Viral Infections - Sepsis Alliance
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Viral Infections

A virus is a tiny agent (germ) that lives inside living cells, or host cells. Viruses need living cells to be able to replicate or reproduce. There are thousands of viruses, some more common than others. For example, the common cold and the flu are viruses, but so are Ebola and HIV. Viral infections that may be minor in normal, healthy individuals can be quite severe for people who have a weakened immune system. Almost any virus can lead to sepsis.

Sometimes called blood poisoning, sepsis is the body’s often deadly response to infection. Sepsis kills and disables millions and requires early suspicion and treatment for survival.

Sepsis and septic shock can result from an infection anywhere in the body, such as pneumonia, influenza, or urinary tract infections. While bacterial infections are the most common cause of sepsis, viral infections can cause sepsis too. Like strokes or heart attacks, sepsis is a medical emergency that requires rapid diagnosis and treatment. Worldwide, one-third of people who develop sepsis die. Many who do survive are left with life-changing effects, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), chronic pain and fatigue, organ dysfunction (organs don’t work properly), and/or amputations.

Examples of viral infections

Viruses “hijack” normal, living cells in your body. They use these cells to replicate and multiply, eventually destroying the host cell – this is what makes you sick. Unlike bacterial infections that respond to antibiotics, viral infections are not so easy to treat. Many, like colds, run their course and your body heals on its own, but others, like HIV, do not.

Some of the more common viruses include:

  • COVID-19, caused by a novel coronavirus
  • Influenza (the flu)
  • HIV, which can lead to AIDS
  • Meningitis (there is also bacterial meningitis)
  • Pneumonia (there is also bacterial pneumonia)
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV)
  • Herpes
  • Rotavirus
  • Chicken pox

Symptoms of viral infections

The signs and symptoms of a viral infection depend on what virus you have and how it affects your body. Here are a few examples:


  • Fever
  • Muscle ache
  • Cough
  • Sore throat
  • Headache


  • Stiff neck
  • Headache
  • Fever
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Rash
  • Sensitivity to light (photophobia)
  • Confusion


Viruses are spread in different ways, depending on the virus. Hepatitis C, a liver disease, is spread through body fluid. On the other hand, influenza can be spread by coming in contact with the virus that has been left behind on an object, like a phone, or through droplets in the air, if someone with the flu sneezes or coughs in front of you. Not all viral infections can be prevented, but you can reduce your risk of contracting a virus in a few ways:

  • Stay up-to-date with all recommended vaccines, even adults (To learn more about vaccines, visit Sepsis Prevention: Vaccinations)
  • Wash your hands frequently
  • Avoid contact with people who are ill
  • Don’t share personal items


For most viruses, treatment is for the symptoms, such as using over-the-counter pain relievers to ease pain and reduce fever, rest for fatigue, etc., until the virus is gone. But the viruses themselves are not easy to treat. For example, treatment for hepatitis C, a liver disease, involves a strict medication regimen that can take from several weeks up to a few months before the virus is cleared from your body. Other viruses don’t have a cure, but there are medications that may speed healing if they are taken early enough after your exposure to the virus. These include medications for influenza and shingles (herpes zoster). Medications for other viruses, such as HIV, keep the virus in check, but aren’t a cure. They can prevent the virus from replicating and causing more damage.


Sometimes, people who have viral infections, such as influenza, can develop severe bacterial infections, in addition to the viral infection. For example, influenza and other respiratory viral illnesses, could lead to pneumonia.

If you suspect sepsis, call 9-1-1 or go to a hospital and tell your medical professional, “I AM CONCERNED ABOUT SEPSIS.” 

Would you like to share your story about sepsis or read about others who have had sepsis? Please visit Faces of Sepsis, where you will find hundreds of stories from survivors and tributes to those who died from sepsis.

Updated June 10, 2021.