Cyprus (Greek Κύπρος, Turkish Kıbrıs, ) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Turkey. After Sicily and Sardinia, Cyprus is the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. Although the island is geographically in Asia it is politically and culturally a European country and is a member of the European Union.
Cyprus is historically and culturally a Greek island, was first inhabited by the Mycenaean Greeks from around 1400 B.C., then was conquiered by Alexander the Great, and much later on, the Ottomans controlled most of its territory. It was later moved to Venetian, Ottoman control then gained it its independence from the United Kingdom in 1960. Despite a constitution which guaranteed a degree of power-sharing between the Greek Cypriot majority and the Turkish Cypriot minority, the two populations – with backing from the governments of Greece and Turkey, respectively, clashed in 1963/4 and 1974, with the end result being control of the northern and eastern 37% of the island by Turkey. In 1983, the Turkish-held area declared independence as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. So far, only Turkey recognizes the TRNC, while all other governments and the United Nations recognize only the government of the Republic of Cyprus over the whole island. The UN operates a peacekeeping force and a narrow buffer zone between the two Cypriot ethnic groups. Fortunately, open hostilities have been absent for some time, as the two sides (now with the growing involvement of the European Union) gradually inch towards a reunification of some sort.
Subtropical Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters in the lowlands. Continental with warm, dry summers and cold, snowy winters in the mountains.
Central plain with mountains to north and south; scattered but significant plains along southern coast.
Cyprus is divided into 6 administrative regions, each named for its administrative capital. Since 1974, the whole of Kyrenia district, most of Famagusta district, and the northern portion of Nicosia district are occupied by the Turkish army. The Greek Cypriots where forced to move out those areas. The Republic of Cyprus administers the following districts:
The United Kingdom retains two small Overseas Territories on the area of the Republic of Cyprus, called Akrotiri and Dhekelia, comprised of a few parts of villages and two military bases.
Cypriot cities have a variety of historical spellings and writings, all in fairly common use, and which change according to the context, whether it be Greek Cypriot, Turkish or English tourist. The following list emphasizes traditional English spellings, that will most often be encountered by the traveller.
Cyprus is a member of the Schengen Agreement but has not yet fully implemented it. For EU and EFTA (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway) citizens, together with those of Switzerland, an officially approved ID card (or a passport) is sufficient for entry. In no case will they need a visa for a stay of any length. Others will generally need a passport for entry.
Travel to/from any other country (Schengen or not) from/to Cyprus will (as of now) result in the normal immigration checks, but travelling to/from another EU country you will not have to pass customs. However, if Cyprus normally requires a visa for your nationality, this may be waived if you already have a valid Schengen visa.
Inquire at your travel agent or call the local consulate or embassy of Cyprus.
The visa list is already consistent with those of the Schengen countries fully implementing the agreement.
Only the nationals of the following non-EEA countries do not need a visa for entry into the Schengen Area: Albania*, Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Bahamas, Barbados, Bosnia and Herzegovina*, Brazil, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Columbia, Costa Rica, Dominica, El Salvador, Georgia_(country), Grenada, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Japan, Kiribati, Macedonia*, Malaysia, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Mexico, Micronesia, Monaco, Montenegro*, Nauru, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Palau, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Serbia*/**, Seychelles, Singapore, South Korea, Switzerland, Taiwan*** (Republic of China), Timor-Leste, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United States, Uruguay, Vatican City, Vanuatu, Venezuela, additionally persons holding British National (Overseas), Hong Kong SAR or Macau SAR passports.
These non-EU/EFTA visa-free visitors may not stay more than 90 days in a 180 day period in the Schengen Area as a whole and, in general, may not work during their stay (although some Schengen countries do allow certain nationalities to work - see below). The counter begins once you enter any country in the Schengen Area and is not reset by leaving a specific Schengen country for another Schengen country, or vice-versa. However, Australian and New Zealand citizens may be able to stay for more than 90 days if they only visit particular Schengen countries—see the New Zealand Government's explanation.
However, all British Overseas Territories citizens except those solely connected to the Cyprus Sovereign Base Areas are eligible for British citizenship and thereafter unlimited access to the Schengen Area.
Further note that
(*) nationals of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia need a biometric passport to enjoy visa-free travel,
(**) Serbian nationals with passports issued by the Serbian Coordination Directorate (residents of Kosovo with Serbian passports) do need a visa and
(***) Taiwan nationals need their ID number to be stipulated in their passport to enjoy visa-free travel.
