List of U.S. states and territories by African-American population

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The following is a list of U.S. states, territories, and the District of Columbia ranked by the proportion of African Americans in the population.

% Black by state in 2019

By 2019 census estimates[edit]

% African-
American[1]
Rank State or territory African-American
Population (2019)
76.0%[2] 1 United States Virgin Islands Virgin Islands (U.S.) 80,908[2]
47.2% 2  District of Columbia 333,312
38.9% 3  Mississippi 1,156,497
33.5% 4 Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia 3,996,697
33.4% 5  Louisiana 1,554,297
32.2% 6  Maryland 1,946,932
28.0% 7  South Carolina 1,441,530
27.8% 8  Alabama 1,364,474
24.4% 9  Delaware 237,780
23.1% 10  North Carolina 2,424,132
21.3% 11  Virginia 1,820,891
19.1% 12  Puerto Rico 609,279
18.0% 13  Tennessee 1,228,973
17.6% 14 New York (state) New York 3,424,002
17.6% 15  Florida 3,772,874
16.7% 16  Arkansas 502,913
15.4% 17  Illinois 1,951,681
15.3% 18  Michigan 1,528,779
15.1% 19  New Jersey 1,339,574
14.4% 20  Ohio 1,686,729
14.2%  United States of America 46,713,850
13.5% 21  Texas 3,908,287
13.2% 22  Connecticut 470,791
12.9% 23  Missouri 792,197
12.9% 24  Pennsylvania 1,649,737
11.3% 25  Nevada 347,489
11.0% 26  Indiana 740,150
9.0% 27  Massachusetts 684,786
9.6% 28  Rhode Island 101,579
9.5% 29  Kentucky 424,716
9.2% 30  Oklahoma 365,883
8.1% 31  Minnesota 454,116
7.5% 32  Wisconsin 438,719
7.4% 33  Kansas 214,714
7.0% 34  California 2,782,446
6.1% 35  Nebraska 117,408
6.0% 36  Arizona 434,612
5.6% 37 Washington (state) Washington 429,718
5.4% 38  Colorado 313,737
5.2% 39  Iowa 162,710
4.8% 40  West Virginia 86,426
4.7% 41  Alaska 34,639
3.9% 42  North Dakota 30,067
3.5% 43  Hawaii 49,041
3.4% 44  New Mexico 70,254
3.0% 45  South Dakota 26,679
3.0% 46  Oregon 124,502
2.4% 47  Maine 32,313
2.2% 48  New Hampshire 30,557
2.1% 49  Wyoming 12,428
2.1% 50  Vermont 13,042
1.9% 51  Utah 61,766
1.4% 52  Montana 14,608
1.2% 53  Idaho 21,666
1.0%[3] 54  Guam 1,540[3]
0.1%[4] 55  Northern Mariana Islands 55[4]
0.02%[5] 56  American Samoa 13[5]

African-American proportion of state and territory populations (1790–2010)[edit]

