|Arkansas National Guard|
|Part of||National Guard Bureau|
|Headquarters||Robinson Maneuver Training Center, North Little Rock, Arkansas|
|Governor and Commander in Chief||Asa Hutchinson|
|Adjutant General||Kendall W. Penn|
|This article is part of a series on the|
|Arkansas National Guard|
|Arkansas National Guard|
|Arkansas Army National Guard|
|Arkansas Territorial Militia, (1804–1836)|
|Arkansas Militia, 1836–1879|
|Arkansas State Guard, 1879–1907|
|Arkansas State Guard and the Spanish–American War|
|Arkansas National Guard 1907–1949|
|Arkansas Air National Guard (1946–Present)|
|Arkansas Army National Guard (1949–Present)|
The Arkansas National Guard comprises both the Arkansas Army National Guard and Arkansas Air National Guard. The state functions of the National Guard range from limited actions during non-emergency situations to full scale law enforcement of martial law when local law enforcement officials can no longer maintain civil control. The National Guard may be called into federal service by the President.
National Guard units can be mobilized at any time by presidential order to supplement regular armed forces, and upon declaration of a state of emergency by the governor of the state in which they serve. Unlike Army Reserve members, National Guard members cannot be mobilized individually (except through voluntary transfers and Temporary DutY Assignments TDY), but only as part of their respective units. However, there have been several individual activations to support military operations since 2001.
When National Guard troops are called to federal service, the President serves as Commander-In-Chief. The federal mission assigned to the National Guard is: "To provide properly trained and equipped units for prompt mobilization for war, National emergency or as otherwise needed." For much of the final decades of the 20th century, National Guard personnel typically served "one weekend a month, two weeks a year", with a portion working for the Guard in a full-time capacity. The current forces formation plans of the US Army call for the typical National Guard unit (or National Guardsman) to serve one year of active duty for every six years of service. More specifically, current Department of Defense policy is that individual Guardsman will be given 24 months between deployments of no more than 12 months each.
The Governor may call individuals or units of the Arkansas National Guard into state service during emergencies or to assist in special situations which lend themselves to use of the National Guard. The state mission assigned to the National Guard is: "To provide trained and disciplined forces for domestic emergencies or as otherwise provided by state law." When not activated for its Federal mission, the Governor through the State Adjutant General commands Guard forces. The Governor can call the Guard into action during local or statewide emergencies, such as storms, drought, and civil disturbances, to name a few.
Upon the request of either the judge or sheriff of a county or the mayor of a city... ...whenever it is made to appear to the Governor that there is a breach of the peace, riot, resistance to process of this State, or disaster or imminent danger thereof... ...the Governor may order into the active service of the state... ...for such period, and to such extent, and in such manner as he may deem necessary, all or any part of the organized militia.
The intent is that the National Guard is called only when civilian resources have been used first and fully exhausted. While in this status, Guard units report only to military authorities, Guard Authorities do not replace Civilian Authorities. The use of the National Guard is intended as a temporary measure to prevent the loss of life or damage to property.
The National Guard may also respond to natural disasters and other domestic operations in a Title 32 status. In this situation, the Guard is still under the direct command and control of the Governor, but the Federal Government provides the funding through Title 32 of the United States Code.
The Governor of Arkansas initially activated troops in a state active duty status in response to an Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC) request from the Governor of Louisiana. EMAC provides mutual aid across state lines, provides assets for states' personnel and equipment shortfalls, places responding assets under operational control of requesting governor and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) recognizes cross-state support as reimbursable.
The Arkansas National Guard provided the first guard units from outside Louisiana to respond to the Louisiana Governor’s request for support when the 77th Theater Aviation Brigade deployed assets to New Orleans. A total of 3000 Arkansas National Guard Soldiers and Airmen were mobilized, with 1500 deployed to Louisiana at the peak of operations. The Arkansas National Guard assisted with processing over 10,000 evacuees through the Chaffee Maneuver Training Center (Fort Chaffee) at Fort Smith Arkansas. Arkansas National Guard units were among the last to leave Louisiana, finally handing off its missions to the Louisiana National Guard in February 2006.
When President Bush ordered National Guard Troops to help secure the border with Mexico, the Arkansas National Guard responded with a Joint Task Force of Soldiers and Airmen, operating in Texas, New Mexico and Arizona. At its peak, Arkansas had over 230 Arkansas troops and airmen on orders including:
The Arkansas National Guard operates over 70 National Guard Readiness Centers (traditionally referred to as Armories) in 55 Arkansas Counties. The state also maintains two Maneuver Training Centers, Chaffee Maneuver Training Center at Fort Smith, Arkansas and Robinson Maneuver Training Center at North Little Rock, Arkansas.