Cyprus' main airport is Larnaca International Airport (LCA) and is on the outskirts of Larnaka.
The previous main international airport located SW of Nicosia is now located on the Green Line separating the Greek and Turkish parts of Cyprus - it has been out of use since 1974.
Cyprus is serviced by a variety of different carriers. There are flight connections with most major European cities, e.g. Athens, London, Birmingham, Manchester, Frankfurt, Paris, Amsterdam, Rome, Milan) and many Eastern European countries. There are also connections to almost all Middle Eastern capitals. There are no flights to Turkey from the south.
There is a frequent and cheap (€1.50) public bus connection from the airport into central Larnaca, but it is poorly indicated. The bus stop is at the departure hall level (upstairs) on the left side at the first lane. It shows a sign with a series of three digit bus numbers. Most buses stops at "Finikoudes", at the beach in Larnaca where buses to other destinations in Cyprus leave (see "getting around" section).
There is also a direct Larnaca Airport - Nicosia, Nicosia - Larnaca Airport Bus service provided by Kapnos Airport Shuttle. The journey takes around 30-45min (depending on the traffic and the hour), and a one way ticket costs €8 per person. There are bus routes throughout the night.
There is also in airport in the southwest of the island, near the city of Paphos. Its main carrier is Ryanair and it thus serves low-priced flights to destinations in Europe. There are also lots of cheap flights into Ercan International Airport, which lies in the northern part of the island, all going via Turkey.
Occasional ferries connect Cyprus to Greece. Services to Israel and Egypt have been terminated for the time being; however, there are 2 and 3 day cruises running in the summer months from about April to October and they take passengers one way between Israel and Cyprus. These mini cruises also run to Syria, Lebanon, Rhodes, the Greek Islands, The Black Sea and The Adriatic.
The ferry service from Greece runs from Piraeus, Rhodes and Ayios Nikolaos in Crete to Limassol. See the itinerary here: You may also catch a freighter from Italy, Portugal, Southampton and various other European ports. See Grimaldi Freighter Cruises providing you with the opportunity to bring a vehicle to Cyprus throughout the year.
Travelling to and from the north
Prior to Cyprus's accession to European Union, evidence of entry to Northern Cyprus resulted in denial of entry to the Greek part of Cyprus at the very least. After the accession, and according to EU legislation that considers Cyprus to have been admitted in full, an entry to the Turkish part is formally an entry to whole Cyprus and must therefore not result in any disadvantage to travellers from the EU. Travellers from non-EU member states (as, for instance, Turkish citizens) must enter the island via one of the legal entry points (ie entry points in the Southern part of the island) in order to visit the Southern part.
The Cyprus embassy in Washington on the phone (June 2006) when asked if the border is open to US citizens, didn't give a 'No', but said that they recommend entering from the legal points in the Greek side. Different entities and web pages claim different things. But there are recent (2012) examples of people entering Northern Cyprus from Turkey, crossing the border without any problems, although it was noticed when leaving Cyprus.
The main crossings between the south and north are:
In 2017, crossing the green line is very simple. Passports or ID cards are simply scanned, with no stamping taking place
For EU citizens, an ID card is sufficient to visit the North and allows you to enter and leave as often as you like. This makes Nicosia well worth visiting, as the best shops and restaurants are in the southern part of Nicosia but the most historic sights are in north Nicosia. The contrast between the two halves of the city is an experience in itself.
Crossing UK bases territory
GoogleMap services traces roads and motorways from Limassol to Paphos through UK Episkopi military base. In practice UK-owned territories are situated outside mentioned roads which are regulated by Cyprus authorities. No document in addition to Cyprus entry required and no check-in performed. Approximate boundaries of UK-controlled territories could be accessed with OpenStreetMap.
Public transport in Cyprus has been revamped with all new buses in Nicosia. Still, most Cypriots drive. There are no railways in Cyprus.
There is a comprehensive network of bus routes all over Cyprus. Use Cyprus By Bus to plan your journey using buses in Cyprus. Additionally, the relatively recent smartphone app "Pame" is very useful for bus routes whilst you're on the move, as routes are not supported in Google Maps.
Whilst many Cypriots speak English at least to a basic level, do not be surprised if bus drivers (particularly on the metropolitan routes) speak little or no English at all. The fare on a metropolitan bus is generally around €1.50, whilst intercity buses are €4-5, and you should expect to pay for both in cash.