African-American % of Population (1790–2010) by U.S. state and territory[6][7][8]
State/Territory 1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2019
United States United States of America 19.3% 18.9% 19.0% 18.4% 18.1% 16.8% 15.7% 14.1% 12.7% 13.1% 11.9% 11.6% 10.7% 9.9% 9.7% 9.8% 10.0% 10.5% 11.1% 11.7% 12.1% 12.3% 12.6% 13.4%
Alabama Alabama 41.4% 29.0% 33.2% 38.5% 43.3% 44.7% 45.4% 47.7% 47.5% 44.8% 45.2% 42.5% 38.4% 35.7% 34.7% 32.0% 30.0% 26.2% 25.6% 25.3% 26.0% 26.2% 26.8%
Alaska Alaska 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 3.0% 3.0% 3.4% 4.1% 3.5% 3.3% 3.8%
American Samoa American Samoa 0.02% 0.04% 0.02%
Arizona Arizona 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 1.5% 1.5% 1.0% 2.4% 2.5% 3.0% 3.5% 3.3% 3.0% 2.8% 3.0% 3.1% 4.1% 5.2%
Arkansas Arkansas 13.0% 11.7% 15.5% 20.9% 22.7% 25.6% 25.2% 26.3% 27.4% 28.0% 28.1% 27.0% 25.8% 24.8% 22.3% 21.8% 18.3% 16.3% 15.9% 15.7% 15.4% 15.7%
California California 1.0% 1.1% 0.8% 0.7% 0.9% 0.7% 0.9% 1.1% 1.4% 1.8% 4.4% 5.6% 7.0% 7.7% 7.4% 6.7% 6.2% 6.5%
Colorado Colorado 0.1% 1.1% 1.3% 1.5% 1.6% 1.4% 1.2% 1.1% 1.1% 1.5% 2.3% 3.0% 3.5% 4.0% 3.8% 4.0% 4.6%
Connecticut Connecticut 2.3% 2.5% 2.6% 2.9% 2.7% 2.6% 2.1% 1.9% 1.8% 1.9% 1.6% 1.7% 1.4% 1.5% 1.8% 1.9% 2.7% 4.2% 6.0% 7.0% 8.3% 9.1% 10.1% 12.2%
Delaware Delaware 21.6% 22.4% 23.8% 24.0% 24.9% 25.0% 22.2% 19.3% 18.2% 18.0% 16.8% 16.6% 15.4% 13.6% 13.7% 13.5% 13.7% 13.6% 14.3% 16.1% 16.9% 19.2% 21.4% 23.2%
Washington, D.C. District of Columbia 30.4% 33.1% 31.2% 30.1% 29.1% 26.6% 19.1% 33.0% 33.6% 32.8% 31.1% 28.5% 25.1% 27.1% 28.2% 35.0% 53.9% 71.1% 70.3% 65.8% 60.0% 50.7% 46.9%
Florida Florida 47.1% 48.7% 46.0% 44.6% 48.8% 47.0% 42.5% 43.7% 41.0% 34.0% 29.4% 27.1% 21.8% 17.8% 15.3% 13.8% 13.6% 14.6% 16.0% 16.9%
Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia 35.9% 37.1% 42.5% 44.4% 42.6% 41.0% 42.4% 44.0% 46.0% 47.0% 46.7% 46.7% 45.1% 41.7% 36.8% 34.7% 30.9% 28.5% 25.9% 26.8% 27.0% 28.7% 30.5% 32.6%
Guam Guam 2.37% 1.02% 0.96%
Hawaii Hawaii 0.2% 0.4% 0.1% 0.2% 0.1% 0.5% 0.8% 1.0% 1.8% 2.5% 1.8% 1.6% 2.2%
Idaho Idaho 0.4% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 0.6% 0.9%
Illinois Illinois 7.4% 6.4% 2.5% 1.5% 0.8% 0.6% 0.4% 1.1% 1.5% 1.5% 1.8% 1.9% 2.8% 4.3% 4.9% 7.4% 10.3% 12.8% 14.7% 14.8% 15.1% 14.5% 14.6%
Indiana Indiana 4.4% 2.6% 1.0% 1.1% 1.0% 1.1% 0.8% 1.5% 2.0% 2.1% 2.3% 2.2% 2.8% 3.5% 3.6% 4.4% 5.8% 6.9% 7.6% 7.8% 8.4% 9.1% 9.9%
Iowa Iowa 0.4% 0.2% 0.2% 0.5% 0.6% 0.6% 0.6% 0.7% 0.8% 0.7% 0.7% 0.8% 0.9% 1.2% 1.4% 1.7% 2.1% 2.9% 4.1%
