A CHRONOLOGY OF THE COMMON ERA

A CHRONOLOGY OF THE COMMON ERA
at thinkworks.com
Compiled from sources on the internet and edited by Dimitris Sivyllis

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INFORMATION IN THIS SITE UPDATED: 01:19 EST (6:19 GMT) 1/26/04

         

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INFORMATION IN THIS SITE UPDATED: 22:55 EDT (26:55 GMT) 10/24/02

YEAR C.E.
MILESTONES & EVENTS
OF THE COMMON ERA
POPES
in
ROME

EMPERORS
in
ROME

PATRIARCHS
in
CONSTANTINOPLE

EMPERORS
in
CONSTANTINOPLE

MONARCHY,
PRIME MINISTERS
in BRITAIN

RULERS and
PRESIDENTS
of FRANCE

THE
WORLD
 

 

Birth of Jesus of Nazareth
placed at 4 BCE
               

 1

Common Era Begins Anno Domini (AD)
years begin to be counted
             1

 14

Augustus dies.   Tiberius            14

 26

26-36 Pontius Pilate governor of Judea.
John the Baptist is executed on orders from Herod Antipas.

c. 26-29: Jesus of Nazareth travels around Judea and Galilee attracting discliples and crowds to his message of love and care for one another. Accounts of his disciples and followers, his parables and miracles, the opposition to his teaching, and his prophecies about his own fate, are collected by his disciples according to the oral tradition of the time.
               26

 29

Jesus of Nazareth crucified in Jerusalem

Jesus' birth is estimated at 4 BCE; If the date for the death of John the Baptist is accurate at 26 CE, the crucifixion of Jesus must have taken place at 29 CE and he must have been 33 years of age.

After the crucifiction, the Apostles begin spreading the teachings of Jesus, first in Judea and Galillee, then to the gentiles in Greece, Rome and elsewhere.

The Apostle Paul (Saul) first uses the Greek word "Hristos" (Christ) to describe Jesus as the "Messiah" (Christ means Messiah in Greek) while preaching to the gentiles in Antioch.

During the first decade after Jesus' crucifixion the church that grows in His name is split between those who follow James, brother of Jesus, and Peter, His favoprite disciple, who maintain that followers should abide by the Laws of Moses and be circumcised, and, the followers of Paul, mainly gentiles. Paul makes a passionate case at the First Apostolic Counsel for accepting gentiles into the faith but without forcing the Law of Moses to the letter upon them. Paul, arguably, is solely responsible for the fact that the teachings of Jesus, as told by Paul, reached the gentiles in Greece and Rome.

Christianity, as it becomes known after the first decades, is seeded and will flourish within Judaism until the execution of James, brother of Jesus, and then among gentiles in Antioch, Athens, Ephesus, Corinth, Rome, Byzantium and elsewhere until the Third Century and subsequently evolve into a new religion in 325 CE with the establishment of The Creed of Faith.

During the first two centuries of the Common Era Christian communities are established around the Mediterranean basin.

The first Christians celebrate family suppers in memory of Jesus' Last Supper with the disciples before his crucifiction. This practice gives birth to the traditions which will eventually evolve into the Holy Litourgy (Mass) and the sharing of wine and bread to represent the Blood and Body of Christ. A tradition which culminates in the mystery of Eucharist (Communion) during litourgy, where it is believed that the offerings of wine and bread are transformed into the Blood and Body of Christ

After the death of the Apostles Christian communities gradually develop their own separate theology, dogma and tradition, spreading the teachings of Christianity to all parts of the known world, throughout the Roman Empire. These rising variations on dogma and tradition will necessitate the First Oecumenical council which will be called by Emperor Constantine the Great, St. Constantine, in Nicea, near Constantinople, in 325 C.E. in order to proclaim one Creed of the Christian Faith.
               29

 36

Stephen the "deacon" is martyred; the Church scatters                36

 37

Head of Christian Church at Byzantium (later Constantinople) named: BISHOP of BYZANTIUM

Jonathon, a son of Annas (High Priest from AD6-15), replaces Annas' son-in-law Caiaphas as High Priest in Jerusalem.

Paul makes his first visit as a Christian to Jerusalem. This follows his journey to Arabia and return to Damascus to preach (Galatians 1:17). Paul is forced to leave Jerusalem and goes to his home town of Tarsus (Acts 9:30)
  Gaius (Caligula) St. Andrew the Apostle          37

 38

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The conversion of Saul (later Paul) on the road to Damascus
    Stachys the Apostle          38

 39

Herod Antipas, tetrarch of Galilee and Perea, and his wife Herodias, are forced into exile in Gaul (France) by Caligula. Galilee and Perea are granted to King Herod Agrippa I to add to the territories already held since AD37                39

 40

40-65 Missions of Paul and associates, especially to Gentiles

The word Christians first used by Paul (Saul) to describe believers in Antioch

AD40-50 - According to tradition, Matthew wrote the GOSPEL OF MATTHEW, originally in Aramaic.
               40

 41

King Herod Agrippa I is now granted Judea and Samaria by Claudius. The line of Roman procurators temporarily comes to an end. After just four years, Agrippa I's kingdom equals that of his grandfather, Herod the Great (37-4BC).   Claudius            41

 42

Head of Christian Church at Rome named: BISHOP OF ROME

Paul joins Barnabas to work with the established church in Syrian Antioch
1 St. Peter              42

 43

Under Claudius, the Roman conquest of Britannia (Britain) begins                43

 44

Herod Agrippa I, grandson of Herod the Great and son of the murdered Aristobulus is made king and granted Iturea and Trachonitis by his friend, the emperor Caligula. The territories were previously ruled by his deceased uncle, Philip. He is also granted Abilene, once ruled by Lysanias

The apostle James, brother of John and son of Zebedee, is beheaded, and Peter imprisoned on the orders of King Herod Agrippa I (Acts 12:1-3)

King Herod Agrippa I dies suddenly in Caesarea (Acts 12:23). His son, Agrippa II, is too young to rule, and all the Jewish provinces return to direct Roman control. Roman procurators are again appointed over Judea.
Of Agrippa I's daughters, Drusilla later marries Felix, a Roman procurator of Judea (Acts 24:24), and Bernice becomes a close companion of her brother Agrippa II (Acts 25:13)
               44

 45

AD45-50 - The LETTER OF JAMES is written, probably by James, brother of Jesus, sometime before the Council held at Jerusalem in c AD49                45

 46

Paul's first missionary journey c AD46-48                46

 47

47-48 Paul and Barnabas on Cyprus [Acts 13, 4-12]                47

 48

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AD48 or 49 - Paul may have written his LETTER TO THE GALATIANS around this time from Syrian Antioch, or on the way to the Council of Jerusalem; otherwise c AD56 or 57
               48

 49

Apostolic Council held at Jerusalem

Paul's second Missionary journey c AD49-52
               49

 50

All four of the gospels which were eventually selected among others to be included in the New Testament were written, by their respective author(s) beginning, in some cases, before the year 50 of the Common Era. In some schools of thought, it is believed that all four were completed by as early as 70 CE. Mainstream schools of thought suggest an end-date around 95 CE, or later into the first quarter of the second century."

Emperor Claudius expels the Jews from Rome

Herod Agrippa II is old enough to be appointed king of Chalcis by emperor Claudius
               50

 51

AD49-52 (range, 2 to 4 years between AD48-54) - Paul and Silas leave Syrian Antioch for the SECOND MISSIONARY JOURNEY. They travel through Asia Minor (present day Turkey), before crossing to Macedonia (northern Greece). Paul then sails south to Corinth in Achaia (southern Greece) and stays for 18 months. Here he appears before the proconsul Gallio, and writes his FIRST and SECOND LETTERS TO THE THESSALONIANS. Sailing for Palestine, he calls in at Ephesus (western Turkey), before returning to Syrian Antioch via Jerusalem                51

 52

AD50-60 - Oral traditions about the life and ministry of Jesus continue to be committed to writing, and collections assembled                52

 53

Paul's third Missionary journey c AD53-58

From AD53, King Herod Agrippa II, exchanges Chalcis for parts of Iturea and Trachonitis, Galilee and Perea.
               53

 54

Claudius, Roman emperor, is poisoned, succeeded by Nero   Nero Onesimus          54

 58

c AD58-60 Paul's arrest in Jerusalem and imprisonment in Caesaria for trial before the procurator Felix. He is also seen by Drusilla, Felix's wife. Paul is kept in prison for two years                58

 60

In Britannia, Boadicea, queen of the Iceni, revolts against Roman rule but is defeated and killed by the Roman governor Suetonius Paulinus

Paul's journey to Rome and continued imprisonment c AD60-63.
Paul sails for Rome, is shipwrecked on Malta where he stays for three months and meets Publius, the chief official. He continues on to Rome via Sicily.
Paul under house arrest in Rome for two years. During these years, he writes his Letters to the Colossians, to philemon, to the Ephesians, and to the Philippians
               60

 63

Joseph of Arimathea came to Glastonbury on the first Christian mission to Britain                63

 64

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Paul's possible release from imprisonment in Rome c AD64-67
Paul may have been released from house arrest in Rome, and travelled to Spain?, Macedonia, Achaia, Crete, and Asia Minor (Turkey)

c AD64-67 - The apostle Peter wrote the First Letter of Peter, and possibly the Second letter during this period
c AD64 - During the persecutions that follow the fire, the apostles Peter and Paul may have been martyred. According to tradition Peter was crucified head downwards, and Paul beheaded, both in Rome. Paul, however, may have been on his further travels at this time, following his earlier release from house arrest, and Peter executed later

Roman emperor Nero (37-68) accuses the Christians of having started the fire which destroyed large sections of Rome, thus initiating widespread persecution.
               64

 65

The Letter to Hebrews addressed to Jewish Christians may have been written about this time

c AD65-70 - The Gospel Of Mark may have been written, traditionally in Rome, around the time of Peter's execution
               65

 66

If Paul was released, he would have written his First Letter to Timothy and his Letter to Titus around now, perhaps from the Macedonia area

AD66-73 - Jewish war against Roman rule. The campaign in Judea is initially led by the Roman general Vespasian. Many Jews, and probably Christians leave Jerusalem
               66

 67

Paul is possibly re-arrested, taken to Rome, and sometime before execution, wrote his Second Letter to Timothy.

The Letter to Jude, brother of James and thus Jesus, may have been written around this time, possibly in Palestine
2 St. Linus              67

 68

Emperor Nero commits suicide

cAD68-70 - The Book of Revelation may have been written at this time, following the persecutions of Nero, but before the Fall of Jerusalem. Otherwise Revelation was written towards the end of the 1st century.

Qumran (Essenes?) community destroyed by Rome, site of Dead Sea Scrolls found in 1949
               68

 69

    After Nero's suicide, Galba, Otho and Vitellius are emperors of Rome in quick succession Polycarpus I          69

 70

Jewish revolt, Sacking of Jerusalem by the Romans: Jerusalem is captured by Titus and the Temple destroyed

Destruction of the Temple
Diaspora begins

Separation of Christianity from Judaism widens after capture of Jerusalem
  Vespasian            70

 73

Jewish resistance ends with the fall of the fortress of Masada, last remaining stronghold of Jewish Zealots                73

 75

75-77 The Roman conquest of Britain is complete as Wales is finally subdued; Julius Agricola is imperial governor (to 84)                75

 76

  3 St. Anacletus              76

 79

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Mount Vesuvius catastrophic eruption.
The Roman resort towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum are burried in the ashes, preserving a snapshot of Roman life for the millenia to come.
               79

 80

The Gospel of Matthew may have been composed between 80 and 100 CE.                80

 81

    Titus

Domitian
           81

 88

  4 St. Clement I              88

 89

    L. Antonius Saturninus Plutarch          89

 90

cAD90-100 - The First, Second and Third Letters of John are written by the apostle John from Ephesus                90

 96

    Nerva            96

 97

  5 St. Evaristus              97

 98

    Trajan            98

 100

The apostle John, according to tradition, dies a natural death at Ephesus

The Gospel of John may have been composed c. 100-125 CE.

100-150 Writings of apostolic fathers show a concern with unity and good order of churches

First London Bridge is built across the Thames by the Romans.
               100

 105

 JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

6 St. Alexander I   Sedecion          105

 112

Pliny, governor of Bithynia, consults Emperor Trajan on how to deal with those accused as Christians                112

 114

      Diogenes          114

 115

  7 St. Sixtus I              115

 117

117-138: Hadrian emperor of Rome, improves defenses and codifies law.   Hadrian            117

 122

Construction of Hadrian's Wall in Britain begins, to mark the northernmost border of the empire separating the areas that are today England and Scotland.                122

 125

  8 St. Telesphorus              125

 129

      Eleutherius          129

 132

Shimeon Bar-Kokhba and Rabbi Akiba Ben-Joseph lead Jews in a revolt against Roman rule. They capture Jerusalem and create an independent state of Israel.                132

 133

Julius Severus governor of Britain is sent to Palestine to crush the revolt                133

 135

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Julius Severus, formerly governor of Britain, crushes the revolt in Palestine. Final Diaspora (dispersion) of the Jews occurs.
               135

 136

The bishop of Rome, Hyginus, assumes the title of "pope" 9 St. Hyginus   Felix          136

 138

    Antoninus Pius            138

 140

Justin founds school of Christian philosophy at Rome

Shepherd of Hermas is written, presenting a highly developed system of bishops, deacons, and priests.
10 St. Pius I              140

 141

      Polycarpus II          141

 144

      Athendodorus          144

 148

      Euzois          148

 150

Four "canonical" gospels are collected together.

School of Alexandria is founded in Egypt, quickly becoming a major center for both Christian theology and Greek philosophy. Among its prominent teachers are the theologians Clement (died c. 215) and Origen (c. 185 - 254).
               150

 154

      Laurence          154

 155

  11 St. Anicetus              155

 161

 JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

  Marcus Aurelius             161

 165

Justin's martyrdom                165

 166

Roman Emporer Marcus Aurelius sends gifts to Chinese Emperor Huan Ti.     Alypius          166

 167

At the request of King Lucius the missionaries Phagan and Deruvian were said to have been sent by Pope Eleutherius to convert the Britons to Christianity. This is perhaps the most widely believed of the legends of the founding of Christianity in Britain.                167

 168

  12 St. Soterus              168

 169

      Pertinax          169

 170

Celsus writes True Word, the first book opposing Christianity                170

 175

  13 St. Eleutherius Avidius Cassius            175

 180

180-200 Irenaeus of Lyons preaches to Celts in Gaul, refuting gnosticism

Clement heads school of "true gnosticism" in Alexandria

Irenaeus (125 - c. 202), Catholic theologian, writes Against Heresies in an attempt to fight the spread of Gnosticism. He claimed that "every church must agree" with the church of Rome because of its apostolic authority.

First African Christians are martyred at Scillium.
  Commodus            180

 184

Lucius Artorius Castus commander of a detachment of Sarmatian conscripts stationed in Britain led his troops to Gaul to quell a rebellion. This is the first appearance of the name Artorius in history and some believe that this Roman military man is the original or basis for the Arthurian legend. The theory says that Castus' exploits in Gaul at the head of a contingent of mounted troops are the basis for later similar traditions about "King Arthur and, further, that the name Artorius" became a title or honorific which was ascribed to a famous warrior in the fifth century.                184

 187

 JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

    Olympians          187

 189

  14 St. Victor I              189

 190

Christian council determine "official" date of Easter.                190

 192

    Pertinax            192

 193

    Didius Julianus            193

 197

Tertullian begins writing apologetics in Carthage, Afica

First recorded usage of the term "catholic" appears in the writings of Apollonius; used in reference to 1 John. The word ³catholic² in Greek means ³all encompassing² (uniqueness, no variation).
               197

 198

      Mark I          198

 199

  5 St. Zephirinus              199

 200

First mention of Christians in Britain

New Testament canon is mostly fixed in currently known form.
               200

 203

Martyrdom of Perpetua and Felicitas in Carthage                203

 208

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Severus goes to defend Britain and repairs Hadrian's Wall
               208

 209

St. Alban first British martyr was killed for his faith in one of the few persecutions of Christians ever to take place on the island during the governorship of Gaius Junius Faustinus Postumianus                209

 211

    Antoninus (Caracalla) Philadelphus          211

 212

Origen begins traveling, commending Christianity to high ranking officials throughout the empire                212

 215

Hippolytus of Rome compiles the Apostolic Tradition, describing how converts are to be discipled                215

 217

  16 St. Calixtus I Macrinus Ciriacus I          217

 218

    Diadumenianus            218

 220

Goths invade Asia Minor                220

 221

  [Hippolytus]              221

 222

  17 St. Urban I Severus Alexander             222

 225

 JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

  L. Seius Sallustius            225

 230

Pope Urban I justifies the ownership of property by the Church, the elevation of bishops and the excommunication of heretics 18 St. Pontianus   Castinus          230

 231

Origen founds school at Caesarea (Palestine)                231

 235

  19 St. Anterius Maximinus Thrax            235

 236

  20 St. Fabianus              236

 237

      Eugenius I          237

 238

    Gordian I             238

 240

Gregory "the Wonder Worker" appointed bishop of Pontus (in north Asia Minor)   Sabinianus            240

 242

      Titus          242

 244

    Philip the Arab            244

 246

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Paul of Thebes retreats to the Egyptian desert and becomes the first Christian hermit
               246

 247

    Philip Iunior            247

 248

Cyprian appointed bishop of Carthage, the largest church in Africa, only two years after his conversion

Origen defends Christianity in Against Celsus
  Pacatianus            248

 249

    Decius             249

 250

250-300: Increasing invasions of Rome by the Franks and the Goths

Emperor Decius begins the first, though short-lived, general persecution of Christians
               250

 251

  21 St. Cornelius              251

 252

  [Novatianus]              252

 253

  22 St. Lucius I              253

 254

  23 St. Stephen I              254

 256

Gaul overrun by the Germans from the Rhine                256

 257

 JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

24 St. Sixtus II              257

 259

  25 St. Dionysius              259

 260

260-305 Porphyry, a Neoplatonist philosopher, writes multivolume Against the Christians                260

 264

A council excommunicates Paul of Samosata                264

 268

Goths sack Athens, Corinth, and Sparta.

Lucianus of Antioch (born in Samosata) preaches that Jesus was only a man
  Claudius II Gothicus             268

 269

  26 St. Felix I Laelianus            269

 270

Monasticism begins to spread in Egypt and Syria, promoting Christianity in rural areas

Anthony becomes a hermit in Egypt
  Quintillus            270

 271

    Domitianus            271

 272

    Vaballathus Dometius          272

 273

    Firmus            273

 274

 JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

  Faustinus            274

 275

  27 St. Eutychianus Tacitus            275

 276

Mani is crucified by the Sassanids for tring to incorporate Judaism Christianity and Zoroastrianism into one religion ("manicheism")   Florianus             276

 280

    Bonosus            280

 281

    Saturninus            281

 282

    Carus            282

 283

  28 St. Caius Numerianus            283

 284

    Diocletian Rufinus I          284

 285

Papa is ordained first bishop of Seleucia-Ctesiphon (the first "catholico   Maximianus Herculius            285

 286

Emperor Diocletian divides the empire - he rules the east and Maximilian rules the west.

Diocletian instigates the Tetrarchy, Consisting of one Augustus and one Ceasar in each of the two partitions. The empire will be ruled by the two sets of rulers (one higher placed tha his second in command) for only twelve years before the seconds in command attack their superiors and then each other. This is the path followed by Constantine, starting as Ceasar in York, south through Gaul, across the Milvian Bridge and into Rome in 312 C.E.
               286

 293

 JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

  Allectus Probus          293

 296

  29 St. Marcellinus              296

 297

    L. Domitius Domitianus             297

 301

Armenia becomes the first country to make Christianity its state religion.

the Armenian king Tiridates I converted by Gregory the Illuminator
               301

 303

Diocletian implements a Great Persecution of the Christians

emperor Diocletian orders a general persecution of the Christians
               303

 304

  Vacant,              304

 305

    Maximinus Daia            305

 306

Constantine proclaimed Emperor at York , Western Empire

The first bishop of Nisibis is ordained
  Maxentius

Constantine I 
Metrophanes          306

 308

Constantine takes Gaul 30 St. Marcellus I L. Domitius Alexander            308

 309

  31 St. Eusebius              309

 311

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Donatus and others rebel against the appointment of the bishop of Carthage claiming independence of Church and state and claiming that the people could determine how worthy of administering sacraments a priest is
32 St. Melchiades              311

 312

312-337: Constantine the Great reunites Roman Empire with new capital at Byzantion called Constantinople

Roman emperor Constantine converts to Christianity
               312

 313

Edict of Milan:
After a victorius entry in Rome, following the battle of Milvian Bridge where Constantine defeated and killed Maxentius, Emperor Constantine issues the Edict of Milan, legalizing Christianity in the Roman Empire.



Constantine ends the persecution of the Christians.

