April 1964

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April 22, 1964: The New York World's Fair opens
April 4, 1964: Beatles' songs are ranked #1, #2, #3, #4 and #5 in most popular singles in the U.S. by Billboard
April 17, 1964: The Ford Mustang is introduced

The following events occurred in April 1964:

April 1, 1964 (Wednesday)[edit]

April 2, 1964 (Thursday)[edit]

  • Ranieri Mazzilli, the presiding officer of Brazil's Chamber of Deputies, was sworn in as the new President of Brazil, while João Goulart abandoned further efforts to fight the coup leaders. Goulart and his family drove from his ranch in São Borja, and crossed the border to reach Santo Tomé in Argentina. U.S. President Lyndon Johnson, who was in favor of the ouster of Goulart by anti-Communist forces, sent a cable to Mazzilli, and called the relationship between the U.S. and Brazil "a precious asset in the interest of peace and prosperity and liberty in this hemisphere and in the whole world."[7] Mazzilli would step down on April 15 when the Brazilian Congress elected Humberto Castelo Branco to the Presidency.
  • Alfons Gorbach resigned as Chancellor of Austria and was succeeded by Josef Klaus, who would serve until 1970.[8]
  • Mrs. Malcolm Peabody, 72, mother of Massachusetts Governor Endicott Peabody, was released on $450 bond after spending two days in a St. Augustine, Florida, jail, for participating in an anti-segregation demonstration there.[9]
  • The Soviet Union launched Zond 1 on a flyby of the planet Venus. Although the probe would pass within 100,000 kilometres (62,000 miles) of that planet on July 18, no data could be received because of a failure of transmitters in May and in June.[10]
  • Died: Carlos Hevia, 64, President of Cuba for three days (January 15 to January 18) in 1934.

April 3, 1964 (Friday)[edit]

  • Malcolm X gave his speech, "The Ballot or the Bullet", at the Cory Methodist Church in Cleveland, Ohio, calling on African-Americans to reconsider the policy of nonviolent resistance in pursuit of equal rights. "Don't be throwing out any ballots," he told the crowd; "A ballot is like a bullet. You don't throw your ballots until you see a target, and if that target is not within your reach, keep your ballot in your pocket." He closed by saying, "in areas where the government has proven itself either unwilling or unable to defend the lives and the property of Negroes, it's time for Negroes to defend themselves. This doesn't mean you're going to get a rifle and form battalions and go looking for white folks, although you'd be within your rights ... If the white man doesn't want the black man buying rifles and shotguns, then let the government do its job. That's all ... In 1964, it's the ballot or the bullet."[11][12]
  • The Communist Party of the Soviet Union issued a statement calling the Communist Party of China "the main danger to the unity of the world communist movement", and called for a summit of the leaders of the world's communist parties. Printed in the party newspaper Pravda, the CPSU wrote that "Peking is steering a course toward a split among the communist parties, toward the setting up of factions and groups hostile to Marxism-Leninism."[13]
  • Panama resumed diplomatic relations with the United States, after a split on January 17. An agreement between representatives of the two nations was signed at a meeting of the Council of the Organization of American States in Washington.[14][15]
  • Born:
  • Died: John Haynes Holmes, 84, African-American activist and co-founder of the NAACP and the ACLU

April 4, 1964 (Saturday)[edit]

April 5, 1964 (Sunday)[edit]

April 6, 1964 (Monday)[edit]

April 7, 1964 (Tuesday)[edit]

The IBM System/360, with 64 KB of core memory
  • IBM announced the System/360 mainframe computer system, the first commercially available system to use micro-miniaturized logic circuits.[29][28] The new machine, which IBM chairman Thomas J. Watson Jr. described as "the beginning of a new generation—not only of computers—but their application in business, science and government", was shown off at meetings in 165 cities before a total of 100,000 customers. The system could "accept messages from remote locations, no matter what the distance" and could "communicate simultaneously with 248 terminals". The most basic system had a storage of 8 kilobytes and the largest could accommodate 8 megabytes.[30][31]
  • The Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, a Shi'ite Muslim cleric who would eventually be the leader of Iran was released from prison in Tehran and permitted to relocate within to the city of Qom.
  • Born: Russell Crowe, New Zealand-born film actor, in Wellington
  • Died:
    • John Alan West, 53, English crime victim was murdered during a burglary in his home in Workington. Gwynne Owen Evans and Peter Anthony Allen would be convicted of the murder and, on August 13, 1964, would become the last two people to be legally executed in the United Kingdom.[32]
    • Bruce W. Klunder, 26, American Presbyterian minister, was accidentally killed in Cleveland, Ohio, while protesting the construction of a new school that would have reinforced the Ohio city's pattern of racially segregated school districting. Klunder had and three other protesters attempted to block the path of a bulldozer by lying down in its path, and the machine backed over him.

April 8, 1964 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • The United States launched its first Project Gemini spacecraft, capable of accommodating two astronauts and a successor to the one-astronaut Project Mercury capsules. The unmanned Gemini 1 ship lifted off from Cape Kennedy in Florida at 11:00 a.m. and, along with the second stage of its Titan II rocket, reached orbit six minutes later. The craft would make 64 orbits over four days before burning up in the atmosphere on re-entry over the South Atlantic Ocean.[33][34][35]
  • Sheikh Abdullah, the former head of government of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, was released from incarceration by the government of India after more than ten years of confinement on accusations of seeking Kashmir independence. Abdullah returned to Srinagar to a hero's welcome.[36]
  • Four of five railroad-operating unions struck against the Illinois Central Railroad without warning, bringing to a head a 5-year dispute over railroad work rules.
  • From Russia with Love premièred in U.S. movie theaters.
  • Died: Jim Umbricht, 33, American Major League Baseball pitcher who had appeared in 35 games in 1963 despite being terminally ill with cancer. His last game had been on September 29, as a member of the Houston Colt .45s (later the Houston Astros).

