List of WLAN channels

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WLAN (wireless local area network) channels are frequently accessed using IEEE 802.11 protocols, and equipment that does so is sold mostly under the trademark Wi-Fi. Other equipment also accesses the same channels, such as Bluetooth. The radio frequency (RF) spectrum is vital for wireless communications infrastructure.

The 802.11 standard provides several distinct radio frequency ranges for use in Wi-Fi communications: 900 MHz, 2.4 GHz, 3.6 GHz, 4.9 GHz, 5 GHz, 5.9 GHz, 6 GHz and 60 GHz bands.[1][2][3][4] Each range is divided into a multitude of channels. In the standards, channels are numbered at 5 MHz spacing within a band (except in the 60 GHz band, where they are 2.16 GHz apart), and the number linearly relates to the centre frequency of the channel. Although channels are numbered at 5 MHz spacing, transmitters generally occupy at least 20 MHz, and standards allow for channels to be bonded together to form wider channels for higher throughput.A

Countries apply their own regulations to the allowable channels, allowed users and maximum power levels within these frequency ranges. The ISM band ranges are also often used.[5]

900 MHz (802.11ah)[edit]

802.11ah operates in sub-gigahertz unlicensed bands. Each world region supports different sub-bands, and the channels number depends on the starting frequency of the sub-band it belongs to. Thus, there is no global channels numbering plan, and the channels numbers are incompatible between world regions (and even between sub-bands of a same world region).

The following sub-bands are defined in the 802.11ah specifications:

Region Subband
(MHz)
Bandwidths
(MHz)
Australia 915–920 1, 2, 4
920–928 1, 2, 4, 8
China 755–779 1
779–787 1, 2, 4, 8
Europe 863–868 1, 2
Japan 916.5–927.5 1
Korea 917.5–923.5 1, 2, 4
New
Zealand
915–924 1, 2, 4, 8
924–928 1, 2, 4
Singapore 866–869 1, 2
920–925 1, 2, 4
Taiwan 839–848.5 1, 2, 4
United
States[6]
902–904 1, 2
904–920 1, 2, 4, 8, 16
920–928 1, 2, 4, 8

2.4 GHz (802.11b/g/n/ax)[edit]

Fourteen channels are designated in the 2.4 GHz range, spaced 5 MHz apart from each other except for a 12 MHz space before channel 14.[7]

Channel F0 (MHz) Frequency
Range
(MHz)
North
America
[8]

Japan
[8]
Most of
world
[8][9][10][11]
[12][13][14][15]
01 2412 2401–2423 Yes Yes Yes
02 2417 2406–2428 Yes Yes Yes
03 2422 2411–2433 Yes Yes Yes
04 2427 2416–2438 Yes Yes Yes
05 2432 2421–2443 Yes Yes Yes
06 2437 2426–2448 Yes Yes Yes
07 2442 2431–2453 Yes Yes Yes
08 2447 2436–2458 Yes Yes Yes
09 2452 2441–2463 Yes Yes Yes
10 2457 2446–2468 Yes Yes Yes
11 2462 2451–2473 Yes Yes Yes
12 2467 2456–2478 NoB except CAN Yes Yes
13 2472 2461–2483 NoB Yes Yes
14 2484 2473–2495 No 11b onlyC No

Nations apply their own RF emission regulations to the allowable channels, allowed users and maximum power levels within these frequency ranges. Network operators should consult their local authorities as these regulations may be out of date as they are subject to change at any time. Most of the world will allow the first thirteen channels in the spectrum.

To guarantee no interference in any circumstances the Wi‑Fi protocol requires 16.25 to 22 MHz of channel separation (as shown below). The remaining 2 MHz gap is used as a guard band to allow sufficient attenuation along the edge of the band. This guardband is mainly used to accommodate older routers with modem chipsets prone to full channel occupancy, as most modern Wi‑Fi modems are not prone to excessive channel occupancy. In 22 MHz channel width situations, there is 3 MHz free/unused spectrum between NON-overlapping channels, this is not called guard band but channel spacing.

Graphical representation of overlapping 20 MHz channels within the 2.4 GHz band

While overlapping frequencies can be configured at a location and will usually work, it can cause interference resulting in slowdowns, sometimes severe, particularly in heavy use. Certain subsets of frequencies can be used simultaneously at any one location without interference (see diagrams for typical allocations):

Most countries Graphical representation of Wireless LAN channels in 2.4 GHz band.
North America Graphical representation of Wireless LAN channels in 2.4 GHz band.

However, the exact spacing required when the transmitters are not colocated depends on the protocol, the data rate selected, the distances and the electromagnetic environment where the equipment is used.[16]

The overall effect is that if there is considerable overlap between adjacent channels transmitters they will often interfere with each other. However, using every fourth or fifth channel by leaving three or four channels clear between used channels can cause less interference than sharing channels, and narrower spacing still can be used at further distances.[17][16]

As shown in the diagram, bonding two 20 MHz channels to form a 40 MHz channel is permitted in the 2.4 GHz bands. These are generally referred to by the centres of the primary 20 MHz channel and the adjacent secondary 20 MHz channel (e.g 1+5, 9+13, 13-9, 5-1). The primary 20 MHz channel is used for signalling and backwards compatibility, the secondary is only used when sending data at full speed.

3.65 GHz (802.11y)[edit]

Except where noted, all information taken from Annex J of IEEE 802.11y-2008

This range is documented as only being allowed as a licensed band in the United States.

