List of female monarchs

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  • Top left: Elizabeth II is the longest-reigning female monarch, reigning as Queen of the United Kingdom for 70 years.
  • Top right: Queen Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom for 63 years; the longest at the time.
  • Bottom left: Wilhelmina, Queen of the Netherlands (1890 – 1948), is the longest-reigning female monarch outside the United Kingdom.
  • Bottom right: Margrethe II was Queen of Denmark from 1972 until her abdication in 2024, and is the most recent female sovereign.

This is a list of current and former female monarchs regardless of title, including queens regnant, empresses regnant, pharaohs and monarchs by other titles (grand duchess, princess, etc.). Consorts, such queens consort (i.e. spouses of male monarchs) are not included, see list of current consorts of sovereigns. Female regents are not included, see list of regents.

The following is an incomplete list of women monarchs who are well known from popular writings, although many ancient and poorly documented ruling monarchs (such as those from Africa and Oceania) are omitted. Section 1 lists monarchs who ruled in their own right, such as queens regnant. Section 2 lists legendary monarchs. Section 3 lists constituent monarchs: monarchs who ruled in their own right, but had no constitutional standing or regal powers while in power. Section 4 lists various female rulers who were referred to with the title "Chieftainess." Regents, such as queens regents, are not monarchs and are not included in this page. Pretenders to thrones are also not included in this page.

Monarchs[edit]

Africa[edit]

North Africa[edit]

Algeria[edit]

Hoggar Mountains

Monarch Portrait Reign dates Length Ref.
Tin Hinan 4th century AD Unknown

Kingdom of the Aurès

Monarch Portrait Reign dates Length Ref.
Dihya c. 668–703 AD c. 35 years
Canary Islands[edit]

The Canary Islands are Spanish territories of North Africa.

Peraza family

Monarch Portrait Title Reign dates Length Ref.
Inés Peraza Queen 1452–1477 25 years [1]

Kingdom of the Canary Islands
The title of "King/Queen of the Canary Islands" was included in the list of titles and honours of the Spanish Crown.

Monarch Portrait Reign dates Length Ref.
Isabella I of Castile 4 September 1479–26 November 1504 25 years, 2 months, 22 days
Joanna of Castile 26 November 1504–12 April 1555 51 years, 7 months, 14 days
Isabella II of Spain 29 September 1833–30 September 1868 35 years, 1 day
Egypt[edit]

Pharaonic Egypt
The first verified female monarch of Egypt is Sobekneferu of the Twelfth dynasty. However, queens from earlier periods such as Neithhotep, Merneith and Khentkaus I held powerful positions and may have ruled Egypt in their own right, but the archaeological evidence is ambiguous.[2]

Monarch Portrait Reign dates Length Ref.
Sobekneferu Mid-18th century BC 3 years, 10 months and 24 days [3]
Hatshepsut c. 1479–1458 BC c. 21 years [4]
Neferneferuaten c. 1334–1332 BC c. 3 years
Twosret 1191–1189 BC 2 years

Ptolemaic dynasty
Ptolemy II instituted a new practice of brother-sister marriage when he married his full sister, Arsinoe II. They became, in effect, co-rulers, and both took the epithet Philadelphus ("Brother-Loving" and "Sister-Loving"). Because of this custom many of the kings ruled jointly with their spouses, who were also of the royal house. The only Ptolemaic Queens who ruled alone were Cleopatra II, Berenice III and Berenice IV. Cleopatra VI did co-rule, but it was with another female, Berenice IV. Cleopatra VII officially co-ruled with Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator, Ptolemy XIV, and Ptolemy XV, but effectively, she ruled Egypt alone.

Monarch Portrait Reign dates Length Co-ruler(s) Ref.
Arsinoe II 273/272–270/268 BC 2 to 5 years Ptolemy II [5]
Berenice II 246–222 BC 23 years Ptolemy III [6]
Arsinoe III 220–204 BC 16 years Ptolemy IV [7]
Cleopatra I 193–176 BC 17 years Ptolemy V
Ptolemy VI
[8]
Cleopatra II c. 175–164 BC
163–127 BC
124–115 BC
c. 54 years Ptolemy VI
Ptolemy VIII
Cleopatra III
Ptolemy IX
[9]
Cleopatra III c. 141–130 BC
c. 127–101 BC
c. 37 years Ptolemy VIII
Cleopatra II
Ptolemy IX
Cleopatra IV
Ptolemy X
[10]
Cleopatra IV 116–115 BC 1 year Cleopatra III
Ptolemy IX
[11]
Berenice III 101–88 BC
81–80 BC
14 years Ptolemy X
Ptolemy XI
[12]
Cleopatra V 79–69 BC 10 years Ptolemy XII [13]
Cleopatra VI 58–57 BC 1 year Berenice IV [14]
Berenice IV 58–55 BC 3 years Cleopatra VI [15]
Cleopatra VII 52–30 BC 22 years Ptolemy XII
Ptolemy XIII
Ptolemy XIV
Ptolemy XV
[16]
Arsinoe IV October 48–January 47 BC 3 months Ptolemy XIII [17]

Roman Egypt
Zenobia took Roman Egypt by Palmyrene invasion and was declared Queen of Egypt.

