September 1927

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September 14, 1927: Isadora Duncan killed in freak accident
September 7, 1927: Philo Farnsworth demonstrates first electronic television
September 30, 1927: Babe Ruth hits 60th home run
Farnsworth's "image dissector" tube

The following events occurred in September 1927:

September 1, 1927 (Thursday)[edit]

September 2, 1927 (Friday)[edit]

  • At least eleven people were killed in the explosion of a fireworks factory in San Martín, Buenos Aires, Argentina.[3]
  • Augusto César Sandino, Nicaraguan rebel leader, assembled his soldiers outside his remote fortress at El Chipote, and gathered villagers from the surrounding area to present the new charter for his Army for the Defense of National Sovereignty. Hundreds of people signed a statement of commitment to the Sandinista manifesto. Many who were illiterate signed with their thumbprints.[4]
  • Babe Ruth of the New York Yankees hit the 400th home run of his career, becoming the first player to do so.[5]
  • The drama film The Garden of Allah starring Alice Terry and Iván Petrovich was released.

September 3, 1927 (Saturday)[edit]

  • In Youngstown, Ohio, 43-year-old Tony De Capua came home from work, picked up a .32-caliber semi-automatic pistol, and went on a shooting spree, killing his wife, his four daughters and his two grandchildren at his home at 443 Marion Avenue, then killed a neighbor. DeCapua shot and wounded his daughter-in-law, a passerby, and a city policeman, who returned fire and then overpowered the killer.[6] DeCapua was later ruled incompetent to stand trial and sent to the Ohio Hospital for the Criminally Insane in Lima.[7]
  • Hale Woodruff departed from New York for two years of study in France. After his return, he became one of the foremost African-American painters.[8]
  • Born: John Hamman, American magician, in St. Louis (d. 2000)

September 4, 1927 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Twenty-two people were killed and more than one hundred injured in the 1927 Nagpur riots.
  • Born: John McCarthy, American computer scientist and 1971 Turing award winner for work in Artificial Intelligence, in Boston (d. 2011); and Ferenc Sánta, Hungarian novelist, in Braşov, Romania (d. 2008)

September 5, 1927 (Monday)[edit]

  • Universal Studios introduced the first completely animated Walt Disney film short, with Oswald the Lucky Rabbit appearing in Trolley Troubles. Oswald was later superseded by the more popular Mickey Mouse.[9]
  • Bob Hope, 24, made his first appearance on Broadway, in The Sidewalks of New York, as a chorus boy, cast with his vaudeville partner George Byrne.[10]
  • Born: Paul Volcker, American economist, Chairman of the Federal Reserve Board 1979-1987; in Cape May, New Jersey (d. 2019)
  • Died:

September 6, 1927 (Tuesday)[edit]

September 7, 1927 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • At his laboratory at 202 Green Street in San Francisco, Philo T. Farnsworth demonstrated the first completely electronic television system. Although mechanical television, using a rotating disk, had been created earlier by John Logie Baird, the hardware limited the picture to 10 frames per second and a 30 line image. Farnsworth's system used his invention of an image dissector, a scanning electronic tube, to convert an image into electromagnetic waves that were then transmitted from one room of his lab to a receiver in another, where the image was displayed.[14] The first transmission was of a white line against a dark background. As the pane with line was moved in front of the scanner, the image on the screen moved as well. In a brief telegram to his fellow investors, George Everson wrote "The damned thing works!".[15]
  • The University of Minas Gerais was founded in Brazil.[16]
  • Attempting a transatlantic crossing, the airplane Old Glory sent an S.O.S. before crashing into the ocean with aviators Lloyd W. Bertaud, James D. Hill and Philip Payne on board. The liner Transylvania picked up the signal and a search of the general area began.[17] The wreckage of the Old Glory was found on September 12, 600 miles northeast of Newfoundland, but the three fliers were never located.[18]

September 8, 1927 (Thursday)[edit]

September 9, 1927 (Friday)[edit]

The original Sandinista
  • Indiana Governor Edward L. Jackson and Indianapolis Mayor John L. Duvall, both members of the Ku Klux Klan were indicted, along with Indiana Klan leader George V. Coffin, Klan counsel Robert I. Marsh and several other members. Governor Jackson and the others were accused of conspiracy to commit a felony and attempting to bribe, arising out of the alleged intimidation of former Governor Warren T. McCray, who had recently completed a term in a federal penitentiary.[22]
  • The last federal delivery of air mail took place, as the Postmaster General completed transition of the service from government-owned airplanes to private contractors.[23]
  • Nicaraguan rebels, after regrouping under the command of Augusto Sandino, ambushed a group of U.S. Marines who were marching near the U.S. base at Las Flores.[4]
  • Gustav Stresemann, the Foreign Minister of Germany, pledged his nation's support for the outlawing of war at a meeting of the League of Nations in Geneva.[24]
  • The comedy horror film The Cat and the Canary directed by Paul Leni and starring Laura La Plante, Forrest Stanley and Creighton Hale was released.