A 40 MHz band is available from 3655 to 3695 MHz. It may be divided into eight 5 MHz channels, four 10 MHz channels, or two 20 MHz channels, as follows:

Designation Center
(MHz)
Span
5 MHz 10 MHz 20 MHz
131 3657.5 3655–3660
3660 3655–3665
132 3662.5 3660–3665
3665 3655–3675
133 3667.5 3665–3670
3670 3665–3675
134 3672.5 3670–3675
135 3677.5 3675–3680
3680 3675–3685
136 3682.5 3680–3685
3685 3675–3695
137 3687.5 3685–3690
3690 3685–3695
138 3692.5 3690–3695

4.9–5.0 GHz (802.11j) WLAN[edit]

In Japan, 100 MHz of spectrum from 4900 MHz to 5000 MHz can be used for both indoor and outdoor connection starting from 2002 [registration needed]. Originally, another spectrum 5030–5091 MHz was also available for use, however, it has been re-purposed and cannot be used after 2017.[18]

50 MHz of spectrum from 4940 MHz to 4990 MHz (WLAN channels 20–26) are in use by public safety entities in the United States. Within this spectrum there are two non-overlapping channels allocated, each 20 MHz wide. The most commonly used channels are 22 and 26.

5 GHz (802.11a/h/j/n/ac/ax)[edit]

Channel Center
Frequency
(MHz)
Frequency
Range
(MHz)
10
MHz
20
MHz
40
MHz
80
MHz
160
MHz
United
States
FCC
U-NII Band(s)
United
States
[19]
Canada
[20][21]
Europe
[22][23][24][25][26][27]
Russia
[28]
Japan
[29][30]
India
[citation needed]
Singa-
pore
[31][32]
Mainland China
[33]
Israel
[12]
Korea
[34][35]
Turkey
[36]
Australia
[13]
South Africa
[37]
Brazil
[14]
Taiwan
[38]
New
Zealand
[39]
Bahrain
[40]
Vietnam
[41]
Indonesia[42]
7 5035 5030–5040 10 No No No N/A No No No No No Un­known No No No No No No No No No No No No No
8 5040 5030–5050 20 No No No N/A No No No No No Un­known No No No No No No No No No No No No No
9 5045 5040–5050 10 No No No N/A No No No No No Un­known No No No No No No No No No No No No No
11 5055 5050–5060 10 No No No N/A No No No No No Un­known No No No No No No No No No No No No No
12 5060 5050–5070 20 No No No N/A No No No No No Un­known No No No No No No No No No No No No No
16 5080 5070–5090 20 No No No N/A No No No No No Un­known No No No No No No No No No No No No No
32 5160 5150–5170 20 No No U-NII-1 Yes Indoors Indoors/TPC or [note 1] [note 2] Indoors/TPC or [note 3] Indoors Yes Yes No Indoors Indoors Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Indoors Un­known Un­known Yes Indoors Indoors Indoors Indoors
34 5170 5150–5190 40 No No U-NII-1 Yes Indoors Indoors/TPC or [note 1] [note 2] Indoors/TPC or [note 3] Indoors Indoors Yes No Indoors Indoors Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Indoors Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Indoors Yes Indoors Indoors Indoors Indoors
36 5180 5170–5190 20 U-NII-1 Yes Indoors Indoors/TPC or [note 1] [note 2] Indoors/TPC or [note 3] Indoors Indoors Yes Yes Indoors Indoors Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Indoors Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Indoors Yes Indoors Indoors Indoors Indoors
38 5190 5170–5210 40 U-NII-1 Yes Indoors Indoors/TPC or [note 1] [note 2] Indoors/TPC or [note 3] Indoors Indoors Yes Yes Indoors Indoors Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Indoors Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Indoors Yes Indoors Indoors Indoors Indoors
40 5200 5190–5210 20 U-NII-1 Yes Indoors Indoors/TPC or [note 1] [note 2] Indoors/TPC or [note 3] Indoors Indoors Yes Yes Indoors Indoors Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Indoors Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Indoors Yes Indoors Indoors Indoors Indoors
42 5210 5170–5250 80 U-NII-1 Yes Indoors Indoors/TPC or [note 1] [note 2] Indoors/TPC or [note 3] Indoors Indoors Yes Indoors Indoors Indoors Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Indoors No No Yes Indoors Indoors Indoors Indoors
44 5220 5210–5230 20 U-NII-1 Yes Indoors Indoors/TPC or [note 1] [note 2] Indoors/TPC or [note 3] Indoors Indoors Yes Yes Indoors Indoors Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Indoors Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Indoors Yes Indoors Indoors Indoors Indoors
46 5230 5210–5250 40 U-NII-1 Yes Indoors Indoors/TPC or [note 1] [note 2] Indoors/TPC or [note 3] Indoors Indoors Yes Yes Indoors Indoors and [note 4] Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Indoors Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Indoors Yes Indoors Indoors Indoors Indoors
48 5240 5230–5250 20 U-NII-1 Yes Indoors Indoors/TPC or [note 1] [note 2] Indoors/TPC or [note 3] Indoors Indoors Yes Yes Indoors Indoors and [note 4] Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Indoors Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Indoors Yes Indoors Indoors Indoors Indoors
50 5250 5170–5330 160 U-NII-1 and U-NII-2A DFS/TPC or [note 5] DFS/TPC or [note 5] Indoors/DFS
/TPC or [note 1] [note 2]
Indoors/TPC or [note 3] Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Indoors DFS/TPC or [note 3] No Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 3]
Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 3]
No No DFS DFS/TPC or [note 3] Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 3]
DFS/TPC No
52 5260 5250–5270 20 U-NII-2A DFS/TPC or [note 5] DFS/TPC or [note 5] Indoors/DFS
/TPC or [note 1] [note 2]
Indoors/TPC or [note 3] Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Indoors DFS/TPC or [note 3] DFS/TPC Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 3]
DFS/TPC Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 3]
Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Indoors DFS DFS/TPC or [note 3] Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 3]
DFS/TPC Indoors
54 5270 5250–5290 40 U-NII-2A DFS/TPC or [note 5] DFS/TPC or [note 5] Indoors/DFS
/TPC or [note 1] [note 2]
Indoors/TPC or [note 3] Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Indoors DFS/TPC or [note 3] DFS/TPC Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 3]