Airport Shuttle services from Larnaca and Paphos airports to Nicosia and Limassol 
On the Turkish side, buses are more frequent (and smaller). In Nicosia, they depart from stops at the street north of the northern gate. Prices are similar to prices on the Greek side of Cyprus. Beware that return tickets may not be valid on all buses on the Turkish side.
Taxis can be hailed from a number of locations at any time, but are usually most prominent around transport hubs in the major cities, such as Solomos Square in Nicosia and Finikoudes in Larnaca. Many drivers are also willing to hand out their business card for you to call them on demand or book a pickup in advance. Be aware that some drivers will try to take advantage of you and charge an inflated fare instead of running the meter, especially if you appear flustered or lost. However, this behaviour has been mostly curbed in recent years as ride-sharing apps in Cyprus like Bolt have gained popularity and drivers are forced to charge fair meter prices to compete.
Services run every half-hour or so from 06:00 or 07:00 in the morning, but terminate at 17:00 or 18:00 on the dot. They can be invaluable when you’re on a tight schedule and there are few bus connections per day. You can book a taxi to pick you up anywhere and ask to be dropped off anywhere in city limits; the flip side is that it will often take you longer to get in or out of the city than the journey itself! Figure on GBP4-6 for a taxi ride on any of these, with an increased price on Sundays and holidays. Also known as a service taxi.
The largest - some websites say only - service taxi company is TravelExpress 
Car hire is the easiest (but the most expensive) way to get around the island. Cypriots drive on the left side of the road, in keeping with most Commonwealth practice. However, driving standards are poor. Drivers attack their art with an equal mix of aggressiveness and incompetence and view road rules as mere guidelines. Some main roads do not even have road markings and people often sound their horn, especially in Nicosia. During later hours be cautious at intersections, as it is popular practice to run red lights when it is dark and there is little traffic on the road. Take care when crossing the roads, and even greater care when driving on them.
Bicycle road network is well-established and quite popular between major coastal cities. Bicycling on motorways marked with 'A' letter is prosecuted.
Mountain bikers have the opportunity to experience exciting mountain routes while staying overnight in traditional agrohotels in the mountain regions of Troodos, in villages of Pitsilia region, such as Agros, Kyperounda, Pelendri Potamitissa
English is widely spoken by locals of all ages to varying degrees of fluency - partially because of previous British rule and partially due to the tourism industry. English is less widely spoken in the north. However, one will encounter monolingual Greek speakers and Turkish speakers in rural areas in both parts of the island, especially in the north and most of whom are elderly.
Other common languages spoken on the island are Russian, French and German.
Cyprus has the euro (€) as its sole currency along with 24 other countries that use this common European money. These 24 countries are: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain (official euro members which are all European Union member states) as well as Andorra, Kosovo, Monaco, Montenegro, San Marino and the Vatican which use it without having a say in eurozone affairs and without being European Union members. Together, these countries have a population of more than 330 million.
One euro is divided into 100 cents. While each official euro member (as well as Monaco, San Marino and Vatican) issues its own coins with a unique obverse, the reverse, as well as all bank notes, look the same throughout the eurozone. Every coin is legal tender in any of the eurozone countries.
In Northern Cyprus, the "official" currency is the Turkish lira. Euros are widely accepted in Northern tourist centres, but typically at a 2,5/1 ratio while official course is 2,75/1 (Apr 2015). There are many ATMs in the North too. Cash exchange in South Cyprus bank is subject of 3,5% commission.
Things to buy
Best time for shopping is from 10am to 4pm otherwise shops could easily be found closed. Generally cheapest prices could be found in big cities. Kiosks usually don't sell bread and vegetables.
Pharmacies in Cyprus are open from 8am to 6:30pm with lunch break from 1:30pm to 3pm on Monday, Tuesday, Thursday and Friday. On Wednesday and Saturday pharmacies are closed after lunch break. Overnight pharmacies are obliged to be open until 10pm and be reachable by phone until 8am of the next morning, although in fact owners usually keep pharmacies open all the night. Overnight pharmacies change daily, you can always find pharmacies that are currently on duty on http://cyprus-pharmacies.com/.
Cypriot cuisine is heavily influenced by Turkish, Greek and Mediterranean cuisines.
Turkish Cypriots do not eat pork due to their religious beliefs.