A cathedral is built in Edessa
               313

 314

Head of Church at Rome named:
POPE

Gregory the Illuminator founds Armenian church

Donatism is condemned as a heresy
33 St. Sylvester I Valens Alexander          314

 315

Eusebius, the first church historian and later eulogist of Constantine, appointed bishop of Caesarea                315

 316

Donatism splits from Catholicism and spreads throughout Africa                316

 318

Pachomius a disciple of Anthony organizes a community of ascetics at Tabennis in Egypt (birth of Christian monasticism)                318

 320

Arius is expelled by the patriarch Alexander and during his travels through the eastern Roman empire converts more bishops                320

 323

Constantine builds a church to the apostle Peter on the Roman cemetery where the martyr is buried                323

 324

Head of Church at Constantinople named:
ARCHBISHOP of CONSTANTINOPLE

Constantine I achieves full control of Roman Empire.
Constantine finally achieves full control over an undivided empire. He was a skillful politician who is popularly believed to have made Christianity the official religion of the empire because of his personal convictions. In actuality that act was merely an expedient intended to harness the power of its "God" for the benefit of the state. He re-located the imperial headquarters to Byzantium whose name he then changed to Constantinople. Despite his outward enthusiasm for Christianity and its powerful God he didn't close many pagan temples during his reign. He did however strip them of their former wealth which was then shifted to various Christian churches. This produced the result that many of the fledgling churches were put on a very firm financial footing and many of their members enjoyed great prosperity. The persecution of Christianity had stopped perhaps but its co-opting had just begun. Early Christianity had no official hierarchies and functioned best as a series of small church groups worshipping with and caring for their own members while spreading Christ's Gospel in their local areas. Constantine's move created a top-heavy structure that would quickly depart from its original purity; a church beholden to the state out of touch with the needs of its adherents and concerned only with its own comfort. Eusebius the early Christian historian has given us some additional insights into the motivations of the Emperor Constantine in his "Ecclesiastical History".
      Constantine I         324

 325

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Constantine calls the First Ecumenical Council at Nicea to condemn the Arian heresy, which had taught that the Son was inferior to the Father.

The Nicene Creed, the Creed of Christian faith is established and will remain intact until the Schism of 1054.

Council of Nicaea discusses the divine/human nature of Jesus and approves the Christian canon (the New Testament) against "heretic" books

THE NICENE CREED

I believe in one God, the Father, the Almighty, Creator of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible.

And in one Lord, Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God, begotten of the Father before all ages. Light of Light, true God of true God, begotten, not created, of one essence with the Father, through whom all things were made. For us and for our salvation, He came down from heaven and was incarnate by the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary and became man. He was crucified for us under Pontius Pilate, and He suffered and was buried.

On the third day He rose according to the Scriptures. He ascended into heaven and is seated at the right hand of the Father.

He will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead. His kingdom will have no end.

And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the Giver of Life, who proceeds from the Father, who together with the Father and the Son is worshiped and glorified, who spoke through the prophets.

In one, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church. I acknowledge one baptism for the forgiveness of sins. I expect the resurrection of the dead. And the life of the age to come. Amen.


               325

 330

Eastern Roman Empire

Constantine dedicates the city of Byzantium as the eastern capital of the Empire or "New Rome," renaming it Constantinople after himself.

Byzantine Empire; Romiosine 330-1453

Nino converts Georgian royal family

Amoun and Macarius found monasteries in the Egyptian desert

Hilarion organizes a monastery at Gaza in Palestine

Mar Augin founds a monastery in Syria near Nisibis
               330

 334

the first bishop is ordained for Merv in Transoxania                334

 336

Arius, priest at Alexandria and founder of Arianism, dies. Arianism was one of the most widespread and divisive heresies in the history of Christianity. 34 St. Marcus I              336

 337

Constantine received "Christian" baptism on his deathbed. Joint rule of Constantine's three sons: Constantine II (to 340); Constans (to 350); Constantius (to 361) 35 St. Julius I   Paul I Constantine II        337

 339

Athanasius of Alexandria visits Rome accompanied by the two Egyptian monks Ammon and Isidore disciples of Anthony who export the idea of monasticism     Eusebius          339

 340

Roman legislation begins to favor Christianity and penalize paganism

Christianization and literalization of the Goths (Ulfila and the "Gothic bible

The first monastery of Persia is founded by Aphrahat near Mosul
               340

 342

        Macedonius I        342

 344

catholics are massacred in Persia                344

 345

Pachomius dies and his institution already counts eight monasteries and hundreds of monks organized in a hierarchy                345

 346

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    Paul I          346

 350

Christianity first reaches Ethiopia.
Frumentius converts the royalty of Axum, Ethiopia.

the missionary Ninian establishes the church Candida Casa at Whithorn in Galloway Scotland
  Magnentius            350

 351

Emperor Julian attempts to reintroduce paganism in the place of Christianity.                351

 352

  36 Liberius              352

 355

    Silvanus            355

 356

  [Felix II]              356

 358

Basil founds the monastery of Annesos in Pontus the model for eastern monasticism (perfect Christian life and constant penance meditation + poverty + humility)                358

 360

Huns invade Europe

Martin future bishop of Tours founds the first French monastery at Liguge

the Vandals convert to christianity
    Eudoxius of Antioch          360

 361

    Julian            361

 362

Marius Victorinus, one of Rome's most famous rhetors, converts, causing much public excitement                362

 363

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Persia recaptures Nisibis from the Romans and the school of Nisibis moves to Edessa
  Jovian            363

 364

    Valentinian I             364

 365

    Procopius            365

 366

  37 St. Damasus I Marcellus            366

 367

Festal Epistle of St. Athanasius (c. 293 - 373) offers earliest known list of the New Testament canon in its current form.   Gratian            367

 369

Roman general Theodosius drives the Picts and Scots out of Roman Britain                369

 370

      Demophilus          370

 371

The Hunns cross the river Volga into Europe having left Mongolia in the 2nd century leadin a nomadic life in their trek west. They are defeated in the battle of the field of Nations and depart Europe returning East beyond the Ural Mountains.

Martin, evangelist to the pagans of central Gaul, is elected bishop of Tours

Martin of Tours converts pagans
               371

 372

Buddhism introduced into Korea.   Firmus            372

 374

Ambrose is elected bishop of Milan which has become the main Christian center in Italy                374

 375

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the Jerusalem Talmud (manual of lifestyle) is compiled by western Jews
  Valentinian II            375

 376

Huns conquer Russia

Visigoths convert to Arian christianity
               376

 378

        Theodosius I
The Great
       378

 379

the Roman empire bans Arianism     [Evagrius]          379

 380

Emperor Theodosius makes orthodox Christianity the official religion of the empire

Ulphilas, Arian missionary bishop among Goths and translator of Gothic Bible, dies

Theodosius I proclaims Christianity as the sole religion of the Roman Empire

Ambrose preaches virginity
    [Maximus]          380

 381

Council II, Constantinople I,
Arianism condemned;
regarded as definitively establishing Roman Catholic orthodoxy

Head of Church at Constantinople named:
PATRIARCH of CONSTANTINOPLE

Second Ecumenical Council convoked by Theodosius I in Constantinople
    Nectarius          381

 383

Magnus Maximus (Macsen Wledig a Spaniard was proclaimed Emperor in Britain by the island's Roman garrison. With an army of British volunteers he quickly conquered Gaul Spain and Italy. [Ursinus] Magnus Maximus            383

 384

  38 St. Siricius Flavius Victor            384

 386

Jerome founds monasteries in Bethlehem                386

 388

Maximus occupied Rome itself. Theodosius the eastern Emperor defeated him in battle and beheaded him in July 388 with many of the remnant of Maximus' troops settling in Armorica. The net result to Britain was the loss of many valuable troops needed for the island's defense (the "first migration").                388

 392

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392-395:Theodosius the Great, last united Roman emperor
  Eugenius            392

 393

    Honorius            393

 395

PARTITION :
WESTERN ROMAN EMPIRE
      Arcadius        395

 397

the eight council (at Carthage) defines the Christian canon (the "New Testament") as comprised of four official gospels (all others are declared heretic) and the letters of the apostles                397

 398

Maximus of Turin preaches against pagans     John I          398

 399

  9 St. Anastasius I              399

 400

Jerome (Eusebius Hieronymus) translates the Bible into Latin (the "Vulgate                400

 401

Innocent I becomes Pope (until 417) and claims universal jurisdiction over the Roman Church. 40 St. Innocent I              401

 404

      Arsacius          404

 405

c. 405 St. Jerome (c. 347 - 419) completes the Vulgate - a Latin translation of both the Old and New Testaments. This remains the Latin Bible of the Roman Catholic Church.                405

 406

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  Marcus Atticus          406

 407

    Gratian            407

 408

        Theodosius II        408

 409

    Constans II            409

 410

The Goths led by Alarik sack Rome

At the council of Seleucia the Persian church declares its independence from Antioch and Rome

The ascetic monk Maron sounds the Christian Maronite religion in Syria
               410

 411

Thanks to Augustine Donatism begins to decline   Jovinus            411

 412

    Sebastianus            412

 414

    Priscus Attalus            414

 415

Roman emperor Theodosius II expels the Jews from Alexandria                415

 417

  41 St. Zosimus              417

 418

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British monk Pelagius (c. 354 - 420) is excommunicated. Pelagius denied original sin and the need for baptism, asserting that if God asked men to do good, then they must be capable of doing good on their own. He was condemned by Augustine.
42 St. Boniface I              418

 421

  [Eulatius] Constantius III            421

 422

  43 St. Celestine I              422

 423

    Johannes            423

 424

At the synod of Dadyeshu the "catholico" of the Eastern Church proclaims himself as a patriarch on equal footing with Antioch and Rome                424

 425

The first bishops are ordained for Herat and Samarkand   Valentinian III            425

 426

      Sisinius I          426

 428

Nestorius a monk in the Syrian monastery of Euprepius is appointed by the eastern Roman emperor Theodosius II as patriarch of Constantinople and preaches the doctrine of two natures of Jesus     Nestorius          428

 431

Council III, Ephesus,
The Third Ecumenical Council at Ephesus condemns the Nestorian heresy and approves the veneration of the Virgin Mary as Theotokos (God-Bearer or Mother of God). The Nestorians go into exile in the Persian Empire and become the Assyrian Orthodox Church of the East.

Palladius is sent by the Pope as first bishop of Ireland

the third Ecumenical Council convened in Ephesus declares that there is only one nature in Jesus (divine condemns Nestorius (who is then banned by Theodosius II) and affirms that Mary was the "mother of God"
    Maximianus          431

 432

The Roman missionary Patrick is taken prisoner to Ireland 44St. Sixtus III              432

 433

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Attila becomes ruler of the Huns (until 453). He attacks Roman provinces
               433

 434

      Proclus          434

 440

The hermit Symeon the Stylite lives on top of a column (monastery of Telanissos in Syria 45 St. Leo I              440

 445

The emperor Valentinian III decrees that all western bishops must obey the pope                445

 446

      Flavian          446

 449

      Anatolius          449

 450

Angles, Saxons and Jutes begin conquest of Britain after Romans leave

the first British monasteries are established in Wales

Theodosius II dies and Marcian succeeds him the first Roman emperor to be crowned by a religious leader (the patriarch of Constantinople)
      Marcian (m. Pulcheria, gnddghtr Theod I)        450

 451

Council IV, Chalcedon,
The Fourth Ecumenical Council at Chalcedon condemns the Monophysite heresy and affirms that Christ had both a divine and a human nature. The Armenian, Coptic, Ethiopian, and Syrian Orthodox Churches would remain Monophysite; the Greek Orthodox church and the Western church adopted the Chalcedonian or Dyophysite position. Fatal disaffection of Syria & Egypt. This Council also gives Constantinople equal standing with "Old" Rome.

Attila invades Gaul but is repulsed by joint forces of Franks, Alemanni and Romans at battle of Chalons. Invades Italy the next year.

the fourth Ecumenical Council convened in Chalcedon condemns Dioscurus of Alexandria for monophysitism (Jesus is of one nature only divine) and affirms that Jesus was one person of two natures (both human and divine) which causes the schism of the Coptic Orthodox church from the Churches of Rome and Constantinople
               451

 455

Vandals destroy Rome   Petronius Maximus            455

 457

The eastern Roman emperor is crowned by the patriarch of Constantinople instead of the Pope   Majorian   Dynasty of Leo         457

 458

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458-751: Merovingian Dynasty rules in France
    Gennadius I          458

 460

Persian king Firuz persecutes Jews who emigrate to Arabia                460

 461

  46 St. Hilarus (Hilary) Libius Severus            461

 467

    Anthemius            467

 468

  47 St. Simplicius Arvandus            468

 470

    Romanus            470

 471

      Acacius          471

 472

    Olybrius            472

 473

    Glycerius            473

 474

    Julius Nepos   Leo II        474

 475

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  Romulus Augustulus            475

 476

End of the Western Roman Empire

Odoacer, German cheiftan, ends Western Roman Empire when he overthrows the last emperor, Romulus Augustulus and becomes King of Italy
               476

 481

Emperor Zeno shuts down the Nestorian school of Edessa causing Nestorian scholars to flee to Persia (Nisibis)                481

 483

  48 St. Felix III              483

 484

The Synod of Beth Papat in Persia declares the Nestorian docrine (two natures of Jesus) as the official theology of the East Syrian Church centered in Edessa                484

 488

      Phrabitas          488

 489

      Euphemius          489

 490

Vandals take part of Spain and make Toledo their capital

Brigid founds the monastery of Kildare in Ireland
               490

 491

        Anastasius        491

 492

  49 St. Gelasius I              492

 493

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Theodoric the Great establishes Ostrogothic Kingdom in Italy
               493

 495

      Macedonus II          495

 496

Clovis, ruler of the Franks, converts to Christianity

Clovis converts Franks to catholicism
50 St. Anastasius II              496

 498

  51 St. Symmachus
[Laurentius]
             498

 499

The Babylonian Talmud is compiled for eastern Jews a much more orthodox manual of lifestyle than the western Talmud                499

 500

The legend of Arthur, King of the Britons and his knights of the Round table is usually assumed to refer to a time between the 6th and 8th centuries. Although no evidence has ever been found of Camelot, the round table or of the existence of Arthur himself, his legend may be a composite of several personages from the eras preceding the establishment of the first kings and the House of Wessex.

Pseudo-Dionysius writes mystical works

c.500-50 - Spread of Celtic monasticism throughout Europe
               500

 511

      Timothy          511

 514

  52 St. Hormisdas              514

 518

      John II Justin        518

 520

      Epiphanius          520

 523

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53 St. John I              523

 526

  54 St. Felix IV              526

 527

Reign of Justinian I begins
he will conquer North Africa, southern Spain and Italy

Arguably the most important of Byzantine Emperors and the one who marked the final transition from the latin past and paganism to a purely Christian, Greek Empire.

Justinian began his life in Bulgaria, a former Roman province, as a poor shepherd boy. His uncle Justin was the commander of the Imperial Guard in Constantinople. Justinian went on the long journey to the Capital. Shortly after he achieved the best education, the emperor died, and the people chose Justin to succeed himas Justinus I.

Justin was advised that he should work with Justinian as co-emperor. When Justin died, Justinian became the sole ruler of the Eastern Roman Empire. Justinian began making harsh rules against the pagans and their religion, and forced people to accept Christianity. It can be seen as the first forceful action of Christianity. He destroyed synagogues and Jewish temples all over his empire.

Justinian built vast structures of Byzantine, not Roman, art. He is seen as one of the founders of the "Byzantine Empire", as opposed to the East Roman Empire. His reign was filled with military success through his two great generals, Belisarius and Narsus. At the end of his reign, he controlled a part of Spain, Africa, Italy, Turkey and much of the east.

Justinian created the Justinian code, which replaced the old Roman laws and set the foundation for subsequent western legal systems.

Byzantium enforces anti-Jewish laws and the Jews all but disappear from the eastern Roman Empire
      Justinian I        527

 529

Emperor Justinian I issues the Code of Laws

Justinian closes the pagan Philosophical Academy in Athens.

Benedetto of Nursia founds the monastery of Monte Cassino and codifies western monasticism (absolute power of the abbot

The council of Orange condemns the Pelagian heresy and accepts Augustine's doctrine of salvation.
               529

 530

The Benedictine monk Cassiodorus encourages monks to copy manuscripts of the classics 55 Boniface II              530

 532

532-537: Aghia Sofia, the new cathedral of Constantinople, is built by order of Justinian, on the site of the earlier Church of Aghia Sofia which was consumed by fire.

Legend has it that a beekeeper noticed that bees in one of the beehives had fashioned what appeared to be the model of a magnificent church out of wax. He took the miraculous find to the palace and presented it to Empress Theodora who then prompted her husband to commission the building of the most magnificent Church in Christiandom.
               532

 533

Mercurius is elected pope and takes the name of John II the first pope to change name upon election 56 John II              533

 534

The Roman empire destroys the Arian kingdom of the Vandals                534

 535

  57 St. Agapetus I   Anthimus I          535

 536

  58 St. Sylverius   Menas          536

 537

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The church of Aghia Sofia (Holy Wisdom) commissioned in Constantinople by Emperor Justinian and his wife Theodora is completed by architects Isidoros and Anthemios

59 Vigilius              537

 541

Jacob Bardaeus bishop of Edessa organizes the Monophysite Church in western Syria (the "Jacobites")                541

 544

Ciaran founds the monastery of Clonmacnoise in Ireland                544

 546

Columbanus founds the monastery of Derry in Ireland                546

 552

      Eutychius          552

 553

Council V, Constantinople II,
Monophysitism condemned again. The Ecumenical Council condemns the heresy of the Three Chapters
               553

 556

Columbanus founds the monastery of Durrow in Ireland 60 Pelagius I              556

 561

  61 John III              561

 563

Columbanus founds the monastery of Iona off the coast of Scotland soon to become the main center of the Columban school                563

 565

      John III Justin II        565

 570

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Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam, born
during the reign of Khusro Anosharwan. His father was of the Quraysh tribe (the name means ' shark ' and may have been derived from an ancient tribal emblem.) This tribe gained much power and influence, both because of their commercial activity in their hub at the city of Mecca, and because of their importation and custody of important idols at Mecca.
               570

 573

Gregory is appointed bishop of Tours                573

 575

  62 Benedict I              575

 578

        Tiberius II (I) Constantine        578

 579

  63 Pelagius II              579

 580

Monte Cassino is sacked by the Lombards and the monks flee to Rome                580

 582

      John IVBR>Nesteutes, the Faster Maurice        582

 587

The Visigothic king Recared converts to catholicism                587

 588

The Visigoths abandon Aryanism and convert to catholicism                588

 590

For the first time a monk is elected Pope Gregory I 64 St. Gregory I              590

 596

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    Cyriacus          596

 597

The Roman brand of Christianity is brought to Britain for the first time by St. Augustine the missionary sent with forty monks by Pope Gregory to convert the Saxons. Augustine founded a monastery and the first church at Canterbury and was proclaimed its first Archbishop.                597

 600

Pope Gregory I promulgates the doctrine of salvation through confession and penance                600

 601

Augustine converts king Ethelbert of Kent and establishes the see of Canterbury with himself as its first archbishop                601

 602

        Phocas        602

 603

The Lombards convert to Christianity and move their capital to Pavia                603

 604

Gregory I dies 65 Sabinianus              604

 607

  66 Boniface III   Thomas I          607

 608

  67 St. Boniface IV              608

 609

The Irish monk Colombanus founds the monastery at Bobbio                609

 610

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Muhammad and his followers go to Mecca, where they are not accepted
    Sergius I Heraclius        610

 612

The Visigothic king Sisebut forces the Jews of Spain to release all slaves and convert to Christianity                612

 613

Clotaire II and Dagobert I unify France after years of continual disunity                613

 615

Colombanus dies in Italy 68 St. Deusdedit              615

 619

  69 Boniface V              619

 620

The Visigoths in Spain persecute the Jews                620

 622

Muhammad and his followers flee Mecca to Medina. The year of that flight, or Hijrah, became the first year of the Islamic calendar, and the beginning the Muslim era.                622

 625

  70 Honorius I              625

 627

Pope Gregory I sends Paulinus to found the see of York and convert king Edwin of Northumbria                627

 632

Muhammad in Mecca pronounced the perfection of the new religion.