Monarch Portrait Reign dates Length Ref.
Zenobia October 270–June 272 1 year and 9 months [18]

Bahri Mamluk dynasty

Monarch Portrait Reign dates Length Ref.
Shajar al-Durr 2 May–30 July 1250 90 days
Libya[edit]

Cyrenaica

Monarch Portrait Reign dates Length Ref.
Berenice II 258–246 BC 12 years
Cleopatra Selene II 34–30 BC 4 years
Sudan[edit]

Egyptian Empire

Monarch Portrait Reign dates Length Ref.
Hatshepsut c. 1479–1458 BC c. 21 years
Neferneferuaten c. 1334–1332 BC c. 2 years
Twosret 1191–1189 BC 2 years

Kingdom of Kush

Kandake was a title for queens, queen mothers, and queens consort in Nubia, but ruling kandakes included:

Monarch Portrait Reign dates Ref.
Nahirqo Mid-2nd century BC [19]
Unknown kandake End of 2nd–first half of 1st century BC [20]
Amanirenas End of 1st century BC–Beginning of 1st century AD
Amanishakheto Early 1st century AD
Shanakdakhete First half of the 1st century AD
Nawidemak
Amanitore Mid-1st century AD
Amanikhatashan Mid-2nd century AD [21]
Amanikhalika Second half of the 2nd century AD [22]
Patrapeamani [de] First half of the 4th century AD [21]
Amanipilade Mid-4th century AD

Dotawo

Monarch Portrait Reign dates Length Ref.
Gaua c. 1520–1526 c. 6 years [23]

West Africa[edit]

Benin[edit]

Hogbonu

Monarch Portrait Reign dates Length Ref.
Hude 1746–1752 6 years
The Gambia[edit]
Ghana[edit]

Akan state of Denkyira

Akan state of Dwaben

Akan state of Akyem Abuakwa

Guinea-Bissau[edit]

Orango

Roxa

Côte d'Ivoire[edit]

Baoule

  • Pokou (reigned c. 1750 – c. 1760)[27] – Queen and founder of the Baoule tribe.
  • Akwa Boni (reigned c. 1760 – c. 1790)[27] – Pokou's niece who succeeded her to the throne.
Liberia[edit]
Mali[edit]

Mali Empire

Nigeria[edit]

Bornu Empire

Daura

The title "Kabara" was used by female monarchs who ruled over the Hausa people in the Middle Ages. A line of matriarchal monarchs is recorded in the Kano Chronicle that ends with the reign of Daurama in the 9th century.[29] These queens reigned from c. 700 to c. 1000.[30]

  • Kufuru
  • Ginu
  • Yakumo
  • Yakunya
  • Wanzamu
  • Yanbamu
  • Gizir-gizir
  • Inna-Gari
  • Daurama
  • Ga-Wata
  • Shata
  • Fatatuma
  • Sai-Da-Mata
  • Ja-Mata
  • Ha-Mata
  • Zama
  • Sha-Wata
  • Daurama II

Igodomigodo

Ondo Kingdom

Zazzau

  • Amina – There is controversy among scholars as to the date of her reign, one school placing her in the mid-15th century, and a second placing her reign in the mid to late 16th century.

Yoruba people

Oyo Empire

  • Orompoto (reigned c. 1555–1575) – Succeeded her brother Eguguojo to the throne.
Senegal[edit]

Lingeer's leadership activities were carried out at the highest tier, as a co-monarch.

Sierra Leone[edit]

Koya Temne

  • Fatima (reigned 1826–1840)[31]

Kpa Mende

Central Africa[edit]

Angola[edit]

Jaga

Matamba

Nzinga, warrior queen of Ndongo and Matamba

Mbunda Kingdom

Ndongo

Kingdom of Jinga

Kingdom of kongo

There were two female monarchs during Kongo Civil War.

Cameroon[edit]

East Africa[edit]

Comoros[edit]

Ndzuwani (Anjouan)

  • Alimah I (reigned during the 16th century – unknown start date, reign ended c. 1590)
  • Alimah II (reigned c. 1632 – c. 1676)
  • Alimah III (reigned c. 1676 – c. 1711)
  • Alimah IV (reigned 1788–1792) – she was the de facto ruler of Anjouan with sultan Abdallah I during his reigns in 1782–1788 and 1792–1796.

Bambao

Itsandra

Bajini

Mwali

  • Raketaka Jombe Sudy (reigned 1842–1865 and 1874–1878) – she also ruled as regent twice, 1865–1868 and 1871–1874. After 1851 she took the name of Jumbe Fatima bint Abderremane
  • Salima Machamba bint Saidi Hamadi Makadara (reigned 1888–1909)
Zewditu I, Empress of Ethiopia
Ethiopia[edit]
  • Zewditu (reigned 1916–1930) – Daughter of Menelik II. She ascended to the throne after her nephew Iyasu V was deposed.
Kenya[edit]

Names taken from Female Rule in the Indian Ocean World (1300–1900).[32]

Ranavalona I
Madagascar[edit]

The female monarchs of Madagascar traditional states were:[33]

Ambohidratrimo

Boina Kingdom

Menabe

Bemihisatra

Bemazava

Antankarana

Imarovatana

Betsimisaraka

Mauritius[edit]
Mozambique[edit]

Angoche Sultanate

  • Queen of Angoche, name unknown (reigned c. 1550)[32]
Somaliland[edit]

Sultanate of Ifat

South Sudan[edit]

Shilluk Kingdom

  • Abudok [fr], the eighth ruler (and only queen) of the Shilluk.[34]
Tanzania[edit]