September 10, 1927 (Saturday)[edit]

  • Dr. Morris Fishbein, editor of the Journal of the American Medical Association and Secretary of the AMA, spoke out against recent American obsession with losing weight, saying that the "diet craze" had been "the menace of an anemic nation". Dr. Fishbein proclaimed that "If the false gospel of unscientific dieting continued to prevail for a few generations, the United States would become a nation of undersized weaklings and anemics, lacking in both physical and mental force." [25]

September 11, 1927 (Sunday)[edit]

  • U.S. President Coolidge ended his three-month vacation, returning to Washington, D.C. after having been in South Dakota since June 15. The Coolidge family moved back into the newly remodeled White House for the first time since March 2.[26]
  • Born:

September 12, 1927 (Monday)[edit]

  • U.S. Secretary of State Frank B. Kellogg warned the League of Nations that the United States would not abide by any ruling of the World Court over ownership of the Canal Zone. "American sovereignty over the Panama Canal is complete," said Kellogg. Panama, a member of the League, had asked that the question of American ownership of the Zone be decided by that body.[27]
  • Born: Pham Xuan An, South Vietnamese reporter for TIME Magazine who transmitted hundreds of classified documents to North Vietnam from 1952 to 1975; in Bien Hoa (d. 2006)

September 13, 1927 (Tuesday)[edit]

September 14, 1927 (Wednesday)[edit]

September 15, 1927 (Thursday)[edit]

  • Daniel R. Crissinger resigned as Chairman of the Federal Reserve Board, ten days after the Board had reduced the discount rate for Chicago banks from 4% to ​3 12%. After Board member Edmund Platt temporarily acted as the Governor of the Fed, Roy A. Young became the new chief on September 22.[36]
  • William S. Brock and Edward F. Schlee abandoned their quest to become the first persons to fly an airplane around the world. The pair had set off from Harbour Grace, Newfoundland on August 27 in the Pride of Detroit, and had gone halfway around the globe, landing in Japan at Omura, where their journey was halted by stormy weather. After friends and family convinced them that they risked death if they attempted to fly across the Pacific Ocean to Midway Island, Schlee and Brock made their final journey from Omura to Kasumigaura, then traveled back to the United States on a ship.[37]
  • Born: Rudolf Anderson, Jr., the only person to be killed in the Cuban Missile Crisis, in Greenville, South Carolina. USAF Major Anderson was killed on October 27, 1962, when his U-2 was shot down by a Cuban surface-to-air missile

September 16, 1927 (Friday)[edit]

September 17, 1927 (Saturday)[edit]

  • Seven people were killed and five injured in what was, at the time, the deadliest airplane crash in history [39] The death toll would be exceeded on December 3, 1928, by the crash, of a Brazilian plane, that would kill killed fourteen people.[40] The Fokker F.VII operated by Reynolds' Airways had been taking eleven passengers up for a brief sightseeing excursion from Hadley Field near South Plainfield, New Jersey, when the engine stalled at 500 feet and the plane crashed into an orchard.[41] *Born:

September 18, 1927 (Sunday)[edit]

  • The Columbia Phonographic Broadcasting System (later known as CBS) was formed and went on the air with a network of 16 radio stations in 11 U.S. states.[42] Going on the air at 2:00 pm from Newark with music from the Howard Barlow Orchestra, it was the third national network, after NBC's Red Network and Blue Network. At 3:00, Donald Voorhees conducted dance music, and at 8:00 pm, Deems Taylor conducted the Metropolitan Opera presentation of The King's Henchman.[43] In addition to the 16 network stations, the program was syndicated to another 58.[44] Initially, CPBS programming was limited to 8-10 pm on Monday, Wednesday and Friday, and 2-4 pm and 7-10 pm on Sundays.[45]
  • The Tannenberg Memorial was unveiled at a ceremony at the site of the German victory over Russia during World War One in the Battle of Tannenberg, near the town of Hohenstein in East Prussia. Germany's President Paul von Hindenburg told his audience that Germany had not been the aggressor during the First World War, saying "With pure hearts we came to the defense of the Fatherland!" [46]

September 19, 1927 (Monday)[edit]

  • The Trial of Mary Dugan began a successful run on Broadway of 437 performances, at the National Theatre, with Ann Harding in the title role and in 1928 in London. The play was made into a 1929 film starring Norma Shearer, and remade in 1941.
  • The U.S. Marine garrison at Telpaneca, near the Rio Coco, was the victim of a lightning attack by Sandinista forces. One Marine was killed in the fighting, and another died of his wounds later.[4][47]
  • Born: Harold Brown, American physicist who served as U.S. Secretary of Defense from 1977 to 1981; in New York City
  • Died: Michael Ancher, 78, Danish impressionist painter

September 20, 1927 (Tuesday)[edit]

September 21, 1927 (Wednesday)[edit]

September 22, 1927 (Thursday)[edit]