Muhammad dies
Muhammed flees Mecca, beginning the Muslim era.              632

 634

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Muslim (Arab) Empire grows
               634

 635

Cynegils king of Wessex converts to christianity                635

 636

Arabs capture Jerusalem                636

 637

Arabs conquer Jerusalem                637

 638

Omar defeats the Byzantine army

the Arabs allow the Jews to return to Jerusalem
Vacant   Pyrrhus          638

 639

The Arabs conquer Syria (mainly Nestorian) from Byzantium                639

 640

  71 Severinus              640

 641

Muslims conquer Persia     Paul II Heraclonas        641

 642

the Arabs conquer Egypt (mainly monophysite) from Byzantium 73 Theodore I              642

 647

Amadeus bishop of Maastricht carries out missionary work in Frisia (Holland) and among the Slavs                647

 649

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74 St. Martin I
Arrested and died in exile in Crimea
             649

 650

Arianism disappears after the Lombards convert to catholicism                650

 654

  75 St. Eugenius I   Peter          654

 657

King Oswy of Northumberland founds the Benedictine monastery of Whitby in Yorkshire 76 St. Vitalianus              657

 663

Constans II is the last eastern Roman emperor to set foot in Rome                663

 664

Iona monk Wilfrid is appointed bishop of York                664

 667

      Thomas II          667

 668

The monk Theodore of Tarsus is appointed as archbishop of Canterbury       Constantine IV        668

 669

      John V          669

 670

Arabs attack N. Africa

Whitby monk Caedmon translates the gothic Bible into Germanic vernacular (ancient english
               670

 672

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77 Adeodatus              672

 674

Benedict Biscop founds the monastery of Wearmouth in Northumbria                674

 675

      Constantine I          675

 676

  78 Domnus (I)              676

 677

      Theodore I          677

 678

Wilfrid evangelizes in Frisia (Holland 79 St. Agathon              678

 679

      George I          679

 680

680-681 Council VI,Constantinople III,
Monotheletism condemned
               680

 681

Benedict founds the monastery of Jarrow in Northumbria                681

 682

  80 St. Leo II              682

 684

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81 St. Benedict II              684

 685

John V is the first of a series of Greek and Syriac Popes under the influence of Constantinople 82 John V     Justinian II (banished)         685

 686

  83 Conon              686

 687

The Danes destroy the monastery of Whitbey 84 St. Sergius I
Ordered arrested but Italian garrison refuses

[Paschal]

[Theodorus]
             687

 690

English missionary Willibrord evangelizes in Holland and Denmark                690

 693

      Callinicus I          693

 694

The Visigothic king Egica orders all Jews enslaved                694

 695

        Leontius        695

 698

Arabs capture Carthage       Tiberius III(II)        698

 700

Babylonian Jews extend their influence as the Arab conquest spreads west                700

 701

 JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

85 John VI              701

 705

  86 John VII   Cyrus Justinian II (restored)        705

 708

  87 Sisinnius

88 Constantine I
Last Pope to visit Constantinople
             708

 711

Tariq ibn-Ziyad and a Berber army cross the Strait of Gibraltar into Iberia (Spain)

The Arabs conquer southern Spain from the Visigoths (with help from the Jews)
      Bardanes        711

 712

      John VI          712

 713

        Anastasius II        713

 715

  89 St. Gregory II   Germanus I          715

 716

Arab empire extends from Lisbon, Spain to China

Iona conforms to Roman usage
      Theodosius III        716

 717

        Leo III        717

 719

Arabs complete their conquest in Spain                719

 722

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the Anglosaxon Benedectine monk Boniface (Wynfrid) evangelizes in Saxony
               722

 726

During the iconoclasm Constantinople orders all images to be destroyed                726

 730

Byzantine Emperor Leo III bans the veneration of images and relics, inaugurating the first period of Iconoclasm.     Anastasius          730

 731

Bede writes the "Ecclesiastical History of the English People 90 St. Gregory III

Appeals to Franks for help against Lombards
             731

 732

Charles Martel halts Arabian advance in France

The Muslim invasion of Europe is stopped by the Franks at the battle of Tours
               732

 739

Boniface reforms the Frankish church                739

 741

  91 St. Zachary     Constantine V Copronymus         741

 744

Boniface founds the monastery of Fulda in Germany                744

 751

Pepin the Short, Martel's son, becomes King of the Franks

Pepin sends help to the Pope in Italy

The Lombards under king Aistulf conquer Ravenna from the Byzantines and indirectly release Rome from the influence of Constantinople
               751

 752

Stephen II is Pope for only one day 92 Stephen II

93 Stephen III
             752

 754

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Donation of Pepin,
Byzantine Exarchate of Ravennabecomes Papal States

Although the Pope had been the de facto governor of Rome for a few years, the Donation of Pepin in 754 begins the formal history of the Papacy as a territorial power. This would last until 1870, giving the Papal States a run of 1116 years. The origin terms of the grant were for the "Exarchate of Ravenna," i.e. the Roman Imperial territory that was preserved across central Italy after the invasion of Lombards in 568. The most important parts of this were, of course, Rome itself and the area of Romagna around Ravenna in the north, with a narrow salient connecting them.

Boniface is killed by Frisians

pope Stephen II anoints Pepin III king of the Franks
    Constantine II          754

 756

The Caliphrate of Cordoba is founded by Abd-ar-Rahma in Spain

Pepin again fights for the Pope in Italy, Papal States formed

Pepin III defeats the Lombards and conquers Ravenna but leaves the conquered territories to the Pope thereby founding the Papal State and establishing a temporal power for the Pope
               756

 757

  94 St. Paul I              757

 766

      Nicetas I          766

 767

  [Constantine II]

[Philip]
             767

 768

The Frankish kindom is divided among Pepin's sons: Carloman and Charlemagne (Charles 95 Stephen IV              768

 769

At the Lateran council the cardinals decide that only cardinals can become popes                769

 771

771-814: Charlemagne rules in France, conquers Lombards, part of Spain, Bavarians, Avars, and the Saxons

               771

 772

  96 Adrian I              772

 775

The Eastern patriarchate moves from Seleucia-Ctesiphon to Baghdad       Leo IV        775

 780

 JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

    Paul IV, Constantine VI        780

 782

Charlemagne summons the monk and scholar Alcuin of York to head the palace school at Aachen: revival of learning in Europe                782

 784

      Tarasius          784

 787

The Seventh Ecumenical Council, Nicea II, condemns iconoclasm and restores the veneration of images underguidance of Empress Irene.                787

 790

Vikings begin to attack the British Isles                790

 793

Vikings invade Britain for the first time in a surprise attack on the monastic community at Lindisfarne (Holy Island)                793

 795

  97 St. Leo III              795

 797

        Irene        797

 800

St. Leo III crowns Charlemagne Roman Emperor;
gives Papacy basis for claiming sovereign rights over later Holy Roman Emperors

Pope Leo III crowns Charles emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and therefore introduces theocratic monarchy in Europe
               800

 802

        Nicephorus I House of Wessex
Egbert
     802

 806

 JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

    Nicephorus I          806

 811

        Strauracius        811

 813

Charlemagne's son, Louis the Pious, is crowned by his father       Leo V        813

 814

Charlemagne dies, succeeded by his son Louis the Pious           Later Carolingian Transition
Louis I
(not a king of 'France')
   814

 815

A council called by Emperor Leo V again bans images, inaugurating the second period of Iconoclasm.     Theodotus I,          815

 816

  98 Stephen V              816

 817

Louis the Pious decides to divide his empire between his sons Lothair (emperor) and his other two sons as kings of two other subordinate kingdoms

Benedict of Ariane draws up the monastic constitution of Benedectine monasteries (monks as a political entity that mediates between laity and deity
99 St. Paschal I              817

 820

        Phrygian Dynasty         820

 821

      Anthony I          821

 822

Mojmir prince of Morava converts to christianity                822

 824

 JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

100 Eugenius II              824

 826

826-27: Arabs conquer Crete, Sicily and Sardinia

the Frankish missionary Angkar bishop of Hamburg evangelizes in Denmark and Sweden

Harald Klak of Denmark converts to Christianity
               826

 827

  101 Valentinus

102 Gregory IV
             827

 828

Egbert of Wessex is recognized as overlord of other English kings                828

 829

        Theophilus        829

 830

The Kirghiz drive the Uighurs west to the Tarim Basin                830

 836

      John VII          836

 839

          Aethelwulf      839

 840

            Charles II
(the Bald)
   840

 842

        Michael III        842

 843

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Empress Theodora restores the veneration of images on the First Sunday of Lent, which became known as the Sunday of Orthodoxy.
End of the Iconoclastic struggle
Triumph of Orthodoxy

the "Restoration of the images" in Constantinople solves the iconoclastic controversy
    Methodius I          843

 844

Kenneth MacAlpine King of the Scots conquers the Picts; founds a unified Scotland 103 Sergius II              844

 845

the Irish theologian Johannes Scotus Erigena (John the Scot) takes over the Palatine Academy in France                845

 847

  104 St. Leo IV   Ignatius          847

 849

caliph al-Mutawakkil deposes the patriarch of the Eastern Christian Church and persecutes Christians                849

 852

Ansgar founds the churches at Hedeby and Ribe in Denmark                852

 855

855-79: Russian nation founded by the Vikings under Prince Rurik 105 Benedict III

[Anastasius]
      Aethelbald      855

 858

Emperor Michael III deposes Patriarch Ignatius and installs Photius, a learned layman.

Nicholas I becomes pope and asserts the independence of the Church from local authorities and from Constantinople
106 St. Nicholas I   Photius          858

 859

Vikings repulsed in the Mediterranean                859

 860

          Aethelbert      860

 861

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Vikings discover Iceland

the Khazars convert to Judaism
               861

 862

Byzantine Emperor Michael III ("the Drunkard") sends Constantine (later Cyril, died 869) and his brother Methodius (died 885) to Moravia to teach Christianity to the Slavs. They translated the Bible and other religious writings into Old Church Slavonic. These "Apostles to the Slavs" also had the support of the Popes of Rome, Hadrian II and John VIII.

Boris of Bulgary converts to christianity

Ratislav of Moravia converts to christianity
               862

 863

Cyril and Methodius from Constantinople write the Slavic bible in the first Slavic alphabet glagolitic                863

 866

          Aethelred      866

 867

Rivalry between Greek and Latin missionaries to Bulgaria prompts Photius to convene a council that deposes Pope Nicholas III, and attacks Western notions of papal primacy and many Western practices, including the insertion of the word "filioque" into the Nicene Creed. The Eastern church now dates the East-West split from this event (the Photian Schism).
Also see 1054 CE
107 Adrian II     Basil I         867

 869

869-870 Council VIII,Constantinople IV,
patched up filioque and other differences, later repudiated by East, last Oecumenical Council recognized by West which included Eastern Church

Emperor Basil I "the Macedonian," who had murdered Michael III, seeks papal support by deposing Photius and restoring Ignatius. The Eighth Council held in support of Ignatius is considered by the West only to be the Eighth Ecumenical Council (Constantinople IV).
             869

 870

The Serbs convert to christianity                870

 871

Alfred the Great becomes King of a united England         Alfred the Great      871

 872

  108 John VIII              872

 877

877-80: Ignatius dies, Photius restored as Patriarch, legates of Pope John VIII accept him on condition that Bulgaria be returned to the Latin church, without really settling the theological issues.           Louis II
(the Stammerer)
   877

 878

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Alfred defeats Danish invaders
               878

 879

            Louis III
Carloman
(joint with Louis III above, until 882)
   879

 882

  109 Martin II              882

 884

  110 St. Adrian III         Charles the Fat    884

 885

Mt Athos is granted independence as a religious retreat by emperor Basil I 111 Stephen VI              885

 886

Alfred captures London from the Danes     Stephanus I          886

 887

        Leo VI        887

 888

French crown offered to Count Odo           Eudes
(also Odo)
of Paris
(non-Carolingian)
   888

 891

  112 Fromosus              891

 893

      Anthony II          893

 896

 JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

113 Boniface VI              896

 897

  115 Romanus
116 Theodore II
             897

 898

  117 John IX         Charles III
(the Simple)
   898

 899

          Edward the Elder      899

 900

  118 Benedict IV              900

 901

      Nicholas I          901

 903

  19 Leo V
120 Christopher
             903

 904

Sergius III is elected pope thanks to a powerful Roman noblewoman the first of a series of popes appointed by the Roman aristocracy 212 Sergius III              904

 907

      Euthymius I          907

 909

Berno founds the monastery of Cluny in Burgundy                909

 911

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Vikings under Rollo found settlement in Normandy, a vassal state of France
122 Anastasius III              911

 912

912-61: Arabian Spain becomes the centre of learning

the Normans become Christian
      Alexander         912

 913

  123 Lando     Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus         913

 914

  134 John X              914

 922

The Viking ruler Dirk I founds the Egmont Benedictine monastery in Haarlem (Holland           Robert I
(non-Carolingian)
   922

 923

            Raoul
(also Rudolf, non-Carolingian)
   923

 925

      Stephanus II   Athelstan      925

 927

      Tryphon          927

 928

  125 Leo VI
126 Stephen VIII
             928

 931

  127 John XI              931

 932

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Castile becomes independent of Leon
               932

 933

      Theophylactus          933

 936

  128 Leo VII         Louis IV
(d'Outremer or The Foreigner)
   936

 939

  129 Stephen IX              939

 940

          Edmund the Magnificent      940

 942

  130 Martin III              942

 946

  131 Agapetus II       Eadred      946

 948

The leader of the Magyars converts to christianity                948

 950

The church of Hosios Loukas (Holy Luke) is founded in Stiris Greece                950

 954

            Lothar
(also Lothaire)
   954

 955

 JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

132 John XII       Eadwig (Edwy) All-Fair      955

 956

      Polyeuctus          956

 959

        Romanus II Edgar the Peaceable      959

 960

Mieczyslaw I becomes first ruler of Poland                960

 962

East Frankish Otto crowned Emperor after he defeats Magyars, founds new Holy Roman Empire in Germany                962

 963

  {Leo VIII}     Nicephorus II Phocas        963

 964

  133 Benedict V              964

 965

Harald Bluetooth (Harold I) converts the Danes to christianity 134 John XIII              965

 969

Athanasios of Trebizond founds the Great Lavra (Great Monastery) on Mount Athos in Greece                969

 970

      Basil I          970

 973

 JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

135 Benedict VI   Anthony III          973

 974

  [Boniface VII]
{Domnus II}
             974

 975

          Edward the Martyr      975

 976

        Basil II         976

 978

          Aethelred the Unready      978

 980

The Danes renew their raids on England attacking Chester and Southampton     Nicholas II          980

 983

  137 John XIV              983

 985

  138 John XV              985

 986

            Louis V
(the Do-Nothing)
   986

 987

Hugh Capet takes the French throne and the Capetian dynasty of France is founded           Capetian Dynasty
Hugh Capet
   987

 988

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Prince Vladimir is baptized and marries a Byzantine princess.

Russia becomes a Christian nation.

Vladimir of Kiev converts to Christianity
               988

 989

989-99: Viking Danes attack Britain again                989

 995

Olav I conquers Norway and proclaims it a Christian kingdom                995

 996

Robert II succeeds Hugh Capet

a German is elected pope Gregory V
139 GregoryV
[John XVI]
        Robert II
(the Pious)
   996

 999

German emperor Otto III appoints Gerbert d'Aurillac pope who becomes the first French pope and assumes the name Sylvester II 140 Sylvester II   Sergius II          999

 1000

Europe sees the new millenium in with the construction of magnificent cathedrals between the 10th and 12th centuries

Greenland and Iceland are christianized
               1000

 1001

cathedral of Ani in Armenia                1001

 1003

the Egyptian ruler Hakim persecutes Christianity 141 John XVII              1003

 1004

  142 John XVIII              1004

 1008

AD: Sweden is christianized                1008

 1009

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Arabs destroy the church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem
143 Sergius IV              1009

 1012

Romualdo founds the Camaldolese order in Italy (Anthony's monasticism and hermits appears in Italy 144 Benedict VIII              1012

 1014

          Danish Line
Svein Forkbeard
     1014

 1016

          Edmund Ironside      1016

 1017

The Danish king Canute converts to christianity                1017

 1018

Bishop Hildebrand founds the monastery of San Miniato is founded near Florence in Italy                1018

 1019

      Eustathius          1019

 1022

1022: the Catharist/Albigenian heresy a neo-manichaean sect believing that matter is evil spreads in Languedoc (southern France)                1022

 1024

  145 John XIX              1024

 1025

      Alexius I Constantine VIII (IX) alone         1025

 1028

 JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

      Romanus III Argyrus         1028

 1031

            Henry I    1031

 1032

A teenager is elected pope Benedict IX the youngest pope ever and the last of the "dynastic" popes 146 Benedict IX              1032

 1033

Ferdinand I of Castile becomes King of Castile, Leon and Navarre                1033

 1034

        Michael IV the Paphlagonian         1034

 1035

          Harald Harefoot      1035

 1036

Muslim Umayyad dynasty in Spain ends with the death of Hisham III and the caliphrate splits into 8 other kingdoms

San Miniato monk Giovanni Gualberto founds the monastery of Vallombrosa near Florence in Italy
               1036

 1039

Cluny's abbot Odilo turns his monastery into the head of a monastic feudal system whose influence spread all over Europe                1039

 1040

          Hardicanute      1040

 1041

        Michael V Calaphates         1041

 1042

 JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

      Zoe and Theodora Edward the Confessor      1042

 1043

      Michael I          1043

 1044

  [Sylvester III]              1044

 1045

After Benedict IX gets married and sells the papacy to his godfather Gregory VI the emperor Heinrich III calls for the synod of Sutri to reform the corrupt papacy 147 Gregory VI
146 Benedict IX
             1045

 1046

  148 Clement II              1046

 1047

  146 Benedict IX              1047

 1048

  149 Damasus II              1048

 1049

Heinrich III appoints Pope Leo IX a German reformer 150 St. Leo IX              1049

 1050

The ascetics Anthony and Theodosius found the Monastery of the Caves (Pecherska Lavra) in Kiev                1050

 1054

Schism between Eastern and Western Churches

also see 867 CE

Western Cluniac monks take over Greek monasteries in southern Italy, Byzantine patriarch Michael Caerularius responds by closing Latin churches in Constantinople. Pope Leo IX sends Cardinal Humbert (considered an expert on Eastern Christianity) to Constantinople to work things out. Not knowing Leo IX had died, Humbert excommunicates Patriarch Michael in Leo's name, asserting that the Eastern church had removed "filioque" from the Creed. The Western church traditionally dates the East-West split from this event (the Great Schism).

The Church of the Pope refers to itself as the "Holy Roman Catholic and Apostolic Church". This is contrasted, with Protestant churches and with the Orthodox Churches of the East: Greek, Coptic, Syriac, Armenian, Russian, Romanian, Serbian, etc., as an usurpation. The "Holy Roman Catholic and Apostolic Church" was the Universal (katholiki) Church of the Roman Empire. The Pope, then Bishop of Rome, was not the ruler of that Church, but one of the Ecumenical Patriarchs, along with the Patriarchs of Constantinople, Jerusalem, Antioch, and Alexandria. The Pope was allowed to be primus inter pares as a courtesy towards the ancient seat of St. Peter. Governance of the Church was also shared among the five heads of the Church and with the Emperor, who was regarded as the "Equal of the Apostles," and who had the authority to call Church Councils. After the fall of the western Empire in 476, that meant only the Emperor in Constantinople. As it happened, only that Emperor had ever called Councils. After various disputes, the Latin and Greek Churches finally broke in 1054. Each thus claimed to be the proper "Holy Roman Catholic and Apostolic Church," but over time and aided by the enslavement of the Eastern Orhodox peoples by the Turks, the Papal use of the terminology has gained more widespread recognition of the term.

The actual reason that was used to instigate and justify the legality of the Schism was the addition, by the Pope, of one word to the Creed of Faith which had united Christianity since Constantine had called the Council at Nicea to establish it: The paragraph which refers to the Holy Spirit decrees that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and is glorified together with the Father and the Son. The pope added the word filioque which now reads that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father AND the Son. The addition of this one word had extremely serious rumifications as to the nature of the Son and reverted to considerations of heresies past, as Arianism, Monothelitism and others. The Pope declared the other four heads of the church in error and assumed the position that his church, in the altered Creed carried the correct interpretation of Christianity.

The Schism between Greek and Latin Churches came at a very bad time for the Greeks. Defeat by the Turks and the loss of Asia Minor deprived Romania (Romiosini: a reference in Greek to the Christian roman Empire) of more than half its territory. This was a catastrophe, and actually the Empire never recovered. The Emperor Alexius Comnenos appealed to the West for help. Pope Urban II called for a "Crusade," a great Christian army, not just to help the Christians in the east, but to go on and reconquer Jerusalem. The First Crusade defeated the Turks badly enough that Romania was able to recover considerable territory, but then it went on and obtained the great goal of Jerusalem, which had been in Islamic hands for 463 years. the Crusades continued and the Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade instead of proceeding to Jerusalem stopped at Constantinople, laid siege, took the City and enslaved the Christians of the east for almost 60 years.

911 years after the Schism, in 1965, Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagoras I of Constantinople mutually nullify the excommunications of 1054. Some 3o years later, Pope John Paul II visited Athens and recited the Nicene Creed in its original form standing in holy liturgy together with the Archbishop of the Church of Greece

THE NICENE CREED

I believe in one God, the Father, the Almighty, Creator of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible.

And in one Lord, Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God, begotten of the Father before all ages. Light of Light, true God of true God, begotten, not created, of one essence with the Father, through whom all things were made. For us and for our salvation, He came down from heaven and was incarnate by the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary and became man. He was crucified for us under Pontius Pilate, and He suffered and was buried.

On the third day He rose according to the Scriptures. He ascended into heaven and is seated at the right hand of the Father.

He will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead. His kingdom will have no end.

And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the Giver of Life, who proceeds from the Father, who together with the Father and the Son is worshiped and glorified, who spoke through the prophets.

In one, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church. I acknowledge one baptism for the forgiveness of sins. I expect the resurrection of the dead. And the life of the age to come. Amen.


the patriarch of Constantinople and the pope in Rome excommunicate each other (the Great Schism
               1054

 1055

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Seljuk Turks take Baghdad
151 Victor II     Theodora alone        1055

 1056

Ferdinand I of Castile makes himself Emperor and initiates a period of reconquest of the Moors       Michael VI Stratioticus         1056

 1057

  152 Stephen X     Isaac I Comnenos         1057

 1058

  153 Benedict X              1058

 1059

Humbert della Silva Candida publishes the rules by which popes should be elected restricting the electors to the cardinals and forbidding interference from the Roman nobility or the Holy Roman emperor and resumes the Donatist heresy (the morality of a priest determines whether he is worthy of administering sacraments) 154 Nicholas II   Constantine III Constantine X (1X) Ducas         1059

 1060

Decree for election of Popes by a college of Cardinals; beginning of Papal heyday

Svend Estridsen (Svend II) organizes the Danish church
          Philip I    1060

 1061

  155 Alexander II              1061

 1064

      John VIII          1064

 1066

The Norman Conquests

On 28 September 1066, with a favourable wind, William I The Conqueror landed unopposed at Pevensey and, within a few days, raised fortifications at Hastings. Having defeated an earlier invasion by the King of Norway at the Battle of Stamford Bridge near York in late September, Harold undertook a forced march south, covering 250 miles in some nine days to meet the new threat, gathering inexperienced reinforcements to replenish his exhausted veterans as he marched.

At the Battle of Senlac (near Hastings) on 14 October, Harold's weary and under-strength army faced William's cavalry (part of the forces brought across the Channel) supported by archers. Despite their exhaustion, Harold's troops were equal in number (they included the best infantry in Europe equipped with their terrible two-handled battle axes) and they had the battlefield advantage of being based on a ridge above the Norman positions.

The first uphill assaults by the Normans failed and a rumour spread that William had been killed; William rode among the ranks raising his helmet to show he was still alive. The battle was close-fought: a chronicler described the Norman counter-attacks and the Saxon defence as 'one side attacking with all mobility, the other withstanding as though rooted to the soil'. Three of William's horses were killed under him.

