rhe)sc meernings in Takt*nge)n; he)w shall 1 
ele*se ribe* th(*m? riu*y held the quality eif sjiring. 
The* cle*ar ce)ol air anel brilliant sunshine* niaele* 
one* think of ne)rthe*rn latituele*s. 'Flu* e-ourte*sy 
of a launch riele* on l.ake* Fawar was e*xte*nele*el 
te) us and as the sun breike* thre)ugh the* clemels 
in great stre*ams e)f light we* cxple)ri*el its she)re*s. 
Flu* lowlands we-re* fille’el with })adely fie'lels, the* 
ravines were* masse s e)f tanglcel lianas, he-re* anel 
the*re gigantic elumijs of bamboe)s waxe-el the*ir 
stems in the air .anel at eine* j)oint a pe*rfe*e*tly 
e'normous mange) tret* ste)e)el all by itself in the 
Jantlscape. Ihe* me)untain slopes them.selx'cs 
were* coveree] with pines, solitl stanels of the 
Merkus |)int* {Pinus mrrkusii) which Mr. 


Hra.NDI.s lil'VS wantt*el us te) set*. ( )n otie siele 
e)f the lake we |)assed the cunninge*st eleelllujuse- 
like little elwt*llings e)n pil(*s, se*vt*nty-hx e* eif the*m, 
summer “ce)ttagt*s’’ e)f the (’.aye) |)(*e)ple* wht*re* 
whole familit's come te) s})e*nel a nie)nth anel hsh. 
At the sea.son wht*n the* “'Ft*jjik“ winel ble)ws 
in August, sh))als e)f small .se)-calle*el 'Fepik fish 
frt*<}uent this sheert* and the* })e*e)|)lt* catch them 
by the* millie)ns freein tiicse* he)uses e)n the* water 
.anel elry them the*re te) eat with their rice*. ( tm* 
gets the im|)re*ssie)n that the ('.axe)(*s leael a 
|)aste)ral .iiul j)t*aceful family life on the she)re*s 
e)l this me)untain lake*. 

There* was a reiael h.ilfway reainel the* lake anel 
we* starte*el out .dong it e)ne* alte riioon, be)tanizing 
iij) into the* pine*s, whe re* l)e)Ksi: i t eli.se e)xere*el a 
re*markable* tro|)ie'al rasi)be*rry with light re*el 
truits anel le.ax'e*s that we're* ge)lele*n breiwn be*- 
ne*,ath (Ruhus chrysophyllns). 1 his was ,a ne*w 
e'e)|le*e t ing fie'lel anel we* we*re* ke*ye*e| up; we* eliel 
ne)t have* .inx iele*,i e)f what might be* .ihe'.ael of us. 
I h.i|)pe*ne*el te) be* alone* for a nionu*nt ein the* 
ir.ail xvlu'ii, le)e)king u|), I saw beleeia* me* a gray 
e liff oxe*r which was te*ste)e)ne‘el the* lo\e*lie*st e*xi*r- 
gre*e*n climbing fig imaginable*, with a hundre*el 
or mepi'e* brilliant scarle*t fruits se*t e)ff bx* the 
gle)s;y gre*e*n e)f the* fe)li;ige*. Fhe* habit eel tlu* 
jil.'int re*niinele*el me* of tlu* eejinme)!) Hens repens, 
but the* le*axe*s we*re* e’eearser anel the* fruits se'xe-ral 
time's as large* .anel fhe* ine)st striking scarli't ce)lor 
1 have* e*xe*r see'ii in any Iruit. As 1 st()e)il looking 
.it it anel weiiiele-ring if the* fruits we*re* goeeel to e*at, 
.inel how we* eaeiilel ge t seime* of tlu*m, anel he)W 
le)\e*l\ a jil.int e)f it woulel be* ein the* wall of a 
heeiise* in Se)Uth h'leeriela, 1 was conseieius eel i*x- 
|)e*rie*ne'ing in a nu-asure* tlu* ele*lights e)f theise* 
early e*xj)le)re*rs wlu) first se t e‘ye*s e)n the* I irtorui 
reyid eer the* rallle*sia ea* the* jacaraiula, let us say. 
Fhe* |)arty' e ;ime* tij) anel it was xvith some* eiifficulty 
th.af Jim anel (’.raha.m se',ale*ei the* e'lifl anel breiught 
eleewii the* fruits. 'Fhe*y we*re* as harsh .anel reaugh 
te) the* teeuch .IS ,i i.)ie.*e'e* of s.inel[)a]X‘r, anel the* 
foliage* xvas harsh teio. Ihe* su|)e*rb-le)e)king 
fruits we*re* ne)t geeoel to eat. Alas, the)Ugh we 
|)ae'ke*el the* ri[)e*st se*e*els we* ce)ulel get, in e*xery 
wax' kneewri te) us, ,'liui jieesteel them, ,is we ll as 
se)nu‘ cuttings, Irom F.ikengon lay le*tte*r })e)st, 
neme* e)f the*m re*ache*ei Ame*rica .ilixe*. Se) far as 
I kne)w, it has ne)t ye*t re*e'e*ix e el its leapt ismal se'i- 
e*nt ifie* name* ... 

.Mr. |{KAM)'rs Hi \s wante'd us ja.irticularly te> 
se'cthe* stanels of , Me rkus pine*, as he* was xveerking 
een tlu* the*e)ry that vast forests e)l it ceeiild be* ele*- 
xe*le)|)e'e| in these* .Sumatr.i highl.uuis, anel since* 
it is an e*.xce*lle‘nt tur})e‘ntine*-i)rodue ing s|)e*cies 
this we)ulel aelel gre*at we'.ilth te) ee*rtain me)Unt,im 
re*gie)ns eif the* I )ute h ICasl Iiulie'S whe re* little* 
that is e)f xalue* is neew grown. His first lerobleni 
was to clu'ck the lire's anel ste)}) the* encroaching 
tall grasses xvhich are* the eleslreeye'fs eel the* pine 
forests. 'Fhese* twe) agencie*s work te)ge*the*r in an 
associatieen meere* })e*rfe*e't than many' eif the* sym- 
bie)se*s’’ ))f fie'lel beetanists. ('.r.isse*s alone* cannot 
eie-sfreey the feerest, but eeeinbiiU'el with fire* the*y 
are* eh'streeying it e*xe*ry'whe*re*. l.e*t grasse*s start 
at the* e*eige* of the* fore*st wlu're* they get e*ne)Ugh 
sunlight, th<*n il the*y catch lire* in the* elry se'a.sem 
tlu* tree's een the* e*elge eif the* teere'St w ill be* burne-el, 
anel intei this fringe* of de*aei le-aHess trees the* 
grass s[)re*ads with the ne xt we*t se*ason. Re*i)e'at 
this preice'ss for e’cnturie's anel the* lanels capable* 
e)f su})i)e)rting the* tre*e*s will lu'eeeme* grasslands. 
Ne)whi‘re* hax't* I se-e-n meere striking ele ineenstra- 
tiems ))f this |3hene)me*ne)u than here* in the 



Faik( hii.d: Rambles in Sumatra (1926) 


90 


jungles of Atehoen. By gnisses ! do not mean the 
blue grass vvhieli the colort'd man cuts from your 
lawn e\t‘ry montli. I na-an grasses as high as 
your liead, grasses that make so thick a car|M‘t 
on the ground that seeds dro[)ped from the trees 
cannot get through, gr.isses that you could grub 
out every week from the grouml and that would 
grow again where you had thrown them tt) die. 
Grass is the curse ol the tropics, as e\ery planter 
will tell you. Shading it out with other plants 
seems to be the only nu'thod ol combating it. 

So we drove ilown the highway to Lampahan 
and struck through into the dense forest. 'I'he 
road bee ame a mere trail, tlu“ \ <“getation became 
more dense on either side and the tree buttresses 
became larger. There are no giant trees such as 
the ('alifornia seciuoias and n-dwoods or the 
Australian eucalyptus to be found anywhere in 
th(> tropics; they do not (‘xist there, l)Ut why this 
is so is one of the Imtanical puzzles. What seems 
to nu‘ tlu' most striking ditferenc(‘ lu'tweim tin- 
tropical jungle and such a lorest as the redwoods, 
for e.vample, is the tangh'd character of tiu' one 
and the simpU' (jpen characti'r of the other. In 
the redwood forests, as far as you can see, the 
trees are redwoods; the same type of tree meets 
your ('ye where\er you look. In a tropical forest 
you may ha\e two hundred spt'cies of trees in a 
single acr(', a bewildering arboretum if you 
pK'ase, with n(.)thing labeled, and with the 
Howers a hundred feet above your head where 
the mouKeys are playing. 

We stopped under a strangler fig, which would 
serv(‘ as a landmark, and with our long knives 
in our hands scattered through the forest to do 
a little collecting. 1 he undergrowth was dense, 
there were numbi'ih'ss climl)ers with r('curve(i 
spines; every step of the way had to be hacked 
and it was surprising how (juickly one got lost 
and how far away and faint the calls of the 
others became, (io into a corn field and notice 
how (quickly you get into a silent world, and how- 
soon you leel yourself al(.)ne. A strange distant 
souiid lik(* the bark of a dog, and yet diffeia'nt, 
reminded me that the native forester had re- 
ported meeting a tiger on the trail the day before. 

Ahead of UK' stood a smallish tree with 
branches low enough to the ground so that I 
thought 1 Could get specimens of its foliage and 
fhjwers it it were in bloom. I'o my surprise it 
was unmistakably a Citrus tree, but since there 
were no flow(‘rs or fruit the (|uestion of what 
species it was has remained in doubt. 1 am in- 
clined to think it is a wild form which Doksktt 
later found in fruit. 

As I hacked my way through the dense tangle 
of climbing lerns and grasses 1 hapj)ened to look 
down, and pushing the tangle aside with my 
long knife 1 found 1 w.is on the very brink of a 
deep gully and that the enormous green leaves 
below me were the to])s ol tall tree ferns growing 
up from its bottom. Gne winces a bit at such 
discoveries and can hardly helj) wondering how 
it would ever be possilde for one’s friends to find 
one should one fall into such a gully in a jungle 
which it takes days to cut through in a single 
straight line. 

I he turfientine still stood in a magnificent 
stand of the merkus pine some miles further on. 
It was a cleiiring in the forest like many I had 
been familiar with from childhood, for in place 
of th(' myriarl species of tret'S we had been seeing 
in the jungle, here we w«‘re surrounded by the 
trees of otdy one. The turpentine ta[)pers were 


at work. Mr. Brandts Buys had designed their 
special tool and pre.scribed the method, which is 
the most refined of any turpentine tapping I ever 
saw. It .stood out in strong contrast with the 
crude, iidiumane methods of our own southern 
states, where a t(»ol of the most primitive make 
is used, and where little attention is paid to the 
life of the Iri'i'S. It suggested the rubber tapiiing 
technicpie, whii'h has been tlu' si'cret of the suc- 
cess of plantation rubber in .Sumatra. Only a 
small thin chij) is taken from the wound each 
day, and whih' 1 shall not go into a discussion 
of its superiority over the French or American 
methods, I cannot hel|) reminding those who 
may be inclined to be skeptical, that the Dutch 
have made great successes of plantation cinchona, 
of |)lantation tobacco, and of plantation rul)l)er, 
and are making great progress with their planta- 
tions of West African oil palm, manila hemp and 
gutta-[).‘rcha. Plantation turpentine may yet 
come on the market. 

We botanized another day, the whoh' party ol 
us, from tlu' highway, using the automoliile as 
a base and spotting fruits and Howers in the 
forest near by. If anybody imagines this ha& 
any resemblance to liotanizing from an automo 
bil(‘ on the Great Plains, he must revise his no- 
tions, for tlu' flowers on a level with our eyes 
were in tall trees that rose* from the steep moun- 
tain side far below the highway, d'o hack one’s 
way down to them took much time, great 
physical e.xertion and some risk; then, in ordi'C 
to clear the trunk of the tree so that it could be 
climbed, all kinds of spiny lianas, incomparably 
wor.se than any green briar or saw Ijriar which 
growes among the sassafras tri-es of Maryland, 
had to be lal)oriously gotten out of tlu' way. 

Festooned from many of these forest trees 
hung climl)ing species of ficus with extremely 
d('Corative fruits, not so Ix'autilul as the ones we 
had found on Lake d'awar, l)Ut still vi'iy at- 
tract iv(' and certainly (h'siderata for .South Flor 
ida. One of the most attractive of these jiM 
Doh.sktt had a hard climl) to get. Anyone le.ss 
determined and le.ss agih' would have' gi\-en it 
up, so we photographed him holding it as he 
stood panting from his exertions in the sun- 
light. rile fruits were not ripe, l)ut we wrai)petl 
some cuttings with the greatest cart' and posted 
them, letti'r post from 'I'akengon to Wash- 
ington. 'I'lu'y weri' propagated as P. I. 
67559, Ficus callicurpa, in the tropical gardens 
of tlu' late Dr. If. Ni'.Hki.i.Nc; at Napl 's, Florida. 
Sonu' day it wall add its beauty to the tropical 
vegetation of that new commonwealth. 

One morning while the others were Imsy with 
their preparations for the trek through the 
jungle, Mrs. Fairchild and I motori'd with Mr. 
Brandts Bia's to a point on the trail where I 
had seen a relative of the chestnut, a Castinopsis, 
the seeds (T which 1 thought I could easily get. 
With our klawongs we scrambled up the steep 
slippery slope into the jungle, and the muh'r- 
growth closed in around us. It was stiff hacking 
and going. .Suddenly not a (piarti-r of a mile 
awaiy we heard the unmistakalfle snarl of a tiger. 
When that snarl brc'aks thi* uncanny stillness of 
the forest it startles anyone! It was pretty lU'ar, 
but not so near as we were to the road, so we kept 
on. Another snarl still ru'arer: evidently the 
beast was coming our way. Another and an- 
other, each louder than the last, and finalK 
Brandts Buys said that whih' ordinarily tig(*rs 
stalk their prey stealthily and at night, a hun- 



I'AiKtuiij); Rambles in Sumatra (1926) 




^ry man-eater will roar arouiul and even attack 
in daylight, and as this one was so evidently 
coming our way he thought wc had better get 
out of the jungle. Mrs. Fairchu.d mo.st heartily 
agreed with him, so we withdnw, though not 
before I had satisfied myself that there were no 
ripe seeds on the tr(‘<'. A few days later, Mrs. 
Fairchild and 1, thinking that our n<‘rves had 
bee-n in no way affected l)y this experience, 
which we had both keeidy enjoyial, retunual to 
this same highway ab(mt <lusk and made our way 
across an open held up to tlu“ edge (jf the jungle. 
I startl'd ( ollecting while Mrs. Fairchild got out 
l>er little alcohol lamp and started to brew a pof 
of ti'a. .Suddenly there was a crash right behind 
us. 1 think both our hearts were in our mouths. 
.A great branch, loosened by some storm had 
fallen, although tlu're was not a breath of air 
moving, but the idea of canij)ing out alone in 
the bji'est as we had often done elsewlu'ie, lost 
its attractions. 

+ + + 

We spent nearly a week in 'lakengon, <dl of 
us together, before things were in readiness for 
the more strenuous part of tin* trip, the two- 
liundred-and-hfty-niile trek through the forest, 
but at last the coolies had all been engaged, thi- 
live chickens bought, the ap[)ort ionment of the 
loads for each had bei'ii made and ever\ tiling 
was in n'aoiness. Who was to go.’' Mrs. h'AiR- 
CHILD was only a few wia'ks out of the hospital 
and could not go, and 1 had bi-en hav ing .a good 
deal of trouble with my feet, an old case of flat- 
foot. Some one familiar with the material -we 
had alreatly c:ollected had to remain to attend 
to it or it Wduld be lost. 1 was not willing that 
one of the next generation should be deprivi'd 
of the experience and L)()R.SLTT did not drive the 
car, so it fell to my lot, so to speak, to be left 
behind. It was ratlier a bitter thing, but then 
the whole region was so full of interest that I 
soon forgot it. 

W'e had not imagined that taking le.ive of the 
boys, where the road eiuh'd and the trail into 
the jungle began, would lie any more exciting 
than watching a group of friemls disappear on 
the rear of a l^ullman train, but it was. Fhe 
trek was about as far as from Washington t«> 
New York. It was to tak(' ten days or twd 
weeks and there was no way of gi'tting word to 
them during this time. We were to motor back 
to Medan, get up again on the high tableland 
from there, and meet them at the other end of 
the trail. Just at the last minute, as if to add 
spice to the excitc'inent, Hra.sdt.s Bi vs came to 
me with the news that not fifty miles from where 
the trail pa.ssed, some Atchenesi' had, a day or 
two before, amliushed a small guard of Dutch 
and Aniboinese soldiers, ma.ssacring most of 
them, and as there wa-re to bt- foreigners in the 
party the (jovernor had thought it wiser to send 
a guard of soldiers with tin- expedition. 

It was quite a sight to see them sLarl. Beside 
the chief forester there had l)een added to the 
expedition Mr. Flrnandls, the local forester, 
so that the [)arty consisted of five white men, 
with three ponies for those who got tired of 
walking, and an imposing numb('r of cooli(‘s and 
soldiers. 

As Mrs. Fairchild and 1 stood on a pile of 
logs and waved farewell to the men as they di.s- 
appean'd single file up the mountain side through 
a gap in the jungle, 1 felt we were experii'iicing 
the great and rather melancholy feeling my gn-at 


grandparents must luive kmnvn when they bid 
good-by to their sons and relatives bound from 
New Ivngland for the great forest area of the 
Western Reserve. At least tlw stage st'tting 
of the end of a forest trail was theri-, and the 
dangers, real or imaginary, were much tin- same. 

With the let-down feeling that I'omes after 
seeing friends off, we molftfed back to the pas- 
sangrahan and went to work (»n the seeds and 
jilant speciiiKTis. d'h<-re is something exciting 
about packing nj) sc'cds von have gatliered and 
in which you have great hope'. . 1 here is a keen 

pleasure in gloating ovc'r vour heib.irium sprei- 
mens as they dry in the blottr rs; the data must 
be attached to them, and every morning the> 
must be aire<l and tin- lilotti'is r hangid or tlu'y 
will mold, and whih' Mrs. hAlRCHii.D and 1 
found tlu- task of saving what we had gathered 
in the jungles no <‘asy one, particularlv' whiii we 
got back to the steaming lowlands and found 
hundreds of specimens in peril, 1 think wi' both 
look back to the herbarium days in Sumatra 
with a good (h-al of sentiment. 

rile long black log dugouts of the (jMV'oi's tic'd 
iq) to the little wharf lookr'd very inviting and 
one (lav we took an oarsman and paddled across 
in one to tlu' far side of this enchanting Fake 
d'awar. d he diigout has none of th(' lialance of 
a cayuka on the ( li.igres, but is more like a 
birch-bark canoe in its temperament. We got 
ar ross all right and found ourselves among some 
of the most peculiar cluinj) bamboos I had seen. 
I'heir rhiz(»mes formed great mounds higher 
than one’s head and from the tops of these ir- 
regular mounds rose the tall plume-lik(' stems, 
riiere weri' two kinds, the “ Bieloe Besar” arid 
the “Bie|o(' kechil,” the largi' and the small, in 
other words. It took me some time, even with 
the help of the (iayo lioatman, to get rhizomes 
of thesi* species for tlu' post. One lot arrivc'd 
dead, Init the other was report('d alive whi'ii it 
reachi'd Washington. 

I picked up a local native and he guided nie up 
one of the ravines that led into the |)ine forc'St 
al)ove us, Mrs. h'AiRCHiLD preferring to remain 
behind. It was a day that reminded me of Italy. 
We (limlx'd on and on, my guidi.' muttering 
something all the tiiiR' that 1 could not innh'r- 
stand. At last we (ame to .i little clearing in 
which was a single pine, and under it a tiny 
thatched hut with a floor m.ule f)f pelibh'S from 
the beai'h, ev idently the grave of some holy man. 
I .saw that my native' guide was awed, and I 
realized that, standing side by side bi^fore' it, he 
and I were looking int<» tin' saint' universal mys- 
tery and that our feelings wt're in no way widely 
different. All tin' lu'redity and environment 
which had been mine gave me no particular ad- 
vantage over him when it c.une to the maltt'r of 
death. He had wondered about it, so had I. 
He had not bet'ii able to solve it, lu'itlu'r had I. 
The chief dilTerence between us l.iy in the amount 
of superstition vv(' accepti'd. hot him the world 
was full of spirits and ghosts; every acc ident of 
his life was due to th(' machinations of his im- 
aginary world. For mc' the spirit world, in his 
sens(', h;nl been dt'niolished. I had Ic'anu'd to 
ex|)lain the occurrences about me in another way, 
which, while not disix'lling the mystery, had 
dispelled the superstition and fear. 1 have oftc'n 
thought of him, that Gayo guide. 

He had a superbly fashioni'd klavvong, inine 
was a poor cheap thing I had liought ()f a ( hina- 
man in 'raketigon, and 1 think he pitied nu'. He 



Fairchh.d: Rambles in Sumatra (1926) 


92 


felt of mine, tlum he struck the air viciously with 
his, and I gathered from what little Malay he 
spoke and I understooii, that with his he could 
fell a man at a blow. 

We tarried a few days at 'Faken^on, increasing 
our collections atid also our fondness for that 
idyllic spot the longer we staytsl, and then set 
off for Medan. As we neared Lan^sar, we passed 
through plantations of what 1 rcrognized as W est 
African oil palms {Klfeis f^uineetisis). 'Fhe im- 
mense fruit clusters lying on the ground and the 
numbered labels everywhere indicated that it 
was some kind of an experimental plantation 
where seed selection was going on, but as I could 
find nobody who was in charge of the plantation. 

I had to leave without finding out much al)out 
it. From what 1 heard afterwards in Java, and 
from what I saw in West Africa a year later, I am 
prepared to l)eli{A’e that the West Alrican oil 
palm may be the next gn*at industry of the 
Oriental tropics. Like the date pabn, it has the 
advantage of increasing its yields with age, at 
least for thirty years. It isa<lapted to the rainiest 
regions of the lowlands, and it produces a staph- 
article of commene for which there is a stc-ady 
and growing demand. Fhe kernels, as well as 
the pericarp or fruit flesh, are extremely rich in 
oil; in fact, the production of oil per acre is 
doul)le that of the coconut. Over L^(),0()() tons 
of the oil and 400,000 tons ol the kernels came 
onto the market in 1916, and by 1922 as many as 
28,000 acres had been plantc<l to the palm on the 
east coast of Sumatra alone. With their char- 
acteristic flair for \'aluable plantation croj)s and 
their unc('asing and painstaking investigation 
f)f every development, the Dutch have studi(-d 
the (pjestion of artificial pollination, pruning, 
.seed selection, manuring, in short are making 
exhaustive researclu'S into all its phases. 
Figures as high as $200 an acre gross for planta- 
tions from their fifth to their thirtieth year are 
among the estimates of possible returns.* What 
the (Jriental plantations did to the Brazilian 
rubber industry they may d(> to the West African 
oil palm industry; capture the market with their 
product. 

After two hectic days spent in Medan getting 
off shipments of plants, we got in touch with the 
owner of a charming little hotel at Kabandjahe, 
in the Bovenland. a <lay’s run by auto from the 
.Southern end of the trail where the expedition 
was to arrive-. He put at our disjHtsal a little 
house, once the home of the- forester, so we 
motejred up to look at it and found it just what 
we wanted, and the next day pushed on over a 
most remarkable road to Koetoe d'jane, which 
lies in a rainy valley between tin* nunmtains 
where the ( louds often hang so low that they 
resemble drifting masses of fog on the landscape. 

A sharp attack of indigestion during the night 
prevented my pushing on the following morning, 
but Mrs. I’airchili) met the expedition as it 
emerged at Lawe Aonau, thirty miles up the 
valley, and brought the |)arty in, and by ewning 
we were all togetlu-r, bag and Ijaggage, collections 
and exposed films, in the forester’s house at 
Kabaruljahe. No place could have been better 
adapted to the purposes of seed packing and 
plant drying. 

7'he trek had been a succes.s. Fhe natives 

Rutgkrs, a. a. L., “InvestiKations on Oil Palms," pub- 
lication of Experiment Station A.V.R.O..S. Medan, N. I., 
1922, p. Ill and At)pendix IV tan extensive biblioRraphy is 
Riven). 


everywhere had been friendly, and Dorskti, 
among other interesting finds, had discovered 
a wild relative of the grapefruit, probably Cilrm 
hystrix, and had brought some of the large fruits 
to show us. It formed a tree thirty feet high and 
its fruits w(‘re 4'2 inches through. It is not an 
edible species, but what its resistance to the 
many diseases of the grapelriiit may be, or what 
it may contribute in di.sease resistance to future 
hybrid citrus varieties, or whether it will prove 
a valuable stock on which lo graft the grape- 
fruit, are all Cjueslions whose answers depi-nd 
on the growth and development of the four tiny 
seedlings that grew from the tally seeds to reach 
Washington alivr. 

Interesting tropical acorns, looking in their 
immalure state like green jade, sevt-ral remark- 
able species of rubus which grew at an altitude ol 
.S50() feet, representatives of the tropical grape 
gi-nus Tetrastigma with clusters of blue-black 
fruit, many species of ficus lor the Florida col- 
lection of this genus, a tropical eiionymus. an 
("Xtraordinary hydrangi-a, a superb clerodendron, 
Berberis nepalensis n-semltling tlu* Oregon 
mohonia, a stunning celastrus with dark pink 
fruits, and numerous other interesting plants 
w(‘re brought in by the party. 

Graham made a valuable- collection ol butti-r- 
flies, found one of the most remarkable of the; 
tropical raspberries ami discox'ere-d tlu- larva- ol 
a new spech-s of Ldtnprotnya. Ji.M made a re- 
markalile collection of pholograjihs illustrating 
the forest and jungle characte-r of the whoh- 
“Atjeh Onderhoorigheden," as that portion ol 
North .Sumatra is called on the maps of the Dutch 
Gov(-rnment, and copies ol these were pres(-nte-d 
to the Forestry De-part nu-nt etf Sumatra. 

Although we tieel eiurse-lves eleiwn te) the task e)t 
•saving si>ecime.‘ns anel pae'king seeds, w'e took 
time- to have a glimpse- of the country about 
Kabaneljahe. It sei-nied hardly pejssible that 
this superb highlanel re-gie)n, “ He-t Bejvenlanel, 
coulel have be-en so rea-ntly eiccupied by Euro- 
pean planters. 'Fwelve years be-fe)re- e)ur time- a 
forester had refused to li\’(‘ the-re- because ol the- 
e'annibalism of the natives, anel while this re-port 
may have been overelrawn, the very fact that 
there was such a re-port se-e-ms harelly creelible- 
today. At Brastagi, abemt twelve- miles from 
Kabaneljahe-, we founel the- moek-rn hotel lull (»f 
golfe-rs, among the- gue-sts as many Britisheis 
from the Malay .State-s ami British Imlia as 
there- w-ere- Hollanders. Imlivielual mountain 
villas were- buileling e-verywhere around it anel 
the- whole place wore- the aspe-ct of a mountain 
re-sort. Beeviuse of the- million acre.-s eif highlanel 
te) roam ove-r and its drie-r but ejuite- as invigorat- 
ing climate-, Brastagi has already become a formid- 
able rival of Ne-wara Rliya in Ceylon. 

We- were in the region of the famous Battaks, 
anel one of their characte-ristic villages w'as near 
by. 'Fhe houses are all built for protection 
against e-nemies, staneling on piles high above- 
the ground with plenty of roeim for the pigs 
underne-ath. Fhey are- se-cure-ly shut at night 
and the short laelde-rs le-aeling to the eioeirs are- 
taken up. Indigo is the unive-rsal dye of the- 
clothing of Battak women ami we- saw their dye- 
ing pits down by the- stream. 'Fhe-y were ve-ry 
cruele- affairs, just holes made in the roe'ks m 
which great bundle-s of the Iresh stems anel leaves 
of the ineligo were- put, weighted down with 
stones, soake-el with water, and left to ferment. 
They see-nie*d to be community affairs as far as 



F.\ik( Hn,n: Rambles in Sumatra (1926) 




wi‘ couUl .see. Primitive looms were in u.se 
everywhere, hut the W('aving done on them was 
very fine and the designs were often beautiful, 
each villagt* seeminj^ to have its own distinctive 
patterns. Mrs. F.\1RCH1LI), who is much in- 
terested in the Javanese batik method of dycMiiR 
fabrics, was disappointed to find that there is no 
more connection lietween batik ami Hattak than 
a similarity of names. 

1 wonder if any anthnjpcdogist has worked out 
the origin of thi‘ remarkable roots of the Battak 
houses. Who w<‘r(‘ the architects and how did 
they start a style with so much that is graceful 
and original in tht*. sweep of the roof lines and 
the proportions of tin* gables.-* I can only com- 
pare their beauty with that of the gracefully matle 
wasp’s ru'st one sei's in th(‘ barn, or the hanging 
oriol('’s lU'st in the (orchard. 

One of thc'se villages we found completely 
surrounded by a thick living hedge of bamboo, 
the mas.ses of whose rhizomes rose as high as our 
heads before the tall culms were produced. 

These culms were everv’where in us(‘ as structural 
portions of the houses and if oiU‘ wen* to take* 
the bamboo away from the Battak, his civiliza- 
tion would collapse like a house of cards. 

As w'e were returning one evTiiing from a tri|), 
we passed what 1 am sure are the most remark- 
abh* scart'crows in the world. Birds are one ol 
the greatest pests of the paddy fields and wher- 
ev'cr one goes in rice growing countries, one finds 
all sorts of contrivances for scaring tin* flocks of 
rice birds away. The Battak makes his entirely 
of baml)oo. Hi* digs a holt* six leet dee|) and 
plants firmly in it a six-inch bamboo [K)le twenty 
to twenty-five feet long, setting it perf<*ctly up- 
right. He makes a l)asket-like pulpit .strong 
enough to hold a man, and leav(‘s about fifty of 
the strong (‘lastic bamboo strands with their 
loose ends sticking up, as though the bask<‘t weri* 
unfinished. 'This is fastened on the top ol the 
pole bef<.)re it is set in tin* ground. A second 
pole with notches in each joint to serv'e as steps 
is |)lanted a short distance away from the pulpit 
pole atid fastened to it. To each ol the loose 
ends of the pulpit-basket is attached a long thin 
bamboo twine, the other end being fastened to 
a .stake at the bordiT of the rice field which it is 
desired to protect. 1'his bamboo scaring twine 
hangs in a gentle curve above the ripening rice, 
and the fifty are so spaced that they cover the 
entire field. During the daytime a scarecrow 
operator sits always in the pulpit and shakes 
the string nearest to any flock of birds that may 
alight on the rice, frightening them away. 
When we passed, the sun was setting, the binls 
had goiK* to roost and the man was just descend- 
ing from his watch. 

The weeks had flown, spring was coming, and 
Manchuria would soon be calling the Dor.sktts. 
We had the alternative before us of staying in 
.Sumatra or going to java. VV'e chose the latter 
course, bc'cause the older civilization olTeri'd 
much more for the purpo.ses of the expedition’s 
quest than the wild jungles whose riches are 
only to be dug out by long sojourns at various 
and scattered headquarters. 

Our last excursion was to tin* 'Toba Lake at 
Harangaol. In the guide books of the late 
nineties this remarkable lake is dismissed with 
a brief paragraph .saying the trip from Deli to 
Lake Toba is not dangerous. Today it is within 
a day's journey by auto of Medan, and already 
charming little hotels are clustering around its 
shores. 


Once out on the Bovenland, the fact begins 
to tlawn n[)()n you that you art* in oru* of the most 
amazing |)laces in tlu* world. N’our t*\(* sweeps a 
far horizon as it does on ihe plains of Montana, 
but here innum(*rable vok'anic p(*aks rise around 
you and your car is traveling forever along the 
f)r)rd(*r of sonu* deep ravine, filled (o overflowing 
with (h(* crowns of giant lroi)ical forest trees. 

In an area forty mil(*s stjuare, with Kabantl- 
jahe as a center, there appear on tlu* map rifti*en 
.streams such as those you are just skirting, all 
.so far below that the wat<*r can neillu*r be seen 
nor heard, whih* (he twelve* volcanic |)eaks, some 
of which an* smoking, range in height from 4000 
to 8000 feet above tlu* sea. Let the tourist- 
la(h*n aeroplanes once* laiui upon it aiul who e ;in 
.say what will re*sult? I preelict it may become* 
the* gre*atest he*alth resort in the whole* tropical 
worlel, attracting tee it the* we*althy winte*r golfe*rs 
of P',ure)pe* and the* sunl)urne*el sumnu*r golfe*rs e)l 
Australia. A million-acre w'inte*r anei sumnu*r 
|)lay plaee*, surrounele*el b>' fascinating treepical 
jungl(*s at an altitude of three thousanel feet is 
something to attrae t the- e rowde-el ae*rial craft of 
the* future. 

As we* we*re* driving through tlu'se* marve-lejiis 
highlands, ge*tting eiut e*ve*r>' fe*w minutes to e'ol- 
le*ct le*gumine)us plants or grasses, or trying, eelte n 
in vain, to reach fruits that were* tantalizingly 
ne*ar us in the* tops of the* tre*e*s which rose* from 
the ravine*s by the* siele* of the* roael, sudde*idy 
I'oba Lake came* inte) view . It is larger than the* 
lake of (a*ne*va, with an island in its niielelle* that 
is twe*ntv-five* miles long and its numntainous 
sieles are* cle)the*d with a ve-getation it would take 
a beitanist a life*time* te) eiese'ril)e*. We* drove* 
down the* wiiuling ro.id to the shore*, gath(*ririg 
l)lants as we* w(*n(. Once* I l)rushe*d against the 
re*curve*el .spine*.s of a vine*, Ccsalpinia sepiarin, 
and was brought to a standstill. Feer a mome*tit 
I se*e*tne*d to be (»n the ke*ys of Florida amemg the 
knicke*r be*ans again, anel inde*e*(i this was a re*la- 
tive*, with much the same* habit. 

When we* re*ache*el the* lake* there* was an ielyllic 
be*aeh on which se»me we*althy lle>llaneier hael 
built a rather prete*ntie)us house* tr) whie'h he* 
cemlel eeniu* tet get ce>e»l. On the* beae h I found 
a le*gume whieh I te»e)k te) be* a Crolnlnria, that 
had the largest number e)l see ei pexis e)n it I hael 
e*ver .se*eti e)n any le*gunu*. We* fe)urui aiuetlu r 
e)ne* bc*side the reiael whieh turtu*e] out te) be 
Crolalaria striata, a specie*s whie h was intreieiue*(*el 
inte) Florida twe-nty ye*ars age). It is te)elay e)iu* 
e)f the most valuable* e'e)ver plants e*ve‘r bre)Ught 
inte) that state*. Ace'e)reling te) Fre)l. .SroKivS, whe) 
has be*en stiulying it leer several ye*ars, it is “a 
se)il buileling creep leer peeeer, thin, sanely latul, 
be*ing a gooel se*eeiei. a rank gre)we*r, lre*e* Iroin 
serieeus eliseases, anel whe*n turneel back tee the* 
seeil, a creep which adels large* anueunts eef nitre)ge*n 
to it. Beeth A. ZtMMi*:HMANN e)f Aiuani, German 
Fast Africa, wlue sent the* se*e*els tee America, anel 
G. V. PiPKR eef Washingteeii, whee intreeeluceel it, 
must have be*e'n please*ei that freem a harulful eef 
see*d, vast fieleis eef the le*gunu* are enriching the* 
seeil of Florida e*ach ye*ar. ( an anyeene builel 
him.self a better meenument than this? 

The wate*r was toe") inviting feer DeeRShTT anel 
me tee resist anel we* founel it as refreshing te> 
swim in as it was l)e*autiful tee leeeek at. Seeme 
day we weeulel like* neething bette*r than tee spe*nel 
a meenth ejn the* sheere-s of the* Teeba Lake*, ceel- 
l{*cting. 

* ’ll * 

When we* first came* tee .Sumatra, we were* teelel 



FAikc'Hii,!): Rambles in Sumatra (1926) 


94 


ol a Plant Garden halfway between Medan and 
Brastagi at an altitude of 1600 feet and we had 
stopped there on our way up. Its director, Mr. 
J. A. I.OERZiNG, had received us with great 
cordiality and showed us over its incoinparable 
trails, for in place of being a l)otani(' garden of 
the ccjiiventional type, it was a real jungle* garden 
te'eming with things of fascinating inti-rest to us. 
Mr. Le)KHZiNe; was a re'al e nthusiast, anel had 
gatluTe'd together a small herltarium and a 
library, anel had acepiire'el a wide acejuaintance 
with the flejra of Sumatra. I'hen* was a little 
guest-henise, where \isiting botanists we're we l- 
ce)me, and he had invite'd us lee e-eeme* anel stav 
there when we* linisheel the trek thneugh the 
jungle, so on leaving Kabandjahe, l)e)kSiiTT and 
1 took our spc'e imens anel notes anel e*stablished 
ourseKes there; for se*ve*ral elays. We hael two 
Wardian cases se'iit up from Aledan, anel lille*el 
them with plants, many eef which are neew grow- 
ing in garele'iis in the Western Hemisphere. 
W ith Mr. LoKK/lxei’s he*lp, we* we*re* alsee able to 
e]e*t(*rrnine many of eeur spe*eime‘ns cedk-cted in 
Atchee*n. 

Things have since* gone* badly with its elire cte)r, 
1 h(‘ar, anel the management has be'e*n |)ut in 
other hands. 1 trust that the government will 
find it possible* to build up this station, keeping 
its uniejue* charm as a jungle garele*n, anel that 
botanists from all o\er the woilel will continue* 
to find a welcome there*, for it deserves to be* 
better knejwii to tlie weald. 

Of the* many rare and intere*sting j)lants which 
we secured at Sileolangit, the* Moluccan rattan 
palm {Pigajettia data) stands eeut cle*arly in my 
memory for, though only six and a half years 
<jlel, its gre*at spreading fremels we*re tossing in the 
winel sixty lee't abeeve our heaels. As we saw it 
in Sibolangit, it see*nu‘d as stately as the royal 
palm and twice as rapid a grower, anel the 
straight, cylinelrical stem is a be*autiful brilliant 
green for the ui)per thirel of its height. A hand- 
some wild banana (Afiisa glauca) with e*rdarge‘el 
base, anel le*af stalks e)f a light bluish gray tinge, 
was new to me, and if its growth in T'loriela 
Compare'S with that in .Sumatra, it can scarcely 
fail tej make a place for itse'lf among the stately 
ornamentals of the- garek'iis there.* I .saw for 
the first time the long-jointe-el leamboe), with 
nodes five feet apart, out of which the Battaks 
make their blowguns. It is also from the thin- 
walleel stems of this sp(*eies that the musicians 
<jf the Javanese kampongs make* the bamboo 
pipe's with which they fill the moonlight nights 
with a strange* sail music. We* plante*d two 
Wardian cases with some of the* rare bamboos 
so much used by the Battaks and of whie h the 
W ('Stern He*misj)here .seems to be ignorant, such 
as Sc ktzo stack yum hrachycladum, Mdocanna 
humilis and Schizoslachyum lalijolium. VVe* 
also put in relative's of the bread fruit, Arlocarpus 
dastica, and an undescribed species called 
“njepas” by the natives, who cook and e*at it as 


’ ll has grown well in my gareien in Coconut Grove and 
fruited there; indeed, I already have second generation 
plants, but it is nut as graceful as in .Suniatra. It may 
prove a good hber plant. 


the Pacific Islamiers do the* bre-adfruit. '/'ur- 
pinia pumijera was a wonderfully fragrant flow- 
ering tree; Eugenia aauea was one of the showiest 
fruiting trees I ever saw, with small pear-shaped 
translucent crimson fruits scatteri'd by thousands 
over it; Actinorhyiis calapparia is a palm ideally 
suited for small gardens, w here its slendt*r grace- 
ful trunks would make* beautiful miniature ave- 
nue's; anel the* last-growing tree ApDigiiun hr- 
goniifolium var. lomcntosnm, grown for poles, 
with a brief life [teriod, like the papaya, may fiiul 
a place in the agrieulture' of Central America, 
and possibly too in .South Florida. The most 
curious tree of the* whole* garden was the bird- 
catching tre'e*, Pisonia exedsa, whose* fruits are 
covert'el with a gum that is as sticky as glue. 
Small birels that alight on it whe*n the fruits are 
ripe* get the*ir wings so glued togetlu*r that they 
cannot fly and often fall to the gre)und below. 
Fhilortunate'ly we* were there leetore the* irnit was 
ripe. 

Fver since my first \'isit to Java I have* want(*d 
to introduce sonu*where intet the we'stern tropics 
the most curious ot all the* tro[)ical ciK'urbits, 
Macrozaiionia microcarpa. 'The* tiny s(*(*dlings 
of this \'ine start life* with a slender stem and 
leave's no larger than that of the smalle.d Ficus 
Ptimila. Clinging to the bark of the ne*<ire.st tre'e*, 
this tiny thing grows up into the large brane*he*s 
of the* lre*e* and there* the* le*ave‘S be*e*ome large*!' 
just as the*y do in the case of the climbing ficus, 
but still it clings and goes on up. When the vine* 
finally reaches the tops of the fore*st (re*es, its 
leave-s e*nlarge* e'normou.^ly until the*y are* a 
ihousanel times or mene the size* the*y we*r(* whe*n 
young. 'The* fruit borne in the tre*e toi)s is as 
large as a pumpkin, and when it ripens, a sepiare 
hole opens in the bottom and, with each gu.st of 
wind, the*re* ese'ape hundreds of the most perfe*ct 
flying or rather soaring seeds 1 have* (*\*e*r se*e*n. 

I once* importe'd one of these gourds full of its 
se*e*(ls for Mr. Gk.M!AM Bei.E to e.xpe'riment with 
in the* days when he was working with his kites. 
The seeds seem to be short-lived but I found a 
single plant for the wardian case. 

\Ve spent some fascinating days with Mr. 
Loekzing, following him up and down oV(*r the* 
trails by no mt*ans always safe of his 
garden. A tropical Miicuna has stinging hairs 
on its pods. So poisonems that to brush against 
them is agony; the* native Lapnrlea is a ne'ttle* 
so vicious that to fall among its le*afy sle*ms 
would drive one almost insane*, while the* pos- 
sibility of meeting a cobra or a green vipe*r made 
one cautious about whe*re one walke'd. 

'The monkeys chattered from the* tre'e tejps. 
'The most amazing chorus etf tropical birds used 
to awaken us at dawn. The* shrill .scream eef gre*at 
green-banded cicadas was earsplitting. The 
sound of water coursing down the pebble-lined 
wat(*rways through the gare]e*n and the hum of 
inst'C.ts at night, all come back to me as I write. 
How I should love to stand once more* at moon- 
light on the cliff ne*ar the guest-house in .Sibeelangit 
and look out over the* great tree-ferns across tlie* 
sleeping valley filled with its thousanels of specie's 
of living forms, the virgin tropical forest! 



95 


Kairchij,!): Gardens of the East from the Air (1940) 


111. GAl^DKNS OF TJIi: FAST FROM THE AIR (1910)^ 


W(* fully {‘xpcctLil to return to Java for a 
longer stay after our coming visit to the Moluc- 
cas. However, while we were waiting on the 
Junk’s reijairs, there was titne lor a brief visit 
to Buitenzorg by air. To fly over an island 
about the size of Huba, which has thirty-five 
volcanos, S(‘vente(‘n of which Iiavc* been active 
in historic times, should be ext iting enough. But 
it meant more than this lo me. It meant looking 
down on “the very garden of the Kast, and per- 
haps, upon the whole, the richest, the best culti- 
vated, and the best governed tropical island in 
the W'orld,’’ as Wai.lack described it eighty 
years ago. 

When VV'ALLAt ic saw' Java in 1865 tlu're were 
only fourteen millions of the species Homo 
sapicyis li\ing (m it, and he wandered through 
vast forests where he saw' “beautiful and varied 
and peculiar species of insects, birds and other 
animals found nowhere tdse u[)on the globe.” i 
wonder if he would view with equanimity the 
increase fiami fourteen to forty millions of that 
destructive animal, man, at the expense of other 
forms of life; even the extinction of creatures 
quite as beautiful and n(jt s(i destructive. 

As the plane of the K.L.M. cleared the suburbs 
of So{*rabaya and the countryside was spread 
out below' us, it was evident that Java was 
crowdi-d with little homes, d'hese w'ere clustered 
together in kampongs, and clumps of tall feath- 
ery bamlioos marked their whereabouts. I 
could see the garden patches, tin* bread-fruit and 
•lurian and mango trees near by, and the irrigat- 
ing canals ft*eding the “sawas,” or rice fields 
with water from tfie mountainside. W here were 
till' corrugateil galvanized-iron roofs that stare 
up at oni' from other tropical landscapes? 'I'here 
were none; roofs of bamboo-shingles, thatch, or 
weathered tih’ were universal. Little children 
looked up at us as they played in the neatly 
swept dooryards. 1 could see the turtle-doves 
in tlieir bamboo cages swung from bamboo poles 
stuck in the ground. I knew' the* walls of the 
hou.ses wi'n.' made by splitting bambo<» stems 
into stiips and weaving them together; that the 
floors were made of the same material; the 
drinking cups, the buckets, the Ijrooms, the 
spoons, the forks, and every imaginable utiaisil 
in the hou.se likewise, all from plants “grown on 
the place,” and that the boundary lines which 
divided the various households were sonn* pat- 
tern of bamlnx) fencing. 

As w'c climbed higher and the sawas reflected 
the light from the clouds, I could see how they 
desciaided, in an almost unbrokmi series of large 
flat terraces, from well up the hillsides to the 
seacoast. I'here, great ponds resembling the 
sawas took their places, ponds in which vast 
numbers of fish were raised for food not so 
profitaldy, however, as I learned later. We 
were travelling over Middle Java, headed for 
our first stop, Semarang -a hundrc'd miles 
away, over country so densely populatc'd that 
from 250 to 500 {)eople were* living on each 
square mile. Yet in this area below us there is 
not show'll on the map a town of more than a 
few thousand inhabitants. They do not live in 
towns, these people. I'he Javane.se are skilled 


* Reprinted, with kind peniii.ssion of the copyrisht 
holders, from tlic author'.s “(jarden I.slands of the (ireat 
hast." pp. 1.S8-174, 194.1 (New York: <.’harlo.s S('rihner’.s 
Sons). 


agriculturists who prefer the c'ountry. But 
their families conic* on so fast that the [iroblem 
of food has bt-coiiu* a serious taie; oiu* with whic:h 
the Nc'tla-rlands ( jo\c*rnnu‘nt has long struggled. 

I had hopc'd we would see at least cjiu* ol the 
smoking volcanos as we flc*w jiast, but although 
the* Mc*rapi was active, Hc*i‘c \' clouds shut it Irom 
vic'w. Here* and there wc re lorest plantings ol 
tc'ak; tc*a and cinchona jilantations; Ueviui rubber 
patchc's belonging to the Javanc-sc*; and tin* largc'r, 
light green areas of sugar-cane, planted on lands 
rented by the big companies. It only the plane 
had bc'en a blimp! 1 can imagine it wcnild be 
fascinating to make a c'areful and leisurely study 
of Java Iroin the air. 