Names taken from Female Rule in the Indian Ocean World (1300–1900).[32]

Uganda[edit]

Bunyoro

Paroketu

Songora people

The female monarchs of Songora were:[39]

Southern Africa[edit]

Malawi[edit]
Namibia[edit]

Mbunza

Ongandjera

Oukwanyama

Shambyu

Uukwangali

South Africa[edit]
  • Elizabeth II (reigned 1952–1961)

AmaMpondomise

Lobedu people

The Modjadji or Rain Queen is the hereditary queen of Lobedu, the people of the Limpopo Province of South Africa. The succession to the position of Rain Queen is matrilineal, meaning that the Queen's eldest daughter is the heir, and that males are not entitled to inherit the throne at all. The Rain Queen is believed to have special powers, including the ability to control the clouds and rainfall.

Zambia[edit]
Zimbabwe[edit]

The Americas[edit]

North America[edit]

Canada[edit]
  • Victoria (reigned 1837–1901)
  • Elizabeth II (reigned 1952–2022)
Mexico[edit]

Cobá

Ecatepec

Palenque

Sak K'uk'

Tepetlaoztoc

  • Azcasuch (reigned in the late 15th–early 16th century)

Toltec Empire

Toniná

Tzacoalco

Central America[edit]

Belize[edit]
  • Elizabeth II (reigned 1981–2022)

Pusilha

Guatemala[edit]

El Perú

La Florida

Naranjo

Tikal

The Caribbean[edit]

Antigua and Barbuda[edit]
  • Elizabeth II (reigned 1981–2022)
Bahamas[edit]
  • Elizabeth II (reigned 1973–2022)
Barbados[edit]
Grenada[edit]
  • Elizabeth II (reigned 1974–2022)
Jamaica[edit]
  • Elizabeth II (reigned 1962–2022)
Saint Kitts and Nevis[edit]
  • Elizabeth II (reigned 1983–2022)
Saint Lucia[edit]
  • Elizabeth II (reigned 1979–2022)
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines[edit]
  • Elizabeth II (reigned 1979–2022)

South America[edit]

Brazil[edit]
  • Maria I (reigned as Queen of Brazil 1815–1816) – she was also Queen of Portugal in 1777–1816
Ecuador[edit]
Guyana[edit]
Peru[edit]
Suriname[edit]
Trinidad and Tobago[edit]

Asia[edit]

East Asia[edit]

China[edit]
Wu Zetian
  • Wu Zetian (Chinese: 武則天) – Empress regnant of China, ruling from 690 to 705. She was the only orthodox reigning empress in the history of China.

Although Wu Zetian is the only undisputed empress regnant recognized in orthodox Chinese historiography, there are two other documented cases of a woman holding the title of "Empress regnant" in Chinese history:

Eastern Kingdom of Women [zh]
In Tibet, there was Nüguo (Chinese: 女國, lit. "Kingdom of Women"), also known as Dong nüguo (Chinese: 東女國, lit. "Eastern Kingdom of Women"), related to the tribe Sumpa.[47] Several queens regnant of there were recorded in Chinese history books.

Japan[edit]
Monarch Portrait Reign dates Length Ref.
Queen Himiko of Yamatai c. 180–247/248 AD c. 68 years [51]
Queen Toyo of Yamatai c. 248–unknown Unknown [52]
Empress Suiko 593–628 35 years [53]
Empress Kōgyoku 642–645 3 years [54]
Empress Saimei 655–661 6 years
Empress Jitō 686–697 9 years [55]
Empress Genmei 707–715 8 years [56]
Empress Genshō 715–724 9 years [57]
Empress Kōken 749–758 9 years
Empress Shōtoku 764–770 6 years
Empress Meishō 1629–1643 14 years [58]
Empress Go-Sakuramachi 1762–1771 9 years [59]
Korea[edit]

Silla

South Asia[edit]

Bangladesh[edit]

Chakma Circle

India[edit]

Alupa dynasty

Arakkal dynasty

Bhauma-Kara dynasty

Bhopal State

  • Qudsia Begum (reigned 1819–1837) – in 1819, 18-year-old Qudsia Begum (also known as Gohar Begum) took over the reins after the assassination of her husband, Nawab Muiz Muhammad Khan Bahadur. She was the first female ruler of Bhopal. She declared that her 2-year-old daughter Sikander would follow her as the ruler; none of the male family members dared to challenge her decision. She ruled till 1837, when she died having adequately prepared her daughter for ruling the state.
  • Begum Sultan Shah Jehan (reigned 1844–1860 and 1868–1901) – Shahjahan was the only surviving child of Sikandar Begum, sometime Nawab of Bhopal by correct title, and her husband Jahangir Mohammed Khan. She was recognised as ruler of Bhopal in 1844 at the age of six; her mother wielded power as regent during her minority. However, in 1860, her mother Sikandar Begum was recognised by the British as ruler of Bhopal in her own right, and Shahjahan was set aside.
  • Begum Nawab Sikandar (reigned 1860–1868)
  • Begum Kaikhusrau Jahan (reigned 1901–1926)

British Raj

Gerusoppa

Holkar dynasty

Kakatiya dynasty

Kashmir

  • Sugandha (reigned 904–906)
  • Didda (reigned 980–1003), she ruled first as a Regent for her son Abhimanyu and thereafter as sole ruler in her own right
  • Kota Rani (reigned 1338–1339)