William skilfully co-ordinated his archers and cavalry, both of which the English forces lacked. During a Norman assault, Harold was killed - hit by an arrow and then mowed down by the sword of a mounted knight. Two of his brothers were also killed. The demoralised English forces fled. (In 1070, as penance, William had an abbey built on the site of the battle, with the high altar occupying the spot where Harold fell. The ruins of Battle Abbey, and the town of Battle, which grew up around it, remain.)

William was crowned on Christmas Day 1066 in Westminster Abbey.
        Norman Line
William I the Conqueror
     1066

 1067

Work is begun on building the Tower of London                1067

 1068

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The Norman Conquest continues until 1069: William subdues the north of England (the "Harrying of the North" ): the region is laid waste
      Romanus IV Diogenes         1068

 1070

The Hospital of Saint John is founded in Jerusalem by Amalfi merchants                1070

 1071

Turkish Muslims defeat the Christian army of the Byzantine Empire at the Battle of Manzikert, Turkey. The Muslims go on to conquer Palestine (now Israel). Turkish Muslims begin to attack Christians on pilgrimages to holy places

the Turks capture Jerusalem
      Michael VII Ducas         1071

 1072

William invades Scotland and also receives the submission of Hereward the Wake.                1072

 1073

Hildebrand becomes pope Gregory VII and launches the "Gregorian" reform (celibacy of the clergy primacy of the papacy over the empire infallibility of the Church 156 St. Gregory VII              1073

 1075

The Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela is built the third most popoular pilgrimage site after Jerusalem and Rome     Cosmas I          1075

 1076

1076-1122 Investiture Controversy

Heinrich IV refuses and Gregory VII excommunicates and deposes him but then forgives him at Canossa (abbot Hugh of Cluny acts as mediator)
               1076

 1078

        Nicephorus III Botaniates         1078

 1080

William in a letter reminds the bishop of Rome that the King of England owes him no allegiance [Clement (III)]     Nicephorus Melissenus        1080

 1081

      EustathiusGaridas Alexius I Comnenus         1081

 1084

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Bruno founds the Carthusian order at the Grande Chartreuse near Grenoble
    Nicholas III          1084

 1085

Heinrich IV invades Italy and drives Pope Gregory VII out of Rome and the Pope dies in exile prisoner of the Normans who have repelled the Germans but also sacked Rome Vacant,              1085

 1086

Alfonso I of Castile conquers Toledo 157 Victor III              1086

 1087

          William II Rufus      1087

 1088

A monk of Cluny is elected Pope Urban II 158 Urban II              1088

 1093

Henry of Burgundy (Bourgogne) comes to the aid of Castile (Spain) when it is invaded by Moors and becomes Count of Portugal

Anselm becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
               1093

 1095

1095-1291: Holy Wars - The 7 Crusades

Pope Urban II responding to an appeal from the Byzantine emperor Alexios Komnenos calls for a Crusade against the Muslims
               1095

 1096

1096-1099 First Crusade,defeats Seljuks,recaptures Jerusalem

Jews are persecuted by the Crusaders
               1096

 1098

The Crusaders capture Antioch                1098

 1099

(June): After a perilous overland journey that takes nearly three years, the Crusaders reach the outskirts of Jerusalem

Fall of Jerusalem

Crusaders under Godfrey of Bouillon capture Jerusalem

Vallombrosa monk Raniero becomes Pope Paschal II
159 Paschal II              1099

 1100

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1100-1300: Construction of the Chartres Cathedral in France

England's king Henry I fights with Pope Pasquale II on the issue of lay investiture (the king elects the bishops
        Henry I Beauclerc      1100

 1102

  [Albert]              1102

 1103

The Danish king Erik Ejegod (Erik I) obtains that Lund become the archiepiscopal see for the whole of Scandinavia                1103

 1105

  [Sylvester]              1105

 1107

The Concordat of London finds a compromise between England's king Henry I and Pope Pasquale II on the issue of lay investiture (the king elects the bishops                1107

 1108

1108-37: Louis VI, King of France, consolidates royal power           Louis VI
(the Fat)
   1108

 1111

Paschal II resolves the conflict between Church and Empire by renouncing all of the Church's earthly possessions and by embracing apostolic poverty     John IX          1111

 1113

The Pope recognizes the Hospital of Saint John as separate monastic order (the Hospitallers) with headquarters in Acre                1113

 1115

Bernard of Clairvaux founds a Cistercian monastery at Clairvaux and begins a campaign against Cluny                1115

 1118

Paschal II dies 160 Gelasius II     John II Comenus        1118

 1119

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The Crusaders set up new Christian states in the Holy land. The new orders of knights, Templars and the Hospitalers, are founded. These knights are also monks. They defend the Crusaders' states against Muslim attacks and protect Christian pilgrims to the Holy Land
161 Calixtus II              1119

 1122

Pope Calixtus II and German emperor Heinrich V sign the Concordat of Worms that resolves the "investiture controversy" by granting the emperor veto power over the German Church                1122

 1123

Lateran Council I                1123

 1124

  162 Honorius II              1124

 1130

  163 Innocent II              1130

 1134

      Stypiotes          1134

 1135

          Stephen      1135

 1137

Benedictine monk Suger builds the cathedral of Saint-Denis in a new style the gothic style           Louis VII
(the Young)
   1137

 1138

  [Victor IV]              1138

 1139

Alfonso of Portugal declares Portugal independent from Leon and Castile                1139

 1141

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The philospher Pierre Abelard is condemned as heretic and is books are burned for his views on the Trinity and his love for Heloise
        Empress Matilda      1141

 1142

Some Crusaders settle in the Holy Land. They begin constructing Krak des Chevaliers (Castle of the Knights) in Syria. The underground storerooms of this magnificent castle contain enough supplies of food and arms to withstand a five-year siege                1142

 1143

Treat of Zamora, Leon recognizes Portugal's independence 164 Celestine II   Michael II Curcuas Manuel I        1143

 1144

Later Crusades were the result of setbacks, like the fall of Edessa in 1144 and, much worse, the loss of Jerusalem in 1187.
The Popes began to labor constantly to put together forces that could recover the Christian position in Outremer.

The Third Crusade was the most powerful and direct, but it fell short. Much, much worse was the Fourth Crusade, which was redirected by the Doge of Venice, Enrico Dandolo, to the purposes of Venice. Pope Innocent III first had to excommunicate everyone for the use of the army in Dalmatia, and then the Venicians took it, not to Palestine, but to Constantinople.
This could be seen as undoing the Schism between the Chruches, since now there was a Latin Emperor and Latin Patriarch in Romania, but it didn't accomplish the real purpose. Nor did it last long.

Bernard of Clairvaux calls for a second Crusade to rescue the besieged Latin kingdom of Jerusalem and Louis VII of France and Konrad III of Germany join the crusaders but they are defeated by the Muslims
165 Lucius II              1144

 1145

Almohads take over Muslim Spain 166 Eugenius III              1145

 1146

1146-48: Second Crusade, Louis VII on the crusade     Cosmas II Atticus          1146

 1147

1147-1149 Second Crusade

Jews are persecuted by the Crusaders
    Nicholas IV Muzalon          1147

 1151

      Theodotus II          1151

 1152

Pope annuls marriage between Louis VII and Eleanor of Aquitaine                1152

 1153

  167 Anastasius IV   [Neophytus I]          1153

 1154

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Henry II of Anjou marries Eleanor of Aquitaine and England begins to form the Angevin Empire in France
168 Adrian IV   Constantine IV Chiliarenus   Henry II Curtmantle      1154

 1156

      Lucas Chrysoberges          1156

 1159

French theologian John of Salisbury publishes the "Policraticus first doctrine of the separation of church and state but with the state subordinate to the church 169 Alexander III              1159

 1160

Alexander III excommunicates Friedrich I "Barbarossa                1160

 1162

Friedrich I "Barbarossa" raids Rome and Milan                1162

 1164

Sweden obtains an archbishop [Paschal III]              1164

 1165

Thomas Becket named Archbishop of Centerbury Cathedral, head of the church of England                1165

 1168

A Spaniard is elected pope Calixtus III [Calixtus (III)]              1168

 1170

Henry II's men murder Thomas Becket     Michael III of Anchialus          1170

 1177

Barbarossa recognizes Alexander III as Pope and is forgiven     Chariton Eugeniotes          1177

 1179

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Lateran Council III

Pope recognizes Portugal's independence
    Theodosius I Boradiotes          1179

 1180

1180-1223: Philip II Augustus reigns in France

the Jewish philosopher Maimonides attempts to bridge the Talmud and Aristotle in the "Guide for the Perplexed
      Alexius II   Philip II Augustus    1180

 1181

The Muslim warrior Saladin becomes Sultan of Egypt. He is a brilliant military commander who unites the Muslim army 170 Lucius III              1181

 1183

      Basil II Camaterus Andronicus I        1183

 1184

Pope Lucius III excommunicates Peter Waldo founder of the anti-Cluniac ascetic Waldensians ("poor men of Lyons")                1184

 1185

1185-1211: Sancho I reigns in Portugal 171 Urban III     Isaac II         1185

 1186

The Vlachs rebel against the Byzantine Empire. Foundation of the Bulgaro-Vlach Empire     Nicetas II Muntanes          1186

 1187

Saladin crushes the crusaders armies at Hittin

Jerusalem falls to the Muslims

Saladdin retakes Jerusalem
172 Gregory VIII              1187

 1189

1189-1192 Third Crusade


the third Crusade is led by King Richard the Lion-Hearted of England king Philip Augustus II of France and emperor Frederick Barbarossa
    Dositheus of Jerusalem   Richard I
The Lionheart
     1189

 1190

The Teutonic Knights are founded by German lords to fight in the crusade establish their capital at Acre and adopt the Templars' white mantle and the Hospitallers' rule                1190

 1191

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Richard I conquers Cyprus and captures the city of Acre
174 Celestine III   Dositheus of Jerusalem          1191

 1192

Richard I captures Jaffa makes peace with Saladin; on the way home he is captured by his enemy Duke Leopold of Austria                1192

 1194

Richard is ransomed and returned to England                1194

 1195

The Tale of Robin Hood is said to have taken place during these times when Richard was imprisoned after having left on the Third Crusade and John ruled in his stead.       Alexius III        1195

 1198

Cardinal Lothario Conti is elected pope Innocent III 175 Innocent III   John X Camaterus          1198

 1199

1199-1204: Fourth Crusade

Philip II of France begins military conquest of British Normandy and Anjou
        John Lackland      1199

 1200

The Jews are expelled from England                1200

 1202

1202-1204 Fourth Crusade;
Constantinople taken by Crusaders in employ of Venice, first break in line of Roman (Rhomaic/Byzantine) Emperors
               1202

 1203

        Isaac II (restored) with Alexius IV         1203

 1204

Fourth Crusade
Fall of Constantinople to the Latins.
The armies of the Fourth Crusade never reach the Holy Land. Instead, they raid Constantinople, capital of the Christian Byzantine Empire. The Crusaders pillage the city and put its inhabitants to the sword

the Crusaders led by Venezia sack Constantinople
      Alexius V Ducas Murtzuphlus         1204

 1206

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Francis of Assisi gives up his wealth and adopts a life of absolute poverty
               1206

 1207

      Michael IV Autorianus          1207

 1208

1208-1261 Patriarchate at Nicaea

pope Innocent III launches a crusade against the Catharist/Albigensian and the Waldensian heretics
               1208

 1209

London Bridge built: Peace between England and Scotland

1209-1229 Albigensian Crusade

Cambridge University is founded in England; Innocent III excommunicates John for attacks on Church property
               1209

 1210

The Pope recognizes the Franciscan order of mendicant friars                1210

 1212

Christians defeat Almohad Muslims at Las Navas de Tolosa, Almohads expelled from Spain shortly after and Christian reconquest continues

the Jews of Toledo are massacred by the Crusaders
               1212

 1213

      Theodore II Irenicus          1213

 1214

Philip II of France defeats the combined armies of the Holy Roman Empire and England at the Battle of Bouvines                1214

 1215

King John forced to sign the Magna Carta

Lateran Council IV

the Dominican order of mendicant friars is founded in Languedoc

the fourth Lateran council defines the seven sacraments (in particular marriage and confession) and prescribes that Jews be confined in ghettos
    Maximus II          1215

 1216

Innocent III dies 176 Honorius III       Henry III      1216

 1217

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1217-1221: The Fifth Crusade

Emperor Friederich II grants lands to the Teutonic Knights in Sicily
               1217

 1219

Francis of Assisi preaches to the sultan of Egypt                1219

 1222

      Germanus II John III Ducas Vatatzes         1222

 1223

Genghis Khan invades Russia           Louis VIII
(the Lion)
   1223

 1226

Emperor Friederich II grants the Teutonic Knights authority to restore order name in Prussia            Louis IX
(St. Louis)
   1226

 1227

Count Ugolino is elected pope Gregory IX 177 Gregory IX              1227

 1228

1228-29: The Sixth Crusade, led by the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, reoccupies Jerusalem as part of a temporary peace treaty with the Muslims.                1228

 1233

Spanish Inquisition begins

Gregory IX institutes the Inquisition whose courts are mainly run by the Dominican monks

pope Gregory IX issues a mandate for Inquisition against the heretics
               1233

 1238

Valencia is reconquered                1238

 1240

Mongols take Kiev     Methodius II          1240

 1241

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The great Tartar invasion in Central Europe
Mongols defeat Germans at Silesia, and invade Poland and Hungary
178 Celestine IV              1241

 1243

  179 Innocent IV              1243

 1244

      Manuel II          1244

 1248

1248-1254 Sixth Crusade,
St. Louis IX of France, got no further than Tunisia
The crusade ends in disaster with the capture and imprisonment of Louis

1248-1279 Alfonso III reigns in Portugal and moves capital to Lisbon

Sevilla is reconquered by Ferdinand III
               1248

 1250

Eusebius of Esztergom founds the Order of St Paul the First Hermit ("Pauline monks") by uniting all the hermits who lived in the forests of Hungary and Croatia                1250

 1252

Pope Innocent IV issues a papal bull that approves torture against heretics                1252

 1254

Marco Polo (1254-1324) is born 180 Alexander IV   Arsenius Autorianus Theodore II Lascaris         1254

 1258

        John IV Lascaris         1258

 1259

      Nicephorus II Michael VIII Paleologus         1259

 1261

Recovery of Constantinople from its Latin conquerors by the Byzantine Emperor Michael Paleologos

Patriarchate at Constantinople
181 Urban IV              1261

 1264

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The Dominican monk Thomas Aquinas publishes the "Summa Contra Gentiles that reconciles science and religion
               1264

 1265

  182 Clement IV   Germanus III          1265

 1266

      Joseph I Galesiotes          1266

 1269

Rebuilding of Westminster Abbey begun by Henry III Vacant,              1269

 1270

            Philip III
(the Bold)
   1270

 1271

Marco Polo travels to China 1271-1295 183 Gregory X              1271

 1272

William Wallace (1272-1305)

Scottish national hero. Son of a small landowner, he began his attacks on English settlements and garrisons in 1297, after Edward I declared himself ruler of Scotland. His army defeated a much larger English force at Stirling Bridge, captured Stirling Castle, and then ravaged N England, for which Wallace was knighted and proclaimed guardian of the Scottish kingdom. In 1298 Edward I invaded Scotland and defeated Wallace at the Battle of Falkirk. Disgraced, Wallace resigned his guardianship and was replaced by the future Robert I, but apparently continued to fight a guerrilla war. In 1305 he was arrested by the English and hanged, then disemboweled, beheaded, and quartered. The next year Robert raised the rebellion that eventually won independence for Scotland.
        Edward I Longshanks      1272

 1273

Rudolph I becomes the first Habsburg ruler of Austria                1273

 1274

Council of Lyon II                1274

 1275

      John XI Beccus          1275

 1276

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184 Innocent V              1276

 1277

  187 Nicholas III              1277

 1281

  188 Martin IV              1281

 1282

1282-84: Edward I of England defeats Wales     Joseph I Galesiotes Andronicus II        1282

 1283

Jews are massacred in Germany     Gregory II Cyprius          1283

 1285

  189 Honorius IV         Philip IV
(the Fair)
   1285

 1286

Alexander III, King of Scotland dies while travelling to meet his new bride, Yolande de Dreux, near Kinghorn in Fife. Scottish nobles gather at Scone to elect six Guardians who will act as a provisional government, The Community of the Realm of Scotland. The Guardians will work to protect Scotland in the name of Alexander's only surviving relative, his three-year-old granddaughter, Margaret, the Maid of Norway and Scotland's Queen-in-waiting.                1286

 1288

  190 Nicholas IV              1288

 1289

      Athanasius I          1289

 1290

The Teutonic Knights conquer all of Prussia                1290

 1291

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Edward I bullies Scottish lords and nobles into recognising him as the supreme overlord of Scotland. Custody of Scotland, together with its castles and their possessions, are handed over to the English king. Court of Claims to the Scottish throne begins in Berwick.

The Muslims capture the city of Acre, the last Christian stronghold in the Holy Land. This action sees the end of the Crusades

defeated by the Muslims at Acre Hospitallers and Templars move their headquarters from Acre to Cyprus and Teutonic Knights move their headquarters from Acre to Venice

the Moslems expel the Crusaders from the Middle East
               1291

 1292

John Balliol is named as the new King of Scotland and is enthroned at Scone on St Andrew's Day. Vacant,              1292

 1294

Edward I declares war on France. King John and his Scottish nobles refuse to fight the French on the side of the English - they are soon joined in revolt by the Welsh.

England and Portugal sign a commercial treaty which begins a long friendly relationship between the two

Most exaggerated claims for the mediaeval Papacy; humiliated byPhilip the Fair of France

the hermit Pope Celestine V abdicates after a few months
191 St. Celestine V   John XII Cosmas          1294

 1295

Edward I summons the Model Parliament                1295

 1296

Scots rebel against Edward I of England. War begins between England and Scotland. English army massacre civilians at Berwick and Scots retaliate by doing the same throughout Northumberland. The English army marches north and takes Dunbar, Roxburgh, Jedburgh, Edinburgh, Stirling and Montrose. Edward takes the Stone of Destiny from Scone, then moves back south to Berwick to take the oaths of loyalty from over 2000 Scottish nobles (the Ragman Roll).                1296

 1297

Scots rebel against Edward I of England. William Wallace kills the Sheriff of Lanark and joins a campaign supported by the Bishop of Glasgow, Robert Wishart, to drive English sheriffs from Scotland. Wallace gathers a small peasant army to chase Edward's justiciar, William Ormesby, from Scone Abbey. Wallace defeats the English Garrison in Glasgow at the Battle of the Bell o' the Brae. The Scottish nobles gather at Irvine, but are forced to surrender to an army of English knights. Wallace is joined by the army of Andrew Murray, who has successfully reclaimed the north-east from the English. The army of Wallace and Murray rout a vastly superior English army at Stirling Bridge.                1297

 1298

William Wallace is knighted and appointed Guardian of the Kingdom of Scotland. Edward I invades Scotland with a powerful army, made up predominantly of Irish and Welsh infantry. The Scottish army are defeated at the Battle of Falkirk. Wallace steps down as Guardian of Scotland, to be replaced by Robert Bruce and John Comyn.                1298

 1299

Ottoman Empire founded in Turkey                1299

 1300

Bruce resigns as joint Guardian of Scotland and is replaced Ingram de Umfraville, a kinsman of King John, and ally of Comyn. England invades Scotland and refuse a personal demand from John Comyn to restore King John and give up Scottish lands. Continued diplomatic pressure from France and Rome (where Wallace was acting as an envoy) forces Edward to sign a truce and promise to release the Bishop of Glasgow from his English prison.

Boniface VIII announces the first Jubilee Year during which special indulgences are granted
               1300

 1302

The Pope overrides the English terms of King John's release and hands him over to the French. Wallace returns from France with news of possible assistance from King Philip IV. Robert Bruce, fearing a return by King John would mean transfer of power to his enemy, John Comyn, defects to Edward. The French are defeated by a Flemish peasant army at Courtrai.                1302

 1303

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Wallace, Comyn and Simon Fraser continue to struggle against English occupation and defeat an English expeditionary force at Roslin, near Edinburgh. Edward invades again with a full-strength force, after having signed a peace treaty with a much-weakened France. Wallace gains financial support from Bishop Wishart of Glasgow to continue the struggle.
193 Benedict XI   Athanasius I          1303

 1304

Wallace's small force is defeated by an army of English knights at Happrew, near Peebles. Wallace survives, but becomes a fugitive. Edward lays siege to Stirling Castle, the last major fortification to resist Edward's army.                1304

 1305

Philip IV of France secures the election of a French Pope, Clement V, who moved the Papal court from Rome to Avignon, France in 1309

William Wallace is betrayed and captured by John Menteith while visiting Glasgow to meet with Robert Bruce. Wallace is arrested in Scottland by the English taken to London for a trial and was subsequently hanged, drawn, and quartered at Smithfield.

the French archbishop of Bordeaux becomes pope Clement V and moves the papacy to Avignon in France the peak of France's influence over the papacy
A 194 Clement V              1305

 1306

New Scottish rebellion against English rule led by Robert Bruce. Robert I the Bruce crowned King of Scotland (to 1329) at Scone

The Jews are expelled from France
               1306

 1307

Edward I dies on march north to crush Robert Bruce. Edward II King of England (to 1327)         Edward II      1307

 1309

Papacy moves to Avignon, 1309; lines of Popes reside at Avignon, Rome, and Pisa during the Babylonia Captivity (1309-1377) and the Great Schism (1378-1417).

the Teutonic Knights move their capital from Venice to Prussia and establishes a theocratic state

the Hospitallers conquer the island of Rhodes and move their capital there establishing an ecclesiastical principality under the eastern Roman empire
               1309

 1310

      Nephon I          1310

 1311

1311-1312 Council of Vienne                1311

 1312

Order of Knights Templar abolished. The Hospitallers are awarded the Templars' possessions in western Europe Cyprus and Greece                1312

 1313

Pope Clement V abolishes the order of the Knights Templar after drumming up false accusations for the purpose of seizing their wealthy assetts with the help of French king Philippe IV                1313

 1314

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Battle of Bannockburn: Robert Bruce defeats Edward II and makes Scotland independent

Last Templars Grand Master, Jacques de Molay, tortured & burned by Philip IV of France.