BandocTig was once* a quiet, little, trc*e-shadecl 
place whc*r(* Hollanders tirc-d ol the* heat ol the 
lowlands went to “cool their noses,” as the* local 
saying is. I have in my orchard a fine .souvenir 
of our stay in Bandoeng; a rc*d-fleshed j)onu‘lo. 
WhcTi I tc*ase out its win(*-rc*d sc*gmcnts to adorn 
a salad, I think of Bandoeng as it was then. 
But when we landc*d on the* airfield the noise 
was so terrific 1 thought my head would split. 
For there were ten training planes all tuning up 
at oru'e*. Bandoc*ng had become the chief center 
of Army air activity of the whole Nc*th(*rlands 
Indies. This was only five* weeks bi*lore the latal 
tenth of May, when the* Germans invadc*d Hol- 
land. 

To get away from Bandoeng as fast as we 
could was our one idea; so wc* hired a car and 
wc*rc* soon climlting ovc'r (he* Boentjak Bass, and 
without c*vc“n stopping to sec* my lovc:d Ijibodas, 
which I heard had changed so that I vvould not 
know it, we .swung into Buitenzorg in a pour- 
ing rain. But it gc*nerally rains in the* afternoon 
in Buitenzorg at the beginning of the .Southeast 
Mcensoon; so we were not disconcerted. 

As we drove into the* main street that skirts 
the* Botanic Garden or “ Kc*bon Besar,’ 1 looked 
for the* Hotc*l Bellevue, where* we had spent such 
delightful days watching the sunset ovi'r the 
.Sal'ik and the shadows lengthening across the 
palms along the* rive*!' a scene whicdi Mr. 
LaihkoI’ used to dc*clare was one* ol the four 
most bc*autiliil in the whole world. It was 
gone-; turnc*cl into a government ollice-builelmg. 
One* of the back porches still remained, and later 
wc* made our way to it to watch a sunset, lor 
no \ ic*ws but those* of the* busy street weie pos- 
sible from the nc*w Bc*llevue- 1 ibbcts Ibjtel. 
riu* disappointment ol “going back home and 
finding c*very(hing changed” met us in full 
force, for even the* famous Waringiaii allee ol 
enormous ficus trc‘c*s which used to stand in the 
Balac'c* grounds had been cut out. 

I he pccldlers, with their flaskets on shoulder- 
poles, exposed their tasc:inaling wares, and 
brought their strings of mangosteens and ram- 
boetans and doekoc's to our porch sitting-room 
in the new hotel as thc*y used to clo. But the 
rather ban* “l)c*c*r Bark” around the Balace, 
with a busy street between, was a poor substitute 
for the volcano Salak aiul the Ijisadane river 
of the* old Be llevue*. 

But the Kebon Besar was there, and Dr. van 
DKN Hunkkt called for us and took us to it as 
the sunlight cast its slanting shafts of light 
through the great trt*c*s. I was glad that this 
garden, which was establishc'd in 1817 by 
Rkinhakdt, when Joskph Hookkk and Asa 



Fair( mi l): Gardens of the East from the Air (1940) 


96 


Gray wm- still little l)()ys, had been placed n a 
slowly j'rowing city. There had been ehanj'es 
enouj^h, of course, iu the plantings, but the 
niaj'iiificent avenue r)f Camiriiim trees, which 
was planted in 1832 and which I first saw in 
1895, is more j^lorious than evt'r, and its beauty 
thrilled me as it has never tailed to do. No city 
streets have been cut throuj>h th<‘ Hotani(' 
Garden, and no skyscrapers have ^one up 
iirouufl it to dwarf tht“ stateliness of its l)eautiful 
trees, as they have around so many of the old 
j^ardens of the world. As Dr. van dkn Honkkt 
showed us a small addition to the garden, I 
could not resist the wish that somehow, some- 
where, someday, a gardim large enough to ac- 
commodate the spectacular and valuable tropical 
trees of the world might be established. This 
OIK' in Buitenzorg has, it is true, over 200 acres, 
but these acres have been filled for half a century, 
and it would reijuirt' a garden ten times the size 
to accommodati' even a fraction of the intincst- 
irig trees of the whole tropical world. Many 
such gardens as this, in many placi's, in difien-nt 
climates, ma>' ('ome sonu* day when man (lasses 
from his present infantih' stati' into manhood, 
and discoxers that the forests of thi' world are 
going up in flames. 

Dr. Baas Beckini., the Director, was in Hoi 
land, whither he had gone to gather an incri'ased 
staff of scientific men for the (farden; but Mrs. 
Baas Bkckino had ri'cently returned, bringing 
her children with her, for she felt that java was 
a safer place than Holland. .She arranged a 
delightful ilinner at lu'r house t(t which various 
members ol the .scientific staff were invited. 
I here was a tensene.ss about it, however, for the 
conversation turned often to the war and to the 
danger that something might happen to the 
Director. .A few weeks later came the reality: 
Dr. Becking was unable to leave Hollaml be- 
cau.se the Germans had invailed it; and later still, 
the floods of war swept o\-er Buitenzorg itself. 
1 am glad that none of tin- party had any idi'a 
of what was pi'iiding. Where are they all now? 

'Dk* next morning I met the systematic bota- 
ni.sts in the llerliarium: Dr. van .Si.ootI'N and 
Dr. VAN .Ste:i;nis and Dr. Hvma, who showed me 
specimens of interesting palms and flowering 
trees and other useful plants which they, or 
others, had colh'cted in the various islands of 
the Moluccas, whither we i-xpected to go. As 1 
run through my notebook I find that I set down, 
■‘Jansen, Resident in Ambon, interested in 
.science, according to van .StI'ENIS.” We wen- 
to see much of the Jansens, as 1 shall relate. 

While in the palm quarter one morning I met 
Mr. Dakkcs. the only one of the (iardeii staff 
whom I had known before, and 1 was pleased to 
find he recalled my visit. When we got to his 
offici* he remarked: 

1 here is a man here who has something for 
you. He wants to see you. I’ll 'bell' him.” 
Before 1 could find out who tlu* man was, Mr. 
Dakkcs c.ime back from the telephone. “Yes, 
he says he has got it and will bring it to your 
hotel. Didn’t you write out here for .some sort 
of musical instrument ftr other?” 

d'hen of course 1 recalled that three years be- 
fore, when it was proposed to start a Palm 
Museum in the Fairchild (iarden, 1 had written 
to Dr. Baas Bi ckini;, asking him if there would 
be any way of getting from the i.sland of Timor a 
strange musical instrument, made of a leaf of 
the lontar palm and a j»»int f»f bamboo, similar 


to ont‘ which Mr. Lathkoi* and 1 had .seen in 
1899 and had purchasi'd for the Field Museum. 
It was this request that the ” Houtvester,” 
G. i)E YoogI), had taken the [lains to fill. When 
he brought it, we discovered he had lived on 
Timor and had many good i)hotogra[)hs of the 
Esland, which is dry, like North Australia, and 
has many casuarinas and eucalyptus and lonlar 
palms, and would well repay a xa’sit when we n - 
turned from the Moluccas. I'he palm-leaf 
guitar is now in the I’alm Mu.seum but I 
wonder where Dt. Voogd is? 

d'his morning, as I was [londering on how I 
could describe my sensations upon entering tor 
a third time the Palm Gollection lor which 
Buitenzorg is famous, my eyes ri'sted upon a 
charming species which bt'ars thi' spi'cific name 
of treiibiana. It is dropping its iiretty fruit be- 
side my mango tree on TIk' Kam[)ong; Syn^rus 
trcubiana is its name. 

It was Trecu who ga\’e me my first glimpse 
of the world of jialms; a world which has las- 
cinated much greater minds than mine, and 
which would fascinate man\- more it the\’ were 
onci- to turn into its glades and leax'e the dusty 
streets of commerce Ix'liind them. 

I had been a young man ot twenty-live when 
I followed Mijniieer Tki i'H along the graxelled 
paths of the old Garden, which then was .-iln'adx' 
nearly eightx' years old and now, in April of 
1940, 1 was walking then* alone, forty-six years 
later and on my .seventy-first birthday, and in 
my coiEsciousness was the marble bust ol Trech 
which I had just passed by in the laboratory 
that bi'ars his name. 

It is of course a \('ry different thing to visit 
the palms in thi'ir own nativt' haunts than to see 
them in a colh'ction. However, the gracefulne.ss 
of their forms is tlu' same', th(‘ charm ol their 
e.xipiisite details is not changed, and the beauty 
of their immense flower clusters is i)erhai)s (‘\en 
enhanced, for in the wilds these superb features 
are often .so high above' our heads that we can* 
not see them clearly or scent their fnigranci'. 

'i'o api)reciat(' a italm you must vi(‘w it as you 
w'ould a work of art; as if it were a marbli' statue 
ora piece of bronze. For unlike a tre'c with its 
millions of K'aves, a iialni has only a f(‘W leaves; 
but these are immense affairs, and the arrange- 
ment of them gives character to the “piece.” 
Mori'ov'er, palms are almost always green, ex- 
cept whi'ii they flower or fruit, and even then 
they are never covi'red with l)loom as is a cherry 
tree, but have hi're and there a brilliant cluster 
of fruits -scarlet or golden-yellow or .some- 
times black. 'Fheir flowc'rs are mostly white. 
Th(' grace of their slim, straight trunks of grey 
or brown, with the leaf scars making ring-liki' 
marks around thi'in, like the faint modelling ol 
a statue, comes to have a curious charm for those 
who live among them. But their glory is in their 
leaves, those structun^s so dilf<;rent from the 
leaves of ordinary trees; so different that even 
the moonlight when it is reflected from tlumi 
strikes the eye in bands and not in spots of light. 
Then too, the whispering of the palm leaves is 
far differimt from the sighing of the pine ni'edles 
or the rustling of the oak and maple h'aves. 
d'here is an especial softness about it. 

I felt this difference' when I w'andered down 
among the lily ponds, around which and upon 
W'ho.se bonU'ring slopes the great collection of 
palms in Buiti'iizorg is planted. The “Lady 
from Phila(h'l|)hia,” who had a B('n Franklin 



97 


Fairchild: Gardens of the East from the Air (1940) 


Oak and to whom palms appeared as “feather 
dusti'rs," nothinj( more, wouki, I am sure, have 
found her ideas ('hanging had she walked with 
Mrs. Akchbold and nu* among the palms of 
Buitenzorg. 

For we would hav(‘ taken her to the .Sealing- 
wax palm, with brilliant lacqu<'r-red k'af-sheaths 
.sc'attered among tlu* delicate plunu's; or we 
would have made her look to the (op of a giant 
Corypha, loaded with masses of white Ihnvers, 
a half a ton or so, which mark tin* clo.se of the 
life of the gn-at giant; for like the ('entury I’lant 

it flowers and fruits but otict at the end of its 

exi.stence. The Lady might have nroiled from 
the group of Zalacca palms, completely covered 
with brown spines sev(Tal inches long; and if the 
tip of a Rattan in the (piarter where th(*s:(' climb- 
ing palms ha\e been confined had toucht'd her 
dress, e\’en lightly, she might inwer have ex- 
tricated herself unaided. She could not fail to 
fall in love with the imnumse-leaved Liciuila 
from New (iuinea, with slender leaf stems ten 
feet long, ending in fan leaves spread out like a 
wheel. And she could not fail to wonder at tin* 
South Amc'rican -SchcHca, with wa\ing fronds 
that are thirly-fiv(* feet long, and drooping 
bunches of fruit eight feel or more in length. 
The Lady would have stood in wonder, as Mrs. 
Akchbold did, at a giant from ('ochin-China 
which bore no scientific name, but whose petioles 
alone were three feet across at their base and 
thirty feet long, ending in a colo.ssal fan far too 
larg(‘ for any giant to use. 

1 knew (here had been many changes in this 
(’olk'ction; but since it rejiresented a great as- 
sembly of spc'cic's some of which must lx* nearly 
a century old, it was in a measun* a forecast 
on a greater scale, of course -of what might 
b(* expected some* day in the Montgonu'iy 
Palrnetum of the Fairchild d'ropical (iarik'n in 
Florida. Fully expecting to have a chance to 
spend .some time in the collection in July, I 
contented myself now with notes on (hose which 
.seemed the likeliest to be in fruit when we re- 
turned. Mr. Dakkls promi.sed me any seeds 
we wanted. As he most graciously remarked 
when we discussed the matter: “ I shall be glad 
to fill any of your requests, for we have always 
considert'd you as one of us.” 

A note came from the Ikdace that 'Their Kx- 
cellencics, the Governor General and Mrs. VAN 
Stakkknbokgh .S]A( HoiJWhR, would be pleased 
to have us lunch with them informally. I do 
not know what their definition of “informal” 
was, but it was certainly mjt the same as ours! 
We were met by several aides in full uniform; 1 
was taken to be |)r(*.sented to His Kxcellency, 
while the ladies were given an audience with 
Her Excellency. After a few minutes, we were 
gathered up again and escorted back to the 
main entrance hall, and there we sto(xl in line 
with other guests until the Genernor General 
and his lady appeared and led the way to the 
dining room. After all, we were lunching with 
the personal repre.sentative of Her Majesty the 
Queen of the Netherlands, the Governor (General 
of the whole Netherlands India, comprising a 
conglonK'rate population of over 60,000,000 
people who have always been accustomed to 
associate authority with certain regal formalities. 

At the table, however, we had a delightfully 
friendly time. Madame van Stakkenborgh 
vStachouwer (yes, they say it all each time) 
was an American, and we found mutual ac- 


quaintances. I could not rc'sist making the sug- 
gestion that the site of the old Bellevue Hotel 
should lx* converted into a park where* people 
could go in tlu* late afternoon to enjoy oiu* of the 
most superl) views in java. 

Wt* had asked about tlu* .Moluccas, where we 
W(‘re bound, but only the Governor’s NaAal 
Aide had been there. As we left, he counselled 
us to l)e sure to S(*e Herberger .Straat, which had 
the re()utation of being the most beautiful pas- 
.sage in the whole East Indies. W’e went out of 
our way to see it later, but, as viewed from the 
rather low level of the Ilo’s deck, it did 

not compare favorably with oth(*rs we saw. 

+ * + 

The afternoon train brought us into Batavia, 
to the old Hotel des hides. It is inevitable that 
a small hotel which grows into a big one should 
beconu* less attractive and more* formal. Gone 
were the grand old fi('us trees which us('d to 
shade the great ,s(juare betw(*(‘n tlu* wings where 
tlu* simpk* suites of r(x)ms once were, and the 
glamour of thi* plac(*, as 1 remembered it ifi the 
nineties, had departed. 

I had bid gooil-bye to my friend Ochse on the 
verandah of the Hotel Bellevue in Buitenzorg in 
1926, wlu*r(* he canu* to bring nu* .sonu* lieautiful 
fruits of the “ Pandan Wangi ” pomelo which I 
have described elsewlu*re. Gciisi-; had sent me 
two of his Ixxjks, remarkable productions, one 
of them ('overing the hundreds of vegetables 
u.sc'd l)y the Javanese, and (he other the fruits. 
Both of thes(* books are the iiroduct of the print- 
ing establishments of Archipc*! l)rukk(*rij of 
Buitenzorg and the firm of G. Koltf and Go., 
Batavia, and are so outstanding (hat I give their 
('ornplete titk'S here: J. J. Gcn.SK and R. ('. 
Bakhcizkn van r>i;N IIrink, Vegetables of the 
Dutch East Indies, English Edition of Indische 
Groenten, 1931; and j. J. Ochse and R. G. 
Bakhl izi;n van di'N Brlnk, Fruits and Fruit- 
culiure in the Dutch East Indies, English Edi- 
tion of Vruchten en Vruchtenteelt in Neder- 
landsch-Oost- Indie , 1931. 

Both books ri'present the dost* cooperation of 
the v'arious scientific men of the Botanic (iarden 
and of the Department of Agriculture of Buiten- 
zorg, a ci)op(‘ration to which Dr. OcHst: gives 
full credit. They are sujierbly illustrated. The 
artists who mad(* the pen-and-ink drawings, 
M. .SoKi’AKNo, M. Kardjono, and M. Makjom, 
have (*qualled or outdoiu* anything of the kincl 
turned out by Amerk'an arti.sts, while Atjk 
.SoLEiMAN of Buitenzorg (a .Sundanese), in his 
renderings from nature of such tropical fruits as 
the Mangosteen, the Durian, the Mango, the 
Avocado and many others, has surpassed in ac- 
curacy and delicacy of coloring any representa- 
tions of tropical fruits I have seen anywht're. 
TAen the noted illustrations of Eichhor.n lack 
.something (^f the genius of Sor.KiMAN’s plates, 
d'he.se two remarkable b(K)ks should be in the 
libraries of America, for they portray three 
hundred tropical vegetabl(*s and o\Tr fifty of the 
finest fruits of the Orient. 

It was with misgiving that I learned in Buiten- 
zorg that my friend J. J. OciiSK had Ix'en pro- 
moted, and now held a most important position 
close to Dr. H. L. V'AN Moor, the Director of 
“Economische Zaken” (Economic Affairs) — 
for who can enter the doorway of bureaucratic 
affairs and not have his hobby of a lift*time 
taken away from him? 



FAik( hild: Gardens of the East from the Air (1940) 


98 


As soon ;is we reached Batavia I hurried over 
to his “Kantoor” — a word i like better than 
our “ office " and after wanderinj^ around for 
some time in the maze of other kantoors and in- 
t(‘rruptin^ many clerks, I found his assistant, 
Mr. DK Jong, who kiu'w of our lonj.jstandinj> 
friendship and soon j^ot us toj^ether. (k'Hsi-: 
was in tin* lal)oratory where the economic uses 
of the various plant products of Java were being 
investigated “ the mc'thods of pre.st'rving fruits, 
and making jams, jelli(‘s, wines and oth»-r prod- 
ucts. 

Ves, of course' I wanterl to go out to the Horti- 
cultural Garden at Pasar Alingoe; so the ne.xt 
day se\'eral of us drove out through the sul)urbs 
to the “ Proef Station," a horticultural experi- 
ment station, without which it seems extremely 
difficult to raise th<‘ gent'ral level of any plant 
culture in any country. 1 looki'd with ('special 
int('r('st at 12,000 sec'dlings of tlu' Durian, upon 
which w('re to be grafte'd the finer varieties, one 
of which, tlu' Koening I jomas, was said to be 
especially delicious. 

1 could not lull) thinking, as 1 peered under 
tlu' })alm sha(l(' (hat co\('red those sc'edlings, how 
strange it is that so "ill-smelling a fruit" should 
ha\’e become famous throughout the whole 
world of the n/ading public, while the Ram- 
boetan, which has no such odor but is also a per- 
h'Ctly delicious fruit, should be almost unknown. 

W ho knows what will be tlu' futun' of the 
durian."' d'lu're are durians and durians, and 
SOUK' of them keep longer than (he conventional 
two days before tlu'y smell Imdly. I met a mis- 
sionary who lives in Dutch Borneo, who had 
found there three distinct spc'cic's or varieties, 
including one with red flesh, and on(' that none 
of his friends found to hav(' an obji'Ctionabh' 
odor. I'he qiK'Stion will resolve itself into what 
can be done with the durian to fit it for the air- 
('omnu'rce in tropical fruits that is fast approach- 
ing. 

W hat interested me perhaps more than these 
durian seedlings was a nursery of avocados, for 
this strictly American fruit had not made its 
appearance in Jav'a when 1 fir.st visited the 
Orient in 1890, any more than it had become a 
table fruit in Florida and California l)y that 
time. Half a ('entury had passed, and whc'n'as 
this nursery in Pasar Mlngo(' was one of the 
largest in Ja\a, there had been develoju'd in 
Anu-rica tlumsands of acres of orchards of avo- 
caflos, ass(jciations of hundreds of avocado 
growers, and a commerci' represented by the 
shipment of hundreds of ('arloads of thi' fruit 
across the continent. 

d his comparisorj is not madi' in a boasting 
s|)irit; it is made to emphasize the \agaries of 
taste, and the power to overcome food prejudi('es 
that lies in advertising. Perhaps the Javaru'se 
don't like the avocado as much as they do th(' 
durian, but I surmise that there are still many 
millions of them that hava' ne\'er had a chance 
to taste it. Besides, there are r[uestions of find- 
ing the best places in which to grow the avocado, 
and of creating varieties suited to (lu'in. Fur- 
thermore, there arc' new diseases and pests to 
contend with. It is this type' of important work 
that the Horticultural Station of Pasar Mingcje, 
and the other ex[)eriment stations of tht' Archi- 
pelago, haw been engaged on. 

OcHSi-; wanted me to st't* the Fishery Labora- 
tory in Batavia, which came in his department; 
there had been American re.search students 


working in it. Dr. G. MhyI'R.s of Berkeley, Cali- 
fornia, iK'ing th('r(' at tlu' time. Two incich'nts 
c»f the visit that sec'iiu'd of no particular moment 
in 1940 stand out in the light of subsequent 
events. On the tablt' in tht' large working-room 
lay a beautifully illustrated book on the arpjatic 
l)lants and animals of Japan. It was published 
l)y the 'Tokyo Fisheries Socit'ty of Jai)an, and I 
wished it were on the Junk for our use in the 
Moluccas, for wt' liad been unablt' to find any 
book with which to identify tht' fishes we saw. 
As wt' left, OcHst; remarked on what an ideal 
research lioat the Chhig IIo would be, if left in 
Batavia for their ust' in getting around to the 
various collecting fields of the Archiiielago. 
"Our boats are too small," he said. "Here is 
one being repaired now." As 1 peered under it 
to see the mechanic at work on the pro|)eller lit' 
added, "A Japanese, of course. Our own natives 
art' not very mt'chanical." 

During luncheon next dav' with the Ocusi:s, 
their daughter gaw ns an account of her school 
experit'nct'S in Pt'ith, West Australia. It was 
the first intimation wt' had ol the close relations 
which hav't' grown up in recent years between 
Netherlands India and Australia. After all, tht' 
coast of Australia is nearer to Jav’a than Panama 
is to Florida: and the cool mountains of Java art' 
as attractive to thosi' suffering from the dt'sert 
heat of Australia, as art- the cool dr\' winti'rs ol 
West Australia to those tired out with the moist 
heal of Java. Mutual understandings and friend- 
ships have multiplit'd ht're, as they must through- 
out the world, shrinking as it is with eat h new 
development of air transportation. . . 

At tea, whitdi wt' took with (.'onsul (General 
F.XKt.i-: DiCKOvtcK and his wife, Mr. Dickovi>;r 
complained that his little gardt'U was simi)ly 
aliv'c with immenst' snails, and in order to keep 
anything growing there, it had become his 
nightly chort' to go out and hunt them. A haul 
of 350 to 450 was not unusual, as the records he 
had kt'pt showed. With a flashlight we went to 
look at them. I thought of tht' pest of land crabs 
in our own gardt'u in h'lorida, but after st'cing tht' 
damage the snails did, I am satisfu'd that we 
shoultl ntit comi)lain — srtails art' much worse, 
(jod forbid that we ever get them here. 

Dinnt'r with the VAN Mooks was like a quiet 
dinner in Washington, for they both speak Eng- 
lish and art' widely travelled, and Dr. van Mook 
had spent some time in the United States, lit' 
told us of his plans for the enlargement of the 
research staff of the Botanic Gardens and of 
Dr. Baas Bia.KiNtfs mission to FiiuroiH', where 
he had gone to pick out the scientific mt'ii who 
could carry out the plans. It was evident that 
he understood the role whit h scientific discovery 
would play in the develrtpment of this vast 
rt'gion, tt'cming with its races of humans, many 
millions of whom art' just ('merging from tht' 
lower levels and art' wondering what "civiliza- 
tion " is all about. 

Of the elTc'Cts of the terrific impact of Western 
inventions upon thost' millions. Dr. VAN Mook 
was prol)ably It'ss keenly awart'; and of tht' in- 
vasion coming down from tht' North he could 
have had little susj)ici()n. Singapore was "im- 
prt'gnablt'” in thost' d.ays, and the American 
llet't was stationed at Pt'arl Harbor. Both he 
and Mrs. van Mook belonged to the Netherlands 
Indit'S ratht'r than to Holland, having both sjU'iit 
most of their lives in the East, finding tlu're a 
larger field for their activities than they ctmid 



99 


Felix Alexander Vening Meinesz 


in Kuropi‘. Indeed, wluTovcr we went we found 
that the number of Hollanders who now prefer 
to spend their lives in Java, and other islands of 
the Indies, has increased very much since the 
last war. 1 his appc'ared to be due in part to the 
increased conilort affordi'd by electric r«‘frijr<‘r- 
ators, fans, and radios- and also to a smsi* of 
security in living so far from the lurmoil of 
Kurope! 

While we were at dinner, Marian’s attention 
was riveted on th(> wall-coverinj; of the dinine 
room, and Dr. van Mook scanned pleased to 
have It admired. “It’s the ‘Agel’ tlie material 
tiom which the sails of the Makassar jiraus arc' 
made, he saicl. “It comc's from the* fc'a\es of 
the ‘Geban,i>a’ [lalm, ('oryplui data." 'I'liis 
palm is the same specie's as that known in the' 

I hihppmes as the “Bnri.” I hanks to Dr. van 
Mook’s kmdnc'ss, large spc'cimc'ns of this bc-auti- 
tul rnatc'nal are on exhibition in the' Museum 
of the' hairchild Darden. Along the c'oast of 
( C'lebes, wc' had admired the' sailing canoes, but 
not until we arrivi'd in Makassar did we aii- 
prec'iate what airy swift nc'ss thc'sc' caaft can 
attain by using this Agel matting. 


I'wo and a half hours of Hying took us back 
to Soerabaya. The pilot indicatc-d to us in a 
genc'ral way the' loc'ation of thc' emc'rgc'ncy landing 
helds. but thc'rc' was no evidc'iu'c' of thc''slight('st 
suspic'ton of an iinasion. 1 felt the' romanc'c' 
W'hich I always feel in a plane' and which comc's 
perhaps from iny menioric-s of that vc-ry first 
pubhc flight of a heavic'r-than-air flying machine' 
t he flight ol ( h.icNN ( 'uRTLss in 1908, when he flc'w’ 
a mc'asurc'd mile o\e'r the' vinc'Vards of Hani- 
mondsport, N.\’., thirty fc'c't above our hc'ads, 
and the dusk shut his landing from ejur view'. 

f'rom those* days in Soc'rabaya, whic h were' 
hik'd with all sorts ol doings, including a visit 
to Daan lliinRKCHT'.s sugar estate* and final 
arrangenu'nts for getting off, two outstanding 
events ri'inain in my memory. One* was the day 
spent among the Lontar palms ejf Grisse with 


Kiki.I): 


r- • ■ , V. ^»^ateur naturalist, during 

which I made the* acquaintance,” so to .sav of 
a real c'xpert in the art of tapping these trec's’fea- 
their swee-t sap. A man who has climbed e'\erv 
othe*r day for ye*ars, without climbing irons to 
the top of a fifty-foot shaft, has straddled’ its 
pant le-aves, and with a pair of wooden pincers 
has mae'eratc'd its hard flower clusters to fit thc'in 
tor tapping, has a “story.” It is a story which in 
my opinion is epiite as fascinating as that of the* 
line-men who hang on the {loles and string the 
wire-s of our telephone's. Our “e-xiiert” hael (mk- 
pair of pmcc'rs which he called “Gapit lakke* ” 
for mashing the* male' flowc'r spike's, and anothc'r 
lor the larger lemale flower spikes which was 
callc'e the* “(,apit prampoe an.” Fur the Funtar 
like the date* but unlike* most other palms, bear.*^ 
Its male and le'iiiak' flowi'is on sc'parate’ tn'c's. 
Botanists have sonietinie's disputc'd as to whe'ii 
sexuality m plants was discowred, and the sus- 
picion IS warrantc'd that the date growers of 
Assyria must have sus()e'e t('d sexuality centuries 
oelore the* scic'iitific botanists. I'he sap c’ol- 
k'ctors of the* Fontars, 1 should judge*, found out 
that their palms we'iv of two kinds, and that 
only one* bore' fruits. 


\Mi<*n I talked with this man, I found that 
I lu re* was much more to his trade* than 1 had 
miagine-d, lor whe*n he clinibe*d up into the* 
crown of big k'aves he* not only pared down the* 
shar|) e'elgc's of the* le*af stalks, which othc'rwise- 
Would e'ut his k'gs, tor they an* as sharp as razors 
but he* also gathere'd such of the* le*aves as w'e'ie 
mature* enough to be* usc'd in the making ed 
baskc'ts and hats, and so forth. Fermentation 
soon tiirne'd into toddy the* .sap he colk'e'te'd 
every day Irom the cut-olf ends ejf the flowe*i 
stalks he had maslu'd previously. I'hen, too, the* 
sap he* colk'e'te'd was ofti'ii made into that' ek'- 
K'lous palm sugar called JaggC'ry, swee'ter than 
bark'y sugar obtaine*el from maltc'cl barley. 

1 found it fasc'inaling to inte'iwiew this expert, 
quite* as lase'inating as it had proved in my early 
days ol travel to intervie-w the bre'wmaste'rs of 
Munich and Pilsen. But had I given this fi'llow 
a glass of bc'c'r, he would have* spit his first mouth- 
ful out; and the IVlunich brewmaster would have 
thrown the* toddy away. “ Chacun d son gont" . 


FEIJV AIJ':\ANDI':ii VIOMINt; MEINESZ 
IvXPONENT OK lIXTERNA'I’tONAL CodPElEATION 
JHROtJGtf (tJ':()SO,It:NCh; 

hy 


RiCHAnn M. Fjkld, Ph.D.* 

Director, Summer School Geology and Natural Hesources, Princeton University: Gfmir- 
man, Gommission oni.ontincM and Oceanic Slrnclnre, International ( nion 'of Geodesy 
and (,eof>hys,rs; Member, Jhv. of Foreign ndations, Natianal Research Gonneit: etc. ' 


Nej hislor}’ eif .science and scientists in (he 
iNclherlanels Faist Indies would be complete with- 
out an accejunt of the explorations of V^kning 
Mi'.iNEsz with the splendid coeiperation of the 
iNetherlands’ Nav\'. 

Aniemg scientists Vening Mkinicsz is classified 
as a podesist. He was beirn at ’s-Gravenhage 
(I he Hague) on July M), 1887, as the son of S. A. 
\ iGNiNG Meine.sz, Burgomaster of Rotterdam, 


* Original 
and Scientists 


contribution, especially prepared for 
in the Netherlands Indies.” 


'Scieme 


and later of Amsterdam. He attended the 
“Hoogere Burgerschool ” ami afterwards the 
Institute of Technology at Delft, from which he 
graduated in 19l0asa civil engineer. In 1915 he 
obtained ( he degree of Doctor of .Science from the 
Hniversity of Utrecht, where in 1927 he was ap- 
ixmited Professor of ( ieodes\'. I n 1 957 he became 
chairman of his (Government’s ('ommittee for 
t.emle.sy. In 1955, he had been elected President 
of the Association of (Geodesy of the International 
Union of ( leodesy and Geophysics. 

\ ENiNt; Meinesz’ national and international 



FiKi-Df Felix Alexander Vening Meinesz 


100 


honors need not l)e listed in this arlule, hut his 
acroinplishnients should he briefed as an out- 
standing illustration of scientifu' imagination and 
method in the exploration of a fundamental 
physical phenomenon of the earth. The geo- 
graphical counterparts of the Netherlands Hast 
Indies exist in such other archipelagoes as the 
West Indies and the Aleutian Islands. Due to 
Venin(; Meinksz’ geophysical and geological 
researches in the Netherlands Hast Indies we now 
know that their geograidiical and structural 
counterparts ha\e prol)ahl\' reoccurred as great 
dynamic deformational rhythms ol the litho- 
sphere during the entire 1,500, 000, OOO or more 
years of our planet’s geological history. 

It has already been stated that X’iCNiNt; 
Mhinksz is h>- training and occupation a geode- 
sist; a scientist who is primarily concerned with 
methods for determining the mass, weight, den- 
sity, shape, and surface configuration of the 
earth -including such inequalities in relief as 
ocean basins, (M ean deeps, continents and moun- 
tains. I’rimarily, however, a geodesist is an 
advanced t\pe of survexor or topographic en- 
gineer whose chief responsibility is to improve 
and perfect sur\e\ing instruments and methods. 
Had \'knin(; Mf.inksz confined his activities to 
the arts and practice of geo<lesy alone he would 
still be rated as one of the outstanding geosci- 
entists of todax'. The stor\ of how he so elTec- 
tively transgressed the l)order lines of scientific 
departmentalism to the great benefit of geosci- 
ence is [larticularly significant as an illustration 
of his skill in national and international co()i)cr- 
ativc research and of his appreciation of the 
natural exphjratory adxantages of the sovereign 
territory of the Netherlands. 

Vening Mp:inesz’ principal responsibility to 
his country was to determine local deflections of 
the vertical, or the dexiation of the pluml>-bol), 
in order to correct certain irregularities in the 
triangulation survey of Holland. A triangula- 
tion surxey may be defined as the most precise 
method for the determination of geographic posi- 
tions, or the fixation of first -order liench marks to 
which all local .surveys are “tied in,” or related. 

Vemnct Meinesz' great contribution to geo- 
science was his discovery of the linear l)elf or 
strip of negatix'e grax il)' anomalies, that is defi- 
ciency' of density, to[K)graphically expressed In 
the islands aiul oceanward troughs or foredeeps 
of the Hast Indian Archipelago. The outstand- 
ing characteristic of Veninc; Meinesz, like that 
of all great scientists, is his interest in anomalies, 
or those observations xvhich do not seem to fit a 
generally accejjted classification of natural phe- 
nomena. 'rhus, insteafl of attempting to average 
out anomalies by purely mathematical mechan- 
ics he studies the anomalies as jjarticularly inter- 
esting phenomena in themselves. 

Some thirty years ago, while Venin(; Meinesz 
xvas initiating the gravity survey of Holland he 
encountered serious difficulty in the instal)ility 
of the xvatcrlogged terrain. The standard pendu- 
lum machine xvhich he xvas using to determine 
local grax it y(the excess or deficiency of which will 
serve to indicate an excess or a deficiency of mas 0 
in the outer portion or crust of (he earth was so 
jarred by the movements in the ground that he 
was forced to design an apparatus which would 
enable gravity to be determined in spite of these 
disturbances. By swinging two pendulums, in- 
stead of one, in the same plane for each observa- 
tion, he discovered that he could compensate for 


the vibrational errors of a single pendulum. 
Veninc; Meinesz immediately appreciated the 
gre*at significance of this new geophysical as well 
as geodetical instrument. Like his colleague 
and close friend the great .American geodesist, 
Wii.l.i.x.xi Bowie of the United .States Coast and 
Geodetic Survey, Veninc; Meine.sz was fully 
familiar with (he geological implications of isostasy 
as originally defined by ('. IC Du'I'ton in 1889, 
lor the theory of gravitational balarn'e l)elween 
relatively broad, contiguous areas of different 
average altitudes, or of topographic relief. 
According to this theory continents are assumed 
to “.stand high” relative to the ocean basins, 
because they are composed of lighter and less 
d(Mise material. I'he condition ol compensa- 
tion, or no strain, is assumed to exist at some 
60 miles beloxv the surface of the earth, as at this 
depth all material must be non-rigid and capable 
of “How.” Hence the definition of isostasy, or 
the suggestion that the rigid blocks of (he crii.st of 
the earth “float” in a uniform sub-crustal me- 
dium. According to isostasy the ocean basins are 
relatively loxv because the sub-oceanic litho- 
sphere is relatixely heavier (more dense) than the 
continents which arc high because they are rela- 
tively lighter (less dense), d'he ICnglish Geode- 
sist I’katt had demonstrated in his i)endulum 
surxey of India that the Himalayas were high 
because (hex were deficient in mass; and tlie 
.Americans, I Iayeokd and Bowii;, had published 
monographs on the geologi('al, as well as the geo- 
physical significance, of isostasy. As early as 
1875 attempts had been made to determine the 
density of the sul)-(X'eanic lithosphere l)y means 
of a gravity barometer, and in 191 1 L. A. Bai er 
urged (he development of an apparatus xvhich 
would measure gravity at sea with the same de- 
gree of accuracy as on the /erm jlrma of the con- 
tinents. 

Deficiency or excess in mass in any portion of 
the cartli’s crust is manifested asa gravity anom- 
aly, and if the t heoret ical value for gravit y, at any 
po.sition, has licen corrected for the topography 
and for isostatic compensation of the topographic 
features and compared with the measured value, 
the dilTcrcnce or anomaly is called an isostatic 
anomaly. Thus isostatic anomalies signify in- 
strumentally determined deficiency, or excess, of 
mass of the crust of the earth in the immediate 
neighborhooil of the graxity measuring machine. 

Venin(. .Mi-;ine,sz’ first experiment with his 
multiple-pendulum apparatus was made on a 
small steamer on the North .Sea Canal near Am- 
sterdam. This and sub.seipjent experiments on 
larger ocean-going vessels suggested that his 
machine could measure gravity at sea jirovided 
certain improvements were made in the mech- 
anism such as photographic recording, gimbal- 
motints and such gadgets as would tend to reduce 
the effect of the motion of the ship. I lowever, he 
eventually discovered that the mechanical vibra- 
tions of a steam-driven vessel seriously interfered 
xvith the accuracy of his instrument. It was then 
that he conceixed (he idea of using a submarine, 
not only l)ccause of the possibility of ol)taining 
greater stability beneath the surface but primar- 
ily because submarines, when operating below 
the surface, are driven by electric motors with a 
minimum, if not complete absence, of mechanical 
viliration. V’ENiNti Meinesz therefore consulted 
the Netherlands Admiralty, and especially those 
officers who were particularly skilled in the oper- 
ations of submarines. The purely scientific char- 



101 


Kii.i.d: Felix Alexander Vening Meinesz 


.icter of the proljleni so appealed to these naval 
officers that they gave full coiiperalion and thus 
helped to set a standard of naval cooperation in 
marine geophysics which was later followed l)\ 
the American, British, French, Italian, Russian 
and Japanese navies. 

In fireparing for his first extensive submarine 
gravit\-measuring expedition Vknino Mkinks/ 
wisely selected t he outer arc of the Fast Indies as 
affording the greatest difference in altitudes (ex- 
clusive of sea level) between the tops of the moun- 
tainous islands and the contiguous forerleeps or 
troughs on the oceanward side of the archipelago, 
siiK’e these troughs were alread\' known to lie 
much deeper than the general level of the oiean 
liottom. H\’ selecting such a geogra|)hical area 
for the first test of his machine lie was reasonal»l\ 
sure that an\- slight inaccurac>’ in its operation 
would firobablv' be more than compensated b\ 
the maximum difference in topograjiliy (relief) of 
his gravity-measuring traverse. In this respect 
he was entirely' correct, liut the gravit\’ anomalies 
which he obtained were cert ainl\’ not w hat he had 
exficcted ! 

The first expedition was on the Netherlands 
Submarine A’ //in 192vb The second exfiedilion, 
on the Netherlands Submarine K X/ in 1025. 
/'he third (sxfiedition on the Netherlands Sub- 
marine K Kill in 1026. I'he fourth expedition, 
on the same submarine in 1027. In the first ex- 
pedition Vi'iNiNt, Mki.M'SZ used the .same Stiick- 
rath afiparatus, of four bronze pendulums sw ing- 
ing in two planes, that he had used in his (irelim- 
inary experiments on the North .Sea Canal. 1 tar- 
ing the three later exfiedilions he used a three- 
[lendulum apparatus, and perfected such im- 
proNemenls as photographic recording of each 
pendulum separatel\'. multifile-chronometer read- 
ings in the liming of the fiendulums, better 
gimlial-suspension, better ficndulum bearings to 
flecrease friction, and other iletails in design 
w’hich not only increa.sed the accuracy of the en- 
tire afifiarat us but al.so its ease of ofieralion. Be- 
tween 1025 and 1027 alter much hard labor, and 
with the full cobficrat ion of the Netherlands 
Nav>', X’knixc; Mkinicsz had definitely firoved 
the accuracy of what we ma\’ now designate the 
Vening ]\leinc.sz Marine Cravimeter; but. this 
assurance of the dependabilit y of his afifiarat us 
made the gravity anomalies which Ik* had ob- 
tained all the more astounding. lie discovered 
greater gravity anomalies, reganlle.ss of sign, 
than had hitherto been found for any part of the 
earth’s crust, or lithosphere. More astonishing 
still this relatively narrow line of anomalies, 
closely following (he foredeeps or troughs on the 
oceanward side of the great sinuous island archi- 
pelago, firoved to be a well-defined strifi of nega- 
tive anomalies! As VTnixg Miaxi-;sz had ex- 
pected, the general gravity field of the sub-oceanic 
lithosphere was slight !>• filus, intimating a greater 
density than that of the continents. Why, there- 
fore, did these great forcdeef)s which occurred as 
major defiressions in the sub-oceanic lithosfihere 
register a greater deficiency in density than the 
highest mountains on the continents? (aiuld it 
be that this astounding negative anomaly strifi 
which we now refer to as the Vening Meinesz 
Strifi, was a direct refutation, in sui'h oceanic re- 
gions, of the great princifial of i.sosla.sy? Thus 
by 1927 \d;NiNG Meinksz had discovered one of 
the afiparently greatest anomalies in the whole of 
geoscience, but an extremely dynamic anomaly 
which, like geomagnetism, makes no direct and 


measurable inifiression on our senses, but is as 
lull\' iiufiortanl in geoscience as earthcfuakes and 
volcanoes whose sufierficial f>hcnomena we now^ 
susfiect ma\ be closeB' related, in origin, with his 
discovers- of the negati\e anomaK strifi in the 
.Netherlands h'.asi Indies. 

Wii.i.i.wi Bowii', had followed the discoveries 
ol \’i:mx(; .\Ii«axKsz with increasing interest. 
Although the leading aut horit\- of the geofihx si('al 
imfdi('at ions of isostas\ he was neither disturbed 
nor disnia\ed at what, at first, afifieared to be a 
serifius blow to isos(as\. Anxious as always to 
exfiaml gravity surveNs, both on land and at sea, 
Bdwij-: urge<l the collabioration of the Fnited 
.States Na\\ with \ i:xix(i ,\li'axi;sz for the geo- 
f)h\sical exf'Ionition of the Oiilf ot Mexico and 
those porli<tns of the Caribbean .Sea wliich vv(*re 
inlernationalK- ofien waters. Bow ir: arou.sed the 
interest of ('aotain S. b'KiaiMAX, .Sufierin- 
tendant of the United States Naval Obiservatory, 
and e\entuall\ X’icxixc. Miaxusz was iru ited to 
continue his exfilorat ions in the Culf- Caribbean 
Region with the further encouragement and 
cooperation <if the .National A('adem\ of .Sciences 
and the ('ariiegie Institution of Washington. 
Phis exf'edition was made during the fall of 1928 
with t he United .States .Sulimarine .S' 31 . Vi;xixf; 
.Miaxt.sz was accomiiaiiied by b'. K. Wkkwit of 
the Carnegie Institution of Washington, and 
IT B, ('oi.i.ixs of the 1 1\ drografihic Office of the 
United States Na\ \ . 'Phis exfiedition firoduced 
some noteworthy results, such as: (1) The sug- 
gestion that the Mississififii Della is in i.sostatic 
eafuilibrium ; (2) deficiencx’ in gravity parallels the 
sulirnerged margin of t he coni inental shelf. I low- 
ex er, the filan of the expedition seems to hax^e 
been rather to test certain subioccanic areas as to 
the theorx of isosias\ rather than to determine 
whether or not the West Indian Archifieiago was 
geofihx sicallx' as well as geografihicallx- a counter- 
fvirt of the Ixast Indian Archipelago. In both (he 
.American and the firevious Netherlands expedi- 
tions VivNi.Na; Mioxksz had the adxanlage of the 
recentlx fierlected sonic-sounding method for 
determining subocc'anic topography, although 
full use of this raiiid and accurate t(‘chnique, .so 
essential in (he comiiutation of graxitx anomal- 
ies, was not fulix’ dexeloped until 1952, In 1929 
X'exing .Mkixesz made another grax itx- measur- 
ing (-ruise to (he Fast Indies in (lie Netherlands 
.Submarine K XIII, and marine grax imetrx- had 
now become a “fashionable” adjum'l to oceano- 
grar'hi<' exploration. 

The Russian Nax x- made a grax ity siirx ey of 
the Black .Sea in 1950 and the Italian Navx’ a 
graxitx survex of the Mediterranean in 1951. 
.Also, in 1951, graxity determinations were made 
with (he X'ening Meinesz apparatus in (he Arctic 
Ocean during the Nautilus ICx[iedit ion. It was 
not until 1952. howexer, that any serious at tempt 
xvas made to f)rox-e the full geological as well as 
the gco()hx-sical significaiue of (ht‘ strip of nega- 
tive gravitx anomalies associated with the Fast 
Indies an hipelago. It had naturallx- taken sex - 
eral xears for (he leading structural geologists of 
the xvorld to begin to appreciate the i)ossible sig- 
nificance of X'ening Miaxiisz’ geophxsical dis- 
coxery as direct Ix' related to (ectonophysics, or 
the application of geophysical ntethods and tech- 
niques to exploration and studx' of mountain 
building and (he accompanxing phenomena of 
volcanoes and eartlaptakes. During his explora- 
tions in the Bahamas (1927) R. M. hbELD had dis- 
cussed xvith XX'iEi.i.XM Boxvii'; the u.se of a gravity 



Field: Felix Alexander Vening Meinesz 


1 ()> 


surve\’ of the islands to determine whether or not 
the coral reefs and associated carbonate sedi- 
inents were underlain bv- volcunic rocks of greater 
density. With the cooperation of the United 
States (’oast and (ieodefic Sur\e\ a j^raxity snr- 
vey was made in the Hahania Region. This snr- 
ve\ derinilel\ proved that the Bahama Islands 
were not extinct volcanoes capped with coral 
reefs and that their geomorphologA' could not l)e 
ex()lained in that way. It was further {iroved 
that the whole Bahama Region was structurally 
in no way related to the West Indian Archipelago, 
and it remained to be discovered as to what part 
('uba played in the geological history of the (itilf- 
Caribbean Region. Bowik then urged a marine 
gravit\- survey in the deej) waters l)etween the 
islands, and V'HNlXci Mki.nks/ consented to make 
such ;i sur\ e\ prov ided it could be organized w ith 
the essential coiiperation of either the Nether- 
lands, British or American Navies. In December 
1932 Mkinesz attended the annual 

meeting of the (Geological Soc ietv' of America held 
in Tulsa, Oklahoma. It was at this meeting that 
he first thoroughly aroused the interest of the 
leading structural geologists in the United States 
and. in particular, conferred with B. Willis, 
A. ('. I.AwsoN, W. II. Bi ciiEK, W. T. Thom, ami 
.several [jetroleum geologists who were inter- 
national pioneers in the development of geo- 
jihysical-gcological technicpies. With the codp- 
eration of the British (.'•overnment, the United 
States Navy, the United .States Coast and (ieo- 
dctic Survev', the (Geological Society of Americ'a, 
the American (Geophysical Union, and the De- 
partment of (Geologv, Princeton Universitv, the 
United States Navy-Princeton Expedition to the 
West Indies h.ad alreadv' lieen organized. On this 
expedition \’i:mn(, Mkinivsz had (he use of the 
United States Submarine .S’-/.V and the Sub- 
marine Tender Cheivink which rn.ide the bathy- 
metric soundings with the most mcxlern eipiip- 
inent, so essential to the suboceanic gravity sur- 
veys. While \ ENiNc. Meinesz was determining 
the suboceanic gravity anomalies, the gravity 
survev' on the islands was continued with the 
cooperation of the United .Slates ('oast and (Geo- 
detic Survev' and several private agencies. Ven- 
iNc MeinI'.sz was assisted by T. C. Brown of the 
United .States Naval Research Laboratories and 
a young geologist from Princeton, II. II. IIi:ss, 
who has since become one of (he leading authori- 
ties on the tectonophysics of island arcs. 