April 9, 1964 (Thursday)[edit]

  • The United Nations Security Council adopted, by a 9–0 vote, a resolution deploring a British air attack on a fort in Yemen 12 days earlier, in which 25 persons were reported killed.
  • Brazil's military government issued its first Institutional Act (Ato Institucional), providing that the President could suspend the political rights of any citizen for up to 10 years, giving him power to fire national, state and local legislators, and allowing the Brazilian Congress limited power to consider bills sent to it by the President. The Act also required Congress to elect a President at its April 11 session.[37] The Institutional Act would end after two months, during which nearly 11,000 government employees, military officers, and political leaders had their rights suspended.[38]
  • Born: Lisa Guerrero, American investigative reporter, in Chicago

April 10, 1964 (Friday)[edit]

  • David Threlfall, a 20-year-old British science fiction fan from Preston, Lancashire, placed a wager with the William Hill PLC bookmaking company, which regularly offers odds and accepts bets on the timing and outcome of future events. Hill offered odds of 1,000 to 1 on the likelihood of “or any man, woman or child, from any nation on Earth, being on the Moon, or any other planet, star or heavenly body of comparable distance from Earth, before January, 1971.” and Threlfall placed a bet of £10 (roughly $28 at the time)[39][40] On July 20, 1969, Threlfall would be presented a check for £10,000 (worth $24,000 in 1969) on a live BBC broadcast, shortly after the safe landing of Apollo 11's lunar module on the Moon at 10:18 pm British Standard Time.[41]
  • Verda Welcome, the first black state senator in Maryland, was shot in Baltimore. The gunman, also an African-American, fired five shots at her as she was preparing to get out of her car. Mrs. Welcome had opened her door and was preparing to step out when she remembered some posters she had left in the back seat, and the shots came through the side windows while she was leaning over. As a result, she was grazed on her back and her heel rather than taking a direct hit, and told reporters later, "I'm happy to be among the living."[42][43]
  • Demolition of the Polo Grounds sports stadium commenced in New York City.[44] The stadium had been the home of both football and baseball's New York Giants, and later for the New York Mets and the New York Jets.[45]
  • Glenn Gould, Canadian pianist, retired from public performances, with his final concert at Los Angeles.[46]

April 11, 1964 (Saturday)[edit]

  • A tornado in the Jessore District of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) destroyed numerous villages and killed over 500 people, and perhaps as many as 2,000.[47][48][49]
  • The Brazilian Congress elected Field Marshal Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco as President of Brazil. General Castelo received 361 of 438 votes. Seventy-two Congressmen from the Labor Party, whose leader João Goulart had been overthrown the week before, chose to abstain rather than to vote for any candidate.[50] Branco would serve until March 15, 1967, and would be killed in a plane crash four months later.[51]

April 12, 1964 (Sunday)[edit]

  • The People, a London tabloid newspaper, broke a story titled "The Biggest Sports Scandal of the Century", naming three First Division players of The Football League as having been party to the fixing of soccer football matches while they had played for Sheffield Wednesday F.C. in 1962. According to the story, Peter Swan, Tony Kay and David "Bronco" Layne had bet £50 that their team would lose to Ipswich Town F.C. on December 1, 1962, and made a £100 profit when Ipswich won, 2–0. The "Sheffield Wednesday trio" would be among 10 players sentenced to prison in 1965, and would serve four months' incarceration.[52]
  • Died: Wallace "Bud" Werner, 28, American skier, and Barbara Henneberger, 23, West German Olympic ski racer, were both killed in an avalanche near Samedan in Switzerland, where they were part of a group of 31 skiers participating in the filming of Ski-Fascination.[53]

April 13, 1964 (Monday)[edit]

  • The 36th Academy Awards ceremony was held. Sidney Poitier became the first black person to win an Academy Award in the category Best Actor in a Leading Role, for his performance in Lilies of the Field, while Patricia Neal received Best Actress for Hud, and Tom Jones won the award for Best Motion Picture.[54]
  • The Pietà, sculpted by Michelangelo in 1498 and 1499, arrived in the United States from the Vatican for display at the New York World's Fair. The 6,700-pound statue was brought in on the Italian Line ocean liner SS Christoforo Colombo.[55]
  • Ian Smith was elected as the new leader of the Rhodesian Front political party and became the new Prime Minister of Southern Rhodesia.[56] Smith would guide the declaration of independence of Rhodesia from the United Kingdom in order to establish a white-minority government that would exclude black Africans from participation.
  • In one of the first recorded instances of a crowd shouting for a suicidal person to jump from a building, people in Albany, New York, chanted "Jump! Jump!" to a man on the roof of the 11-story DeWitt Clinton Hotel. A crowd of about 3,000 people had gathered to watch when boys in the crowd shouted to him to make the 125-foot plunge and even made bets on whether he would go through with his plan. The 19-year-old young man was eventually persuaded by police and his seven-year-old nephew to return to abandon his plan.[57]
  • Malcolm X departed on the Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca. For the next seven months, he would tour the Middle East and Africa, returning to New York City on November 24.[58]
  • Born: Caroline Rhea, Canadian comedian, actress and first host of the TV show The Biggest Loser; in Westmount, Quebec
  • Died:
    • U.S. Marine Corps General Melvin Maas, 65, former U.S. Congressman for Minnesota, 1927 to 1933 and 1935 to 1945, who fought in World War II during his time in Congress, and was blinded by a war injury.
    • Veit Harlan, 64, Nazi German film director and anti-Semitic propagandist

April 14, 1964 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • Three NASA technicians were killed and eight others injured when a motor on the third stage of a Delta rocket ignited inside an assembly room at Cape Kennedy and sprayed burning fuel on the people who were placing a payload atop the stage. Sidney Dagle, L. D. Gabel and John Fassett were burned over more than 83% of their bodies and died soon after the accident, while four other men were seriously injured.[59]
  • The United Nations Civilian Police (UNCIVPOL) began its first mission, assisting the peacekeeping operations performed in Cyprus by UNFICYP. The agency's name would later be shortened to the United Nations Police, or UNPOL.[60]
  • British Chancellor of the Exchequer Reginald Maudling announced at the House of Commons that he was raising taxes on alcohol, beer and cigarettes.[61]
  • In St. Johns, Newfoundland, a Ford dealership made the first retail sale of a Ford Mustang, three days before the car was to be introduced. Stanley Tucker, a commercial pilot for Canadian Eastern Provincial Airlines, spotted the car at the George Parsons dealership and "made an offer that could not be refused to one over-zealous salesman".[62] The Ford Motor Company would reacquire the vehicle a year later, in return for giving Mr. Tucker a new 1966 Mustang convertible, and the vehicle is now located in The Henry Ford museum in Dearborn, Michigan.
  • Died: Rachel Carson, 56, American marine biologist and conservationist, of a heart attack brought on by cancer and radiation treatment[63]