DFS/TPC Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 3]
Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Indoors DFS DFS/TPC or [note 3] Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 3]
DFS/TPC Indoors
56 5280 5270–5290 20 U-NII-2A DFS/TPC or [note 5] DFS/TPC or [note 5] Indoors/DFS
/TPC or [note 1] [note 2]
Indoors/TPC or [note 3] Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Indoors DFS/TPC or [note 3] DFS/TPC Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 3]
DFS/TPC Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 3]
Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Indoors DFS DFS/TPC or [note 3] Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 3]
DFS/TPC Indoors
58 5290 5250–5330 80 U-NII-2A DFS/TPC or [note 5] DFS/TPC or [note 5] Indoors/DFS
/TPC or [note 1] [note 2]
Indoors/TPC or [note 3] Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Indoors DFS/TPC or [note 3] Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 3]
DFS/TPC Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 3]
No No DFS DFS/TPC or [note 3] Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 3]
DFS/TPC Indoors
60 5300 5290–5310 20 U-NII-2A DFS/TPC or [note 5] DFS/TPC or [note 5] Indoors/DFS
/TPC or [note 1] [note 2]
Indoors/TPC or [note 3] Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Indoors DFS/TPC or [note 3] DFS/TPC Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 3]
DFS/TPC Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 3]
Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Indoors DFS DFS/TPC or [note 3] Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 3]
DFS/TPC Indoors
62 5310 5290–5330 40 U-NII-2A DFS/TPC or [note 5] DFS/TPC or [note 5] Indoors/DFS
/TPC or [note 1] [note 2]
Indoors/TPC or [note 3] Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Indoors DFS/TPC or [note 3] DFS/TPC Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 3]
DFS/TPC Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 3]
Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Indoors DFS DFS/TPC or [note 3] Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 3]
DFS/TPC Indoors
64 5320 5310–5330 20 U-NII-2A DFS/TPC or [note 5] DFS/TPC or [note 5] Indoors/DFS
/TPC or [note 1] [note 2]
Indoors/TPC or [note 3] Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Indoors DFS/TPC or [note 3] DFS/TPC Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 3]
DFS/TPC Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 3]
Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Indoors DFS DFS/TPC or [note 3] Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 3]
DFS/TPC Indoors
68 5340 5330–5350 20 No No No U-NII-2A DFS/TPC or [note 5] DFS/TPC or [note 5] Indoors/DFS
/TPC or [note 1] [note 2]
Indoors/TPC or [note 3] Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Yes DFS/TPC or [note 3] Un­known Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 3]
DFS/TPC Indoors/DFS/
TPC
Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 3]
Un­known Un­known DFS DFS/TPC or [note 3] Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 3]
DFS/TPC Indoors
96 5480 5470–5490 20 No No No U-NII-2C DFS/TPC or [note 5] DFS/TPC or [note 5] DFS/TPC or [note 6] [note 7] No DFS/TPC Yes DFS/TPC Un­known Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 5][note 8]
DFS/TPC DFS/TPC DFS/TPC or [note 5] Un­known Un­known DFS DFS/TPC or [note 5] No DFS/TPC or [note 5] No
100 5500 5490–5510 20 U-NII-2C DFS/TPC or [note 5] DFS/TPC or [note 5] DFS/TPC or [note 6] [note 7] No DFS/TPC Yes DFS/TPC No Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 5][note 8]
DFS/TPC DFS/TPC DFS/TPC or [note 5] Yes DFS DFS DFS/TPC or [note 5] No DFS/TPC or [note 5] No
102 5510 5490–5530 40 U-NII-2C DFS/TPC or [note 5] DFS/TPC or [note 5] DFS/TPC or [note 6] [note 7] No DFS/TPC Un­known DFS/TPC No Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 5][note 8]
DFS/TPC DFS/TPC DFS/TPC or [note 5] Yes DFS DFS DFS/TPC or [note 5] No DFS/TPC or [note 5] No
104 5520 5510–5530 20 U-NII-2C DFS/TPC or [note 5] DFS/TPC or [note 5] DFS/TPC or [note 6] [note 7] No DFS/TPC Un­known DFS/TPC No Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 5][note 8]
DFS/TPC DFS/TPC DFS/TPC or [note 5] Yes DFS DFS DFS/TPC or [note 5] No DFS/TPC or [note 5] No
106 5530 5490–5570 80 U-NII-2C DFS/TPC or [note 5] DFS/TPC or [note 5] DFS/TPC or [note 6] [note 7] No DFS/TPC Un­known DFS/TPC No Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 5][note 8]
DFS/TPC DFS/TPC DFS/TPC or [note 5] No No DFS DFS/TPC or [note 5] No DFS/TPC or [note 5] No
108 5540 5530–5550 20 U-NII-2C DFS/TPC or [note 5] DFS/TPC or [note 5] DFS/TPC or [note 6] [note 7] No DFS/TPC Un­known DFS/TPC No Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 5][note 8]
DFS/TPC DFS/TPC DFS/TPC or [note 5] Yes DFS DFS DFS/TPC or [note 5] No DFS/TPC or [note 5] No
110 5550 5530–5570 40 U-NII-2C DFS/TPC or [note 5] DFS/TPC or [note 5] DFS/TPC or [note 6] [note 7] No DFS/TPC Un­known DFS/TPC No Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 5][note 8]
DFS/TPC DFS/TPC DFS/TPC or [note 5] Yes DFS DFS DFS/TPC or [note 5] No DFS/TPC or [note 5] No
112 5560 5550–5570 20 U-NII-2C DFS/TPC or [note 5] DFS/TPC or [note 5] DFS/TPC or [note 6] [note 7] No DFS/TPC Un­known DFS/TPC No Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 5][note 8]
DFS/TPC DFS/TPC DFS/TPC or [note 5] Yes DFS DFS DFS/TPC or [note 5] No DFS/TPC or [note 5] No
114 5570 5490–5650 160 U-NII-2C DFS/TPC or [note 5] No DFS/TPC or [note 6] [note 7] No DFS/TPC Un­known DFS/TPC No Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 5][note 8]
DFS/TPC DFS/TPC DFS/TPC or [note 5] No No DFS DFS/TPC or [note 5] No DFS/TPC or [note 5] No
116 5580 5570–5590 20 U-NII-2C DFS/TPC or [note 5] DFS/TPC or [note 5] DFS/TPC or [note 6] [note 7] No DFS/TPC Un­known DFS/TPC No Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 5][note 8]