Here are a few common dishes
Tap water is generally potable in the large cities, but tends to be quite hard. It is recommended to filter the tap water for a better taste or to buy bottled water from the supermarket.
The drinking age in Cyprus is 17 but the legal age to purchase alcohol is 18.
There are countless hotels and hotel apartments of varying degrees of luxury within Cyprus.
Alternative self-catering accommodation is offered in restored traditional houses in picturesque villages all over Cyprus through the government Agrotourism initiative. Popular agrotourism holiday destinations can be found in the Troodos Mountains.
Cyprus' climate and natural advantages mean that there is always a steady supply of travellers seeking employment and residency on the island. Perhaps the biggest change that has occurred in recent years has been the accession of Cyprus to the European Union on 1 May 2004, opening up new employment opportunities for European citizens.
The burgeoning Cypriot tourism industry, however, means that there is a huge seasonal demand for temporary workers of most nationalities during the summer months, with a definite preference for English-speaking workers in order to service the very large numbers of British tourists. The Greek Cypriot South remains the best overall bet for jobs, as the South is where the majority of the tourist trade is located. The Turkish North is much harder to get work in as a traveller, as the local economy is in a precarious position and high local unemployment means competition for work is fierce.
Seasonal employment will most probably involve working in one of the countless bars, hotels and resort complexes of the South. Such work is usually poorly paid, but accommodation is often thrown in as some compensation and the Cypriot lifestyle usually makes up for low wages. Many holiday companies employ 'reps' (representatives) and marketing staff to assist their operations on the island - this work is usually more financially rewarding.
Teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL) is another worthwhile option, well paid though often difficult to find.
Finally, Cyprus' ongoing construction boom in tourism infrastructure results in a demand for skilled builders and tradesmen.
If you are considering an extended stay on the island, there are a number of educational courses that you can take. Popular options include Greek language courses and arts courses. Most will have a tuition fee attached, and EU nationals should not have any visa problems. If you are from outside the EU, you will need to speak to individual colleges/organisations about visa requirements. Some popular travel and learn programmes include:
In order to find long-term accommodation, you may also do well to contact one of the licensed real estate agents on the island, such as City Living Real Estate . Steer clear of unlicensed agents in Cyprus, as these dangerous companies cannot offer any legal protection for rental tenants or prospective property purchasers in the event of trouble.
Beware that Greek Cyprus celebrates Easter on different dates than Western Europe, in most years. In contrast to Western Europe, in the Orthodox church Easter is considered more important than Christmas. On Easter Sunday, many musea etc. are closed, and buses run reduced services in some places even until Easter Tuesday. The Turkish side celebrates Bayram and Eid al-Fitr which causes many stores and places to close. It is similar to a bank holiday.
Portable gas tank for EN521/EN417 stoves could be purchased in every supermarket or minimarket for €1-2,5 depending on their size. Extreme sports and camping shops do not sell them.
Cyprus is a remarkably safe country, with very little violent crime. However, it is wise to be careful when accepting drinks from strangers, especially in Paphos, since there have been numerous occasions of muggings.
Note also that the numerous Cypriot "cabarets" are not what their name implies but rather brothels associated with organized crime.
It is best to avoid discussion of the various merits of the Greek-Turkish divide and events beginning in 1963 in some quarters. This includes questions about things like the large "TRNC" flag painted on the Kyrenia Mountains, and if you feel conversation about such things is absolutely necessary be aware of your audience (Turkish or Greek Cypriot), and broach the topic carefully without exclaiming anything particularly negative or positive. Any disrespect of Archbishop Makarios will be looked down upon. It is useful to note that support of local football (soccer) teams is often guided by political standing, so it is wise to take note of anyone who appears to be a particularly avid fan before espousing any political opinions as you may offend them.
Greek Cypriots are generally extrovert, friendly and hospitable people, but some are less fond of foreigners, a sentiment driven by extensive migration over the last decade. As such, some attempts at using common Greek words like "Ευχαριστώ" (Thank you), or "Καλημέρα" (Good morning) in conversation, will be warmly appreciated or at the very least soften the disposition of those more wary. Generally avoid using commonly heard phrases like "Μαλακα" (Similar to wanker) to address anyone other than a friend, or directing "Σκάσε" (Shut up) at a stranger or someone you don't know well. However, many young Greek Cypriots will find a foreigner using these words as part of telling a story humorous, especially those with good English skills.
Like any other place, respect is reciprocal, so if you treat Cypriots with respect they will usually return the favour.