April 15, 1964 (Wednesday)[edit]

April 16, 1964 (Thursday)[edit]

  • The Rolling Stones released their first album, The Rolling Stones, recorded by Decca and placed on sale in the United Kingdom.[69]
  • The Donauturm, Austria's tallest structure at 252 metres (827 ft), was opened by President Adolf Schärf in the Donaustadt district of Vienna.[70]
  • Sentences totaling 307 years were passed on 12 men who stole £2.6 million in used bank notes, after holding up the night mail train traveling from Glasgow to London in August 1963—a heist that became known as the Great Train Robbery. Judge Edmund Davies began with Roger Cordrey, to whom he said, "you are the first to be sentenced out of certainly eleven greedy men whom hope of gain allured."[71]
  • Representatives of NASA and Boeing signed the contract for the design and construction of the Lunar Orbiter.[72][73]
  • Born: Esbjörn Svensson, Swedish jazz pianist; in Skultuna (killed in scuba-diving accident, 2008)

April 17, 1964 (Friday)[edit]

  • In the United States, the Ford Mustang, was first put on sale at Ford dealerships nationwide, with a suggested retail price of $2,368.[74] and had purchases and purchase requests for more than 22,000 units on the first day.[75] In its first year on the market, there would be 418,812 of the Mustangs purchased, making it "the most successful new car ever introduced".[76]
  • Middle East Airlines Flight 444 crashed in the Persian Gulf after overshooting the runway at the airport in Dhahran in Saudi Arabia, killing all 42 passengers and the crew of seven. The Caravelle jet had departed Beirut two hours earlier and had had an uneventful flight until getting caught in powerful winds from a sandstorm as it was preparing to land.[77]
  • Jerrie Mock arrived in Columbus, Ohio, in a Cessna 180, completing a solo round-the-world flight and becoming the first woman to make such a journey.[78] Mock landed the "Spirit of Columbus" on April 17 at 9:36 p.m., 29 days after her departure from the same airport on March 19. Pilot Joan Merriam Smith, who had departed on her own round-the-world trip on March 17, had made it as far as the Australian city of Darwin on April 17.[79] Jerrie Mock's circumnavigation had been a journey of 22,858.8 miles and 21 stops.[80]
  • Shea Stadium opened in Flushing, New York, as 48,736 people watched the New York Mets host the Pittsburgh Pirates.[81] The Mets, perennial losers in their third National League season, lost the game, 4–3, on a 9th inning single by the Pirates' Willie Stargell.
  • The U.S. Air Force completed Operation Helping Hand, an airlift that had started on March 28, after bringing 1,850 tonnes (1,850 metric tons) of relief equipment and supplies to Anchorage, Alaska, in the aftermath of the March 27 earthquake there.[82]
  • Byron De La Beckwith was freed on a $10,000 bond after his second trial for the murder of Medgar Evers ended with another hung jury in Jackson, Mississippi. The all-white jury was reportedly split 8 to 4 in favor of an acquittal after 10 hours of deliberation.[83]

Born: Maynard James Keenan, frontman of Tool, in Ravenna, Ohio; Lela Rochon, American actress, in Little Rock, Arkansas; Rachel Notley, NDP Premier of Alberta, in Edmonton, Alberta

April 18, 1964 (Saturday)[edit]

  • RTF Télévision 2, France's second television station (officially La deuxième chaîne) began regular programming on Channel 22 on the UHF dial after initially experimenting on January 1.[84]
  • Belgium's doctor strike came to an end after 18 days with an accord between the physicians' representatives and the Belgian government.[85]
  • An 11-year-old boy in Mill Valley, California, got his hands caught in a rope and was taken to an altitude of 3,000 feet while dangling below a hot air balloon.[86] Danny Nowell had joined three boys who had volunteered to hold the balloon steady and, as he told reporters later "the balloon took off and everybody let go but me." The balloonist, William Berry, was unable to hear Danny's screaming until he shut off the propane gas burners. At that point, Berry realized that the boy was suspended 30 feet below the balloon's gondola and began spilling air to make a fast descent at 25 feet per second. Ten minutes after the frightening ride began, Danny was safely rescued from a tree in a residential backyard at 537 Browning Court in Tamalpais Valley.[87]
  • The 1964 Aintree 200 motor race was won by Jack Brabham.
  • Born:
  • Died: Ben Hecht, 70, American film screenwriter

April 19, 1964 (Sunday)[edit]

  • In Laos, the coalition government of Prince Souvanna Phouma was deposed by a right-wing military group, led by Brigadier General Kouprasith Abhay.[88] Souvanna and other cabinet members were placed under house arrest, and the Geneva Accords that had kept an uneasy peace with the left-wing Pathet Lao were on the verge of collapsing while U.S. Ambassador to Laos Leonard S. Unger was out of town. Unger rushed back to the Laotian capital of Vientiane and rushed to Souvanna's residence where, as one historian would later note, a "'Romeo and Juliet' scene took place, as Souvanna Phouma stood at a balcony on the second floor and expressed his desire to discontinue premiership, while Ambassador Unger stood on the ground begging him to continue to head the government."[89][90] Assured of U.S. support for his government, Souvanna resumed his duties as Prime Minister and would remain Prime Minister in office until 1975.

April 20, 1964 (Monday)[edit]

  • BBC Two, the third television network of the United Kingdom (after BBC and ITV) was scheduled to go on the air at 7:20 in the evening with a ten-minute segment, Line-Up, with John Stone and Denis Tuohy delivering a brief summary of news and weather and Pamela Donald commenting on programming.[91] With 625 lines resolution, the BBC-2 broadcasting was more clear than the 405-line BBC telecasts, but it was viewable only by people with the newer TV sets. At 7:30, The Alberts Channel Too, a variety program by the comedy team The Alberts, was set to be the first original TV series. Only 25 minutes before airtime, however, a fire at Battersea Power Station caused a power failure in much of London, including the BBC Television Centre.[92] For the rest of the evening, people who could tune in were only able to see a sign that said "BBC 2 Will Start Shortly". Power would be restored, and broadcasting would begin, the next day.[93]
  • The first jar of Nutella, a "hazelnut cocoa spread" now popular around the world, was shipped from the Ferrero SpA factory in Italy. [94]
  • U.S. President Lyndon Johnson in New York, and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev in Moscow, simultaneously announced plans to cut back the production of materials for making nuclear weapons.[95]
  • Nelson Mandela made his "I Am Prepared to Die" speech at the opening of the Rivonia Trial. The address would become an inspiration in the continuing anti-apartheid movement.[96]
  • Born:
  • Died: Dimitar Ganev, 65, President of Bulgaria since 1959. Ganev's title as Chairman of the Presidium of the National Assembly of Bulgaria served to make him the nation's head of state, although actual power was wielded by Todor Zhivkov, the General Secretary of the Bulgarian Communist Party.