Jacques de Molay the grand master of the Templars is burned at the stake in Paris
Vacant,         Louis X
(the Stubborn)
   1314

 1315

      John XIII Glycys          1315

 1316

  A 195 John XXII         John I
Philip V
(the Tall)
   1316

 1320

      Gerasimus I          1320

 1321

Franciscan monk William of Occam is excommunicated for preaching that the Church should not own properties                1321

 1322

            Charles IV
(the Fair)
   1322

 1323

The Church condemns Paschal II's apostolic poverty as heresy     Isaiah, Jesaias          1323

 1324

Marco Polo dies

Franciscan monk Marsilio da Padova publishes "Defender Of Peace in which he argues that the Church has not authority over secular affairs and that the purpose of a state is to guarantee peace
               1324

 1325

Beginning of the Renaissance in Italy
Peak of the Muslim Empire in Spain
Small cannon begins use
               1325

 1327

1327-77: Edward III rules in England and is the rival of Philip VI of Valois

German emperor Ludwig IV invades Italy and appoints pope John XXII
        Edward III      1327

 1328

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1328-50: Philip VI of Valois rules in France and the Valois dynsaty is founded as a runoff of the Capetian dynsaty

English win a major naval battle against the French at Sluis, in the Netherlands
      Andronicus III   Valois Dynasty
Philip VI
   1328

 1334

  A 196 Benedict XII   John XIV Calecas          1334

 1336

Jews are massacred in Germany                1336

 1337

Hundred Years War between England and France begun when the French under Philip VI of Valois invades English Gascony                1337

 1338

England allies with the Holy Roman Empire                1338

 1340

Edwardian phase of the Hundred Years' War: England wins many victories and wins control of most of southwestern France

Alfonso XI of Castile wins major victory over the Moors at the Battle of the Salado River English win a major naval battle against the French at Sluis, in the Netherlands
               1340

 1341

        John V         1341

 1342

  A 197 Clement VI              1342

 1346

First land battle of the Hundred Years War: Battle of Crecy won by the English                1346

 1347

The English capture Calais

1347-51: The Black plague: 25 million dead

the "black death" (the plague) causes the decline of monasticism
    Isidore I Bucharis John VI Cantancuzenus         1347

 1350

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Sergius of Radonezh founds the Monastery of the Holy Trinity (at Sergiev Posad the new center of Russian christianity
    Callistus I     John II
(the Good)
   1350

 1352

  A 198 Innocent VI              1352

 1353

      Philotheus Coccinus          1353

 1355

      Callistus I          1355

 1356

Battle of Poitiers won decisively by the English led by Edward the Black Prince, French King John II taken prisoner                1356

 1360

Peace of Bretigny signed by the French and English forces the French to cede all of Aquitaine to the English                1360

 1362

  A 199 Urban V              1362

 1364

King Charles V rules in France: leads the French in the Caroline phase of the Hundred Years' War     Philotheus Coccinus     Charles V
(the Wise)
   1364

 1369

1369-72: Ottomans conquer Bulgaria

1369-89: Caroline Phase of the Hundred Years' War: French oppose the English but only partial victory is acheived and they expel the English from much of France
               1369

 1370

  R 200 Gregory XI
leaves Avignon, 1376; returns to Rome, 1377
             1370

 1372

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A Castilian (Spanish) fleet defeats the English fleet off La Rochelle
               1372

 1376

The Good Parliament in England called by Edward the Black Prince introduces many reforms of government; Death of Edward the Black Prince aged 45; The Civil Dominion of John Wyclif an Oxford don calling for Church reforms     Macarius Andronicus IV        1376

 1377

The French launch an offensive against the English that supported by their navy that leaves the English with only a few coastal areas; the French and Castilian navies begin to attack the British shoreline and the English are forced to take the offensive

pope Gregory XI moves back the papacy to Rome from Avignon
        Richard II      1377

 1378

1378-1417: The Great Schism: Popes fight for control of the Roman Catholic Church in Avignon, France and Rome, Italy

pope Gregory XI dies and the Roman nobles elect Bartolomeo Prignano as pope Urban VI

the Oxford theologian John Wycliffe preaches that the Church has fallen into sin that it ought to give up all its property and that the clergy should live in complete poverty
R 201 Urban VI
resides at Rome, Anti-Pope elected at Avignon; Great Schism
             1378

 1379

      Nilus Cerameus John V (restored)         1379

 1380

1380-1422: At the same time as the Great Schism, the French King Charles VI rules in France

c. 1380 John Wycliffe (c. 1320 - 1384), an English priest, begins the first English translation of the Bible.
          Charles VI
(the Mad, Well-Beloved, or Foolish)
   1380

 1385

House of Aviz formed by John I who succeeded the Portugese throne after 2 years of civil war, during his reign the Portugese carved a huge colonial empire; John I defeats Castile at the Battle of Ajubarrota

Lithuania converts to christianity as is unified with Poland
               1385

 1386

Permanent alliance between England and Portugal at the Treaty of Windsor                1386

 1389

Caroline Phase of the Hundred Years' War ends with France's partial sucess

the Serbs are defeated by Ottoman Turks of Sultan Murad I
R 202 Boniface IX   Anthony IV          1389

 1390

      Macarius John VII        1390

 1391

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The Jews of Iberia are forced to convert
    Anthony IV Manuel II        1391

 1392

Charles VI of France attacked by mental illness: Philip the Bold of Burgundy seizes French power                1392

 1394

  A [Benedict (XIII)]
1394-1417 d.1423
             1394

 1396

Philip the Bold of France signs a new and longer truce with England

the English translation of the Bible begun by John Wycliffe is completed (the "Wycliffe" Bible) but is declared heretic by the Church (the "Vulgate" being the only authorized version)
               1396

 1397

Kalmar Agreement unites Denmark, Norway and Sweden     Callistus II Xanthopulus          1397

 1399

Richard II of England overthrown by his cousin Henry IV of Lancaster         Plantagenet, Lancastrian Line
Henry IV Bolingbroke
     1399

 1404

Philip the Bold of Burgundy dies and is succeeded by his son John the Fearless in Burgundy

Battle of Formigny won by French due to artillery and Normandy falls to the French shortly after

English defeated by the French at the Battle of Castillon and the English lose Aquitaine; English expelled from France except for Port Calais and the war ends

Isabella of Spain convokes a great Cortes (Parliament) in Toledo

Ottoman Turks annex Hungary

Ottoman Turks make peace with Persia
R 203 Innocent VII              1404

 1406

  R 204 Gregory XII
1406-1415 d.1417
             1406

 1407

John the Fearless of Burgundy plunges France into civil war                1407

 1409

Council of Pisa,adds third Pope at Pisa P Alexander V              1409

 1410

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the Teutonic Knights are defeated by Jagiello's Polish-Lithuanian army at the battle of Tannenberg
P [John (XXIII)]
1410-1415 d.1419
             1410

 1412

St. Joan of Arc, Born at Domremy in Champagne, probably on 6 January, 1412; Burnt at the stake at Rouen, 30 May, 1431.                1412

 1413

          Henry V      1413

 1414

1414-1418 Council of Constance, called by Emperor Sigismund, Papal interregnum 1415-1417, resolves Great Schism, but principle of Council is threat to Papal authority                1414

 1415

Battle of Agincourt won by King Henry V of the English; Portugese advance in Morocco successful after the capture of Ceuta

1415-35: The Lancastrian Phase of the Hundred Years' War: The English have inital success with an alliance with Burgundy, but the French halt the English advance

the heretic Jan Hus is burned at the stake at Constance for opposing the sale of indulgences and claiming that the Church is a human invention
Vacant,              1415

 1416

      Joseph II          1416

 1417

English begin conquest of Normandy

the Western Schism ends at the council of Constance with the election of Martin V
205 Martin V              1417

 1418

John the Fearless of Burgundy occupies London

1418-60: Portugal sponsers the exploration of the African coastline
               1418

 1420

English capture Paris and the French are forced to sign the Treaty of Troyes which disinherited the dauphin made Henry V of England became the new heir to the French throne                1420

 1422

Henry V dies in England
Charles the dauphin of France is named Charles VII after his father Charles VI dies and begins to fight in southern and central France against the English and reigns until 1461
        Henry VI Charles VII
(the Well-Served or Victorious)
   1422

 1423

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German Civil War

1423-29: French and Scots wage war with English
A [Clement (VIII)]
1423-1429
             1423

 1424

English Duke of Bedford defeats the French at the battle of Verneuil                1424

 1425

        John VIII        1425

 1427

Portugal discovers the Azores                1427

 1428

English besiege Orleans                1428

 1429

English advance in France halted

A French force led by military commander Joan of Arc (Jeanne d'Arc) relieves the siege of Orleans; Charles VII crowned king of France at Rheims , deep in English teritory
               1429

 1430

Burgundians hand over Joan of Arc to the English and she is executed the next year                1430

 1431

1431-1445 Council of Basil.

St. Joan of Arc, Burnt at the stake at Rouen, 30 May, 1431.
(Eugenius) IV              1431

 1435

Burgundy changes allegiance from England to France: English forces seriously overextended, and the English are evtually driven from France                1435

 1436

French regain Paris                1436

 1437

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James I of the Scots assassinated
               1437

 1439

Council at Ferrara & Florence, 1439-1440, attended by John VIII Palaeologus.

Emperor John VIII, hoping for Western military aid against the Turks, travels to Italy and negotiates a reunion of the Eastern and Western Churches at the Council of Florence. When he returns East, leaders of the Greek Orthodox Church refuse to accept the reunion.

Treaty between Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church
               1439

 1440

1440-93: Frederick III rules the Holy Roman Empire     Metrophanes II          1440

 1441

Second Ottoman siege of Constantinople                1441

 1443

      Gregory III Mammas          1443

 1444

Treaty of Tours: five-year peace with England and France; Portugal sails as far as Cape Verde                1444

 1447

  207 Nicholas V              1447

 1448

Renaissance begins

Prince Basil II of Russia imprisons Bishop Isidore of Moscow, a Greek, for accepting the reunion of Florence. The Russian Orthodox Church declares its organizational independence from Constantinople and elects the first native-born Russian bishop, Jonas I.
               1448

 1449

France at war with England, recovers Normandy       Constantine XI (XIII) Paleologos        1449

 1450

Florence becomes the centre of the Renaissance

Battle of Formigny won by French due to artillery and Normandy falls to the French shortly after
    Athanasius II          1450

 1452

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Leonardo DaVinci, the quintessential Renaissance man of enduring genius born in the Tuscan village of Vinci.
               1452

 1453

Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans under Mehmet II.
Last Byzantine Emperor Constantine Paleologos dies during final assult on the City.
Ottomans change its name to Istanbul, which is the phonetic pronunciation in Greek of ³To The City² (ees-teen-poli).

End of the Byzantine Empire


1453-1455 Patriarchaye at Church of the Holy Apostles

English defeated by the French at the Battle of Castillon and the English lose Aquitaine; English expelled from France except for Port Calais and the 100-year war ends.
    Gennadius II Scholarius Last Emperor of The Eastern Roman Empire, Byzantium, Constantine XI (XIII) Paleologos is killed in the final battle defending Constantinople        1453

 1455

1455-1587
Patriarchate at Convent of St. Mary Pammakaristos

1455-85: English Wars of the Roses
208 Calixtus III              1455

 1456

Ottomans capture Athens

1456-1462: Reign of Vlad the Impaler.
    Isidore II Xanthopulus          1456

 1458

  209 Pius II              1458

 1460

Portugese reach Sierra Leone                1460

 1461

Last piece of Romania, the fortress of Monemvasia, ceded by theDespot Thomas.         Plantagenet, Yorkist Line
Edward IV
Louis XI
(the Spider)
   1461

 1462

1462-1505: Ivan the Great rules as the first czar in Russia, ends tribute payed to the Mongols

Vlad IV of Walachia is defeated by Ottoman Sultan Muhammad II
               1462

 1463

      Syropulus          1463

 1464

  210 Paul II   Joseph, Ioasaph          1464

 1466

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Kazimierz IV's Polish army defeats the Teutonic Knights and annexes western Prussia to Poland
    Marcus II Xylokaraves          1466

 1469

Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile marry to form a united Spain                1469

 1471

  211 Sixtus IV   Symeon I of Trebizond   Again,
Edward IV
     1471

 1473

Nicolaus Copernicus Born: 19 Feb 1473 in Torun, Poland                1473

 1475

      Raphael I          1475

 1476

      Maximus III          1476

 1478

Sixtus IV authorizes the Spanish Inquisition

Ottomans conquer Albania
               1478

 1480

Mongols driven from Russia

Isabella of Spain convokes a great Cortes (Parliament) in Toledo
               1480

 1481

      Symeon I of Trebizond          1481

 1482

      Symeon I of Trebizond          1482

 1483

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        Edward V Charles VIII
(Father of his People)
   1483

 1484

Pope Innocent VIII orders the persecution of witches 212 Innocent VIII              1484

 1485

Henry VII becomes first Tudor King of England         House of Tudor
Henry VII Tudor
     1485

 1486

Pico della Mirandola a student of the Kabbalah tries to reconcile all religions and philosophies     Nephon II          1486

 1487

Battle of Stoke Field: In final engagement of the Wars of the Roses Henry VII defeats Yorkist army "led" by Lambert Simnel (who was impersonating Edward the nephew of Edward IV the only plausible royal alternative to Henry who was confined in the Tower of London).                1487

 1489

      Dionysius I          1489

 1491

      Maximus IV          1491

 1492

Christopher Colombus sails west in search of the Indies.
Disvovery of the Americas.
The New World



Moors driven from their last stronghold in Granada
Granada is reconquered by the Christians

Treaty of Etaples signed by England and France which settled their outstanding difference

pope Alexander VI and his son Cesare Borgia become famous for their cruelty

Jews and Muslims are expelled from Spain
213 Alexander VI Borgia                      1492

 1493

1493-96: Columbus's second voyage                1493

 1494

Treaty of Tordesillas gives Portugal territory in Brazil                1494

 1495

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1495-1521: Portugese power reaches it's height under King Emanuel, but at the end of his reign Portugal began to decline
               1495

 1497

1497-99: Vasco da Gama makes first voyage to India

The Dominican monk Girolamo Savonarola is excommunicated and hanged and burnt as an heretic

John Cabot discovers Newfoundland.
    Nephon II          1497

 1498

Columbus's Third Voyage     Joachim I     Louis XII    1498

 1500

European Jews divide into "Sephardim" (Spanish and Portuguese Jews) and "Askenazim" (German and Polish Jews                1500

 1501

First black slaves in America                1501

 1502

Portugese build colony in India

Columbus's Fourth Voyage
    Nephon II          1502

 1503

Giuliano Della Rovere is elected pope Julius II 214 Pius III

215 Julius II
             1503

 1504

      Joachim I          1504

 1506

Treaty of Tordesillas between Spain and Portugal

Pope Julius II decides to rebuild the Basilica of St Peter
               1506

 1509

the Dutch humanist Desiderius Erasmus publishes "The Praise of Folie which advocates a return to the moral values of early Christianity         Henry VIII      1509

 1512

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215 Julius II recovers by combat all of Papal States, 1512-1517;

Lateran Council V
               1512

 1513

Giovanni de' Medici is elected pope Leo X 216 Leo X Medici   Theoleptus I          1513

 1514

Leo X appoints Raphael chief architect of Saint Peter's Basilica                1514

 1515

            Francis I    1515

 1516

1516-1917 Ottoman Empire rule

Charles I of Spain acsends the throne of Spain

a Jewish ghetto is instituted in Venezia

a Greek translation of the New Testament done by Erasmus (Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus) is printed
               1516

 1517

Reformation begins
The Protestant Reformation begins at Wittenberg when Martin Luther publishes his "95 Theses" against the Catholic practice of selling indulgences . Leo X dismissed Martin Luther
as "some drunken German," but Luther's movement not only shook Francia, it shattered it. A division something like the Great Schism happened again, but this time it was not over who would be Pope, but whether there would be a Pope at all.

Protestantism is born

Ottomans conquer Egypt and rule Arabia

the Ottoman empire conquers Jerusalem
               1517

 1519

Ferdinand Magellan circumnavigates the globe

Charles I of Spain chosen Holy Roman Emperor Charles V

Reformation in Switzerland
               1519

 1520

Luther excommunicated by Pope Leo X

Luther creates his German translation of the New Testament.

1520-1566: Height of the Ottoman Empire by Seleiman I
               1520

 1521

Ottoman Turks invade Hungary

1521-29: Spain at war with France

Henry VIII receives the title "Defender of the Faith" from Pope Leo X for his opposition to Luther .
               1521

 1522

a Dutch is elected Adrian VI 217 Adrian VI   Jeremias I          1522

 1523

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Giulio de' Medici is elected pope Clement VII
218 Clement VII              1523

 1525

Peace between England and France made by Henry VIII

the grand master of the Teutonic Knights is appointed duke of Prussia
               1525

 1526

Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent destroys the Hungarain kingdom after the Battle of Mohacs.

Spain orders all ships to travel in groups due to pirates

Tyndale creates his English version of the Pentateuch.

Martin Luther prints his German translation of the Bible
               1526

 1527

Holy Roman Empire attacks Rome, imprisons Pope Clement VII- end of the Italian Renaissance, Sweden becomes Lutheran                1527

 1529

Henry VIII declares himself head of the English church, forcibly cuts the Anglican bishops off from communion with Rome, calls the Reformation Parliament, and marries Anne Boleyn.

The Anglican Church is born

Ottomans reach Vienna
               1529

 1530

1530s: Spanish discover silver and gold mines in the New World

defeated at Rhodes by the Turks the Hospitallers move to Malta under the king of Spain
               1530

 1532

Sir Thomas More resigns over the question of Henry VIII's divorce                1532

 1533

Spain conquers the Inca Empire in Peru

1533-37: Danish Civil War

1533-84: Reign of Ivan IV the Terrible

Henry VIII marries Anne Boleyn and is excommunicated by Pope Clement VII; Thomas Cranmer appointed Archbishop of Canterbury
               1533

 1534

Henry VIII declares himself supreme head of the Church of England 219 Paul III              1534

 1535

1535-38: Ferdinand's second Spanish-French War

Spain attacks Tunis

Sir Thomas More is beheaded in Tower of London for failing to take the Oath of Supremacy
               1535

 1536

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Reformation reaches Norway and Denmark

William Tyndale is burned at the stake for translating the Bible into English

Anne Boleyn is beheaded; Henry VIII marries Jane Seymour; dissolution of monasteries in England begins under the direction of Thomas Cromwell completed in 1539.
               1536

 1537

Jane Seymour dies after the birth of a son the future Edward VI                1537

 1540

Ignatius of Loyola founds the Society of Jesus (Jesuits which believes in free will and in salvation through good deeds (not just faith)

Henry VIII marries Anne of Cleves following negotiations by Thomas Cromwell; Henry divorces Anne of Cleves and marries Catherine Howard; Thomas Cromwell executed on charge of treason.
               1540

 1541

Reformation in Scotland, establishes the Presbyterian Church

Spain attacks Algiers

Ottoman Turks annex Hungary
               1541

 1542

1542-44: Ferdinand's third Spanish-French War

Catherine Howard is executed
               1542

 1543

Nicolaus Copernicus publishes De Revolutionibus with dedication to the Pope, dies.

Henry VIII marries Catherine Parr; alliance between Henry and Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor) against Scotland and France
               1543

 1545

1545-1563 Council of Trent
19th Ecumenical Council

1545-1650: French Wars of Religion
               1545

 1546

      Joannicus I          1546

 1547

Ivan IV "The Terrible" becomes Czar of Russia

the Pope convenes the first Council of Trento in response to the Protestant Reformation ("counter-reformation
        Edward VI Henry II    1547

 1549

The Catholic missionary Frances Xavier reaches Japan                1549

 1550

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220 Julius III              1550

 1551

1551-59: Ferdinand's fourth Spanish-French War, treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis ends wars between Spain and France and Spain becomes the dominant power in Italy

Archbishop Cranmer publishes Forty-two Articles of religion.
               1551

 1553

Edward VI dies, Queen (Bloody) Mary I succeeds him, restores the Catholic Church to England

Ottoman Turks make peace with Persia
        Lady Jane Grey      1553

 1554

Execution of Lady Jane Grey                1554

 1555

  221 Marcellus II   Joseph, Joasaph II          1555

 1556

Phillip II ascends the Spanish throne

1556-1598: Reign of Phillip II of Spain
               1556

 1557

France declares bankruptcy                1557

 1558

Elizabeth I becomes Queen of England, restores Protestant Church

English lose Port Calais to France
        Elizabeth I      1558

 1559

French and Habsburgs sign the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis, ending Spain's wars with France

1559-1598: French Wars of Religion
223 Pius IV         Francis II    1559

 1560

Madrid made capital of Spain

Ottoman Turks destroy Spanish fleet

The Geneva Bible is created. This version is the one used by Shakespeare and also by the Pilgrims who came to the United States on the Mayflower.

Treaty of Berwick between Elizabeth I and Scottish reformers; Treaty of Edinburgh among England France and Scotland
          Charles IX    1560

 1561

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Edict of Orleans ends persecution Huguenots in France
               1561

 1563

The Thirty-nine Articles which complete establishment of the Anglican Church                1563

 1564

Ivan IV battles the Boyars (nobles) for power in Russia

William Shakespeare born.