DFS/TPC DFS/TPC DFS/TPC or [note 5] Yes DFS DFS DFS/TPC or [note 5] No DFS/TPC or [note 5] No
118 5590 5570–5610 40 U-NII-2C DFS/TPC or [note 5] No DFS/TPC or [note 6] [note 7] No DFS/TPC Un­known DFS/TPC No Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 5][note 8]
DFS/TPC DFS/TPC No DFS DFS DFS DFS/TPC or [note 5] No DFS/TPC or [note 5] No
120 5600 5590–5610 20 U-NII-2C DFS/TPC or [note 5] No DFS/TPC or [note 6] [note 7] No DFS/TPC Un­known DFS/TPC No Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 5][note 8]
DFS/TPC DFS/TPC No Yes DFS DFS DFS/TPC or [note 5] No DFS/TPC or [note 5] No
122 5610 5570–5650 80 U-NII-2C DFS/TPC or [note 5] No DFS/TPC or [note 6] [note 7] No DFS/TPC Un­known DFS/TPC No Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 5][note 8]
DFS/TPC DFS/TPC No No No DFS DFS/TPC or [note 5] No DFS/TPC or [note 5] No
124 5620 5610–5630 20 U-NII-2C DFS/TPC or [note 5] No DFS/TPC or [note 6] [note 7] No DFS/TPC Un­known DFS/TPC No Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 5][note 8]
DFS/TPC DFS/TPC No Yes DFS DFS DFS/TPC or [note 5] No DFS/TPC or [note 5] No
126 5630 5610–5650 40 U-NII-2C DFS/TPC or [note 5] No DFS/TPC or [note 6] [note 7] No DFS/TPC Un­known DFS/TPC No Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 5][note 8]
DFS/TPC DFS/TPC No Yes DFS DFS DFS/TPC or [note 5] No DFS/TPC or [note 5] No
128 5640 5630–5650 20 U-NII-2C DFS/TPC or [note 5] No DFS/TPC or [note 6] [note 7] No DFS/TPC Un­known DFS/TPC No Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 5][note 8]
DFS/TPC DFS/TPC No Yes DFS DFS DFS/TPC or [note 5] No DFS/TPC or [note 5] No
132 5660 5650–5670 20 No U-NII-2C DFS/TPC or [note 5] DFS/TPC or [note 5] DFS/TPC or [note 6] [note 7] Indoors/TPC or [note 3] DFS/TPC Un­known DFS/TPC No Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 5][note 8]
DFS/TPC DFS/TPC DFS/TPC or [note 5] Yes DFS DFS DFS/TPC or [note 5] No DFS/TPC or [note 5] No
134 5670 5650–5690 40 No U-NII-2C DFS/TPC or [note 5] DFS/TPC or [note 5] DFS/TPC or [note 6] [note 7] Indoors/TPC or [note 3] DFS/TPC Un­known DFS/TPC No Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 5][note 8]
DFS/TPC DFS/TPC DFS/TPC or [note 5] Yes DFS DFS DFS/TPC or [note 5] No DFS/TPC or [note 5] No
136 5680 5670–5690 20 No U-NII-2C DFS/TPC or [note 5] DFS/TPC or [note 5] DFS/TPC or [note 6] [note 7] Indoors/TPC or [note 3] DFS/TPC Un­known DFS/TPC No Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 5][note 8]
DFS/TPC DFS/TPC DFS/TPC or [note 5] Yes DFS DFS DFS/TPC or [note 5] No DFS/TPC or [note 5] No
138 5690 5650–5730 80 No U-NII-2C and U-NII-3 DFS/TPC or [note 5] DFS/TPC or [note 5] DFS/TPC or [note 6] [note 7] + SRD (25 mW) Indoors/TPC or [note 3] DFS/TPC Un­known DFS/TPC No Indoors/DFS/
TPC or[note 5][note 8]
DFS/TPC No DFS/TPC or [note 5] No No DFS DFS/TPC or [note 5] No DFS/TPC or [note 5] No
140 5700 5690–5710 20 No U-NII-2C DFS/TPC or [note 5] DFS/TPC or [note 5] DFS/TPC or [note 6] [note 7] Indoors/TPC or [note 3] DFS/TPC Un­known DFS/TPC No Indoors[note 9] DFS/TPC DFS/TPC DFS/TPC or [note 5] Yes DFS DFS DFS/TPC or [note 5] No DFS/TPC or [note 5] No
142 5710 5690–5730 40 No U-NII-2C and U-NII-3 DFS/TPC or [note 5] DFS/TPC or [note 5] DFS/TPC or [note 6] [note 7] + SRD (25 mW) Indoors/TPC or [note 3] DFS/TPC Un­known DFS/TPC No Indoors[note 9] DFS/TPC No DFS/TPC or [note 5] No No DFS DFS/TPC or [note 5] No DFS/TPC or [note 5] No
144 5720 5710–5730 20 No U-NII-2C and U-NII-3 DFS/TPC or [note 5] DFS/TPC or [note 5] DFS/TPC or [note 6] [note 7] + SRD (25 mW) Indoors/TPC or [note 3] DFS/TPC Indoors DFS/TPC No Indoors[note 9] DFS/TPC No DFS/TPC or [note 5] No No DFS DFS/TPC or [note 5] No DFS/TPC or [note 5] No
149 5745 5735–5755 20 U-NII-3 Yes Yes SRD (25 mW)[43] Indoors/TPC or [note 3] No Indoors Yes Yes Indoors[note 9] Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes DFS/TPC/
Fixed
Yes Yes
151 5755 5735–5775 40 U-NII-3 Yes Yes SRD (25 mW)[43] Indoors/TPC or [note 3] No Indoors Yes Yes Indoors[note 9] Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes DFS/TPC/
Fixed
Yes Yes
153 5765 5755–5775 20 U-NII-3 Yes Yes SRD (25 mW)[43] Indoors/TPC or [note 3] No Indoors Yes Yes Indoors[note 9] Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes DFS/TPC/
Fixed
Yes Yes
155 5775 5735–5815 80 U-NII-3 Yes Yes SRD (25 mW)[43] Indoors/TPC or [note 3] No Indoors Yes Indoors Indoors[note 9] Yes No Yes No No Yes Yes DFS/TPC/
Fixed
Yes Yes
157 5785 5775–5795 20 U-NII-3 Yes Yes SRD (25 mW)[43] Indoors/TPC or [note 3] No Indoors Yes Yes Indoors[note 9] Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes DFS/TPC/
Fixed
Yes Yes
159 5795 5775–5815 40 U-NII-3 Yes Yes SRD (25 mW)[43] Indoors/TPC or [note 3] No Indoors Yes Yes Indoors[note 9] Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes DFS/TPC/
Fixed
Yes Yes
161 5805 5795–5815 20 U-NII-3 Yes Yes SRD (25 mW)[43] Indoors/TPC or [note 3] No Indoors Yes Yes Indoors[note 9] Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes DFS/TPC/
Fixed
Yes Yes
163 5815 5735–5895 160 U-NII-3 and U-NII-4 Indoors[44] No No No No No No No Indoors[note 9] No No No No No No No No No No
165 5825 5815–5835 20 U-NII-3 Yes Yes SRD (25 mW)[43] Indoors/TPC or [note 3] No Indoors Yes Yes Indoors[note 9] Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes DFS/TPC/
Fixed
Yes No
167 5835 5815–5855 40 U-NII-3 and U-NII-4 Indoors[44] No SRD (25 mW)[43] No No Yes No No Indoors[note 9] No No No No No No No No No No
169 5845 5835–5855 20 U-NII-4 Indoors[44] No SRD (25 mW)[43] No No Yes No No Indoors[note 9] No No No No No No No No No No
171 5855 5815–5895 80 U-NII-3 and U-NII-4 Indoors[44] No SRD (25 mW)[43] No No Yes No No Indoors[note 9] No No No No No No No No No No
173 5865 5855–5875 20 U-NII-4 Indoors[44] No SRD (25 mW)[43] No No Yes No No Indoors[note 9] No No No No No No No No No No