April 21, 1964 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • What has been described as "the first major space accident to seriously affect Earth"[97] happened with the failed launch of a SNAP-9A, one of a series of nuclear-powered generators launched by the U.S. Navy between 1961 and 1972. The SNAP (Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power) package was included with a payload that carried the Transit 5BN-3 navigational satellite, and was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California[98] but the Thor-Able-Star rocket "failed to achieve orbit"[99] and the SNAP broke up in the stratosphere over the southern Indian Ocean burned up in the upper atmosphere. The result was that a large amount of the radioactive isotope plutonium-238 was showered across a wide area.
  • With electrical power restored, BBC Two was able to launch programming at 11:00 in the morning with the first episode of Play School, an educational program aimed at preschool-age children.[93]
  • U.S. President Johnson told a group of 800 editors and broadcasters that the United States should go beyond the "War on Poverty" at home, and work at eliminating poverty throughout the rest of the world as well, commenting that "if we sit here just enjoying our material resources, if we are content to become fat and flabby at 50, and let the rest of the world go by, the time will not be far away when we will be hearing a knock on our door in the middle of the night ... clamoring for freedom, independence, food and shelter—just as our revolutionary forefathers clamored for it."[100]
  • James Baldwin's Blues for Mister Charlie opened on Broadway.
  • Born: Ludmila Engquist, Russian track athlete, cancer survivor, and gold medalist (1996) in the women's 100m hurdles; in Kriusha, Tambov Oblast, RSFSR, Soviet Union
  • Died: Bharathidasan, 72, Tamil poet and activist

April 22, 1964 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • The 1964 New York World's Fair opened to celebrate the 300th anniversary of New Amsterdam being taken over in 1664 by British forces under the Duke of York (later King James II) and being renamed New York. The fair would run until October 18, 1964, then make a second run from April 21 to October 17, 1965. Since less than ten years had passed since the Seattle World's Fair in 1962, the New York exposition was not internationally approved, but many nations would have pavilions with exotic crafts, art and food. Five students from St. Peter's College in Jersey City, New Jersey, camped outside of Gate Number 1 for two days so that they could be the first in line.[101] Bill Turchyn was the first of the five to go through the gate.[102]
  • Convicted Nazi war criminal Walter Zech-Nenntwich escaped from a West German maximum security prison in Braunschweig, a few days after being sentenced to four years at hard labor for his role in helping kill 5,254 Jews in the Soviet city of Pinsk. Zech-Nenntwich was aided by being able to open six unlocked doors and then helped over a 15-foot-high wall.[103] He and a woman friend then hired an airplane at Nordhorn and flew to Switzerland, landing at Basel.[104] From there, he fled to Egypt. After more than three months on the run, he would voluntarily surrender to West German authorities on August 7. By then, it would be revealed that the warden at the Braunschweig jail, Hans Zeeman, had been the escapee's friend during the Nazi era. Walter Zech-Nenntwich was then jailed in Hannover where, the press was told, "there are no wardens there with Nazi backgrounds."[105]
  • A threatened nationwide strike of United States railroad workers was called off 55 hours before it was to start at 12:01 on Saturday, as federal mediators conferred with representatives of labor and management at a meeting in the private family quarters of the White House.[106]
  • British businessman Greville Wynne, imprisoned in Moscow since 1963 for spying, was exchanged for Soviet spy Gordon Lonsdale.[107]

April 23, 1964 (Thursday)[edit]

  • Sir Garfield Barwick resigned as both Minister for External Affairs in order to accept appointment as Chief Justice of Australia. Barwick was selected by Prime Minister Robert Menzies to replace the retiring Chief Justice, Sir Owen Dixon.[108][109]
  • Tanganyikan President Julius Nyerere made the surprise announcement that he and Zanzibar's President Abeid Karume had agreed to merge their two nations. Nyerere and Karume had signed the agreement at a meeting at the State House of Zanzibar while Sheik Mohammed Babu, a Communist "regarded as the real power in Zanzibar", was out of the country on a tour of Asia.[110]
  • Georgi Traykov, who had occupied the post of "first deputy prime minister" of Bulgaria since 1949, was selected by the National Assembly to be the new President of the Presidium, replacing the late Dimitar Ganev as Bulgaria's head of state.[111]

April 24, 1964 (Friday)[edit]