Kansas Kansas 0.6% 4.7% 4.3% 3.5% 3.5% 3.2% 3.3% 3.5% 3.6% 3.8% 4.2% 4.8% 5.3% 5.8% 5.7% 5.9% 6.1%
Kentucky Kentucky 17.0% 18.6% 20.2% 22.9% 24.7% 24.3% 22.5% 20.4% 16.8% 16.5% 14.4% 13.3% 11.4% 9.8% 8.6% 7.5% 6.9% 7.1% 7.2% 7.1% 7.1% 7.3% 7.8% 8.5%
Louisiana Louisiana 55.2% 51.8% 58.5% 55.0% 50.7% 49.5% 50.1% 51.5% 50.0% 47.1% 43.1% 38.9% 36.9% 35.9% 32.9% 31.9% 29.8% 29.4% 30.8% 32.5% 32.0% 32.8%
Maine Maine 0.6% 0.5% 0.4% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.2% 0.1% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 0.5% 1.2% 1.7%
Maryland Maryland 34.7% 36.7% 38.2% 36.1% 34.9% 32.3% 28.3% 24.9% 22.5% 22.5% 20.7% 19.8% 17.9% 16.9% 16.9% 16.6% 16.5% 16.7% 17.8% 22.7% 24.9% 27.9% 29.4% 31.1%
Massachusetts Massachusetts 1.4% 1.5% 1.4% 1.3% 1.2% 1.2% 0.9% 0.8% 1.0% 1.0% 1.0% 1.1% 1.1% 1.2% 1.2% 1.3% 1.6% 2.2% 3.1% 3.9% 5.0% 5.4% 7.9% 9.0%
Michigan Michigan 3.7% 3.0% 2.1% 0.8% 0.3% 0.6% 0.9% 1.0% 0.9% 0.7% 0.7% 0.6% 1.6% 3.5% 4.0% 6.9% 9.2% 11.2% 12.9% 13.9% 14.2% 14.2% 14.1%
Minnesota Minnesota 0.6% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 0.4% 0.4% 0.5% 0.7% 0.9% 1.3% 2.2% 3.5% 5.2% 7.0%
Mississippi Mississippi 41.5% 47.0% 44.1% 48.4% 52.3% 51.2% 55.3% 53.7% 57.5% 57.6% 58.5% 56.2% 52.2% 50.2% 49.2% 45.3% 42.0% 36.8% 35.2% 35.6% 36.3% 37.0% 37.8%
Missouri Missouri 17.6% 15.9% 18.3% 15.6% 13.2% 10.0% 6.9% 6.7% 5.6% 5.2% 4.8% 5.2% 6.2% 6.5% 7.5% 9.0% 10.3% 10.5% 10.7% 11.2% 11.6% 11.9%
Montana Montana 0.9% 0.9% 1.0% 0.6% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 0.6%
Nebraska Nebraska 0.3% 0.6% 0.5% 0.8% 0.6% 0.6% 1.0% 1.0% 1.1% 1.5% 2.1% 2.7% 3.1% 3.6% 4.0% 4.5% 5.2%
Nevada Nevada 0.7% 0.8% 0.8% 0.5% 0.3% 0.6% 0.4% 0.6% 0.6% 2.7% 4.7% 5.7% 6.4% 6.6% 6.8% 8.1% 10.3%
New Hampshire New Hampshire 0.6% 0.5% 0.5% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 0.6% 0.7% 1.1% 1.8%
New Jersey New Jersey 7.7% 8.0% 7.6% 7.2% 6.4% 5.8% 4.9% 3.8% 3.4% 3.4% 3.3% 3.7% 3.5% 3.7% 5.2% 5.5% 6.6% 8.5% 10.7% 12.6% 13.4% 13.6% 13.7% 15.1%
New Mexico New Mexico 0.0% 0.1% 0.2% 0.8% 1.2% 0.8% 0.5% 1.6% 0.7% 0.9% 1.2% 1.8% 1.9% 1.8% 2.0% 1.9% 2.1% 2.8%
New York (state) New York 7.6% 5.3% 4.2% 2.9% 2.3% 2.1% 1.6% 1.3% 1.2% 1.3% 1.2% 1.4% 1.5% 1.9% 3.3% 4.2% 6.2% 8.4% 11.9% 13.7% 15.9% 15.9% 15.9% 17.6%
North Carolina North Carolina 26.8% 29.4% 32.2% 34.4% 35.9% 35.6% 36.4% 36.4% 36.6% 38.0% 34.7% 33.0% 31.6% 29.8% 29.0% 27.5% 25.8% 24.5% 22.2% 22.4% 22.0% 21.6% 21.5% 22.2%
