List of Tour de France general classification winners

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General classification (GC)
at the Tour de France
A man with dark hair stood up riding a bicycle wearing a yellow jersey
Miguel Indurain, winner of five consecutive GC Tour titles from 1991 to 1995.
LocationSince 1975, finished on the Champs-Élysées, Paris, France
DatesJuly annually

This is a list of the Tour de France general classification winners. The Tour de France is an annual road bicycle race held over 23 days in July. Established in 1903 by newspaper L'Auto, the Tour is the most well-known and prestigious of cycling's three "Grand Tours"; the others are the Giro d'Italia and the Vuelta a España.[1] The race usually covers approximately 3,500 kilometres (2,200 mi), passing through France and neighbouring countries such as Belgium.[2] The race is broken into day-long stages. Individual finishing times for each stage are totalled to determine the overall winner at the end of the race. The course changes every year, but has always finished in Paris; since 1975 it has finished along the Champs-Élysées.

The rider with the lowest aggregate time at the end of each day wears the yellow jersey, representing the leader of the general classification. There are other jerseys as well: the green jersey, worn by the leader of the points classification; the polka dot jersey, worn by the leader of the mountains classification; and the white jersey, worn by the leader of the young rider classification.

Jacques Anquetil, Eddy Merckx, Bernard Hinault and Miguel Indurain, have won the most Tours with five each. Indurain is the only man to win five consecutive Tours. Henri Cornet is the youngest winner; he won in 1904, just short of his 20th birthday. Firmin Lambot is the oldest winner, having been 36 years, 4 months old when he won in 1922.[3] French cyclists have won the most Tours; 21 cyclists have won 36 Tours among them. Belgian cyclists are second with 18 victories, and Spanish riders are third with 12 wins.[4] The most recent winner is Slovenian Tadej Pogačar, who won the 2020 Tour.

After it emerged that Lance Armstrong had used performance-enhancing drugs, in October 2012 the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) stripped Armstrong of the seven consecutive Tour general classification titles between 1999 and 2005.[5][6]

History[edit]

The Tour de France was established in 1903 by the newspaper L'Auto, in an attempt to increase its sales. The first race was won by Frenchman Maurice Garin. He won again the next year, but was disqualified after allegations that he had been transported by car or rail arose. Henri Cornet became the winner after the dispute was settled; he is the youngest to win the Tour. Following the scandals in 1904, the scoring system was changed from being time-based to a point-based system, in which the cyclist who has the fewest points at the end of the race is victorious. This system lasted until 1912, when the time-based system was re-introduced. French cyclists were successful in the early Tours; the first non-Frenchman to win the Tour was François Faber of Luxembourg, who won in 1909.[7]

Belgian riders were more successful before and after the First World War (which suspended the Tour from 1915 to 1918). In the 1920s, trade teams dominated the Tour; cyclists such as Nicolas Frantz won the Tour with the Alcyon team. However, when Alcyon cyclist Maurice De Waele won the Tour in 1929 while ill, the organisers decided to introduce national teams the following year, to stop team tactics from undermining the race. Because of the Second World War, the Tour de France was suspended from 1940 to 1946.[8]

A woolen yellow jersey with writing on it
The yellow jersey (French: maillot jaune) of 1963, worn by general classification leader Gilbert Desmet of Wiel's–Groene Leeuw

After the Second World War, no one dominated the Tour until Louison Bobet, who won three consecutive Tours from 1953 to 1955—he was the first person to achieve this feat.[9] This was bettered by the French cyclist Jacques Anquetil, who won four successive Tours from 1961 to 1964. Anquetil, who also won in 1957, became the first to win five Tours.[10] Anquetil's five victories were matched when Belgian cyclist Eddy Merckx won four successive Tours from 1969 to 1972 and the 1974 Tour. Merckx is the only person to have won the general, points and king of the mountains classifications in the same Tour. He achieved this in 1969, when he won his first Tour.[11]

Merckx looked to be heading for a record sixth Tour victory in 1975, but Bernard Thévenet beat him, becoming the first French winner in seven years. Thévenet won again in 1977; however, he was eclipsed in following years by fellow Frenchman Bernard Hinault, who won consecutive Tours in 1978 and 1979. Hinault won the Tour at his first attempt in 1978; becoming one of 11 cyclists (including Anquetil, Merckx, Hugo Koblet and Fausto Coppi) managed to do so.[12] In 1980, Hinault was going for a third consecutive win, but had to pull out because of tendinitis, and the Tour was won by Joop Zoetemelk.[13] Hinault returned in 1981 and won that race as well as the one after that. Hinault sat out the Tour in 1983, and another Frenchman—Laurent Fignon—achieved victory. Fignon won again the following year, beating Hinault; Hinault recovered in 1985 to win his fifth Tour.