175 5875 5855–5895 40 U-NII-4 Indoors[44] No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
177 5885 5875–5895 20 U-NII-4 Indoors[44] No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
180 5900 5895–5905 10
182 5910 5905–5915 10 No No No N/A No No No No registration needed Un­known No No No No No No No No No No No No No
183 (proposed) 5915 5905–5925 20 No No No N/A No No No No registration needed Un­known No No No No No No No No No No No No No
184 5920 5915–5925 10 No No No N/A No No No No registration needed Un­known No No No No No No No No No No No No No
187 5935 5930–5940 10 No No No N/A No No No No registration needed Un­known No No No No No No No No No No No No No
188 5940 5930–5950 20 No No No N/A No No No No registration needed Un­known No No No No No No No No No No No No No
189 5945 5940–5950 10 No No No N/A No No No No registration needed Un­known No No No No No No No No No No No No No
192 5960 5950–5970 20 No No No N/A No No No No registration needed Un­known No No No No No No No No No No No No No
196 5980 5970–5990 20 No No No N/A No No No No registration needed Un­known No No No No No No No No No No No No No
Channel Center
Frequency
(MHz)
Frequency
Range
(MHz)
10
MHz
20
MHz
40
MHz
80
MHz
160
MHz
United States
FCC
U-NII Band(s)
United States Canada Europe Russia Japan India Singapore Mainland China Israel Korea Turkey Australia South Africa Brazil Taiwan New Zealand Bahrain Vietnam Indonesia
Notes:
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Transmit power / Power density: Max. 200 mW e.i.r.p. Max. 10 mW/MHz e.i.r.p. density in any 1 MHz band. WAS/RLANs operating in the band 5250 - 5350 MHz shall either employ transmitter power control (TPC), which provides, on average, a mitigation factor of at least 3 dB on the maximum permitted output power of the systems; or if transmitter power control is not in use, the maximum permitted e.i.r.p. and the corresponding e.i.r.p. density limits shall be reduced by 3 dB. Type of Antenna: integral or dedicated. Max. 25 mW e.i.r.p. (5150 - 5250 MHz) inside cars for RLAN use. RLAN use inside cars (passenger cars, lorries, buses) in the band 5150-5250 MHz is allowed at a maximum e.i.r.p. of 25 mW. EN 301 893 / ECC/DEC/(04)08 / ERC/REC 70-03, Annex A.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Channel access and occupation rules: WAS/RLANs operating in the band 5250 - 5350 MHz shall use mitigation techniques that give at least the same protection as the detection, operational and response requirements described in EN 301 893 to ensure compatible operation with radiodetermination systems (radars). Such mitigation techniques shall equalise the probability of selecting a specific channel for all available channels so as to ensure, on average, a near-uniform spread of spectrum loading. The equipment shall implement an adequate spectrum sharing mechanism in order to facilitate sharing between the various technologies and applications. The adequate spectrum sharing mechanism can be e.g. LBT (Listen Before Talk), DAA (Detect And Avoid) or any other mechanism providing a similar level of mitigation. EN 301 893 / ECC/DEC/(04)08 / ERC/REC 70-03, Annex A.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz limited to 100 mW instead of 200 mW without TPC
  4. ^ a b limited to power density of 2.5mW/MHz
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej limited to 500 mW instead of 1 W without TPC
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Transmit power / Power density: Max. 1 W e.i.r.p. Max. 50 mW/MHz e.i.r.p. density in any 1 MHz band. WAS/RLANs operating in the band 5470 - 5725 MHz shall either employ transmitter power control (TPC), which provides, on average, a mitigation factor of at least 3 dB on the maximum permitted output power of the systems; or if transmitter power control is not in use, the maximum permitted e.i.r.p. and the corresponding e.i.r.p. density limits shall be reduced by 3 dB. Type of Antenna: integral or dedicated. EN 301 893 / ECC/DEC/(04)08 /-.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Channel access and occupation rules: WAS/RLANs operating in the bands 5470 - 5725 MHz shall use mitigation techniques that give at least the same protection as the detection, operational and response requirements described in EN 301 893 to ensure compatible operation with radiodetermination systems (radars). Such mitigation techniques shall equalise the probability of selecting a specific channel for all available channels so as to ensure, on average, a near-uniform spread of spectrum loading. The equipment shall implement an adequate spectrum sharing mechanism in order to facilitate sharing between the various technologies and applications. The adequate spectrum sharing mechanism can be e.g. LBT (Listen Before Talk), DAA (Detect And Avoid) or any other mechanism providing a similar level of mitigation. EN 301 893 / ECC/DEC/(04)08 /-.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t limited to power density of 14dBm/MHz instead of 17dBm/MHz without TPC
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p limited to power density of 10dBm/MHz, limited to 25 mW
Caption
Text Meaning
Yes MAY be used without restrictions.
No SHOULD NOT be used.
Indoors MUST be used indoor only.
DFS MUST be used with DFS regardless indoor or outdoor.
SRD MUST comply with SRD requirements regardless indoor or outdoor.
Indoors/DFS MUST be used with DFS and indoor only.
Indoors/TPC MUST be used with TPC and indoor only.
DFS/TPC MUST be used with DFS and TPC.
DFS/TPC + SRD MUST be used with DFS, TPC and comply with SRD requirements.
Indoors/DFS/TPC MUST be used with DFS, TPC and indoor only.
registration needed MUST be used only after registration.
Un­known Information not available or defined.
Notes: RFC 2119, RFC 854