Michelangelo builds the dome of St. Peter's Church in Rome
               1564

 1565

      Metrophanes III          1565

 1566

  224 St. Pius V              1566

 1567

Joseph Karo/Caro publishes the "Shulhan Aruk the code of Jewish law

Murder of Lord Darnley husband of Mary Queen of Scots probably by Earl of Bothwell; Mary Queen of Scots marries Bothwell is imprisoned and forced to abdicate; James VI King of Scotland
               1567

 1568

The political divisions of the Reformation were settled by war.
Protestant Netherlands, revolts against Catholic Spain

Mary Queen of Scots escapes to England and is imprisoned by Elizabeth I at Fotheringay Castle.
               1568

 1570

Spanish and Italian fleets defeat Turkey at the Battle of Lepanto                1570

 1571

Tatars invade and burn Moscow                1571

 1572

Peace of Constantinople ends Turkish attacks on Europe

Tycho Brahe observes supernova, demonstrates lack of parallax, becomes famous
225 Gregory XIII   Jeremias II Tranos          1572

 1574

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1574-76: Fifth Huguenot War in France
          Henry III    1574

 1576

Spanish troops sack Antwerp                1576

 1577

Alliance between England and Netherlands; Francis Drake sails around the world (to 1580 )                1577

 1578

1578-1655: Spain rules Portugal                1578

 1579

      Metrophanes III          1579

 1580

1580-1640: House of Aviz ends, Sixty Years' Captivity of Portugal by Spain     Jeremias II Tranos          1580

 1581

Russians settle Siberia                1581

 1582

5/15 October 1582
Gregorian Calendar instituted

The Geneva Bible is created. This version is the one used by Shakespeare and also by the Pilgrims who came to the United States on the Mayflower.

Pope Gregory XIII institutes the Gregorian Calendar
               1582

 1584

William of Orange assassinated     Pachomius II          1584

 1585

  226 Sixtus V   Theoleptus II          1585

 1586

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1587-1597
Patriarchate at Palace of the Wallachians, Vlach Saray
               1586

 1587

Mary, Queen of the Scots, is executed

Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, was born on December 8, 1542. She was well known for her beauty, her wit, her learning, and her misfortunes. She was the daughter of James V of Scotland by Marie of Lorraine, a French princess of the family of Guise. Her father died a few days after her birth, and on September 9, 1543, she was crowned queen of Scotland.

In 1548 she was pledged in marriage to Francis, Dauphin of France, son of Henry II and Catharine de'Medic, and in the same year she was brought to France to be educated at the French court. When she grew up she added to a striking and fascinating personal beauty all the accomplishments and charms which a perfect education can give.

Her marriage with the dauphin was celebrated April 24, 1558, in the Church of Notre Dame, and when Mary I of England died in the same year, she opposed the crowning of Elizabeth I.

On July 10, 1559, Henry Ii died and was succeeded by Francis II. Mary thus became Queen of France, but Francis died December 5, 1560. She was childless and had littlepower at court, where the influence of Catharine de'Medici was now paramount. In the same year her mother died, and she then returned to Scotland.

Brought up a Roman Catholic and used to the carefree life of the French court, she found the dominant Protestantism of Scotland and the austere manners of her subjects almost intolerable. Nevertheless, the first period of her reign was fairly successful; and she strove to placate the Protestants. The Protestants, however, were soon estranged by her unfortunate marriage with her cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, a Catholic, who on February 9, 1567, was blown up by gunpowder as the result of a treacherous plot he himself inspired. Three months later Mary married Earl of Bothwell, whom public opinion accused of the murder of Darnley.

From this time a series of misfortunes struck the queen and a general revolutionary uprising took place. In the battle of Carberry Hill, Bothwell was defeated and fled, and Mary was confined in Lochleven Castle and compelled to abdicate. She escaped with her life and fled to England. Here she was immediately imprisoned, first at Carlisle, afterwards in various other places, and last in Fotheringay Castle. She was imprisoned for 18 years and finally beheaded by Elizabeth on October 25, 1586.

Sixtus V creates Congregation of the Holy Roman and Universal Inquisition or Holy Office

1587-1616: William Shakespeare's productive years
    Jeremias II Tranos          1587

 1588

1588: 1588: Spanish Empire at it's height consists of most of South America, Central America, Mexico, Florida, Cuba and the Phillipines

Defeat of Spanish Armada, turning point of the Spanish Empire
               1588

 1589

1589-1610: "Good King Henry" or Henry IV of France reigns as one of France's most beloved kings

Patriarch Jeremias II of Constantinople raises Metropolitan Job of Moscow to the rank of Patriarch of Moscow and of All Russia, making him the head of the largest Orthodox church. Moscow would come to be called "the Third Rome."
          Bourbon Dynasty
Henry IV
   1589

 1590

  227 Urban VII              1590

 1591

  229 Innocent IX              1591

 1592

  230 Clement VIII              1592

 1593

Henry IV of France publically converts to Catholicism                1593

 1594

Henry IV crowned King of France at Chartres Cathedral and establishes the Bourbon dynasty and basically ends the French wars of religion                1594

 1596

At the Union of Brest-Litovsk, several million Ukrainian and Byelorussian Orthodox Christians, living under Polish rule, leave the Russian Orthodox Church and recognize the Pope of Rome, without giving up their Byzantine liturgy and customs. This was the beginning of what is variously known as the Uniate, Eastern Rite Catholic, or Greek Catholic Church.     Matthew II          1596

 1597

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Irish rebellion under Hugh O'Neill Earl of Tyrone (finally put down 1601)

1597-1599
Patriarchate at St. Demetrius Monastery at Xyloporta
    Theophanes I Karykes          1597

 1598

Treaty of Nantes ends French civil war between Protestants and Catholics, and Spanish troops expelled from France Boris Godunov becomes Czar of Russia     Matthew II          1598

 1600

Johannes Kepler, 29, meets Tycho, 53, in Prague

Elizabeth I grants charter to East India Company

Patriarchate at Church of St. George, Phanar Quarter

the philosopher Giordano Bruno is executed as an heretic in Rome for claiming that the universe is infinite
               1600

 1601

Elizabethan Poor Law charges the parishes with providing for the needy; Essex attempts rebellion and is executed                1601

 1602

1600-1608:William Shakespeare's period for great tragedies: Hamlet, King Lear, Macbeth
    Neophytus II          1602

 1603

Sir Walter Raleigh arrested, tried and imprisoned     Matthew II   House of Stuart
James I
     1603

 1604

King James (1566-1625) of England commissions the "King James" translation of the Bible                1604

 1605

Gunpowder Plot; Guy Fawkes and other Roman Catholic conspirators fail in attempt to blow up Parliament and James I 231 Leo XI              1605

 1606

Rembrandt (1606-1669) born.                1606

 1607

Spain goes bankrupt; English found Jamestown

Dutch destroy Spanish fleet at Gibraltar
    Neophytus II          1607

 1608

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Polish army occupy Moscow and set up a puppet Samuel de Champlain establishes Quebec
               1608

 1609

Nine-year truce between Spain and Holland agreed

Samuel de Champlain founds French colony in Quebec

Catholic League formed to counter Protestant Union in Germany
               1609

 1610

Galileo publishes Sidereus Nuncius (Starry Messenger or Message). Kepler defends it without having seen telescope

Hudson Bay discovered.
          Louis XIII    1610

 1611

James I's authorized version (King James Version) of the Bible is completed; English and Scottish Protestant colonists settle in Ulster

Gustavus Adolphus elected King of Sweden.
               1611

 1612

A Stock Exchange is founded in Amsterdam     Cyril I Lucaris          1612

 1613

Russian National Assembly chooses Michael Romanov as the new tsar

Spanish invade the Bavarian Palatinate in Germany
               1613

 1614

James I dissolves the "Addled Parliament" which has failed to pass any legislation                1614

 1616

William Shakespeare dies                1616

 1618

1618-1648:Thirty Years' War between Catholics and Protestants: Protestants in Germany fight the Catholics for freedom, and are later supported by Denmark, Sweden and then France, the war devastates Germany

As the Spanish kept trying to defeat the Dutch since the 1568 revolt, the Emperor moved to suppress heresy in Bohemia.
After Imperial forces secured Bohemia and advanced in Germany, France began to subsidize opposition. This brought Sweden into the war; and after Swedish fortunes faded, France, a Catholic state, entered the war against the Catholic side. Spanish power was permanently weakened.
               1618

 1619

Kepler publishes Harmony of the World containing 3rd law

1619-1624:Dutch monopoly over Spice Trade in Indonesia
               1619

 1620

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Imperial army commanded by Tilly routes Bohemians at White Mountain near Prague

Pilgrims aboard the "Mayflower" land first on Cape Cod near where Provincetown will later stand, then the next day land on the mainland and found the Plymoth Plantation. The first rock they step on coming of the ship is remembered as Plymouth Rock. The colony establishes a foothold in what will later become Massachusetts.
    Cyril I Lucaris          1620

 1621

  233 Gregory XV              1621

 1622

Protestants defeat Tilly at Wiesloch in April

Moliere (1622-73) is born.
               1622

 1623

Publication of Shakespeare's First Folio 234 Urban VIII   Cyril I Lucaris          1623

 1624

Louis XIII chooses Cardinal Richelieu as his first minister                1624

 1625

1625-29: Danish phase of the Thirty Years' War: Christian IV of Denmark and Norway, supported by Lutheran and Calvinist princes, invades Saxony for mostly non-religious resasons, but is unsuccessful         Charles I      1625

 1626

Dutch found New Amsterdam (New York

Saint Peter's Basilica is inaugurated in Rome
               1626

 1627

Christian IV of Denmark retreats into the Jutland peninsula

Edict of Restitution: Nullifies all Protestant lands in Catholic territory, total victory for the Imperial cause is noticed
               1627

 1628

Petition of Right; Charles I forced to accept Parliament's statement of civil rights in return for finances                1628

 1629

1629-32 Galileo publishes Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems. Five months after publication it is banned and Galileo summoned to Rome. He goes. Kepler dies in 1630

Treaty of Lubeck deprives Denmark of territories in northern Germany
               1629

 1630

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Third phase of the Thirty Years' War: Sweden invades northern Germany with the support of Protestants and France

Dutch colonists invade Brazil from the Portugese (occupied by Spain)

Swedish invade Pomerania under Gustav II Adolph

Holy Roman Empire seiges Magdeburg 1631: Imperial troops sack Magdeburg, Germany
               1630

 1633

Trial of Galileo Galilei
Galileo is convicted of heresy, confined to house arrest, forbidden to publish anything.
    Cyril I Lucaris          1633

 1634

      Cyril I Lucaris          1634

 1635

Third and last phase of the Thirty Years' War                1635

 1636

      Neophytus III          1636

 1637

      Cyril I Lucaris          1637

 1638

Louis XIV was born on September 5, 1638 of Louis XIII of France and Anne of Austria. Louis XIII died in 1643, and Anne aided by Cardinal Mazarin, ruled as regents in place of Louis XIV in France.                1638

 1639

      Parthenius I          1639

 1640

Portugal becomes independent of Spain

English civil war between the Cavaliers (Loyalty) and Roundheads (Parliament)

Cardinal Richelieu dies
               1640

 1642

1642-43 Galileo dies. Isaac Newton is born.

French found Montreal

Charles I fails in attempt to arrest five members of Parliament and rejects Parliament's Nineteen Propositions; Civil War (until 1645) begins with battle of Edgehill between Cavaliers (Royalists) and Roundheads (Parliamentarians
               1642

 1643

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Louis XIV becomes King of France and names Cardinal Mazarin as his first minister

Solemn League and Covenant is signed by Parliament .
          Louis XIV
(the Sun King)
   1643

 1644

  235 Innocent X   Parthenius II          1644

 1645

Formation of Cromwell's New Model Army; Battle of Naseby; Charles I defeated by Parliamentary forces                1645

 1646

English colonize the Bahamas

Oliver Cromwell defeats the Royalists
Parliament demands reforms. Charles I surrenders to the Scots
    Joannicius II          1646

 1648

The Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 secured Dutch independence and the Protestant states in Germany. The Pope lost even theoretical and spiritual authority over most of Northern Europe.

200 000 Jews are slaughtered during the Russian invasion of Poland by Cossacks led by Bogdan Chmielnicki
    Parthenius II          1648

 1649

England declared a Commonwealth. Charles I is tried and executed; The Commonwealth in which ; England is governed as a republic is established and lasts until 1660; Cromwell harshly suppresses Catholic rebellions in Ireland         The Commonwealth
Oliver Cromwell
     1649

 1650

The Jews are expelled from Wien (Vienna)

Charles II lands in Scotland; is proclaimed king.
               1650

 1651

      Joannicius II          1651

 1652

South Africa beginings:
The Dutch set up a mainland base for their East India Company (VOC), in what is now Cape Town, to provide passing ships with food, water and hospitalization for sick sailors.

1652-1654:1st Anglo-Dutch War

1652-8: Patriarch Nikon of Moscow revises liturgical books to bring them into conformity with the Greek Orthodox liturgy. Opponents of this reform were excommunicated from the Russian Orthodox Church and become known as Old Believers, which are now divided into several sects. These excommunications were rescinded in 1971.
    Cyril III          1652

 1653

Cromwell made Lord Protector     Joannicius II          1653

 1654

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    Cyril III          1654

 1655

England divided into 12 military districts by Cromwell; seizes Jamaica from Spain

1655-60: First Northern War against Sweden 1658: Cromwell dies, son Richard resigns, Puritan government collapses
236 Alexander VII   Joannicius II          1655

 1656

War with Spain (until 1659)     Parthenius III          1656

 1657

      Gabriel II          1657

 1658

Oliver Cromwell dies; succeeded as Lord Protector by son Richard; Battle of the Dunes England and France defeat Spain; England gains Dunkirk         Richard Cromwell      1658

 1659

Richard Cromwell forced to resign by the army; "Rump" Parliament restored                1659

 1660

Parliament asks for Charles II to become King, English Monarchy restored in 1661         House of Stuart, Restored
Charles II
     1660

 1661

Louis XIV takes over French government                1661

 1662

Act of Uniformity passed in England     Dionysius III          1662

 1663

Turks invade Hungary                1663

 1664

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1664-65 Plague closes Cambridge. Newton goes to country, discovers laws of motion and gravity, explains orbits, invents calculus, makes discoveries in optics.

1664-1667: English seize New Amsterdam from the Dutch and rename it New York, 2nd Anglo-Dutch War
               1664

 1665

Great Plague in London

the Greek Jewish kabbalist Shabbatai Zvi is hailed as the messiah but then accepts to convert to Islam to save his life
    Parthenius IV          1665

 1666

Great Fire in London                1666

 1667

1667-68: Louis XIV of France makes war against Spain 237 Clement IX   Clement          1667

 1668

Triple Alliance of England Netherlands and Sweden against France     Methodius III          1668

 1670

  238 Clement X              1670

 1671

      Parthenius IV          1671

 1672

1672-78: 3rd Anglo-Dutch War                1672

 1673

Moliere dies.     Gerasimus II          1673

 1674

Treaty of Westminster between England and the Netherlands                1674

 1675

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    Parthenius IV          1675

 1676

  239 Innocent XI   Dionysus IV Muselimes          1676

 1679

Act of Habeas Corpus passed forbidding imprisonment without trial; Parliament's Bill of Exclusion against the Roman Catholic Duke of York blocked by Charles II; Parliament dismissed; Charles II rejects petitions calling for a new Parliament; petitioners become known as Whigs; their opponents (royalists) known as Tories     Athanasius IV          1679

 1682

Edmond Halley, with Newton's aid, has plotted orbits of comets. He shows that comet of 1682 is same as that of 1531 and 1607, predicts return in 1758.

Peter the Great becomes Tsar of Russia
    Dionysus IV Muselimes          1682

 1683

1683-1750: British dominate Portugese trade 1685: Edict of Nantes revoked in France                1683

 1684

      Parthenius IV          1684

 1685

      James   James II      1685

 1686

German League of Augsburg formed against France     Dionysus IV Muselimes          1686

 1687

Newton publishes Principia (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy) containing laws of motion and gravitation and explaining motions in the sky and on earth with the same laws.     James          1687

 1688

English Parliament invites William of Orange to replace James II in fear of restoration of Catholicism     Callinicus II          1688

 1689

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1689-97: War of the League of Augsburg against France

Convention Parliament issues Bill of Rights; establishes a constitutional monarchy in Britain; bars Roman Catholics from the throne; William III and Mary II become joint monarchs of England and Scotland (to1694 Toleration Act grants freedom of worship to dissenters in England; Grand Alliance of the League of Augsburg England and the Netherlands.
240 Alexander VIII   Callinicus II   House of Orange and Stuart
William III, Mary II
     1689

 1690

English set up trading post at Calcutta

William III (of Orange) defeats Irish rebels and former King James II
               1690

 1691

  241 Innocent XII              1691

 1692

Languedoc Canal connects the Mediterranean with the Bay of Biscay. 240 miles long, with 100 locks, 3 major aqueducts, 1 tunnel, and a summit reservoir. The largest canal project between Roman times and the nineteenth century.                1692

 1693

      Dionysus IV Muselimes          1693

 1694

      Callinicus II          1694

 1700

Great Northern War: Saxony, Poland, Brandenburg-Prussia, Hannover, Denmark, and Russia joins forces against Sweden for the second time, Sweden loses massive amounts of land in Germany, Poland and the Baltic 242 Clement XI              1700

 1702

1702-14: War of the Spanish succession, last of Louis XIV's Wars     Gabriel III   House of Stuart
Anne
     1702

 1707

England, Scotland and Wales joined by the Act of Union, creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain     Neophytus V          1707

 1709

Russia defeats Sweden     Athanasius V          1709

 1711

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Peter the Great is defeated by Turks at Stanilesti.
    Cyril IV          1711

 1712

Thomas Newcomen builds first commercially successful steam engine. Able to keep deep coal mines clear of water. First significant power source other than wind and water.

the first public synagogue in inaugurated in Berlin
               1712

 1713

      Cyprianus I          1713

 1714

Treaty of Utrecht ends War of the Spanish succession, and reshapes the map of Europe. Spain loses half of Italy and the Spanish Netherlands to Austria     Cosmas III   House of Brunswick, Hanover Line
George I
     1714

 1715

            Louis XV    1715

 1716

      Jeremias III          1716

 1717

Friendship treaty between France and Russia                1717

 1721

  243 Innocent XIII       Sir Robert Walpole
Prime Minister,
Whig
     1721

 1724

  244 Benedict XIII              1724

 1726

      Paisius II          1726

 1727

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Newton dies

Spanish lay siege to Gibraltar
        George II      1727

 1730

  245 Clement XII              1730

 1732

      Jeremias III          1732

 1733

      Serapheim I          1733

 1734

Spanish Inquisition ends     Neophytus VI          1734

 1736

Israel Baal Shem Tov founds the Jewish Hasidism (sincere devotion over Talmudic erudition appreciation of God in nature)                1736

 1739

Spain and England declare war                1739

 1740

Frederick II becomes King of Prussia

King Frederick the Great of Prussia invades Austrian Silesia supported by Bavaria, Saxony and Spain

Maria Theresa ascends the throne of Austria
246 Benedict XIV   Paisius II          1740

 1742

          Earl of Wilmington
Prime Minister,
Whig
     1742

 1743

      Neophytus VI   Henry Pelham
Prime Minister,
Whig
     1743

 1744

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    Paisius II          1744

 1746

Scots defeated by the English                1746

 1748

      Cyril V          1748

 1752

      Cyril V          1752

 1754

          Duke of Newcastle
Prime Minister,
Whig
     1754

 1756

1756-63: Seven Years' War: Russia, Austria, and France against most other countries in Europe (mainly Britain and Prussia)         Duke of Devonshire
Prime Minister,
Whig
     1756

 1757

British Empire in India     Callinicus III   Duke of Newcastle
Prime Minister,
Whig
     1757

 1758

  247 Clement XIII              1758

 1759

British capture Quebec from the French                1759

 1760

          George III      1760

 1761

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    Joannicius III          1761

 1762

Catherine I becomes Czarina of Russia         Earl of Bute
Prime Minister,
ory
     1762

 1763

      Samuel I Chatzeres   George Grenville
Prime Minister,
Whig
     1763

 1765

Steam Engine invented         Marquess of Rockingham
Prime Minister,
Whig
     1765

 1767

          Duke of Grafton
Prime Minister,
Whig
     1767

 1768

Jews are massacred during riots in Russia-occupied Poland     Meletius II          1768

 1769

  248 Clement XIV   Theodosius II          1769

 1770

          Lord North
Prime Minister,
Tory
     1770

 1772

The Russians reach the Dniester for the first time in history.

First Partition of Poland by Austria, Russia and Prussia
               1772

 1773

the Book of Henoch is rediscovered in Abyssinia     Samuel I Chatzeres          1773

 1774

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    Sophoronius II     Louis XVI    1774

 1775

Watt's first efficient steam engine, much more efficient than the Newcomen.