Later in the same \ ear \’enin(. .Meinesz made 
a gravitv survey of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near 
the Azores, in the Netherlands Submarine 
K XIII. M. M.vri YAM.x made a gravity surv^ey 
of the Nippon foredeej) with a Vening Meinesz 
aiiparatus on board the Imperial Japanese .Sub- 
marine RO 57, ami P. M.vktini made a gravity 
surv'ey of the northeast Mediterranean with a 
X’ening Meinesz apparatus on board the Italian 
.Submarine Fresnel. In 1934 Veninc Meinicsz 
made a gravitv' survey in the Netherlaiuls .Sub- 
marine K A' VIII from Holland to Brazil to Cape- 
town to Australia to Java; M.atcy.ama made a 
gravity survey of the Japan Deep; and (G. Cas- 
sinis in 193.S further explored the Mediterranean, 
in the Italian Submarine Des Geneys. 

In 1936, as (’hairman of the Committee on the 
(Geophysical and (Geological Studv' of Ocean Ba- 
sins of the American (Geophy.sical Union, R. M. 
Field organized the United .States Navy-Ameri- 
can Geophysical Union Expedition to the West 
Indies, with the cooperation of the United .States 


Navy, the United .States Coast and (Geodetic 
Survev, (he (Geological .Society of America, the 
Anierican Bell Telephone Laboratories, the 
Woods Hole Oceanogra/)ff ic Institution, and the 
American f'hilosophical .Societv. Hess was on 
(his ex|)edi(ion as geological exj)erl and M. 
IAvino of Lehigh University was in charge of the 
grav'iinctric survey, assisteci bv' K. J. Hoskinson 
of the United .States ('oast and (Geodetic .Survev . 
The gravity cruise was made in the United .States 
Navv' .Submarine Barracuda. IGwiNi; had suc- 
ceeded in m.iking some further improvements in 
the \cning .Meinesz apixiratus notably in the 
mechanical timing of the pendulums. It was this 
exjiedition that definitely proved that the West 
Indian Arc was lectonophv sicallv similar to the 
East Indian Arc, and that the Vening Meinesz 
St ri|) of negat ive gravit v anomalies was one of I h<‘ 
greatest phenomena in the deformation of the 
lithosphere. The theory of isostasy had not been 
dis|)roved in fact it had l)een somewhat 
strengthened but a new mechanism had been 
discovered in mountain building which had intro 
duced an entirely new concept in structural 
gi'ologv'. At i)resent the \ ening Meinesz lu'gativc 
gravit v-anomalv' strip as [)eculiarly associali'd 
with island arcs is interpreted by V'enini. 
.Meinesz ami 1’. 11. Ki'eM'IN (Netherlands'). 
11. 11. Hess, W. II. Iloims, B. Willis, W. 11. 
BcchI'K, R. a. Daly .and R. M. Field (IJ..S.A.). 
I'G. B. Bailey and 0. T. J()Ni;s (Englaml), L. W. 
CoLLicr (.Switzerland), and others in the following 
manner: 

(DA stronglv' negative gravit v-anomaly belt, 
or strip, coincides with the outer, convex side ot 
island arcs such as the Netherlands Ea.st Indies 
and the West Indies. The width of the negative 
gravity-anoimily stri]) is approximately less than 
,S() km wide. In the East Indies the strip is 5, ()()() 
miles long, and in the West Indies it is well de- 
fined along the entire arc from the eastern end of 
(_'uba to the (.'oast of South America. The order 
of magnitude of the gravitv anomalies within the 
area of the negative .strip is from — l.SO to — 200 
milligals, and there (an be no doubt that the 
area of the negative gravity-anomaly strip signi- 
fies an abnormal, h^cal deficienev' in density for 
the entire thickness of (he lithosphere for that 
area certainly a local, but exceedingly imi)or- 
tant dejiarlure from isostatic equilibrium. 

\T;nin(; Meinesz and his countryman, Kv!i;- 
ni;n, were the first to recognize the great geologi- 
cal significance of this discovery and, together 
with Hess, suggested not only the cause of the 
phenomena in terms of structural geology, but 
also the consetpient relation of volcanic activity 
and the origin of igneous rocks, including the very 
significant and commmitant belts of serpentin- 
ized perid(Atite intrusions. (Jthers, notably N. H. 
Heck, have discussed the significant relation of 
Veninc, Meine.sz’ discoveries to the phenomena 
and origin of earthquakes. 

'I'he outer crust of the earth, or lithosphere, is 
known to hav'e a specific gravity, or density, of 
apiiroximately 2.7. This lithosjihere has been 
shown by the seismologists to have a thickness 
of 2.S 3.S km with an underlayer of the same 
thickness having a specific gravitv or density of 
approximatelv 3.0. Beneath the layer of density 
3.0 occurs a third layer of density 3.3. The outer 
layer of density 2.7 therefore characterizes (he 
lithosphere to the depth of isostatic compensa- 
tion. This is frequently, though incorrectly, 
spoken of as the granitic laver because (he mean 



Field: Felix Alexander Vening Meinesz 


10 , > 


average chemiral eoinposil ion and densitv’ t)f all 
t\j)e.s of rocks which cr)inpose the lithosphere is 
.ipproxiniately that of (he chcniiml composit ion 
and density of the igneous rock granite. The ini- 
niedialely underlying couch or stratum of denser 
material, because of high temperal lire and jires- 
sLire, has no rigidity and exists as a magma which, 
when it finds its way into the lithosphere, cools 
and solidifies as an igneous rock called basalt. 
The sulibasaltic layer or couch is ( omposed of an 
even denser magma (sp. gr. 3..V) which when in- 
jected into (he lithosphere solidifies to form llu* 
Lilt ra-liasic igneous rock known as peridot it e. It 
should lie particularlv noted that (he increase in 
difference in flensity downward from (he granitic 
to the ba,salfic to (he peridotitic la\er is 0.3. 

\ i^mnl; MKiNi'tszand Kt i':Ni'.N, realizing I hat (he 
thickness of the granitic and the ba.saltic la\ers 
was aiiproximateh’ (he same, suggest eil (hat 
within (he area of (he pronounced negative 
gravity-anomalv' strip the granitic layer had en- 
tireh' displaced (he basaltic' la\er, (hereby be- 
coming 50-70 km (hick, or twice the normal 
thickness of the lithosphere; and that island are.-s, 
such as the East Indies and (he West Inches, are 
long narrow structural belts where the lithosphere 
is close to, if not in clirec't contac t, with the peri- 
dot it ic la>er. \'i:.\t\c. .Mi:lm-;sz further suggests 
that (he pec uliarlv localized displacement of (he 
ba.saltic la\er b\’ the lithosphere' is clue to a great 
compressional ciownfold of the lithosiihere; and 
KlilNlin further strengthens this (heorx 1)\' l.ib- 
oratory exfieriments in which he was careful to 
adapt the strength of the ni.aterials to the scale 
of his model. Thus was born the c'oncept of the 
d'ectogene, or downfold of the entire lithosphere, 
w hich since' 1033 has plax ed, and w ill c'ontinue to 
l)la> , an im[)ortan( part in all oliserxations and 
theories regarding the structure .and origin of 
mountains. 

One hundred and two vears ago the Koc.IlKS 
brothers described the structure of (he Appala- 
chian Mountains of Fennsx Kania as a relatively 
narrow but thick belt (20,000 feet) of marine iind 
estuarine sedimentarx' rocks which had been 
folded, faulted, uplifted, and eroded .so as to pro- 
duce (he mountains which we see tcjday. 

In 1873 J, L). D.ana stjggesled that the (hick 
accumulation of sediments filled a long, narrow 
trough as it was being formed b>' lateral c'c)m[)res- 
sion of the lithosphere. He also suggested that, 
after the trough had been filled with thousands 
of feet of sediments, its further ccnn()ression 
sc|ueezed the sedimentarx' filling into the great 
.series of folds whose uplifted and erodc'd rem- 
nants form (he pre.sent ridges and x alleysof Penn- 
sylvania. .Such great c'ompre.ssional (roughs he 
c:alled geosx nclines, and (he folded filling of the 
troughs, synclinoria. The geosynclinal theory, 
originating from the study of the Ajipalachian 
.Mountains, has Iteen found to be applicable to 
the North West Highlands of .SccUland, to the 
Swiss Alps, and to other rc'gions where the strati- 
graphy and structure of the deformed rocks had 
been sufficiently studied. The geophxsical stud- 
ies in the Netherlands East Indies and the c*on.se- 
cpient leadership of Vening Mi-inesz in the geo- 
physical study of the West Indies suggests that 
the forc'deeps in front of (hc.se great island arcs 
repre.sent gcosynclines in the making, but these 
geosynclines were not filled with sediments be- 
cause of (he lack of source material from (he nar- 
row bordering strip of islands (geanticline). Thus, 
the great curved linear geosynclinal licit, or anti- 


clinoria of (he Car/iathians, Alps and Apennines 
is remarkalilx' similar in origin to the embryonic 
(levelopnienl of the present -dny island arcs. 
Vesing Mein'E.sz and Ki e.M'.n have suggested 
the 'rectcjgene, as (he father of geo.sx nclines, and 
(heir accompanving thick belts of deformed 
c'roded sedimentary roc ks and igneous intrusions. 

.Such has been the scientific contriliution of 
Holland, through X’ening Meinesz ;md the 
Netherlaiuls East Indies, to the whole of gc'o- 
science. 

In (heir introduction to “The t 'ontribution of 
Holland to the .Sciences” (1*M3), A. J. Eahnopw 
and H. EAMiitLack make the tollowing ob.serxa- 
tions: ‘‘The historx’ ol his own special field of 
knowledge is a field to which few .scientists pay 
attention ... In time's like ours it is of signifi- 
c.ince to see how the c:ombined efforts of many 
people have Ic'd to the discoveries or innoxatioiis 
which we .so e.isilx' ascribe to one person. . . . That 
the Netherlands has alwaxs pursuecl ;i policy of 
tolc^rance has been an essential fac tor in (he devel- 
opment ol its .scic'citific: achiex ements.” We have 
tried to eniiihasize the effect which VTcning 
.Me. iNi'.sz, the Netherlander, has had on gco- 
scienc'e. What has been the effect of geo.scienc;e 
on XTcmnc, Meinesz, the Net herl.mder? 

The last time that \ e\inc; Mia.VE.sz was able 
to mix treelx' with his international colleagues was 
in .Septembc'f, 1939, during the .Seventh (icneral 
A.sscunbly ol (he; International Union of (icodesy 
and (ieophxsic's in Washington, !).('. For .sev- 
er.'il weeks, previous to (his As.semblx’, events in 
Wc'stern Europe had rajiidly become more dis- 
turbing. Delc'gates from most eff the aclhering 
countries, (hen (hirtx -two in number and includ- 
ing all ol (he pre.sent l.ielligerents, arrived in fair 
numbers, but (here xvas some discussion as to the 
advi.sabilitx- of canc elling the Assembl>'. Finally, 
just prexious to the meeting, (ierm.iny invaded 
Poland, and tlu're was a hurried meeting of the 
Bureau ol the Union xvhich determined to carry 
on. In this di.scu.ssion the Bureau was grcxUly 
encouraged by (he United .States Department of 
State, who.se .Sc'cretarx', (TiRoia.i. Hi ll, ofiened 
the Assembix' with these words; “ It is mx fervent 
hope, whic'h the people of (his c'ountrx share, that 
(he day max' soon come when t he statesmen of the 
world will lake a leaf from the book of (he scien- 
tists and solve international jioliticvil problems in 
the same dignified and friendly spirit.” 

During the succeeding week of the Assembly 
\T-;ninc; MraNtesz xvas a tower of strength. No 
one fore.saxv more clearlx than he the conseciuence 
of ('rermanx-’s inxasion of Poland, yet his toler- 
ance during this international gathering of scien- 
tists in Washington was largelx’ responsible for 
the' calm and frieudlx’ sjiirit of its delilierations. 
As President of the International Association of 
(icodesy, his were the primarx’ interests of a great 
specialist whcjse scientific inclinations were to 
em|)hasize the international importance of 
geodesx'. Hoxvever, his resc'arches in the Nether- 
lands East Indies, extending to all I he oceans and 
continents of (he earth, had taught him the im- 
port anc'c of cooperation not only of different 
specialists, but also of all manner of men. .Aboxe 
all, he had made (he most of the full social o|)por- 
tunities of fundamental gc;o.scienc'e. in contra- 
distinction to the .somewhat .'usocial implications 
of mathematics and astrononix' or (he economic 
im[)lic'alions of physics and chemistry. He, par- 
ticularly, was trusted liy ever>' one - Ikiles, Oer- 
man.s, Italians, Japanese, and British alike. Ac- 



Forbks; Through Bantam and the Preanger Regencies 


104 


cording to last accounts Vkning Mkinesz is still 
in Holland. We are not informed as to his pres- 
ent physical or mental condition, hut we sincerely 
hope, that in the interests of post-war planning 
he will be able to help us. Any scientist who has 
accomplished so much in international coopera- 
tion without the destrmiive stimulus of war will 
be particularly needed during the px)st-war period 
of reconstruction. Vknino Mkinksz is such a 
scientist: to his more intimate colleagues he is 
still a typical Hollander and a famous explorer of 
the structure ami origin of the Netherlands Hast 
Indies. His hypothesis of the Tectogene will 
undoubtedly be modified, and may e\en lie re- 
placed, but his discovery of the negative gravity- 
anomalv strip will remain as the gre.itest advance 
in the application of gravitational physics to 
geology since the discover>- of the ilellection of 
the vertical, and the conseipient geophysical- 
geological concept of isostasy. 

A tew of the most significant branches of geo- 
science which are particularly affected b>' tlie first 
dis('o\er\' of the negative anomalv strip in the 
East Indian Archipelago are; 

(1) 'I'lieory and oriniii of Kcosynclinos 

(2) Locaiion and origin of cartinjuakes 


(3) Origin of volcanoes 

(4) Origin of ultra-basic eruptivcs and serpentines 

(5) Direction and rate of migration of geographic coordi- 
nates 

(6) Depth of isostatic compensation 

(7) I’ermanency of ocean basins 

1 8 ) Numerous pr<»hlems in stratigraphy and structural 

geology 

(9) Origin and distribution of geomagnetism. 


BiHLiocKArny 

the following few references have been selected for those 
leaders wlio are not already familiar with the gravimetric 
phases of marine geophysics and structural geology. 

(1) ('.cophysical lixploratinn of the Ocean Hottoin. Sym- 
posium arranged by the .\merican (ieophysical Union. 
Proceedings American Idu'losophicL Society, V^ol. 79, No. I. 
April 21, 1938. esi)ecially; [a] The Importance of (Geophys- 
ics to Submarine (Geology. Rich.vro M. Fiei.d, Chairman, 
( omniittee on (Geophy.sical and Geological Study of (Jeean 
basins, A.(G.U. (1937), {!>) Marine (Gravimetric Methodsand 
Surveys, by MviJmcic ICwiNc,, Department of Physics, 
la-liigh t'niversity, (f) Gravity Anomalies and Island .\rc 
.Structure, with particular reference to the West Indies, by 
II.vKKY Il.vMMO.Nu liiiss. Dei)artmerit of Geology, Prince- 
ton University. 

(2) (Gravity Expeditions at .Sea, by K. A. Veninc, 
Meinesz, J. 11. K. Umuoruve, and Ph. II. Kvenkn. V'ol. 
II, 1934. 

(3) Tlic Negative Isostatic Anomalies in the East Indies 
(vvitli experiments) by Pit. II. Ki^kne.v, Lc-idsche Geol. 
.Vied., Vol. 8, pp. 169 -214, 1930. 


THROUGH RVNd'AM AND THU PREANGIvR RIIGKNCIUS 
IN THE KKillTIES 

;,y 

Ueinry 0. POIUIES (18.')l-1932), LI.D., lion. F.Z.S.* 

hie hircclor, hniversily Miisemm, LirerpooL 


(Jn tlie road The Sundanesc language - - Icvery man a 
naturalist — Bird-life at Genleng - - Weaver-birds' 
nests A native rural bazaar Forest devastation 
— (TColngical structure of the district — A wonderful 
case of mimicry in a spider. 

Oil my return to Java from the Keeling Is- 
lands, I had the good fortune to meet in Batavia 
with a countryman, Mr. Ai-EXAnder Fraser, 
one of the few freeholders of land in Java, who 
though just starting for England, kindly offered 
me the privilege of collecting over his vast prop- 
erty situated in the western province of Bantam, 
and the hos[)itality of his house if I should choose 
to stay there. This offer I was only too pleased 
to accept, in order, while still within reach of 
civilisation, to bei'ome acciuainted with, and 
gain some practical experience of, the necessities 
and mocles of tropical life and camping, of which 
the novitiate traveller has such erudt' ideas — 
for collecting among tropical vegetation is very 
different from tht; ideas formed of it from like 
operations conducted amidst the sparse woods of 
our temperate climate; but principally to 
isolate myself from all European-speaking peo- 
ple for the purpose of ac(|uiring, with the aid of 
a few liooks and chiefly with my n.itive servants, 
the Malay language as rapidly as possible. In 
addition, the late Dr. Scheeeer, the kind Di- 
rector of the Botanical (Tirdens in Buitenzorg, 
had recommended to me Bantam as a profitable 


* Reprinted from the author’.s "A Naturalist's Wander- 
ings in the Eastern Archipelago, A Narrative of Travel and 
Exploration ir .m 1878 to 1883” (pp. 51 117 (/>./>. muj.). 


and by no means, botanieally at h'ast, well in 
vestigated provinet> to visit. 

Having hired a couple of cahars — a sort of 
spring-cart with one horse, the general mode of 
t'onv(*yance when one travels as I was about to 
do, off th(‘ main roads — one for inystdf and one 
for my baggage, I left Batavia at sunrise on the 
12th of March [1879], by the western road along 
the low northern shore lands towards Rangkas- 
betong, by the famous highway which Dai-:m)ei,s, 
one (jf the most energetic and far-seeing of all 
the early (iovcrnors-General of the Dutch Indies, 
('onstructed along the whole length of the island, 
and which has proved one of its greatt'st benefits 
and colonizers. 'I'o expedite the* journeys of 
their various officials round their districts, at 
every five or six miles stalde stations have been 
erected by the Government, where horses are 
changed, and which private travellers can (ob- 
tain permission to make use of on payment of 
small mileage dues. 

All along the road we passed little sign-posts 
with Arabic inscriptions indicating how many 
yards of the road on each side of them must be 
kept in repair liy the various neighbouring vil- 
lages. As the keeping of the roads is most stren- 
uously enforced, they are never out of condition, 
and arc a jih^asure to drive over. Here and there 
it has been impossible to bridge the larger rivers 
in steep defiles w here the stream is deep and swift, 
and these are enjssed in large picturesque rafts 
which can accommodate horse and carriage and 
(luite a little crowd of people at once, d'hese 
rafts, by sliding on rattan rings along two strong 
cables of thick rattan canes securely fixed to 




both banks, are floated over by the ferrymen by 
hand-over-hand traction on these cables. 

When on the road the dress of the vSu'ndanese, 
especially of the women and children, is invari- 
ably bright coloured calicoes, clean and newly 
ironed, and their h(‘ad-cov(‘ring is the gaily 
lacquered bamboo hats for whose manufacture 
they are famous. The burdens of the men, 
whatever they may consist of, are made up in 
neat and tastefully arranged bundles, carried 
always on the shoulders, suspended at the ends 
of a bamboo — and it is amazing what a wa ight 
these thick-S('t stout fellows can carry iti this 
way. Such a ferry, in the sunlight, with a back- 
ground of green, wooded slopes, presents (here- 
fore always a gay scene and forms (juite an 
interesting bnaik in the drive. 

The country throughout was rather tame, be- 
ing quite stripped of forest, but full of interest, 
as the land, being entirely under rice cultivation, 
was lai«l out in the most beautiful system of ter- 
races. 'riie province of Bantam is denst-ly pop- 
ulat(‘(l, and scarcely a j)orlion of unculti\ ated 
Imul was to be observc'd. As Mr. V\’Ai.i.ACii in 
his "Malay Archipelago," has fully dt'seribed, 
this tnethod, introducecl by the Hindus on (heir 
invasion of Java, has attained a womh-rful de- 
velopment throughout the whole of the lowlands 
in the western part of the island. In these 
sau'dhs, the natives lall their wet rice fields, 
the grain is cultivated in small scpiare borders 
separated by green, grass-ridged banks, kept 
constantly flocxled with water brought liy a 
wonderful network of channels in which .in in- 
tricate system of sluici's or v'alvos distributes or 
cuts off its flow wheta'ver desired, 'fhe entire 
face of such low hills as have a gentli' slope, are 
thus laid out down to their bases, and at (he 
season when the young corn is in its fresh grc'en 
leaf the country is e.xtremely pretty. 

Mr. Fkasf.r’s estate-house at Tjik.indi-Udik, 
which 1 reached late in the evening, 1 found to 
stand amid a rich and entirely cultivateil country, 
but as regards my pursuits a liarren territory. 
After enjoying for a few days the hospitality of 
the Administrator I moved south-we'stward to 
Genteng in the higher region of Lebak, where I 
was told some forest was then being felled. 

Here I built a bamboo-hut in an open s|)ot 
with an exhilarating look-out on the high moun- 
tains, and alone with my Malay boys began my 
initiation into the language of the country, and 
into the nomadic joyous life of a field naturalist. 

It is a life full of tiresome shifts, di.sconiforts, and 
short commons; but these are completely for- 
gotten, and the days seem never long enough 
amid that constant flash of delighted surprise 
that accompanies the beholding for the first time 
of beast or bird or thing unknow'u before, and 
the throb of pleasure experienced, as each new 
morsel of knowledge amalgamates with one’s 
self. 

Between myself and my boys for a time the 
most ludicrously comprehended sign-language 
was carried on, till their speech, whose sentences 
to my unaccustomed ears seemed composed of 
but one continuous word of innumerable un- 
couth syllables, began to shape itself into di.s- 
tinguishable elements, when to my amazement, 
as if some obstruction had been suddenly re- 
moved from my ears, I comprehended them as 
if I had been brought up among them. Before 
many weeks were over I could converse in the 
Malay tongue with an amount of freedtim that 
surprised me. 


J he language of the district, that is, of the 
oundanese themselves, though containing many 
Javanese and Malay words, is quiti* distinct 
from either. It is a coarser and rougher speech, 
and it was some time liefore 1 managed to ac- 
quire it; but I found it to be - like broad .Scotch 
in comparison with purc^ Faiglish -- one of great 
expressiveness. 

As soon as 1 was able to follow their discourse 
with ease, my daily talks with these men were a 
Source of great pleasure to me. I soon found out 
that in regard to every thing around them, they 
were marvellously observant and intelligent. 
Not one or two only, but every individual 
amongst them sei-med eciually stored with natural 
hi.slory information. There was not a single 
tree or ])l.int or minute* shrul), but they had a 
ii.une for, and could tell the full history of; and 
not a note in the forest but they knew from what 
throat it proceeded. Kvery animal had a desig- 
nation, not a men* meaningl(*ss designation, but 
a truly binomial afipellation as fixed and dis- 
tinctive as in our own system, dirf(*ring only in 
the fact that (heir’s was in their eivvn and not in 
a loreign language*. Often enougli this ele*signa- 
tion has .so e'lose* a re*se*mblance and .sounej to 
Batin, that it has l)e*e*n accep(e*il by Western 
naturalists as if it hael bee'u so. One* of the liveli- 
e‘st anel most obtrusive* ol the* s(juirre*ls in Java 
and .Sum.itra is a little* reel-furre el creature* called 
by the native*s tupai, anel to distinguish it from 
its mein* arbeneal conge*ne*rs they adel, from its 
hal)it e)f fre*(|ue*nt ing branches ne*ar the ground, 
the* word tana (for e*.arth); and Tupaia tana is 
its ae'i‘e[)teel scientific te*rm among European 
naturalists. 

;rhe*y have* une-onsciously classified the various 
cdlie*el groups into large ceimjirehensive ge*nera, 
in a way that she>ws an ae'curae y of observation 
that is astonishing from this elull-looking race. 

In this n*spe'Ct the*y exe'el far and away the rural 
pe)pulation eif our own ceiuntry, among whom 
without exaggeration scarce'ly one man in a 
hunelred is able te> name* erne* tre'e from anotlu'r, 
or eh'seribe the colour of its flower or fruit, far 
le.ss to n.iine* a tre'e* from a portion indiscrimi- 
nately shown him. Heiw acute is the*ir observa- 
tion is e.xemplifie'd by their name* for the* groups 
of true parasitic plants of the* Lorantliaciur (or 
Misletoes), which are elisse-minated chiefly by 
be-ing unejlitrusively droppe*el by birds in con- 
venient cle-lts oi tre*e'S, they deiuiminate as I'ai 
hooroon^ (‘‘birels’ e*xcre*ta"); while lei epiphytic 
plants they give* a name that has almost the* sig- 
nifieance* ol our own scientific te*rm. d'he* great 
group of the Laurels, which se) vary in flowe*r and 
fejliage* as te) be se*[)arate'fl off into many ge*ne*ra 
by botanists, are all de*signate'el I»y the: e)ne name: 
Ihiru, but they are diflerentiateel by no fewx*r 
than sixty-three dififere'nt specific terms, in every 
instance* indicating some prominent elistinguish- 
ing characteristic of flower, fruit or timber; and 
on examination, very fe-w inele'ed e)f the-m turn 
out not to belong to the Laure*! family. Of oaks, 
Passanff in their tongue*, the*y discriminate six- 
tee*n different .species, ceunnu'iicing their list with 
the one they ceensider meist typical, just as we 
fimi in our ow'U cataleegues of birels, anmng the 
Warblers for instance, Cislicola cisticola re*pre- 
senting the typical species, the Sundaiu'se say 
Passang betul, or "true e:>ak," for what the*y con- 
sider the oak of oaks. Among animals their sys- 
tem of classific'ation into genera is not carried so 
far; but all the more distinctive groups, espe- 
cially those living in communities, and every in- 



I'oRin s: Through Bantam and the Preanger Regencies 


106 


sect and l)ird, if in any way peculiar or where it 
ean be inistak(‘n lor another, hav<‘ (‘ach their own 
binomial appellation. 

1 was disappointed in finding that the forest 
.il)out (k'nteii}.; was nearly all second ^^rowth, with 
scan'cly any of what I was principally in search 
of for my herbarium sj)ecimens of the primul 
trees, birds, howewer, wa-re more plentiful, and 
in the a\anuc-like roads and paths, stretching 
for miles in the tna'ghbourhood, butterflies and 
other insects wa're very abundant, but though 
interesting to tne, and occasionally mwv to the 
ornithology or entomology ot the Malayan 
region, most of them were sp(‘cies well known to 
science. Amid an expans(‘ of low scrub in front 
of my door, on which the buffaloes from the 
neighbouring \illages wandered more at their 
own will than directed l)y their young herds, 
stood within gunshot ol my v<'randaii table 
several (all trees, from which, Inapientc'd as they 
were at all hours of the day by diflerent kinds of 
birds, I was constantly abl<‘ to add with great 
ease to my collection, and to observe the habits 
of many species that it would havt' Immui diflicult 
otherw ise to see. 

1 never tired of watt hing the friendly relation 
belwet'U the Buffalo-l)irds {SluniopasUfr inlla and 
.S', mdanopierus) and their bo\ine hosts, d'hey 
used to collect in impatient flocks al)out th<' hour 
of the return of the herd to their feeding grounds 
from the wallowing holes, whither in thi* heat 
of the day they retired; and as soon as tin* cattle 
arrived they would alight on their backs in 
crowds, to the evident satisfaction of the oxen, 
which they relieved of troublesome parasites. 
.Although the herd l>oys cijinmonly lay dozing 
at full length on the buffaloes’ backs, the birds 
seemed to know that they won* (juite safe, and 
would evmi alight on the ban' backs of the sleep- 
(‘is, and from lliat hop on to the haunches of the 
quadruped; and when the herds were driven 
away at nightfall th(‘ Sturnopastors flew off to 
the forest. 

One of the rarer birds (fl)tained hen- was the 
fnu; red-crested Woodpecker {Miglyptes trislis), 
w hich much resembles the M. v/animinithordx of 
.Mai.uekhi:, which is not found in Java, while 
the former, distinguished by its uniform black 
breast and al)domi-n, is confined to this island. ‘ 

In the gloaming, freipienting leafless branches, I 
often saw the minuti- Butterfly Hawk {Micro- 
hierax Jrin^illorius), not so largi- as a shrike, 
darting after grasshoiq^ers, moths and late-flying 
butterflies. Among tlu* songsters that made 
themselves more noticeable by frequenting the 
isolated trees near my house, were tin- golden 
Oriole {Oriolus mnculatns) and the* yellow crow ned 
Bulbul {TrackycomiiS ociirocephalus), which late 
in the evenings filled the whole neighbourhooij 
with their melodious, clear, bell-like notes; w'hile 
two members of the Cuckoo family, the " Doo- 
d<x>t” {Rhinococcyx curvirostris) and the “Boot” 
{R. javiincn sis) used to utter their curious bleat- 
ing call in the low' jungle behind, often breaking 
with their weird modulations the stillness of the 
midnight, in a neighbouring clump of canes a 
colony of Yellow Weaver-birds {Ploccns Itypo- 
xtinlhus) had thickly hung their nests, biach nest 
was artfully suspended betwi*en the intt'rlacing 
leaf-stems of (jiie (jr two reeds in a most skilful 
w;iy, to secure as much as possible the safety of 


1 Cf. IIarcitt, ‘Ibis,’ 1884, pp. 190, 191; and Nicholson. 
>P. at.. 1879. 16. 


their eggs during the waving ot tin* reeds in the 
wind. These nests wa-re not made fast to, but 
strung lightly on the leaves, sometimes pas.sed 
through the fork of another leaf to form a pulley, 
so as to permit, liy sliding along in the swaying of 
(he grass, of their retaining their vertical posi- 
tion, which tli<‘\' must do, weighic'd as (hey are 
liy a layer of cla}' in the bottom of the nests, f 
noticed that many of them wa-re deserted from 
the breaking of one or more of their eggs, after 
incubation had progia-ssed some way; in others, 
vvlu-re there was oidy one chick, there was often 
one egg which had been cracked and becoim* 
dried up, so that cM-n with all their acute archi- 
tectural devices the wind ajipears to wreck the 
hop<*s of the litlh* builders. 

W hat can lx* tht* usi* of the mud iu the W i'aver- 
birds’ nests has ofti'u been discussed. Mr. E. L. 
L.W.vrd, the accurate obsi'rver and wc'll-known 
ornithologist, has suggested* “that these lumps 
of mud were used as scrapers (Xi which to clean 
the l)irds’ bills”; but if in (he nests 1 found here 
they were used for this purpijse, it must ha\'e 
been only at the comnieneenu'ut of their task, 
for the layi'r of mud would be quite concealed at 
an early stage of their nest-building. 1 am more 
inclined to the belief that they are to w eight and 
balance the nest, from having found loose- among 
the lower stems unfinislu-d portions, which wi-re 
e\idently the foundations ot nests, which had 
been blown down betore lieing properly si'cured, 
or were llu-y, pi-rhaps, abandoned unsucix-ssful 
first attempts? d'hey had the exact shape of tiny 
key baskets, such as are used by housewives, one 
end being weighted with a layt-r of clay. 1 was 
also struck by tin* fact that diflerent individuals 
had adopted difb-rent lorms of lu-sts, which, 
though agreeing fundamc'iitally, exhibited con- 
siderable variation, d'he bulk ot tht-m were of 
the retort shape, set with a long-necked orifice- 
hanging downward, but. a considerable uuml.ier, 
of the progressionist party pi-rh;qxs, had in- 
augurated a new' fashion by inv(-rting the retort 
and short(*ning the neck, giving the doorway an 
upward and forward entrance, which, it more 
enticing to depredators, may perhaps be le.ss 
awkward to the owners. I much regret that 1 
have no not(^ as to the position of the clay in this 
new form; for what was previously tlu* bottom of 
the nest had beconu* a dome over the bird, w'hile 
its eggs were laid in what would correspond in 
the older pattern with the upper cinwe of the 
neck of the retort, so that if my lielief is correct 
that the use of the clay is to retain the nc-st iu its 
vertical position, it ought to be found (jccupying 
a corres[)onding site in the new structure, it is 
possible, however, that the deeiation from the 
ancestral pattern may result from an unequal 
distribution of clay during tlu* laying of the 
foundation of the nest, causing it to become re- 
versed without diverting the bird’s jiurposi* from 
completing its work as best it could, under the 
altered conditions. 

One of the bird-cries that early attract at- 
tention is the reiterated, unvarii-d call of the 
Bell-birds {Me^alccmimc), poiin-d forth in long 
stretches from the top of some high tri-i-, wlx-re, 
from their plumage according so well with the 
varied colours ot tlie vi-gi-tation, they can select a 
perch ev(‘n in a prominent Inanch without fear 
of discovery. 1 obtained five diflerent species of 
these birds, which belong to one of the most 


Nature, Dec. 1879. 







Forbes: Through Bantam and the Preanger Regencies 


108 


varied and bcautiful-pluniaged families, and of 
which some idea may be obtained by turning over 
the pages of Marsh ali/s splendid monograph 
of the group. 

A stream which ran near my house was 
crossed by one of those native-made bamboo 
bridges, which spaciously housed and thatched 
over, l]a\e such a neat and attractixe look about 
theju. Every Siinduy morning the district 
market was held under it, which from an early 
hour presented (juite a gay and busy scene. I 
never missed, if 1 cimld, an opportunity of visit- 
ing these J\issars, as 1 found them delightful 
resorts for studying the native in his gayer moods; 
for market-day was always their holiday, and 
the market-place the rendezvous for the youths 
and maidens of the district, as well as the news- 
exchange of th(‘ old nu'ii. The vendors, to be 
early at the market-place, generally spent Satur- 
day evening and night under the sluule of the 
bridge, or collected in the neighbouring village, 
whence the tinkle of the gamelang, their char- 
acteristic musical instrument, would be heard 
throughout the livelong night in company, if 
not concord, with the higher notes of tluar curi- 
ously drawling voices, repeating tji'ritas or semi- 
historical tales, and adaptations from the Koran, 
varied by pantuns or lo\e songs. 

d'he collection of wares exposed for liarti'r was 
always a curious one: sarongs from their own 
looms whose incessant click-clack is one of the 
most pheasant and char.acteristic of the industrial 
sounds in their villages — calicoes and silk ker- 
chiefs from ManchcvSter and Liverpool; ( i, ark’s 
Paisley thread of “extra (piality”; native-made 
horn combs, gay ornaments of sp.ingles and 
beads, and the elaborate inlaid silver breast-pins 
for which the district is famous, worn l)y every 
female to fasten her loose upper robes; and 
bamboo hats in great variety. I he Bantamese 
are specially noted for the manufacture of these 
last, and some of them are really exquisite speci- 
mens of plaiting. In the finest (juality, nunle of 
carefully prepared narrow strips of the wood, a 
quiet but lucrative trade is done with European 
markets by unobtrusive go-l)etweens who collect 
them through the district. In Bantam they cost 
a mere trifle, but in Paris, I am informed, they 
are retailed at a profit of nearly one thousand 
per cent., as true Panama hats, from which it is 
difficult to distinguish them. ()ne of these hats, 
that I treated to the roughest jungle work of 
three years, was scarcely impaired when we 
parted company. 

Other than these the chief articles were house- 
hold utensils, large copper jars for tlu* prepara- 
tion of rice, beat out of sheet copper by native 
smiths, and shallow iron basins (of Singapore 
make) for the daily extraction of the oil of the 
cocoa-nut palm, without which and its twin 
brother the bamboo, native prosperity and hap- 
piness would cease, d'here were besides piles of 
various species of dry-salted river fishes, chiefly 
Gab Os {Ophiocephalus striatus), Soro and Regis 
(Barbus duronensis and B. emarginatus), and 
Gurame (Ophromenus olfax), the most prized of 
them all, in which a large and profitable trade is 
carried on with distant parts of the Archipelago. 
Many of these fishes are carefully preserved in 
the larger wet rice fields, where during the rainy 
season, having abundance of food, they multiply 
with great rapidity. During the hot season, 
when the sawahs have become, except in the 
centre, dry fields, the fishes are captured in im- 


mense numbers. Fried in fresh oil they form an 
excellent dish, and are the staple flesh-food of 
the natives. 

A vile odour which permeates the whole air 
within a wide area of the market-place, is apt 
to be attributed to these piles of fish; l)ut it really 
proceeds from another compound sold in round 
black balls, called trassi. .My acquaintance with 
it was among my earliest experiences of house- 
keeping at (.HTiteng. Having got up rather late 
one Sunday morning - an opportunity taken 
by ont‘ of my boys to go unknown to me to the 
market, which I had not then visited I was 
discomfited by the terrific and unwonted odour of 
decomposition: — “My birds have begun to 
stink, confound it!’’ 1 exclaimed to myself. 
Hastily fetching down the l)ox in which they were 
stored, I minutely examined and sniffed over 
evt'ry skin, giving myself in tlu* process inflam- 
mation of the nostrils and eyes for a week after, 
from the amount of arsenical soap I inhaled; but 
all of them seemid in perfect condition. In the 
neighbouring jungle, though I diligently searched 
half the morning, 1 could find no dead carcase, 
and nothing in the “kitchen-midden,’’ where 
somehow 1 semned nearer the source; but at last 
in the kitchen itself I ran it to ground in a com- 
pact parcel done up in a banana leaf. 

“What on the face of creation is this?” 1 said 
to the cook, touching it gingerly. 

“Oh! mast<‘r, that is trassi.” 

“ I'rassi? What is trassi, in the name of good- 
ness!” 

“(iood for eating, master; — in stew.” 

“Have 1 been eating iti'” 

“Certainly, master; it is most excellent (enak 
si’kali).” 

“You born fool! Do you wish to poison me 
and to die yourself?” 

“May 1 have a goitre (daik gundok), master, 
but is is excellent!” he asseverated, taking hold 
of the foreskin of his throat, by the same token 
that a countryman at home would swear, ‘DU 
sure's Death! ’ ’ 

Notwithstanding these vehement assurances, 1 
made it disajipear in the depths of the jungle, to 
the horror of the boy, who looked wistfully after 
it, and would have fetched it back, had 1 not 
threatened him with the direst penalties if I dis- 
covered any such putridity in my house again. 

I had then to learn that in every dish, native or 
European, that 1 had eaten since my arrival in 
the East, this Extract of Decomposition w'as 
mixed as a spice, and it would have been difficult 
to convince myself that I would come by-and- 
bye knowingly to eat it daily without the slight- 
est abhorrence. Dampier, who mentions it in his 
“Voyage,” seems to have formed his acquaint- 
ance with it in a more philosophic spirit, for he 
describes it in these terms: — “As a composition 
of a strong savour, yet a very delightsom dish 
to the natives. To make it they throw a mixture 
of shrimps and small fish into a sort of weak 
pickle made with salt and w'ater, and put into a 
tight earthen vessel. 'I'he pickle being thus 
weak, it keeps not the fish firm and hard, neither 
is it probably so designed, for the fish are never 
guttl'd. Therefore in a short time they turn all 
to a mash in the vessel; and when they have lain 
thus a good while so that the fish is reduced to 
pulp, they then draw off the liquor into fresh 
jars and preserve it for use. 'Fhe masht fish that 
remains behind is called I'rassi. 'Tis rank 
scented; yet the taste is not altogether unpleas- 



109 


Formes: Through Bantam and the Preanger Regencies 


ant, but rather savoury after one is a little used 
to it.” 

One of the most terrible scourges of the island, 
and for whicli no remedy seems possible, is the 
spr(*ad everywhere of a species of tall, slender 
cane useless for foddt'r and good only for 
thatch, — which the natives call alang-alang. 
Every spot unoccupied by forest, falls a prey to 
it; and when once it g('ts the upper hand, fim-st 
seeds refuse to root in it. Neither the incessant 
rains, nor the driest droughts of summer kill it. 
The tire may sweep the surface bare, but it fails 
to touch the roots, which spring again in fresher 
vigour through the ashes. Deep shade alf)ne 
seems to check its growth. 'Phe native in tin- hill 
regions does not makt* sawahs (which are good 
from year to year), but constantly tak('S in his 
fi(‘l<is by f(‘lliiig, where he lists, in the unbrokrti 
forest. As, after reaping for only two .seasons 
this iu*w land, (on which he scatters his seed 
between the fallen trunks), he deserts it for a 
newer patch, broad tracts of thi* island are every 
year becamiing covered with this ineradicable 
exhauster of the soil, and by-and-byc' the virgin 
fore.sts (jf this country will have entindy ceased, 
if some shar[X‘r supt'rvision be not (“.vrcised by 
the Government over the timber-felling mania of 
the native. As ('olonel BI'DOOME remarks of the 
like devastation in India: “the value of the tim- 
b(!r thus destroyed by oru' man, calculating it by 
th(‘ nundxM- of logs it might have yielded, is at 
least twenty times as great as the value of the 
crop of r<iyi obtained in the two years that culti- 
vation is c(jntinued. 'Phe low jungle which 
comes up after desertion of kunuiri land is more 
injurious to health than lofty forest open l)elow. 
Besides health considerations and decrease of 
rain and moisture, this rude system of culture 
[results inj the destruction of valuable timber . . . 
and rendering of land unfit for coflee.” 

'Phe present vegetation of tin* whole of this 
portion of the island stands on an unbrokmi layer 
of volcanic mud, which tells of a period of almost 
unparalleled volcanic activity. Wherever the 
streams have opened .sections, or a road cutting 
has been made, numbers of great trees, some of 
them thirty yards in length, are exposed in a 
completely silicified condition, and oftim so per- 
fectly as to have preserv'ed to their cori's the 
.structure of their tissues. Standing on some one 
of these liare denuding slopes, I have tried to 
])icture to myself the terrilile outburst in which 
this region must have been overwhelmed, at a 
date which cannot geologically have been very 
remote; for lying prostrate in great numbers as 
they were, — many of them having fallen across 
each other, - - the forest of which they formed a 
part must have been suddenly entombed beneath 
an avalanche of the petrifying mud so deep that 
the powerfully corroding tropical rains of cen- 
turies are only now beginning to exhume them. 

About the only piece of exposed strata in this 
part of Java, I believe, lay within a few miles of 
my hut. Out of it I picked fossil fragments of 
vegetalde stems, and of broken Osiraa and 
Pecten shells, closely resembling tho.se .still in the 
afljacent seas, and showang that an elevation of 
sonu' 200 to 300 feet had taken [ilace hen* at a 
recent p<‘riod. Phat these subterranean forces 
whose activity resulted in the varied physical 
changes which West Java has experienced (such 
as the subsidence of the Sunda .Straits), had not 
cea.sed, was brought home to me with all the vivid 
and indescribable sensations that accompany 


one’s first experience' of powerful and unwonted 
phenomena. 

On the 28th of March, 1879, about eight 
o’clock in the evening, while sitting under my 
verandah, a sudden shiver and a violent bumping 
w'ave passed as it were through me and under 
my feet, bewildering me, but a/Tording me the 
ineradicable experieiu'e of a x iolent earthquake. 
For some thirty seconds my hut and all its cofi- 
tents were lustily shaken, but otherwise no harm 
was done. Some forty miles away, Innvever, at 
the base of the Cede Vf)lcano, the village of d'jan- 
joor was wreck<'d and sev(*ral lives lost amid the 
falling houses, while on the following day vob 
umes of smoke and ashes were emitted l)y the 
mountain whose summit formed the background 
of my vit'W'. 

One of my most intj-resting discoveries here 
was a cas(‘ of mimicry in a spider, of the kind 
named alluring coloralion by Mr. \\ ai.laci:, 
Pile spider itself, to which 1 had given the pro- 
visional name of Tlioniisiis decipiens, has provc'd 
interesting as the typi' of a new genus, named 
Onrillioscatoides by the Rev. ( ). P. (',\Mhrii)C.h. 
Phe gr('at interest attaching to this find, how- 
ev(‘r, is on account of its li, tbits. 1 had Iteen 
allured into a vain chast* after one of those large, 
stately flitting butterflies {Ifeslia) through a 
thicket of prickly Pandanus horridus, to the 
detriment of my apparel and the loss of my tem- 
per, when on the Itush that obstruc'ted my farther 
pursuit I observed one of t he Uesperiida' at rest 
on a leaf on a bird’s dropping. I had often ob- 
serv<‘d small Blues at rest on similar spots on the 
ground, and have often wondered what the 
members of such a refined and beautifully painted 
family as the Lyoinida' could find to enjoy at hjod 
seemingly .so incongruous for a butterfly. 1 ap- 
proached with gentli' st(‘ps but ready net to see 
if possible how the })resenl sj)ecies was engaged. 
It permitted me to get (jiiile close and ev('n to 
seize it between my fingers; to my surprise, how'- 
ever, part of the body remained bc'hind, and in 
adhering as I thought to the excreta, it recalled to 
my mind an obsi-rvation of Mr. W.\J. lack’s on 
certain Coleoptera falling a prey t(j tlu'ir inex- 
perience l)y boring in the l)ark of tri'cs in whose 
exuding gum they became unwittingly en- 
tombed. I looked closely at, and finally touched 
with the tip of my finger, the excreta to find if it 
were glutinous. 'Po my delighted astonishment 
I found that my eyes had been most perfectly 
dec('ivetl, and that the e.xcreta was a most art- 
fully coloured spider lying on its back, with its 
feet crossed over and closely adpressed to its 
body. 

'Phe appearance of the excrc'ta rather recently 
h'ft on a leaf l)y a bird or a lizard is well known. 
Its central and denser portion is of a pure white 
chalk-like colour, streaked here and there with 
black, and surroutuled by a thin border of the 
dried-up nn)re fluid part, which, as the leaf is 
rarely horizontal, often runs for a little way to- 
wards the margin. 'Phe s|)ider, w Inch l)elongs to 
a family, the l liomisidcc, ])o.sse.ssing rather tuber- 
culated, thick, and prominent abdomened bodies, 
is of a general white colour; the underside, which 
is the one exposed, is pure chalk white, w hile the 
lower portions of its first and second pair of h'gs 
and a spot on the head and on the abdomen are 
jet black. 

This species does not weave a web of the ordi- 
nary kind, but constructs on the surface of some 
prominent dark green leaf only an irregularly 



Forbks: Through Bantam and the Preanger Regencies 


no 


shaped film of the finest texture, drawn out to- 
wards the sloping margin of the leaf into a nar- 
row streak, with a slightly thirkened termination, 
rile spider then takes its place on its back on the 
irregular patch 1 have described, holding itself 
in position by means of scweral strong spines on 
the upper sides of the thighs ol its anterior pairs 
of legs thrust under the him, and crosses its legs 
over its thorax, 'rims resting with its white 
abdomen and black legs as the central and dark 
portions of the excreta, surroundc'd by its thin 
web-film rt presenting the marginal watery por- 
tion become dry, even to some of it trickling off 
and arrested in a thickem-d extnmiity such as an 
evaporated drop would leave, it waits with con 
fidence for its prc'V a living bait so artfully 
contrived as to (hreive a pair of human eyes even 
intcntl>’ examining it. 