United States[edit]

Source:[45]

In 2007, the FCC (United States) began requiring that devices operating in the bands of 5.250–5.350 GHz and 5.470–5.725 GHz must employ dynamic frequency selection (DFS) and transmit power control (TPC) capabilities. This is to avoid interference with weather-radar and military applications.[46] In 2010, the FCC further clarified the use of channels in the 5.470–5.725 GHz band to avoid interference with TDWR, a type of weather radar system.[47] In FCC parlance, these restrictions are now referred to collectively as the "Old Rules". On 10 June 2015, the FCC approved a "new" ruleset for 5 GHz device operation (called the "New Rules"), which adds 160 and 80 MHz channel identifiers, and re-enables previously prohibited DFS channels, in Publication Number 905462.[48] This FCC publication eliminates the ability for manufacturers to have devices approved or modified under the Old Rules in phases; the New Rules apply in all circumstances as of 2 June 2016.[48]

Source:[49] "To help meet the increasing demand for Wi-Fi and other unlicensed services, the FCC’s new rules will make 45 megahertz of the 5.9 GHz band available for unlicensed use. This spectrum’s impact will be further amplified by the fact that it is adjacent to an existing Wi-Fi band which, when combined with the 45 megahertz made available today, will support cutting edge broadband applications. These high-throughput channels—up to 160 megahertz wide—will enable gigabit Wi-Fi connectivity for schools, hospitals, small businesses, and other consumers. The Report and Order adopts technical rules to enable full-power indoor unlicensed operations in the lower 45 megahertz portion of the band immediately, as well as opportunities for outdoor unlicensed use on a coordinated basis under certain circumstances. Under the new rules, ITS services will be required to vacate the lower 45 megahertz of the band within one year."

Germany[edit]

Germany requires DFS and TPC capabilities on 5.250–5.350 GHz and 5.470–5.725 GHz as well; in addition, the frequency range 5.150–5.350 GHz is allowed only for indoor use, leaving only 5.470–5.725 GHz for outdoor and indoor use.[50]

Since this is the German implementation of EU Rule 2005/513/EC, similar regulations must be expected throughout the European Union.[51][52]

European standard EN 301 893 covers 5.15–5.725 GHz operation, and as of 23 May 2017 v2.1.1 has been adopted.[53]

Austria[edit]

Austria adopted Decision 2005/513/EC directly into national law.[54] The same restrictions as in Germany apply, only 5.470–5.725 GHz is allowed to be used outdoor and indoor.