  • With a little more than a day's notice to his advisers and the Secret Service, the President and Mrs. Johnson spent the day meeting crowds in Illinois, Indiana, Pennsylvania, West Virginia and Kentucky to prepare his announcement for a comprehensive program to fight poverty in the United States. Following an evening rally in Chicago the night before, the U.S. president flew by helicopter to talk to schoolchildren in South Bend, Indiana. He then flew on Air Force One from an Indiana air force base for a rally in front of 250,000 people at Pittsburgh, then to Huntington, West Virginia, for a meeting with eight state governors. From Huntington, Johnson helicoptered to the small mountain hamlet of Inez, Kentucky, and another small town, Paintsville, to meet well-wishers, before catching Air Force One at Huntington again and returning to Washington. During his visit to Inez, Johnson sat on a pile of lumber at the porch of the impoverished, 10-member, Thomas Fletcher family and chatted for half an hour. Along the way, he spoke to everyone about his $250,000,000 plan to help the Appalachian poor.[112][113]
  • A new law went into effect in East Germany, designating all lands within five kilometres (3.1 miles) of the nation's boundary with West Germany as special border areas where residents were required to carry special passes issued by the Stasi, and where a curfew was in effect nightly from 11 p.m. to 5 a.m. A resident within the border area was now required by law to call police to report the presence of any unauthorized person, and failure to do so could result in a term of up to two years in prison.[114]
  • For the first time in more than 30 years, it became legal to possess a United States gold certificate, as U.S. Treasury Secretary Douglas Dillon announced the rescission of a 1933 regulation that had been issued in conjunction with an Executive Order by President Roosevelt. On August 28, 1933, the U.S. government had ordered all citizens to exchange their gold certificates and gold coins for other currency, no later than January 30, 1934. Until Dillon eased the rules, "anyone—collector, dealer, private citizen, or even a museum" was subject to a 10-year prison sentence and a $10,000 fine, although "no one in Washington today could remember that happening."[115]
  • The Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, signed on April 18, 1961, entered into force.[116]
  • An earthquake in the Tajik SSR of the Soviet Union (now Tajikistan) caused a large section of the Darovorz mountain peak to dam up the Zeravshan River. Residents of the small town of Ayni were evacuated as a large artificial lake was created, with water levels rising 30 feet in the first 24 hours. The expansion of the flood threatened the Uzbek SSR city of Samarkand, about 100 miles downriver from the dam. "Unless immediate measures are taken," an unidentified official said, "200 million cubic meters of water will accumulate in just one month."[117]
  • Thieves stole the head of the Little Mermaid statue in Copenhagen.[118] The Danish government announced that it the stolen head could not be found, a new head would be cast from the original mold and welded on to the statue.
  • Born:
  • Died: Gerhard Domagk, 68, German bacteriologist and 1939 Nobel Prize laureate who discovered and synthesized the first commercially available antibiotic, Prontosil (sulfamidochrysoidine).

April 25, 1964 (Saturday)[edit]

April 26, 1964 (Sunday)[edit]

Tanganyika and Zanzibar
  • At 12:01 a.m., the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar officially came into existence after the national assembly of Tanganyika joined Zanzibar in voting to approve the merger of the two East African republics, announced three days earlier by Tanganyikan President Julius Nyerere and by Abeid Karume, the President of Zanzibar.[121] At the time, Tanganyika had 9,000,000 inhabitants and the island of Zanzibar had 300,000. Nyerere became president, and Karume Vice President, of the new nation.[122] In July, the government would announce a contest for a new name for the United Republic, and the winning entry—Tanzania—would be announced by Nyerere on October 29.[123] April 26 continues to be celebrated as "Union Day" in Tanzania.[124]
  • Thomas Toolen, the Roman Catholic Archbishop of the archdiocese of Mobile, Alabama, ordered the desegregation of all Roman Catholic parochial schools in his jurisdiction, which included all of the state of Alabama, and 11 counties in Florida west of the Apalachicola River. "I know this will not meet with the approval of many people," Toolen wrote in a pastoral letter read at all congregations at Sunday services, "but in justice and charity, this must be done."[125]
  • Several hundred African-Americans met in Jackson, Mississippi, to organize the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party, an alternative to the all-white state Democratic Party.[126]
  • The Boston Celtics beat the San Francisco Warriors, 105–99, to win the NBA Championship, four games to one. The victory marked the Celtics' sixth consecutive title.[127]
  • Died:
    • E. J. Pratt, 82, Canadian poet
    • Jacinto Cruz Usma, Colombian terrorist and bandit chief known as "Sangrenegra", was killed near the town of Las Brisas in the Valle del Cauca Department, after a gun battle with the 8th brigade of the Colombian Army. During a four-year period, Sangrenegra and his associates murdered 223 policemen and public officials. Jacinto's brother, Felipe Cruz, had tipped off the army after Jacinto had threatened to kill him and his family.[128][129]

April 27, 1964 (Monday)[edit]

  • U.S. President Johnson outraged animal lovers during a photo session, when he lifted his pet beagles by the ears while playing with them on the White House lawn. After hearing the dogs—named "Him" and "Her"—yelp, a reporter asked, "Why did you do that?" and Johnson explained that it was to make them bark, adding, "And if you've ever followed dogs, you like to hear them yelp."[130][131]
  • The Tobacco Institute, an American trade group of the nation's cigarette manufacturers, announced that the companies had agreed on a code for future advertising that would guarantee that ads and commercials would "not represent that cigarette smoking is essential to social prominence, distinction, success, or sexual attraction". Specifically, the tobacco companies agreed to no longer use endorsements by athletes and celebrities, to discontinue distributing free cigarette samples to persons under 21, and to halt promotions on school and college campuses.[132]
  • The last original episode of The Danny Thomas Show was telecast on CBS, bringing an end to the 11-year run of Thomas's situation comedy that had premiered on ABC September 29, 1953, as Make Room for Daddy.
  • Died: Dimitri Alexandrovich Obolensky, 82, Russian nobleman and historian.

April 28, 1964 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • Four days after his tour of West Virginia and eastern Kentucky, President Johnson sent proposed legislation to Congress for what would become the Appalachian Regional Development Act, "a long-range program of economic rehabilitation of the impoverished 10-state Appalachian region". In his letter to the President pro tempore of the U.S. Senate and to the Speaker of the House, Johnson wrote that the U.S. economic program had bypassed the 15 million residents of the mountainous areas "for reasons which are cheerlessly clear" and proposed a seven-point program for 2,350 miles of road improvement, construction of flood control, timber management and agricultural enhancement, reclamation of mined lands and modernization of safe mining practices, and vocational training.
  • Japan became the first new member (and the first Asian member) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) since its founding by 20 western nations in 1961.[133]
  • Fourteen days after he was added to the FBI's Most Wanted list, serial killer Joseph Francis Bryan, Jr. was spotted at a shopping center in New Orleans and arrested in the parking lot with an 8-year-old boy whom he had kidnapped from Humboldt, Tennessee, the week before. Dennis Burke was the fifth young boy who had been abducted by Bryan in the past two months. The other four had been murdered. In the absence of sufficient evidence to support murder charges in the other four cases, Burke would plead guilty to the Tennessee kidnapping and be sentenced to life in prison.[134][135]
  • Soviet engineers set off a massive conventional explosion as the first step of creating a canal through the massive landslide that had been damming the Zeravshan River since Friday. The dam, created by the toppling of a mountain peak into the river following an earthquake, was reported to be at least 150 metres (490 ft) high and up to 400 metres (1,300 ft) wide.[136]
  • Born:
  • Died: Milton Margai, 68, Prime Minister of Sierra Leone since its independence in 1961. He was succeeded by his half-brother, Albert Margai.