Ix'avc (A'lilfHK Native hlaeksiiiiilis at .Sadjira - - JtuI 
springs of ■l'jii)aiia!< Birds and plants at 'I’iipanas 
Invitation to Kosaitt 'I'lie kosala es^tate - The 
rnrions disease Lata TheWau-wtm Hirds Bees 
Wliite ants --- (ireat liees Lonn droiinlu and its 
ennse(menres - The Ih nulna ruslntrix, ;i luttnoid 
bliglit and the ItutTalo disease - flora and Ktinna of 
Kosala Mountains - Sinnular living ants' nests and 
their develottiiient - - Orchids at Kosala and some 
eurions devices for seeiiriiiK self-fertilisation .\ncienl 
remains in the forest The KaraiiKS and their curious 

rites The Badtii Keliuion and superstitions of 

the r>eof)le of Itanlani Lea\'e Kostila. 

After a very interesting period spent ;it (len- 
teng, I removed further to the south in st'arch of a 
station on the mountains, whost' distant slopes 
I could see cov(*re(l with the great forest which 
I had never xi't lielu'ld close, and under whose 
shade 1 had ever had such an intense longing to 
roam, the charm of vvhost* grandeur, after spend- 
ing unbroken yetirs in it, remains still as one of 
the most d(‘lightful reminiscences of my resi- 
deiua* in the tropics. Halting for a night at 
.Sadjira I was taken by the chief of the village 
to see numerous blacksmiths at work in the man- 
ufacture of knives and krissres. I'he bellows used 
by them in order to give a continuous blast was 
made of two large cylinders of bamboo xertically 
s(‘t in the ground, in each of v\hich a piston made 
of a dense bunch of feathers wound round a rod, 
v\as worked alternately, the wind lieing con- 
ducted through a small tul)e at the bottom of 
each bamboo, to meet in one pipe befon* jiassing 
below the hre. 

Pande is the Sundanese term for a work(‘r in 
iron; the word is of Sanscrit origin, and originally 
meant “learned. ” 'rhough this signification is 
not attached to it by the nativi's now, the smiths 
are held in the greatest esteem by tlumi. before 
the Hindu invasimi the people erf Java used only 
stone implements and liatchets, (^ften of great 
elegance of design and beautifully polished and 
turned. Dr. Soi.EWijN (jELI’Ki:. the director of 
“the cultures" in java, has formed at great cost 
a splendid coll(*etion ol the implements of the 
stone age (^f the island, some of which I had the 
ph'asure of examining on my way home in 1883. 
Of tin; l)eautiful workmanship of the early Java- 
nese one or two fine specimens are to be seen in 
the ethiKjlogical collection in the British Museum. 

In the village <;f I'jipanas, in the 'I'jiberang 
valley, distant only a few miles Irom Sadjira, I 
spent a week. 'I'he village flerives its name from 
tile hot-springs (which the name signifies) that 
issue from the ground there at a temperature of 
137'^ 140“ F. I'he place is permeated with the 
odour of sulphur rising from the springs, which 


had been dug out into cisterns, round which a 
crowd of sufferers from long distances were con- 
stantly seated, bathing their diseased anti ulcer- 
ated limbs and rheumatic joints. 

An abrupt hill which overshadtiwed the \il- 
lage, rising up to about 1000 leet aliove the sea, 
reminded me, in the way in which it was com- 
posed of great blocks of disrupted rock lying in 
all positions and at e\ery angle one on another, 
of the titanic structure of the hills of ('intra to 
the north of Lisbon. Both probably owe their 
disintegrated condition to tin- constant ('arth- 
ipiakes liy which they ari- shaken, ('.rowing on 
the thin soil on the tops of the rocks I gathered 
oiu- of th(‘ most conspicuous of ground orchids, a 
tall w hite-flowered sfiecies ol ( 'nliDillie, lu arb 
all of whose flowt-rs I was surprised to find had 
been shed without being fertilised; wJiile in the 
cre\’ices grew luxuriant Dsmundas {(). jtiVdHita) 
closely re.sembling the Ro>aMerns found at 
home. 

In the N'oung forest on its slopes 1 shot three 
interi-sting birds; a male and female ol the Plnty- 
lophus gtilcriciilntHS, a crow-liki- bird with ,i 
han(ls<»me black cri'St resembling a cockatoo’s, 
finally settling the ((uest ion I hat (.’oimt Sai.v.Mxik i 
was correct in assisting its Sumatran all>' (P. 
coronatus) to be a distinct spi'cies, and not the 
female of the Javan Itird as was supposed In 
Mr. Flliott; the other the Fairy Blue-bird 
{Irene turcosa), one of the finest plumaged birds 
of the island, which is highly prized in luirope for 
plurnassiers' purposes. Its wings, throat and 
lireast are d(‘ep \('l\'et>' black, while its lu'ad, 
back and tail are of glistening turipioise-blue, as 
if the colour had been enamelK'd on in an un- 
broken sheet. It was found quite solitary or in 
company only with its ma.te, and nevt r in flocks. 

I was pleased to see tlu- liveliness ol the village 
children, who amused themselves with games 
very similar to those of childia n at our country 
.schools at hoUK' games of marbles played 
with small stones, very like what is called keip 
in the north of Scotland, with varieties of clnwy, 
tig, and blind-man’s buff. 

Hearing that I had come to reside in the village, 
a Countryman, .Mr. H. L.\SU of the Kosala (‘state, 
sent me a warm invitation to make his house in 
the mountains my ht'adcpiartc'rs, wiii(ii, as 
'I'jipanas was a very uni)rohtabl(‘ station, I was 
otdy' too glad to do. Kosala was only' a fore- 
noon’s ride up through winding valleys to an 
elevation of 1800 feet. 

My gratitude can never Ire warmly enough 
expressed to this est(‘emed friend (now, 1 regret 
to say, no more) and his accomplislu'd wife, for 
their great hospitality and kindness; and for 
the assistance w'hich for many months was af- 
forded me by my host, both personally and 
through his st'rvants and hors(‘s, in making 
botani('al collections in th(‘ large stretch of 
virgin forest which he owned, specimens of whose 
great trees W'ere special desiderata with me. 

Orchids abounded in great variety in the un- 
opened foH'st, while the tree trunks that had 
been lying felled in the coffee gardens for some 
time were (jverrun with the species more delight- 
ing in sunshine. Being .soon struck w ith the large 
number whose flowers fell without setting any 
fruit, — a fact that first struck me while bot- 
anising some years bef(;re in the south of Furope 

I determined to institute a series of observa- 
tions on these plants, a project in which Mr. 
La.sH — himself one of those who vS(‘dulously 



Forbks: Through Bantam and the Preanger Regencies 


cultivate science in tlieir leisure hours en- 
tered with the ^:reatt-st interest, and never 
wearied of pt‘rsonally searching for specimens, 
for whose rearing lie put a great part of his 
beautiful garden ungrudgingly at my disposal. 

The estate house, planned by himself, was a 
large tiled edifice of planks not subject to the 
attacks of insects, elevated a few feet on piles 
standing on an asiihalt floor, isolated by a stream 
of water entirely encircling the Imilding, so that 
it was absolutely fnr from the tropical pest of 
ants. P(‘rf(‘ctly constructed and furnished for .a 
tropical climate, and provided with a large and 
valuable library, it was aelmirably situated for a 
liotanical station the hills rising round it to 
three- thoiisanel te-et whose advantages the 
w.int of the* ne e e'ssary insi runie-nls alone- lire-- 
\e-ntcel me- from fiillv utilising. In no part of 
I he world can (he climate- re-aedi gre-.ile-r pe-rle<’- 
(ion, I think, than in the mountain regions ot 
(he-se- islands, among whie'h I first felt the- re-al 
charm of the* lile I had e-spoijse-d. 

Till - first till HR of inii-n-sl to attract me. within a fe-w' lionrs 
of iiiy arrival at Kosala, was a e-asc in one* of the* se.-rvants of 
tlie* house- of tliat ( urieiiis e-e-rcbral atTe-ctioii called by the* 
natives laid. It is of a hyste-rical nature-, and is confine.-el 
chiefly to wonicti, althouRh 1 have alse> se-en a man affected 
tiy it. On beiiiR startle-d ore-xi ited suddenly, the pe-rson l>e-- 
conies laid, losing t lie c-euit rol eif he-r will, aiiei e-anneit t e-frain 
from imitating whatever she- may he-ar oi se-e ilom-, anei will 
ke-ep calling out as long as the- tit lasts tlic name- and gen 
erally tlial word alone-- of whatever has flashe'el throitgh 
lie-r mind as the cause- of it; " He--ih-he-h, maljaii!” (tigei ); 

' 1 le-i li-heli, tieiorung hesar!” ( a great leird). Her purpose 
will be- attested, as, if walking, she- will steip short, .iml on 
going on again will often folleiw sume-e)the-t course-. Tlie 
pre-fatory e‘xe;lamation is an invaiiable- symptotii, se-emingly 
caused by involuntary hyste-rical inspiratiotis. .Ae-cording 
to the degree ol alarm the- sympteuns may tetnain euily a le-w 
meiiiients or last feir the- gieate-r part of a elay, e-spe*cially if 
the patient be lue-venteei fioen calming down. The- atllicted. 
if not ve-ry serieuisly affe-cte-d, art- not altogetliei ine-apaei- 
tated freun pet forming the- duties to whie-h they are ae-ctis- 
temu-if. The most cuiious chaiaeteiistic ed the elise-ase is 
their imitation of e-veiy a<-tion they se-e. On one occasion, 
wliile e-ating a banana, f snehlenly met this servant with a 
pie-re of soap in her hand; anel, pi-iceiving she was slightly 
Idld, ()ut wit bout appe-aring to take any imtice of her, 1 
made a vigorous bite at t lie- fruit in passing her, an actieui she 
instaatly rei)t-afe.-d on the lueee of .soap. On another exea- 
sion, while she was lexiking on as I placed .seune plants in 
drying paper, not knowing that caterpillars w-e-re objects of 
supre-mc abhorrence to the tialive-s, 1 Ilieked eiff in a humor- 
ous w'ay on to her dress one that happened to lie on a leaf; 
she was inst.'intly intensely Uita, and, threiwitig otl all her 
■clothing, she made- off like a chased deer along the mountain 
road, repeating the- word for caterpillar as she ran, until 
compelled by e-xliaustion to stop, when the spasm graelually 
lefl her. My own '‘beiy,” wlm would unconcernedly sei/.c 
all Sorts of snakes in his hands, beiame- one day IdUi also, on 
suddenly touching a large caterpillai. My host's maid 
iinee-, wfiih- alone at some distance freun the house, having 
come unexpectedly on a large lizarel flie Haiawak — was 
seized by a paroxysm; eiropiiing ehiwn on her hands and 
knees to imitate the reptile, she thus followed it through 
mud, water and mire to the tree in which it took rc-fuge, 
where she was arrested and came to herself. Another rase 
whieli came under my knowledge was more tragic in its re- 
sults. This woman, startled by treading in a held on one of 
the most venomous snakes in Java. b«-came so laid that she 
vibrated lu-r fmgt-r in imitation of the tongue of the reptile 
in front of his head, till tlie iriilated snake struck her; and 
the poor creature died within an hour. 

j)uring the attack the eyes have a slightly unnatural 
stare, but there is never a total loss of consciousness, and 
tliroughout the paroxysm the patient is wishful to get away 
fiom the object affecting her. yet is without the strength of 
will to escape or to ceast- acting in the way I have described. 
Lata picrsons .are constantly teased by their fellows, and are 
often kept in an excited state for wliole days. 


In the parly inornin^s ht-rc, 1 was at first con- 
stantly awakened by the loud plaintive wailings 
of a colony of Wau-waus, one of the Gibbftns 
{llyulohates leuciscus) from the neighbouring 
forest, as they came down to tin- stream to drink. 
On first hearing their cries one can scarcely be- 
lievt* that tln-y do not proceed fn)m a band of 
uproarittus anti shouting children. Their “Woo- 
oo-ut vvoo-ut vvoo-oo-iit wiit-wut-wut - 
wntwutwut,” always nuji'e wailing on a dull, 
heavy morning previous to rain, was just such 
as one might expect from the sorrowful couute- 
nauce that is characteristic ot this group ol the 
Ouadrumana. They have a womlerfully human 
look in their eyt-s; and it was with great distress 
that 1 witness(-d the- (hath ut the oiii>' one 1 ever 
shot. Falling on its back with a thud on the 
ground, it rni.sed itself on its i-lbows, {ggs.sed its 
long lap<‘r fingers over tin- wound, gave a wotui 
look at them, and fell back at full length dead — 
".sap(‘r(i orang" (just like a man), as my boy 
remarked. A live sifeciineii lirougbt to me by a 
luitiva-, I k<-|)t ill e;iptivity for a short time, and 
it became one of the m<.)St gentle and (-ngaging 
creatures possil.fle; but when the c;dliiig of its 
free mates reaclu-d its prison house, it usi-d to 
place its ear close to the liars of its cage and listen 
with such intense ami eager wistluliiess that 1 
could not bear to ( onfim- it longer, and had it 
set fre<- on the margin of its old forest home. 
Strange to say, its former conijianions, iierceiving 
perhaps the odour of cajitivity about it, seemed 
to distrust its respt'ctability, and iT-fused to al- 
low it to mingle with them. 1 hoiie that amid 
tin- free woods this taint was .soon lost, and that 
it recovered its pristine Ihippiness. 'I he habits 
of the \\'au-w;iu closely resemble those of the 
Siamang of Siinialni. 

lairge stretches of the forest in the immi'diate 
neighbourhood of tlie liousi; were planti-d in 
eoliee gardi'iis, cultivated not as in ('eylon in 
the open sun, but under moderati* shade ehiefly 
of the Erythrina iiidica, in patches cleared out 
of the forest some distance- isolated from each 
oth(‘r so as to prevt'iit the sjiread, if possible, of 
any outbreak of the coffee disease {licnnkia), 
and to give each ganlcn a chance- of escaiie-. Seen 
freun the heights abeive-, these* parterre's searlet 
with e*rythrin'a flowers, had a very brilliant eflect 
on the 'landscape. In the- m-wt-r gardens many 
eif the felle-el trees still lay leitting, and the re- in- 
se-cts and birels vve-re in abumkmce-; but Java has 
be-eii so well e'olle-cte-el ove'r liy exeelle-nt e-iitoinol- 
eigists anei naturalists for so long a iierioel that 
few neiveltie-s e'oulel be expee te-d. Ne*veTt heless, 
in all de-part meiits, spe-cies oi interest we re e'on- 
stantly falling under my neitice tor the first time. 

I use-el tei plae'e a lamp close to my oiie-n wiri- 
eleiw, ill hope of attracting moths; but, while 
ve*rv uiisuce'e‘ssl ul in this respe-cl, I haei Irecpierit 
visits from the- smalle'r sorts of bats, wliie li, on 
my slamming the- vvinelow to, we-re, though 
.safely trappe'el, not ensmired within tlu- folds of 
my butt(*rfly ne-t without a de al of cle-ve-r dodging 
on the-ir {lart, anei eif noisy disturliane'e- ol furni- 
ture ein mine. Of t he-se euie* was a very rare 
spe-cies. Orlops frithii, and another has been de- 
.scribeel as new to science- by Mr. ( )].iu- ii-:i.l) 
'riieiM.vs, unele-r the* name of KcrivouUi jovnini, a 
form inte-rnieeliate betwe-e-n the TMiilippim- and 
Ne-vv (iuine-an tyjies. 

For many nieuiths afte-r my arriv.d the- t-arliest 
hours of the niorniiig we-re always re-seuiant with 
the rich elce-p note-s of the rjiuiig or Beo, as the 



FoRiuis: Through Bantam and the Preanger Regencies 


112 


Javanese (iraeklc {(Iracula javanensis) is named. 
They used to frequent a papaya-tree whieh ^rew 
just outside my winriow, vvijose fruit they are ex- 
tremely fond of, whence they poured forth their 
sonji in the intt'rvals of fct-dinji. 'I'his bird, 
which is of a rich metallic bliu'-black plumage, 
has tlu' najje of the neck adorned with two deep 
orange lappets, and is greatly prized as a pet by 
the natives, from its deep an<l ventriloquistic 
voice, its wonderful aptitude in learning to speak 
and whistle, and for its comii'al ways. A very 
high price is often givtai for a well-traiiu'd bird, 
even by the natives. The (iraekle is somewhat 
difficult to rear at first, l)ut when once accus- 
tomed to confinement it thrives well I have 
seen one which had been caged for ni^arly eighteen 
yt'ars — espeiially if a bamboo cylinder be 
placed in the cage fttr it to cre(*p into at night, as, 
when in frt odom, it does into a hoh* in a tree. 

Pink-h(‘aded doves {Ptilopm porphyreus) fed 
in flocks on the figs; and at dOOO b'et I stumbled 
on a nest fill of six fledglings of Ponmtorhinus 
nwntanus, which were being tended, I was sur- 
prised to oliserve, Ijy three parents; but I was 
unable to satisfy myself positively whether the 
additional parent was male or female; my boy, 
however, who on most subjects was well in- 
formed, said that “tin* female ' Patjingpayor’ 
has always two husbands.” 

No insec't sejoner attracts the observation of 
the new comer than the destructive carpenter 
bei's, Xylflcopa, which wit h noisy ostentation are 
incessantly boring their wide tunnels into the 
woodwork of excry building. To sit watching 
their entrance, and clay each up in a living tomb 
of its own digging, was one of the most hilarious 
amusements of the boys. Many other species 
of llymenoptera attract attention by their curi- 
ous persistence in building mud-cells from evcTy 
hanging thread, in loeks and hollow tubes, and 
in every unoccuiiic'd corner, stocking them with 
the caterpillars and spiders which is all the store 
their jiarental feelings induce them to lay up for 
the b(‘nefit of their progeny. 

A colony of these bees had covered the stems 
of a specie's of Asdepias, overgrowing the faee of 
a high cliff; and it took a .sharp eye to distinguish 
their nests from clusters of the withered leaves of 
the climber, (ajinposed of chips of leaves glued 
together, they were protc-ctc-d from the rain by a 
projecting roof, which for the purpose* of con- 
cealme'nt was cunningly shape'd like the foliage' 
of the plant itself. There was quite a crowd ejf 
them, and as the-y circh'd about, their dark wings 
flashing in the sun as they elarte'd out and into 
the'ir nests, they remindi'd me' e)f swalle)w's about 
a church winelow. 

Less e)l)trusiv<', more destructive, but full e)f 
interest, are the operations of the varie)us colonies 
e)f termites or White'-ants. It is impossible to 
observe the habits of those that bore in the in- 
teriejr of planks and tre'es; but by the species, 
that I)uild large' e-xe-rescences on the tree-trunks, 
one must admire' the specially happy way in 
which has lieen se'tth'el the difficult question of 
how' to keep their thoroughfare's clean and un- 
e)bstructed, anel with the lea.st trouble dispose 
of the refuse of se; large a (a)lony. It is wejrth 
while to break elenvn a pe)rtion of their tejugh 
walls, to watch for half an hour the outrush of 
the' city guards with their pi[c\kelhauhe heads^ 
who with elevate-el antenme snifT round every! 
where* for the e'ause of alarm, charging abouj^ 


frantically, ne)elding anel be*ating their spikeel 
frontlets against the walls in a most thre'atening 
w'ay, till they think the danger past, whe*n they 
retire and oreler out hordes of builelers to re'pair 
the breaches, who, elistinguisheel at once by the 
abse'nce of a freintal spike, have' till then ke'pt 
away from the scene. 

Alter a general surve'y of the ruins, each 
worke'r retires to fe-tch a small squarish chip, 
carefully (*xa mines the exact place into which it 
is tei be built, then applying te) that spot the tip 
of its abde)men, it excretes a drop of a pale 
glutinous substance', places in it the chip, and 
hammers it dejwn by the ce)ml)ineel applicatie)n 
e)f its maxilla' and antenna*. While the* building 
is going on a company of .soldiers stalk about the* 
walls guarding the* workers, every now and then 
tapping their heads with the conscious air of a 
constable re'minding them that his prt'se'iice* is 
(heir safety, d hus block afti-r blex’k with amaz- 
ing rapieiity is cemente'd together, and the sewage* 
of the colony is piled into the* oelourless homo- 
geneous walls e)f their dwelling. 

I was astonisheel one* eiay in making a sweej) 
thre)ugh a swarm, as 1 the)ught eef bees, which 
was buzzing overhead, to fine] that it was com- 
po.sed e)f flies calleel by the natixe-s Pnpnnton^, 
a specie's nearly related to our common Blue- 
bottle. 

Above the ce)ffe'e gardens the* he'ights, up tee 
4000 feet, were clotlu'el with virgin feerest, full eef 
noble giants of the weeeeels. In tile* garelens many 
of the fini'St of these trees had been allowed tee 
stand, xvlu'n* they exhibite'el all the stateliness 
and grandeur of stem ami creexvn xvhich can be' 
fidly appreciat(*<l only xvheii surveye'd at seeme 
distance eeff. Preemine'iit feer (heir straight and 
shapt'ly pillar-like stems stand out the Lakka 
{Myristica iners), the kasamala {Liumdanibnr 
altin^iana), and tlu- white'-stemmed Kajeput 
trees (Mdalcucu lencadendron), all of them 
rising xvith impeKsing columns, without a branedi 
often for 80 and somelime*s 100 b'et. Of the- 
other state'ly trees here*, 1 noticed the; Mango- 
steen {Cnrcinia nuuif^ostana) and the Vernonid 
javanica, a member of a family, the Composita\ 
that in our own country lU've'r attains any im- 
portance* greater than that e)f a moelerate* lu'rb. 

d'he season, lioxve'VeT, was a very unfortunate 
one for enlarging my herbarium. Little ox’er 
ten per cent, of all (he* forest trees in 1879 pro- 
duced ('ither flower or fruit. During 1877 a 
great scarcity of rain pri'vaih'd, xvhile in 1878 
almost an unbroken drought existed during the 
Last-monsoon, 'riii* parched surface of the 
ground broke up into ravine-like cracks, xvhich, 
extending from four to five feet iti depth and 
two tf) thn'c in breadth, destroyed great num- 
bers of the forest-trees by t'ncircling and snap- 
ping off their roots. vShrulis and small trees in 
exposed jilaces witc simply burned up in broad 
patches. Flow(*ring was almost entirely sus- 
pendi'd - so much so that the wild bees could 
pnaluce no honey, which in ordinary y(*ars is 
one of the V(!ry abundant products of the forests. 

( Tops of all kinds failed, wTile devastating fires, 
whose origin could si'ldom be traced, were so 
fn'quent in the forest and in the great alang- 
alang field.s, that the pojiulation lived in constant 
fear of their villages and (;ven of their lives and 
stock. It W'as in vain that the natives, following 
their superstitious rites, carried their cats in 
procession, to the sound of gongs and the clat- 



1L3 


Forbes: Through Bantam and the Preanger Regencies 


terinj< of ria* blocks, to the nearest streams to 
bathe and sprinkle them; the rain after such a 
ceremony ought to have come, but it did not. 

d'he Batavia Handidshlad states the loss in 
Java, consequent on the drought of 1878, to 
have luen on coffee, ten millions of guilders; on 
sugar, seven; on tobacco, five; and on rice fifteen 
equal in all to a loss in English money of 
l‘3,00(),000. 'I'he West-monsoon (Novemb(‘r to 
March) of 1878-9, memorabh' for its (‘xcessive 
rain, was followed by an abnormally wet and 
sunless <lry season, which was almost as disas- 
trous for the cultures of the island as its predeces- 
sors had Ijcen Irorn drought, 'bhe cofb'e-trees 
produced abundance of flowers, but as scarcely 
a bee was to be sc'cn anywhere, very few of tlu'se 
became fertilised or produced berri(‘s — so easily 
is th(> balance of nature disturbed. Later in the 
season, however, tin* cofTe»* shrubs produced a 
second show of flowers, which in a multitude of 
cases did not proceed further than knobbed buds, 
the bulk of which I found, by marking and care- 
fully examining tlnmi every day, j)roduced fruit 
without expanding their pt'tals, or, to use tlu' 
scientific term, cleistogamously. 

Marching in (annpany with these disastrous 
seasons came the terrible epidemic among the 
buffaloes (the natives’ stay in the cultivation of 
their fu'lds, and the main part of their riches), 
which had not disappeare<l in the middle of 
1883, being less viohmt only from paucity of 
victims. 'I'he itlague was nearly coincident with 
the blight — fortunately not of a very severe 
natun^ — of the Ilemileia vastatrix in the coffee 
gardens. It is a remarkable fact that the l)urfalo 
disease and the /lemileia appeared without, as 
far as can be traced, extraiu'ous contagion, on 
the western coasts of .Sumatra (happily for that 
island in a slight <legree only), and on the e.x- 
treme west of Java, whence it vaulted in most 
eccentric riot throughout the whole island. Not 
only was the coffee blighted, but the grass 
meadows and the forest tr(‘(‘S also were so cov- 
erc'd, especially in places with a wccsterly ex- 
posure, with a fungoid dis(‘asc‘ as to become a 
subject of native remark. One could not help 
suspecting that the.se noxious germs had been 
brought by the winds, and that perhaps even 
the plague in the herds had resulted from the 
blighted grass on which they fed. 'I'he correct- 
ness of this view seems to some slight degree cor- 
roborated by the information 1 subsecjuently 
obtained from natives and others in various parts 
of the Archipelago. In Sumatra, not only the 
buffaloes suffered, but the elephants, the deer 
and the wild pigs died in the forest in immense 
numbers, and, by preying on the dying herds, 
even the tigers fell victims to the stalking pesti- 
lence. In Timor also, in the higher parts of the 
interior of the island, the cattle were attacked, 
while in the southern plains the i)igs and the 
horses, which there run wild in lierds, were found 
scattered about in the forest dead. 

Closely following the l)ad years and the bovine 
pestilence, which deprived them of the means of 
cultivating their lands, came a scarcity bordering 
on famine and a fever epidemic of a virulent kind, 
to which the natives succumbed in thousands. 
The tale of the woes of their provinct? must surely 
have seemed to them full and running over when 
the volcanic wave from the eruption of Krakatoa, 
in 1883, overwhelmed its seaboard and washed 
so many of their fellows to destruction. 


Notwithstanding the bad season, by hunting 
far and wide my herbarium grew slowly in bulk, 
for, though the great trees were in a very desti- 
tute coiulition, herbaceous plants were abundant, 
and not a few of tin* smaller shrubs and trees had 
begun to recover sonu'wh.at. Among the most 
attractive shrubs were the species of figs, of 
which there was an endless variety. 'I he whole 
group of the Artocarpea: is remarkable for beauty 
of foliage and fruit — as the hollow receptacle 
in which their minute flowers and true fruits are 
developed is often popularly called — for their 
striking habit and for their useful products. 
Some ot tlu-m, as the india-rubber producing 
waringins and kawats species of IJrostigma (77. 
microcar pum, and consociatum), are among the 
giants of the vegetable workl, and its most re- 
lentless parasites and tyrants, brought by some 
wandering bird or fruit-eating quadruped to the 
cleft of a high tree, the staal germinating drops 
down all round its host long tendril-like roots, 
which in a few seasons become indissoluble bonds 
that itJterlaci', grow togetlu*r, and close up the 
tree-stern that gave it its support, till its life is 
choked out, and only here and there, before it 
finally disappears, can it be seen through latticed 
apertures, like an Inquisition martyr built into 
the wall, d'he young kawat grows, shoots up- 
ward its top and 

“spreads licr arms, 

Branching so broad and long, that on the ground 

The bended twigs take root; and daughters grow 

About the mother-tree, a i>iilared shade." 

Less stately but not less beautiful are the 
shrub forms, the species of Hamplas {Ficus micro- 
carpa, ampins, and politoria) whose rough leaves 
provide the natives with ready-made sandpaper; 
the Ficus cor di folia, the Amismata (Ficus aspera), 
and th(‘ Kihedjo — a bushy shrub, whose fruit, 
always in profusion along its branches, is when 
ripe of a rich purple hue, and unripe of the. 
brighte.st vermilion or carmine colour, in brilliant 
contrast to its dark foliage; while the semi- 
parasitic climbing Ficus radicans (heights to 
cling to the tallest trees of the forest. Its fruit, 
which is as large as an orange, is jmt forth 
throughout the whole extent of its stem in pro- 
fuse abundance, massed in clusters in every stage 
of growth; and as these in their passage to ma- 
turity assume all the different brilliant hues by 
which rich orange changes into the sombre shades 
of purple, the effect against the background of 
the tree-stem and of its own singularly chaste 
foliage is striking in the extreme, and is oiu* of 
those objects that the eye can meet every day 
with renewed pleasure. 

I he highest mountain in this neighbourhood 
attains an elevation of nearly 5000 feet, and for 
the last 500 yards of its ascent presented many 
interesting features. In producing plants rari-ly 
found at so low an elevation on higher mountains, 
the Javan flora on the pure volcanic clay differs 
from that where the soil is more overlaid with 
fore.st humus, d'wo ferns, a spei ies of Gleichenia 
and the broad-fronded Dipteris horsjieldi — here 
at its lowest altitudinal limit — profusely cov- 
ered the ground: and, as if stretching their ut- 
most towards the heights where they naturally 
grow, rhododendrons ami a beautiful creeping 
species of Ericacetp (Gmdtheria repens) clothed 
the tops of the tallest trees. The lemon-scented 
laurel (Tetranthera citrata), whose leaves and 



Fokbks: Through Bantam and the Preanger Regencies 


fruit ^iv{' out a sweet odour that can be detected 
a lonsi way otf, s^rew in clumps; and its fruits, a 
fa\’ourite food oi the Bull)uls and the Bell-birds, 
r(‘tain their perfume eV(‘n after they have been 
dropped by these birds. 

At the summit pitcher-plants (Xcfx’ntlirs phyl- 
lamphara) ap[)eared in profusion, climbing u|) the 
trees and rumiinv; over the (ground aniont; the 
moss, out of which jx'eped the delicate bright 
star-like flowers of thi“ A^rostcinma montnnim, 
which always lamiinded me ot the pretty Fu- 
ropf'an Chickweed \\ intc-r-i^reeii {I rientahs eu- 
ropaui) of our nortlu-rn woods. On one of the 
lower knolls I found pc'Hiaps the most interestint^ 
phint in my /a\.in collection, a species ol Petraa 
(P. arborcii), i^Toui/ii; entirely wild in the forest. 
This yeiius, l)elonyiny t<J tli(‘ family of the I erbe- 
nacew, is almost (‘iitiia-Iy confined to the .South 
Americ an contitumf ; and it is of extreme interest 
to find it, in this inexplicable way, croppinj^ up 
in a region so tar remoxc'd Irom the centre ot its 
distrilnition. A species trom the island of \ imor 
oecurs, without history, in the* c'ollection in the* 
British Musc'um made by Mr. Rom:KT liRciiwN; 
Init thc'sc- arc* the only two e.xainples, so tar as I 
am aware*, hitherto collecti'd uncultivated in the* 
Old World. 

The* 14th of June is to me memorable as being 
the day cm which for the first time* I saw in its 
native- halcital, and gatlu*rt*cl there, that most 
singular of the* vc>getable (iroductions of the 
Indian Archipc*lago, the Myrmecodia tuherosa 
and llydnophyiuni jormicurnm. d'heir most 
striking characteristic will be* indc'libly marked 
in my rt*mt*mbranc:c* by the* sensations c)thc*r 
than mental, by which their accpiaintancc* was 
made. 

In tearing down a galaxy of epijihytic orchids 
from an er>'lhrina tree, 1 was totally overrun, 
during the short momc'ntary contact of my hand 
with the* bunch, with myriads of a minute spc*eic*s 
(4 ant {Pheidolc j(mniii), w hose (*very bite was a 
sting of lire. Beating a prc'cipitous retreat from 
the spot, I strij)pt*cl with the haste of desperation, 
but, like pepper dust ovc*r me, they were* writhing 
and twisting their envenc»mc*cl jaws in my skin, 
c*ac:h little* abclomc-n spitefully cpiivc'iing with 
e\ery thrust it made. Gecing back, when once* 1 
had rid my.self of my tormc-nlors, to sc*curc* the 
spc*cimens I had gathc*rc*d, 1 discovc*rc*d in the 
centre* ot the bunch a singular plant 1 had nc-ver 
se e n liefore, which I j)ercei\ c el to be the central 
attraction of the* ants. It was called KiUmg- 
knrak by iii}* boy, who said it was the home of 
the ants. 1 was overjoyed with the rt*velation 
that a slice* struck oft by my knife, made ejf an 
intricate hone*ycomb(*el structure* swarming with 
minute ants a living formic'arium. 

In the space* of a short sc*arch I found, generally 
high on the* tre-es, abundance* of specimens cjf 
both genera, which, not without si*\eral futile 
attempts and many imprt*cations and grejanings 
on the* part of my bcjys, wcTe brought to the 
grounel; and, at the* (*nds of a pole over tluhr 
she)ulde*rs, up which the infuriated dwellers would 
ascenel to spread ov(*r their bare bexiies to their 
frequent disce)mriture, tht*y wen* at last safely 
depositeei in a spot iti Mr. Lash's ganlen, w^herc 
I could e'xamine them with cejmfort without 
eiisturbing their inhabitants. . . 


Observing the ants often emple)yeel in carrying 
out whitish particle-s, I at first ceeiijee tureel that 
the irritatie))! e)f their digging out a dwelling 
must have induceel the swe'lling eef the bulb; anel, 
curiems te) see tlu* modus operandi ol its com- 
mencement, I decided to raise a f(*w of them from 
seed. This turned my attention to their flow(*rs 
and fruit. 'I'he llowers an* prodnc(*d in deep 
spine-protected pits on tlu* axis surmounting the 
bulb, and are remarkabh* for the extr(*me rapidity 
with which tlu* cycle of their lunctional change.s 
are pt*rformed. I lu* p(*llncid whit(* llow(*r a|)- 
pears, and is follow(*d by an orange, waterv* Iruit, 
w'hose .seeds ripen and oKeti germinate in the 
little pits where they gn)w, nil within the sfxice 
of thirty-six hours. 

Some y(*ars lat{*r Dr. Bt kck, ol the Buiten/org 
Gard(*ns, tnosf kindly showed nu* sju cimens and 
microscopic slides illustrating .sonu* inter(*sting 
obs<*rvations ^ he had made on th(*se flowers: that 
tlu* corolla .segnu*nts rarelv’ o[)t*n (though a slight 
touch can c*flt*ct it); th.il the poll{*n grains exs(*rt 
their ()ollcn tub<*s while still in tlu* anthers; and 
that both the ext(*rnal and the intt*rnal surfaces 
of the lobes of tlu* i)istil are coven**.! with papilla*, 
indicating that tlu*S(* surfates an* functionally 
active. 

I have nev(*r obs(:*rve<l these fl(nv(*rs approaclu'il 
by tlu* ants that infest tlu* interior, nor by anv' 
other insect, which to gain admission to tlu* 
flow(*r, ev'en if open, must be v(*ry small indeed. 
'Flu* anthers and tlu* pistil do not se(*m tfj n*a('h 
maturity together, y(*t it would s**(*m that s('lf- 
lertilisalion alone can take placi*; perhaps the 
tubes of tlu* pollen grains which fall to the bot- 
tom of the corolla manag** (o reach tlu* low(*r 
lobes of the pistil and prodiu'e feenndation. 

'Pile .seeils I plant(*d germinated with great 
fr(*<'dom, and I cultivati*d ([uite a number of 
young Myrmecodia, whosi* gn..)wth I watched 
with the greati'st interest, Man>' of them I k(*pt 
quit<* isolat(*d from tlu* intertereiua* not only of 
the Plu'idole javana, which s(*(*ms to Im* the onlv 
sp(*('ies <,)f ant which li\a*s in these* plants in tlu*ir 
native* state.*, l)Ut eel all otlu-r species, and 1 was 
surpri.s<*d tee find that from their ve ry e-arlie'st ap- 
I)e*arane:e* this curious gaUeried slructurc arose 
without the presence of the ants, and that the* 
plants ceentimicei to grow and thrive* vigorously 
in tlu*ir abse*ne'e* as long as I cultivate**! the*m. 
.Some bulbs had a single* eanal re*ae hing t*) th**ir 
ce*ntre* fr*tm a round *irifiee* *)pe*ning ge.*ne*rall\' 
close* te) tlu* little* tai)-r*t*it; *ethe*rs pre*sente*el eeiu* 
or tw*) loculi in the* intt*ri*)r, witluiut any com 
munieation at first with the exterior, partiall}' 
full e)f a s|)ongy substance* l*)*>king like* its *)wn 
eleg<*ne*rated tissue*. I'he.se* ehainbe rs invarialely 
ele*v**lo|)(*d a speengy pith which in a se*eti*)ii 
it was not difficult t*) (race* eeiit in advance* in the* 
still fleshy suleslanee towards and t*) e)pen 
at last at *)ne or more* sp*)ts on the exterieer of 
the bulb. .Seconelary galle*rie*s, arising in the* 
same manne*r as the primary, soeen tormeel eeein- 
municating channels, (*xt**neiing with age*, 
througheeut the* whole* of the growing l)ulb. At a 
later period, in Amboina, wlu*r(* the* M yrmecodia 
and the llydnophytum we*re* very abunelant, 1 
feumd many spe*cim**ns containing a large* e;entral 


* Those* leave since* boon iJiiblishcel iti the* ‘Annates dii 
Jarelin BeUanieiue elu Buite*n/nr);.’ vol. iv, p. 16. 



115 


I^oRBEs: Through Bantam and the Preanger Regencies 


aiul quitt* isolated chamber full of water - - not 
rain-water— round which radiated the galleries 
tenanted by ants and their larva* of the same 
species as in Java. 

Sinc(“ my original observations, Dr. Mklchior 
rRKUB, Director of the Botanic (hardens in 
Huiteiizorg, has condiictcal and published^ 
a series of important researches into the develop- 
ment of the.se bizarre plants, which have eon- 
tiruK'd generally the obseiw ations I had made, 
and have [)rf)\cd l)esid('s that what I have calletl 
d(‘g(‘n(‘ration is the ri'sult of a traii-sformation 
into cork of the tissue ot the plant; which, be- 
coming entireh’ dried up, graduall>' extends the 
galleries towards the exterior, when the fluOy 
mass <hsa/)pears or is ('arried out by the ants. 

Notwit hstanding tlu'.se researches it remains 
^till a niystetN what cau.ses the development of 
these (orky cells, what a<bantage the plant 
deri\(\s from its unusual structure, and what is 
(he mutual benefit ot this clos(* relation Ix'tween 
insect and (ilant. I'hat the ants should so per- 
sistent 1>' iidest and >'et derive no advantag<' l)i-- 
\(ind at'i'oimnodat ion from the plant, .seems un- 
!ik('ly: it is [iroliable howex'er that the papilla* 
in the galleries, whose function is still an enigma. 
ma\' altord some nourishment to them, but that 
the insects are not absolutely indispc'iisalcle to 
the |)erfe( t performance oi tin* lunctions of the 
plant is certain from Dr. TRia u’s (d)S('r\ations. 
lie suggests that tlu'V perhaps ward off eiiemic's 
lr(.)m the jdant, or that they may remove, for 
their own nourishment, injurious exen'tions from 
the [)a[)illa' of the.se channels whose office ma\' l)e 
to distribute air through the fl(*shy mass of the 
})ull). Altogetlu.'f these Myrniccodio are among 
the most singular of vegetable productions, 
showing us how much wa* have )(“t to h-arn ot 
the intricate proce.s.ses of n.aturc. 

1 gathered here anothi-r interesting spccinu'ii 
in soim* lea\cs of the Bryophyllurn calycinum. 
.\s is well known, the marginal notches ot the 
leaves of this jjlant, when laid on the ground or 
in a damp i)lacc-, produce buds which dexc'lop 
into new plants. In the leaves I gath(*red here, 
h()we\'er, (omplcte tlou'crs and fruit were* produced 
dirc'ctly from the notches. 

W hile l)otanising in I’ortugal, in the spring ol 
11^77'’, 1 was remarkabU struck by the numlx'r 
of orchids 1 gathered that seemed nc'ver to have- 
had an eff('cti\'e visit paid them l)y any of the 
c rowd of l)i*es, l)ut tc'rtlies, and beetles, among 
which they l)los,somed. d he\’ were mosth' ter 
ii-strial species, ophrys chic'th', and were some 
of them handsome, and \ery swcc'tly scentcxl; 
yet they might as well have wasted their sweet- 
ness on the des(‘rt air, lor scarcely any of thi-m 
ever lost their pollen massc-s, or had these fertilis- 
ing grains applied to their own stigmas. .Sinc’e 
then 1 have caiefully examined all orchids that 
1 have encountered, and have been surjtrised at 
the immense numbers which possessing bril- 
liant, small, and not seldom evc-n large* flowers, 
ofli'ii highly pi'rfumed ne\cr or very rarely 
produce seed capsules, but which blossom and 
fall without Ix’uefiting in any way their race. 
At Kosala 1 w as able to continue my ol)servations 
both on those growing naturally in the forest as 
well as on those 1 reata-d in Mr. Bash’s garden, 
w'hi're, .after once taking to the trees they were 
as nearly as pejssilde under natural conditions. 


' In the ‘Annates,’ sup. cit , vol. iii, pp. l.tO-157. 
•’ Nature, vol. xvi, p. 102. 


Ihe Cymhidititn tricolor pnxiuces flower-sjdkes 
often attaining a length of nearly four feet, 
studded w ith florets w hich are rather .sombre in 
colour; yet it could scarcely be (xassed without 
attracting admiration. Of the florets of several 
plants 1 counted, strv enty-nine pi*r cent, had 
their judlinia intact, after, to all appearance, 
having been <‘xposed for <i long time, and of 
those that had lost their ix)llinia not f)ne stig- 
matic surface* had pollen gr.iins ai)i)lied to it. 
On another occasion the whole of the flor(*ts e*x- 
amined were unvisited; while on a third occ.asion 
eighty-nine per C(*nt. of the florets examined had 
their pnllitiiu .safe in the anthers, nine per cent. 
bei/ig damageti, either ]ia\ ing lost their labcllu/n 
or h.axing tin* column e.iten by the l.ir\'.e ot a 
species of ('occiueliida . ( )ne .alone was fructifie-d. 

I gathered the r.ilher rare Cyuthidtum stupclto 
tdes, growing at a height of 2600 feet above thi* 
.se.a, flowering on a fallen tref*. 1 brought it home, 
1000 (c*et lower, and fixed it to .a tia'e-stein, to 
which it .at once t(x)k kindly. None ol the flowers 
which were (*xpanded wdu n I found it were 
tertilis('d; but one of the bulbs had a stem with 
.1 solitary capsule. hOr three weeks the plant 
remain<‘d in tin* condition iti w hich 1 lound it, its 
■larg<* .and handsome, though .somewhat dull- 
coloured, (lowers retaining their perfect fresh- 
ness duritig all this peri(.)d. 1 tlu'n took com- 
|)assion on its barren state, .and fertilised from 
tlu'ir neighbours lour ol its floia'ts. d hesi* alont* 
of the sixteen flowers bore fruit. A couph* oi 
months later a fiiu* new spike .appeared, wliich 
I left to its owai resources. For Ix-tween four 
<ind five weeks it « xhil)ited a \ei\ fiiu* iross ot 
twelve llowaTs; but not one seed capsule was 
produced. 'I'he insect life at the lower station 
.seemed (piite as abundant as .at the higher. I his 
orchid p(.issesscs no nect.ary, and its o<lour, it not 
pleasant, is not disagreeal)le. 1 lu* xiscid disk ot 
its pollini.i is remarkable lor its elasticity. .After 
remo\ ing a pollen mass irom the anther, 1 ap- 
plied it to the stigma of another flcifi't, and (Hi 
withdrawing the |x‘ncil to which it was adlu't ing, 
it sprang b.ack with an audibh* sn.a]>, the viscid 
disk stret('hing ([uit(* one-eighth ol an inch, with- 
out lea\ing pollen on the stigin.a, tor the floret 
did not set a capsule. 'I Ik' saiiu* result followed 
.d'ter allowing the pollen to remain for some 
seconris in contact with the stigmatic surface. 
After the lapse of a week the \iscid disk still re- 
taitu'd its el.asticity uninqxiired, so much so that 
1 w.is .■d)l<' to <*xtend it as often .as ten times for 
various distances up to nearly one-filth oi an 
inch lx*fore tlu* connection gaxe wa\- a sh.ari) 
snap alwaxs accompanxang its relaxation. 

One of the prettiest and Commonest orchids 
hi*r(* was a pun* white Dendrobium {D. crumeud- 
turn), w Inch suddenly appears in flower on all the 
trees of a district nearly on the same day. 1 have 
examined many hundn'ds of flowi'is, and 1 am 
(luite sun*, though I have not ki pt \ery accuratr* 
statistics of the mnnb(*rs. th.at not one in eighty 
(*v(*r sets .1 seed capsule. 

(mowing terrestriall\- in almnd.iiice in danq) 
shady siti'.ations is anotlur group of this family 
belonging to the genu;'' Colanthe. ( (iloutlic veratri- 
foiia product*;; (luite .a dense head of (*l(*g.'int w hite* 
flow’crs, but the number of those that become 
fertilised are iii r*normous dist)roportion to those 
that fall oft' barren. I have examined plants in 
numerous hx'alities, in heights amid the detisi* 
fore.st, as well as in more o[x*n situations; 1 h.avt* 
studied them low dowfi, both in the sun and in 



Fokues: Through Bantam and the Preanger Regencies 


116 


the drep shade, but have invariably found that a 
viTy smaJI proportion product's fruit. Generally 
the pollinia are found in the anther after the fall 
of the flower: but often they are absent, without 
any pollen beinji; left in return on the stij^ina. In 
five different plants, out of 360 florets examined, 
109 wert' witheriiij^ with intact anthers, or had 
lost their ptdh'u atuj were unfertilised, 245 had 
fallen off, six only had produced capsules. 'I hesc 
are not selected instances, but the result of the 
examination of fiv(' plants as they occur in my 
note-book. I have several times found in \arious 
species of Cdlatillie, specinu'iis which at first 1 
thoui,dit to be clcisloi>(ini()usly fertilisc'd, where the 
ovules were enlarged in thi' ovary, and the flowers 
quite open; but close examination has shown that 
this is th(' effec t of the irritation of a small species 
of llymenoptera — a cynips probably. 

Mr. I).\RWiN, in his ‘Fertilisation of Orchids,’ 
enumerates but four instances of self-fertilisation 
as coniiii];’ under his observation, namely: in 
Ophrys apifera, by the falling forward of its own 
pollinia, which are then, by the agency of the 
wind, brouglit into contact with the stigma — 
the plant being capable also of cross fertilisation; 
in Feristylis viridis, which is possible to be self- 
fertilised by its own pollen from the head of the 
visiting insc'ct; in Cepluilanthera grandiflora, 
which is perpetually self-fertilisc'd l)y its pollen 
grains that rest against the upper sharp edge of 
the stigma thrusting down their pollen tubes 
into the ovary; lastly, Deudrohium chrysatitlium, 
which may possibly l)e self-fertilised by its own 
peculiar acrobatic [)ollen. In tlu^ additional in- 
stance's here given, sonu' will be found to be 
singular and different, I Ix'lieve, from any hith- 
erto rc'corded . , . 