The Austrians buy a part of Moldova (Bucovina) rom Turkey.
249 Pius VI              1775

 1776

American Revolution
July 4, 1776
               1776

 1779

First steam powered mills. Crompton's "mule" combines Hargreaves' and Arkwright's machines, fully automating the weaving process.                1779

 1780

      Gabriel IV          1780

 1782

          Marquess of Rockingham
Prime Minister,
Whig
     1782

 1783

          Duke of Portland
Prime Minister,
coalition
     1783

 1784

Russia amnnexes Crimea                1784

 1785

      Procopius I          1785

 1786

British-French trade agreement                1786

 1788

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French Parlement (Spelled this way in French) lists greivances against Louis XVI
               1788

 1789

French Revolution
July 14, 1789

George Washington is sworn in as the First President of the United States

Mutiny on the HMS Bounty on its voyage back to England from Tahiti
    Neophytus VII          1789

 1791

Russia gains the Black Sea from the Turks                1791

 1792

French monarchy abolished, Britain declares war on France

Second Partition of Poland
          First Republic
National Convention
   1792

 1793

The War of the First Coalition (1793-97)

The new pro-revolutionary France fought an alliance of Austria, Prussia, Great Britain, Spain, the Netherlands, and the Kingdom of Sardinia between 1793 and 1797. Great Britain led the alliance that's main purpose was to reestablish the monarchy in France. In 1796, Napoleon Bonaparte, a French General, led the French in northern Italy against the Austrians. Napoleon made major victories against the Austrians and in 1798 he led the French against Egypt as a prelude to invading British India. But Napoleon's campaign in Egypt was unsuccessful and he returned to France in 1799. Here, he overthrew the Directory and established the Consulate in which Napoleon was made the leader of France as the First Consul.
               1793

 1794

      Gerasimus III          1794

 1795

Third Partition of Poland, Polish indepenence shattered           Directory (Directors)
Paul François Jean Nicolas de Barras
Jean-François Reubell
Louis Marie La Revellíere-Lépeaux
Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot
Etienne Le Tourneur
François Marquis de Barthélemy
Philippe Antoine Merlin de Douai
François de Neufchâteau
Jean Baptiste Comte de Treilhard
Emmanuel Joseph Comte de Sieyés
Roger Comte de Ducos
Jean François Auguste Moulins
Louis Gohier
   1795

 1796

Napoleon defeats Austrians                1796

 1797

      Gregory V          1797

 1798

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland established with one parliament and one monarch

Napoleon conquers Egypt and Rome
Island of Malta surrenders to Napoleon

The War of the Second Coalition (1798-1802)
Napoleon's success against Austria in Italy had proven France's position in Europe. But while Napoleon was commanding the French in Egypt, a new alliance was formed called the Second Coalition. The alliance consisted of Russia, Great Britain, Austria, the Kingdom of Naples, Portugal, and the Ottoman Empire. Most of the war occurred in northern Italy and Switzerland. The Austrians and Russians, though, were very successful in Italy at the battles of Magnano (April 5, 1799), Cassano (April 27), Trebbia (June 19), and Novi (August 15). The coalition also occupied Milan and Turin, which destroyed previous French gains in the area. But the French were better off in Switzerland. After being defeated at Zurich (June 7) by the Austrians, the French defeated the Russians and on October 22 withdrew from the Second Coalition due to alleged lack of cooperation by the Austrians. When Napoleon returned to France and became the First Consul, he attempted to make peace with the allies. But they refused, and Napoleon planned a series of moves against the Austrians and its German allies for the spring of 1800. On June 14, a French force of 40,000 men under Napoleon defeated the Austrians at the Battle of Marengo. At the same time, another French force crossed the Rhine and captured Munich. On December 3, this force defeated the Austrians at the Battle of Hohenlinden and advanced towards the city of Linz, in Austria. On February 9, 1801, the French forced the Austrians to capitulate at the treaty of Luneville. The Germans ceded the left bank of the Rhine and recognized the French-influenced republics in northern Italy. The treaty also marked the end of the Second Coalition. On March 27, 1802, the British signed the Treaty of Amiens with France, thus completely ending the Second Coalition. But the treaty was short lasting and in 1803, France and Britain were again at war. The reason was the island of Malta. The French, assured by the Treaty of Amiens, were supposed to have had Malta returned to them. The British did not surrender the island, and war broke out again. Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States and he was no longer able to make a vast colonial empire that he desired. Austria, Russia and Sweden joined Britain in 1805 and Spain joined France.
    Neophytus VII          1798

 1799

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Napoleon takes over the French government as First Consul




Roman Republic
          Consulate
1st Consul:
1799 - 1804
Napoleon Bonaparte
2nd Consul:
1799 Emmanuel Joseph Comte de Sieyés,
1799 - 1804 Jean-Jacques Régis Cambacérès
3rd Consul:
1799 - 1799 Pierre-Roger Ducos
1799 - 1804 Charles François Lebrun
   1799

 1800

  250 Pius VII              1800

 1801

Austria makes a temporary peace with France

Vatican Concordat with Napoleon
    Callinicus IV   Henry Addington
Prime Minister,
Tory
     1801

 1803

US purchases Louisiana from France for $15 million

The War of the Third Coalition (1803-05)
Napoleon quickly moved against the Second Coalition. He exerted pressure since 1798 on Britain by keeping an army at Boulogne on the English Channel, preparing for an invasion of England. But after the formation of the new coalition against France, he moved the large force at Boulogne to meet the Austrians under Ferdinand III, who had invaded Bavaria. Some German states allied themselves with France such as Bavaria and Wurttemburg. Napoleon defeated Austria at Ulm and then moved on to capture Vienna. Alexander I sent an army to help the Austrians, but Napoleon crushed the combined Austro-Russian army at the Battle of Austerlitz also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors. Austria again capitulated on December 26, 1805 at the Treat of Pressburg. By the terms of this treaty, Austria gave France more territory in northern Italy, gave Bavaria more territory in Austria itself and recognized Wurttemburg and Baden as kingdoms. He also stripped Ferdinand of the title of Holy Roman Emperor, ending the empire.

The Confederation of the Rhine
Napoleon ended the Holy Roman Empire in 1805, and Austria attempted to regain it by forming the Austrian Empire. But France took the initiative and established the Confederation of the Rhine, which eventually consisted of all the German states except for Austria, Prussia, Brunswick and Hessen. Napoleon had already begun to take control of other places though. Joseph Bonaparte became King of Naples in 1806. Louis Bonaparte became King of Holland (former Batavian republic) that same year, and on June 12 he formed the Confederation of the Rhine. His success in uniting the continent was checked, or at least offset when the British, under Nelson, defeated the French and Spanish combined fleets at Trafalgar on October 21, 1805. This victory made Britain the master of the seas throughout the rest of the war. In 1806, since Napoleon could not defeat the British at sea, he initiated economic warfare. He formed the Continental System, which did not allow any continental ports to open their doors to British trade. Britain countered this by making the Orders of Council, which forbade any neutral ship from trading in any ports between ports of nations obeying Napoleon. British control over the sea troubled the Continental System and eventually made it fail
               1803

 1804

Haiti declares independence, others follow to breakdown the French colonial system         William Pitt the Younger
Prime Minister,
Tory
First Empire
(emperors)
Napoleon I
   1804

 1805

Napoleon's French army wins the the battle of Austerlitz

               1805

 1806

Holy Roman Empire ends with the abdictation of Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand

The War of the Fourth Coalition (1806-08)
Napoleon continued his influence in Europe before the British began to exploit its control over the seas. Prussia in 1806, concerned about Napoleon's power mainly in Germany, joined a new fourth coalition composed of Great Britain, Russia and Sweden. The Prussians were severely defeated at Jena on October 14, 1806 and Napoleon captured Berlin. He then moved on to defeat the Russians at Friedland and forced Alexander I to make peace. By the Treaty of Tilsit, Russia lost Poland to France and became Napoleon's ally, and Prussia was reduced to a third-rate power due to half of its territory being taken away. Napoleon then moved against Sweden with the support of Russia and Denmark. Sweden was defeated and King Gustav IV Adolph was forced to abdicate in favour of his uncle, Charles XIII. The heir to Sweden after him would be one of Napoleon's Marshals, General Jean Baptiste Jules Bernadotte, who became King of Sweden in 1818.
By 1808, Napoleon was master of all of Europe except for Russia and Great Britain. Nationalistic feelings in some of Napoleon's territories began to weaken Napoleon's power. This coupled with Britain's persistence in opposition to France. The first nationalistic uprisings were in Spain in 1808. After dethroning Charles IV, Napoleon but his brother Joseph Bonaparte on the Spanish throne. The Spanish revolted and drove Joseph out of Madrid. The Peninsular War in Spain had thus begun. The British under Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, aided the Spaniards in their violent struggle. This struggle severely handicapped Napoleon in his later conflicts in further Eastern Europe. The first enemy after domination of Europe by Napoleon was Austria. Now Austria joined the Fifth Coalition with Great Britain in 1809. Napoleon again defeated Austria at Wagram in July, and forced them to sign the Treaty of Vienna, and Austria lost territory such as Salzburg, Galicia and large portions of its territory in southern Europe. Napoleon then married the daughter of Francis II of Austria in hope of keeping Austria out of newer coalitions.
    Gregory V   Lord Grenville
Prime Minister,
coalition
     1806

 1807

Robert Fulton's Clermont first successful steamboat.

Portugese government temporarily moves to Rio de Janeiro in Brazil
        Duke of Portland
Prime Minister,
Tory
     1807

 1808

France extends to Rome and Spain, British support Spanish guerillas     Callinicus IV          1808

 1809

1809-1814:
Annexation by France,Napoleon excommunicated, Pope arrested
    Jeremias IV   Spencer Perceval
Prime Minister,
Tory
     1809

 1812

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Napoleon leads unsuccessful invasion of Russia
Napoleon's Army retreats from Russia

The Downfall of Napoleon
In 1812, Napoleon's turning point in his career had come. War again broke out between France and Russia because Alexander refused to accept the Continental System. This is where the "Spanish Ulcer" became a serious problem. With one army occupied in Spain, he went to Russia with 500,000 men. He defeated the Russians at Borodino and took Moscow on September 14, 1812. But the Russians had burned the city making it impossible for Napoleon's forces to take shelter in the cold upcoming winter. The French retreated to Germany, on the way losing most of their men. Russia then joined the Fifth Coalition, consisting of Great Britain, Prussia, and Sweden. Prussia, pressured by patriotism in its country due to reforms, opened the War of Liberation against Napoleon. Napoleon then defeated the Prussians at Lutzen and Bautzen. He then won his last major victory at the Battle of Dresden on August 27, 1813 where 100,000 French won against a combined force of Prussian, Austrian, and Russian forces numbering 150,000. But the following October, the Battle of Leipzig forced Napoleon to retreat across the Rhine, thus freeing Germany. The next year, in 1814, the Austrians, Russians, and Prussians invaded northern France. In March 1814, they took Paris. Napoleon was forced to abdicate and he went into exile at Elba.

The Congress of Vienna
Napoleon escaped Elba in March 1815 and initiated the Hundred Days'. He made a campaign into Belgium and on June 18, 1815, Napoleon was again defeated at the Battle of Waterloo and was forced to abdicate for the last time to Saint Helena until his death in 1821. The Congress of Vienna took place between September 1814 to June 1815. Representatives from every European country except Turkey attended the Congress. The most prominent were Russia, Austria, Great Britain, and Prussia. First, the Congress deprived France of all territory conquered by Napoleon after the Revolution. It united the Dutch Republic and the Austrian Netherlands under the House of Orange and united Norway and Sweden under Charles XIV John of Sweden. It also recognized the independence of Switzerland. Russia received a New Kingdom of Poland with Alexander as King; Prussia received West Prussia, Posen, half of Saxony, northern Saxony, and other provinces; Hannover became a Kingdom and received more territory; Austria regained almost all of its territory lost to Napoleon and was compensated for its loss of the Netherlands by more territory in Italy. The German Confederation was formed after the Frankfurt Assembly under the "presidency" of Austria. This united almost 40 sovereign states in Germany, including Prussia. The Congress almost destroyed the Slave Trade, and kept Europe at peace for almost 40 years.

The Russians annex the Easter part of Moldova (Basarabia).
        Earl of Liverpool
Prime Minister,
Tory
     1812

 1813

      Cyril VI          1813

 1814

French defeated by the allies (Britain, Austria, Russia, Prussia, Sweden and Portugal)

US and Britain sign peace treaty at Ghent, Belgium
          Louis XVIII
(king)
Bourbons
(restored)
Louis XVIII
   1814

 1815

Napoleon is defeated by Wellington at Waterloo

The restorations of 1815 returned the Papal Italian territories, until the period of the unificaiton of Italy, 1859-1870.
          Napoleon I
(2nd time)
   1815

 1818

      Gregory V          1818

 1820

          George IV      1820

 1821

Greek Revolution
March 25, 1821-1829
    Eugenius II          1821

 1822

      Anthimus III          1822

 1823

  251 Leo XII              1823

 1824

Charles X of France fails in an attempt to restore absolute Monarchy in France     Chrysanthos I     Charles X    1824

 1826

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    Agathangelos I          1826

 1827

          George Canning
Prime Minister,
coalition
     1827

 1828

Russia declares war on Turkeyin aid of the Greek Revolution, Greece also aided by Britain and France         Duke of Wellington
Prime Minister,
Tory
     1828

 1829

Turks recognize Greek independence

Polish revolt against Russia fails
252 Pius VIII              1829

 1830

Manchester-Liverpool railway begins first regular commercial rail service.

French invade Algeria
    Constantios I   Earl Grey
Prime Minister,
Tory
Orleans
Louis Philippe
   1830

 1831

Faraday discovers electro-magnetic current, making possible generators and electric engines.

Belgium seperates from the Netherlands
253 Gregory XVI              1831

 1833

Slavery abolished in the British Empire

The Church of Greece declares its autonomy from the Patriarchate at Constantinople, as an "autocephalic" church.
               1833

 1834

Charles Babbage develops his analytic engine--the forerunner of the computer.

Fox Talbot produces photographs.

Spanish Inquisition officially ends
    Constantios II   Viscount Melbourne
Prime Minister,
Whig
     1834

 1835

      Gregory VI   Viscount Melbourne
Prime Minister,
Whig
     1835

 1837

Victoria becomes Queen of Great Britain

Morse develops the telegraph and Morse Code.


Great Western-: First ocean-going steamship.
        Victoria      1837

 1838

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Daguerre perfects the Daguerrotype.
               1838

 1839

1839-1842: First Opium War between Britain and China over drug importation

Fox Talbot introduces photographic paper.
               1839

 1840

Lower and Upper Canada united     Anthimus IV          1840

 1841

      Anthimus V   Sir Robert Peel
Prime Minister,
Conservative
     1841

 1842

      Germanus IV          1842

 1843

Great Britain: First large, iron, screw-propelled steamship.                1843

 1844

Commercial use of Morse's telegraph (Baltimore to Washington).

Chinese ports open to US ships
               1844

 1845

      Meletius III          1845

 1846

1846-1848: US at war with Mexico

Pneumatic tire patented
254 Pius IX       Lord Russell
Prime Minister,
Liberal
     1846

 1848

Second Republic founded in France by Napoleon III     Anthimus IV     Second Republic
(presidents)
Louis Eugéne Cavaignac
Louis Napoleon
(later Napoleon III)
   1848

 1849

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Monier develops reinforced concrete.
               1849

 1851

Singer invents first practical sewing machine.                1851

 1852

Napoleon III becomes Emperor of France     Germanus IV   Earl of Derby
Prime Minister,
Conservative
Second Empire
(emperors)
(Louis) Napoleon III
   1852

 1853

1853-56: Crimean War begins as Turkey declares war on Russia     Anthimus VI          1853

 1854

Britain and France join the Turks against Russia                1854

 1855

      Cyril VII   Viscount Palmerston
Prime Minister,
Liberal
     1855

 1856

Russia defeated by British, French and Turks                1856

 1857

Pasteur experiments with fermentation.

Sepoy rebellion in India
               1857

 1858

First Trans-Atlantic Cable completed

Cathode rays discovered.
        Earl of Derby
Prime Minister,
Conservative
     1858

 1859

1859-1870. The political independence of the Papacy formally ended.

Loss of Romagna.
        Viscount Palmerston
Prime Minister,
Liberal
     1859

 1860

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American Civil War
1860-1865


Loss of the Marches & Umbria.
    Joachim II          1860

 1861

US Civil War begins

Independant Kingdom of Italy proclaimed
               1861

 1862

Prussia grows under Otto von Bismarck                1862

 1863

Poland revolts against Russia

French capture Mexico City
    Sophronios III          1863

 1865

Napoleon III and Bismarck meet at Biarritz, France         Lord Russell
Prime Minister,
Liberal
     1865

 1866

Austria defeated by Prussia and Italy

Dominion of Canada founded
        Earl of Derby
Prime Minister,
Conservative
     1866

 1867

Karl Marx writes and publishes the Capital

Alfred Nobel produces dynamite, the first high explosive which can be safely handled.

Austria-Hungary dual-monarchy established
               1867

 1868

Revolution in Spain         Benjamin Disraeli
Prime Minister,
Conservative
     1868

 1869

Suez Canal opened                1869

 1870

1870-71: Franco-Prussian War, French surrendurs Alsace-Lorraine to the new German Empire(former Prussia)           Third Republic (presidents)
Louis Jules Trochu (provisional)
   1870

 1871

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Prussian dominated German Empire founded with Bismarck as Chancellor
    Anthimus VI     Adolphe Thiers    1871

 1873

Christopher Sholes invents the Remington typewriter.

Clerk Maxwell states the laws of electro-magnetic radiation

Economic crisis in Europe
    Joachim II     Patrice de MacMahon    1873

 1874

          Benjamin Disraeli
Prime Minister,
Conservative
     1874

 1876

Bell invents the telephone.                1876

 1877

1877-1878: Russo-Turkish War: Turkish power in Europe broken after the Congress of Berlin

Edison invents the phonograph.
               1877

 1878

Pius IX dies after 32 years of pontificate (the longest ever) 255 Leo XIII   Joachim III          1878

 1879

Edison invents the incandescent lamp.

Albert Einstein was born on March 14, 1879 in Wurtemburg, Germany. In 1895, Einstein attempted to enroll at Eidgenossische Technishe Hockshule (ETH), a technical university in Zurich, to study Electrical Engineering, but failed the entrance examination. In 1896, he renounced his German citizenship and did not officially become even a prospective citizen of another country until 1899 when he applied for citizenship in Switzerland. Einstein eventually attended ETH became a teacher in 1900.

In 1905, Einstein received his doctorate from ETH for a discovery in the determination of molecular dimensions. In this year, he also wrote three papers about his discoveries in quantum theory and relativity. In 1921, Einstein received a Nobel Prize for his 1905 work on photoelectric effects.

For his accomplishments, Einstein began receiving international attention. He returned to Germany in 1914 to accept a research position at the Prussian Academy of Sciences and a chair position at the University of Berlin. He also began traveling to the United States and on his third visit in 1932, he was offered and accepted a job at Princeton University. He became a US citizen in 1940.

In 1939, at the urging of Dr. Leo Szilard, Einstein wrote to President Roosevelt warning of a new discovery of a "nuclear chain reaction in a large mass of uranium." Einstein forewarned President Roosevelt that the discovery of such a reaction could lead to the construction of "extremely powerful bombs of a new type." Einstein also mentioned that Dr. Leo Szilard was working on this and urged the US to find this reaction before Germany. It was Einstein's letter that led President Roosevelt to funding uranium research and later to the Manhattan Project.

Einstein died on April 18, 1955 of heart failure. On July 9, 1955, he and Bertrand Russell issued a Manifesto. The Russell-Einstein Manifesto warned of the peril of nuclear weapons and the dangers of continuing an arms race and called upon scientists to discuss a resolution.
          Jules Grévy    1879

 1880

          W E Gladstone
Prime Minister,
Liberal
     1880

 1881

May 10 1881 - Proclamation of the Kingdom of Romania.

a wave of anti-Jewish pogroms in Russia causes mass migrations of Jews (2.5 million Jews settle in the United States thousands settle in Palestine)
               1881

 1882

Britain conquers Egypt

Germany, Austria and Italy forms the Triple Alliance in fear of Russian conquests, it will eventually lead to World War I
               1882

 1883

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First skyscraper (ten stories) in Chicago.

The Brooklyn Bridge opens. This large suspension bridge, built by the Roeblings (father and son), is a triumph of engineering.
               1883

 1884

Maxim invents the machine gun, making possible mass slaughter and beginning the mechanization of warfare.     Joachim IV          1884

 1885

Benz develops first automobile to run on internal- combustion engine.         Marquess of Salisbury
Prime Minister,
Conservative
     1885

 1886

Statue of Liberty dedicated         W E Gladstone
Prime Minister,
Liberal
     1886

 1887

      Dionysios V     Sadi Carnot    1887

 1888

Hertz produces radio waves.                1888

 1889


Eiffel Tower.

Second (Socialist) International formed in Paris
               1889

 1891

      Neophytos VIII          1891

 1892

Rudolf Diesel invents his namesake.         W E Gladstone
Prime Minister,
Liberal
     1892

 1894

          Earl of Rosebery
Prime Minister,
Liberal
Jean Casimir-Périer    1894

 1895

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Lumiere brothers develop Cinematograph.

Roentgen discovers X-rays.
    Anthimus VII   Marquess of Salisbury
Prime Minister,
Conservative
Félix Faure    1895

 1896

Marconi patents wireless telegraph.                1896

 1897

Joseph Thomson discovers particles smaller than atoms.

Jews of Palestine led by Theodor Herzl at Basel (Switzerland) call for the creation of a Jewish homeland in Palestine (first Zionist Congress
    Constantine V          1897

 1898

Spanish-American War

U.S. President McKinley is shot, succeeded by Theodore Roosevelt
               1898

 1899

Aspirin invented.           Emile Loubet    1899

 1900

First Zeppelin built                1900

 1901

Marconi transmits first trans-Atlantic radio message (from Cape Cod).

Queen Victoria dies
    Joachim III   House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
Edward VII
     1901

 1902

          Arthur James Balfour
Prime Minister,
Conservative
     1902

 1903

Wright brothers make first powered flight. Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. 256 St. Pius X              1903

 1904

Russo-Japanese War, competition for Korea and Manchuria: Japanese defeat Russians, Europe startled

General strikes and riots in Russia, first workers' soviet set up in St.Petersburg
               1904

 1905

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Albert Einstein (1879-1955)publishes a paper on his Theory of Relativity

Norway becomes independent from Sweden
        Sir H Campbell-Bannerman
Prime Minister,
Liberal
     1905

 1906

            Armand Fallières    1906

 1907

Second Hague Peace Conference with 46 nations adopts 10 conventions on rules of war                1907

 1908

Henry Ford mass-produces the Model T.