April 29, 1964 (Wednesday)[edit]

April 30, 1964 (Thursday)[edit]


  1. ^ Andrew Marr, A History of Modern Britain (Pan Macmillan, 2009)
  2. ^ Charles Woodley, The History of British European Airways (Pen & Sword Aviation, 2006) p68
  3. ^ David Newhardt, Dodge Challenger & Plymouth Barracuda (MBI Publishing, 2000) p8
  4. ^ "GOULART RESISTS OUSTER— President Flees Rio, Vows War to Death in South", Chicago Tribune, April 2, 1964, p1
  5. ^ "Doctors Go on Total Strike in Belgium", Chicago Tribune, April 1, 1964, p14
  6. ^ "'62 K.O. Costs Life of Boxer", Chicago Tribune, April 2, 1964, p3-1
  7. ^ "Goulart Gives In, Flees to Argentina", Chicago Tribune, April 3, 1964, p1
  8. ^ "Austria, Republic of", in Heads of States and Governments: A Worldwide Encyclopedia of Over 2,300 Leaders, 1945 through 1992, by Harris M. Lentz (Fitzroy Dearborn, 1994) p61
  9. ^ "Bars Transfer of Race Cases", Chicago Tribune, April 3, 1964, p3
  10. ^ Christian Lardier, Stefan Barensky, The Soyuz Launch Vehicle: The Two Lives of an Engineering Triumph (Springer, 2013) pp181-182
  11. ^ The United States Since 1945: A Documentary Reader, Robert P. Ingalls and David K. Johnson, eds. (John Wiley & Sons, 2009) pp80-81
  12. ^ "U.S. Can't Help, Says Malcolm X", Sandusky (OH) Register, April 4, 1964, p2
  13. ^ "Moscow Asks for Showdown with Chinese", Chicago Tribune, April 3, 1964, p2
  14. ^ "U.S., Panama Diplomatic Split Ended", Chicago Tribune, April 4, 1964, p1
  15. ^ "Flag Riots, 1964", in Historical Dictionary of Panama, by Thomas M. Leonard (Rowman & Littlefield, 2014) p124
  16. ^ "The Day the Beatles Held the Top 5 Positions on Billboard’s Hot 100", by Dave Litton, Ultimate Classic Rock, April 4, 2015
  17. ^ Fred Bronson, The Billboard Book of Number One Hits (Billboard Books, 2003) p145
  18. ^ Francis Kennedy, The Making of John Lennon: The Untold Story of the Rise and Fall of the Beatles (Luath Press Ltd, 2015)
  19. ^ Entertaining from Ancient Rome to the Super Bowl, Melitta Weiss Adamson and Francine Segan, eds. (Greenwood Press, 2008) p262
  20. ^ "The Blimpie Story: Three Teenagers Met in Jersey City"
  21. ^ "Bhutan's Prime Minister Slain", Chicago Tribune, April 6, 1964, p2A-1
  22. ^ "Bhutan's Premier Shot To Death by Assassin", The Post-Crescent (Appleton WI), April 6, 1964, p1
  23. ^ "Claim Soldier Admits Killing Bhutan Chief", Chicago Tribune, April 10, 1964, p9
  24. ^ "Jet Flattens 10 Japan Homes", Chicago Tribune, April 6, 1964, p3-11
  25. ^ Associated Press (6 April 1964). "U.S. Plane in Japan killed Four in Crash". The New York Times. p. 7.
  26. ^ "NATION MOURNS M'ARTHUR", Chicago Tribune, April 6, 1964, p1
  27. ^ Giovanni Lajolo, Nature and Function of Papal Diplomacy (Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2005) p20
  28. ^ a b Mark Blaxill and Ralph Eckardt, The Invisible Edge: Taking Your Strategy to the Next Level Using Intellectual Property (Penguin Group, 2009)
  29. ^ B. Jack Copeland, Alan Turing's Electronic Brain: The Struggle to Build the ACE, the World's Fastest Computer (Oxford University Press, 2012) p169
  30. ^ "I.B.M. Unveils a New Family of Computers", Chicago Tribune, April 8, 1964, p3-8
  31. ^ "Watson Hails New Computer System As Most Important in IBM's History", Poughkeepsie (NY) Journal, April 7, 1964, p1
  32. ^ "Allen and Evans", in Murderers' Row: An International Murderers' Who's Who, by Robin Odell and Wilfred Gregg (The History Press, 2006)
  33. ^ David J. Shayler, Gemini: Steps to the Moon (Springer/Praxis, 2001) pp137-138
  34. ^ Colin Burgess, Liberty Bell 7: The Suborbital Mercury Flight of Virgil I. Grissom (Springer, 2014) pp201-202
  35. ^ "Fire Gemini Capsule Into Orbit", Chicago Tribune, April 9, 1964, p3
  36. ^ Jyoti Bhusan Das Gupta, Jammu and Kashmir (Springer, 2012) pp321-322
  37. ^ "Brazil", in Historical Dictionary of the Dirty Wars, David Kohut and Olga Vilella, eds. (Rowman & Littlefield, 2016) p90
  38. ^ Jaime Wright, translator, Torture in Brazil: A Shocking Report on the Pervasive Use of Torture by Brazilian Military Governments, 1964–1979, Secretly Prepared by the Archiodese of São Paulo (University of Texas Press, 1986) p50
  39. ^ "Betting on the Moon", by Nick D'Alton, Air & Space Magazine (April 2018)
  40. ^ "1,000-1 moon landing bet success", Lancashire Post, July 15, 2009
  41. ^ "1,000 to 1 Moon-Bet Is Paid Off on TV", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, July 21, 1969, p6
  42. ^ "Negro Woman Senator Shot in Maryland", April 10, 1964, p-1
  43. ^ "Gunman's Bullets Graze Negro Solon", Salt Lake (UT) Tribune, April 11, 1964, p6
  44. ^ "Era Ends; Wreck Polo Grounds", Chicago Tribune, April 11, 1964, p2-1
  45. ^ Jason D. Antos, Shea Stadium (Arcadia Publishing, 2007) p11
  46. ^ Kevin Bazzana, Wondrous Strange: The Life and Art of Glenn Gould (McClelland & Stewart, 2003) p229
  47. ^ Michael Allaby, Tornadoes (Infobase Publishing, 2014) p139
  48. ^ "Cyclone Toll Mounts", Pittsburgh Press", April 14, 1964, p10