South Africa[edit]

Source for South Africa: [37][failed verification]

Japan[edit]

Japan's use of 10 and 20 MHz-wide 5 GHz wireless channels is codified by Association of Radio Industries and Businesses (ARIB) document STD-T71, Broadband Mobile Access Communication System (CSMA).[55] Additional rule specifications relating to 40, 80, and 160 MHz channel allocation has been taken on by Japan's Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC).[56]

Brazil[edit]

In Brazil, the TPC use in 5.150–5.725 GHz band is optional. DFS is required only in the 5.470–5.725 GHz band.[57]

Australia[edit]

As of 2015, some of the Australian channels require DFS to be utilised (a significant change from the 2000 regulations, which allowed lower power operation without DFS).[13] As per AS/NZS 4268 B1 and B2, transmitters designed to operate in any part of 5250–5350 MHz and 5470–5725 MHz bands shall implement DFS in accordance with sections 4.7 and 5.3.8 and Annex D of ETSI EN 301 893 or alternatively in accordance with FCC paragraph 15.407(h)(2). Also as per AS/NZS 4268 B3 and B4, transmitters designed to operate in any part of 5250–5350 MHz and 5470–5725 MHz bands shall implement TPC in accordance with sections 4.4 and 5.3.4 of ETSI EN 301 893 or alternatively in accordance with FCC paragraph 15.407(h)(1).

New Zealand[edit]

New Zealand regulation differs from Australian.[58]

Singapore[edit]

Singapore regulatory – IMDA requires DFS and TPC capabilities on 5.250–5.350 GHz above 100 mW EIRP and below or equal to 200 mW EIRP, requires DFS capability on 5.250–5.350 GHz below or equal to 100 mW EIRP, and requires DFS and TPC capabilities on 5.470–5.725 below or equal to 1000 mW EIRP. Operating 5.725–5.850 GHz above 1000 mW and below or equal to 4000 mW EIRP shall be approved on exceptional basis.[32]

South Korea[edit]

In South Korea, the Ministry of Science and ICT has public notices. 신고하지 아니하고 개설할 수 있는 무선국용 무선설비의 기술기준, Technical standard for radio equipment for radio stations that can be opened without reporting. They allowed 160 MHz channel bandwidth from 2018-6-27. [59]

China[edit]

China MIIT expanded allowed channels as of 31 December 2012 to add UNII-1, 5150–5250 GHz, UNII-2, 5250–5350 GHz (DFS/TPC), similar to European standards EN 301.893 V1.7.1.[60] China MIIT expanded allowed channels as of 3 July 2017 to add UNII-3, 5725―5850 MHz. [61]

Indonesia[edit]

Indonesia allows use of frequency of 5.150–5.250 GHz and 5.250–5.350 GHz for indoors use with maximum EIRP of 200 mW and frequency of 5.725–5.825 GHz with maximum EIRP of 4000 mW for outdoors and 200 mW for indoors.[42]

5.9 GHz (802.11p)[edit]

The 802.11p amendment published on 15 July 2010, specifies WLAN in the licensed band of 5.9 GHz (5.850–5.925 GHz).

6 GHz (802.11ax)[edit]

United States[edit]

On 23 April 2020, the FCC voted on and ratified a Report and Order[62][4] to allocate 1.2 GHz of unlicensed spectrum in the 6 GHz band (5.925–7.125 GHz) for Wi-Fi use.

The Wi-Fi Alliance has introduced the term "Wi-Fi 6E" to identify and certify Wi-Fi devices that support this new band. Channel numbers will be defined by the IEEE's 802.11ax task group.

Channel Center
Frequency
(MHz)
Frequency
Range
(MHz)
20
MHz
40
MHz
80
MHz
160
MHz
United
States
FCC
U-NII Band(s)
United States
1 5955 5945-5965 20 40 80 160 U-NII-5 Yes
5 5975 5965–5985 20 U-NII-5 Yes
9 5995 5985-6005 20 40 U-NII-5 Yes
13 6015 6005-6025 20 U-NII-5 Yes
17 6035 6025-6045 20 40 80 U-NII-5 Yes
21 6055 6045-6065 20 U-NII-5 Yes
25 6075 6065-6085 20 40 U-NII-5 Yes
29 6095 6085-6105 20 U-NII-5 Yes
33 6115 6105-6125 20 40 80 160 U-NII-5 Yes
37 6135 6125-6145 20 U-NII-5 Yes
41 6155 6145-6165 20 40 U-NII-5 Yes
45 6175 6165-6185 20 U-NII-5 Yes
49 6195 6185-6205 20 40 80 U-NII-5 Yes
53 6215 6205-6225 20 U-NII-5 Yes
57 6235 6225-6245 20 40 U-NII-5 Yes
61 6255 6245-6265 20 U-NII-5 Yes
65 6275 6265-6285 20 40 80 160 U-NII-5 Yes
69 6295 6285-6305 20 U-NII-5 Yes
73 6315 6305-6325 20 40 U-NII-5 Yes
77 6335 6325-6345 20 U-NII-5 Yes
81 6355 6345-6365 20 40 80 U-NII-5 Yes
85 6375 6365-6385 20 U-NII-5 Yes
89 6395 6385-6405 20 40 U-NII-5 Yes
93 6415 6405-6425 20 U-NII-5 Yes
Channel Center
Frequency
(MHz)
Frequency
Range
(MHz)
20
MHz
40
MHz
80
MHz
160
MHz
United States
FCC
U-NII Band(s)
United States

Low-power indoor (LPI) operation[edit]

USA 6 GHz low-power indoor channels
Band 20 MHz 40 MHz 80 MHz 160 MHz
U-NII-5 24 12 6 3
U-NII-6 5 2.5 1.25 0.5
U-NII-7 17.5 8.75 4.25 2.25
U-NII-8 12.5 5.75 2.5 1.25
TOTAL 59 29 14 7

Note: Partial channels indicate channels that span UNII boundaries, which is permitted in 6 GHz LPI operation. Under the proposed channel numbers, the U-NII-7/U-NII-8 boundary is spanned by channels 185 (20 MHz), 187 (40 MHz), 183 (80 MHz), and 175 (160 MHz). The U-NII-6/U-NII-7 boundary is spanned by channels 115 (40 MHz), 119 (80 MHz), and channel 111 (160 MHz).