Keladi Nayaka dynasty

Mamluk dynasty

Oiniwar dynasty

Sambalpur State

Sivaganga estate

Thanjavur Maratha kingdom

Travancore Kingdom

Ullal

Maldives[edit]
  • Damahaar (reigned before 990) – Damahaar, a Ranin (Queen) of the Aadeetta (Sun) Dynasty, is mentioned by al-Idrisi as having reigned over the Maldives at some time before the semi-legendary King Koimala; there are several other mentions by foreign travelers, mainly Arabs, of queens ruling over the Maldives at various times; these are not always named and their reigns cannot be precisely dated
  • Khadijah (reigned 1347–1363, 1364–1374, and 1376–1380)
  • Raadhafathi (reigned 1380)
  • Dhaain (reigned 1385–1388)
  • Kuda Kala Kamanafa’anu (reigned 1607–1609)
  • Amina I (reigned 1753–1754)
  • Amina II (reigned 1757–1759)
Pakistan[edit]
  • Elizabeth II (reigned 1952–1956)

Gilgit

Soomra dynasty

  • Hamoon (reigned 1107) – she occupied the throne after her husband Sanghar's death, but was soon crushed by the nobles[65]
Sri Lanka[edit]

Southeast Asia[edit]

Cambodia[edit]
Ang Mey

Funan

Chenla

  • Kambuja-raja-lakshmi (reigned 575–580)
  • Jayadevi (reigned 681–713) – during her rule, she was faulted in leadership which led the Chenla kingdom to break into two individual states, but then it record the period to be female-dominated dynasty with the wide range of female successors, totally driving the entire kingdom
  • Indrani (reigned in the 8th century)
  • Nṛpatendradevī (reigned in the 8th century)
  • Jayendrabhā (reigned in the 8th century)
  • Jyeṣṭhāryā (reigned c. 803)

Post-Angkor period

  • Queen Tey (reigned 1687)
  • Ang Mey (reigned 1835–1840 and 1844–1846) – also known as Ngọc Vân Quận chúa (Lady Ngọc Vân – Vietnamese) or Ksat Trey, she was proclaimed on the death of her father by the Vietnamese faction at court with the title of Mỹ Lâm Quận chúa (Lady Mỹ Lâm – Vietnamese). She was famous as a Vietnamese puppet queen

First Kingdom of Cambodia

  • Queen Sisowath Kossamak (reigned 1960–1970, disputed) – After her husband King Norodom Suramarit's death, Kossamak kept her title of Queen and continued to function as the symbol and representative of the monarchy while Sihanouk assumed his position as monarch, but titled as Prince rather than King.
Indonesia[edit]

Aceh Sultanate

Bali Kingdom

Kingdom of Klungkung [id]

Tanette

Kalingga Kingdom

Majapahit

The statue of Tribhuwanottungadewi, queen of Majapahit, depicted as Parvati

Mataram Kingdom

Sonbai Kecil

Kalinyamat Sultanate

Sultanate of Gowa

Samudera Pasai Sultanate

Bone state

Sultanate of Buton

Bintan Island

Tanjungpura Kingdom

Laos[edit]

Lan Xang

  • Nang Keo Phimpha (reigned 1438) – after her nephew Lan Kham Deng died, she seized control of Lan Xang and the next four kings were under her control. She only reigned for a few months in 1438 at the age of 95; she was then deposed and killed.
Malaysia[edit]

Kelantan

Myanmar[edit]

Hanthawaddy

Sandoway

Waithali

Laihka State

Philippines[edit]

Namayan and Tondo

Sulu

Thailand[edit]

Hariphunchai

Pattani

Lanna

Timor-Leste[edit]

There were many chiefdoms on Timor, but according to the hierarchy among the Timorese domains, the ruler of Sonbai of West Timor, the ruler of Wehali of Central Timor, and the ruler of Likusaen (today: Liquiçá) of East Timor were three paramount rulers of Timor.[74]

Liquiçá

Vietnam[edit]
  • Queen Trưng Trắc (reigned 40–43) – the Trưng sisters (Vietnamese: Hai Bà Trưng, lit.'two ladies Trưng') were leaders who rebelled against Chinese rule for three years, and are regarded as national heroines of Vietnam. Her name is Trưng Trắc.
  • Trưng Nhị [vi], co-ruler of Trưng Trắc
  • Lady Triệu (reigned 248), also known as Lệ Hải Bà Vương (chữ Hán: 麗海婆王, lit. "beautiful sea's lady king")[76]
  • Empress Lý Chiêu Hoàng (reigned 1224–1225)

Champa

West Asia[edit]

Iran[edit]

Elymais

  • Anzaze (reigned 82/81–75 BC, following dates on the coins), she appears on coins together with king Kamnaskires III; they perhaps ruled together as on the coins she is called βασιλίσσης (the Genitive case of queen, βασίλισσα – basílissa)
  • Ulfan (reigned in the 2nd century) – she co-ruled with her husband Orodes III

Ahmadilis

Qutlugh-Khanids

Salghurids

Il Khanate

Khorshidi dynasty

Iraq[edit]

First Dynasty of Ur

  • Puabi (reigned c. 26th century BC) – there is a theory that she ruled on her own right

Jalayirid Sultanate

Israel[edit]

Beit Shemesh

Judah

Hasmonean dynasty

Herodian dynasty

Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem

Jordan[edit]