Chaffee Maneuver Training Center (Fort Chaffee) encompasses over 65,000 acres, large enough to support Brigade size training exercises, or up to approximately 7000 soldiers. Acreage available to support Field Artillery training as well as various small arms training ranges. A recent addition to Fort Chaffee is the convoy live fire range to meet the latest training requirement of the Global War On Terrorism. Fort Chaffee became a center for processing hurricane evacuees, providing shelter and relief to over 10,000 Citizens of Louisiana during Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.
Robinson Maneuver Training Center (Camp Robinson) a 32,000 Acre facility located at North Little Rock, Arkansas, which houses the Joint Forces Headquarters, Arkansas National Guard, the Headquarters, Arkansas Air National Guard, Headquarters, 77th Combat Aviation Brigade, Headquarters, 87th Troop Command, and is home to 3 Premier Training Centers, the National Guard Professional Education Center (PEC), the Guard Marksmanship Training Center (NGMTC) and the 233rd Regional Training Institute.
As of 2009, the Arkansas National Guard Consisted of 10,582 Soldiers and Airmen. 8,750 of these Soldiers and Airmen are considered traditional members, meaning that they are required to drill at least one weekend per month and 2 weeks per year, but often work more. The Arkansas National Guard is supported by 1,836 full-time federal military employees and an additional 545 full-time state civilian employees.
The Arkansas State Military Department supports the Arkansas Guard by providing responsible fiscal, administrative, nursing, security, youth service, family support, natural resource conservation, recycling, waste water, public affairs, legal, museum, fire, police officers, skilled trades, and trained professional staff that will ensure well-maintained armories, facilities, training, and personnel administration for the National Guard.
The Arkansas National Guard Operates two programs to assist at-risk youth.
The Arkansas National Guard Youth Challenge program is a 22-week residential program for at-risk youth ages 16–19. In 2009 the program graduated 109 cadets. Of that number 71 earned a GED or a high school diploma. Twelve graduates of the program joined the military and six enrolled in college. The Cadets perform community service at numerous events, such as the Arkansas Susan G. Komen Race for the Cure against breast cancer.
Civilian Student Training Program is a state funded program that provides a structured, discipline base and military style, behavior modification environment. the program accepts adjudicated male nonviolent offenders ranging in age from 13–17. The nine-week residential multi-phase program stresses value-based learning, physical fitness, academic and life skills education, and community service. The program was proposed by the Arkansas National Guard and established by the state legislature in 1993. All participants are enrolled under court order. The program has graduated over 5,000 since its inception. The academic grade level increased of graduates increases by an average of 2.5 years. Over 25,000 hours of community service has been performed by CSTP graduates.
The Arkansas National Guard's total operating budget for FY 2008 was, $244.8 million; of that, the federal government provided $232.4 million and the State of Arkansas provided $12.3 million in fiscal year 2008. There were also federal military construction projects related to the Arkansas National Guard totaling $83 million in fiscal year 2008.
|Pulaski||North Little Rock||$103,632,033|
|Pulaski||Little Rock Air Force Base||$26,663,208|
|St Francis||Forrest City||$709,944|
The Arkansas National Guard traces its roots to the creation of the Territorial Militia in 1804. Interest in the Militia in Arkansas generally waxed and waned throughout the 19th century as various national emergencies arose and passed. Arkansas provided troops for the War with Mexico, the American Civil War, and the Spanish–American War during the 19th century. In each case, in answer to the governor's call, local militia companies would turn out and be formed into regiments or battalions for induction into federal service. The militia was also heavily engaged in the violence that characterized the Reconstruction period following the Civil War.
Interest in the militia or Arkansas State Guard as it was known following reconstruction, ebbed and flowed throughout the 19th century, increasing just before or major conflicts, but diminishing in between. Most militia activity was at the local, county and city level, and was often provided for with private funds. It was only late in the 19th century, in the preparations for the Spanish–American War that the State Guard, as it was known then, truly came into existence as a stable organized force.