American Greg LeMond became the first non-European to win the Tour in 1986. LeMond missed out in 1987 and 1988, but returned in 1989 to win the Tour by finishing eight seconds ahead of Laurent Fignon, the smallest winning margin in the Tour's history. LeMond also won in 1990.[14] In 1991, Spaniard Miguel Indurain won his first Tour. Indurain came to dominate the Tour, winning four more Tours consecutively—making him the first person to win five consecutive Tours.[15] He tried to win a record-high sixth Tour in 1996, but was beaten by Bjarne Riis, who later admitted to using Erythropoietin.[16] Jan Ullrich and Marco Pantani won in 1997 and 1998, respectively; however, Pantani's victory was overshadowed by doping scandals.[17]

The 1999 Tour saw the first victory of Lance Armstrong,[18] which was followed by six more, for a total of seven consecutive victories.[19] He was later stripped of his titles in October 2012, when it emerged he had used performance-enhancing drugs throughout much of his career, including the Tour de France victories.[6] Floyd Landis won the Tour in 2006, but was later stripped of his title, after a drug-control test demonstrated the presence of a skewed testosterone/epitestosterone ratio.[20] Óscar Pereiro was subsequently awarded the victory. Alberto Contador won the 2007 Tour with the Discovery Channel. The 2007 Tour was also marred by doping scandals, thus Contador was unable to defend his title in 2008, as his Astana team was banned for its part in the controversy. Fellow Spaniard Carlos Sastre of Team CSC won.[21] Contador and Astana returned in 2009 to regain the title. He won the Tour again in 2010, but was later stripped of his title after he was found guilty of doping. Runner-up Andy Schleck was awarded the victory.

Cadel Evans became the first Australian to win the Tour in 2011.[22] The following year, Bradley Wiggins became the first British cyclist to win the Tour.[23] Chris Froome became the second successive British winner in 2013, which was the 100th edition of the race.[24] He could not defend his title the following year, as he crashed out in stage 5, with Vincenzo Nibali winning his first Tour.[25] Froome regained the title in 2015 and then successfully defended it in 2016, the first rider in over 20 years to do so.[26] Froome won the Tour for a third consecutive year in 2017.[27] He was unsuccessful in his attempts to win a fourth Tour in Succession in 2018 edition, Froome's teammate, Geraint Thomas, was the winner instead.[28] Thomas was unable to win for a second year in succession in 2019. He finished second behind his teammate Egan Bernal, who became the first Colombian cyclist to win the Tour.[29]

The 2020 Tour was postponed to commence on 29 August, following the French government's extension of a ban on mass gatherings after the worldwide COVID-19 outbreak.[30] This was the first time since the end of World War II that the Tour de France was not held in the month of July.[31]

Winners[edit]