Gileadite

Nabatea

Lebanon[edit]

Tripoli
The County of Tripoli was an autonomous state.[77]

Saudi Arabia[edit]

Qedarite

  • Zabibe (reigned c. 750–735 BC)
  • Samsi (reigned c. 735–710 BC)
  • Yatie (reigned c. 710–695 BC)
  • Te'el-hunu (reigned c. 695–690 BC)
  • Tabua (reigned c. 678–675 BC)
Syria[edit]

Tanukhids

  • Mavia (reigned 375–425) – "The Queen of the Arabs"

Seleucid Empire

Palmyrene Empire

  • Zenobia (reigned 272) – she ruled mostly as regent for her son but reigned briefly under the regnal name Septimia Zenobia Augusta in 272.
Turkey[edit]
Isabella of Armenia

Antioch
The Principality of Antioch was an autonomous state.[77]

Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia

  • Isabella (reigned 1219–1252) – she co-ruled with her husband Hethum I from 1226

Caria

Dardania

Heraclea Pontica

Pontus

Olba Kingdom

Prusias ad Mare

Saltukid dynasty

Trebizond

Yemen[edit]

Sulayhid dynasty

  • Asma bint Shihab (reigned 1047–1087) – she was the co-ruler of Yemen in co-regency with her cousin and spouse, Ali al-Sulayhi, and later her son, Ahmad al-Mukkaram, and daughter-in-law, Arwa al-Sulayhi. Though there were many female monarchs in the Muslim world, Asma bint Shihab and Arwa al-Sulayhi were the only female monarchs in the Arab world to have had the khutba proclaimed in their name in the mosques as sovereigns.
  • Arwa al-Sulayhi (reigned 1067–1138) – she ruled Yemen firstly with her first two husbands and her mother-in-law and then as sole ruler. She was the greatest of the rulers of the Sulayhid Dynasty and was also the first woman to be accorded the prestigious title of hujja in Isma'ili branch of Shi'a Islam, signifying her as the closest living image of God's will in her lifetime.

Central Asia[edit]

Afghanistan[edit]
  • Queen of Greater Yuezhi, name unknown (reigned in the 2nd century BC) – after the king of the Greater Yuezhi was killed by the Xiongnu, his wife became the new monarch of Greater Yuezhi[78][79]
Uzbekistan[edit]

Europe[edit]

Central Europe[edit]

Austria, Hungary, Croatia, and Czechia[edit]
Monarch Portrait Title State Start of reign End of reign Length Ref.
Mary
Queen Hungary 10 September 1382 (1st reign)

24 February 1386 (2nd reign)

December 1385 (1st reign)

17 May 1395 (2nd reign)

Croatia
Maria Theresa
Archduchess Austria 20 October 1740 29 November 1780 40 years, 40 days
Queen Hungary
Croatia
Bohemia 19 December 1741 1 year, 60 days
12 May 1743 29 November 1780 37 years, 201 days

Marcomanni

Poland and Lithuania[edit]
Monarch Portrait Title State Start of reign End of reign Length Ref.
Jadwiga Queen Poland 16 October 1384 17 July 1399 14 years, 274 days
Anna Queen Poland 15 December 1575 19 August 1587 11 years, 247 days
Grand Duchess Lithuania

Eastern Europe[edit]

Armenia[edit]
Georgia[edit]
Tamar, King of Kings and Queen of Queens of the Georgians
Russia[edit]
Monarch Portrait Title Start of reign End of reign Length Ref.
Irina Godunova Tsaritsa
(Disputed)
26 January 1598 3 March 1598 36 days
Catherine I Empress 8 February 1725 17 May 1727 2 years, 98 days
Anna Empress 26 February 1730 28 October 1740 10 years, 245 days
Elizabeth Empress 6 December 1741 5 January 1762 20 years, 30 days
Catherine II Empress 9 July 1762 17 November 1796 34 years, 131 days

Sabir people

  • Queen Boa,[80] also known as Boareks (reigned in the 520s)

Kingdom of the Cimmerian Bosporus

  • Kamasarye Philoteknos (reigned 180–150 BC) – she co-ruled with her husband Paerisades III
  • Dynamis (reigned in 47 BC, 44–17 BC, and 16–14 BC) – she co-ruled with her first husband Asander in 47 BC and from 44 BC until 17 BC; then she co-ruled with her second husband Polemon I from 16 BC until her death
  • Gepaepyris (reigned 37/38–39 AD)

Khanate of Qasim

Northern Europe[edit]

Denmark, Norway and Sweden[edit]
Monarch Portrait Title State Start of reign End of reign Length of reign Ref.
Margaret I Queen Denmark 10 August 1387 28 October 1412 25 years, 79 days
Norway 2 February 1388 24 years, 269 days
Sweden 24 February 1389 23 years, 247 days
Christina Queen Sweden 16 November 1632 16 June 1654 21 years, 212 days
Ulrika Eleonora Queen Sweden 5 December 1718 29 February 1720 1 year, 86 days
Margrethe II Queen Denmark 14 January 1972 14 January 2024 52 years, 0 days

Agder

Western Europe[edit]

Luxembourg and Belgium[edit]