1'he estat(' of Kosala derives its name from 
the rounded hill above the liousc'. 'I'he word is 
of Sanscrit origin, but its meanitjg is unknown. 
It is a country along the bank of the Sarayu, 
forming a part of the modern province of Oude. 
It was the pristine kingdom of a solar race, and 
in th(! time of Huddha its [)rincipal city was 
Sewet (Sravasti). I'hen; is another Kosala in 
the Deccan (l)akshina Kosala); so Kosala or 
Kusala is the name of a land or a race. Ala oc- 
curs as a termination in many names of countries, 
but the root Kdsh or Kush has such an immense 
variety of significations that it is impossible to 
find a good translation for it. 

The city of Sewet in Ko.sala was visited in A.D. 
401 by the Chinese Biuldhist pilgrim Fah-hian, 
and where he saw the famous sandal-wood figure 
made by order of the king of Kosala. He found 
at some distance from tlu' city a copse called 
A[)tan6travana (“recovered sight”), where origi- 
nally five hundred blind men lived who were 
restored to sight by Huddha. 4'he blind men 
threw their staves on the ground, which forth- 
with grew up into trees and formed a sacred 
grove or copse. The name has most probably 
come down from Hindoo times to the present 
associated with some sacred legend whose in- 
fluence hovers still over the spot; for when the 
coffee gardens were being made the natives re- 
fused to fell the forest that grew on the Kosala 
hill, and only under compulsion could they then 
be persuaded to enter it. 

Under its shade there stand several mounds, 
blocks, and slabs which Mr. Lash conducted 
me one day to see. On entering the forest we 
were somewhat surprised to find a portion of the 


ground ru'wly cleared of underwood from about 
.several of the stones, and against them standing 
the remnants of small torches of sweet gums 
which had l)een offered before them. I felt cer- 
tain that this was the work of none of the sur- 
rounding people who were afraid fo ('nter the 
copse, 

I decided therefore to make a full survey of 
the burii'd ruins, and after some difficulty I suc- 
ceeded in securing, for a consideration, the 
servict's of a youth who v\ as willing to brave with 
me the wrath of the guardian spirits of the grove, 
and assist me in the sacrik'gious work of lu'wing 
which my operations would entail. 

In the immediate neighbtturhood, was discov- 
ered a bronze bell of undoubted Hindoo manu- 
facture, its handle ornanu'ntc'd with the sacred 
bull, but without the clapper which had dropped 
from its ring; and within the boundaries of the 
grove stands a rude figurt' of the Huddha, with 
elevated finger, as if in the act of instructing. 

4’he ruins consist of terraces Imilt up round the 
hill, which probably once encircled it entirely, 
but jjart of which has e^■idently extended where 
now the coffee plantation exists, and has been 
obliterated perhai)s in the cultivation of forest 
patches by the natives in former periods. (.)nly 
the portion surrounding for some di.stance that 
used by the worshippers has been left unmolested. 
There the terraces are completely laid out in 
quadrilateral enclosures, their boundari('s marked 
out by blocks of stone laid or fixed in the ground, 
which with singular exactitude lie within a de- 
gree' of the true magnetic cardinal points. Ib're 
and tlu're on the terrace's are' more promine'iit 
monume'nts — erect pillars surmounting oval 
pile's of stones; flat slabs on thi' ground supporting 
egg-shaped blocks, which are distributed in many 
spots in such numbers and perfe'Ction of shape 
that to have made them or searched the brooks 
for them must have entaileel a vast ('xpenditure 
of time and trouble. Here and there al.so I 
found flat slal)s rai.sed on end and remains ol 
circular paved areas, se-t round with upright 
blocks of stone. .Specially noteworthy was a 
pillar, erect within a s(|uar(' marked out with 
stones on the ground, round which the worship- 
pers had plaited a fringe of Areng palm leaves. 
This same stone is thus decorated at e\'ery visit 
made by the worshippers to the sacia'd grove. 

At the base of tw'o of the stoiu's, where per- 
haps they have lain for unknown tinu', I found 
an earthenware jar, both of them somewhat 
broken, but of elegant shape and artistic design, 
not of ordinary native pattern or workmanship; 
but, besides these jars, the egg-shap('d stones 
and the image, all the monuments were of rough 
stone and without inscriptiim or sign of handi- 
craft. At the base of all the principal mounds and 
pillars I found remains of their offerings. 

I learnt that the worshippers belong('d to the 
tribe called the Karangs or Kalav^s, who lived 
in a village lying several days’ journt'y to the 
southwarel. Four tinu'S a year a procession of 
old men and youths repairs, by paths known only 
to themselves, through the dens(' intervening 
forest in a direct course by valley and mountain, 
to this sacred grove; the old men to worship and 
make offering, the youths to see and learn the 
mysterious litany of their fathers. The old men 
lead the way; the rest follow in single file, no 
one breaking the silence of their journey. .Should 
any one be encountered by them on the way their 
pilgrimage is considered for that time unpropi- 



117 


FuRBhs: Through Bantam and the Preanger Regencies 


ti(jus, and they return to tlieir villaj^e to wait for 
a more favourable occasion. On their arrival 
with ('arly morninj; at the grove they cainp in a 
small hut, cleanse the ground about the sacred 
mounds, and perform during the night or on the 
following day the rites known to themselves 
alone; in the evening they take their departure 
to an adjoining valley, where below a great over- 
hanging rock they wait till break of next day, 
when they return home in a similar secret and 
silent manmr to their coming. They all wear 
garments of cloth striped with bl.ack and white. 

Rafflks® has given an inten-sting and full 
ac'Count of these peoph* in his ‘History of Java’ 
from which I make the following extract: “ I'hey 
were at oiu' time numerous in various parts of 
Java, holding a watulering lif(‘, {>rarlising religious 
rites different from those of tlu* great body of the 
people, and avfjiding intt'rcourse with them, but 
most of them are now reduced to subjection, and 
are become stationary in tluhr residence, having 
(Unbraced tlu* Mahomedan religion. In a few 
villages their i)eculiar customs are still preserved. 
Although !)>' tradition their des('(“nt is from a 
princess (jf Mendang, KamCilarg and a chief 
transformed into a dog, they havi* claims to be 
considered tin* actual descendants of the aborig- 
ines of the island. 'They are rc'presented as hax - 
ing a great X'eiieration for a red tlog, one of w hich 
is generally kept ijy each family, which they will 
not permit to be struck or ill-used.^ When a 
young man asks a girl in marriage he '"-’st j)rove 
ch'seent from their peculiar stock. w nen llu' 
Kalangs mova'd from one place to anotlnn-, they 
wx-re conveyed in carts, with two solid win'els 
W'ith a rev(jlving axle, drawn by two pairs of 
buffaloes, according to the circumstances of the 
party. In these were placed the materials of 
huts, imphnients of husbandry, ('vc. In this 
manner, until forty or fifty years ago, they were 
continually moving from one part of the island 
to another, d'hey have still their separate chiefs, 
and pres(‘rve many of their customs. 'I'hey are 
treated with contemi)t l)y their Sundanese neigh- 
bours, so that ‘Kalang’ is considered an e})ithet 
of contempt and di.sgrac(‘.’' 

Living despised and .secluded in villages apart 
by themsebx's, they follow the rites and customs 
that have descended to them from their fore- 
fathers with the superstitious awe that ('omes of 
ignoraru'e. The pillars in the ('eiitre of rudely 
circular heaps, as perhaps also the ovoid blocks 
resting on tablets and other sliajjed .slabs, j)oint 
mj doubt to the celebration here of phallic rites 
and to the worship of the Linga and Yoni, the 
emblems of .Siva and V’ishnu. It is interesting 
to find the goblets or vases at the base of the up- 
right pillars; they point probably to the “mystic 
vessels or goblets in the hands of Siva in the 
image of this god in Indian temples in central 
Java." Not less significant is the upright stone 
decked with palm-leaf fringe, a symbol round 
which these rude and ignorant villagers, following 
their blind traditions, weave to this day hang- 
ings, “jiFst as the women did for the Ashera in 

^ • For additional information the reader is referred to 
Tijdschrift v. Ned. Ind. i. jaarg. ii. dcel, p. 295 el seq.\ iv. 
j. ii. 217; vii. j. iv. .135 el seq.\ BijdraRen v. Ind. T. L. en 
V.-Kunde. iii. Volgreeks, iv. deel.; Indisches Magazin, 1845. 

’’ "According to the Zend Avesta, certain dogs have the 
power of protecting the departed spirits from the demons 
lying in wait for them on the perilous passage of the narrow 
bridge over the abyss of hell; and a dog is always led in 
funeral processions, and made to look at the corpse.” — 
Macmil. Mag., "Village Life in the Apennines,” June 1879. 


the Jewish temple, and the Atlpuiian maidens 
ffollowing their old traditions] t“ml)roidere(l the 
.sacred pt'plos for the ships presented to Athene 
at the Dionysiac festival'' ((k)x). 

In standing under the forest amid these .incient 
remains, I felt as if 1 wvri' hax ing ati unbroken 
view' down the ages to distant antiquity: these 
relic's still warm, as they were, with the intermit- 
tent firc'S which have been kept ali\e Ironi the dim 
|)ast till now. and echoing with the fo(dste[)s of 
the rude wor.shipptxs who, unaffected by tlu; in- 
C(*ssant waxes of eh:ing(‘ that have broken aI)out 
them, are themsc'hes as much ancient monu- 
ments as the very blocks of weatluM-beaten, 
lichen-matted trachyte, whose purperse is lost 
to their traditions, Irefoi'e which they torpidly 
mutter a litany they do not eomprehend, and 
listlessl)'^ perfume the air, they know not why, 
with the odours of their incense. 

Not far distant from the Karang dwellings lies 
the sacred village ot 'rjib(?o, inhal)iled by th(‘ 
Badui, cont.iining nexcr more nor tt wer than 
fort>' souls. If their number be increased by 
birth the overplus must go out and reside in one 
or other of thr<‘e ruughbouring villages; if their 
number decrease the deficit must be made up 
from among the Outsiders, as they call these ex- 
traneous x ill.'igers. No foot but one of their own 

- not ('Veil ol the highest luiiopean ollicial — 
may cross the sacred boundary, which at some 
distance hedges tlie sanctity of their abodes. 
Like the Rodiyas of C'eylon, they eat carrion and 
the flesh of animals off(‘nsiv(“ to tluhr neighbours; 
flesh of buffalo they may eat, but tlu^y may not 
kill the animal themselves, and of fowl also if the 
life hax'e not been taken liy tlie letting of its 
l)lood, but by a stroke on tlie head. '1 hey wear 
only a short loin-cloth, whose colour must nt'ver 
be other than xvhite striped xvith black.** In 
speaking to any oiu‘ not of their own stock, of 
however high a rank he be, they use the pronouns 
by xvhich a superior distinctly indicates that he is 
addressing his inferior. At various periods of 
the year they also |).iy mysterious and n-ligious 
rites to rude venerated blocks of stoiu', arrang(‘d 
in terraces near their x ill.ige. 'I'he Kalangs are 
probably an offshoot of the' .same stock as tlu' 
Hadui, though they are not rt'ckoned among 
thos(‘ outsiders xvho may be received to make up 
a deficiiMicy in the s.acred Lortx' of Ijilx'o, nor 
do they xvorship at their slirines. On the high 
I'engger Mountains, in the east of Java, a c'olony 
xvith rites and customs similar to those of the 
Badui exists in all the isolation and opiirolirium 
that a .schismatic religion can call out. 

With the exception of the Karangs and the 
Hadui, the ('utiri' pojnilation of Bantam profess 
the Mahomedan rc'ligion, xvhich hoxvever seems 
to be merely a lusty and fanatical graft on the 
pagan superstitions of the ancient times. 

On Mount Dangka and on the summits of 
many of the neighbouring hills I stumlded on 
groxes ('onlaining either rocks naturally in situ, 
or stones that had been placed there, xvhich my 
porters refu.scxl to enter for fear of being affected 
by some sickness or misfortune, “ i'hey are 


* "A iiiaKtiilicent robe haviuR been Riven to (totama. hi.s 
attendant Ananda, in order to de.stroy its intrinsic value, 
cut it into thirty pieces and sewed them together in four 
divi.sions, so that the robe resembled the patches of a rice- 
field, divided by embankments, and in conformity with this 
precedent the robe of every priest was .similarly di.s.sected. 
and reunited.” — Hknky's ‘ Eastern Monachism,’ chap. xii. 
p, 117 Can the striped garnientsof the Kalangs and Badui 
have any reference to the above tradition? 



I'oKHi \s; Through Bantam and the Preanger Regencies 


118 


i’afaf)ri/i;ian " (pLicrs ol /xaiaric'c and u or.s/jjp), 
t lu \' would sa\', and arc fhc sa<'rcd spots w h(“n* 
they l)clic\c ( li<'tr ancestors who, rcfijsinj^ to cni- 
Ijracc Alahorncdanisni, fled to the forests, van- 
ished in ituisihle forms. Whenever calamity 
oNcrtakes them when their crops ha\(‘ failed 
or they are childless tlu'y ri'pair (in greatest 
numbers dm ini; the month ol the chief .Alahome- 
<lan last Ramadan) to these J apa, where thev 
will spend da\s ol lastini; and awesome tt'rror, 
in the hope that tlu* spirits ol their transrn>ured 
loret<ithers will ^rant tlumi the desire of tlnhi 
hearts. In dire sickness, when the sletider list 
ol their [)harniaeopo ia has been exhausted, they 
will as a last resource send to j;<ither lichens Irom 
the sacred stones ol the despisial Kalan^s or the 
Badui, in the l;eliel tlvit a decoction then'from 
will avail to ward off or heal their sickness. 

It is (piite a common thing to encounter by the 
waN side neat a \ illage, or in a rice-held, or below 
the shade ot a great dark trei-, a little |)Iatform 
with an olfering ot rice and i)repared fruits to 
keep disease and blight at a distance, and propi- 
tiiite the s[)irits (wer lying in wait in gloom\', 
sunless (and naturally depressing) spots to harm 
the jtasser by. 1 his tear ol lurking ev il ever o|) 
presses their lives. No <tne can l)e found brave 
enough to tt.mch a man struck to the ground, for 
instance, by lightning; they will covaw him up 
where he lell, with leaves or generally with stable 
<iung, and commit his ri'covery to nature. If he 
reC(Ai‘r, well and good; l)ut to carry him from the 
spot, to lift him or meddle with him while un- 
conscious, wa)uld be to crj' down th(‘ .Avenger’s 
disph'asure on their own head. 

In the month of J.inuary 18(80, Dr. Sciiia i iiK, 
the then Director ot the Ruitinizorg (hardens, 
wrote to me that, as much virgin forest was be- 
ing felh'd among the mountains not far from the 
Government Cinchona Plantations in the ad- 
joining poA'ince of tlu* Preanger, a good op- 
portunity olbred itself ol incri'asing my her- 
l)arium, 'bhis was not a chance to i(‘t slip, ,so, 
bidding a reluctant farewell to Kosala, I set off 
for Buitenzorg l)y the direct foot-road through 
the lorest. I'he oidv' souml which disturbed 
the woods was the “ Kang-kang-kong ” of th<' 
■'bird of the rainy season,” as the native has 
named a specie's which disappears or is silent 
during the dry monsoem a bird I could tiev'cr 
eatch a sight ol, howev'er, notwithstanding my 
most wary stalking. 

+ * + 

Leave BuitenzorK lor tlie lacanKcr ReKeneies Journey to 
Handling in a I'osi-earl Handong 'ilienee to 
I’engekngan Visit to tlie fanious t ineliona (iardens 
ot the (government I’lant-life in the surrounding 
iiiouiiiains the I’lias tree -Crater flora — I.and 
sli|)s and the power of rain Itrteresting liirds Tlie 
Hadgei-hc-aded Mydatts -The Hanteng, or wild Cat 
tie -Wild dogs la-ave I’engelengan for Htitavia. 

After a few days ol preparation for my iif'W 
totir s]n nt in Buitenzorg, I sent off nty baggage 
to the Preanger in tin* care of a string of coolies, 
and secured for myself a seat at the moderate 
rate of twenty cents [ter mile in the mail-cart 
which every evening leaves Buitt'iizorg for 
Bandong. I'lie mail-cart was not the most 
IttxuriiHis, l)ut it w;is the cheapest ;ind certttinly 
the most expeditious w.iy of getting over the 
ground. 'I'his cart was a rough editiim of (jur ow n 
mail-gig - simply a box on wheels whose 
cushion less and slippery top formed a m<jst un- 
comfortable seat, yet I would not have missed 
the ride for a goorl deal. We started with a 


couf)/c of stout j>o/iies yoked tandem-wise, a/id 
in plac(' of side lamps our way was lighted by an 
immen.se torch made of s))lints of bamboo some 
.seven feel long tied togethi'r, which a youth, who 
straddle-wise clung on Ix'hind, hi'ld to the wind 
to kmep it alflaze. 

Dur retail lav’ over the Meg*imendoeng Pass, 
4500 li'ct above the sea. At first the gradient 
was not very sl('<'p, and we [troceeded at a fine 
pace. I’ovvards every post station, live miles 
apart all <ilong the road, our progress was 
hr-ralded by loud shouts, and by the louder shot 
like whip-crackings that these drivt'rs are famed 
for. vXt each station a hall ol three or lour min- 
utes sufficed to put in the fiesh hoicses standing 
ready for us, out blazt’d a fresh flaming toich, 
and our plunging and kicking st('<'ds were off 
again, at a gallo]) which liy voice and whip was 
not allowed to Hag until we pulled uj) under the 
next station. By and l)y the ascent became 
steeper, and our team had to Ix' atigmented l)y 
the addition of a buffalo in front of (Jiir horses; 
further u]) a second was added, till at last llu' 
(•(piine was altogethei discarded for tlu' bovine 
element. 

I luh'i' the soothing evi'iiness ol iheir progress 
I might have drop])ed into a ph-asant doze*; but 
the night was so beautiful that 1 pn'b'rred to 
enjoy the pictures<iue effect produced bv the 
light of the torches on our team and their drivers 

who were dressed in short red trousers, deep 
yellow jackets, and their tartan sarongs thrown 
sash-wist.' across their shoulders, and wore im 
niense hats mori- than two leet in diameter; and 
to lose none of the charm of the bright starlit 
night and the fire-flies that illuminated with tlx'ir 
fitful light the borders of the forest thrmtgh 
which we wt're asct'uding whose low moan was 
the only sound that broke the stillness (.if the 
night, for tlu' drivx'r had coih'd himsi'lf up as 
Ix'st he Could, and was last asleep, and the 
bullalo-boys walkc'd like mut(‘S at a fum'ral. 

At about midnight we reached the summit of 
the pa.ss, where it was so cold that I was glad to 
cr(.»uch by tlu' fire of <i small hut there, while the 
buffaloes wer(' being changed. The j)l,u.'e of tlu' 
oxen was now takc'ii by a single horse, which, 
urged at a i.)ace more swift than safe, carrii'd us 
down the mountain side into a warnu'r region in 
a very short time. 4 he up-hill seat might have 
Ix'en more comtortal ile ; Imt the down hill ride 
was intc'fspersed with [iractii'al lessons in dynam- 
ics which rather tended to di.sagree with the 
gerx'ral (juiet order of oiu-’s internal arrange- 
ments, yet (he sensiition of being whirled along 
at such a rapid speed was lull ol exhilaration and 
great [ileasure. At 5 .\.,\i. we pulled u]) at our 
hallway house the post-office at Ijandjoor 

wlu're 1 was checked off with the rest of the 
baggage which had been (’onsigned to the driver 
at Buitenzorg, re-booked tor the remainder of 
the journey, and handed ovi-r to the charge of 
a new Ji'hu to be delivered .it his destination. 

Beyond Tjandjoor the road passed through a 
more level country, h'ading to the deep valley 
ol the Tjitaroom. As there was no bridge (A'er 
till' ravine we were, on arriv ing at the near bank, 
assisted to alight liy what si'emed a regiment 
of walking torches, and with cart and horses 
transporti'd on a bamboo raft to the further side, 
where two buflalo Iriends were in waiting to haul 
us up the long steep liank out of the gorge, be- 
yond which the road was easy, and the horses, 
urg('d to their utmost speed, dashed along 



l‘()K]i]:s: Through Bantam and the Preanger Regencies 


110 


tlin)UjL;Ii village alter \illatie, rousing the 
and auakeiiiiiv^ (he sleept rs. d'he nii^ht lirowin^ 
into day l)r()n,yht us one of the pleasantt'st por- 
tions «jf our drive. 'I'he jrrey tints of the short 
dawn passing gradually through many lovidv 
hues into a delieali' lilu(% and the fresh wooded 
landscaiJe lit u|) In’ the morniny sun mon- eli;irni- 
iiiyly than at any other hour of the <Iay, ari- the 
beauties, ne\'er wearyiny to the eye, that ac- 
company thc‘ o|M“niny ol a tro])i('al da\’. At 

8 A..\l. we drew rein at Ibindony post -oflicc-, ha\' 
iny accomplished somewhat oaci (‘iyhl\' miles in 
thirteen hours. 

Handony is the chiel town of the Treanyer 
keyc iicic'S, one ot the laryesl .and richest resi 
dcaicies in ja\a. In this inoxince the (io\ern 
nient has some of its most extensi\c- coffee 
y.irdens, tobacco and cinchona plantations. 
'l'h(‘ town is laryc' .and strayyliny, c'ontainiiiy but 
le w Kuro])ean houses; its most interestiny build 
iny is the residence of the Rc-ycait c»r native yov- 
ernor ot the district. In Iront of his door is a 
yre.at sciuare, in tlie centre of which a yiant (iy- 
trec' yrows, beiuaith whose shade on hiyh davs 
the natives conyrey.ate to sport and to pav re- 
spc'ct to the chief. d'hoLiyh some 2()()() feet .above 
the sea it is liot and close at all se.asons, and is 
not a very i)leasant jjl.acc' to live in. ddie laryca- 
parl of tile tr.adiny po])ulation is ('hinese and 
Ai'iib, tlu' natives takiny little or no part in it ; 
but the district is notc-d lor its beautiful orna- 
mental baskets ol bamboo wickca' work. 

Ikmdony stands in the centie (»f .m immense 
levcd plain luannied in on all sides by veiv hiyh 
mountains most of thcan volcanoc-s vvhic'h 
discharye their stre-ams into it, whose' waters can 
find only one' outic't, the d jitarocun, whic'h issues 
from tile western anyle and flows northward into 
the' java Sea. In prc'historic: times this jil.ain 
must have bc'en one larye lake', till, bv the- eon- 
V ulsions and eruptieins ol the ve)lcanie- pe aks tiuit 
banked it in, a yaj) was forme'd, which elraine'd 
oft the vv.iter. ,ind turiu'd its botteein into a fruit- 
ful llelel. On the' whe)l(' e)ne' would have' pic' 
ferreel the- lake, ,ind Ja'a conlel tlu'n have lieKistc el 
of one re'spe'Ct.ibh' t re'sli-w atc'i' sc'a, .a feature' of 
beauty cenisjiieaiously and unc'X|)e'eteelly ab.sc'iit 
from so uiejuntaiiioiis anel veelcanic a couutrv’. 

After restiny a elay in H.inelony I preueede'd to 
my elestination, sejinc' thirtv' miles farthc-r to the- 
south, b or filtc'e n miles of thc' way it was pos- 
sible to drive' in a spriny cart, which I hirc'd in 
the town; but the' rc'st ol the' road, which rise's to 
4500 lee't, is very stc'c']), and had to be' acceiin- 
plislu'cl on horsc'bae k. 

4 he roaei in the- lowe r districts, sli.'ielrd at 
short interv.ils by leaf>’ Hibiscus tre'es, passc'el 
be'twc'c'n lu'clyc'S e)l briyht yelleivv , purjile- and 
reel-lloweriny Lantann: hiyher up broael patche-s 
ot pink balsam {Irnpaticns), shady AUnzzias, 
purple Hintiiu) (La ^rr street)! in), tall trc'c'-fc'i ns and 
a shrubby spc'cic's of Cassia beariny laryc' tre.ssc's 
eil briylit yeileleii fleevvers, wc'ie me t with. A little* 
higher a spe'e ic's of Datura, with breiael le-ave-s ami 
large white trumpe't-shape'el fleiwers, suddc'uly 
liecame abunelant. Ih'ing utilist'd by the* n.i- 
tivc's as boundary lu'elges for their cofTc'c-garelens, 
it feerrnecl by the* size* anel abundance* of its flow- 
c'l's a marked feature of the* vege'tation. 

hive' or six hours of slow ase*ent brought us at 
last to Pengelengan, a small village lying at an 
elevation of 4500 feet aliove the se-a, on an un- 
dul.iting platc'au formed hiy the inner slopes of 
the Malawar, WViyang and hilu mountains, 


who.se* summits range* from UOOO to 7500 fe'C't, 
.inel .at se'Vc'ral [loints coinm.iml ,i v ic'W of the' 
South Indian Oce-.m. On the outskirts of I he* 
v illage' was .i eamilortable and convenient ( lov - 
eminent Imngalovv, in which visitors to this 
ratlu'i- out of-tlu'-way spot could, with the jier 
mission of (he* Rc'sident (alw.ivs willinyl\ 
grante-d), lie- .iccommeid.ite'd lor a time*. I Ic're* 1 
was in the* e'entre* of om* of the yrc'at C.ove'rn- 
nie'nl colb'c districts, and in the vicinitv i>f its 
e'ine Ilona plantations on the slope s of the* sur- 
rounding metuntains. 

( )ne' ol my first visits was paid to the* “ Ikirk ” 
y.ireh'ns in ordc'r to se-e- in a living state these* 
tamous tre'C'S, ami espe-cially that speeie's with 
cream coloure'd Heewc'rs. the Cinchona Lcdy/ruina, 
whic h ha<l altaiiu'd so gre at .i e e'le brit v', ami eoiihl 
in 1880 be* sc'c-n, exei'ptiny in our llimal.iyan 
garde'iis, almost nowhe re- e lse* but in the Hutch 
plantations. It is mevv little* more' than thirt> 
ve'.'us since tlie- Ne'the'rlands Indian ( iov e'rnnu'nt 
Ix'g.ui to cultivate' cinchona. I he ir hist seed 
was brought bv' I l.vssK vki , of the* Hot.inic.d (»ar- 
dc'iis in buite'uzory, who had bc'eu dc'pute'd by 
(he* then Colonial Minister to visit Ik'ru to se'c* 
the* tree* in its native' lore stsand briny home with 
him .1 collee'tioii ol what sc'c'ds he* could tiiid. lie* 
was unfortunately vetv' uiisuccc'ssful. and ob 
tained sc'c'cls eef onlv' ve*ry inferior sorts. In 1800 
the* (iove'rnuient inireliaseel. for h'ss than L'50, a 
small epiantity of seed of a supiiose el vnric'ty of 
C. catisaya se'Ht from .'\nierica b\’ Mr. ( h.vki i-s 
Li-axii-'R. So well had this species bc'eii jiropa- 
y.ited that thc're vvc'ie* nearlv' one* million tree's, 
woi'th more* than ,i milliem and a hall ol nionev', 
in the' y.irdens, raisi'd freiiii the- seed tlu'ii [lur- 
chase'd. 

It is well known th.it cine'hona is so liable to 
h\ brielisat ion that it is vc'iy elillieult to obt.iin 
pure* .sceellinys from the* se'C'cl e-ve ll ot juire trees, 
the* olfs|)ring containing vc'ry olte*n less alkaloids 
than their parents. .An e'X])e'riine'nt , which has 
lirovc'd a yrc'at sueee'ss, was made' by Hr. Moi-;ns 
ol grafting on the* evasih' rearc'd and e)uickly 
growing C. sunirutira ste'ins, shoot Iroin the 
higlu'st alk.'doiebyie'lding tre'C's. 4 lu'V' hav e* be e n 
louiiel to greivv vc'iy rapidlv .mil to re'produci' 
pretty regularly the same ])roj)or(ion ot alk.doids 
as the- tree's from whic h the* grafts were' e iil. Of 
Mr. I .i';i)e..i<;K’s variety, now raisi-d to the* rank ol 
a nc'w s{)ecies by Hr. Men-..Ns, the si'iil-raiseel 
tree's may be; of many de'yrees of v.ilui', but .ill 
contain a f.ir higlu'r jie'rcentaye ol e|uinini' th.in 
any otiu'r spc'cies. I yathe'ie'd as a me*me'nto ol 
my visit some' Howe'is from trees whose* liark 
yii'leh'd, with a tiai'e onlv ol anv other alka- 
loid, the* extraorelinarv amount of te-n and e'vc'n 
thirtee'ii per cc'iit. of pure* e|uinini'. Continueel 
cultivation has therefore', it vvouhl see-in, vasllv' 
de'veloped the* amount ot e|uinine' that these* 
Ledycriatias contain, compareel with what tlu'V 
yield in their native forests ot Holiv ia. 

4'hi' story ot how the* see'il ot this i:)rice'li'ss tree' 
(which e.'iu now be* ])re>payated ad hint uni) 
re-achc'd the Old World is so intc're'Stiny that I 
have extractc'cl a fc'W paragraphs from a lettc'r 
of its introducer, Mr. ('h.vkli-;s Li-Dea.R, in the 
Dicld of h'eb. 5, 1881, adelre.sse'd to his brotlu'r, 
e-vokc'd by an aec'ount of the* Hutch Cardens I 
had contril)ute'el to the same* journal in 1880; 

“ W hile* engaged in my alpaca e'nterjirise* in 1 856, 
a Bolivian Indian, M.\m i:l I'l ck.v M.vm.vm, 
formerly and afterwards a e im hona bark-cutte i , 
was ace'ornpanying me with (vv'o of his sons. He; 



Fokbks: Through Bantam and the Preanger Regencies 


120 


accompanied me in almost all my frequent 
journeys into the int(‘rior, and was very useful 
in examining the lar^fc* quantities of cinchona 
bark and alpaca wool I was constantly purchas- 
ing. He and his sons wer»‘ very much attached 
to me, and I placed every confidence in them. 
Sitting round our cami)-fire one evening, as was 
my custom after dinner, conversing on all sorts 
of topics, I mentioned wliat 1 had read as to Mr 
Clemknt R. Markham’s mission [in search of 
cinchona-seeds]. Now M wi i-a. had been with 
me in three of my joiiriu'ys into tlu' cinchona 
districts of the \’iingas of Bolivia, where 1 had 
to go looking after laggard contractors for de- 
livery of bark. It w;is while conversing on the 
subject of Mr. Markham's jour/iey, and won- 
dering which route he would take, *Sic., that 
ManuI'L greatly surprised me by saying; ‘'I’he 
entleman will not l{‘a\(‘ the V’ungas in good 
ealth if he really obtains the Rot^o plants and 
seeds,' Manuel was always \ery taciturn and 
reserved. I said nothing at the time, there being 
some thirty more of my Indians sitting round the 
large fire. The next day he reluctantly told me 
how (;very stranger on ( Utering the Yungas was 
closely watched unobserved l)y himself; how- 
several seed-collectors had tln*ir seed changed; 
how their germinating power was destroyed 
by their own guides, .servants, &c. He also 
showed me how all the Indians most implicitly 
believe, if by plants or seed from the Yungas, 
the cinchonas are successfully propagated in 
other countries, all their own trees will perish. 
Such, 1 assure you, is their superstition. Al- 
though there are no laws prohibiting tin* cinchona 
seed or plants being taken out of the country, 1 
have seen private instructions from the Prefect 
in La Faz, ordering strictest vigilance to pre- 
vent any person taking seed or plants out of the 
country. More than half-a-dozen times I have 
had my luggage, bedding, &c., .searched when 
coming out of the valley of the Yungas. [Mr. 
Ledger unsuccessfully attempted to communi- 
cate with Mr, Markham, who was not permitted 
to enter Bolivia.] * 

“You are aware how I am looked upon as a 
doctor by the Indians. Well, one day I said: 

‘ Manui-:!-, I may some day require some seed and 
flowers of the famous white flower, rogo cascar- 
rilla, as a remedy; and 1 shall rely on your not 
deceiving me in the way you have told me.' He 
merely said, ‘Patron, if you ever require such 
seed and flowers, I will not deceive you.’ And 
I thought no more about it. 

“Manuel was never aware of my requiring 
seed and leaves for propagating purpo.ses; he was 
always told they were wanted to make a special 
remedy for a special illness. For many years, 
since 1844, I had felt deeply interested in seeing 
Europe, and my own dear country in particular, 
free from being dependent on Peru or B(4ivia 
for its sup|)ly of life-giving quinine. Rememlx'r- 
ing anrl relying on Mani el’s promise to me in 
1856, I resolved to do all in my jMjwer to obtain 
the very best cinchona seed produc(‘d in Bolivia. 

“His son .Samiago went to Australia with me 
in 1858. In 1861, the day before sending back 
to South America .SANTiAcio and other Indians 
who had accompanied me there as shepherds of 
the alpacas, I bought 200 .Spanish dollars, and 
said to him: ‘You will give these to your father. 
Tell him I count on his ket'ping his promise to 


* C/. Markham's 'Travels in Peru and India. 


get me forty to fifty pounds of rogo cinchona 
(white flower) seed. He must get it from trees 
w-e had sat under together when trying to reach 
the Mamore river in 1851; to meet me at I'acna 
(Peru) by May 1863, If not bringing pure, ripe 
rogo seed, flowers and leaves, never to look for 
me again.' 

“1 arrivt'd back in Tacna on the 5th of Jan- 
uary, 1865. I at once sent a mes.sagc' to Manuiu., 
informing him of my arrival. At the end of May 
he arrived w ith his precious seed. It is only now, 
some twenty-four years after poor Mamm-:l 
promised not to deceive me, manifest how faith- 
fully and loyally he kept his promise. I say poor 
Manuici,, because, as )-ou know, he lost his life 
while trying to get anotln'r supply of the same 
cla.ss of seed for me in IS? 2-3. You are aware 
too how' later on I lost .'mother old Indian 
friend, poor PuLi, when b^;inging seed and 
flowers in 1877. 

“1 feel thoroughly convinced in my own mind 
that such astonishingly rich quinine-yielding 
trees as those in java are not known to (‘xist (in 
any quantity) in Bolivia. I hcse wonderful trees 
are otily to be found in the Laupolican district 
in eastern Yungas. The white flower is specially 
belonging to the cinchona ‘rogo’ of Apolo. 

“\'ou will call to mind, no doubt, the very 
great difliculties you had to get this wonderful 
‘seed’ looked at, i-ven; how' a part was pur- 
chased by Mr. Monicy for account of our East 
Indian Government for 1’50 under condition of 
10,000 germinating. 'Lhough 60,000 plants were 
.successfully raised from it by the late Mr. 
M‘1vok, 1 only received tlu' £50. 

“'riie .seed taken by the Netherlands Govern- 
ment cost it barely .£50. 

“Such then is the 'story' attaching to the now 
fain(jus Cinchona Led^eriana, the source of un- 
told wealth to Java, ('lylon, and, I hope, to 
India and elsewhere. I am proud to see my 
'dream' of close on forty years ago is realised; 
FTirope is no long(‘r dependent on Peru or Bolivia 
for its supply of life-giving quinine.'' 

In my new locality I experienced, as at Kosala, 
the same difficulty in obtaining herlxirium speci- 
mens (4 the great trees, with a better opportunity 
of verifying the fact that the bulk of those that 
had l)een felled were n-ally barren. The fallen 
trunks, however, affordi-d an abundant harvest 
of ferns; while on th(“ surrounding mountains, 
several of them quiescent volcanoes, which were 
higher than any I had yet visited, 1 was liappy in 
gathi'ring many shrubs and plants which I had 
not before seen, ('lost' to my door grew one, our 
common ribgrass {Rlantago major), which I 
would have ptissed by at home as a rank weed, 
l)ut I gathered it here with real affection, as 
much "for auld acqua’ntance sake,’’ as in sym- 
pathy with its distant exile and inexorable 
durance, with a few compatriots, on these un- 
quiet peaks, which the hot surrounding plains 
have made an island-in-an-island prison, more 
hopeless to escape from than the most ocean- 
compassed speck. At 4500 feet above tin* sea I 
found a small speeies of Jlypericum on wet 
ground, like our own Marsh St. John’s-wort 
(II. (’lodes)] here and there, about 5000 feet, ap- 
peared |)uri)le violets (V. alula), incre.ising in 
abundance with the ascent through wo(jds of 
magnolias and chestnuts, their st(‘ms clothed 
W'ith orchids, Freycinetias, climl)ing aroids and 
lycopods, and on whose floor the dreaded Upas 
dropped its fruits. 



I'oKBJis: Through Bantam and the Preanger Regencies 


liencath the shady canopy of this tall no 
native will, if he knows it, dare to rest, nor will he 
pass between its stem and the wind, so strong is 
his belief in its evil influenca*. 

In the centre of a tea estate not far off from 
my encampment stood, becaus«* no one could be 
found daring enough to cut it down, an immense 
specimen, which had long been a nuisance to the 
proprietor on account of the lightning (‘very now 
and then striking off, to the damage of the shrubs 
below, large branches, which none of his servants 
could be induced to n'lnove. One day, ha\'ing 
been pitchforked tog(‘ther and bunu'd, they were 
considered disposed of; but next morning (he 
whole of his labourers in the adjacent village 
awoke, to tiieir intense alarm, al/lictid wi(li a 
painful erujj(ioii, wher(*\-er their bodies were 
usually unc(}\’ered. It was (lien reniembend 
that the smoke of (h«‘ burning branches had been 
blown l)y the wind through the village; this un- 
doubtedly accounted for the (‘pidemic; but it did 
nut allay their fears that they were all as good as 
dead num, for the pottaicy of the sap as a i)oison 
is but too well kiunvn to them. 

'J’o prevent a general flight of the workmen it 
became necessary to get rid of the tiau* alto- 
gt'ther, but the dilliculty was to find any one 
willing to lay the axe to its root. At last a (ouple 
of C.'hinamen, afttT much persuasion and the offer 
of a high tee, agreed to perform the hazardous 
task of cutting ui) and carting it away. Id the 
surprise of e\erybod>' they accom[)lished their 
task without experie ncing the h'ast harm. 'rhe\ 
pocket(‘d their fee and departed in silence, with 
out. howevc'r, saying that they had at intervals 
'luring their work, artfully smeared their bodies 
with cocoa-nut oil. 

ihe sap ot the bark alone is hurtful, (Or the 
logs into which the strij^ped trunk was cut were 
made; into furniture for the owner’s dining-room, 
without ill effects to the carpenters. The bark 
of another denizen of the same forest Cduta 
henghas, one of the .1 - - contains a 

sap even more noxious, for, falling on (he skin, 
it produces stubliorn ulcers which, on the wood- 
cutters- who often get splasln-d on their arms 
and body- re(|uire months to heal; but its saj) 
is not used by tliem for poison, as the atiliarin is. 

It is curious to reflect how acute native ingen uit\ 
has been in elaborating a pharmacopceia alioimd 
ing in sulitle articles to waste or take away life, 
while it contains hardly one to ])reser\-e it. The 
action of sonu‘ of these preparations, who.se ef- 
fects 1 had heard ot as well as .seen, astonished 
me vastly, but no bribe that I could offer was 
tempting enough to induce their old dukuns to 
<li.sclose their composition. 

At ele\'ations of 5000 leet Podocarpus trees 
(of the yew family), oaks and laurels formed 
much of the shade, under which flourish(‘d ele- 
gant Melastomas, with white instead of jiink 
flow(‘rs, and rasplierries (Rnbiis) of manv kinds, 
the Ruhus Hneatus, a form with spi'eially b(‘auti- 
lul foliage, being abundant between 6000 .ind 
7000 feet. On many of these mountains a single 
step would often lead the foot out of tin* green 
forest on to the edge ot a great .sr'ar-Iike blotch, 
exuding sulj)hure(;us vapours thnnigh (‘verv 
crack and orifice, disfiguring their verdant slop(*s, 
like a .suppurating .sore on a fair lU'ck. ^^‘t 
within the indurated margins of these smoulder- 
ing craters, a flora specially and surprisingly in- 
teresting is to be encounteri'd. Amid th(‘ v(“ry 
vapours of the fumaroles I gatlu'R'd bunches of 


Kricaceous flowers, such as ddidlherid leucocnrpd 
and piirictatd, and Vdccinium J]orihi<ndum, their 
leav(‘s loaded with sulphur and other deposits, 
but their flowers stiff with healthy waxiness and 
fragrant with their own sweit honey odour; 
Ihpteris horsfuddi and other ferns and jilants, 
nov\ here else to b(‘ seen on t lu“ mountain, grew 
in the steaming mud; while Rhododendron re- 
liisuni stretched its roots out into the fuming 
streams, which boih'd and bublilcd fner out of 
th(‘ rumliling cauldrons below. 

I he Jhftcris t(‘rn is not lound in java much 
farther to tlu' east. A line through the longitude 
of Samarang, which appears to lie its eastern 
boundary, is also the western limit of the teak 
{Tcclorid ^rdtidis), of the camphor tree (Dry- 
obdldtidps Cdmphord), and of several species of 
palms (Hordssds Jldhc/liformrs), and several 
sp(cies of Cdryotd and other trees, which arc* not 
lound in West ja\a, though abundant in .Su- 
matra. Mr. W Al.i Acc has pointed out how much 
he lound (li(‘ Ornitluilogy of tlie eastern to differ 
Irom that of the Western [lortion of the island; 
.md among mammali.i, I am told by intelligent 
n<iti\(*s, neither the rhinoi'eros nor the badger- 
h(“adcd .Mydaus crosses this boundary ea.stward. 

()utsid(“ the rim of the craters, where the 
ground had begun as it vs<>re to heal, broad 
patclies of a bc'autilul species of lichen {Clddonia 
vulcnnicd) covered the surface, each tip of its 
pale grey thallus crowned with a fructifying 
scarlet disk. This is the lowly vegetation with 
which Nature, when a crater has become extinct, 
first slowly hides the wuimds her strife' has made, 
while sc ars made by landslips are concealc'd in a 
single season with a luxuriant covc'ring of 
lia lianas. 

During the rainy season the thunder of slopt's 
laden w ith lorest trees and shrubs crashing down, 
olteii for hundreds of feet into the' \alleys, was 
a daily sound, which impressed mc' with the 
supreme potency of rain as an agt'iit in planing 
down the mountains and wideming the valh'ys. 

I have olteii been astonished at the* rajiidity 
with which even a small stream will carry away 
the dehns ol a great landslip. W lic'ii a heavy 
gale accompanies continued rains, the' fall of 
giant trees on the narrowed ridgc's ol mountains, 
is ver\ oflc'ii the cause of extensive landslips into 
both tlu‘ adjacemt \allc‘ys, whic h Ictwvrs down by 
vc'rv (lercc'ptibU' dc-grees their barrier ridges. 

Among the more interesting zoolc gical objects 
ol this district added to m\’ collc'c tion, were the 
Siphid hdnjuntds, a fairy lly-catc lu r of a beauti- 
lul azure blue, whose nest, a thing of bc-auty like 
itsell, 1 found cunningly concealc'd and pro- 
tected by the curlc'd edge's ot a Ruhus k'af and 
containing a delicate', |)urc' white egg dotted 
over with brownish-red sfiots; a sea-grec'ii magpie' 
{Cissd tlidldssnid), with brown wings, coral beak 
and legs; and a hancisome shrike {Ldniellus Icuco- 
iiruniniieus), known only from ja\a. C ixet-cats 
we're' very abundant; and the nocturnal scaly 
ante'ater or pangolin (Munis) was pretty often 
e'afitured in the evening, while clumsily climbing 
on the' tre'cs, licking up with amazing rapidity 
streams of ants, which are its sole' food an in- 
te'resting form especially to the embr\ ologist and 
the genealogist, who hnd in its structures surviv- 
ing “marks of ancie'iitness,’’ which have gre'atly 
lu'Iped to unravel the mammalian pedigree. 

Another slow prowler, the ^fyddt^s mciiceps, 
very often made* my eve'iiing hours (piite un- 
be'arable by the intensely offensive odour with 



I-'oKHi s: Through Bantam and the Preanger Regencies 


122 


which, c\’cn in its most inolTcnsivc frame of 
mind, if hedged its cre-piiscular walks for at least 
a mile njund. It was no use to try to frighten it 
awa\’, for if its e(juanimity were disturbed it did 
not hnstc to liis lair as onv could ha\e desired. 
It thickened, instend, the \'ery air with a malig- 
/la/itscenf fhat clung to one’s garme/its, furniture 
a/id food for weeks. I Ioksfiki.I) has stati-d that it 
is exclusi\ely confiiK'd to mountains rising over 
7{)()() h'et, “and that on these it occurs with the 
regularity of some' plants extending from one 
end ot the island to the other on the' numenms 
disconiKa'ted summits.’’ Its allitudinal distribu- 
tion is, however, not nearly so restricted as hen- 
stated, for I have encountered it on hills and hot 
plateaus at all elevations down to lu-low .SOO 
leet above the sea; and it is saitl not to exlt-nd 
to Hast Java. I Ik- nativi- has a su|)erstition that 
if a man has fortitudi- enough to c-af its flesh h<- 
will have Ix-conie ])roof against sickness of all 
kinds. 

In the toia-sts on tin- southern slopes of the 
Malawar and the Wayang, the banteng (Has 
banlcn^) lived in considerable lu-rds. The full 
grown animal has a magnificent head of horns, 
and I was very anxious to secure such a trophy; 
but only alter the most wary and jiatient stalk- 
ing was 1 abl(' to gi-t within rangi- of .i lu-rd (»f 
them, and then only ol a calf with immature 
horns. No more Ix-llicose and dangerous in- 
habitant (jf tlu- forest than a wounde(i bull need 
a hunter can- to encount(-r. 

d'h(- baying of troo|)s of .b/jagev or wild dogs 
oftc'ii reached my i-ars, but in all my i-fforts to 
nie(-t them in lull hunt 1 was disappointed, d he 
nativi- accounts n-pi-ated to me in Sum.itra a 
yi-ar later, in identically tin- sanu- term-.; of 
their manner of hunting credits tlu-ni with so 
much inl(‘lligenc<-, if not rt-ason. that 1 was 
anxious to witness the performanci- for myself, 
d'heir food is chielly the Kanijil and the Munljnc 
dei-r, and thi- nativc-s in both countries avi-rri-d 
that, on discovering a patch of alang-alang grass 
in which tht-se are liiding, thi- adjags first urinate 
all tlu- grass in a circle round their fugitives, then 
drive- them out, when, blinded and maddi-ru-d 
by the pain of the iiungent mini- in their eyes, 
th(-y tall an i-asy pn-y to the dogs. I lu-y are so 
e.xct-edingly shy and wary that it is difficult to 
secure a shot, and I obtained only a single speci- 
men in bad condition. .-Xs soon as the fact be- 
came known I had ijuite a crowd besei-ching lor 
shn-ds ol its skin, or if not that for a few hairs 
or .soini- portion of its body, to suspend or to 
burn with a form of words near their rice-fiehls. 


as a charm to keep oft evil influences from the 
crop, riu- whole of the carcase was cut up by 
tlu-ni, distributt-d, and carelullv carried aw.iy 
for this purpose! 

Such forms of words an- implicitly belii-ved 
in. as I had an opportunify one day of learnmg 
from a de.der in krissi-s, who came to rny house 
to (radi-. lie was very anxious for me to buy a 
blade, and carefully showi-d me how to select one 
that would not fail nu- in time of need. 10 be a 
trusty Wi-apon for nu-, it ought to be especiallv 
mad(- to sonu- nu-asure of mv' own body ot 
hand, arm or thigh, of the breadth of my two 
thumbs or of my span; but to discover the same 
potency in a readymade blade, 1 ought to divide 
a straw or a grass-stem, of t-qual length with the 
bladt-, into as manv’ lengths as it e'ontains of its 
own breadth at a distance from the hilt ol twice 
tlu- measure of the first joint of the thuml). 