dagger Winner won points classification in the same year
* Winner won mountains classification in the same year
# Winner won young rider classification in the same year
double-dagger Winner won points and mountains classification in the same year
§ Winner won mountains and young rider classification in the same year
  • The "Year" column refers to the year the competition was held, and wikilinks to the article about that season.
  • The "Distance" column refers to the distance over which the race was held.
  • The "Margin" column refers to the margin of time or points by which the winner defeated the runner-up.
  • The "Stage wins" column refers to the number of stage wins the winner had during the race.
Tour de France general classification winners
Year Country Cyclist Sponsor/Team Distance Time/Points Margin Stage wins Stages
in lead
km mi
1903  France Maurice Garin La Française 2,428 1,509 94h 33' 14" + 2h 59' 21" 3 6
1904  France Maurice Garin
 France Henri Cornet[E] Conte 2,428 1,509 96h 05' 55" + 2h 16' 14" 1 3
1905  France Louis Trousselier Peugeot–Wolber 2,994 1,860 35 26 5 10
1906  France René Pottier 4,637 2,881 31 8 5 12
1907  France Lucien Petit-Breton 4,488 2,789 47 19 2 5
1908  France 4,497 2,794 36 32 5 13
1909  Luxembourg François Faber Alcyon–Dunlop 4,498 2,795 37 20 6 13
1910  France Octave Lapize 4,734 2,942 63 4 4 3
1911  France Gustave Garrigou 5,343 3,320 43 18 2 13
1912  Belgium Odile Defraye 5,289 3,286 49 59 3 13
1913  Belgium Philippe Thys Peugeot–Wolber 5,287 3,285 197h 54' 00" + 8' 37" 1 8
1914  Belgium 5,380 3,343 200h 28' 48" + 1' 50" 1 15
1915 Race not held due to World War I and the Spanish flu pandemic
1916
1917
1918
1919  Belgium Firmin Lambot La Sportive 5,560 3,455 231h 07' 15" + 1h 42' 54" 1 2
1920  Belgium Philippe Thys 5,503 3,419 228h 36' 13" + 57' 21" 4 14
1921  Belgium Léon Scieur 5,485 3,408 221h 50' 26" + 18' 36" 2 14
1922  Belgium Firmin Lambot Peugeot–Wolber 5,375 3,340 222h 08' 06" + 41' 15" 0 3
1923  France Henri Pélissier Automoto–Hutchinson 5,386 3,347 222h 15' 30" + 30 '41" 3 6
1924  Italy Ottavio Bottecchia 5,425 3,371 226h 18' 21" + 35' 36" 4 15
1925  Italy 5,440 3,380 219h 10' 18" + 54' 20" 4 13
1926  Belgium Lucien Buysse 5,745 3,570 238h 44' 25" + 1h 22' 25" 2 8
1927  Luxembourg Nicolas Frantz Alcyon–Dunlop 5,398 3,354 198h 16' 42" + 1h 48' 41" 3 14
1928  Luxembourg 5,476 3,403 192h 48' 58" + 50' 07" 5 22
1929  Belgium Maurice De Waele 5,286 3,285 186h 39' 15" +44' 23" 1 16
1930  France André Leducq 4,822 2,996 172h 12' 16" + 14' 13" 2 13
1931  France Antonin Magne France 5,091 3,163 177h 10' 03" + 12' 56" 1 16
1932  France André Leducq 4,479 2,783 154h 11' 49" + 24' 03" 6 19
1933  France Georges Speicher 4,395 2,731 147h 51' 37" + 4' 01" 3 12
1934  France Antonin Magne 4,470 2,778 147h 13' 58" + 27' 31" 3 22
1935  Belgium Romain Maes Belgium 4,338 2,696 141h 23' 00" + 17' 52" 3 21
1936  Belgium Sylvère Maes 4,442 2,760 142h 47' 32" + 26' 55" 4 14
1937  France Roger Lapébie France 4,415 2,743 138h 58' 31" + 7' 17" 3 4
1938  Italy Gino Bartali* Italy 4,694 2,917 148h 29' 12" + 18' 27" 2 8
1939  Belgium Sylvère Maes* Belgium 4,224 2,625 132h 03' 17" + 30' 38" 2 8
1940 Race not held due to World War II
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947  France Jean Robic France 4,642 2,884 148h 11' 25" + 3' 58" 3 1
1948  Italy Gino Bartali* Italy 4,922 3,058 147h 10' 36" + 26' 16" 7 9
