List of ancient dishes
This is a list of ancient dishes, prepared foods and beverages that have been recorded as originating during ancient history. The span of recorded history is roughly 5,000 years, beginning with Sumerian cuneiform script, the oldest discovered form of coherent writing from the protoliterate period around the 30th century BC.
- The Early Middle Ages (the end of the 4th century AD)
- The fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD
- The Postclassical Era (200–600 AD and 1200–1500 AD, depending on the continent)
Although the end date of ancient history is disputed, some Western scholars use the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD (the most used), the closure of the Platonic Academy in 529 AD, the death of the emperor Justinian I in 565 AD, the birth of Islam in 610 CE or the rise of Charlemagne as the end of ancient and Classical European history. This list does not contain entries that originated after ancient history.
Archeologists and food historians have recreated some dishes using ancient recipes.
Beginning of recorded history to 476 AD
- Anfu ham is a dry-cured ham from Anfu, Jiangxi, China that originated from the Qin Dynasty. It is eaten alone and also used as an ingredient to add flavor to various dishes.
- Ashishim – Israeli red lentil pancake dish of Ancient Israelite origin, that was commonly eaten by Jews in antiquity.
- Babaofan or Eight Treasure Glutinous Rice was first created for a banquet celebrating King Wu of Zhou's defeat of the last King of the Shang Dynasty King Zhou of Shang in the Battle of Muye (circa 1123 BCE according to this article but 1046 BCE according to English Wikipedia article).
- Doubanjiang – oral history suggests 536 BCE – 448 BCE; first recorded history found in a text from the Western Han Dynasty (206 BCE – 9 CE)
- Fish sauce, see garum
- Garum – ancient Greece (where it was known as γάρος) and the Roman Empire, known from before Pompeii's destruction in 79 AD.
- Ham – dry-cured ham has been produced since ancient times.
- Hardtack – versions using various grains date back to ancient Rome, and as far back as ancient Egypt.
- Harissa – an Arab staple dish known to go back at least to the original Caliphates, and most likely earlier.
- Liquamen, see garum
- Lucanica – Western Roman Empire, mentioned by Cicero, 1st century BC
- Misu karu or Misugaru
- Nettle stew
- Nian gao
- Noodles – existent since at least 2,000 BC in Northwest China, the noodle was developed independently in ancient China and ancient Rome, and remained common in both areas "through the centuries".
- Oatcake – known to exist at least from Roman times in Britain.
- Olive, olive oil is at least known from the Eastern Mediterranean in the Bronze Age, c. 3000 BC
- Oxygala – a dairy product in ancient Greece and Rome. It was also consumed by ancient Persians.
- Papadzules – a common dish in Maya cuisine that may be "one of the most ancient traditional dishes of Yucatán, Mexico.
- Placenta cake – a layered cake of pastry, cheese and honey originating in ancient Greece and Rome
- Rice – existed, but was "little-used in the ancient world" outside of Asia.
- Scrapple – originally called "panhas", of ancient Germanic origin.
- Soy Sauce
- Torta de gazpacho
- Tracta was a kind of bread, pastry, or pancake in ancient Greece and perhaps Rome.
- Beer is recorded in the written history of Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt and is one of the world's oldest prepared beverages.
- Kykeon – a common beverage of sustenance in ancient Greece, most often consisting mainly of a barley gruel mixture with various additives, sometimes written as having psychoactive properties associated with religious visions.
- Kombucha originated in what is now Manchuria around 220 BCE, and is said to have been imported to Japan around 400 CE by the physician Kombu.
- Soy milk has been consumed in China since ancient times.
- Wine consumption and production has been found through archaeological evidence as early as c. 6000 BC.
- Butter – documented as existent since at least 2,000 BC
- Buttermilk – existed Anno Domini in India
- Kumis – documented as existing in ancient Scythia
- Opus lactarium – documented as existing during the ancient Roman Empire
- Quark (lac concretum) – documented as existing in ancient Scythia
- Schiston – "separated milk" purported to have been invented by physicians during the time of the Ancient Roman Empire and Pliny the Elder It was prepared by boiling milk or whey along with pebbles.
- Shrikhand – documented as existing circa 800 to 300 B.C. in ancient India
- Smy – thickened milk[c] documented as existent in ancient Egypt
- Yogurt – documented as existing in India circa 300 BC to 75 AD; referred to as "dahi"
- Brânză– an ancient Romanian cheese dating to "before the time of the Romans"
- Cantal – one of the oldest French cheeses, it is named after the Cantal mountain range
- Feta – existed during the times of Homer in ancient Greece
- Touloumotiri is an ancient cheese that is considered as the "forerunner to feta".
- Kefalotyri – dates to the Byzantine Empire
- Pecorino Romano – is one of the world's most ancient cheeses
- Pecorino Sardo (Flore sardo) – one of the world's oldest cheeses that is believed to date back to the Bronze Age
- Pecorino Siciliano
This section includes dishes, foods and beverages that originated during the time of ancient history from 477 AD to 1500 AD (prior to the Postclassical Era).