Burgundian Netherlands

Spanish Netherlands

Austrian Netherlands

Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

Netherlands[edit]
Monarch Portrait Title State Start of reign End of reign Length of reign Ref.
Wilhelmina
Queen Netherlands 23 November 1890 4 September 1948 57 years, 286 days
Juliana
Queen Netherlands 4 September 1948 30 April 1980 31 years, 239 days
Beatrix
Queen Netherlands 30 April 1980 30 April 2013 33 years, 0 days
Monaco[edit]
United Kingdom and Ireland[edit]
  • Cartimandua (reigned c. 43 AD – c. 69 AD) — queen of the Brigantes, a Celtic people in what is now Northern England; she came to power around the time of the Roman conquest of Britain, and formed a large tribal agglomeration that became loyal to Rome; she is known exclusively from the work of a single Roman historian, Tacitus, though she appears to have been widely influential in early Roman Britain
  • Boudica (reigned c. 60 AD – c. 61 AD) — queen of the Brythonic Celtic Iceni, people of Norfolk, in Eastern Britain; in 61 AD, she led a major uprising of the tribes against the occupying forces of the Roman Empire
  • Seaxburh of Wessex (reigned c. 672–674) – she reigned jointly with her husband Cenwalh and, according to tradition, ruled Wessex as Queen for a year following Cenwalh's death in c. 672
Monarch Portrait Title State Start of reign End of reign Length Ref.
Æthelflæd Lady Mercia 911 918 c. 7 years
Ælfwynn Lady Mercia 12 June 918 4 December 918 175 days
Matilda Lady (Disputed) England 8 April 1141 1148 c. 7 years [83]
Margaret Queen (Disputed) Scotland 19 March 1286 September 1290 4 years, 6 months
Mary I of Scotland Queen Scotland 14 December 1542 24 July 1567 24 years, 222 days
Jane Queen (Disputed) England 10 July 1553 19 July 1553 9 days [84]
Ireland
Mary I of England Queen England 24 July 1553 17 November 1558 5 years, 116 days
Ireland
Elizabeth I Queen England 17 November 1558 24 March 1603 44 years, 127 days
Ireland
Mary II Queen England 13 February 1689 28 December 1694 5 years, 318 days
Ireland
Scotland 11 April 1689 5 years, 261 days
Anne Queen England 8 March 1702 1 May 1707 5 years, 54 days
Scotland
Ireland 1 August 1714 12 years, 146 days
Great Britain 1 May 1707 7 years, 92 days
Victoria Queen United Kingdom 20 June 1837 22 January 1901 63 years, 216 days
Elizabeth II Queen United Kingdom 6 February 1952 8 September 2022 70 years, 214 days

Southern Europe[edit]

Albania[edit]
Bosnia[edit]
Bulgaria[edit]

Odrysian kingdom

Cyprus[edit]

Kingdom of Cyprus

British Cyprus

  • Victoria (reigned 1878–1901)
  • Elizabeth II (reigned 1952–1960)
Greece[edit]
Zoe

Aeacid dynasty

Byzantine Empire

  • Irene of Athens (reigned 797–802) – she normally referred to herself as basilissa (empress), although there are three instances of the title basileus (emperor) being used by her. From 792 she was a co-ruler.
  • Theodora the Armenian (reigned 842–856, disputed) - after the death of her husband she became the co-ruler of her son but in fact she ruled the empire alone; some historians regard her as an empress regnant rather than just a regent
  • Thekla (reigned 842–856, disputed), co-ruler of Theodora the Armenian
  • Zoë Porphyrogenita (reigned 1028–1041 and 1042–1050) – she ruled with her consorts Romanos III and Michael IV between 1028 and 1041; she ruled with her sister Theodora and her third husband Constantine IX from 1042 to 1050
  • Theodora Porphyrogenita (reigned 1042–1056) – she ruled from 1042 jointly with her sister Zoe and Zoe's third husband Constantine IX; she ruled from 1055 until her own death as sole monarch.
  • Eudokia Makrembolitissa (reigned 1067, disputed) - after the death of her husband she became a ruler; some historians regard her as an empress regnant rather than just a regent

Epirus

Frankokratia
Latin Empire was disestablished in 1261, but Latin states in Greece, also known as Frankokratia, continued to recognize Latin emperors in exile as their overlords until 1383.

Polis

Italy[edit]

Ostrogothic Kingdom

  • Amalasuintha (reigned 534–535) – she ruled first as regent for her son and thereafter as queen regnant in her own right

Sardinian medieval kingdoms

Kingdom of Sicily

Kingdom of Naples

Italian states from the Congress of Vienna to the unification of Italy [it]
The Italian duchies restored by the Congress of Vienna became fully sovereign because the Kingdom of Italy was not restored.