1949  Italy Fausto Coppi* 4,808 2,988 149h 40' 49" + 10' 55" 3 5
1950   Switzerland Ferdinand Kübler Switzerland 4,773 2,966 145h 36' 56" + 9' 30" 3 11
1951   Switzerland Hugo Koblet 4,690 2,914 142h 20' 14" + 22' 00" 5 11
1952  Italy Fausto Coppi* Italy 4,898 3,043 151h 57' 20" + 28' 17" 5 14
1953  France Louison Bobet France 4,476 2,781 129h 23' 25" + 14' 18" 2 5
1954  France 4,656 2,893 140h 06' 05" + 15' 49" 3 14
1955  France 4,495 2,793 130h 29' 26" + 4' 53" 2 6
1956  France Roger Walkowiak 4,498 2,795 124h 01' 16" + 1' 25" 0 8
1957  France Jacques Anquetil 4,669 2,901 135h 44' 42" + 14' 56" 4 15
1958  Luxembourg Charly Gaul Luxembourg 4,319 2,684 116h 59' 05" + 3' 10" 4 2
1959  Spain Federico Bahamontes* Spain 4,358 2,708 123h 46' 45" + 4' 01" 1 6
1960  Italy Gastone Nencini Italy 4,173 2,593 112h 08' 42" + 5' 02" 0 14
1961  France Jacques Anquetil France 4,397 2,732 122h 01' 33" + 12' 14" 2 21
1962  France Saint-Raphaël–Helyett–Hutchinson 4,274 2,656 114h 31' 54" + 4' 59" 2 3
1963  France 4,138 2,571 113h 30' 05" + 3' 35" 4 5
1964  France 4,504 2,799 127h 09' 44" + 55" 4 6
1965  Italy Felice Gimondi Salvarani 4,188 2,602 116h 42' 06" + 2' 40" 3 18
1966  France Lucien Aimar Ford France–Hutchinson 4,329 2,690 117h 34' 21" + 1' 07" 0 6
1967  France Roger Pingeon Peugeot–BP–Michelin 4,779 2,970 136h 53' 50" + 3' 40" 1 17
1968  Netherlands Jan Janssen Pelforth–Sauvage–Lejeune 4,492 2,791 133h 49' 42" + 38" 2 1
1969  Belgium Eddy Merckxdouble-dagger Faema 4,117 2,558 116h 16' 02" + 17' 54" 6 18
1970  Belgium Eddy Merckx* Faemino–Faema 4,254 2,643 119h 31' 49" + 12' 41" 8 20
1971  Belgium Eddy Merckxdagger Molteni 3,608 2,242 96h 45' 14" + 9' 51" 4 17
1972  Belgium Eddy Merckxdagger 3,846 2,390 108h 17' 18" + 10' 41" 6 15
1973  Spain Luis Ocaña Bic 4,090 2,541 122h 25' 34" + 15' 51" 6 14
1974  Belgium Eddy Merckx Molteni 4,098 2,546 116h 16' 58" + 8' 04" 8 18
1975  France Bernard Thévenet Peugeot–BP–Michelin 4,000 2,485 114h 35' 31" + 2' 47" 2 8
1976  Belgium Lucien Van Impe Gitane–Campagnolo 4,017 2,496 116h 22' 23" + 4' 14" 1 12
1977  France Bernard Thévenet Peugeot–Esso–Michelin 4,096 2,545 115h 38' 30" + 48" 1 8
1978  France Bernard Hinault Renault–Gitane–Campagnolo 3,908 2,428 108h 18' 00" + 3' 56" 3 3
1979  France Bernard Hinaultdagger 3,765 2,339 103h 06' 50" + 13' 07" 7 17
1980  Netherlands Joop Zoetemelk TI–Raleigh–Creda 3,842 2,387 109h 19' 14" + 6' 55" 2 10
1981  France Bernard Hinault Renault–Elf–Gitane 3,753 2,332 96h 19' 38" + 14' 34" 5 18
1982  France 3,507 2,179 92h 08' 46" + 6' 21" 4 12
1983  France Laurent Fignon# 3,809 2,367 105h 07' 52" + 4' 04" 1 6
1984  France Laurent Fignon 4,021 2,499 112h 03' 40" + 10' 32" 5 7
1985  France Bernard Hinault La Vie Claire 4,109 2,553 113h 24' 23" + 1' 42" 2 16
1986  United States Greg LeMond La Vie Claire 4,094 2,544 110h 35' 19" + 3' 10" 1 7
1987  Ireland Stephen Roche Carrera Jeans–Vagabond 4,231 2,629 115h 27' 42" + 40" 1 3
1988  Spain Pedro Delgado Reynolds 3,286 2,042 84h 27' 53" + 7' 13" 1 11
1989  United States Greg LeMond AD Renting–W-Cup–Bottecchia 3,285 2,041 87h 38' 35" + 8" 3 8
1990  United States Z–Tomasso 3,504 2,177 90h 43' 20" + 2' 16" 0 2
1991  Spain Miguel Indurain Banesto 3,914 2,432 101h 01' 20" + 3' 36" 2 10
1992  Spain 3,983 2,475 100h 49' 30" + 4' 35" 3 10
1993  Spain 3,714 2,308 95h 57' 09" + 4' 59" 2 14
1994  Spain 3,978 2,472 103h 38' 38" + 5' 39" 1 13
1995  Spain 3,635 2,259 92h 44' 59" + 4' 35" 2 13