North Dakota North Dakota 1.0% 0.3% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.4% 0.4% 0.6% 0.6% 1.2% 3.4%
Northern Mariana Islands Northern Mariana Islands 0.06% 0.06% 0.1%
Ohio Ohio 0.5% 0.8% 0.8% 1.0% 1.1% 1.3% 1.6% 2.4% 2.5% 2.4% 2.3% 2.3% 3.2% 4.7% 4.9% 6.5% 8.1% 9.1% 10.0% 10.6% 11.5% 12.2% 13.1%
Oklahoma Oklahoma 8.4% 7.0% 8.3% 7.4% 7.2% 7.2% 6.5% 6.6% 6.7% 6.8% 7.4% 7.6% 7.4% 7.8%
Oregon Oregon 0.5% 0.2% 0.4% 0.3% 0.4% 0.3% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.8% 1.0% 1.3% 1.4% 1.6% 1.6% 1.8% 2.2%
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania 2.4% 2.7% 2.9% 2.9% 2.8% 2.8% 2.3% 2.0% 1.9% 2.0% 2.0% 2.5% 2.5% 3.3% 4.5% 4.7% 6.1% 7.5% 8.6% 8.8% 9.2% 10.0% 10.8% 12.0%
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico 8.0% 10.8%
Rhode Island Rhode Island 6.3% 5.3% 4.8% 4.3% 3.7% 3.0% 2.5% 2.3% 2.3% 2.3% 2.1% 2.1% 1.8% 1.7% 1.4% 1.5% 1.8% 2.1% 2.7% 2.9% 3.9% 4.5% 5.7% 8.5%
South Carolina South Carolina 43.7% 43.2% 48.4% 52.8% 55.6% 56.4% 58.9% 58.6% 58.9% 60.7% 59.8% 58.4% 55.2% 51.4% 45.6% 42.9% 38.8% 34.8% 30.5% 30.4% 29.8% 29.5% 27.9% 27.0%
South Dakota South Dakota 0.0% 0.6% 0.3% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.5% 0.6% 1.3% 2.3%
Tennessee Tennessee 10.6% 13.2% 17.5% 19.6% 21.4% 22.7% 24.5% 25.5% 25.6% 26.1% 24.4% 23.8% 21.7% 19.3% 18.3% 17.4% 16.1% 16.5% 15.8% 15.8% 16.0% 16.4% 16.7% 17.1%
Texas Texas 27.5% 30.3% 31.0% 24.7% 21.8% 20.4% 17.7% 15.9% 14.7% 14.4% 12.7% 12.4% 12.5% 12.0% 11.9% 11.5% 11.8% 12.9%
Utah Utah 0.4% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.4% 0.5% 0.6% 0.6% 0.7% 0.8% 1.1% 1.5%
Vermont Vermont 0.3% 0.4% 0.3% 0.4% 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% 0.5% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.5% 1.0% 1.4%
United States Virgin Islands Virgin Islands (U.S.) 76.62% 76.19% 76.03%
Virginia Virginia 43.4% 44.6% 47.1% 47.8% 47.9% 46.9% 45.0% 43.3% 41.9% 41.8% 38.4% 35.6% 32.6% 29.9% 26.8% 24.7% 22.1% 20.6% 18.5% 18.9% 18.8% 19.6% 19.4% 19.9%
Washington (state) Washington 0.3% 0.9% 0.4% 0.4% 0.5% 0.5% 0.5% 0.4% 0.4% 1.3% 1.7% 2.1% 2.6% 3.1% 3.2% 3.6% 4.4%
West Virginia West Virginia 9.5% 9.8% 11.5% 12.1% 11.2% 9.6% 7.8% 5.6% 4.1% 4.2% 4.3% 4.5% 5.3% 5.9% 6.6% 6.2% 5.7% 4.8% 3.9% 3.3% 3.1% 3.2% 3.4% 3.6%
Wisconsin Wisconsin 1.2% 1.8% 0.6% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.4% 0.4% 0.8% 1.9% 2.9% 3.9% 2.0% 5.7% 6.3% 6.7%
Wyoming Wyoming 2.0% 1.4% 1.5% 1.0% 1.5% 0.7% 0.6% 0.4% 0.9% 0.7% 0.8% 0.7% 0.8% 0.8% 0.8% 1.3%