I hese pieces laid on tlu- bl.ide alternately length- 
wise- and emsswise- would reva-al tlu- suitabilitv 
of the W(-a|)on for ni)' usi-, b\' the direction ol the 
last pit-c<- crosswise- it would indicate- a b-nce- 
“a bar sinister”; lengthwise-, ne; ed'jstrncf ion 
a laveeurable eemen. /\nothe-r te-st was to 
measure- its le-ngth Ity the- bivaelth eef my right 
anel left thumbs alte-rnatclv', re-pe-ating at e-ach 
alternation one- eil the- weerds, “Sr/, init/^u, 
Ihinia, Kara, l\/ti, Sri," ike., tjiul acce)reiing to 
which eif tlu-se- weu'ds slunilel tail to the- last 
thumb-lere-aelt li wemlel the- lilaele- be- for me a wise 
cheeice- or neet. Sri be-ing a ele-signation eel honour, 
anel Dnnin, signifying the; weirlel, would tlu-re-iore 
be; geeeeel oiiu-ns; wlu-re-as Hard, nu-aning sie-kne-ss. 
anel Fati, eleath, would iiulie-ate- mislortune-, and 
tlu- purchase- of such a kriss wotilel bring nu- 
elisaste-r. In much the- .same- way, I e'an re-e'eellect 
lu)w as beeys we- use-el to augur emr ele-stiny by the 
teumber of Inittems een ejur garments wlu-tlu-r 
we- we-re- tee be-e'onu- “a solelie-r, a sailor, a tinker, 
a taileer, a hangman, a lawyer or a thie-1.” 

In the- beginning of May 1 le-lt my bung.elow 
on this salubrieeus platt;au em my re-turn to 
buite-nze)rg. INe-rywtu-re- the- ge)lelen rie'e--fie-lds 
we-re- deet te-el with harv e ste-rs, the-ir lace|uere;el hats 
re-sple-nele-nt in blue- .and gold, the- bre)wn slu)nlele rs 
of the- men and the- se'arlet calice)e-s eet tlu- weeinen 
anel e‘hilelre-n in the- mielst e)l tlu- ye-llow grain, 
feerniing bright pictures in the- sunny laiulse-aiH- 
all alemg the- way. 

Afte-r a lew wee-ks in Buite-nzorg anel Ifat.ivia, 
spe-iit in packing up anel despate'hing my eol- 
le-e'tieens, I le-lt bir le-lokbe-lejiig, in Seeuth Sn- 
matra. 



ON \KTEI1H\AKY S(’[EN(:i<] AND PRAC'I'ICE 
IN 'ini'; Mm/I'JRJ.ANDS l!\l)ll<:s 

hy J. Fiuckers, Ve!.D.* 

(.fiirj I eUrumnun In the (imxrnrnrni of Surifmrn, 

C. II. IJaasjes, Vot.D. 

Practisiiifi Vvlvritmriun, Slidhy, Mich., 

Collahorahr of “ lUohuiicol \hsirnrls." efr. 


and ll.pRKSToiN JIoskiin.s, Vet.D. 

luiilor of ‘‘ I he i\or/h \toeneoo \ elerituirion . ' 


'I'lu*.innii;il indusuies in the Xel lu'rl.uitls Indies 
h.i\<‘ heen iiii])()rlnni since <‘;trl\- colonial times. 
Before (lie Second World War I Iutc* were approx 
iiiKitely 700. 000 horses, 4.500.000 oxen and cows, 
5 250.000 earaliaos, 5.000,000 .^oats, 1.000.000 
.sheep, and 1.500.000 sw ine. 

1 he first \elerinaiw college in the Net lu'rlands 
had Been opened in 1(S21 . The \ ear before, t he( '.o\- 
ernnietit ()f (he Netherlands Indies had appointed 
tor the first lime a properly trained \ eterinarian. 
Since about 1805 \eterinarians ha\e l»een ap- 
pointed much more frecpient Iw In 1040 there 
were in the j\(‘( herlands lndi(‘s .dcoiit 85 \('(er 
inarians, wit h ac achmiic backyroimd. most l\ yrad 
nates of I lie \eterinary h'acultx of Ittrecht I’ni- 
\ersit \'. ()1 thes(“ about 75 wa^re .yoxernment o(fi- 
cials (c ivil and militaiw ). Most of (he xeterina- 
rians were nati\es of the XcM herlands. thou.yh. 
especially in recent years, tluTc* have been cpiitea 
tew Indonesians aniont’ them. 

In addition to the \ cUerinai ians graduated 
trcaiii Kuropean uiiivcrsil ies and colleges, the ,uo\- 
enunent, alrc‘<id\ at an ('arl\- date, endeaxoured 
to (rain a number of s fterinarians in (he Indies. 
A small colli\t;e for Imlonesian veterinarians was 
<'slablished in Soerabaja in 1860. Because t he* rc*- 
sults were not very sat isfactorx', it was closcal in 
1875. Altervvards Indonesian velerinarians were 
sometimes (rained as a.ssistaiits to go\ernnien( 
v(“l erinarians, but (he results were not very 3 L>o(jd. 

In 1870 rinderpest caused serious condi- 
tions and tin- lac lv of a fair number of properlx 
trained xet erinarians was lelt more than exer 
lielorc*. ^ et it took cpiite some time* and much 
<liscussion before a coIlej;e for Indonc'sian \ete 
rinarians was established a( Buiten/.ors.; (in 1007). 
In the be.ninnin^ (he ciirector of (he ( '.ox t . \ eter- 
inarx Research Institute xvasat (he same time in 
charge of this college. In 1010 a ciirector for (he 
college onlx xvas appointed. N'exx Iniildings were 
erected in 1028. In the beginning the college 
was part ol the Department of Agricull lire. In 
January lO.U the \'ett*rinarx C'oliege as xvell as 
the Research Institute xxere transferrcMl to (he 
Dept, of Ixconomic Affairs, 'bhe folloxx ing xvell- 
known .scientists haxe acted succx-ssively as di- 
rectors of the college: Dr. I.. dk Biukck, Dr. j. ('. 
d'li. .SoiiNs, Dr. II. J. .SxiiT, Dr. J. WAtkam l* and 

(hiyjniil aintriJiutinn, i spri inUy f>rr[>(irc<l Jnr '‘St ii'me 
<ni<l Siieeti^ils in the N elherlands Indies." — Cf. also J)r. 
Hakkkh’s account on [i. l-4.~ Foraniri(cn\s(inK veterinary 
(ravcloccue .see F. L. lIuncK, Veter. Reisindnikken, n. d. 
(A’cearlscnijk. Mcded. 74, la). 4.S’i. 


I )r. f. Mi- kKfvNs. riiere wore about 50 siudc'nts 
in lO.R), 6 in 10.(6 (dc'prc’ssic.m xear) and 25 in 
1040. The t raining usually t ook four x cxirs. In 
1040 (here xxere .ibout 100 Indonesian xolerinari- 
ans, trained bx (his college in the Netherlands 
Indic's (about 85 ol them in goxernment (losi- 
( ions). 

riu* college nrji onlx trained xet erinarians, 
blit iilso Imlonesian xelerinary assistants (“xee- 
niantris,” “ xeeop|)as.sers”). inspectors for ab- 
attoirs. and horseshoc'is. 'I'here were about 200 
x'etc'iinarx' assistants in the Indic's in 1040, 'Fhe 
spc'cial course xvhich (hex piirsiu'd took about 
eight months. 

rile first b'airopean-t rained x elerinarians did 
not haxc* it verx easy. 'I'iu'x lackc'd instruments, 
hacl only <i leu books, verx' little niat(‘rial on 
(ro|tic al problems, and most lx lit t le opport unit y 
lor disc iission with cdlleagues. .A soc ictx for the 
promotion of veterinarx sc ience was <*st ablisluxl 
in 1884. .A xear later this soc'ietx’ established a 
iournal (“ De X'ee.irt sc'nijkundige Bladen xan 
Nederlandsch Indie,” !at(*r ch.mged into ” Nc'der- 
landsch-l ndisc'he Bladen xoor Diergeneeskunde 
en I )ieren( (‘('It ,” and more recently into “ .Neder- 
landsch-Indische Bladen xoor Diergenees- 
kunde”). In 1041 x'olmm* 5,1 was in the course 
ol publication. .Most of the shorter scientific 
publicat ic.ms bx Netherlands Indies xet erinarians 
haxe l)(*en published in (his journal. .Sexeral 
ini|)or(ant publications haxe, howc'xer. bc'en is- 
sued bx I h(‘ Deiiartment of Agriculture (later a 
branch of the De[)artnien( of iMoiiomic .Affairs), 
'riiis Deptirtment issued annual reports of the 
( lox crmiK'nt Xeterinarx Serx ice and |>ublished 
also a sp(*cial serial, the “ X'c'eart seni jkimdige 
Mededeelingen.” 'I'he.se [lublic at ions did not deal 
xvil h X elerinarx science and [irac tic c alone. Manx 
articles on cattle breeding, nian.igenient of herds, 
meat control, milk control, etc., haxe l»een pul)- 
lished there. 

The first x(*t(‘rinarians were oc c uj)ie(i c hieHx 
xvilh (he following three di.scases; rinderpest, an- 
1 hrax, loot - and niout h-clisease. 1 n addit ion t here 
xvas .1 number of entirelx unknown dise.ises. In 
the earix' x(.‘ars much xeterinarx re.search w.is 
done in medical laboratories, espc'c i.dlx in Medan 
and in Bataxia ( W ell ex reden ) . .Some forty xc'.ars 
ago the ( lox ermnent x eterinari.in |. K. Id ni'. 
Doivs xvas .appointed as a li.iison officer in the 
W’eltex reden Laboratorx . In 1007, hoxvex er, 
(hanks to his reports, a \ elerinarx Kesc'arch l.ab- 
or.itorx xvas est.iblislu'd in Buitenzorg. 







Research Institute at Buitenzo] 



Gkuut: Missionary Physicians and Hospitals 


126 


As i( So often ha|)[)etis, iiii|)ortant work had 
been done before this well-e(|nii)ped laf)()ralor\ 
was oi)ened. Dr. ('. Kijkm.w’s discovery (hat 
poK neuritis in l)irds is nothinji but an avitamino- 
sis nia\' be recalled. \’a.n Kck discovered the 
cause of septicemia of the carabao. He is also 
know n for his work on ^^landers ami sar(os|)oridi- 
osis. Dr: Doiis has done im[)orlant work in 
se\eral fields: on I\ni|)hanKit is epizoolica of 
horses, surra, ifiroplasmosis. osteonn elitis of car- 
ab.aos, filariasis of horses and cattle. 

At the time the \’eterinar\ I.al)ora(or\ was 
established or: l)<>i:s fell ill and could not con- 
tinue his splendid work. Dr. I., dk Hi.iix’K was 
appointed director in lOOS. In the first place, (he 
members of the staff occupied themseKes w ith re- 
search on \ arious diseases and their therap\ . In 
the second place the institute was responsible for 
the jireparation of .ser.i, xaccinesaml diaj^nostic 
agents. In 1909 mallein. t uberculin, sera and vac- 
cines in the campaij^n aj^airist hemorrhagic septi- 
cemia and anthrax were prepared extensively. In 
1940 1 lu' instit ule prepan'd mallein, i uberc ulin (for 
subcutaneous, ophthalmic and intradermal reac - 
tions!, .septicemia sertim and vaccines, anthrax 
serum ami vacc ines, sarcophx sema Kiniv;raenostim 
box'is .serum and vacc'ine. vaccines for infectious 
abortion of cattle, avian di])htheria (roup) and 
epithelioma conta^iosum xac'ciiu's and dried in- 
(K iiliim, coli-liac illosis serum and \accines. etc. 

'Die insiitutc lias -S sections, each with its (lejnirtmental 
head: — 

1. J)iv. for gcnrrnl <liii^nosli( s (.3.(}00-4,()(l0 ea.ses a year). 

2. Div. for serodia^noslii s and ihronic inffdion di senses 
(about 30,000 sanu>Ie!^ are received <a ye.ir Iroiii ev'erywlicrc 
in the Indies, about .30,000 te.sts are made, esiiecially for 
glanders, t)riice]lo.«i.s, anthrax and animal protein), 

3. Piv. of sera and vaccines. 

1. Piv. of poultry diseases (this was discontinned in 1933, 
thou.ith other deiiartments continued toyive imich at tention 


to the numerous interesting diseases of poultry which occur 
in t he Indies). 

.s. Zooloi^iial dept. Chiefly concerned with the identifi- 
cation and study of the biology of various iiarasites. 

Of recent memliers of the stall and tlieir activities it may 
be of interest to reiiort the following data: 

Dr. L. DK Ulikl'K was especially concerned witli piro- 
plasnio.sis, glanders, etc. 

Dr. 13. HtuuiKR.MAN and Dr. h'. ('. Kr.xnkvm.d did much 
work on a common skin disea.se of cattle (" ca.scado "). 'I'liis 
di.sease had been studieil by dk Dots who called it “derma- 
titis verminosa inariens liovis.’’ It appeared that it was 
caused liy a ni‘w.iioi\o {.Stephnnofilaria dedoesi Ihle). 'Fhe 
same disease has later been found in tlie C.S..\. by Dr. C. 
Dikm.xns. 

Dr. I5 chhkkm.\n is also known for his work on suiia, 
trichomoniasis, etc. 

Dr. L. \V. .M. Loitia. discoven'd the cause ol a skin disease 
of buffaloes characterized by small tumors C'liuidknob 
belziekte”). This appeared to be caused by certain micro- 
organisms, closely relalcil with “lepra lubtuosa’’ of man. 
The disease is now well understood and known under the 
name “lepra btibalorum,” Other re.si'arches of Dr. Loiuu. 
dealt with tuberculosis in cattle, brucellosis, glanders, etc. 

Dr. 1'. C. Ku.ankvki.d, often in cooperation with 1-'. L. 
IlvBKK and Kaden Dj.aknoicdin', spf'ci.dized in studies ol 
anaerobic bacteiia. lie is es|ieci.illy known for liis work on 
“osU'omyelilis bacillosis btibalorum, “ has w'litten also on 
colibacillosis (calf). Trypanosoma theileri. surra, pseitdo- 
lowfiiest. .saltiionellosis, tricliomoniasis, etc. 

Dr. W. K. I’K .VKD <lid much work on bird diseases. 

Dr. 13. J. Kkijcsm.a.v madea special study of tlie iiarasites 
of mammalia and liirds. I te is espe<'ially known for liis work 
on ticks. A short time hcfoie tlu' Japanese invasion many 
ticks were sent to Dr, J. V. Hkoi akk i of Harvard rniver- 
sity in ('ambridge. Dr. K. Kkankx i.I-D and Dr. J. 13. 
Dotnvi'.s also did much useful work in parasitology. 

Drs. NiKSCiirr. iz and K.ki,I(;sman arc tlie authors of a 
series of remarkable iiaiiers on parasiticand di.sease-cat rying 
insects. 

iMeniiofi should also he made of Dr. P, L. Huhkk's work 
on hemonhagic septicemia. During recent years vaccina- 
tions against this disease were offered on a very large scale, 
throtighout the Indies, every half year. The results were 
very .satisfactory. Jltmi K also worked on anthta.N, col]iitis 
granulosa, blackleg, tiara-blackleg, etc. 


MhSSlOX \H) PlIVSICIAiXS AM) ll()SPi'r\I..S 
l\ TIIK M:TIIPRI.AM)S INDIKS 


liy 

k. P. CiiooT, M.D.* 


Exltuisive iiiis.sionarx work of a religious nature 
started in inan\' jfarts of the Netherlands ICasi 
Indies in the earlier ye.ars of the nineteenth een- 
tnrx .'rhcse pioneer missionaries, workin^jnaprini- 
iti\c .society , jirided themselves on beinj; special- 
ists in many fields. Thev yvere not only preachers 
but acted simultaneouslv as linguists, teachers, 
architects, agricultural advisors, and not too 
seldom as [)hy.sicians or even as obstetricians. 
Creditable as their efforts yvere, the missionary 
societies felt the needs for well-trained medical 
mi.ssionaries. In the Netherlands Indies (he 
purely medical missiem developed only recently. 
Hy the middle of the last century dozens of 
missionary' hospitals had been established in 
British India and in ('hina, where hundreds of 
physicians yvorked as missionary’ j)hvsicians. 


* Rased on an account by Dr. K. T. Droot in (ienees- 
kundi^ Tijdschrift voor .Xederlandsih-htdie. Teesihiindel 1930, 
P|i. 23.3-24.3. translated by Mrs. J. .A. C. KAcaaNraa* .Aukr 
of Itclmont. Mass., abridged and annotated by Dr. I. 
.SNAi-l'KK. 


Ifoyvevcr, in the Netherhinds Indies tht' first 
missionary’ phy sician. Dr, J. C. St iipckpk, did 
not land until IHd.f. He located hini.self in 
Djokjakarta in middle Java. Short ly afleryvards, 
a .second missionary doctor. Dr. 11. Bh;KVt)i;TS, 
took up his residence in iModjoyvarno in eastern 
Java. In Modjotvarno Bprvokts found a rea- 
sonaltly yvell-etiuipped auxiliary hospital, yvhere a 
young missionary actinj>( as medical supervisor, 
yvas assisted bv a few private jihysicians livinj^ in 
the nei>(hborho(Kl. Bu|)ils of the mission schools 
yyere used as male and female i)rob;i( ioners in the 
hospital. 'Pile missionaries had prepared the 
population so well that the Indonesians .iround 
Motljowarno were already’ looking; ui) to Western 
Medit ine. 

In Djokjakarta conditions yvere different. 
Here, the number of Indonesian (diristians was 
only small. ( General education had hardly 
started, and nurse-maids, younj< gardeners and 
such unskilled lalior formed the matcri.il yvhich 
had to he trained as hospital attendants. P'or 



127 


Groot: Missionary Physicians and Hospitals 


y(!ars, adults were I'ducated lor this (ask of 
luirsos' aides !)> simple methods in a special 
school. It seems (hat Dr. ScinaiKiok, a compe- 
tent judge of human nature, intuiliveh' cliose the 
right ])eo[)le as nurses’ aides, and among the 
older hospital attendants, selected in this \va\’, 
were many persons with great devcjtion who did 
im[)ortant work lor the j)ropaganda ol Western 
Medicine. Conditions in middle Ja\a were 
hardl\’ favorable for the spread of medicine into 
the countrv' distri( Is. Scuta ri:k went out everv 
afternoon to visit the patients in t he surrounding 
villages and liamlets. lii (he beginning he liad 
great difficult in coinincing even seriouslv ill 
|)atients to come to his missionary hospital. 
Gradually Scttta kiads inlluence upon the popu- 
lation grew and in later voars honu‘ visits bv 
missionaries could be abamhnied except in the 
case of obstetrics. Nowada\s. the flow of pa- 
tients to the Dispensaries is so considerable that 
the medical personnel could not be burdemed 
anvinore with these time-consuming home visits. 

In eastern and middle* Java, as in other tropi- 
('<d areas, ( he outstanding succ ess of neoarsphena- 
mine t re.it nienl for syphilis and cspeciallv for yaws 
has been one of the main reasons win in the long 
run Western medical sc ience has become popular 
with the* populaticjii. In this initi.d period ob- 
sletric's were a sore [K)int. .Aid for deliveries w.is 
callc;d for onlv in hopelc*ss cases. The* treatment 
ol such n(*glected obstetrical ])atients had usually 
only poor rc'sults. d'his in its I urn seemc'd to con- 
firm the o[)inion of the i)oj)ulation th.at Western 
Medicine was of liitlevidue. In the first (<*n vears 
onlv SO obstc't rical cases could be* treated, in (he 
nc'xt ten years this number increased to 2()(). in 
the third dec ade to ,S()(), d'hen the icc* was broken 
and in the next ten vears about 1 ..sOO obstet rical 
c.isc's were* vearlv attc-ndecl to. 

Ill 1906 .Sc Ilia Ki'.R had to return to (he* Neth- 
c*rlands iicMause his heart was affected bv fieri 
beri. Ilis succes.scu' was Dr. II. .S. Tut ys. He 
haci alrc*ad\ [iractic ed for eleven vears as a mili- 
tary phvsician in the Ivast Indies when in 1606 
he* came to Djokj.ik.arta as successor to Dr. 
.Sc iiia’Riac 'riie hospital then had .iliont bSO 
beds. The number of patients vc'arlv admitted 
was highly satisfactory and the personnel was 
relatively well (rained. Pri vs felt verv keenly 
that a hospital even with. several himdrc'dsof beds 
cannot take can* of a district such as Djokjakarta 
with one and a half million inhabit.nits ol whom 
a large [xirt live at distances of .vO miles and 
more from the hospital, lie, therefore, decidcMl 
to bring mechVal scMence to (he villages. He de- 
centralized medical care bv building auxiliarv 
hospitals of ;d)out 50 beds. Here malaria, tro]ii- 
cal ulcers, trac homa, vaws ami venereal clisc*ases 
c’ould be dealt with, whereas the more serious 
cases were passed on to the ('entnd Missionary 
Hosi)i(al. At the head of these auxiliary hc)Sj)i- 
t.ds l^RUYS |)lacecl his hosjcital trained attendants 
who had worked for a numlH'r of years in the 
main hospital. These attendants were able to 
recognize malaria in blood smears, worm diseases 
in stejol specimens, etc. Pruys (rusted their 
clinical ex|)erienc'e to the extent that thev were 
dec'med able to recognize (he serious caises which 
had to l)e transferred to the hospital. These auxil- 
iary hospitals were built on good roads, were c'on- 
nected by telephone with the c'cnlral hospital, and 
had an ambulance for the transportation of pa- 
tientsat their disposal. 'I'hese plans’of l^KOVshave 
been further developed and nowadavs a group ol 


elev'en auxiliary inissionarv hospit.ils and five 
missionary dispensaries are situated in a radius 
ol thirty miles around the main inissionarv 
hospital in Djokjakarta. I.alelv, several ol the* 
more remote auxiliary hospitals have bc'en 
heacl(*cl liy I ncloiic*sian phv sicians w ho tal<e c are 
ol (heir envn hosjiital, of three dispensaries and ol 
one other nearbv auxiliarv hospital. 'The .iiixil- 
iarv hospital has an operating room mid .ilso 
trc*ats clillicult obstetrical problems which can 
not be handled bv a midwile. f in.illv , an ex- 
cellent sanitarium lor the (re.ilment ol \)a(ic‘n(s 
with lung t uberc'tilosis ( K.diocrang) has lieen 
built bv (he inissionarv societv near Djokjakarta 
on the slopes of (he* Merapi mountain. 

d'his so-c;illecl Djokajarta svsiem h.is l>een ac - 
cep(c*cl for manv ot hc*r inissionarv hospitals in 
the \c*(herlands P.ast Indic*s. ,is for instance*, in 
Mcidjow arno, Poerwodadi, .Solo, and Pandoeiyg. 

d'he inissionarv hos|)itals have been verv strict 
about inc'ome which thc‘ir physic ians might de- 
rive from priv.ite |)racticc*. Often it has been 
.idvoca(t*d that (he* fees which the missionary 
phvsician collc*c(ed from jirivate patients, should 
lie clivided betwc*eii (he hospital and the jihvsi- 
ci.in. I’ki Ys had alwavs fcuight against this sys- 
tem. Thanks to his iiiHuence, evc*rv where in the 
Netherlands Inches the missionary phvsicians 
give up all earnings derivc'd from private practice* 
to (heir hos|)i(als 

In (he lieginning auto[>sies couM not be* iii.ide 
in (he mission hospitals, although at that time in 
(he milit.irv hos|)i(;ds .ind the* large* c*state hospi- 
tals of (he* pl.mt.it ions in Deli on Sumatra’s c'ast 
coast, much imiiortant scientific work was per- 
formed in (he autopsy rooms. In latc*r vc*ars, 
(his iireiudice has lH*en overcome* in the mission- 
ary hospit.ds .iiid nowadavs autopsies are regu- 
larlv pc*rformecl. 

rhe ot lu*r pioneer missionary in the Nether- 
lands Indies, 1 )r. Piacvoicrs was able to continue 
his work ,is a inissionarv iihvsic'ian lor almost 
10 vc*ars. first in Modjowarno, later in Margo- 
redjo and Kelet. He not onlv organized or 
foimdc'd t hc'se thrc'c* hospitals but he started a 
verv irsef ul organizat ion. the* S.I.M.A.X .1. (Mc'cli- 
cal ( are for the* lnclc)m*sian Population) which 
t)c*c-ame of great imiiortanc'e for the medical work 
in this territorv. He died, still active*, in 16.kv. 
He* wrote a te.xtbook on obstetrics in the Java- 
nese langua,ge which never ,i})pc'ared in print. 
However, in I6,M. Dr. A. P. Ki I’la. ol the Mod- 
jowarno mission hospital jiiiblished suc h a text- 
bc)c)k, using the old n<;tes ol Dr. Plane )i-;rs. 
Prcys wrote a textbook ol nursing which, leer 
vears, was of great value to inissionarv phvsi- 
cians who wc’re to tr.mi lhc*ir own personnel. 

Originallv the inissionarv hospitals were* luiilt 
and maintained (*n(irelv without goyernment 
aid. Graduallv the Government Public Health 
.Service appreciated the efforts of the medical 
missionaries so much that the missionary hosiii- 
(als rec-eivc'd from the Public' Hc*.dth Servic e c em- 
.siderable grants of drugs and surgic al dressings, 
and later also financial contributions. In 1606 
the matter of subsiclic's to inissionarv’ hospitals 
was fixed by government regulation, and in 1628 
these regulations were revi.sed. Sinc:e then 60 to 
70 per cent of the expenses for the missiemary 
hos|)itals are covered bv government subsidic's. 
In 1606 (here were five inissionarv’ hospitals in 
the Netherlands Indies, in Modjowarno, in 
Djokjakarta, in Margoredjo and in Poerwodadi 
in Java and in Pearadj.i in Sumatra, together 



Groot: Missionary Physicians and Hospitals 


128 


with six auxiliary hospitals, and four Out-Patient 
Departments, with a total of ‘>-10 l)cds. In these 
hospitals worked eight Euroi)ean physicians and 
one Indonesian physician. In 192-1,' there were 
13 central missionary hosintals with 44 auxiliary 
hospitals, and one leper hosi)ital with a total of 
3,258 beds. In these hospitals 27 Ruropean and 
3 Indonesian j)hysicians were working, d'his ex- 
tension took place almost entirely in Java. In 
1934 there were 27 main missionary hospitals 
with 57 auxiliary hospitals, 5 leper hospitals and 
one mi.ssionary sanitarium for lung tuberculosis 
with a total of 7,085 beds.‘ 

A considerable part of this increase was due to 
missionary settlements outside of Java. In Su- 
matra the first missionar\- hospital was set up in 
1900 in Pearadja. In 1926 another hospital was 
opened in Halige on l.ake Toba in northern 
Sumatra. In 1934 there were missionary hospi- 
tals not only in Ja\a and Sumatra, but also in 
Borneo, Celebes, Halniaheira, New (iuinea, 
Soemba Island, and the Sangir and Talaii Is- 
lands. The total number of missionar\ plusi- 
cians was then 62, of whom about 25 per (cnl 
were Indonesians or Chinese.* 

' Total number of hospital beds in the Netherlands 
Indies amounted to about 60.000. 

* The total number of physicians in the Netherlands 
Indies was about 1 , 1 00. 


(•radtially, the (rainingof the medical person- 
nel of the mis.sionary hos[)itaIs has been modified 
and improved .so that it now conforms to the 
regulations of the (iovernment Pultlic Health 
Service, hetnale and male nurses and midwives 
trained in mi.ssionary hospitals all have to i)a.s.s 
the government examinations. 'I'he general con- 
ditions in the missionary hospitals have akso im- 
proved steadilv-. Nowadavs, a good deal of the 
hairopean itopulation retinesis admission to the 
missionary hospitals. Originallv these hospitals 
were cs[)eciall\ built lor the Indonesian [xtpula- 
tion, btit now, some ol the missionary hos- 
pitals have akso constructed private wards. 

h'or a long lime the activity of the missionary 
hospitals concentrated maiidy on practi(xd medi- 
cal care and nursing ('are lor j)atients. 'Fherc 
was no oi)port unity and no time for research, 
l.atelv', this akso has changed. The missionary 
hos|)ilals are now working in close (onnecliun 
with the medical sc'hools in Java and other medi- 
cal scientific institutions, as for instance, the 
( ancer Institute it) Bandoeng. The appoint- 
ment of new staff memliers with excellent scien- 
tific records guarantees that in the future, also in 
the missionarv hospitals of the Netherlands In- 
dies, a good deal of scientific work will be 
done. 



In Memory of P. V. van Stein (UiUenfets 

PREftrSTORlC RESKARCil IN lllh: 
i\i:ti[eri./V 1 \i)S indies 

hy 

Robert von Heine-Oioedern, Pli.J).* 

fhsmrch As'^nciale. East fivties Tnstiliile of \rnerica: Reseurrh Associalt', Depl. of 
AnUiropolofiy, American Musenrn of Nalaral ffislory. Neiv York; Profexsor, Iranian In- 
stitule and School for A sialic Sindies, New York. 


I.Thk Hki.innincs 12') 

II. Dr: \ I'ii.orMiiNi oi' Systkmatk: Ri:siiArn ii 130 

Rcseai-i h on Mesolithic and Early Neolithic Ciiltioes 130 

Research on the Neolithic of Indonesia 131 

Resear< h on the “ Hronze /Ia’/*’' <>/ Indonesia 142 

Early Chinese (Contacts 147 

Iron 147 

Vrn Burials 148 

Studies on Mei^alilhs, Primitive Stone St ulpinres and 

Rot k Craves 148 

Survivtil of Prehistoric Art Styles 152 

Discovery of the Palaeolithic 153 

Progress and Organization of Reseanh 157 

II J. Tni'. I'UTUPii: oi' I’Ki'jtisiouic Ri;skarch in Indo- 

NKSIA 157 

Conservation 157 

Prevention of U nscientific Excavations 158 

Pnblii alion of Pisioveries 158 

Research 15') 

Notes 160 

HlULIOOkAIMIY 162 


I. The Kkoinninc.s 

(-1. E. Rdmi’HIUS, who in the second half of the 
17th century laid the foundalions of botanical 
and zoological research in the East Indies, was 
also the first Euroi)ean scholar eY'er to take an 
interest in prehistoric objects of that region. 

In his “ Anil)oins( he Hariteil kanier,” he de- 
voted one chapter to stone and one chajiter to 
bronze axes. Although he was puzzled by the 
similarity of the.se objects to inan-inade tools, he 
was not able to rid himself of the po]>ular Irelief of 
his age, according to which they were tlumder- 
bolls. lie tried to give a scientific explanation, 
assuming that they originated in the clouds from 
terrestrial exajiorations, transformed into stone 
or metal by the power of lightning. In spite of 
these fumlamental errors, bis dcscriplions amj 
illustrations and the rejiort he gives of the native 
folk-lore al>out the alleged thunderbolts are of 
value even today (1). 

It was a century and a half before the prehis- 
toric tools of the An'hi[)clago were again given 
some attention. Heginning in 1819, the Dutch 
physician and anthropologist, Cornklis .S\V/\- 
VI NO, sent several I’ollections of neolithic adzes 

* Prepared for “Science and Scientists in the Netherlands 
Indies", as part of the research irrogram conducted in 1944 
by the East Indies Institute of America. Details about the 
work of the Ea.st Indies In.stitutearejiivcn in the appendix 
to this volume. 


from Java to llollaiid (2). In 18.S0 he jrublishcd 
;i few stich adzes, then in the museum of the 
H.itavian Society of .Arts and Letters (8). In 
1851) ('. Lioai AN'S, Director of the .Mtjseum of 
.Ant itpiit ies at Le><len. 1 lolland, g;i\e for the first 
time a sxstematit' survex of the \arious t\pes, 
known at that time, of stone implements from 
the hmsi Indies. Ills digest was bti.sed on the 
collections sent to Le\(ien 1>\- .Sw.wi.Nti and oth- 
ers (4). similar task was performed by J. J. 
VAN Limhi KC. IIKOI WKk for the prehistoric col- 
lect ions of i he batax ian museum in 1872 (5). In 
1887 C. M. I'l.hVTi'; summarized the knowledge 
of his time about the stone age of Indonesia (6). 
This knoxxhdgc xxas, as xet, coidnied exclusix'ely 
to neolithic axes and adzes, all of tlumi accidental 
finds. Howexer, Pt.i:Y rids classification of the 
xarious txpes and of tludr geograiihii al distribu- 
tion [iroxed of considt'rable xalue, and four de- 
('ades later, served as a liasis for van .Sti'.in Cai.- 
i.iVNFi'i.s’ and inx' own geographical and chrono- 
logical analxsis of the Ni'olithic of the Anhi- 
pelago. 

Various notes on prehistoric stone ;ind bronze 
objects imblished in the Notulen of the Bataxi.in 
.Societx’ of Arts and Letters and in .sexeral Dutch, 
( lerman and Erem h periodicals during the latter 
half of the 19th century are on the whole of little 
importance. Dnlx' one cl.a.ss of irrehistoric ob- 
jects from Indonesia, tin; large Irronze drums, 
liegan to attract considerable inti'rest during the 
latter part of the 19th centurx and became the 
subject of sx .stematic research and of sex eral valu- 
able publications (7). 

Towards the end of what xve may call the first 
period of prehistoric research in the East Indies, 
Duuois’ spectacular discoxerx' of the Pithrran- 
thropus fragments suddenlx Irrought Java into 
(he limelight and aroused expectations which 
xvere to be fulfilled oidy forty years later by the 
researches of K. von Koknigsxvai-I) (8). 

The beginning of the second period of prehis- 
toric research in Indonesia is marked by the first 
systematic excavation of a jirehistoric site ever to 
be undertaken in the Archipelago; it xxas that of 
(he Toala eaxes in Southxvest Celebes bx' Pai'i. 
and Fritz .Saras in in 1902. It rexealed for the 
first lime the existence of a culture of predomi- 
nantly late palaeolithic (mesolithii) character 



VON Hkink-CiKldkkn : Prehistoric Research in the Netherlands Indies 


130 


(9). 1 )uriny the following two deeiides our knowl- 
edge of the Slone Age was enlarged hy the pub- 
lication of various accidental finds from Sumatra, 
Celebes and Borneo (10). As far as the Bronze 
Age is concerned, van dick .SandI'; published some 
finds trom Lake Sentani in New (iiiinea; van 
HobvF.i.L, ScuMKLTz, NiK I'wicNKAMr and IIazeu 
described some of the more inpxirtant bronze 
drums; Mt:YKKand Riciitkk contributed a treat- 
ise on the Bronze Age of Celelies; and h'oY and 
kot'FFARR one each on bronze drums which, how- 
ever, were at that time not >et known to date 
trom the Bronze Age (11). The prehistoric col- 
lei'tions ot the Le\{len Mu.seuni were made more 
accessible In’ the publication of a catalogue (12). 
On the whole, \er\ little progre.ss was made. 
Only one more site, a cave in .Sumatra, was more 
or less s\ sternal icall\ excaxati'd (1.^. Mrs. 
Lfnokf .Si' i.FNKA’s e.vpedition to Trinil, in Java, 
although rich in geological and palaeontological 
results, failed in its chief aim, that of di.scoxering 
turlher remains of Pithecanlhropiis (M). 

By lar the most important contribution to 
Indonesian prehistor\ during this period was 
Dt'uois’ i)ublication on two Broto-Aust raloid 
skulls which had been discovered at Wadjak, 
java, thirt\’ \ears before (15). 'The end of the 
period is marked in 1923 In’ the first attempt to 
gi\e a comprehensive survey of what was then 
known ol Indoiu'sian prehi.storv , and to correlate 
the latter with that of continental .Southeast 
Asia (16). 

II. Dli VliLOF.MK.M Oh .Svsi km.m h: Rkskari h 

Research on Mesolithic and Early Neolithic 
Cultures. - - Around th<‘ middle of the 1920’s, the 
intermittent and somewhat erratic activities 
hitherto devoted to the prehislorv ()f Indonesia 
at last began to develop into more systematic 
research. This is largeh due to the work of B. V. 
VAN Stfin C'ali.fnfI'U.s. llis interest in prehis- 
tory had first been aroused in 1920 when, during 
a tour of inspection for the Archaeological Serv- 
ice, the shell heaps near Medan in .Sumatra were 
jointed out to him (17). In 1924 he made known 
the first hand-a.x of late palaeolithic (mesolithic) 
tyi)e from Indonesia, ever to be ,descril)ed (18). 

In 1926 J. C. VAN Ls discovered the [prehistoric 
site in the (loewa I.awa (Bat ( ave) near Sam- 
jKieng in Java, and began some jpreliminary exca- 
vations (19). It was sy.stematically exjplored by 
VAN StI'UN Cai.i.f.nfhls in the years 1928 to 1931 

•the lirsl scientific excavation of a [prehistoric 
site ever to be carried out in Java (20). It v iclded 
two hit her! (P comjdetelv unknown cultures: a 
neolithic culture with stone arrow' heads in the 
lowest stratum, and above this a culture with 
tools of bone, deer horn and mussel shell which, 
although it contains neolithic elements, seems to 
be es.senlially (pf mesolithic character (fig. 29). 
.Similar finds were made in caves near Bodjone- 
goro. 'fhe human remains from these sites were 
studied by W. A. Mijshrkg (21). 

Since 1926 excavations as well as systematic 
collection of surtace finds have multijplied. It is 
mainb our know ledge of the mesolithic and early 
neolithic cultures that has profited from these 
investigations. 

The term .Mesolithic, as used here, calls for 
some ex[)lanation. It does not imply that the 
cultures in question form a link within a genetic 
line leading from t he Balaeolithic to the Neolithic. 
No such develojprnent has taken [place in Indone- 


sia. The mesolithic cultures of Indonesia are 
really late palaeolithic cultures which flourished 
during the first millennia of the present geological 
period. However, during their later [phases they 
were more or less affected and transformed by 
neolithic influences coming in from the North. 
As a result, no clear-cut line exists here between 
Late Balaeolithic and Larh' Neolithic, and it is 
in this sense that we may call the cultures of this 
period mesolithic. 

The mesolithic hand-ax cultures of .Sumatra 
(FIG. 30), known from shell-heajps on the North- 
ea.st coast of the island and from numerous sur- 
face finds, formed the subject of a number of 
excavations aiul studies (22). Traces of similar 
or related cultures were discovered also in Java 
(FIG. 31) (23), Borneo (24) and C elebes (25 ). In 
Borneo, remnants of this cultural grou|p had Ipeen 
found more than forty years ago, but at that 
time nobody had recognized their real signifi- 
cance. All the.se cultures proved to be more or 
less closelv' related to the Iloabinhian and Bac- 
.sonian cultures of h'rench Indo-Lhina and of the 
Malay Beninsula. Like the Iloaliinhian and Bac- 
sonian, thev ajpjpcar in two [phases, an earlier ipne 
of [Purely [palaeolithic asipcct, and a later one 
which was already affected bv- neolithic influ- 
ences. as proved bv traces of [primitive stone 
grinding and occasionalK’ even Ipv the [Presence 
of [MPitery. The interconnections and the distri- 
bution of this whole cultural groui) over wide 
areas of French Indo-Lhina, the ^lalav■ Benin- 
sula, Indonesia, the Bhilijpjpines and Jajpan have 
been di.scussed bv van Stiun (.'ai lknffi.s and by 
the author (26). To this mav' lie added that the 
American Museum of Naturtd llistcpry [Pips.sesses 
stone imjplemenis of characteristic Hoalpinhian 
and .Sumatra tyjpe, found Ipv' N. C. Nflso.n in the 
Yangtze gorges of western China. On the other 
hand, it has been shown that the mesolithic 
hand-ax cultures have sjprt'ad from Indipuesia to 
Australia (27). 

A few fragments of skulls, hardly sufficient for 
a final racial determination, were found in one of 
the shell-heaps of North .Sumatra. 'I'hese were 
studied by Wastl, who came to the conclusion 
that they showed Bajpua-Melanesoid racial char- 
acters (28). This conforms very well with condi- 
tions in French Indo-China and on the Malay 
l^eninsula, where a considerable part of the hu- 
man remains found at sites of mesolithic hand-ax 
cultures belong to the Baptia-Melanesoid racial 
group. Indeed, it .seems probable that at least 
[Part of the [peipjples who introduced the Bacson- 
lloabinhian cultures in Indonesia were the ances- 
tors of the present day Bapuans and Melane- 
sians. However, this does not justify rejplacing 
the term Iloabinhian (or Bacscpu-I loabinhian, as 
I [Prefer t«p call the whole cultural groujp) by that 
of Melanesipid Culture, as van .Sjkjn Cali.kn- 
FKi.s suggested (29). This suggestion, which 
was, at the very least, [premature and, moreover, 
ambigiKPiis, has been rightly criticized and re- 
jected by (api.i.ings, LvANsand McCarthy (30). 

The S(p-called Toalian culture of .Southwest 
('elebes was already known by the excavations 
carried out by the cousins Sarasin in the begin- 
ning of this century (31). It derives its name 
from the fact that it was first discovered in caves 
around Lamontjong, some <pf which were at that 
time still inhabited by the Tcpala, the remnant of 
a primitive tribe, wlnpin the .Sarasins considered 
to be the direct descendants of the ancient stone 
age [pecpjple. The Toalian is essentially a flake 









VON Heink-Gkldkkn: Prehistoric Research in the Netherlands Indies 


134 



Fiurkr: U. SroNi; rois is, Tivok. (/'Vruw Kru / .Sarasin, 


as neolithic. It is possible that the\ nia\ he 
ri^dit. However, their arguments are not con- 
vincing, and until ])roofs to the contrary- are 
brought torward, it seems more ])lausible to class 
the obsidian cultures of Sumatra and Java as 
mesolithic cultures of f.ate Palaeolithic charac- 
ter. 'I'he microliths collected on the surlacc near 
Leuwiliang in the Kesidenc\ Huitenzorg, West 
java, ma\ [mibably be ascrilied to the same cul- 
ture as those from Sumatra and Handoeng, al- 
though at this site obsidian was used to a lesser 
extent than other kinds of stone (,^8). 

In 19,^8 W. W'ti.i.iwis exeaxated sexeral caves 
in the region of Toeban near the North Coast of 
Last java. I le tound neolithic stone arrow heads 
and tools of lione similar to those previonsK dis- 
coxcred by V.XN Sti-in (“'.ai.i, kneels in the (ioewa 
Laxxa nt'ar .Sampoeng. Whereas in the l.atter, 
arroxx’ heads an(i lionc implements belonged to 
different horizons, both occurred together in the 
same strata in the Toeban caves. Moreover, the 
eax'c culture of Toeban xvas characterized by an 
enormous number of tools made from mussel 
shell, similar to those found at some Toalian sites 
in Sout Invest Celebes and in a cave in the region 
of Djember in l^asl java (M)}. Since no detailed 
report has so far been published, it is not yet pos- 
silile to draw conclusions about the character and 
chronological |)osition of the Toeban culture. 

Research on the Neolithic of Indonesia: 
Whereas in recent xears considerable advance 
has liecn made in our knowledge of mesolithic and 
mi.xed mesolit hic-earlx’ neolithic cultures, the 
excavations listed aboxe having revealed a sub- 
stantial jiart of the material eijuijiment and mtxle 
of life of the ancient cave dxvellers, the same can- 
not be said xvith regard to the full Neolithic. The 
rea.sons for this are olnious. The hunters aiKl 
food-gatherers of the Mesolithic Period lix'ed 
largely, though certainlx’ not e.xclusix'ely, in caves 
and rock-shelters. As a result, it is relatively 
easy to locate at least .some of their dxvelling sites. 
On the other hand, the agriculturists of the full 
Neolithic fixed in villages, the sites of xvhich can 
in general be found only accidentally. .So far, no 


neolithic site corresponding to the famous mound 
of .Samrong-sen in Oambodia has been di,scovered 
in Indonesia. 

.Nexert heless. it is ni\ iniiiression that some 
more systematic research might haxe been xione 
on I his subject. Thus, Fkansskn has indicated a 
site at 'rjidjahe. near Huitenzorg, xvhich might 
possibly be that of a neoliihic dwelling [dace, al- 
though it max have been merelx a xxorkshoj) 

(40) . { )i*i'KN()()kTii speaks of a site near (ietas in 
Ontral java, xvlien* m.anx’ skulls of [ligs and 
dogs, as well as a human skull, have been found 

(41) . 'Phis might indicate the place of a neo- 
lithic village, llowexer, even il the site shoukl 
date from the bronze Age or from the Hindu 
period, it would well rei)a\’ systematic inxestiga- 
tion. As far as I kmnx , mdx one attempt has 
been made to excavate a neolithic dwelling site in 
java, at Toegoe in the ktisidencx Kedxie. How- 
ever, only some sherds and stone Hakes xxere 
tound and (he excavation was soon discontinued 

(42) . 

What may px^ssibly hax'e lieen the site of a neo- 
lithic dxvelling i)lace xvas excavaited by V.\N .Stkin 
( ALi.KNFiiLS ne.'ir Galoempang in xvestern Cen- 
tral Celebes. He found stone tools belonging to a 
branch of the mesolithic hand-ax culture, as well 
as objects of full or even late neolithic character: 
(piadrangular adzes, tanged axes resembling 
those of Indo-('hina and of the region of Hong- 
kong, rough “violin-shaped” stone tools resemb- 
ling those of the Neolithic of jafian, and polished 
stone arrow-heads obviously related to tho.se of 
the Neolithic (and perhaps of the Bronze Age, 
too) of China, Manchuria and japan (fig. 36) 

(43) . 'I'he finds from (ialoempang are thus of 
great imiiortance, as they indicate connections 
betxveen the neolithic culture of eastern Indonesia 
and the Neolithic of japan and southern (Tina. 
On the other hanrl, the tanged stone adzes of east- 
ern Polynesia rcsemlile those of (Tdebes, thus 
possibly indix ating the point of xleparture in the 
ITst Indian Archiiielago of one of the Polyne.sian 
migrations (44). It is the more regrettable that 
the results of van Stkin Cai.i.knfki.s’ excava- 
tions at Caloempang have never been [lublished 









137 


VON HKi\i>CiKij)F.RN: Prehistofic Research in the Netherlands Indies 



Figure 37. — I’oisherds with inciskd i;eometrio designs. Galoi-mivang, West ('i:NiR.\t, t.E- 
LEiiES. • Mii.sciim of tho Koii. Hataviaasch_ Gcnootschap van IvunsH'n on Wott-nscliaiipcn (/'Vow 
VAN DER Uooi', 1941i<.) 


various ot licr places (50). 'The varial ions in l \ pc 
indicate (hat they belong to several cultures of 
dilTerent origin or dating from different periods. 
Yet, as a result of the lack of s\stema(ic excava- 
tions, we have no means of establishing a chrono- 
logical system based on stratigraphical evidence. 
Nor do the finds give more than a few rather 
vague indications alunit (he culture ol (he neo- 
lithic settlers. 