1996  Denmark Bjarne Riis[A] Team Telekom 3,765 2,339 95h 57' 16" + 1' 41" 2 13
1997  Germany Jan Ullrich# Team Telekom 3,950 2,454 100h 30' 35" + 9' 09" 2 12
1998  Italy Marco Pantani Mercatone Uno–Bianchi 3,875 2,408 92h 49' 46" + 3' 21" 2 7
1999[B]  United States Lance Armstrong U.S. Postal Service Charged by USADA on 24 August 2012 of doping. Stripped of all his results and prizes from 1 August 1998. Armstrong elected to not appeal against the charges.
no winner 3,687 2,291 no winner
2000[B]  United States Lance Armstrong U.S. Postal Service Charged by USADA on 24 August 2012 of doping. Stripped of all his results and prizes from 1 August 1998. Armstrong elected to not appeal against the charges.
no winner 3,662 2,275 no winner
2001[B]  United States Lance Armstrong U.S. Postal Service Charged by USADA on 24 August 2012 of doping. Stripped of all his results and prizes from 1 August 1998. Armstrong elected to not appeal against the charges.
no winner 3,458 2,149 no winner
2002[B]  United States Lance Armstrong U.S. Postal Service Charged by USADA on 24 August 2012 of doping. Stripped of all his results and prizes from 1 August 1998. Armstrong elected to not appeal against the charges.
no winner 3,272 2,033 no winner
2003[B]  United States Lance Armstrong U.S. Postal Service Charged by USADA on 24 August 2012 of doping. Stripped of all his results and prizes from 1 August 1998. Armstrong elected to not appeal against the charges.
no winner 3,427 2,129 no winner
2004[B]  United States Lance Armstrong U.S. Postal Service Charged by USADA on 24 August 2012 of doping. Stripped of all his results and prizes from 1 August 1998. Armstrong elected to not appeal against the charges.
no winner 3,391 2,107 no winner
2005[B]  United States Lance Armstrong Discovery Channel Charged by USADA on 24 August 2012 of doping. Stripped of all his results and prizes from 1 August 1998. Armstrong elected to not appeal against the charges.
no winner 3,593 2,233 no winner
2006  United States Floyd Landis Phonak Found guilty of using synthetic testosterone during the race and stripped him of his title on 20 September 2007
 Spain Óscar Pereiro[C] Caisse d'Epargne–Illes Balears 3,657 2,272 89h 40' 27" + 32" 0 8
2007  Spain Alberto Contador# Discovery Channel 3,570 2,218 91h 00' 26" + 23" 1 4
2008  Spain Carlos Sastre* Team CSC 3,559 2,211 87h 52' 52" + 58" 1 5
2009  Spain Alberto Contador Astana 3,459 2,149 85h 48' 35" + 4' 11" 2 7
2010  Spain Alberto Contador Found guilty of using clenbuterol during the race and stripped him of his title on 6 February 2012
 Luxembourg Andy Schleck#[D] Team Saxo Bank 3,642 2,263 91h 59' 27" + 1' 22" 2 12
2011  Australia Cadel Evans BMC Racing Team 3,430 2,131 86h 12' 22" + 1' 34" 1 2
2012  Great Britain Bradley Wiggins Team Sky 3,496 2,172 87h 34' 47" + 3' 21" 2 14
2013  Great Britain Chris Froome 3,404 2,115 83h 56' 20" + 4' 20" 3 14
2014  Italy Vincenzo Nibali Astana 3,660.5 2,275 89h 59' 06" + 7' 37" 4 19
2015  Great Britain Chris Froome* Team Sky 3,360.3 2,088 84h 46' 14" + 1' 12" 1 16
2016  Great Britain Chris Froome 3,529 2,193 89h 04' 48" + 4' 05" 2 14
2017  Great Britain 3,540 2,200 86h 20' 55" + 54" 0 15
2018  Great Britain Geraint Thomas 3,349 2,081 83h 17' 13" + 1' 51" 2 11
2019  Colombia Egan Bernal# Team Ineos 3,366 2,092 82h 57' 00" + 1' 11" 0 3
2020  Slovenia Tadej Pogačar§ UAE Team Emirates 3,484 2,165 87h 20' 13" + 59" 3 1