Following the Spanish–American War, the Arkansas State Guard, along with the militia forces of all other states, was reorganized as the Arkansas National Guard. With the reorganization came the first nationally directed training and increased funding. During World War I, units were stripped of their state designations and were given federal designations upon mustering into federal service. The National Guard saw a massive expansion and increased funding and training following World War I. A similar increase was seen after World War II. Following World War II, the air component was separated into the Arkansas Air National Guard. Both the air and land components of the Arkansas National Guard supplied forces for the Korean War. In 1967 during a nationwide reorganization of National Guard Units, the Arkansas Army National Guard took on most of its current force structure with one Infantry Brigade, One Field Artillery Brigade, Aviation units, and various Separate Companies under the Troop Command. Arkansas units have served in every major conflict since the Seminole War, with the exception of Vietnam. Arkansas Army and Air units remain fully engaged in the ongoing Global War on Terrorism.
Throughout its service to the nation during times of war, the Arkansas National Guard has continued to perform its role of providing service to the citizens of the state during times of disaster. The Guard has responded to numerous tornadoes, floods and fires, in addition to being called upon to provide security and quell violence in times of civil disturbance. The Guard has also provided support to neighboring states, most notably Louisiana during Hurricanes Katrina, Rita and Ike.
The history of the Arkansas National Guard is divided into the following time periods:
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The 3rd Infantry Division is a combined arms and mechanized infantry division of the United States Army based at Fort Stewart, Georgia. It is a direct subordinate unit of the XVIII Airborne Corps and U.S. Army Forces Command. Its current organization includes one Infantry Brigade Combat Team and two armored brigade combat teams, one aviation brigade, a division artillery and support elements. The division has a distinguished history, having seen active service in both World War I and World War II.
The Army National Guard (ARNG), in conjunction with the Air National Guard, is a militia force and a federal military reserve force of the United States. They are simultaneously part of two different organizations, the Army National Guard of the several states, territories and the District of Columbia, and the Army National Guard of the United States, part of the United States National Guard. The Army National Guard is divided into subordinate units stationed in each of the 50 states, three territories, and the District of Columbia, and operates under their respective governors.
The Union order of battle during the Battle of Gettysburg includes the American Civil War officers and men of the Army of the Potomac . Order of battle compiled from the army organization during the battle, the casualty returns and the reports.
The Arkansas Army National Guard is a component of the Arkansas National Guard and the United States National Guard. National coordination of various state National Guard units are maintained through the National Guard Bureau.
During the American Civil War, Arkansas was a Confederate state, though it had initially voted to remain in the Union. Following the capture of Fort Sumter in April 1861, Abraham Lincoln called for troops from every Union state to put down the rebellion, and Arkansas and several other states seceded. For the rest of the war, Arkansas played a major role in controlling the Mississippi River, a major military highway.
The 142nd Field Artillery Regiment is a United States Army field artillery regiment currently represented in the Arkansas Army National Guard by the 1st Battalion, 142nd Field Artillery, headquartered in Harrison, Arkansas; 2nd Battalion, 142nd Field Artillery, headquartered in Fort Smith, Arkansas; and Battery F, 142nd Field Artillery stationed in Fayetteville, Arkansas, elements of the 142nd Field Artillery Brigade which is headquartered in Fayetteville, Arkansas. The regiment was created in 1917 from the former 2nd Arkansas Infantry. The 142nd Field Artillery shipped to France during World War I, but did not see combat before cessation of hostilities. The regiment was activated for World War II, but its battalions were redesignated as separate battalions, 1–142nd became the 936th Field Artillery Battalion, the 2–142nd became the 937th Field Artillery Battalion. The battalion's served throughout the European Theater of Operations. The battalions were activated again for the Korean War and served throughout the war. Following the Korean War the separate battalions resumed their former designations of 1–142nd FA and 2–142nd FA. The 142nd Field Artillery Brigade, including both battalions was activated for Operation Desert Storm. Elements of the 142nd Fires Brigade have been activated for service in Operation Noble Eagle and Operation Iraqi Freedom. The 142nd Fires Brigade was instrumental in support and recovery operations located in New Orleans, Louisiana after hurricanes Katrina and Rita devastated the Gulf Coast.
The 39th Infantry Division was an infantry formation of the Army National Guard, originally formed as the 18th Division in 1917. The division consisted of troops from Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. After training at Camp Beauregard, Louisiana, the division was deployed to France but did not see combat before the end of World War I. In July 1923 the division was re-designated as the 31st Infantry Division. The 39th Infantry Division was reactivated after World War II with troops from Louisiana and Arkansas and its headquarters in Louisiana. In 1967, the 39th Infantry Division was reorganized to become the 39th Infantry Brigade (Separate). Its headquarters was in Little Rock, Arkansas and the unit consisted entirely of troops from the Arkansas Army National Guard.