Inquisition becomes Holy Office
        H H Asquith
Prime Minister,
Liberal
     1908

 1909

Tel Aviv is founded as a Hebrew speaking Jewish city                1909

 1910

          House of Windsor
George V
     1910

 1911

Italian-Turkish War, first use of aircraft as an offensive weapon

General strikes and riots in Russia, first workers' soviet set up in St.Petersburg

Chinese Republic overthrows Manchu dynasty
               1911

 1912

April 12: Titanic sinks on maiden voyage

1912-13: Balkan Wars: Turks defeated twice by Balkan alliances, forced to give up more land
               1912

 1913

      Germanus V     Raymond Poincaré    1913

 1914

World War I begins:
The Great War
257 Benedict XV              1914

 1915

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        H H Asquith
Prime Minister,
coalition
     1915

 1916

          David Lloyd George
Prime Minister,
coalition
     1916

 1917

Soviet Revolution

British officer T. E. Lawrence plays instrumental role in uniting bedwin tribes of Arabia in guerilla warfare against the Turkish army, starting with a decisive victory against the Red Sea port of Akaba. Turkey was aligned with germany durng World War I.
T. E. Lawrence becomes known as Lawrence of Arabia.



Three shepherd children see the Virgin Mary in Fatima Portugal
               1917

 1918

      [Vacant,]          1918

 1919

World War I ends:
Peace Treaty signed by German delegates and Allies in Versailles.

US, British and French troops leave Russia

League of Nations formed
               1919

 1920

First League of Nations meeting in Geneva, Switzerland

Heyday of the silent movies
          Paul Deschanel
Alexandre Millerand
   1920

 1921

US Congress formally ends WWI

German inflation begins

Irish Free State formed
    Meletius IV Metaxakis          1921

 1922

USSR formed by the Bolsheviks

Mussolini forms fascist government in Italy
258 Pius XI       Andrew Bonar Law
Prime Minister,
Conservative
     1922

 1923

French and Belgian troops take the Ruhr to force reparation payments     Gregory VII   Stanley Baldwin
Prime Minister,
Conservative
     1923

 1924

Death of Lenin: Stalin wins power struggle in Russia     Constantine VI   Ramsay MacDonald
Prime Minister,
Labour
Gaston Doumergue    1924

 1925

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    Basil III          1925

 1926

General Strike in Britain

Socialist riot in Vienna
               1926

 1927

Charles Lindburgh flies solo across the Atlantic from Long Island to Le Bourget, paris on the single-engine Spirit of St Louis

German economy collapses
               1927

 1928

Kellogg-Briand Pact, outlawing war, signed by 65 nations

World economic crisis
               1928

 1929

First phase of the Great Depression

Concordat with Mussolini, Independence of Vatican City
    Photius II   Ramsey MacDonald
Prime Minister,
Labour
     1929

 1930

Britain, US, France, Japan, and Italy sign the naval disarmament treaty

Nazi's first appear German elections
               1930

 1931

King Alfonso XIII overthrown, Spain becomes a republic

Mukden Incident in Japanese occupied Manchuria
        Ramsey MacDonald
Prime Minister,
national coalition
Paul Doumer    1931

 1932

Iraq becomes independent

Nazi's lead German elections
          Albert Lebrun    1932

 1933

Hitler made German Chancellor - obtains dictatorial powers

First concentration camps opened by the Nazis

Japan and Germany withdraw from the League of Nations
               1933

 1934

Austrian Chancellor Dollfuss assassinated by the Nazis                1934

 1935

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Mussolini invades Ethiopia
        Stanley Baldwin
Prime Minister,
national coalition
     1935

 1936

Germans occupy the Rhine

Spanish civil war begins

War between China and Japan begins

Japan and Germany sign the Anti-Cominterim treaty, Italy joins the Axis in 1937
    Benjamin I   Edward VIII      1936

 1937

Hitler continues to increase German military power         Neville Chamberlain
Prime Minister,
national coalition
     1937

 1938

Austria occupied by Nazis

Munich Pact allows Nazis to take Czechslovakia
               1938

 1939

World War II begins
Poland, France invaded
Battle of Britain

Two definitive motion pictures are released:
Citizen Kane, and
Gone With The Wind
259 Pius XII              1939

 1940

October 28: Greece invaded by Mussolini's Italian army. Italians are pushed back through Albania. Hitler opens a second front against Greece in March 1941 in aid of Mussolini. Greek army overrun at the Rhodopi mountains fortifications, border with Bulgaria, in April, allowed to leave fortifications without surrendering their arms.         Sir Winston Churchill
Prime Minister,
coalition
Vichy Government
(Chief of State)
Henri Philippe Petain
   1940

 1941

Greece overrun, Russia invaded


The Empire of Japan attacks the U.S. Fleet at Pearl Harbour without having delivered a Declaration of War. The declaration of War came one hour after the 8 AM attack because the Japanese Embassy in Washington DC took longer than expected to translate the message from the Japanese government to the government of the United States. After the success of the devastating attack admiral Yamamoto said ³I fear all we have succeeded in doing is awaken a sleeping giant and fill him with resolve².

Hitler envisions a "final solution" for the Jews and extermination camps are set up ("Holocaust") that will eliminate six million Jews
               1941

 1942

The U.S. Lands forces in North Africa, German forces are driven to Italy


Manhattan project lead by Dr Robert Openheimer (1904 - 1967) to create the first atom bomb. Albert Einstein, seen here with Oppenheimer, has said he does not know about the Third World War, but the Fourh will be fought with sticks and stones.
               1942

 1943

Italy invaded by allied forces in Sicilly, then at Angio                1943

 1944

The Allies invade Normandy           Provisional Government
(presidents)
Charles de Gaulle
   1944

 1945

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

End of World War II
Germany surrenders
The U.S. drops first nuclear devices on Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Nuclear Age begins

a library of early Christian texts is discovered at Nag Hammadi in Egypt
        Clement Attlee
Prime Minister,
Labour
     1945

 1946

UN established by leading world nations

Jan 10: First meeting of the UN General Assembly in London

April: League of Nations dissolved

June: Italy abolishes monarchy

Jan 1: UK nationalizes its coal mines

Feb 10: Peace treaties for Italy, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria and Finland signed in Paris

Feb 23-25: Burma and Ceylon granted independence from Britain

April 30: Israel proclaimed a nation

May 14: Berlin airlift beginsMay 14: Berlin airlift beginsMay 14: Berlin airlift begins

June 28: Republic of Korea founded by the UN
1946-1949: Civil war in Greece between royalists backed by the West and Communist guerila forces backed by the Soviet block.
    Maximus V     Félix Gouin
Georges Bidault
Leon Blum
   1946

 1947

October 14: Chuck Yeager breaks the Sound Barrier in the X1 experimental plane named Glamorous Glynnis, after his wife.

the Dead Sea Scrolls are discovered near Qumran in caves on the hills by the northwestern shores of the Dead Sea.
          Fourth Republic
(presidents)
Vincent Auriol
   1947

 1948

At midnight on May 14, 1948, the Provisional Government of Israel proclaimed the new State of Israel. On that same date the United States, in the person of President Truman, recognized the provisional Jewish government as de facto authority of the new Jewish state (de jure recognition was extended on January 31). The U.S. delegates to the U.N. and top ranking State Department officials were angered that Truman released his recognition statement to the press without notifying them first. On May 15, 1948, the Arab states issued their response statement and Arab armies invaded Israel and the first Arab-Israeli war began.

Mahatma Gandhi Assasinated


the Jewish state of Israel is founded in Palestine
    Athenagoras          1948

 1949

Jan 7: Cease-fire in Palestine

Jan 31: Truman orders development of the hydrogen bomb

Feb 24: Israel signs armistice with Egypt

April 4: NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) signed by 12 nations to counter Soviet aggression

June 25: Start of the Korean War (See Korean War)

Sept 21: German Federal Republic (West Germany) established

Sept 23: Soviets test atomic bomb

Oct 1: Communist Peoples' Republic of China formally proclaimed by Mao Zedong
               1949

 1950

1950-1953
Korean War

1950-1975
Vietnam War
               1950

 1951

March 19: Six European nations agree on Schuman plan for a Steel and Coal pool, it will eventually lead to the European Union

Sept 8: Japanese peace treaty signed by 49 nations
        Sir Winston Churchill
Prime Minister,
Conservative
     1951

 1952

Feb 6: George VI dies, Elizabeth II named Queen of England

February: NATO approves the European army

November: AEC (Atomic Energy Commission) announces satisfactory hydrogen weapons testing in the US

Ernest hemingway publishes The Old Man and the Sea
wins Pulitzer Prize for Fiction 1953
        Elizabeth II      1952

 1953

Jan 20:General Dwight D. Eisenhower is inaugurated as US President

Feb 10: European Coal and Steel Plan goes into effect

March 5: Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin dies

March 6: Malenkov becomes the Soviet Premier

June 17: East Berliners rebel against Communism but are suppressed by Soviet forces

June 18: Egypt becomes a republic ruled by a military junta

July 27: Korean armistice signed

Aug 20: Moscow announces the explosion of the Hydrogen bomb
               1953

 1954

Jan 21 Nautilus, the First nuclear-powered submarine launched by the U.S           René Coty    1954

 1955

 JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

        Sir Anthony Eden
Prime Minister,
Conservative
     1955

 1956

Heyday of the I Love Lucy popular TV show                1956

 1957

          Harold Macmillan
Prime Minister,
Conservative
     1957

 1958

1958-1963 The Mercury Program

Fidel Castro assumes power in Cuba during the last hours of 1958, nistalls communist government and aligns with Moscow and the U.S.S.R. Castro will survive 10 U.S. Presidencies.
260 John XXIII              1958

 1959

Sputnik, first artificial satelite circles the Earth           Fifth Republic
(presidents)
Charles de Gaulle
   1959

 1960

1960-1963: U.S. military advisers in South Vietnam rise from 900 to 15,000                1960

 1961

Failed invasion of Cuba by the U.S. at the Bay of Pigs

April 12, 1961 Yuri Gagarin is the first person to orbit the Earth
               1961

 1962

1962-1966 The Gemini Program

Cuba missile crisis stand-off between the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R.
               1962

 1963

John F. Kennedy assasinated

Presiden Lyndon B. Johnson increases U.S. commitment in Vietnam
261 Paul VI       Sir Alec Douglas-Home
Prime Minister,
Conservative
     1963

 1964

          Harold Wilson
Prime Minister,
Labour
     1964

 1965

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagoras I of Constantinople mutually nullify the excommunications of 1054.
               1965

 1966

Vatican abolishes Index of Forbidden Books                1966

 1967

The Seven-Day War between Israel, Egypt and Syria ends with Israeli victory.

April 21: U.S.-backed junta of 3 Colonels overthrows Greek government and takes power in Greece
November: King Constantine of Greece flees and eventually settles in London. Greek monarchy is served by a military viceroy appointed by the ruling junta and is eventually abolished through a referrendum after the fall of the junta and restoration of democracy in 1974

1967-1972 The Apollo Program (Lunar)

The Beatles record Seargent Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band
               1967

 1968

Robert F. Kennedy assasinated
Martin Luther King assasinated

Chicago riots

Summer of Love

Student uprising in Paris

Richard Nixon is elected President of the U.S.
               1968

 1969

First Men on the Moon:
Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin land their lunar vehicle ³Eagle² at the Sea of tranquility.
          Georges Pompidou    1969

 1970

Commercial services begin for the Boeing 747-100, the world's largest passenger jet airliner.         Edward Heath
Prime Minister,
Conservative
     1970

 1971

1971-1991 Salyut Space Stations                1971

 1972

The Watergate scandal slowly errupts in the pages of The Washington Post

Israeli athetes are assasinated during the Olympic games at Munich
    Demetrius          1972

 1973

November 17: Student uprising in the Polytechnic at Athens is crushed by the military Junta. A transfer of power occurs within the ranks of the junta which leads to the unsuccessful coup in Cyprus in July 1974.

1973-1974 Skylab
               1973

 1974

Nixon resigns U.S. Presidency as a result of the Watergate scandal

Turkey invades Cyprus; divides the island into Greek and Turkish sectors, supports Turkish Cypriot State which is not recognised by any other nations.

Greek Junta falls after unsuccessful coup in Cyprus which precipitated the Turkish invasion. Greek statesman Konstantin Karamanlis returns to Athens from self-exile in Paris to assume the leadership of transition into democracy. Karamanlis is given the personal jet of the French President to fly to Athens. France acts as protector of the transitional period and helps avert a war between Greece and Turkey when the French fleet positions itself between the Turkish fleet and Greek islands: France declares that any shots fired by any nation over the position of the French fleet will be considered an act of war against France. The transitional period ends with the restoration of Democracy in Greece and the occupation of the northern part of Cyprus by the Turkish-backed Turkish Cyriot government.
        Harold Wilson
Prime Minister,
Labour
Valery Giscard d'Estaing    1974

 1975

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End of War in Vietnam

12:12pm (EDT) July 17, 1974. Apollo-Soyuz rendezvous in space

Both craft were launched on July 15, 1975. The crews exchanged commemorative flags and other gifts on live television.
               1975

 1976

Viking 1 lands on Mars on June the 20th 1976         James Callaghan
Prime Minister,
Labour
     1976

 1978

The name "John," shunned for centuries, has now been born by three of the last four Popes. This was all due to the saintliness and magnanimity of John XXIII. John Paul I wished to honor John and his successor, Paul VI, and then John Paul II wished to honor all three of them.
John Paul I's brief reign moved the Cardinals to elect a relatively young and vigorous Pope.
John Paul II has now, indeed, reigned into the new Millennium. He was also the first non-Italian Pope in centuries, and the first Polish Pope ever.
It has been a historic reign indeed, with John Paul playing a large part in the Fall of Communism, but he has lately grown gravely frail and ill.

Apple Computer is born.

John Paul II is the first non-Italian Pope in centuries (and the first Pole ever
262 John Paul I

263 John Paul II
             1978

 1979

Iranian extremists overrun the U.S. Embassy in Tehran; take American hostages who are released in January 1981

Apple launches the AppleII
        Margaret Thatcher
Prime Minister,
Conservative
     1979

 1980

1980-1988: Presidency of Ronald Reagan


"We are what happens to Hydrogen atoms given fifteen billion years of evolution."



Some 3.6 million years ago, in what is now northern Tanzania, a volcano errupted, the resulting cloud of ash covering the surrounding savannahs. In 1979, the paleoanthropologist Mary Leaky found in that ash footprints --the footprints, she believes, of an early humanoid, perhaps an ancestor of all the people on the Earth today. And 380,000 kilometers away, in a flat dry plain that humans have in a moment of optimism called the Sea of Tranquility, there is another footprint, left by the first human to walk another world. We have come far in 3.6 million years, and in 4.6 billion and in 15 billion.

For we are the local embodiment of a Cosmos grown to self-awareness. We have begun to contemplate our origins: starstuff pondering the stars; organized assemblages of ten billion billion billion atoms considering the evolution of atoms; tracing the long journey by which, here at least, consciousness arose. Our loyalties are to the species and the planet.
We speak for Earth. Our obligation to survive is owed not just to ourselves but also to that Cosmos, ancient and vast, from which we spring.
......Carl Sagan
......Cosmos

Read Carl Sagan's Baloney Detection Kit!
               1980

 1981

Space Shuttle program begins


a Bulgarian tries to kill the Pope
          Francois Mitterand    1981

 1983

Pioneer 10 on June the 13th 1983 becomes the first manmade object ever to leave the solar system                1983

 1984

Apple releases the Macintosh Operating System.
The Personal Computer revolution is launced
               1984

 1985

the first World Youth Day is held in Rome when Pope John Paul II invites Catholic and Buddhist youth from all over the world to pray with him                1985

 1986

The Space Shuttle Challenger explodes 73 seconds after lift off, killing all crew including Teacher in Space Krista McAuliffe


1986-2000: Mir Space Station
               1986

 1987

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Microsoft releases an improved Windows Operating System based on Apple's Macintosh

A court battle ensues between Apple and Microsoft, with Apple alleging that Microsoft stole Macintosh operating system industrial secrets in order to develop their Windows system
               1987

 1988



"...if we discover a complete theory [unifying relativity and quantum mechanics (ed.)] it should in time be understandable in broad principle by everyone, not just a few scientists. Then we shall all, philosophers, scientists, and just ordinary people, be able to take part in the discussion of the question of why it is that we and the universe exist. If we find the answer to that, it would be the ultimate triumph of human reason --for then we would know the mind of God."
......Stephen Hawking
......A Brief History of Time
               1988

 1990

Fall of the U.S.S.R.

The end of Communism in Eastern Europe allows the Orthodox churches to re-emerge.

The Gulf War
Iraq invades and occupies Kuwait. The U.S. lead a coalition against Iraq. Based in Saudi Arabia the coalition invades Kuwait and drives the Iraqi army back into Iraq. Instiogates no fly zone and ongoing U.N. arms inspections.
        John Major
Prime Minister,
Conservative
     1990

 1991

      Bartholomew          1991

 1993

New South African Constitution puts end to apartheid                1993

 1994

Last episode aired of futuristic, utopian, popular entertainment series: Star Trek, The Next Generation                1994

 1995

Microsoft Launches Windows 95, the closest look and feel to the Macintosh system yet.           Jacques Chirac    1995

 1997

          Tony Blair
Prime Minister,
Labour
     1997

 1998

20 November, 1998 - The FGB, Zarya, the first component of the International Space Station is launched on a Proton rocket from Kazakhstan.

Microsoft Launches Windows 98, with improved performance and a closer look and feel to the Macintosh system.
               1998

 2000

The Mir space station burns-up on re-entry

November 2000 - First crew to arrive at the International Space Station


Apple launches Operating System X
Microsoft Launches Windows 2000, to be folowed by Windows XP
               2000

 2001

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Onset of Era of Terrorism:
Destruction of the World Trade Center, New York.
Four Commercial air liners are hijacked; two are crashed into the twin towers of the World Trade Center one at the Pentagon in Washington DC, and one crashes in a field in Pensylvania after passengers attempt to thwart the hijackers on September 11.


War on Terrorism
The U.S. declares far reaching and long range war against international terrorism, specifying the Al Queda network as responsible for the attack against the World Trade Center and the pentagon

Air attacks against Afganistan, followed by invasion with land forces ousts ruling Taliban party and instigates a western-style democratic government.
               2001

 2003

War by the United States and the United Kingdom against Iraq:

After an ultimatum by the United States for Iraqi President Saddam Hussein to leave power and go into self exile expires, the United States, with the political and military support of the united Kingdom, and against the wishes of United Nations veto-weilding member states, invade Iraq, oust Saddam Hussein and instigate the process of establishing a western-style democracy on the grounds that the ousted regime possessed Weapons of Mass Destruction and was willing to use them as terrorist or first strike weapons. After exhaustive searches by United States and United Kingdom forces no conclusive proof is found of the present or past existence of Weapons of Mass Destruction in Iraq.
Deposed Iraqi leader Sadam Hussein is captured December 13.
               2003

 2004

January: President of the United States, George W. Bush, announces plans to return to the Moon with a semi-permanent colony and venture to Mars with manned missions by the year 2020.                2004

 

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Carl Sagan's Baloney Detection Kit

Wherever possible there must be independent confirmation of the facts.

Encourage substantive debate on the evidence by knowledgeable proponents of all points of view.

Arguments from authority carry little weight (in science there are no "authorities").

Spin more than one hypothesis - don't simply run with the first idea that caught your fancy.

Try not to get overly attached to a hypothesis just because it's yours.

Quantify, wherever possible.

If there is a chain of argument every link in the chain must work.

Occam's razor - if there are two hypothesis that explain the data equally well choose the simpler.

Ask whether the hypothesis can, at least in principle, be falsified (shown to be false by some unambiguous test). In other words, it is testable? Can others duplicate the experiment and get the same result?

Additional issues are:

Conduct control experiments - especially "double blind" experiments where the person taking measurements is not aware of the test and control subjects.

Check for confounding factors - separate the variables.

Common fallacies of logic and rhetoric

Ad hominem - attacking the arguer and not the argument.

Argument from "authority".

Argument from adverse consequences (putting pressure on the decision maker by pointing out dire consequences of an "unfavorable" decision).

Appeal to ignorance (absence of evidence is not evidence of absence).

Special pleading (typically referring to god's will).

Begging the question (assuming an answer in the way the question is phrased).

Observational selection (counting the hits and forgetting the misses).

Statistics of small numbers (such as drawing conclusions from inadequate sample sizes).

Misunderstanding the nature of statistics (President Eisenhower expressing astonishment and alarm on discovering that fully half of all Americans have below average intelligence!)

Inconsistency (e.g. military expenditures based on worst case scenarios but scientific projections on environmental dangers thriftily ignored because they are not "proved").

Non sequitur - "it does not follow" - the logic falls down.

Post hoc, ergo propter hoc - "it happened after so it was caused by" - confusion of cause and effect.

Meaningless question ("what happens when an irresistible force meets an immovable object?).

Excluded middle - considering only the two extremes in a range of possibilities (making the "other side" look worse than it really is).

Short-term v. long-term - a subset of excluded middle ("why pursue fundamental science when we have so huge a budget deficit?").

Slippery slope - a subset of excluded middle - unwarranted extrapolation of the effects (give an inch and they will take a mile).

Confusion of correlation and causation.

Caricaturing (or stereotyping) a position to make it easier to attack.

Suppressed evidence or half-truths.

Weasel words - for example, use of euphemisms for war such as "police action" to get around limitations on Presidential powers. "An important art of politicians is to find new names for institutions which under old names have become odious to the public"

(excerpted from The Planetary Society Australian Volunteer Coordinators Prepared by Michael Paine )

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