- Börek – known from 14th century Persia in a poem by Bushaq-i-Atima, although it may be far older.
- Hummus – first mentioned in a cookbook from Cairo, Egypt from the 13th century.
- Kuluban – an ancient Javanese dish of boiled vegetables served in spices, similar to modern-day urap. Mentioned in the Rukam inscription, dated to 829 Saka (907 CE) and originating from the Mataram Kingdom.
- Lalab – a similar vegetable dish called rumwah-rumwah was mentioned in the Panggumulan (Kembang Arum) inscription, dated to 824 Saka (902 CE) and originating from the Mataram Kingdom.
- Rawon – a meat stew, called rarawwan in an ancient Javanese Taji inscription (901 CE).
- Rujak – a spicy fruit dish, called rurujak in an ancient Javanese Taji inscription (901 CE).
- Krupuk – a traditional cracker made from rice flour, called kurupuk in ancient Javanese Taji inscription (901 CE).
- Popcorn – an ancient food used by people of the Inca civilization. The food is still commonly used in both regions.
- Philippine adobo – a dish and cooking process originating during the pre-colonial Philippines.
- Tapuy – rice wine originating from the pre-colonial Philippines.
- Tempeh – high-protein fermented soy product from Indonesia. First known as kadêlê, and mentioned in an old Javanese manuscript Serat Sri Tanjung dating to the 12th to 13th century CE.
Lacking time frame
- Khanom chan – an ancient Thai dessert
- Poi – an ancient Polynesian staple food prepared using taro root.[e]
Likely ancient in origin
- Nattō – prepared using fermented soybeans, nattō has been described as likely being an ancient food. Its origins have been described as unknown, and it may have been developed independently in different areas that have the same ingredients, such as Japan, China, and Korea.
- Abgoosht – also referred to as Dizi or Mesopotamian Meat Stew, was a stew originally made up of remnants of leftover vegetables and meats, different areas in the world have now spun this dish into numerous different variations – including, Armenia, Iran, Azerbaijan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Georgia, Iraq, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey, Russia, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary – the dish and its origins, however, come from ancient Mesopotamia and the recipe can be dated as far back as at the very least 400 BC as it was mentioned on Cuneiform Tablets during the Babylonian period. Abgoosht and its variants with localised recipes are the national dishes of a number of countries worldwide.
- History of cheese – the history of cheese predates recorded history
- Neolithic founder crops – eight plant species that were domesticated by early Holocene farming communities in the Fertile Crescent region of southwest Asia, and which formed the basis of systematic agriculture in the Middle East, North Africa, India, Persia and (later) Europe
- Old World wine
- Popina – an ancient Roman wine bar, where a limited menu of simple foods (olives, bread, stews) and selection of wines of varying quality were available
- Timeline of food
- Ancient Egyptian cuisine
- Ancient Greek cuisine
- Ancient Israelite cuisine
- Ancient Roman cuisine
- Egyptian cuisine
- Maya cuisine
- Muisca cuisine
- "The origin of sausage goes back to ancient times."
- "An ancient food, soup is prepared by cooking meat, fish or vegetables and the like in such fluids as water or milk; it is then consumed as a liquid."
- "Smy, or thickened milk, both human and animal, is often mentioned in medical prescriptions."
- "Cheese is represented in the tomb art of ancient Egypt and in Greek literature"
- "In the Pacific Islands, poi, made from taro root, is an ancient food that is preserved through fermentation."
- see Jemdet Nasr period, Kish tablet; see also The Origin and Development of the Cuneiform System of Writing, Samuel Noah Kramer, Thirty Nine Firsts In Recorded History, pp 381-383
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八宝饭，相传源于武王伐纣的庆功宴会。" and "公元前1123 年，周武王率诸侯东征，败纣于今河南省洪县南的牧野。纣0死，武王及定天下，建都于镐，即今长安西上林苑中。在周武王伐纣，建立天下的大业中，伯达、伯适、仲突、仲忽、叔夜、叔夏、季随、季骗八士，功勋赫赫，深为武王和人民称誉。在武王伐纣的庆功宴会上，天下欢腾，将士雀跃，庖人应景而作八宝饭庆贺。
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《事物绀珠》说，相传"秦昭王作蒸饼"。CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
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原来是当年伍子胥在姑苏城督造城墙时，已做好了屯粮防饥的准备。" and "汉朝对米糕就有“稻饼”、“饵”、“糍”等多种称呼。汉代扬雄的《方言》一书中就已有“糕”的称谓，魏晋南北朝时已流行。" (trans summary – Wu Zixu in the construction of the city walls hid Nian gao underneath the foundation; upon his death he told the starving city residents to dig out the Nian gao for food. This happened circa 484 BCE. Also rice cakes were known by several different names during the Han Dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE) including dào bǐng, ěr, cí, etc. In a book on Chinese Dialects written during the Han Dynasty there appears the word "gāo"....
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