The 1st Arkansas Infantry (1861–1865) was a Confederate Army infantry regiment during the American Civil War. The regiment was raised in April 1861 by Colonel Thompson B. Flournoy. It moved first to Virginia, but transferred back to Tennessee and served the rest of the war in the western theater, seeing action in the Kentucky, Tennessee and Georgia campaigns. Following its depletion in numbers, the regiment was consolidated several times with other Arkansas regiments, finally merging in 1865 into the 1st Arkansas Consolidated Infantry Regiment. There were three regiments known as "1st Arkansas" during the war. The second unit with the designation of "1st Arkansas" was the 1st Infantry, Arkansas State Troops, which was mustered into Confederate service at Pitman's Ferry, Arkansas, on 23 July 1861, under the command of Colonel Patrick Cleburne; this unit was eventually redesignated as the 15th Arkansas Volunteer Infantry. The third unit bearing the title "1st Arkansas" was the 1st Arkansas Volunteer Infantry, which served with the Union Army.
The 6th Arkansas Infantry Regiment was a regiment of the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. Organized mainly from volunteer companies, including several prewar volunteer militia units, raised in the southern half of Arkansas, the regiment was among the first transferred to Confederate Service. It served virtually the entire war in Confederate forces east of the Mississippi River. After the unit sustained heavy casualties during the Battle of Shiloh and Bragg's Kentucky Campaign, the unit spent most of the rest of the war field consolidated with the 7th Arkansas Infantry Regiment, to form the 6th/7th Arkansas Infantry Regiment.
The 153d Infantry Regiment is a United States infantry regiment, currently represented in the Arkansas Army National Guard by the 1st Battalion, 153rd Infantry, headquartered at Malvern, Arkansas, and 2nd Battalion, 153rd Infantry, headquartered at Searcy, Arkansas, elements of the 39th Brigade Combat Team. The regiment was also represented by the 3rd Battalion, 153rd Infantry Regiment headquartered at Warren, Arkansas until that unit was deactivated on 5 September 2005. The regiment was activated as the 1st Arkansas Volunteer Infantry for the Spanish–American War, but did not deploy overseas. The regiment was activated for World War I, redesignated as the 153rd Infantry and shipped to France as a part of the 39th Division, but became a replacement division and personnel were reassigned to other AEF units. The regiment was activated for World War II and deployed to the Aleutian Islands, participating in the Aleutian Islands Campaign. Recently, elements of the regiment have participated in two deployments in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom, in 2004 and again in 2008.
The 2d Battalion, 153d Infantry Regiment , is an infantry battalion of the Arkansas Army National Guard, headquartered at Searcy, assigned to the 39th Infantry Brigade Combat Team. During World War II, the battalion was stationed in the Aleutian Islands. Following the attacks of 11 September 2001, the 2nd Battalion, 153rd Infantry, nicknamed the "Gunslingers", deployed to the Sinai on a peace keeping mission in order to free regular army soldiers for service elsewhere. The soldiers of the 2–153rd deployed under the flag of the 3rd Battalion, 153rd Infantry during Operation Iraqi Freedom II. The battalion provided disaster relief operations to the citizens of Louisiana in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. The Gunslingers were deployed to Iraq a second time in 2008 as a security forces battalion and conducted convoy security operations in western Iraq. Most recently, members of the 2-153rd deployed to Central America as part of the Regionally aligned forces mission in order to carry out a train-the-trainer and security cooperation mission in Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador. See also
The units of the Arkansas Militia in the Civil War to which the current Arkansas National Guard has a connection include the Arkansas State Militia, Home Guard, and State Troop regiments raised by the State of Arkansas. Like most of the United States, Arkansas had an organized militia system before the American Civil War (1861–65). State law required military service of most male inhabitants of a certain age. Following the War with Mexico (1846–48) the Arkansas militia experienced a decline, but as sectional frictions between the north and south began to build in the late 1850s the militia experienced a revival. By 1860 the state's militia consisted of 62 regiments divided into eight brigades, which comprised an eastern division and a western division. New regiments were added as the militia organization developed. Additionally, many counties and cities raised uniformed volunteer companies, which drilled more often and were better equipped than the un-uniformed militia. These volunteer companies were instrumental in the seizure of federal installations at Little Rock and Fort Smith, beginning in February 1861.