Multiple winners[edit]

The following riders have won the Tour de France on 2 or more occasions. Since the retirement of two-time winner Alberto Contador in 2017, the only active rider on the list as of that year is Chris Froome, currently with 4 wins. Contador had originally won three Tours, but was stripped of one following an anti-doping violation.[D]

Lance Armstrong was removed from the head of the list after having all seven of his Tour victories stripped when he was found guilty of repeated doping offences. Had his tainted Tour victories been reallocated (as were the victories of Floyd Landis and Contador) to the second placed rider in each race, Jan Ullrich would have joined the list with 4 Tour wins. However, the race organisers ASO decided not to reallocate the titles won in those years, in recognition of the historic doping problem in the sport at that time - Ullrich himself having been banned for a doping violation. Ullrich, therefore, has a single Tour victory to his name.

Multiple winners of the Tour de France general classification
Cyclist Total Years
 Jacques Anquetil (FRA) 5 1957, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964
 Eddy Merckx (BEL) 5 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1974
 Bernard Hinault (FRA) 5 1978, 1979, 1981, 1982, 1985
 Miguel Indurain (ESP) 5 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995
 Chris Froome (GBR) 4 2013, 2015, 2016, 2017
 Philippe Thys (BEL) 3 1913, 1914, 1920
 Louison Bobet (FRA) 3 1953, 1954, 1955
 Greg LeMond (USA) 3 1986, 1989, 1990
 Lucien Petit-Breton (FRA) 2 1907, 1908
 Firmin Lambot (BEL) 2 1919, 1922
 Ottavio Bottecchia (ITA) 2 1924, 1925
 Nicolas Frantz (LUX) 2 1927, 1928
 André Leducq (FRA) 2 1930, 1932
 Antonin Magne (FRA) 2 1931, 1934
 Sylvère Maes (BEL) 2 1936, 1939
 Gino Bartali (ITA) 2 1938, 1948
 Fausto Coppi (ITA) 2 1949, 1952
 Bernard Thévenet (FRA) 2 1975, 1977
 Laurent Fignon (FRA) 2 1983, 1984
 Alberto Contador (ESP)[D] 2 2007, 2009

By nationality[edit]

Tour de France general classification winners by nationality
Country No. of wins No. of winning cyclists
 France[E] 36 23
 Belgium 18 10
 Spain[D] 12 7
 Italy 10 7
 Great Britain 6 3
 Luxembourg 5 4
 United States[B][C] 3 1
  Switzerland 2 2
 Netherlands 2 2
 Ireland 1 1
 Denmark[A] 1 1
 Germany 1 1
 Australia 1 1
 Colombia 1 1
 Slovenia 1 1

Footnotes[edit]

A. ^ Bjarne Riis has admitted to doping during the 1996 Tour de France. The organizers of the Tour de France have stated that they no longer consider him to be the winner, although Union Cycliste Internationale has so far refused to change the official status owing to the amount of time that has passed since his win. Jan Ullrich was placed second on the podium in Paris.[32]

B. a b c d e f g h Lance Armstrong was declared winner of seven consecutive Tours from 1999 to 2005. However, in October 2012 he was stripped of all titles by the UCI owing to his use of performance-enhancing drugs. The Tour director Christian Prudhomme had previously declared that if this happened, there would be no alternative winners for those years, but this has not yet been made official.[33]

C. a b Floyd Landis was the winner at the podium ceremony in Paris on the last day of the 2006 Tour, but subsequently was found to have tested positive for performance-enhancing drugs during stage 17 of the race. The United States Anti-Doping Agency found him guilty of using synthetic testosterone during the race and stripped him of his title on 20 September 2007.[34]