From the great number of neolithic workshops 
found in Java and from the enormous quantities 
of unfinished adzes and chisels w’hich they t-on- 
tain, we may conclude that (he manufacturing of 
stone tools wvis carried on on a large scale at 
places where suitalde material was available and 
that a brisk trade in such tools must have existed 
all over Java. It seems (hat in Central Java 
adzes ami chisels only half finished, roughly fash- 
ioned by chipping, were exported from the indus- 
trial centers, later to be [>olishcd b\' (he ix'ople 
themselves who jiurchased them and use<l them, 
while in West Java the polishing seems to have 
been done at (he workshops (51). There are in- 
dications that besides chipping, the other method 


of producing adzes and chiseN, nanielw by saw- 
ing the stone, which was \\idel\- used in the re- 
lated neolithic cultures ol continental .Southeast 
.■\sia, was known in Ja\a too (5i). 

From the huge number of finished and half 
finished stone tools occurring in Java. \\c may 
infer that (hat island must have had a relati\ely 
dense poinilat ion. Moreoxer, tln^ beautiful 
lorms ami the teihnical pert eel ion ot manv of the 
adzes and gouges from J<i\a and South Sumatra, 
often made from semi-iirecious stones, indic.ite 
that the peoples of these regions must haxe at- 
tained a comparativeK' high le\el of ci\ ili/.at ion 
during (he later part of the Neolithic' Period 
(F[(;s. 38 40). Many ot the liest ]iieces were [irob- 
abh’ intended for ceremonial juirposes. 

This is practically all we can sax’ with regard 
to the neolithic' culture of Indonesia on the basis 
of direct evidence. In West and ('entral Java, 
numerous arm-rings of agate and chalcedony 
have been found, made either by the grinding 
method or by boring with the hel|) of a bandicjo. 
They are usually ascribed to the Neolithic (53). 
It is probable that this assumption is correct ia 


VON Hr:iNK-Gi;i.i)i:K-N: Prehistoric Research in the Netherlands Indies 


138 


some eases, l)ul so lar we have no proof, and the\ 
might also date from a later period. A stone 
hark-eloth heater from horneo, of a type frequent 
in the Philippines, and another one ol the type 
still in use in Celebes, are prohahh’ of neolithie 
age, hut here again there is no certainty (51). 

Although potter\ was alreadx' used during the 
end phases of the mesolithic hand-a.x cultures ol 
Sutnalra and Horneo, we know praiticalK' noth- 
ing aliout the potteiN of the lull Neolithic. \’ari- 
ous ves.selsaml i)ot sherds from J<»\a aiul Sumatra 
ha\'e been teu(ali\el\ as('ril>e(l to the Neolithic 
(55). In some ra.ses ( Ills /nay he correct ; in hers 
it seems much more probable that we ha\e to 
deal with potter>' ol the Hroii/e Age or an e\en 
later period. .A large cemetcrx' with urn burials 
on the island Soemba has been said to date Irom 
the Neolithic (56). However, I ha\e strong 
doubts as to tint correctness of this assumption. 
The fact that a stone adze was found in pro.xiin- 
ity to the urns proves nothing, as stone .nl/.es 
were u.sed also during the Hronze Age, and pos.si- 
blv even later. 

.At ( ialoeuijrang in We.st Central Celebes (see 
above p. 1341 v.\.n Stkin C.m i.knmu.s found two 
kinds of potsherds: some of rough ware, either 
plain or (lecorated with textile impressions, and 
others decorated w ith inciseil patterns ol hatched 
triangles, zigzag lines, wa\y lines, spirals, mean- 
der-like designs and st\ lized human ligures. He 
thought that the rough sherds belonged to the 
local mesolithic culture, and those with incised 
designs to the neolithic culture with (piadrangu- 
lar adzes and polished stone arrow-heads which 
he discovered on that site (57). The incised 
ornaments are ol.)viously related to and derived 
from ('hinese or Indo-Chinese bronze .Age de- 
signs (i-'Ki. 37). Their ( losesi aHmit\ is with the 
decoration of a certain kind of potter> from the 
neolithic and Hronze Age site of .Samrong-sen in 
Cambodia (58). Therefore, a date prior to the 
middle of the 2nd millennium n.( . seems out of 
(juestion and a date in the second hall (d the 1st 
millennium n.c. the most probable one. If the 
sherds are real!) contenqwraneous with the stone 
adzes and st(jue arrow-heads, they might event u- 
all\ furnish a clue to the chronology of the Neo- 
lithic of Celel)es. However, there is as yet no 
certainly whate\er with regard to this. \ an dI'K 
Hoot’, while |)ointing out that their ornaments 
are of Hronze Age rather than of neolithic charac - 
ter, prefers to term them provisionall\ simph’ as 
pre-Islaniic (59). 

.Since stratigra[)hical evidence is totally lack- 
ing, the only method of trying to date the neo- 
lithic cultures of indejnesia seems to be the in- 
direct one, based on t he geographical disiriltution 
of the various t\ pes cT stone axes and adzes an<l 
on their comi>arison with neolithic tools Irom 
continental Asia. 1 had indicated in 1923 the 
possibility cjf .such a method ancl the facts on 
which it would have to be based (60). In 1926, 
VAN .Stkin Callknfi:i..s in Java and I, myself, in 
Europe jcrcjceeded to apply it independent l\'. 
Our arguments were based: (a) on the fact that, 
a[)art from Celebes, no tanged adzes, such as are 
characteristic of Hnrrna, .Siam and French Indo- 
(diina, were knenvn from Indonesia and Irom the 
southern [)art of (he Malay Heninsiila; (h) on 
Father \V. .Schmidt’s thesis, according to which 
the Mon-Khmer languages of Further India ancl 
the Munda languages of India both belong to one 
large linguistic group which he termed that of 
the Austro-Asiatic: languages, while in turn, this 


group, together with that of the Austronesian 
(Malaio-l’olynesian) languages, forms the Aus- 
tric family of languages. As the distribution of 
the tanged adze in continental .Southeast Asia 
coincides rougliK' with that of the .Austro-Asiatic 
languages, it had alread\ Ijeen assumed b\' vari- 
ous writers (h;il it belonged to (he neolithic cul- 
ture of the ix‘ 0 |)les of this groui). 

Since the tanged adze is unknown in Indonesia 
(with the e.xception of Celelces), both van Stkin 
Cai.i.knfki.s ancl I argued that (he separation 
between Austronesiaiis and Aiist ro-Asiat ics, and 
consec(uenll\' (he emigration ol ( he Aus( ronesians 
from Further India, must haw taken [dac'e prior 
to the cleveloi)men( ol the t.inged adze, 'bhe lat- 
ter could, to a certain extent, be dated, as it cjc- 
c airs, with other adze l \ pes of .Southeast Asiatic' 
origitj, in (he region of (he Muuda language's of 
Indi.i. 'I'lierelore, it sec'ined prolcable t hat it had 
been introduced in India b\- the same pec)|>le who 
h.id inlrcjcluced the allegedb’ Austro-vXsiatic 
Munda kingiiages. .Since we .issiimed that this 
Austro-Asiatic migration from .Southeast Asia to 
India must ha\e antedated the immigration of 
(he .Aryans in India, ancl .as it was ob\ ions that 
(he clevelopment of the t.iugc'd adze in .Southeast 
.Asia must have preceded the westward migration 
of the Austro-.A.siatics, both van SriaN ('a(.i.i;n- 
Fi'KS and (he author came tot he same conclusion, 
that the migr.ation of the Austronesiaiis tej 
Indonesia and the introduction of the full Neo- 
lithic in the Archipelago could not have taken 
|)l.ice later than around 2000 n.c. (61). 

In recent years the correctness of Father 
Schmidt’s thesis has been cpiestioned (62). How- 
ever, even if no relations should exist lietween the 
Mon-Khmer languages and the Austronesian 
languages on the one hand, and lietween the 
former and the Munda languages on the other, 
(his would hardly affect VAN Sti: IN C'ali.i-.nfivI.s’ 
and m\- own conclusions. The connections lie- 
tweeu the rec'ent, as well as (he neolithic, cultures 
of Indonesia and Further India are so close that 
(he fact that the tanged adze is not found in the 
l.arger part of Indonesia would still indicate that 
the main neolithic migration to Indonesia took 
place before the neolithic t.inged adze had been 
fully developed cjn the mainland of Further India. 

On the other hand, even if the Munda lan- 
guages should not be basicalK’ related to the 
\lon-Khmer languages, there can be little doubt 
that at least some of the eastern Alunda lan- 
guages have been influenc:ecl by the latter. It is 
jirecisely in the region where the.se eastern Munda 
languages oc:cur, that even today relatively 
strong traces of a Mongoloid racial strain are to 
be found. In the* first century a.D. the Munda 
tribes of Orissa were c alled Kirata b\- (heir Aryan 
sjieaking neighlxjrs, th.it is with the Sanskrit 
term uscM to designate the Mongoloid mountain 
tribes of the Himalayas, Assam ;mcl Further In- 
dia (63). VVe mav infer from (his that at that 
time the Mongoloid element .among them initst 
have been considerably stronger than today. 
Again, it is only in Oris.sa, Chuty.i Nagpur, and 
the northeastern Dekkan, as far south as the 
Godavari River and as far VVc'St as the region of 
Allahaliad, that tanged adzes ancl other neolithic 
adze type's pec'uliar to .Southeast Asia have been 
found (64). 

It is obviously highly prolcable that this neo- 
lithic culture of Southeast Asiatic' origin, the 
Mongoloid rac i.al elements and the trac es of Mon- 
Khmer influence in the Munda laugmiges, be 




\()N Ifi'iNE-GKLDKKN: Prehistofic Research in the Netherlands Indies 


140 


that the last (oninton home-land of the Austro- 
nesiaii ()eoples before their dispersal must have 
been the Malav f'eninsula. However, this “Aiis- 
(ronesian ” HnadraiiKular Adze eulture, if we may 
so rail it, roiild be traced even further bark, and 
it henutic clear that if had ro/ne from ('bin,] by 
w,i\’ of t he ( (‘fitral rei^ioris of I' lirf her Indin. I'he 
development of the hi”(d\- sp('< i,di/cd pick-adzes 
of western Indonesia Irom a simple adze t\'i)e 
witli (|iiadranyular rross-sertion and semi-rirrular 
ed^e, found in I^'renrh l,aos, through an inter- 
mediate tyi)e frecpient in the Mal.i\' l\*ninsula, is 
particnlarh sirikiny, and indicates (dearly the 
direction and wa\ of the.incienl mij^ration (6d). 

While the resnlfs of my arc haeological studies 
confirmed in general t hose ol»lained i)v II. I\i<:kn 
on a |iurel\' philological basis, the\ ('ompelled us 
to re\ise Kivux’s iheoiw in two respects. Ki kn 


had come to the conclusion that the last common 
homeland of the Ausironesian peoples before 
I heir dispersal had been a long-stretc hed, tropical 
coastal region. B\ reason of the icresence of a 
strong fiuionesian clement in the l.tnguages of (he 
('ham and neighl)oring tribes in French Indu- 
('hina, he Icelieved that this Aiist ronesi;m laml caf 
origin was most probal>l\ located on the coast of 
Ann.im (70). This view is not borne out Icy (he 
arcdiaeological facts, whicdi point definileb’ to the 
Mala\' beninsnla. Ilouexer, the coastal regions 
of that beninsula bear out Ki-atN's main thesis 
ecpialb' well, .as does the coast of Annam. I'lir- 
ther, KI';kn had argued that the original Austro- 
nesians had known iron even before their dis- 
persal. This was I he weakest point in his thesis, 
since the facts he .cddiiced admit also of other in- 
terpretations. It is in c()m[)lcte cont r.adicl iccii to 



Fk.cke 40. — I'JCK-ADZES ()!• SILE.X (ie/0 AM) CHALCEDONY {rifihl), Wkst Java. ( /j.v courlesy of the 
iMlmnuranliical Musccini, Lt-ycien.) 


141 


VON Hhini;-Gf:ij)krn: Prehistoric Research in the Netherlands Indies 


( he airliacological evidence and must be droi)ix.‘d. 

On the basis of finds made al various sites 
with quadrangular adzes in continental South- 
east Asia, I tried to as(Tibe certain types of tools, 
w'ea[>ons, ornanienis and ceramic dec'orativc de- 
signs to what 1 thought was the original Austro- 
nesian culture (71). Howexer, these premature 
attempts did not sufficient 1\- take into account 
the ilifferences between the various 1. ranches of 
the Ouadrangular vXdze cultures of e.islern Asia. 
The ( onclusions arrix ed at must be considered in 
[lart as uncertain and in part as definitelx errom*- 
ous. 

belter founded xvere the attempts to traie cer- 
tain cultural traits, still prevalent among the 
lieoples ot Indonesia, back to the 
Adze culture and to shoxx' that I hex' had alreadx' 
f(jnued part ot the original culture of the Auslro- 
nesiaiis. 'This reters to the planting of ri( e ami 
millet, the special lorni ot reaping knife used for 
liarxesting rice, the brexxing of beer from rice or 
uiilh't, the raising of jiigs, the raising of c.aitle or 
buflaloes lor sacrificial purposes, a certain kind of 
te( hni(iue for producing potterx', the nianuf.u't ure 
of bark-cloth, the rect.mgular house standing on 
[)iles, (he custom of head-hunt ing, the custom of 
erecting megalithic' monuments as memorials of 
sacrificial feasts or as memorials to the dead, iind 
.1 special st x le of .'irl (72). 

Lxeii more significant were (he results ( oiu ern- 
ing the origin of the outrigger, (hat device xvhicli 
enabled the Aust rouesi.ui peoples to s|irea<l not 
only over the xvhole of Indonesi.i. but as f.ir as 
Madagascar in the West and basti'r Island in the 
Kast. boats xvith a iirimitixe kind of outriggi'rs 
made ot liamlxio are still in ust* on m;m\' rixersof 
burma and h'reiu'h Indo C'hina. The most primi- 
Live forms are loiind on the Shxxeli in the North- 
ern Shan .States and on the middle Mekhong and 
its tributaries in French Laos, thus |>re(iselx in 
that region xvhere, ;is .archaeological ex idem e in- 
dicates, the ancestors of the Aust ronesians had 
lived liefore they migrated soulhxvard to the 
Malay beninsul.i. From this I concluded (hat 
the river boat xvith ])rimitive bamboo outriggers 
had been in use among the am'eslors of the y\us- 
t ronesians xvhen they still lived in the interior of 
the mairdand and that xvhen, in the course of 
their southxvard movement, they reached the 
x'oast, they developed it (ill it becatne (he efficient 
craft xvhich carried them to the farthest islands of 
Indonesia and ox er the Indi.in and I’aeific Oceatis 
(72). Recently, Jamics HoKNia.i. came to similar 
conclusions, i.c. that the outrigger was derixed 
Irom (he itrimitixe bamboo outriggers of river 
l)oats in the interior of Further India (74). 

On the basis of potsherds with imprints of (e.\- 
tiles xvhich had lieen found in Java, van dkk 
Hoot’ concluded (hat the neolithic IndoiU'sians 
were familiar xvith the art of xveaving (75). Iloxv- 
ever, there is as yet no i)roof (hat the sherds in 
(piestion date really from the neolithic, and not 
from a later period, and 1 consider it still prolia- 
l>le that the original Aust ronesians, at (he time of 
their immigration in the Archii)elago, used solely 
bark-cloth. 

Although the Quadrangular Adze culture was 
by far the most imjtortant among (he full neo- 
lithic cultures of Indonesia, it xvas not the only 
one. The presence of another cult ure is indicat ed 
by axes or adzes of oval or lentoid cross-section 
and xvith more or less i)ointcd or rounded necks. 
On the mainland of Asia, such axes are character- 
istic of the Neolithic of India. They are also 


found irt burm.a and Ghin.i, xvhere they prol)ably 
represent an e.'irly i>hase of the full Neolithic, 
preceding t he introduction of t he x arious branches 
of the Qu.'idrangiilar Adze cultures. The .same is 
the casein Japan, h'ormos.i ;ind the Fl)ilip[)’nes. 
In [)rac(icallx' (he xvhole ol New (iuinea and 
Melanesia .axes ol (his kind are or at le.ist xvere 
recently still in use. In Indonesi.a thex' have been 
found in Romeo (i ic;. 41), .North ('elcl)es, in the 



FiOCKK tl.- -SlONK AX, Hou- 
KKO. (/ty (iiurUiv of tlu* Klluu)- 
yraphical Musoiiin. I .cylL'ii. ) 

Moluccas, in Leti ami T.inimbar, further in a 
limited area on the Kast (.'oast of .‘''Umatra. 

by reason of (he similaritx’ of these prehistoric 
axes from Indonesia xvith the recent ones from 
Nexv Guinea and Melanesia, van .Stivin ('Aia.iiN- 
I'Ki.s and VAN I)|;r IIooi* have design.'ited the 
respective neolithic culture of Indonesia as 
“ I’aiJUa-Neolit hicum.” 'I'his is a rather un- 
fortunate term, as xve haxe no proof whalcxer, 
that the culture in (piestion xx.is actiiallx' intro- 
duced liy Fapuans. The term “ Round-Ax Cul- 
ture,” xvhich I proposed, seems less cont rox ersial. 
Since traces of this culture are alisent Irom Java 
and the larger part of Sumatr.i, and .also ex- 
tremely rare in the Malax' I’eninsula, it seems 
prolalble that it n'ached borneo .ind eastern 
Indonesia from China or J.ap.m lix xx.ix ol For- 
mosa and the Philippines. Whether the presence 
of “round axes” on the Ivasl Coast of Sumatra is 
tiue to an ancient migration from borneo, or 
whether they represent traces of a separate 
branch of this cultural groiq) xvhich max have 
drifted southxvard from burma, cannot yet be 
determined (76). 

Another neolithic group, the existence of xvhich 
VAN Stkin Callknfi:ls and the author xvere aide 
to establish, is so far knoxvn onlx- from North and 
West Central Celebes and from Northeast bor- 
neo, although it is proliable that future research 
may reveal a xvider distribution. It is character- 
izeeJ b)' tanged or shouldered adzes (fig. 36A) and 
by quadrangular adzes. In some of the latter, 


VON Hkine-Geldkrn: Prehistoric Research in the Netherlands Indies 


142 


the back part of the upper side has been removed, 
thereby making the butt-end thinner and produc- 
ing on the upper side a step which facilitated the 
hafting (fic. 42). This Tanged and Stepped 
Adze Culture is realh- a highU specialized branch 
of the Quadrangular Adze ('ultiire group which 
had assimilated elements of an earlier, still half 
mesolithic culture. It is closely related to the 
Late Neolithic of the South ('hina coastal regions 
around Hongkong and was obviously introduced 



Ki<;r«i. 42 . .Sri;i'i'ia) sionk 

ADZK. .\f INAHASSA, NftlilH 
His, Ht lui()Kr;ii>liii-;il Musoiiin, 
Rottcrrhuii. il-'ram Mkvku’ ami 
Rmni K. \'>()2 


in Indonesia by wa\ of the Philip))ines, where it 
is strongls represented. On the other hand, the 
tanged and stepped adzi^s of I'Last IV)l\nesia are 
ver\- similar t(j (hose ol .South ('hijja, the Philip- 
l)ines, Borneo and Celebes, thereby indicating 
that it is in these regions that we ha\e to look for 
the parent cult tire, or rat her, for one of t he parent 
cultures of that of eastern Pob iiesia (77), 

h'rom the above, it will be ( lear that in spite of 
the lack of e.xt avations, some progress in our 
knowledge of the Neolithic of Indonesia had been 
made during the fifteen \ ears between 1926, the 
year of v.\N Stein Cai.i.enfei.s’ and the author’s 
first systematic studies on the .subject, and the 
beginning of the war in the Far Fiast. On the 
basis of the geographical <listribut ion of \’arious 
stone tool t\ jres and of their comparison with the 
stone tools of other vXsialic and of Oceanian re- 
gions, it has proved )K)ssible to discern several 
culture groups of the full Neolithic, to determine 


the regions from where they had entered Indone- 
sia, to obtain a limited idea of their character and 
at least some indications about their chronology, 
and to establish a link between one of these neo- 
lithic cultures and the most imixirtant ethnic and 
linguistic group of Indonesia. We should, how- 
ever, be aware of the fact that so far only the 
merest outlines of the cultural histor\' of Indo- 
nesia during the Neolithic Period ha\'e been re- 
covered. An enormous task awaits here the pre- 
historians of the future, a task the more impor- 
tant, in view of the fact that the living cultures of 
Indonesia are to a very large extent still based on 
the foundations laid during the Neolithic, In 
order to accomplish this, b\ .ar more systematic 
and extensive e.xca vat ions w 11 have to be under- 
taken. than h.i\'e been carried out in (he j)asl. 

Research on the “Bronze Age” of Indonesia: 

ICven less is known about the end of the full 
Neolithic than about its beginnings. 'The ques 
tion has so lar, in fact, not lieen a[)p)roached, e\’ei) 
len(ati\'el> . W'e may assume that, as in luirope, 
the .Near Ivast, China and Indo-China, (he pro- 
duction and use of stone tools continued through 
a large j)art. probabl\ e\en through the whole of 
the “Bronze Age." In remote and isolated re- 
gions it may ha\e Lasted far into “historic" 
times. Thus, the inhabitants of the small isl.and 
of I'higanooff the .Southwest coast of Sumatra are 
.said to ha\’e used stone .adzes for bo, a! building as 
late as 1770 a.d. (78). It is, therefore, ()ossible. 
and e\a‘n prolrable, that a considerable numlier 
ol stone tools ol neolithic ch.aracter dale from 
|)eriods when the knowledge and use of met.als 
ha<l long since lieen introdiaed in the Archipel 
ago. 

Bronze lelts Irom C elebes and the Moluccas 
had .already been described, and some of them 
reproduced in excellent illustrations, by C. IC. 
Kf.Mi’im s (wo hundred and fifty years ago (79| 
.Almost two ('enturies went by till prehistorii 
bronze tools from Indonesia again received some 
attention. In 1882, Woksa.mc ob.served (hat a 
(iilture using bronze had existed in the Malay 
.Anhipelago. lie assumed correctly that it had 
l)een introduced from tlu' mainl.md ol .Southeast 
.Asia. .Moreover, he reprodiKaal Kemi'iiii^s’ il- 
lustrations of bronze cells .and one of the Java- 
nese hallltard-like Ijronze wea|)ons ol (he Leyden 
Museum (80). In 1902, Mi:yi:h and Kicini'.k 
summarized the littU' that was kiunvii .about an 
Indonesian Bronze Age (81 ). My own summarv, 
twenty years later, showed that with one excep- 
tion onI\, lliat of the bronze driiins, no jtrogress 
had yet been made in our knowledge of the sub- 
ject (82). Previfjiislv, there had been no indica- 
tion whatever of their age. However, in 1918, 
H. Pakmentiek had proved (hat some of the 
motives to be found on (he drums occurred also 
on brorize axes and bronze weapions from Indo- 
('hina (8.1). His work indicaletl the probability 
of at least the older bronze drums of Indo-C'hina 
and Indonesia dating from the same period as the 
bronze (ells .and bronze weapons found in these 
areas. 

'Pile great advance in our knowledge of the 
Bronze Age of Indonesi.a came in 1929, when 
Victor Goi.ochkw published his article on the 
Bronze Age of Tonkin and North Ann, am and on 
the first excavations carried out at Dong.son in 
North Annam (84). Not only were bronze firums 
actually found at Doiigson together with bronze 
tools and weapons, bill it bei'.ime clear immedi- 


VON IlEiNK-CiKLDKRN: Prchistoric Research in the Netherlands Indies 




ately that a close relalionshij) existed lielween 
the Bronze Aj^e cidtures oi Indonesia and of 
French Indo-('hina. A few years later, van di-k 
Moor was able to show that some of the daj^j^ers, 
helmets and drums, rei)resenled on prehistoric 
stone sculiJtures of the Pasemah ret^ion in South 
Sumatra, corrcsiiond to those of the Bronze Aije 
of French Indo-China ((S5). 

B\- reascai of all this I iao|X)sed to use the term 


\ ielded onl\' a few scraps of bronze, l)Ut no' com- 
plete bronze tools, no “ l^ronzc A^^e” site has as 
\et been ex<'a\ated in Indonesia. Second, we do 
not even know whether a pure Bronze Age, i.c. an 
age which knew the use of bronze, but not that of 
iron, e\'er existed in Imlonesia. In the gra\’es of 
l)ongson in North .'\nnam, a few iron weapons 
were found together with ;i by far larger number 
of tools and weapons of bronze .and stone. But 



i'lca Iv-I’. la. Ukonzi' sn(KMi-i) i la.is, \\'i:si ( /tv <»/ tlie Miis<-iim ol the Koii. Ihii avi.iiiscli 

( h-iiootschap van Ktiiisteti on Wetcnsdiapiteii.) 


of Dongson Culture lor the whole oi the Bronze 
-Age culture of Further India and Indonesia, in 
I he same sense as \s e spe.ak f)t a llallstail Culture 
or .a Fa rCMU? Culture, since Dongson was the 
first site where the r(‘s()cctive culture had been 
ret'ognized as a more or less cttmplele unit (86). 
However, we shouhl keep in mind that the term 
suggested is only a i>rovisional one and that sub- 
.sef|uent research ni.a\ induce us to restrict its use 
to a considt'rable extent. Not onl\ is it pttssible 
that there exist e<l stwcral distinct, though inter- 
related, Bronze Age ( ult tires in Further India and 
Indonesia, but it becomes im reasingly clear that 
during the iveriod in tpiestion, Indonesia was 
aifectc'd mat onl\ b\ influences from IndoA'hina, 
but also !)>• more diret l contacts with China. 

During recent decades the number ol Bronze 
•Age objects in the collections of the Batavia 
Aluseum has increased manifold. Thev' come 
Irom the most diverse regions ol the Archipelago, 
ranging from .Sumatra in the West to New ( luine.i 
in the F.ist. Asa result, v,\n .SriaN ('ai.i.i-.nfI'.i.s, 
and above all van DKR Iloor, were able to give 
a much fuller v iew of the Indonesian Bronze Age 
than had been ]>reviouslv possible (87). I wo 
Iioints should, however, be kept in mind, hirst, 
.ipart from stone cist graves in Sumatra which 


these iron weapons oliviously date Irom the very 
end of the Dongson (hilture period. An iron 
lance head was found in a stone cist gnive in 
Sumatra (88). However, since it is jiossible that 
the use of such graves continued in Sumatra into 
the historic period, as was indeed the ca.se in 
Java, this mav not nuxin verv much. 

In ( hina iron was known, though little used, 
during the Fate Clum ])eriod. j.c. since about the 
7th century n.c. Therefore it is |)ossible, al- 
though in mvopinion tun verv prob.ible, that the 
knowledge and use of lironze and iron mav have 
been introduced in Imlonesia at the same time, as 
V.VN in^R Hoot* assumes (86). It isonlv with this 
re.striction that we ma\' speak ol ;i Bronze .Age in 
Indonesia. It seems a<lv isable to use, [)rov isiou- 
allv at least, the term Dongson ('ulture, leaving 
the (piestion o|>en, whether this ( ulture knew 
iron from the very licginning or whether the use 
of iron was introduced onlv during its fin.d jih.ases. 

.As is the case in h urt her liulia, lironze sock- 
eted cells form bv far the most numerous and 
nu^st ('hara('t(“risl ic class ol objects ol the Indo- 
nesian Dongson ( ulture (no. 48) (6t)|. No flat 
bronze or copper celt has ever been lound. 4'hc 
socketed (elt indic.ites t learlv’ the origin of the 
culture. It is not known in the Near Fast nor in 





145 




: '< orijrinatcd in Kurope 

iml, by way of Siberia, spread to China from 
jvhere it eventually replied bbirther India anrl 
Indonesia. As I have pointed out, even orna- 
ments rhararterisdr of Siberian and h:ast l-'u 
ropean socketed celts are found on celts from [ v i 
and Celelies (91,. (),her bron/.e object.s oom- 

Ifriatt’rr r’ <eremonial weapons, 

lidb duoraled ceremomal ..xcs from the island 

I P.. 44), lish hooks Irom Java and Celebes 
Iroize imitation of a basket with s,>iral .lesiens 
from ( entral Sumatra, an armor ,)late for Hie 
[protection ol the arm. also from ('entral Sumatra. 


- Prehisto ric Research in the Netherlands Indies 

joritv IS much xamnuer and the production of 

w^r ‘"‘I" 

immis f brorue drums or fnia- 



Apart lr„ni |Mrr<ly or.ui.ieiilal patterns, some 

S t b r""" "ainralislic or 

■ >n/til rcpresoiiiaticms ol lioiiso.s lioats cle 
lf•■"ly"p.r.s. ,leer. horses, peaoooks, ' h,' kA and 

tcstivals, Kio.ips ol men wearing laree feather 
hea. -dresses, eto. One tlru.n, front^Sanslm 
shotts a man on horsp-liaok and men wearing 





Zs h I ' Itronze arm ami ankle 

nntts hate hcen a,s,Til,ed to the llronze .Age (<)li 
lliis IS probably m part eorreet, but we have no 

(TfluV' ‘-ertainty, and some 

I them may ready belon.yr to mneh later |)m-iuds 

Jc va but, as VAN Sthin ( ai.lknkkls has pointed 
ihl’ 's doubtful and it is possible that 

they date from the Hindu iicriod (94) 

I he mast interesting class of objects of the 
DmiKson (ailture are no doul,t the Iwon/.e drums 
As mentumed.a H)ve (pp. 129 and IdO), they had 
already received a considerable amount of atten- 
tion during the last quarter of (he 19ih and the 
tarly years of (his century’. In recent years the 

hThvT tl ■'' collections of the 

ir I p^jtii^eiim has multiplied. The cataloyiie 

which^ek! lile rV sperimens (,f 

wMich detailed descriptions are given (95). This 

does not include the mokos or bronze drums of 
hour-glass shape from Alor, some of which seen, 
to go back to the Bronze Age, although (he ma- 


.SoKMB.AWA. — Museum nf the Kon 

VN DKk ((,)<„.. ig4p,,) 


( hmese or I'artar cost nines (fk.. 40). I hiis the 
< rums furnish valuable information about’ life 

The re i"''‘ Dongson Period. 

I he religious sigmhcance of some of the scenes 
represented and their connedion with the lielief 
ft af er death have been disi ussed l,v Coi.ou- 

^ Nma h'. M. 

analysis of the 

cltsigns on the drum of Salajar (98) 

^uiie of (he drums are very large, the largest, 
at at luljeng m Bah. being 0 feel high and 
i aMi^. , ,,, f , , ^ miniature 

bronze drum from Java, only about three inches 
high was no doubt mlended to serve as a sepul- 
in 1 gitt a;ul corresponds to similar small models 

(lOO)?"’" " 

Both the (echni(,ue A cire perdue and the cast- 
uu,- known and practiced (101). 

miniature drum just mentioned was 
cast m the cire perdue process, the large drums 
were aUvay s cast m moulds. A stone mould for 
I his purpose has been found in Bali (102). It 


\ ()N R.\: Prehistoric Research in the Netherlands Indies 


I4t> 


proves (hat at least some of (he drums had been 
[irodured in place. However, the drums from 
Salajar and the Kai Islands, which show ele- 
phants, tigers and peacocks, none of which oc- 
cur ill eastern Indonesia, must ha\e been i/n- 
ported either from the western p.irt of the Archi- 
pelago or from (he Asiatic mainland. One ol (he 
drums from Sangean. with llgures ol men in 
Chine.se or Tartar dress, was jarobably imported 
from 'bon kin or North .Annam (Fic.. 46). 

A subject which had h)ng puzzled ethnologists 
and archaeologists was that of ancient glass beads 
in Indonesia and .New (iiiinea. In 'I'imorand the 
surrounding islands a certain kind of yellow or 
orange colored glass beads is highly priced and 
thought to be of supernatural origin. Some are 
imported from South Sumatra, while others 
come from (he island of Flon's, where thev are 
dug from the ground. .As earl\- as 1806 these 
muti .salah, as the\- are calle<l, were made the sub- 
ject of a detailed and scholarlv s(ud\ l)v (i. P. 
RorFF.\KR (lO.H. He came to the conclusion, 
understandable in his time, but, as subsc(|uent 
research has shown, comphaeK erroneous, that 
the\' had been imported b\' the l‘oringuese after 
1550 ,\.i). In the northern part of Dutch New 
Guinea. anti(iue glass Ireads are highly priced and 
used as riirrencx', I n t he same region, t here occur 
ancient glass arm rings which are considered ver\ 
precious. \ an di:r .Sandk came to the conclu- 
sion that these gla.ss ol>jects had been imported 
(rom China in ancient times (104). There is a 
fair pos,sihilit\’ that the\ date from the same pe- 
riod as the bronze celts which van' dkr .Sa.ndk 
found on bake Sentani, \ an di-.r I loot’ ob.serves 
that in the Philippines glass rings similar to those 
from New (itiinea belong to the bronze .Age cid- 
ture (105). 'I'he same high esteem for anticjue 
glass Ijcads as among (Ik; I’iniorese .im 1 P apuas is 
found among man\’ of (lie inlaml tribes of Borneo 
( 1 () 6 >. 

'The remarkable similarilx’ of some anti<|ue 
beads from Borneo with F-uropean ones d;iting 
from Roman times, had already been jtointed out 
b>- Nii:i u (107). As a result of an in- 

vesiigalion on glass beads I rom .Sarawak, Bi;cK 
came to (h<; com lusion that some of them may be 
of ( Ireek or earh Roman origin, dating perhaps 
Irom the 4(h or ,kd centur\ ii.c. (108). Definite 
jiroot that at least a large number ot the<inti<pie 
glass beads which u.sed to be exported from .South 
Sumatra to Borneo and rimor, date from the 
Dongson period, caim; when van di;k Hooi’exca- 
^'ated great (pJantities of suc h lieads in two stone 
cists at 4'egoerwangi in (he Pasemah region of 
South Sumatra (10‘b. The interesting prolilem 
of the introduction of glass in Indonesia in pre- 
historic times and the (picstion whether beads of 
.Mediterranean origin re.n hed the Ar( hi[)elago 
l)\ wa\ ol Central Asia and China, or b\' overseas 
trade from Araliia or India, awaits further elm i- 
dation. 

I’he Batavia Museum pos.sesses large numbers 
ot ancient lieads, not onK of glass, but also of 
carnelian or other kinds of stone (1 10). In most 
cases, their dates cantiot be ascertained. \’an 
I)i:r Hoot’ thinks that some of the stone beads 
ma\' be ol neolithic origin, but of this there is as 
yet no [iroof (111), 

The chronolog\ of the Dongson C ulture has 
formed the suliject of various studies. By reason 
of a few Chinese olijects of bate Han type, and 
above all of ('hinese coins of the first ijuarter of 
the first cen(ur\ a.d. which had been found at 


Dongson, Goi.ocnKW (onsidered the date of the 
cemetery there to be about 50 a.d. (1 12). How- 
ever. as miniature rejilicas of lironze drums had 
lieen found in (he graves of Dongson, I observed 
(hat the large drums must have been known and 
u.sed for a considerable time, jirolxiblv for centu 
ries, before small models for ourely funeral pur- 
po.ses were prod lice. 1 (lid). Moreover, 1 pointed 
out (hat the decorative designs lound on Dongson 
bronzes li.ave verv little in common with C'hine.se 
ones of the flan period, but are oliviouslv related 



Fk.IRI'. 17 . ■ I HK.NW'.VRI'. ll.ASK KKUM AN IK'S 

HV RIAI. NKAK LKM)CN(a.tA lOK, .SdMHW IV'l .Si MaIRA. 

(/•>../« ov I'cty.) 

to (he bate Chou style of China, brom this I 
concluded that (he Dong.soii Culture could not 
have originated later than about dOO n.c., and 
(hat an even earlier origin was prolialde (114). 
At (he same time van Si i'aN Cai.i.knfki.s, basing 
his argument, as 1 had done, on the presence ol 
funeral models of bronze drums in the Dongson 
graves, came to the conclusion t hat t he finds Irom 
Dong.son belong to the verv end of (he cultural 
period in <|uestion. He thought that the Dong- 
son Culture had originated in Indo-China around 
500 u.c. and from there had sfiread to Indonesia 
around .400 b.c. (115). 

I had alreadv' drawn attention to the relations 
exi,sting between the decorative designs of bronze 
objects from Dongson and from Indo-China and 
Indonesia in general, and those ol the Hallstatt 
C'ulture of Furope and of (he ICirlv Iron Age ol 


147 


VON Hi';ini-;-(7i.;i,i)krn: Prehistoric Research in the Netherlands Indies 


('aucasia (116). A subsequent more systematic 
stud>- yieklecl the following results. 

The (lecorati\e (lesions found on bronzes of the 
nongson Culture in Indo-China as well as in 
Indonesia, double s|)irals, circles linked b\- tan- 
gents (kk.. 44), meanderlike patterns, etc., are 
of western origin and < lo.seh’ related to, and in- 
deed in man\' cases identical with, those of the 
llallstatt Culture ot Kiiroi)e, the Thraco-C.'irn- 
jiierian ('ulture ol the lower Danubian regions 
and South Russia, and the Karly Iron Age of 
('aucasia. All these cultures were interrelated, 
and flourished side b\ side until the Cimmerians 
were driven Irom .South Russia b> the Siythians 
.iround 700 H.t . The numerous t\ pes of wea|)- 
oiis, tools, ornaments and decoral i\e designs of 
I l.illstat t iau, 'rhr.ico-Cimmeriaii and (.'aucasian 
afliliatioii which .are found in the Late Chou and 
Dongson Cultures of (diina and Indo-t'hina must 
therefore ha\'e been brought to Hast Asia l»\ 
western invaders who had left their homelands 
before the .Sevthian con<iuest of South Russia, 
/.e. .it the latest during t he 8( h cent urv u.( . h is 
highlv i)rob.able that the barb.iri.an Irilies who in 
771 Jt.c. destroved the Western ( hou Kingilom 
lielonged to this same ethnic wave. In Cliina, 
the decorat iva- ilesigns ot western origin were 
immcdiateb ani.algiimated with indigenous ones, 
therebv originating the l.ate C'hoii st \ le of art. 
On the contrarx, the decorative designs of the 
Dongson Culture i)erpetuate the western forms 
.tlniosl uu( hanged. Lrotu this we ma\' infer that 
one stri*am of western invaders had luanched off 
at the western confines ol ('hina and went di- 
rect Iv southward to Yunnan and lnde)-China, 
where their inllueuce created the Dongson ('uL 
ture, probaldv during the 8th and 7th centuries 
n.c. dl7). 

Ol course, this gives us onlv a terminus post 
qiieiii lor the spread ol t h<‘ I )ongsoti (Tilt lire to 
Indonesiii, We still do not know when this cul- 
1 lire act iiallv reached the Archipelago. However, 
v\e can confidently sav that this cannot have 
taken place earlier than about 600 n.c. and not 
later than some time during the second half of 
I he first millennium u.c. 

In his last pajter on the subject, published the 
same year as mv own results quoted above, v.an 
Sti'.in C.xt.tJM- iiLs commented on the various 
ivpes of ornament occurring on l)ronze drums, 
lie concluded bv saving that he was inclined 
tentalivelv to set the date of the Indo-Chinese 
bronze Age in which the oldest Iv pe of ornament 
occurs at 600 to 500 h.c., and the later pha.se 
\vith more degenerate ornament, which spread 
.ilso to the .South, i.c. to Indonesia, at about 400 
t() 500 u.c. (118). rhus, as had happened .so 
olten in the course of our work, my late friend 
and I had come independently and at the same 
time to almost identical conclu.sion.s. 

I have repcatedlv expressed the opinion that 
the Dongson CTilture was introduced in Indo- 
nesia by the \Tie peoples, the ancestors cjf the 
present da> .‘\nnamitcs, who at that time lived in 
North Annam. 4'onkin and the adjacent parts of 
coastal China. Moreover, 1 thought, and still 
think, that the introduction of (his culture in the 
Archipelago was not due to large scale ethnic 
migrations, but rather to small groiqis of mer- 
chants and colonists who gradually became ab- 
.sorlied into the local ])c)pulation, much the same 
as the Hindu colonists of the sul)sequent period 
(119). Van okk Hoot’ is of the opinion that the 
introduction of the Dongson Culture in (he 


islands was due to a “second Indonesian immi- 
gration,” the first one having taken jilace during 
the Neolithic (120). both views are not neces.sar- 
ily contradictorv , since the soul hern neighbors of 
the Vue in the ccjastlands of Annam were the 
Cham, a people with Indonesian, or at least half 
Indonesian, language. It is quite possible (hat 
both Vue and ('ham took part in (he colonial 
movement in ciuestion. In addition to this, it is 
possible that another wave of bronze Age cmlture 
may have reached the Archipelago from \'unnan 
bv' w.'iv ol Siam or burma. 

Early Chinese Contacts: In 19.L4 1 had 
]K)inted out stylistic simil.irit ies between some of 
the [irehistoric stone sculptures ot ilu* Rasemah 
region in South .Sumatra and those standing at 
the tomb of (he ('hinese Cieneral Ht’o Iv’ir-i’iNc, 
in .Shensi ivrovince, erected in 117 u.c. This 
seemed to indicate more or less direct contacts 
with ('hina, to be dated probablv in the 2ncl or 
1st centuries u.c. (121 ). .Since the article cjiioted 
al)ove was jiublished, ( hinc'se objects cd the Han 
period have act uallv been found in Indonesia. 

A considerable number of (.'hinese sepulc hral 
potterv vessels of (he Han [leriocl were excavated 
in .Sumatra, Java and borneo, one of them, from 
.Sumatra, bearing an insc ription dating it 45 B.c. 
h'roni the.se finds, dk Ki.inics inferred, no doubt 
correct Iv, that Chinese colonists c^r mercTants 
must have lived in Indonesia as early as the Han 
period (122). The date of the Sumatra vessel 
agrees with the stviistic' ariilialions of Rasemah 
stone sculid tires referred to in the preceding 
paragraph. Also there comes from .Sumatra a 
i)owl with engraved designs of persons in (Tiinese 
dress and of horses in Han stvle. It is supposed 
to have been made either locally or in Further 
India, in imitation of ('hine.se ves.sels (12.C. 

A ( hinese bronze dagger-ax (ko) is said to c'ome 
from .Sumatra and anothc-r one from Java (124). 
From .Sumatra, too, come two bronze axes ot 
tviiical ('hinese form with cjuadrangular sockets 
(125). To this mav' be added one of the drums 
from .Sangean. As mentioned above', it shows 
men wearing Chinese or 'Tartar dress. On one of 
its panels there is a representation ot a man on 
horseback. In front of the horse stands a war- 
rior, again dressed in the long 'Tartar coat, and 
armed with one of tho.se long and thin iron swiyds 
which during the Late (Tiou and Han periods 
were used in China side bv side with short bronze 
swords (kio. 46) (126). 'The warrior wears a hel- 
met with two project ions on the to|), reminiscent 
of the helmet of one of the stone sculptures ol 
Rasemah (127). 

Taking all this into account, one mav come to 
the c'onclusion that direct Chinese iniluence in 
Indonesia goes liack at least to the ICarlv’ Han 
period, that is, at the very late.st to the 1st cen- 
tury H.c. Henvever, the ornamental designs of 
the Dayak tribes of borneo and of (he Ngada of 
Flores are so closely related to Chinese designs ot 
the Late Chou period that one can hardlv avoid 
the inference that Chinese contacts started at 
least as earlv as the beginning of t he t hire! cent ury 
H.C., and I i:ssibly earlier. 'The subject has great 
hi.storical signiTcance, but has so far not been 
syst emat icallv inv tsl igated. 

Iron Age: - As stated above, iron .seems to 
have Tieen alreadv’ known and used during the 
l^eriod of the Dongson ('ulture, at least during its 
final phases, and possiblv even from its very be- 



VON HKiM;-(iKLi)i';R.\: Prehistoric Research in the Netherlands Indies 


\4i< 


ginnings. It is ])ro]>al)h‘ that its general use 
started only after the estal)lishnient of the hrst 
Hindu colonies in the Archipelago (first or second 
century a.I).?). However, it spread more rapidh' 
than Hindu culture, and since many tribes in 
remote islands and in the interior of llorneo and 
Celebes remained outside organized Hindu or 
Mohammedan rule and some of them continued 
to live under “prehistoric” conditions as late as 
the beginning of this ('entury, we may well speak 
of a jirehistoric Iron Age. So far, ver\’ little is 
known alout lids full Iron Age. 

V'an dfk Hoot* exc.av.ited a few stone cist 
graves in the (joenoeng Kidoel in the region of 
Wanasari, Central Java. The\' contained iron 
tools, potsherds, glass beads, bronze ornaments 
and fragments of te.xtiles (128). \'an dek Hoof 
found no indiiation of the age of the graves, save 
that the large number of iron tools, the character 
of (he glass lieads and the comi)osition of the 
bronze, which contained no lead and therefore is 
quite different from that of Dongson bronzes, 
show that the\' must lie of later date than (he 
stone cist gra\'es of Pasemah. 'Fhex’ ma>' be 
tcntati\'ely ascribed to (he first centuries of the 
1st millennium a.d. 

Iron objects, potsherds and glass beads were 
found also by van Hkkkkkkn and Wii.i.kms in 
some rnegalithic graves in the ea.sternmost part 
of Ja\a (1^^)- A few sherds of Chinese glazed 
potter\' of the 9(h centur\' indicated that at least 
one of these graves had still been in use at a time 
when Hindu culture was alrea<ly firmly estab- 
lished a little further to the West (180). 

Urn Burials: Thesulqcct of cemeteries with 
urn burials, found in various parts of Celebes 
and on the island of Soeml a, is still an archaeo- 
logical puzzle. .So far, nothing definite is known 
concerning their dale and cultural significance. 
Wii.i.KMs excavated one of these cemeteries in 
Central C.'elelres, but found no artifacts of an>' 
kind in or near (he urns and no indication of (he 
latter’s age (181). Kkt vrihought therustomof 
burying the dead in urns had been introduced by 
W'avesof conquerors who had alread)- been Hindu- 
ized and who inva<led Celebes from the South. 
He points out that, according to tradition, urn 
burial was used by (he kings of the Hugis until 
their conversion to Islam (1.^2). In sirite of this, 
I doubt that Kui vr’s interpretation is correct. 

Two urn burials, forming prol>abl\’ |)art of a 
larger cemetery, were discovered at Lesoengliatoe 
in the highlands of .Southwest Sumatra. The 
urns contained two earthenware flasks decorated 
with inci.sed meanders and other designs of 
Bronze Age character (fk,. 47) (l.kV). We may 
infer from this that the burials ])rol’al>ly date 
from the Dongson peiiod, although, in view of the 
survival of Dongson moti\'es, a later dale is not 
quite out of question. 

As mentioned above, van dkk Hoop, by reason 
of a stone adze found in (he urn field of .Meloloon 
Soeml;a, ascribed the latter to the Neolithic 
(184), However, the occasional use of stone 
tools may well haxe continued in the Lesser 
Sunda Islands far into the first millennium A.n, 
The shapes of the smaller vessels found in the 
urns would seem to i)reclu<le a culture of true 
neolithic character. One of the flasks is obvi- 
ously closely related to those from Lesoengbatoe 
in Sumatra. This indicates a date not prior to 
the Dongscjn period. 

Although nothing certain <'an so far be said, it 


would seem probalde that the custom of urn bur- 
ial was introduced from Indo-China during (he 
Dongson period and that it continued in some 
localities well into (he 2nd millennium a.d. 