The Arkansas Territorial Militia was the forerunner of today's Arkansas National Guard. The current Arkansas Army National Guard traces its roots to the creation of the territorial militia of the District of Louisiana in 1804. As the District of Louisiana evolved into the Territory of Missouri and the first counties were organized, regiments of the Missouri territorial militia were formed in present-day Arkansas. territorial governors struggled to form a reliable militia system in the sparsely populated territory. When the Arkansas Territory was formed from the Missouri Territory, the militia was reorganized, gradually evolving from a single brigade composed of nine regiments to an entire division composed of six brigades, each containing four to six regiments. The local militia organization, with its regular musters and hierarchy added structure to the otherwise loosely organized territorial society. The Territorial Militia was utilized to quell problems with the Indian Nations and was held in readiness to deal with trouble along the border with Mexico due to an ambiguous international border and during the prelude to the Texas War of Independence.
The history of the Arkansas Army National Guard and the Global War on Terrorism begins with the expanded use of the National Guard for overseas duties as the United States reduced the size of the active army in an attempt to realize a "Peace Dividend" at the close of the "Cold War". Beginning in the 1990s Arkansas National Guard unit's experience increased Operations Temp and overseas training opportunities. In the late 1990s Arkansas National Guard units began deploying as part of peace keeping operations in the Balkans and in support of ongoing operations in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. Following the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, the National Guard became deeply involved in the Global War on Terrorism, with units deploying to guard infrastructure such as Arkansas Nuclear One and airports as part of Operation Noble Eagle. The Guard initially replaced regular army units on missions such as Middle East peace keeping in order to free these units for combat operations. With the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, the Arkansas National Guard began deploying for combat operations in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan.
The history of the Arkansas State Guard and the Spanish–American War begins with the reorganization of the state militia following the end of Reconstruction. In 1879 the Arkansas Legislature had abolished the office of Adjutant General in retaliation for the use of the state militia to interfere in local political matters during reconstruction. During this period the Governor's Private Secretary performed the duties of the Adjutant General as an additional duty, and the legislature provided no appropriated funds for the state guard. Several companies existed during this period, including the Quapaw Guards and the McCarthy Guard in Little Rock. In 1897 the Arkansas State Guard was reorganized to consist of four infantry regiments, two artillery batteries and a cavalry squadron. In 1897, the state provided two volunteer infantry regiments for the Spanish–American War and although these two Arkansas Volunteer Infantry Regiments were not deployed overseas and did not see actual combat, they did suffer a number of casualties from disease.
The history of the Arkansas National Guard and World War I begins with the reorganization of the Arkansas State Guard following the Spanish–American War. As a result of difficulties encountered during the mobilization of state militia forces, the United States Congress passed new legislation which resulted in the renaming of the Arkansas State Guard as the Arkansas National Guard. The new federal legislation resulted in increased funding and training for the guard. The newly reorganized Arkansas National Guard was call upon by the President to help defend the border with Mexico in 1916 in response to cross border raids during the Mexican Revolution. The Arkansas National Guard had just returned from the Mexican Expedition in 1917 when it was activated for World War I. As a part of their incorporation in the United States Army, all National Guard units were renumbered in accordance with a federal system. The Arkansas National Guard units were incorporated into the 39th Infantry Division and after training at Camp Beauregard, were shipped to France in August and September 1918. The 39th Division was broken up, with some units being used as replacements for other divisions. Most former Arkansas National Guardsmen returned to the United States in February through June 1919 and were demobilized.
The 18th Arkansas Infantry (Marmaduke's) (1861–1865) was a Confederate Army infantry regiment during the American Civil War. The unit was also briefly identified as the 1st Arkansas Infantry Battalion. The unit was most often referred to as the 3rd Confederate Infantry Regiment. The designation "Confederate Infantry Regiment" was intended to convey the difference between Provisional Confederate Army units and Regular Confederate Army Units, with Provisional units being those regiments who received a state designation such as "XX Arkansas Infantry Regiment". In practice, the designation was most often utilized when Regiments were assembled utilizing companies from more than one confederate state. The "3rd Confederate Infantry Regiment" is occasionally misidentified as the 3rd Arkansas Infantry Regiment commanded by Colonel Van H. Manning.
The following Confederate Army units and commanders fought in the Battle of Prairie Grove of the American Civil War on December 7, 1862, in Washington County, Arkansas. The Union order of battle is listed separately.
The 9th Arkansas Infantry was a Confederate Army infantry regiment during the American Civil War. It served throughout the war in the western theater, seeing action in the Vicksburg, Tennessee and Georgia campaigns. Following its depletion in numbers the regiment was consolidated several times with other Arkansas regiments, finally merging in 1865 into the 1st Arkansas Consolidated Mounted Rifles.
The following Confederate States Army units and commanders fought in the Little Rock campaign, also known as the advance on Little Rock, of the American Civil War on August 25 to September 10, 1863.