Portugal[edit]
Monarch Portrait Title State Start of reign End of reign Length Ref.
Theresa Queen Portugal
(disputed)
1116 24 June 1128
Beatrice Queen Portugal
(disputed)
1383 1385
Maria I Queen Portugal 24 February 1777 20 March 1816 39 years, 25 days
Maria II Queen Portugal 2 May 1826 23 June 1828 2 years, 52 days
26 May 1834 15 November 1853 19 years, 173 days
Spain and Andorra[edit]
Monarch Portrait Title State Start of reign End of reign Length Ref.
Urraca the Reckless Empress Spain 30 June 1109 8 March 1126 16 years, 251 days
Queen León
Queen Castile
Queen Galicia 1111
Petronilla Queen Aragon 13 November 1137 18 July 1164 26 years, 248 days
Urraca the Asturian Queen Kingdom of Artajona [eu] 1144 1153
Berengaria Queen Castile 6 June 1217 31 August 1217 86 days
Queen Toledo
Sancha Queen León 24 September 1230 11 December 1230 78 days
Dulce Queen León 24 September 1230 11 December 1230 78 days
Joan I Queen Navarre 22 July 1284 2 April 1305 20 years, 254 days
Joan II Queen Navarre 1 April 1328 6 October 1349 21 years, 188 days
Isabella of Foix-Castelbon Co-Princess Andorra 1398 1412
Blanche I Queen Navarre 8 September 1425 1 April 1441 15 years, 205 days
Blanche II Queen Navarre 23 September 1461 2 December 1464 3 years, 70 days
Isabella I Queen Castile 11 December 1474 26 November 1504 29 years, 351 days
Queen León
Eleanor Queen Navarre 28 January 1479 12 February 1479 15 days
Catherine Queen Navarre 7 January 1483 12 February 1517 34 years, 36 days
Co-Princess Andorra
Joanna[nb 1] Queen Castile 26 November 1504 12 April 1555 50 years, 137 days
Queen Aragon 23 January 1516 39 years, 79 days
Queen Upper Navarre
Jeanne[nb 2] Queen Lower Navarre 25 May 1555 9 June 1572 17 years, 15 days
Co-Princess Andorra
Isabella II[nb 3] Queen Spain 29 September 1833 30 September 1868 35 years, 1 day
Queen Upper Navarre 30 November 1833 62 days
Malta[edit]
Monarch Portrait Title State Start of reign End of reign Length Ref.
Elizabeth II Queen Malta 21 September 1964 13 December 1974 10 years, 83 days

Oceania[edit]

Australasia[edit]

Australia[edit]
  • Victoria (reigned 1901)
  • Elizabeth II (reigned 1952–2022)
New Zealand[edit]
  • Elizabeth II (reigned 1952–2022)

Rarotonga

Makea Takau Ariki

Melanesia[edit]

Fiji[edit]
  • Elizabeth II (reigned 1970–1987)
Papua New Guinea[edit]
  • Elizabeth II (reigned 1975–2022)
Solomon Islands[edit]
  • Elizabeth II (reigned 1978–2022)

Polynesia[edit]

American Samoa[edit]
Tui Manuʻa Matelita.
French Polynesia[edit]

Bora Bora

Huahine

Tehaapapa II and Tehaapapa III

Raiatea

  • Tehauroarii (reigned 1881–1884)
  • Tuarii (reigned till 1897) – she reigned under a rebellion government against the French with the support of Teraupo'o after Tamatoa VI abdicated.

Rapa Iti

Rimatara

Tahiti

  • Purea (reigned in the 18th century), queen of the Teva clan on the southern part of the island before unification
  • Pōmare IV (reigned 1827–1877)
Hawaii[edit]

Ancient Hawaii

Liliʻuokalani

Kingdom of Hawaii

Tonga[edit]
Tuvalu[edit]
  • Elizabeth II (reigned 1978–2022)
Wallis and Futuna[edit]

Uvea

Legendary and mythological monarchs[edit]

Chile[edit]

China[edit]

Congo[edit]

Kuba Kingdom[edit]

Women written in italics in the list of Kuba Kingdom rulers:[86]

  • Lobamba
  • Gokare
  • Sanga Motunu
  • Pelama Pena
  • Boeke
  • Sanga Lenga
  • Bosh Akama
  • Kele Kama
  • Bolueme

Czechia[edit]

Easter Island[edit]

Ecuador[edit]

Egypt[edit]

  • Nitocris of the Sixth Dynasty – Nitocris is mentioned within Herodotus' book Histories as being the last Pharaoh of the Sixth Dynasty of Egypt.
  • Charoba – A queen mentioned in a history of Egypt written by 12th-century Arab writer Murtada ibn al-'Afif.[87]
  • Daluka of the Soleyman Dynasty – An Antediluvian monarch from medieval Coptic and Arabic texts who supposedly built a wall around Egypt to protect the country from invasion and also was said to have built a pyramid and a nilometer at Memphis. Sometimes claimed to be a cousin of Charoba and her immediate successor.[87]
  • Borsa of the Soleyman Dynasty – Mentioned in medieval Coptic and Arabic texts as a ruler of Egypt in the Antediluvian era.[88] Sometimes described as a "priestess".[87]

Ethiopia[edit]

The following names all come from a regnal list written in 1922, which is partially based on native traditions and older regnal lists, but also contains additional names of Coptic and Nubian origin, the latter due to its association with the word "Aethiopia" in ancient and Biblical texts. Claimed dates follow the Ethiopian calendar.[89]