Studies on Megaliths, Primitive Stone Sculp- 
tures and Rock Graves: - Megalithic monu- 
ments are to be found in many (rarts of Indone- 
sia. They comprise meidiirs, single or in groups, 
dolmen-like structures, stone lienches, stone-cist 
graves, stone jars, stone sarcophaguses, stone 
walls, terraces, cairns, stepped |)\r;imids, stone- 
stairs, stone bathing [ilai'cs, megalithic assembh' 
places, and stone sculpt tires, ratiging from simple 
“statues menhirs” with mere indication of the 
face, and sometimes the genitals, to more or less 
naturalistic figures. .Some of them liate from 
|)rehis(oric times: others are known to h.ave been 
erected in historic periods, while among many 
peoitlcs of Indonesia “megalithic cultitres” are 
still fully alive and megalithic monuments are 
being erected even today, bhe chief centers of 
living megalithic cultures are the islands of Nias, 
I'lores and Soemba, but in a less vigorous form 
the use and erection of megaliths persists in man\ 
other regions of the Archipelago. ICven in Java 
and Bali and among the Minangkaltau .\lal;i\sof 
Sumatra, megalithic monuments are still in use as 
local sanctuaries or for certain ceremonial pur- 
poses. 

While man\ reports were (kwoted to recent 
megaliths and the customs and beliefs cotmected 
with their erection, archaeological ititeresl in 
ancient megalithic monuments set in late and. 
till now, has been <arried on in a rather s))oradic 
way. 'Pile first detailed descrif)tion of prehistoric 
megaliths, the megalithic gra\esof Bondowoso in 
the kesidencN’ Besoeki. Hast Ja\a, was given l/V 
.StkinmI'TZ in 1808 (185). A year later, Koiti.- 
BRi'oc.F. described terraces with meidiirs on the 
Argopoero Mountains of East Ja\a. He thought 
that they were of Hindu ch;iracter and (he re- 
mains of a iihallic sanctuary of Siva (186). This 
erroneous assumption was later corrected b\ 
STian'KkiiKiM, who compared the Argopoero ter- 
raix's with the aims and maraes of Bob iiesia and 
('ame to the coiulusion (hat the\' were ot pre- 
Hindu or, as the time of their erection is not 
known, rather of non-Hindu origin (187). In the 
early part of this centur\ , Krcyt, Kii.ia.vn and 
(ikmAri-.K reported the existc-me of iirehistoric 
“statues menhirs,” stone vats and other mega- 
lithic remains in (Central Celelies; iirehistoric at 
least in the sense that their origin and the time ol 
their erection are not known to the kical popula 
tion (188). 

'Phe first general explanation of the origin ot 
megaliths in Indonesia was propo.sed by J. Mac- 
.Mii.i.AN Brown, who thought that they repre- 
sented traces of the migration of a “('aucasian” 
race which had come from the Mediterranean re- 
gion by way of southern Asia. More comiirehen- 
sive were I‘f.rry’s studies of the megaliths of 
Indonesia, their origin and meaning, pufilished in 
1918 and 1928 (189). Bfrry assumed that the 
custom of erecting megalithic monuments was an 
element of what he called (he “Archaic Civiliza- 
tion,” said to have originated in ancient Egyjit. 
He thought that it had been introduced in Indo- 
nesia, as well as in many other areas, by a .series 
of migrations which had ultimately come from 
Egypt and were undertaken by people in quest of 
metals, esijecially of gold, and also of pearls, said 
to have been considered as magic “givers of life” 



149 


VON Hi;im--('.i:m)i;kn: Prehistoric Research in the Netherlands Indies 


These ancient nielal workers, who considered 
themselves as havinj^^ descended from the sky- 
world (“Children of I lie vSun”) and who imiiosed 
(heir ride on (he various primidve trilies, hrouj^hl 
wi(h (hem a sun cult, the knowledj^e of agricul- 
ture and of metals, the art of producing ])olishe<l 
stone tools, and many other ehinents of higher 
civilization. 

Since Pi:kry’s com lusions were 1 ased on in- 
sufficient knowledge of the actual facts, and since 
the soundness of Ids methods was highly (|ues- 
(ionable, t he\ met w ith aln.ost univer.sal rejec- 
tion, Ilowe\er, although his main thesis is un- 
acceptable and is, indeed, in comjilete contradic- 
tion to well estaldished an haeological facts, his 
books contain main valual le and stimulating 
observations. It might |>ro\e a worthwhile (ask 
for a future critii, who is loth patient and im- 
liiased, to extricate these valuable sections from 
(he maze of arbitrar\ and pliantaslic interjTcta- 
tions and unfounded assertions in which then' are 
imbedded. 

In PbbS 1 jail lished the results of an investiga 
lion into the forms of monuments and “niega- 
lithic" beliefs and rituals found among pcojiU's in 
.\s.sam. West Burma and Indonesi.i who still 
practiie the erection of stone monuments (140). 

I ('ame to the (onclusion tlial, with ver\- few and 
unim|)ortant exceptions, thi* megaliths are (on- 
nected with special notions concerning life after 
death; that the majority are erect cal in the course 
of riles destined to jirotei t the soul frem the dan- 
gers beliexed to threaten it in the underworld or 
on its wa> there, and to assure eternal life cither 
to till' persons who erect tlu* monuments as their 
own memorials while alive, or to (hose to whom 
the\ are erected after their death: that at the 
same time the megaliths are dest ined to serve as a 
link between the dead and the living and to en- 
able the latter to participate in the wisdom of (he 
dead; that (he\ are thought to perpetuate the 
magic (lualities of the persons who Iiad erected 
them or to whom lhe\ had been erected, thereliy 
furl hering the fertilitv of men, livestock and crops 
and promoting the wealth of future gimerat ions. 
I compared the forms of monuments and the l-c- 
liefs connected with them with similar ones in 
Oceania, (.'entral Asia, India, ancient Palestine 
and Ivuroiie and found that lhe\' were evcr> where 
es.scntially identiial or, at the ver>' least, ilosi'K- 
related, thereby indicating a common origin, 
probaliB somewhere in the Mediterranean re- 
gion. Although the wide distribution of the 
megalithie comiilex was a clear indication of its 
great antiquity, 1 left the question of (he dale of 
its introduction in Indonesia, and in .Southeast 
Asia in general, open, b'urther research con- 
N’inicd me, however, that it must have been 
brought by the .same ethnic wa\e which intro- 
duceil (he neolithic (Juadrangular Adze C'ullure 
(14 1 j. If this proves correct, its first appearance 
in Indonesia would probably have to be dated 
between 2.S00 and 1500 n.c. 

The existence of large stone sculptures on the 
Pasemah plateau of .South Sumatra had been re- 
ported as early as 1850. During the second half 
of the 19th century the\ had liccn seen and de- 
scribed by several visitors to the region. In this 
century, I.. C'. W'kstenknk had published de- 
tailed descriptions and photographs (142). All 
the earlier authors referred to the images as 
works of the Hindu period. It was only the late 
Professor v.\n Ef.kdk who, while passing through 
Pasemah in 1929, expressed (he opinion that they 


might be connecteii with the numerous meidiirs 
ami dolmens found in the same region. The fol- 
lowing year V . I). K. Boscii, head of the Archaeo- 
logical St^r\ ice. \ isited Pasemah and ag;iin called 
attention to (he megalilldc remains he foimd 
there (1 l-T- It was ;it v.w Ki;Rr)i:'s snggi'stion 
that v.w Di'U Hoot’ was sent to Sumatra in 19.H 
with (he ex|>ress (ask to inwstigale the images 
and other nu'galilhic rem.iins ol P.isemah. I he 
book in which v.w Di u Moot* i)ulilishcd the 
results of his rt'search is one of the most im- 
jiortant cont tilail ions to the i)rehistory of 
Indonc.sia. It threw light on a i)eriod until 
(hen practii'alK unknown, re\ealed culture con- 
taits of which we pre\ ioush had hardly the 
faintest idea, and marks an iiiqiortant step for- 
ward in our knowledge ol the megalitliic cultures 
of Indonesia (144). 

In the course <4 his suives of Pasemah and 
neighboring regions, v.w Di K Hoot’ found the 
following classes of monuments: (a) Upright 
stones (menhirs), single or in groups, [h) Dol- 
mens. I'hese had nc)) been used as graves, lint 
were ob\iousl\ memorials similar to those which 
are still lieing erected in Nias and other ishindsof 
the Archipekigo tin<! among the hill tribes of 
A.ssam. (f) .Stone troughs, which had [irobably 
served as receptai les for the skulls of the dead, as 
is still the case in .Nias, id) Slones with a flat 
upper surf<ice in whii h one or more circular hol- 
lows of approximately b inches diameter and 
de|)th had lieen made. 4'lie loi'al poiiulation ('alls 
them lesiing batii, “stone ri('e-mortars.” \b\N 
I)i;k Hoot* thought (hat lhe\' h.id liecn used for 
husking some sort of gr.iin (115). (<) Terrace 

graves. (/) Stone cist graves, (g) A few primi- 
tive stone innigcs, obviously aiu.’estor figures, 
similar in stvle to the wooden ancestor figures 
found among some of the more primit ive I ribes of 
the Archipelago and in New (juinea. (/P A con- 
siderable number of large stone images of a 
strongly dv iiamic, agitated stv Ic; the verv images 
whii'h \V|';sti:n!;nk ;ind other .authors had previ- 
ouslv referred to as nanains ol the Hindu jHaiod. 
I'luw represent warriors with helmets and dag- 
gers, groLigis of (wool three people, men riding on 
elepliantsor biifl.dois (l it.. 48), an eleidiant with 
a warrior on each side, both warriors carrying 
bronze drums on their b.icks, a man fighting an 
elephant, twt.) men fighting a st'rpent, two tigi^rs 
pairing, the tigress clutching with her ton* p;uvs 
the head of a human figure, etc. (/) flat stone 
with the relief of a human figure in the same style 
as the images. 

V.W in;K Hoot' e.xcavated two stone cist graves 
in whii'h he found fragments of bronze orna- 
ments, a gold nail and numerous glass be.ids (see 
above p. 146). On the inner wall of one of the 
graves were remnants of a painting in color, 
showing the iipiier half of a human figure and 
traces of an animal figure, [irobablv a buffalo. 
This painting reveals the same stvle as the 
images. Bv' reason of the bronze drums, helmets 
and daggers represented on the inuiges, V.VN t)i''.K 
Hoof assumed the monuments to be of the same 
date as (he finds from Dongson in North .'\nnain. 

During (he years following van 1)i;k Hoof’s 
investigations, several hitherto unknown monu- 
ments were discovered in the Pasemah region, 
all in the typical dv namic Pasemah style. One of 
the most imiiortant ones is a stone with a relief 
representing (wo men, two buffaloes, a dog and a 
crocodile. The two men larrv one of the well 
known bronze drums. .\ megalithie chamber 



VON HKiNK-(ii;i.i)i kn: Prehistoric Research in the Netherlands Indies 


150 


j^rave \ ielded two paiiiliiigs, a man with a buffalo 
(kk;. 49), and a man with an clcidiant (?) (146). 

SciiNiTCKR reiioried me^alithic monuments 
from various |)arts of Suma'ra. At Sintoeo in 
Minangkabau he found a stone terrace with 
several scats, at Aoer Doeri and other places in 
Central Sumatra stone pillars with lairved capi 
tals and car\cd ornaments which he rij»htlv com- 
{)ared to similar monum.mts loimd on (he Mala\ 


Peninsula. In Kerintji and ui)j)er Djamhi he 
found large “cannon-shaped” [)illar-like stones 
King flat on the ground. Tho.se in Djambi, 
which had pre\ iousl\ been described b\- dk Bom , 
are decorated with meander-like designs, rows of 
concentric ( ircles, probal)l\ correct 1\ interpreted 
!))■ SchniT(;i;k as representations of gongs, and in 
one case a primitive human figure (147). The 
age of these remains is not known, but the\ could 
harfll\ antedate the l>ong,s<Mi Period and proba- 
bl\ are considerabK later. 

In Java various groups of megalithic monu- 
ments and terraces were described by v.\N dkk 
Hoop, van Tkiciit, K. Ada.m and others (148). 
Some among them ma>- g«) back to very early 
times, while others were erecte<l during (he late 
Hindu period. The terraced monument on (he 
Jang Plateau in the Argopoero Mountains, previ- 
ously described by KouLHKi'c.ca-:, was revisite<l 
l)y DK JoNc; (149). 'I'he megalithic graves and 
monuments in the Districts of Mondowoso and 


Djember, Residenc>- Besoeki, Kast Java, were 
investigated, and .some of (he graves excavated 
by DK Haan, van HkkkI':kI',n and Willems. 
The graves consist either of stone sarcophaguses, 
some of (hem adorned with primitive sculptures, 
or .are built of upright slabs and covered with 
huge monoliths. Their contents, as well as ob- 
jects found in a contemporary megalithic em- 
placement, glass beads, stone bark-cloth beaters, 
|)otter\, ornaments of gold and copper 
and. in some cases, a bnv iron tools, 
[)ro\e that at least .some of (he graves 
ami nionuments dale from (he Iron Age 
period. .'\s alread\ slated, the discov- 
er\' of sherds ot glazed Chinese ware in 
one ot the graves proves that it was still 
in use in I he 9i h centuta a.d., although 
il ma\, ofcour.se, ha\e been l>uilt earlier 
(150). The custom of burx ing (he dead 
in stone sarcophagu.ses persisted even 
later. .Some of the latter bear inscrip- 
tions dating them as late as the 14th cen- 
tury (151). d'he Iron Age stone cist 
gras'cs of Cioenoeng Kidoel in (.'entral 
java have alread\ lieen mentioned (see 
p. 148) (152). 

il will be seen that all the stone cist 
graves ami .slal» built graves of South 
Sumatra, Central and Kast Java con- 
tained glass be.'uls and metal, bronze, 
gold, ropper or iron. The same was the 
case in similar graves (hat have been in- 
vestigated in the Malay Peninsula (15vC. 
b'rom these facts we ma>’ infer that the 
us(‘ of such gr;i\('.s was introduced in 
Indonesia not earli(*r than the Dongson 
Period. On t hi; other hand, the disco\'ery 
of a stone cist grave near ('heribon in 
West Ja\a which contained neither metal 
nor gkiss be.ids, but three stone adzes, 
seems to indicate that the ethnic or 
cultural wave in (luestion must have 
reached Jaxa during a relatively earl\' 
phase of the metal ages, when stone, tools 
were still largely u.sed (154). 

Several stone sarco[)haguses have been 
found in Pali (155). Although we have 
no direct evidem e of their age, save 
that one ('ontained a fragment of copper 
or bronze, we may assume that they are 
more or le.ss contem])or;iry with those of 
Kast Java, thus dating fnnn the 1st 
millennium a.d. or, possibK , even later. 

The stone images and stone vats of Central 
('elebes, previously reported In Kkkyt, Kiliaan 
and (iKKrtAtu<;R, were described by Kaidkrn and 
Ravkn (156). In 1952, Kruyt mmle them the 
suljject of a study in which he came to the con- 
clusion (hat they had been made by a people who 
had come from the North, probaliK’ with a 
Bronze Age culture (157). In the same year, 
Madeleine ('olani (Irew attention to the simi- 
larit\ of the stone Nats of ('elebes to tho.se of 
b'rench Laos (158). In 19.(8, Krkyt as well as 
Kakdinrn gave full and \erN^ valuable surveys of 
all the megalithic monuments of ('entral (.'elebes, 
menhirs, stone images, grooved stones, stone 
mortars, stone vats, etc. (159). However, Kak- 
dkrn’s coin lusion that this megalithic culture 
flourished in ('elebes before the buffalo had been 
introduced is open to grave doub.ts. Nor can his 
dictum that “all attempts to fix definitely in 
time these megalithic finds . . . seem to be en- 
tireK’ useless in view of the ver\- limited knowl- 



151 


VON I lKi\i;-(',i:Lr)|.;KN: Prehistoric Research in the Netherlands Indies 


edge we have regarding them,” he admitted a<^ 
valid. He seems to ha\ e overlooked M adi-i.kim-. 
Coi.ANi’s work on the stone vats of h'remh Laos 
which defmiteh- gives a ( lue about the age of such 
monuments (160). d'hose of Laos cannot be 
older than the Dongson Period, and, in view of 
the (|uanlitv ol iron tools found in their vicinitv , 
are probably later. 'Fhev ma\ date from the 
first centuries of our era. 

Stone sarcophaguses resting on stone pillars 
decorated with jirimitive sculptures of human 
ligures have been reported from the Apo Kajan 
region in Central Porneo. Their origin is i;n 
known to the present |)oi)ulation (161). 


.An'liipelago, (he area of the vonnger megalilhic 
culture is much more rcstric;e»l and, as 1 thought 
at that time, this culture had completelv' disap- 
[leared Irom present dav life (162). .Subseipient 
research has conviiued me lh.it this lattin as- 
sumption was erroneous and that the vonnger 
megalilhic complex still survives .iniong the 
Palak ol Sumatra ;md in Soemba .and. to a cer- 
tain e.xteni, slronglv mixed with elements ot the 
older lomplex, on tlie island of \'i.is. 

Phis dislinc tion between an older and younger 
megalilhii' culture has since bi'en ado])led by \C\N 
Di'K Hoof, X'KoKi.Ai.f: and Williims (16,v). Fu- 
ture research will iirobalilv show that the migra- 



On the basis ol van DI'.k Hoof’s results in 
South Sumatra and oi metal finds in (he mega- 
lit hie graves of (he .M.dav' Peninsula and of J.iva. 
1 hatl to rev ise mv' chronologv of megalithit' cul 
tures. I ('anie to (he conclusion that we had to 
distinguish ,it least two, and possiblv more, 
megalithic waves which reai'heii Indonesia at 
dilferent times. 'I'he older one (in realitv prol a- 
bly a series ol ethnic and cultural waves) lame iu 
(he neolithic jieriod with the jieoples who intro- 
duced (he quadrangular Adze culture, thus jirob- 
ably between 2500 and 1500 u.c. It introduced 
the custom ot erecting menhirs, single or in 
groujis, dolmens (not used ;is gr.aves), stone seats, 
stone terraces, stone pv ramids, megalithic as- 
sembly iilaces, various tv pesof stone tombs, etc. 
The younger megalithic wave (again prol ably a 
series ot migrations r.ither than a single onct 
came during (he period of (he Hongson ('ulture 
and the Farlv’ Iron Age and introduced the use of 
stone cist graves, dolmen-like slab graves, stone 
sarcophaguses and stone vats. While the older 
megalithic culture spread over wifle regions of 
Indonesia and from there to Oceania, and sur- 
vives even today in manv parts of (he Malav 


lion vv Inch brought t'.ic use ot stoni' v.its lor burial 
puriioses to ('elebes and also to the Pat.ik of 
Sumatra, although more or less contenqioraneous 
with ih.ii which introduced the use of stone cist 
graves, was nevertheless distinct, coming from 
another region .ind bv ililfereni routes. In con- 
tradii tion to Kki y r’s t lu'orii's, 1 consider it prolia- 
ble that stone vatsaiul nrn burials belong to the 
s.imc' culture. I'he stone sarcophaguses of Java 
and Pali mav turn out to be ilue to later intUi- 
ences than the stone cist graves. 

\’an .Sti:in ('Ai.Li;M'ia.s thought that the cus- 
tom ol burial in stone cist graves might have been 
inlrodiued bv the earliest wave of immigration 
Irom .South India. 'The same view was expressed 
bv SrCTTiCKitiavi (161). On the other hand, 1 
had pointed out strong stylistic similarities be- 
tween the Pasemah im.nges and reliefs and Chi- 
nese sculpt ures ol t lu' earlv I Ian |>eriod. .Sincethe 
[laintings on llu' inside* ol some ol ihe stone cist 
and chamber graves ot Pasemah show the same 
St vie as the images and rebels, (here can lie no 
doubt that the graves belong to the same culture 
and date from (he same jieriod as the latter. I 
(herelore suggested that the u.se of stone cist 


VON Hi: iNK-Gi;i,i)KK\: Prehistoric Research in the Netherlands Indies 


152 


graves and chainhor jjraves initjhl have come t'rorn 
China, where similar i>ra\e forms occur clurin.n 
the Han period (105). \Viij.i>ms, too, admits the 
possihility (hut the mc^’alit hie ^Ta\cs of ICast 
Java miyhf be ot (diinese onJ;in. He even refers 
to local traditions, f'reviouslv reported bv Stion- 
METZ, accordinj,^ to which the graves are indeed 
said to be those ol a mien ( Chinese (166). 

Primitive stone images, in most cases no doubt 
ancestor figitres, are tound in many islands of the 
Archi[)elago. Except where the\ are of (piite 
recent origin, ihtir age can rarelv be determined. 
Some of them mav be remnants (il the neolithic 
Quadrangular Ad/e Culture. Others show some 
affinily with the Pasemah sculptures and mav 
date from the earh- metal ages. Others still re- 
veal slvlistic influences derived from llindu- 
Buddhist art, while a great number have no 
doubt been made during the very last centuries, 
even though their origin mav have l)een forgotten 
by the local population. Iti Nias, in Soemba, 
among the Batak ot .Sumatra and in various 
other islatids and are<is, the art of primitive stone 
sculitlLire is .still more or less alive. It would lead 
too far to go into details. 'I'lierefore, 1 shall con- 
fine mvself to listing a tew of the more recent 
books and articles dealing with the subject, leav- 
ing aside such regions as Nias, Soemba or the 
IVIinahassa, where we .so tar h.ave no means of 
distinguishing between ancient and recent monu- 
ments. 

The stone sculptures of the Batak countrv in 
Sumatra were studied bv S( iimtc.er and aliove 
all by VuuktioEVi'. and Tu iiia.M.vN (167). The 
primitive stone images of Java have long l)ccn 
known and were usually referred to as "Polv- 
nesian images,” a highly itiappropriate term, 
which took no account of the distinction between 
Indonesians and Polynesians (168). They have 
recently been studied by v.w Heeki-kkn, Wie- 
li<;m.s, KootiR, Tit iiEi.MAN and the author (169). 
Ancient stone scul[)tures from the western part 
of Flores were discussed bv \’R()KI..\oe (170). 

Apart from Celebes, where they are still made 
and used by the Sa’dan Toradja, rock-cut cham- 
l)cr graves are known from Java, Sumatra and 
Borneo. Those of .Sumatra have l:)ecn investi- 
gated by VAN Si'Ktx Cai.eenfki.s, Voorhoivvk 
and Tit.HKi.MAN (171). Some contain reliefs or 
wall paintings. Their age has not vet been <le- 
termined. A few may date from the Hindu per- 
iod, while others may be older. A relief of a lard 
near the entrance ot one of those artificial caves 
m the Batak country corresponds stylistically to 
a motif frequent 1\’ found on bronze drums of the 
Dongson culture and on Chinese tiles of the Han 
period (172). 1 hree rock-cut chamber graves 

with ivrimitive .sculptures of human faces over 
their entrances have been discovered in the Apo 
Kajan region of Central Borneo (17.5). 

Although nothing definite can so far be said, it 
seems [^roliable that the use of rock-cut graves 
originated or was introduced during the Ihmgson 
period. 

Survival of Prehistoric Art Styles: In 1929, 
Victor ( loi.otuivw compared the boats repre- 
sented on bronze drums of the Dongsem Culture 
with Dayak paintings representing spirit boats 
and proved their close connection. Moreover, he 
observed the similarity of the double spiral de- 
signs on the drums and other bronzes to those of 
the living arts of the Dayak and Batak (174). 
This suggested a new vvav' of approach to the 


prolflems of the prehistory and ethnology of In- 
donesia. An investigation which I undertook on 
the basis ol this incentive, led to the distinction 
ol two main styles of living primitive art in In- 
donesia, both of which could be linked to pre- 
historic cultures. The first of these styles is 
mainly sculptural and monumental and in its 
original aspect seems to have almost completely 
lacked purelv' ornamental design. The works it 
produced, sometimes in stone, more frecptently in 
wood, consist in ancestor figures or in reliefs, 
cither commemonit ing achievements in war or 
the <-hase or the acconii>lishment of sacrificial 
rites (human heads, heads or horns of bulls, etc.), 
or in magic symbols of fertility and wealth. This 
monumental style could be proved to be that of 
the older megalithic culture, (’onsetiuently, its 
origins must re.ich back into the neolithic period. 

It survives in its pur(‘ form among the mountain 
tribes of Assam, West Burma and North Luzon. 
In Indonesia it occitrs in a relatively i)ure form 
on the island ot Nias, and its traces are si)read far 
over t he Archipelago. Tlu* second stv le is mainly 
ornamental atid delights in bcMUtilul curv ilinear 
designs, doulde spirals, etc. Moreover, it pro- 
duced and still produces paintings rei)resent ing 
mv lhologi<'al scenes or scenes of daily life. The 
close similaritv’ of its ornaTiienls and ])aintings to 
the ornaments and scenes on the ancient bronze 
drums, as well as t(j ornaments on other bronze 
objects of the Dongson Culture, leaves no doubt 
as to the origin of this style. It must have been 
introduced (luring the Bronze Age, i.e. about the 
middle or during the second half of the first 
millennium u.c. This ornamental style of Bronze 
Age origin is found in a particularly vigorous atid 
highly (ieveloi)ed form in the arts of the Dayak 
of Borneo, the Batak and Minangkabauans of 
.Sumatra, the Sa’dan Toradja of Celebes, the 
Ngada of Flores and the natives of Alor and the 
Tanimbar Islands, but there is hardly a region in 
Indonesia where its influence' is mM ret'ognizable. 
This influence extends along the North Coast of 
New Ciuinea as far as the Trobriand Islands and 
has even iienetraled into the .Solomoit Islands 
(17.5). 

Two irntujrtant papers along the same line of 
research were contributed l)y VROKLAtiK and 
.Stkinmann. That of XToklaok deals with the 
connections betw^een the ornamental stvle and 
the second (Metal Age) megalithic culture, while 
.Sticinmann discussed the survival of Dongson 
motives and designs in the textiles of Knx- in 
Southwest Sumatra (176). 

On the basis of investigations which I carried 
on in recent years, but the results of which have 
not yet l)ccn published, I ('ame to the conclusion 
that the ornamental styles of Indonesia are not 
merely of Dongson ('ulture origin, but can be 
traced back to two distinct sources. While the 
Dongson style survives in almost pure form in 
the arts of the Batak, Minangkabauans and 
.Sa'dan Toradjas and in those of Alor and Tanim- 
bar. the art styles of the Davak of Borneo and of 
the Ngada of Flores seem to be derived mainly 
from the Late (diou style of China. Both the 
Dongson and Late Chou styles, which flourished 
at the same time and were in many respects re- 
lated to each other, may have reached Indonesia 
roughly during the same period. 

Not only do the recent art styles of many 
peoples of Indonesia perpetuate styles of art in- 
tnxiuced in prehistoric times, but the latter's 
influence is clearly recognizable also in Javanese 



\ ON Hi-:im:-( iki.dkkn ; Prehistoric Research in the Netherlands Indies 


is.<; 


buiUlinRS and si ulptiires of I he Hindn-lhiddhist 
period, especially of its final jdiase, when the old 
indigenous snl)s(ralum gained more and more in 
import arice. Kkom and St t ’ itI'; r n 1:1 . m ha\e 
shown that Javanese terraced sanctuaries like 
(hose at Soekoeh, Tjcta, etc., .all datirjg from (he 
14th and 15(h centuries, .are reall\ Mitidnized 
versions of the old meg.alithic type of terraced 
monuments (fk;. 50) (177). In a disiassion of 
the subject I added a few nc'w proofs whicii con- 
firm these two authors’ findings. I also tried to 
link the Jaxanese scimlchral b.athing i)laces of 


tlHO). laistK', 1 tried to show that the Kris 
Madjap.ahit, probabl\ the oldest form of the 
fa\anese kris, had dexadooed from ,1 hromr flag- 
ger (\f>eol the Dongso'i ('ultiirc uhif h h.as been 
lound in 'I'onkin and N’orth Atm.mi (bSl). 

Discovery of the Palaeolithic: 4 lu' di.'^rovery 
of Pleistocem* raca^s and i iiliures in ja\.a b\' C. 
Tl'tR II.WK, Oeia AOORTd, VON KoI:M(.- WAI.I), 
and t heir collaborators opened a completeh new 
ch<aj)ter in t lu* historx ol preliistoric research in 
Indonesia. Until lO.tl the onl\ human remains 



Kn.uRR .SO. -Tiandi .Sokkokii, ISiu ( i.;NruRY .A. D., Cun ikal Java. (/Sy amrlrxy uf Dk. Wille.m F. SiuriKionaM.) 


the 10th .and 11th centuries to certain lorms ol 
fiiegalilhic monuments found among (he moun- 
tain tribes of A.ssani and North Luzon and in the 
island of Nias, bathing phna'S which at the same 
lime serve as memorials to the dead. Further, I 
attempted to demonstrate that the Ilindu- 
Sundanese sculptures of (he 14th century con- 
tained elements derived from the primitive pre- 
llinilu stone ance.stor figures of \Ve.st Java (178). 

Krom, Stpttkkufi.m and others had repeat - 
edl>’ commented on the “Indonesian” character 
ol Fast Javanese art, as contrasted to the classi- 
cal Ilin 111 character of the earlier, ('entral Java- 
nese period, Krom had especially dwelt on the 
similarities of Central, as well as East Javanese 
decorative designs to those of Dayak and Hatak 
art (179). On the basis of my .studies on the 
Ornamental Style of Indonesia and its deriva- 
tion from (he art of the Dongson (ailture, I 
pointed out that it was this style of Bronze Age 
origin which had influenced the Hindu-Buddhist 
art ol ICasI J.ix'a. Moreover, I suggested that 
t he .style of the Javanese VVa>ang puppets and of 
the reliefs on h^ast Javanese temples, so com- 
pletely different from (hat of ( he clas.sical perioil, 
had been influenceil by paintings similar to those 
of the Bataksand Dayaks, paintings which orig- 
inally derive from those of the Dongson Culture 


ol undoubted IMeistofcne age known from (his 
area were the Pilhecafifliropus skull and femur 
from Trinil and a mandible, also attributed to 
PUlu’canthropus, from Kendimg Broeboes. The 
two Wadjak skulls, although considered b> l)i - 
nois as l)eing j)robably of IMcistocene age, could 
not l>e dated with cerlaint\ . Not a single arti- 
fact of the Pleistocene period hail as \el been 
discovered. 

This situation changed r,ulic.ill\ , w hen in 19.11 
and the following years, C. rt:R Ma.vr, non 
Koi-:ni(;s\v.\LI) and OiunvNooK rn found parts of 
eleven human skulls and one tibia in a river ter- 
race of the .Solo Kiver vallc\ near Ngandong in 
('entral Java. The stratum from which these 
remains were e.xcavated dales from (he middle 
part of the Up[)er Pleistocene and is said to lor- 
respond to the 'I'lnnl Interglacial (182). Whereas 
\'.\LLOis and von Koi-NioswAia) ascril)ed the 
Ngandong skulls to a local variant of Neanderthal 
Man, Oi’PENoimi'n pointed out important dilTer- 
ences from the l.ilter, .anil considered Homo solo- 
ensis, as he termed this new human race, as a dis- 
tinct form descended from Pithveanthropus (185). 
His view has l)ccn confirmed In- Wt-aDiiNREiCH, 
who came to the conclusion that “ Homo soloensis 
cannot be placed in the Neanderthal group, but 
reprcvsents a rather more primitive type” and 


vox lIi'isE-CthLDiMs: Prehistoric Research in the Netherlands Indies 


J54 


that he is “an enlarged Pithcainthropus (\ |)e on 
(he way to an advanced forni” (184). 

The discover) of Homo soloonsis was followed 
b\' (hat of an infantile skull in a straluin ot (he 
Earl\- Pleisioccne Djelis jx'riod near Modjokerto 
in East Ja\a (185). It is (he skull of a Pithe- 
canthropus ctiild, l)ut on account ot its infantile 
character, it is not i>ossil)lc to determine to which 
of the three Pithecanthropus races or stages, dis- 
tinguished 1)\ WKiOKMoacit, it belongs (186). 
This skull ol Homo modjokertensis ma\ be con- 
sidered as being (he oldest geological!) datable 
human remain hitherto found in Asia. 

In P).18 and Ib.W von KoI'INICswai.d di.scov- 
ered in rapid succession three skulls, a maxilla 
and a mandible of Pithecanthropus, all dating 
from the Middle Pleistocene Trinil period which 
had alread)’ ) ielded Druois’ first Pithecanthropus 
find (187). In PHI, he was able to add the frag- 
ment of a mandible of a giant hominid, whom he 
distinguished as a special form, and termed 
Meganlhropus palaeo-javanu us. Detailed studies 
of these human remains were made by Wkiuhn- 
Kiacii, who (ame to (he t<)nclusi(.)n (hat the) 
represent three races, or rather three stages of 
development, Meganthropus, Pithecanthropus ro- 
bustus and, the furthest developed of the three, 
Pithecanthropus crectus. According to Wi-aDiCN- 
KKK ti, Meganthropus is a descendant of Ciganto- 
pithecus, knouii onh- !))■ three teeth from <'aves in 
South ('hina and in realit) a hominid who should 
be termed more correct I) (Hgantanthropus (188). 

Rectmtl) . new light has also been shed on the 
age of U’adjak man. .A skull of Homo saf.i''ns, 
found at Keilor, near Melltourne in .Australi.a, has 
been saitl to date from the l.ist Interglacial (189). 
.According to WinDK.NKiac it, the skull corresponds 
in the most minute details to the skulls from 
Wadjak (190). .Although the attribution of the 
Keilor skull to the last Interglacial c.annol )et l)e 
accepted as definite, we can hardl) doubt that it 
actuall) dates from the l.ate Pleisloccme, be it 
from the 'I'hird Interglacial or from the b'ourth 
(ilaciation. 4'lns would indicate that in Java, 
too. Wadjak .Man existed during the l.ate Pleis- 
(oc'ene, all hough it is, ol course, possible that he 
,sur\ived into (he early Holocene. 

.SimiiltaneousI) with these discoveries ol pre 
historic races, the outlines of the cultural history 
ot Java during (he Pleistocene |)eriod began 
slowl)- to emcage. The* first artif.icts of Pleisto- 
cene age ever to lx; discovered in the soil cjf In- 
donesia were foumt in the bate Plca.-tocene 
stratum at .Ngandong in the Srdo Ki\er \'alle)', 
which had ) ielded the skulls of Homo .wloeiLsis, 
and in strata cjI the* same geological age at nearb) 
Watoealang. Most conspicucnis among them are 
a kind ot hammers or hoes made frcjiu the antlers 
of a Pleistocene deer, d.vbv Lydekkeri. The)- fur- 
llier compri.se pieces of broken jiipe Ixanes, some 
of which seem to have been intentionally fash- 
ioned tor use: as spatulac or pointed weapons, 
tail stings of ra\s which ma) have .served as dag- 
gers or s[)ear heads, balls of anclesit and a variety 
of stone tools, mostK’ .sc rapers or flakes (nc;. 51 ) 
(191 ). Unfortunately, (he exca\ations were car 
ried out ifi a comi)le(el)’ unsystematic and un- 
scientific manner, right!) c-riticized by v.w Stki.n 
C.Ai,ia..NH'.i..s and others (192). As a result, we 
have so far ncj wa) of telling whether (he fimls 
belong to a single cult ure or to a series of dift'erent 
j)eriocls and cultures, nor whether atiy among 
them, and if so, which, represent the culture of 
Homo soloensis. \ a.\ Stiun C\\i.i.i;nfi:i.s was 


|)robabl)- right in suggesting (hat (hey may come 
from civilizations I ypologicall)’ and chronologi- 
cally far apart (195). 

.A uni(|ue item, a bone spear head with a double 
row of barbs, is said to have been found at Sido- 
redjo in the Solo River valle) in a .stratum dating 
from the very end of the Pleistoc'ene (191). It is 
dec idedl)- later than the Ngandong stratum and 
it was on!) b) error that v.\n Stfin Cai.lfnI' I'XS, 
and on the latter's authorit) also the author, 
.'i.scribed it to .Solo Man with whom it cert.-iinh 
has nothing to do (fic;. 51). 

In 19.U, VON Koi-,Nic,swAt.i) found at .Sangiran 
near Socnikarta in Middle java small flakes, 
blades, points, .sc rapers and c'ores of chalcedony 
or other silicified material “associated with a 
fauna tyitical of the 4'rinil horizon.” Howe\-er, 
he pointed out that these t(X)Is all came trom the 
upper part of the .Middle Pleistocene stratum, 
whereas (he skulls and other remains ot Pithe- 
canthropus discovered at the .same place were all 
found in its lower part. .At first he expressed the 
opinion that (he implements c'oulcl not be a.scribecl 
to Pithecanthropus, as (he) were t) pologic.all) 
too advanced. Subsecjuent 1) , he changed his 
view and considered the ixi.ssibilit) that the 
.Sangiran tools were inclec'd tho.se of Pilhecan- 
thropus (195). 

Tlie attrilnit ion of the Sangiran artilac ts to the 
I'rinil |)eriod was criticized b) rFti.iiARl) Di-: 
CitAKDiN, who .isc'ribed the stratum in which 
the) had been fouml to the bate Pleistocene and 
thought that it was more or less contemporar) 
with the Ngandong huers which had )ielded the 
remains of Homo soloensis llis view was c'on- 
firmed b)- df Ti:kK.\. who, whem he investigated 
the site, lound no stone (cx)ls in the Middle 
Pleistcx'ene stratum, but onlv in the overl) ing 
bate Pleistocene .\o(oi)ocro Beds, B) rcMson ol 
the strat igraphical conclitions, as well as ol their 
t)pologic'al character, i.)i'; Tt-.kKA assignc.xl the 
.Sangiran implemenls and the similar ones which 
he and .Movit s found on the surface near Kar- 
sono in the Solo Ri\er valle) to the bate Pleisto- 
cene and suggested (hat the\' ma)' possibl) be- 
connec ted with Homo .soloensis (196), This is in 
accordance with van StiaN (.'Ai.i.i:Ni'ia.s’ ob- 
.servalion, who remarked that the allegedl) .Mid- 
dle Pleistocene stone tools of .Sangiran are 
“ prac tic al!)' identic.d” in c haracter with those* 
from the bate Pleistocene Ngandong la)ers (197). 

A further stej) forward in our knowledge ol the 
palaeolithic' cultures ol ja\'a came in 19,bS. when 
VON Kc)I':mc,s\vai.I) and Tw(;ki)II'. discovered in 
the surroundings of Patiitan, near I he Semth 
coast of (\‘nt ral Java, large, rough stone tocilscom- 
[uising sc raj>crs, c hoppers and hand-tixes (fic.s. 
52, 5.1) (198). .Since these tools were all lound on 
the surface, their age cannc.)t Aet be determined 
with any degree of certaint) . Ac c orcling tc; von 
Koknioswald’s original view, they Piust have 
been washed out from a stratum not later than 
the Trinil period, i.e. the earlier ])art of the Mid- 
dle Pleistocene, I he age of Pithecanthropus. I .ater, 
he is said to have changed his opinion and to be- 
lieve now that the)' ma)' date from .several ditfer- 
ent geologic al periods (199). 

Prom the ver)’ beginning, von Koi:ni(.s\v.\i.i> 
wished to exclude the possibilit ) t hat t he Pat jitan 
tcjols represent the culture of Pithecanthropus, as 
he thought that the) were tex) advanced in type. 
His conclusion was that a race of men j)hysicall) 
and culturally more developed than Pithecan- 
thropus must have lived side l)\ side with (he lat- 



155 


VON Ht:iNK-(;Kij)|.;KN: Prehistori c Research in the Netherlands Indies 


Lerin the Middle l^leistorene of Java (200). |{oth 
he and van dkk Hooi* classed the Patjifan cul 
lure as a branch of the (’hellean (201 ). 

Dk Tkkka is iiu'lined to date the Patjiian tools 
ill the late Middle Pleistocene or the early Pate 
Pleistocene (202). \ an Stkin rAi.i.KNVKi.s dis- 
cussed the iMissibilit\ that the\ may flale from 
the Pale Pleistocene Ntrandori^ period and rejire 
sent the culture of IJonu) sol oc lists, an assumption 


Stone tools similar to those from I’aijitan have 
since been found at various places in the vicinits , 
further near Parigi and (lomlion^' in southern 
( entral java, near Soekaboemi in West java and 
near rambanjrsawah in the kesidenc\’ Henkoelen 
in Uest Sumatra (207). Since ail specimens were 
picked up Irom the surface, their ^eoloyrical a^e 
cannot yet be determined. 

Asa result of all thesedisco\ cries, we now have 



• Two lAiei.K.Mlv.NlS 0 |. IIKI KllokN l•ROM .\(;A.\|)0\(. .\.\ll IIAKHI-.I> SI-KA|OII-.AI» !■ RUM 
SIDORKDJO, ( I-NTKAl, J.\V\. I From VA.\ Sll-.I.N' ( 'a I.I.C NM.I.S, 1 ) 


lor which there is, however, so far not the le.ist 
evidence (205). 

The ('hellean character of the Patjitan culture 
was questioned b\ Movit s and in-; 'Pkkka, who 
want to link it rather to the choppiiif'- tool indus- 
tries of South and Past Asia, the Kota 'Pamiian 
c ulture of the Malay Peninsula, the Ainathian of 
Ppper Burma, the Ivarly Soan of Northwest In- 
'lia and the Sinanthropus culture of ('houkoutien 

(204) . 4 he possibility of such connections have 
lieen admitted also 1)\ Tkii.uako dk ('iiardin 

(205) . B\- reason of its suppo.sed geolojjical ajje 
and of its ly[)ological character, Movti^s consid- 
ered it as probable that the culture of Patjiian 
was that of Pithecavt hropus or at least of the lal 
ter's direct descendants: a view adopted also b\ 
HooTON, who thinks that all the chopping toiil 
influslrics of .southern and eastern Asia represent 
the cultures of men of the Filhccanthropus- 
Sinanthropus stage of evolution (206). 


t housands ol stone tools of <lislinctl\ early jialaeo- 
lil hie character, su|)|K)sedly dating from I he .M id- 
dle or the beginning of the Pate Pleistocene. 
They may, perhaps, he produi ts of the induslr\ 
i)i Pithecanthropus All this is, however, still 
(piite uncertain. The sober I rut h is t hat w e have, 
.so far, no proof of their geological age; that we 
even do not know whether the Patjitan tools be- 
long all to a single culture or to a series ai subse- 
quent cultures, a ix)s.sibilit v alreadv admitted In 
VON Koknioswai.I) (208). 

In concluding this chapter, the important prog- 
ress made in recent \ears in the est.iblishmenl 
of the outlines ol the geological slratigraph}- .and 
chronology of java should be mentioned. lOven 
the scant knowledge we have of the chronolog\ 
of palaeolithic cultures in that islatid could never 
have been attaine<l without the help of the fun<la- 
mental geological investigations of von Koi^nios- 
WAi.i), i)|.; Tkkka and other geologists (206). 



157 


VON HkinI'>Gkljji;kn: Prehistoric Research in the Netherlands Indies 


Progress and Organization of Research: A 
comparison of the results of exca vat ions and coin- 
paralive studies listed in this ])ai)er, with (he 
piliahh small knowledge we had of the prehis- 
lory of Indonesia when, little more than twenty 
years ago, I published the first general snrvev of 
the subject (210), will clearl\- show the vast 
strides lorward that luue been made in this held. 
The rapidity of progress, espccialK during the 
decade preceding (he present war, iiia\' lie illus- 
trated by the following facts. 

When 1 pulilisheil an ai'counl of the .Stone Age 
ol Indonesia in 1052, 1 (ouhl not list a single tool 
of Pleistocene age. Three years later, a large 
(plant it y of such tools, belonging to a \ ariety of 
cultures, were known. In 1058, they could al- 
read\’ be counted b\- the thousand. 

When the prehistoric ('ollection of the Patav ian 
Societx was installed as a separate unit ten >'ears 
ago, il ( omprised 1500 items. Py the end of 1050 
their numlier had risen to 5571 and thus had been 
more than trebled (21 1 ). 

In a I )il iliograidn co\'ering the \ ears Irom the 
beginning (5’ 1028 to the middle of 1056, I was 
able to list more than seventy titles of books and 
articles dealing with the* prchislor\ <>f the .Archi- 
pelago (212). 

Under these circumstances it is no wonder that 
the \aiious surve>s of our knowle«lge of the pre 
history of Indonesia, which were i>ublished since 
1026, were usualK' out ol date within a ver\' short 
peri(.)d, .some ci them, in fact, even at (he tinu* of 
thrir publiiation (215). If van di.k llooe’s ex- 
cellent contribution to Staimu.’s “ ( '.eschiedenis 
van Ncderlandsch Indie” and the author’s short 
article, written for the forthcoming edition 
ol Uncyi'lopaedia Pritannica, do not share (he 
fate of those jirevious pajiers, this will be due 
soIeK to the interruiK ion ol research Iw the war 
(2M). 

During the fifteen \ears preceding tin* jajia- 
nese in\asion, comparati\e studies carried out 
b\- VAN Si'KiN C.\i,ij;nh;ls, van dkr Hoot* and 
the author succeeded in drawing the outlines of 
the jirc'history of Indonesia, incomi)le(e and 
vague though the\ still are in main rc'spt'cis. 
Ttiis Could not ha\e 1 een achie\ed without the 
great progress made liy prehistoric research in 
neighboring areas, above all in the Malay Penin- 
sula and in French Indo ('hina, during the last 
(wo decach s. 

The importance of coordinating the results of 
research in Indonesia with those in other parts of 
Souttieast and F.ast Asia was earl\- realized b\' 
VAN .Si'i'tiN CALLi'Nrm.s. lie visited the Philip- 
pines, Japan and b'rench Indo-Uhina in order to 
olitain first-hand knowledge of the prehistoric 
cultures (d lluse areas (215). Moreoxer, he him- 
self took an active part in excavations in the 
Malav' Peninsula (216). llis stimulating inllu- 
ence was felt all over Southeast Asia and con- 
tributed great 1\' to the introduction of more sci- 
entific methods of excavation in that part of the 
worM. 

As a further means of mutual cooperation and 
excliange of knowledge, van Stkin Uai.i.knfki-s 
suggested the organization of a Congress of IVe- 
historians of (he Far Fast, to be held everv three 
years. The first session took place at Hanoi in 
1952, the second at Manila in 1955, (he third at 
Singapore in 1958 (217). Already fatally ill, van 
Stcin Caf.i.FvNFRI.s still attended the Congress at 
Singa})ore and from there proceeded to Kang(jon, 
to advise the Government of Purma on the pro- 


motion of prehistoric research. However, his 
health soon compelled him to le.ive lor luiro[>e. 
It was on his pas.sage there that death overtook 
him at (dilomlio in ( 'e\ Ion. 

Still another s(e|) wiiich was to prove ol great 
im|)or(ance for the ad\ .iiiceiiienl ol prehistoric 
studies in Indonesia is due to van SriaN Cai i.i.n- 
Fia.s; the organization of (he prehistoric collec- 
tions ol the Museum of t lu* Koval Pat.iv ian Soci- 
e(\ as a sejiarate unit (218). I'he s\ sternal ic 
studv ol t lu' rich material thus brought logetlu-r 
ami scieni ificallv classified has .is vet hardlv be- 
gun and [iromises to vield iniporiant results in 
vears to (ome. 

Ill Till-: 1‘LTirKK ()!• I’KI IIIMoKIi KusKAIilH 
IN Ind