D. a b c Alberto Contador was the winner at the podium ceremony in Paris on the last day of the 2010 Tour, but subsequently was found to have tested positive for the prohibited substance Clenbuterol on a rest day. The Court of Arbitration for Sport found him guilty of using clenbuterol during the race and stripped him of his title on 6 February 2012.[35]

E. ^ Henri Cornet was declared the winner of 1904 race after the disqualification of Maurice Garin for cheating.

References[edit]

  1. ^ FAQ. Union Cycliste Internationale. Archived from the original on 23 July 2009. Retrieved 17 August 2009.
  2. ^ Dauncey, Hugh; Hare, Geoff (2003). Tour de France: 1903-2003. Routledge. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-7146-5362-4.
  3. ^ Scholiansky, Christopher (6 July 2009). "Will He? Won't He? Can Armstrong Win Tour de France?". American Broadcasting Company. Retrieved 14 August 2009.
  4. ^ "Guide Historique 2017" (PDF). Tour de France. Retrieved 9 October 2017.
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  6. ^ a b "Armstrong stripped of all seven Tour de France wins by UCI". BBC Sport. 22 October 2012. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
  7. ^ "1903–1914: Pioneers and 'assassins'". BBC Sport. 5 June 2001. Retrieved 20 August 2009.
  8. ^ "1930–1939: Adapt to survive". BBC Sport. 5 June 2001. Retrieved 20 August 2009.
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  10. ^ "1957–1966: Anquetil 5–0 Poulidor". BBC Sport. 5 June 2001. Retrieved 20 August 2009.
  11. ^ "1967–1977: Tragedy before a Cannibal's feast". BBC Sport. 5 June 2001. Retrieved 18 August 2009.
  12. ^ "1978–1984: The Badger's golden era". BBC Sport. 5 June 2001. Retrieved 19 August 2009.
  13. ^ Armijo, Vic (1999). The complete idiot's guide to cycling. Alpha Books. p. 28. ISBN 0-02-862929-9.
  14. ^ "1985–1990: American, Irishman and Spaniard". BBC Sport. 5 June 2001. Retrieved 22 August 2009.
  15. ^ "1991–1995: Big Mig's masterclass". BBC Sport. 5 June 2001. Retrieved 22 August 2009.
  16. ^ Duff, Alex (25 May 2007). "Riis, Tour de France Champ, Says He Took Banned Drugs". Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 31 August 2009.
  17. ^ "1996–2000: Doping and the great recovery". BBC Sport. 5 June 2001. Retrieved 22 August 2009.
  18. ^ "Overall standings 2002". BBC Sport. 28 July 2002. Retrieved 20 August 2009.
  19. ^ "Armstrong seals seventh Tour win". BBC Sport. 24 July 2005. Retrieved 20 August 2009.
  20. ^ Macur, Juliet (5 August 2006). "Backup Sample on Landis is positive". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 August 2009.
  21. ^ "Sastre wins Tour de France crown". BBC Sport. 27 July 2008. Retrieved 8 September 2009.
  22. ^ "Tour de France: Cavendish wins historic green jersey". BBC Sport. 24 July 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
  23. ^ "Bradley Wiggins wins Tour de France for Team Sky". BBC Sport. 22 July 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
  24. ^ Thompson, Anna (22 July 2013). "Tour de France:Chris Froome wins 100th edition of race". BBC Sport. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
  25. ^ "Tour de France: Vincenzo Nibali completes race victory". BBC Sport. 27 July 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
  26. ^ "Tour de France 2016: Chris Froome completes third race victory". BBC Sport. 24 July 2016. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
  27. ^ Fletcher, Paul (23 July 2017). "Tour de France 2017: Chris Froome wins yellow jersey for the fourth time". BBC Sport. Retrieved 26 September 2017.
  28. ^ Scrivener, Peter (29 July 2018). "Geraint Thomas wins as Chris Froome finishes third". BBC Sport. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  29. ^ Whittle, Jeremy (29 July 2019). "Egan Bernal rides into history and puts Colombian cycling on the map". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
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