  49. ^ "Pakistani Cyclone Toll Feared At 2,000", The Courier-Journal (Louisville KY) April 16, 1964, p18
  50. ^ "Gen. Castelo Elected to Head Brazil", Chicago Tribune, April 12, 1964, p1A-12
  51. ^ "Brazil, Federative Republic of", in Heads of States and Governments: A Worldwide Encyclopedia of Over 2,300 Leaders, 1945 through 1992, by Harris M. Lentz (Fitzroy Dearborn, 1994) p108
  52. ^ Graham Sharpe, Free the Manchester United One: The Inside Story of Football's Greatest Scam (Pavilion Books, 2014)
  53. ^ "2 Ski Stars Die in Avalanche", Chicago Tribune, April 13, 1964, p1
  54. ^ "'Tom Jones,' Patricia Neal, Poitier Named Winners of Major Oscars", Los Angeles Times, April 14, 1964, p1
  55. ^ "'Pieta' Arrives in N. Y. Harbor", Chicago Tribune, April 14, 1964, p3
  56. ^ "Rhodesian Bush War (1965–1979)", in The Roots and Consequences of 20th-Century Warfare: Conflicts that Shaped the Modern World: Conflicts That Shaped the Modern World, by Spencer C. Tucker (ABC-CLIO, 2016) p417
  57. ^ "Crowd Eggs Youth to Jump off Building", Chicago Tribune, April 15, 1964, p3
  58. ^ Michael A. Gomez, Black Crescent: The Experience and Legacy of African Muslims in the Americas (Cambridge University Press, 2005) p352
  59. ^ "Space Engine Fire Injures 11 at Cape", Chicago Tribune, April 15, 1964, p3
  60. ^ Michael J. Butler, International Conflict Management (Routledge, 2009) p67
  61. ^ "British Boost Tax on Whisky and Cigarettes", Chicago Tribune, April 15, 1964, p4
  62. ^ Robert A. Fria, Mustang Genesis: The Creation of the Pony Car (McFarland, 2010) p174
  63. ^ "Rachel Carson biography". Women In History. Archived from the original on 8 August 2012. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
  64. ^ a b "Eastern Shore Link Opened by Virginia", Chicago Tribune, April 16, 1964, p2
  65. ^ Chris Dickon, Images of Rail: Eastern Shore Railroad (Arcadia Publishing, 2006) p7
  66. ^ "Civil Wars", in Historical Dictionary of the Democratic Republic of the Congo by Emizet Francois Kisangani (Rowman & Littlefield, 2016) p130
  67. ^ "Brazil Swears in Castelo as President", Chicago Tribune, April 16, 1964, p1A-11
  68. ^ Jean Archer (1992). Buckinghamshire Headlines. Countryside Books. ISBN 1-85306-188-3.
  69. ^ Roger Blackwell, Brands That Rock: What Business Leaders Can Learn from the World of Rock and Roll (John Wiley & Sons, 2004) p122
  70. ^ Eröffnung der Wiener Internationalen Gartenschau 1964 (WIG 64). Archived 2013-12-04 at the Wayback Machine In: Rathauskorrespondenz vom 16. April 1964 (German)
  71. ^ Andrew Cook, The Great Train Robbery: The Untold Story from the Closed Investigation Files (The History Press, 2013)
  72. ^ David Harland, NASA's Moon Program: Paving the Way for Apollo 11 (Springer, 2010) p149
  73. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-10-23. Retrieved 2015-05-02.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  74. ^ "Ford Mustang Attracts Unprecedented Interest", Chicago Tribune, April 18, 1964, p2-7
  75. ^ Colin Date, Collector's Originality Guide Mustang 1964-1/2-1966 (MBI Publishing, 2002) p9
  76. ^ "Ford Sells 418,812 Mustangs In Year", Pittsburgh Press, April 21, 1965, p5
  77. ^ "23 Americans Among 49 Dead in Air Crash", Chicago Tribune, April 19, 1964, p5
  78. ^ "Flying Jerrie Lands— First Woman to Circle Globe Alone", Chicago Tribune, April 18, 1964, p3
  79. ^ "Joan Merriam Has Landed in Darwin", AP report in Yuma (AZ) Daily Sun, April 17, 1964, p9
  80. ^ F. Robert Van Der Linden, Best of the National Air and Space Museum (Smithsonian Institution, 2016) p39
  81. ^ "Mets Open New Stadium with Loss", Chicago Tribune, April 18, 1964, p2-2
  82. ^ Haulman, Daniel L., One Hundred Years of Flight: USAF Chronology of Significant Air and Space Events, 1903–2002, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama: Air University Press, 2003, no ISBN number, p. 93.
  83. ^ "Jury Gives Up; 2d Mistrial of Beckwith", Chicago Tribune, April 18, 1964, p2
  84. ^ Burton Paulu, Radio and Television Broadcasting on the European Continent (University of Minnesota Press, 1967) p34
  85. ^ "Accord Ends Medic Strike in Belgium", Chicago Tribune, April 18, 1964, p1
  86. ^ "Boy Tied to Balloon Dangles 3,000 Ft. Up", Chicago Tribune, April 19, 1964, p1
  87. ^ "Boy, 11, Turns Celebrity in Balloon Ride Scare", Daily Independent (San Rafael, California), April 20, 1964, p1
  88. ^ "Rightist Army Seizes Power In Laos Coup", Philadelphia Inquirer, April 19, 1964, p1
  89. ^ "Thailand and the secret war in Laos, 1960-74", by Sutayut Osornprasop, in Southeast Asia and the Cold War, Albert Lau, ed. (Routledge, 2012) p201
  90. ^ "Laos Coup Collapses Under U. S. Pressure; Neutral Premier Freed", April 20, 1964, p1
  91. ^ "New studio ready for BBC-2", The Guardian (London), April 20, 1964, p18
  92. ^ "London power failure blacks out Television Centre and BBC-2", The Guardian (London), April 20, 1964, p18
  93. ^ a b "The launch night that never was", by Caroline Briggs, BBCNews, April 20, 2004