Free Blacks as a percentage out of the total Black population by U.S. region and U.S. state between 1790 and 1860[edit]

In 1865, all enslaved Blacks (African-Americans) in the United States were emancipated as a result of the Thirteenth Amendment. However, some U.S. states had previously emancipated some or all of their Black population. The table below shows the percentage of free Blacks as a percentage of the total Black population in various U.S. regions and U.S. states between 1790 and 1860 (the blank areas on the chart below mean that there is no data for those specific regions or states in those specific years).

Free Blacks as a percentage of the total Black (African-American) population by U.S. region and U.S. state between 1790 and 1860[9]
State/territory 1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860
 United States 7.9% 10.8% 13.5% 13.2% 13.7% 13.4% 11.9% 11.0%
Northeast 40.1% 56.2% 73.5% 83.7% 97.8% 99.5% 99.8% 100.0%
Midwest 78.7% 52.4% 38.0% 37.7% 34.4% 35.5% 37.6%
South 4.7% 6.7% 8.5% 8.2% 8.4% 8.1% 7.0% 6.3%
West 97.9% 99.4%
 Alabama 4.4% 2.2% 1.3% 1.3% 0.8% 0.7% 0.6%
 Alaska
 Arizona 100.0%
 Arkansas 1.4% 3.5% 3.0% 2.3% 1.3% 0.1%
 California 100.0% 100.0%
 Colorado 100.0%
 Connecticut 50.4% 84.9% 95.4% 98.8% 99.7% 99.8% 100.0% 100.0%
 Delaware 30.5% 57.3% 75.9% 74.2% 82.8% 86.7% 88.8% 91.7%
 District of Columbia 16.2% 30.7% 37.9% 50.5% 66.2% 73.2% 77.8%
 Florida 5.2% 3.1% 2.3% 1.5%
 Georgia 1.3% 1.7% 1.7% 1.2% 1.1% 1.0% 0.8% 0.8%
 Hawaii
 Idaho
 Illinois 41.5% 78.5% 33.3% 68.7% 91.6% 100.0% 100.0%
 Indiana 75.7% 62.4% 86.6% 99.9% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
 Iowa 91.5% 100.0% 100.0%
 Kansas 99.7%
 Kentucky 0.9% 1.8% 2.1% 2.1% 2.9% 3.9% 4.5% 4.5%
 Louisiana 18.0% 13.2% 13.2% 13.1% 6.7% 5.3%
 Maine 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 99.8% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
 Maryland 7.2% 15.6% 23.3% 27.0% 33.9% 40.9% 45.3% 49.1%
 Massachusetts 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
 Michigan 100.0% 83.3% 100.0% 99.6% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
 Minnesota 100.0% 100.0%
 Mississippi 5.0% 1.2% 1.4% 0.8% 0.7% 0.3% 0.2%
 Missouri 17.4% 3.3% 2.2% 2.6% 2.9% 3.0%
 Montana
 Nebraska 81.7%
 Nevada 100.0%
 New Hampshire 79.9% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 99.5% 99.8% 100.0% 100.0%
 New Jersey 19.5% 26.2% 42.0% 62.2% 89.0% 96.9% 99.0% 99.9%
 New Mexico 100.0% 100.0%
 New York 17.9% 33.3% 62.8% 74.4% 99.8% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
 North Carolina 4.7% 5.0% 5.7% 6.7% 7.4% 8.5% 8.7% 8.4%
 North Dakota
 Ohio 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 99.9% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
 Oklahoma
 Oregon 100.0% 100.0%
 Pennsylvania 63.6% 89.5% 96.6% 99.3% 98.9% 99.9% 100.0% 100.0%
 Rhode Island 78.2% 89.7% 97.1% 98.7% 99.5% 99.8% 100.0% 100.0%
 South Carolina 1.7% 2.1% 2.3% 2.6% 2.4% 2.5% 2.3% 2.4%
 South Dakota N/A[a]
 Tennessee 9.6% 2.2% 2.9% 3.3% 3.1% 2.9% 2.6% 2.6%
 Texas 0.7% 0.2%
 Utah 48.0% 50.8%
 Vermont 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
 Virginia 4.1% 5.6% 7.3% 8.2% 9.3% 10.1% 10.2% 10.5%
 Washington 100.0% 100.0%
 West Virginia 11.6% 6.8% 10.5% 8.5% 10.9% 14.1% 13.1% 13.1%
 Wisconsin 100.0% 51.6% 94.4% 100.0% 100.0%
 Wyoming

a^ There were no Blacks at all—either free or enslaved—in South Dakota in 1860.[9]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ https://data.census.gov/cedsci/map?q=population&g=0400000US01,02,04,05,06,08,09,10,11,12,13,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42,44,45,46,47,48,49,50,51,53,54,55,56&tid=ACSDP1Y2019.DP05&hidePreview=false&vintage=2019&layer=VT_2019_040_00_PP_D1&cid=DP05_0065PE&palette=Teal&classification=Natural%20Breaks&mode=thematic
  2. ^ a b https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=DEC_10_VISF_P3&prodType=table Archived 2020-02-12 at Archive.today American FactFinder. Race; Total Population — 2010 U.S. Virgin Islands Summary File. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
  3. ^ a b https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=DEC_10_GUSF_P3&prodType=table Archived 2020-02-14 at Archive.today American FactFinder. Ethnic Origin or Race. Total Population - Guam 2010 Summary File. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
  4. ^ a b https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=DEC_10_MPSF_P3&prodType=table Archived 2020-02-14 at Archive.today American FactFinder. Ethnic Origin or Race. Total population - 2010 Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Summary File. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
  5. ^ a b https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=DEC_10_ASSF_P3&prodType=table Archived 2020-02-14 at Archive.today American FactFinder. Ethnic Origin or Race. Total population — 2010 American Samoa Summary File. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
  6. ^ "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States". Census.gov. Archived from the original on July 25, 2008. Retrieved September 15, 2012.
  7. ^ "Powered by Google Docs". Docs.google.com. Retrieved September 15, 2012.
  8. ^ "Powered by Google Docs". Docs.google.com. Retrieved September 15, 2012.
  9. ^ a b "Population Division Working Paper No. 56" (PDF). Retrieved 2018-08-17.