  • Borsa (reigned 4321–4254 BC) – Originated from Coptic tradition.[88]
  • Eylouka (reigned 3776–3731 BC) – Originated from Coptic tradition.[88]
  • Nehasset Nais (reigned 2434–2404 BC)
  • Kasiyope (reigned 1890–1871 BC) – Originated from Greek mythology.
  • Mumazes reigned (1675–1671 BC) – Daughter of king Bonu I.[90]
  • Aruas (reigned 1671 BC) – Daughter of Mumazes.[89]
  • Helena (reigned 1358–1347 BC)
  • Makeda (reigned 1013–982 BC) – The Biblical queen of Sheba in Ethiopian tradition and mother of Menelik I. She succeeded to the throne after the death of her father king Kawnasya.[91]
  • Nicauta Kandake I (reigned 740–730 BC)
  • Hadina (reigned 372–362 BC) – Most regnal lists of Ethiopia claim this monarch reigned for 9 years.[92]
  • Nikawla Kandake II (reigned 342–332 BC) – An alternate name for the Queen of Sheba[93]
  • Akawsis Kandake III (reigned 325–315 BC)
  • Nikosis Kandake IV (reigned 242–232 BC)
  • Awsena (reigned 99–88 BC) – Most regnal lists of Ethiopia claim this monarch reigned for 1 year.[92]
  • Nicotnis Kandake V (reigned 35–25 BC)
  • Garsemot Kandake VI (reigned 40–50 AD) – Supposedly the Kandake from the Biblical story of the Ethiopian Eunuch.[89]
  • Wakana (reigned 230 AD) – Reigned for 2 days.[89]
  • Ahywa Sofya (reigned 299–332 AD) – Likely based on Sofya of Axum, mother of Ezana.
  • Adhana I (reigned 369–374 AD) – Some regnal lists of Ethiopia claim this monarch reigned for 14 years.[94]
  • Adhana II (reigned 412–418 AD) – Some regnal lists claim this monarch co-ruled with king Abreha III.[94]

Kingdom of Simien[edit]

  • Gudit (reigned c. 960 – c. 1000)

Sidama people[edit]

French Polynesia[edit]

Greece[edit]

Amazons[edit]

  • Otrera, the daughter of Eurus (the east wind)
  • Hippolyta, the Amazonian queen who possessed a magical girdle
  • Penthesilea, the daughter of Ares and Otrera and the sister of Hippolyta, Antiope and Melanippe
  • Antianara, the daughter of Ares and Otrera and the sister of Hippolyta, Antiope and Melanippe
  • Eurypyle
  • Lampedo
  • Marpesia

India[edit]

Indonesia[edit]

Iran[edit]

Iraq[edit]

Ireland[edit]

Japan[edit]

Korea[edit]

  • Lady Saso, honorary queen regnant of Silla
  • Queen of Jeoknyeo-guk – Talhae's mother was the princess of Jeoknyeo-guk (Korean적녀국; Hanja積女國), an island country where only women lived[96]

Libya[edit]

Malaysia[edit]

Mexico[edit]

Aztec Empire[edit]

Myanmar[edit]

Norway[edit]

Pakistan[edit]

Poland[edit]

Russia[edit]

Somaliland[edit]

South Africa[edit]

Sri Lanka[edit]

Sudan[edit]

Tunisia[edit]

  • Dido (reigned 814–c. 760 BC) – also known as Alyssa. Founder of Carthage, according to tradition

Turkey[edit]

Turkmenistan[edit]

United Kingdom[edit]

Vatican City[edit]

Vietnam[edit]

Yemen[edit]

Constituent and self-proclaimed monarchs[edit]

Botswana[edit]

China[edit]

Easter Island[edit]

Haiti[edit]

India[edit]

Jamaica[edit]

New Zealand[edit]

Nigeria[edit]

Panama[edit]

United States Virgin Islands[edit]

The leaders of the 1878 St. Croix labor riot were:

Chieftainesses[edit]

Argentina[edit]

Botswana[edit]

Burundi[edit]

Chile[edit]

Cameroon[edit]

Dominican Republic[edit]

Fiji[edit]

Ghana[edit]

Guinea[edit]

Haiti[edit]

Ireland[edit]

Israel[edit]

Kenya[edit]

Kyrgyzstan[edit]

Liberia[edit]

Malawi[edit]

New Zealand[edit]

Māori people[edit]

Rarotonga[edit]

Niger[edit]

Nigeria[edit]

Pakistan[edit]

Peru[edit]

Puerto Rico[edit]

Sierra Leone[edit]

South Africa[edit]

Xhosa[edit]

South Sudan[edit]

United States of America[edit]

Appomattoc[edit]

Crow tribe[edit]

Giluts'aaw[edit]

  • Victoria Young

Hoocąk[edit]

Pamunkey[edit]

Pocasset Wampanoag[edit]

Sakonnet[edit]

Seneca tribe[edit]

Venezuela[edit]

Yemen[edit]

Semi-independent feudal rulers[edit]

Albania[edit]

Duchy of Durazzo[edit]

Principality of Albania[edit]

Principality of Valona[edit]

Bangladesh[edit]

India[edit]

Indonesia[edit]

Romania[edit]

Crown landholders[edit]

Estonia[edit]

Swedish Estonia

Russian Estonia

  • Catherine I (reigned 8 February 1725 – 17 May 1727)
  • Anna (reigned 13 February 1730 – 28 October 1740)
  • Elizabeth (reigned 6 December 1741 – 5 January 1762)
  • Catherine II (reigned 9 July 1762 – 6 November 1796)

Finland[edit]

Swedish Finland

Iceland[edit]

Norwegian Iceland

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Joan III of Upper Navarre.
  2. ^ Joan III of Lower Navarre.
  3. ^ Isabella I of Navarre.

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Bibliography[edit]

  • L. Pierotti Cei, Madonna Costanza, Regina di Sicilia e d'Aragona, Mondadori, Milan 1995.
  • S. Runciman, I Vespri siciliani, Rizzoli, Milan 1975.

External links[edit]