  94. ^ "The Real Reason UPS Trucks Always Have Their Doors Open - Fact Show 1 - YouTube". www.youtube.com. Retrieved 2020-12-22.
  95. ^ "U.S. RUSS A-OUTPUT CUT; Defenses Won't Be Hurt, Johnson Says; A Move Toward Arms Control, Nikita Feels", Chicago Tribune, April 21, 1964, p1
  96. ^ Carrol Clarkson, Drawing the Line: Toward an Aesthetics of Transitional Justice (Fordham University Press, 2013)
  97. ^ Rosalie Bertell, Planet Earth: The Latest Weapon of War (Black Rose Books Ltd., 2001) p75
  98. ^ "Atom-Powered Satellite Due for Launch Today— New Secret Spacecraft Thought Similar to One Fired at Vandenberg Last Sept. 28", Los Angeles Times, April 21, 1964, p24
  99. ^ David Harland, Apollo 12: On the Ocean of Storms (Springer, 2011) p269
  100. ^ "Johnson Asks Global Drive on Poverty", Chicago Tribune, April 22, 1964, p13
  101. ^ "5 College Men Are First in Line at World's Fair", Chicago Tribune, April 22, 1964, p2
  102. ^ Lawrence R. Samuel, End of the Innocence: The 1964–1965 New York World's Fair (Syracuse University Press, 2010) p32
  103. ^ "Nazi Escapes Top Security German Prison", Chicago Tribune, April 24, 1964, p18
  104. ^ "Ex-Nazi Flies to Switzerland", Chicago Tribune, April 25, 1964, p8
  105. ^ "Fugitive Nazi War Criminal Turns Self In", Chicago Tribune, August 8, 1964, p15
  106. ^ "RAILROAD STRIKE AVERTED— Dispute Settled After 13 Days of Talks; Unions Win Pay Hikes", Chicago Tribune, April 23, 1964, p1
  107. ^ "Briton Freed in Spy Swap Back at Home", Chicago Tribune, April 23, 1964, p12
  108. ^ "Sir Garfield to High Court Post on Monday", The Age (Melbourne), April 24, 1964, p1
  109. ^ "Hint U.S. Displeased, Aussie Minister Quits", Chicago Tribune, April 24, 1964, p15
  110. ^ "Tanganyika and Zanzibar to Form Union", Chicago Tribune, April 24, 1964, p1A-12
  111. ^ "Bulgaria, People's Republic of", in Heads of States and Governments: A Worldwide Encyclopedia of Over 2,300 Leaders, 1945 through 1992, by Harris M. Lentz (Fitzroy Dearborn, 1994) p61
  112. ^ "LBJ, Moved By Plight Of Poor, To Ask Domestic 'Marshall Plan'", The Courier-Journal (Louisville KY), April 25, 1964, p1
  113. ^ Michael L. Gillette, Launching the War on Poverty: An Oral History (Oxford University Press, 2010) p xi
  114. ^ "East Germans Told: Betray All Refugees", Chicago Tribune, April 25, 1964, p1C-6
  115. ^ "It's Legal for You to Own a Gold Bill Now— U.S. Makes Hoarders Honest Again", Chicago Tribune, April 25, 1964, p1C-11
  116. ^ J. Craig Barker, The Protection of Diplomatic Personnel (Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2006) p62
  117. ^ "Quake Topples Peak Into a Uzbek River", Chicago Tribune, April 26, 1964, p5
  118. ^ "Head of Little Mermaid Statue, Long a Landmark Of Copenhagen Port, Is Sawed Off by Vandal", St. Louis Post-Dispatch, April 25, 1964, p1
  119. ^ "Leafs Capture 3d Stanley Cup in Row", Chicago Tribune, April 26, 1964, p2-1
  120. ^ "Elections", in Historical Dictionary of Singapore, by Justin Corfield (Scarecrow Press, 2010) p80
  121. ^ "Zanzibar, Tanganyika Merge", Chicago Tribune, April 26, 1964, p12
  122. ^ "Zanzibar Merges With Tanganyika", The News Journal (Wilmington DE), April 23, 1964, p1
  123. ^ "African Nation Now Tanzania", Tucson (AZ) Daily Citizen, October 30, 1964, p1
  124. ^ "Tanzania", in Africa: An Encyclopedia of Culture and Society, Toyin Falola Ph.D. and Daniel Jean-Jacques, eds. (ABC-CLIO, 2015) p1194
  125. ^ "Archbishop Orders Schools Integrated", Chicago Tribune, April 27, 1964, p1
  126. ^ John C. Skipper, Showdown at the 1964 Democratic Convention: Lyndon Johnson, Mississippi, and Civil Rights (McFarland, 2012) p34
  127. ^ "Celtics Win 6th Title in Row, 105-99", Chicago Tribune, April 27, 1964, p3-1
  128. ^ "Troops Slay Top Colombia Bandit Chief", Chicago Tribune, April 30, 1964, p3
  129. ^ "Eliminado 'Sangrenegra'", El Tiempo (Bogota, Colombia), April 29, 1964, p1
  130. ^ "Johnson Lifts Dogs by Ears— They Yowl, and So Do Experts", Chicago Tribune, April 28, 1964, p1
  131. ^ "Howls of Dog Lovers Ring in Johnson's Ears", Chicago Tribune, April 29, 1964, p1
  132. ^ "Tobacco Men O.K. Code for Cigarette Ads", Chicago Tribune, April 28, 1964, p1
  133. ^ Leon Hollerman, Japanese Dependence on World Economy: An Approach Toward Economic Liberalization (Princeton University Press, 2015) p229
  134. ^ "Bryan, Joseph Francis, Jr.", in The Encyclopedia of Kidnappings, by Michael Newton (Infobase Publishing, 2002) pp42-43
  135. ^ "Seize Killer Suspect with Kidnaped Boy— FBI Finds Child, 8, in New Orleans", Chicago Tribune, April 29, 1964, p1
  136. ^ "Russ Set off Huge Blast to Prevent Flood", Chicago Tribune, April 28, 1964, p12
  137. ^ "Old Abe Wows 'Em at Fair— Then Quits", Chicago Tribune, April 30, 1964, p1
  138. ^ "Motor Vessel Sinks; Report 250 Drowned", Chicago Tribune, April 30, 1964, p1
  139. ^ Hassan-Askari Rizvi, Military, State and Society in Pakistan (Springer, 2000) p109
  140. ^ "New Yorker Named SCME Chief Despite Convention Row", Minneapolis Morning Tribune, May 1, 1964, p5