Parma Baptistery

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The Baptistery of Parma.
The middle of the painted ceiling.

The Baptistery of Parma (Italian: Battistero di Parma) is a religious edifice in Parma, northern Italy. Architecturally, the baptistery of Parma Cathedral marks a transition between the Romanesque and Gothic styles, and it is considered to be among the most important Medieval monuments in Europe.


The city council of Parma commissioned Benedetto Antelami to build the baptistery in 1196. The outside of pink Verona marble is octagonal. The inside contains sixteen arches, forming alcoves each containing a painted scene. All these are 13th and 14th century frescoes and paintings. The most striking part of the Baptistery, however, is its painted domed ceiling. Sixteen rays come out of the center of the ceiling, which each correspond to the arches.

However, problems were posed over time as the paintings were not true frescoes. The paint would start to come off the walls and would be literally hanging on. Due to this, the Baptistery had to be painstakingly consolidated and restored with syringes and spatulas.

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Coordinates: 44°48′11″N 10°19′49″E / 44.80306°N 10.33028°E / 44.80306; 10.33028