For use in indoor environments, access points are limited to a maximum EIRP of 30 dBm and a maximum power spectral density of 5 dBm/MHz. They can operate in this mode on all four U-NII bands (5,6,7,8) without the use of automatic frequency coordination. To help ensure they are used only indoors, these types of access points are not permitted to be connectorized for external antennas, weather-resistant, or run on battery power.[4]: 41 

Standard power[edit]

USA 6 GHz standard-power channels
Band 20 MHz 40 MHz 80 MHz 160 MHz
U-NII-5 24 12 6 3
U-NII-6 Not allowed
U-NII-7 17 8 3 1
U-NII-8 Not Allowed
TOTAL 41 20 9 4

Standard power access points are permitted indoors and outdoors at a maximum EIRP of 36 dBm in the U-NII-5 and U-NII-7 sub-bands with automatic frequency coordination (AFC).

Very-low-power devices[edit]

The FCC will issue a ruling in the future on a third class of very low power devices such as hotspots and short-range applications.

Client devices[edit]

Clients are limited to 24 dB below the power of the access point.[citation needed]

Europe[edit]

The European Commission is expected to rule on 6 GHz in early 2021. It is currently expected that EU regulations will permit operation only in the band from 5925 to 6425 MHz (corresponding to the US U-NII-5 band) by low-power indoor and very-low-power devices. [63]

EU 6 GHz Channels
Band 20 MHz 40 MHz 80 MHz 160 MHz
5925–6425 MHz 24 12 6 3

United Kingdom[edit]

The UK's OFCOM is expected to generally mirror EU regulations.[64]

60 GHz (802.11ad/ay)[edit]

The 802.11ad/ay, also known as WiGig. This operates in the 60 GHz V band ISM band.

Channel Center (GHz) Min. (GHz) Max. (GHz) BW (GHz)
1 58.32 57.24 59.40 2.16
2 60.48 59.40 61.56
3 62.64 61.56 63.72
4 64.80 63.72 65.88
5 66.96 65.88 68.04
6 69.12 68.04 70.20
9 59.40 57.24 61.56 4.32
10 61.56 59.40 63.72
11 63.72 61.56 65.88
12 65.88 63.72 68.04
13 68.04 65.88 70.20
17 60.48 57.24 63.72 6.48
18 62.64 59.40 65.88
19 64.80 61.56 68.04
20 66.96 63.72 70.02
25 61.56 57.24 65.88 8.64
26 63.72 59.40 68.04
27 65.88 61.56 70.20

Most original 802.11ad based chipset products only use channels 1–4.

There are some exceptions to this channel scheme. For example, IgniteNet (manufacturer of 60 GHz PtP and PtMP products) incorporate an option for eight 1.08GHz wide "half channels" (channels 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, and 4.5).

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

^A In the 2.4 GHz bands bonded 40 MHz channels are uniquely named by the primary and secondary 20 MHz channels, e.g. 9+13. In the 5 GHz bands they are denoted by the center of the wider band and the primary 20 MHz channel e.g. 42[40]

^B In the US, 802.11 operation on channels 12 and 13 is allowed under low power conditions. The 2.4 GHz Part 15 band in the US allows spread-spectrum operation as long as the 50 dB bandwidth of the signal is within the range of 2,400–2,483.5 MHz[65] which fully encompasses both channels 12 and 13. A Federal Communications Commission (FCC) document clarifies that only channel 14 is forbidden and that low-power transmitters with low-gain antennas may operate legally in channels 12 and 13.[66] Channels 12 and 13, however, are not normally used in order to avoid any potential interference in the adjacent restricted frequency band, 2,483.5–2,500 MHz,[67] which is subject to strict emission limits set out in 47 CFR § 15.205.[68] Per recent FCC Order 16-181, "an authorized access point device can only operate in the 2483.5–2495 MHz band when it is operating under the control of a Globalstar Network Operating Center and that a client device can only operate in the 2483.5–2495 MHz band when it is operating under the control of an authorized access point"[69]

In Canada, 12 channels are available for use, 11 of which at full power and the other (channel 12) is transmit power limited. Few devices, however, have a method to enable a lower powered channel 12.[citation needed]

^C Channel 14 is valid only for DSSS and CCK modes (Clause 18 a.k.a. 802.11b) in Japan. OFDM (i.e., 802.11g) may not be used. (IEEE 802.11-2007 §19.4.2)

References[edit]

  1. ^ "WiFi Frequency Bands List". Electronics Notes. Retrieved 2018-08-18.
  2. ^ IEEE 802.11-2016: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) specifications. IEEE. 14 December 2016. doi:10.1109/IEEESTD.2016.7786995. ISBN 978-1-5044-3645-8.
  3. ^ "802.11 WiFi Standards Explained". Lifewire. Retrieved 2018-08-18.
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  5. ^ "Why Everything Wireless Is 2.4 GHz". WIRED. Retrieved 2018-08-18.
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Further reading[edit]