Tunney
  • Tunney v. Dempsey and "The Long Count": Former heavyweight boxing champion Jack Dempsey sought to regain the title that he had lost in 1926 to Gene Tunney. The rematch took place at Chicago's Soldier Field before a crowd of 104,943 people, while another ninety million people listened to Graham McNamee's radio broadcast. Shortly after 10:00 pm Chicago time, the fight began; fifty seconds into the seventh round, Dempsey briefly knocked Tunney unconscious with six consecutive punches and was within ten seconds of regaining his crown. Dempsey made the mistake of not immediately following an order by referee Dave Barry to "Go to the farthest corner" away from Tunney, and Barry had to walk the challenger to the proper spot. Timekeeper Paul Beeler had already reached five when Barry raced over and restarted the count at one. Tunney regained consciousness as Beeler counted, and stood to his feet by the count of nine, after having been face down for 14, and possibly 18 seconds. Tunney returned to action, finished the ten round fight, and won by unanimous decisions of the judges. The gate set a record of $2,658,660 in sales, and Dempsey and Tunney split a prize of $1,540,445.[50]
  • Born:

September 23, 1927 (Friday)[edit]

September 24, 1927 (Saturday)[edit]

  • The Assembly of the League of Nations unanimously adopted the Declaration on Aggression, resolving that aggressive war was an international crime punishable by League sanctions.[56]

September 25, 1927 (Sunday)[edit]

Richards
  • Vinnie Richards became the first professional American tennis champion by defeating Howard Kinsey in the finals of the new U.S. Pro Tennis Championships. Richards and Kinsey been teammates and won the men's doubles title of the 1926 U.S. National Championship before turning professional at the end of the year. Richards beat Kinsey 11–9, 6-4 and 6-3 to win the Longue View trophy and the $1,000 prize [57] (equivalent to more than $14,000 in 2018) [58]
  • The process of electric borehole logging, used to gather and make logs of data from wells as they were being drilled, was first used. The process, later very common in the industry, was performed at the Pechelbronn oil field in Alsace, France, by Marcel and Conrad Schlumberger[59]
  • All of the low lands (der Unterland) in the tiny principality of Liechtenstein were flooded when the Rhine River overflowed its banks at Schaan, ruining most of the nation's farmers. Volunteers from around Europe helped in what was described later as "one of the first international relief operations in peacetime".[60]
  • Born: Sir Colin Davis, English conductor, in Weybridge (d. 2013)

September 26, 1927 (Monday)[edit]

September 27, 1927 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • Leon Trotsky was expelled from the Comintern, as his power continued to decline. He would be expelled from the Soviet Communist Party the following month.[63]
  • I.G. Farben of Germany and Standard Oil of New Jersey entered a 25-year agreement providing the American oil company with access to German technology on crude oil hydrogenation.[64]
  • The discovery of a rich gold vein was made in the Gran Cordillera on the island of Luzon in the Philippines, by prospectors of the Benquet Consolidated Mining Company. By 1933, there were nearly 18,000 mining companies in the area, and by 1939, the Philippines was one of the world's leading gold producers.[65]
  • Groundbreaking took place for the George Washington Bridge on both sides of the Hudson River, at Manhattan and at Fort Lee, New Jersey, followed by speeches given on the steamer DeWitt Clinton, which had anchored in the middle of the river.[66]
  • The comedy-drama film College starring Buster Keaton was released.
  • Born:
    • Steve Stavro, Canadian sports businessman, soccer league founder, and one-time owner of the NHL Toronto Maple Leafs and the NBA Toronto Raptors; as Manoli Stavroff Sholdas in Macedonia (d. 2006)
    • W. S. Merwin, American poet, in New York City
    • Chrysostomos I of Cyprus, Archbishop of Cyprus from 1977 to 2006 (d. 2007)
    • Red Rodney (Robert Rodney Chudnick), American jazz musician, in Philadelphia (d. 1994)
  • Died: Frank M. Canton, 76, former American outlaw

September 28, 1927 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • Babe Ruth tied his record of 59 home runs hit in 1921, hitting his 58th and 59th in the Yankees' 15-0 win over the visiting Washington Senators, and their pitcher, Horace Lisenbee.[67]

September 29, 1927 (Thursday)[edit]

  • Seventy-nine people were killed and 550 are injured when a tornado struck the western part of St. Louis, Missouri. The twister struck at 1:00 in the afternoon, tearing through buildings, including St. Louis Central High School, where five students were killed and 16 injured.[68]
  • Born: Jean Baker Miller, pioneering American feminist, psychiatrist, and social activist; author of Toward a New Psychology of Women, in New York City (d. 2006)
  • Died: Willem Einthoven, 67, Dutch inventor of the electrocardiogram, winner of the Nobel Prize in 1924

September 30, 1927 (Friday)[edit]

  • Babe Ruth broke his own record for most home runs in a season (59) by hitting his 60th home run, a record that would stand until 1961. The run came in the 8th inning of the penultimate game of the season. Pitcher Tom Zachary had thrown one ball and one strike, when Ruth hit the ball into the bleachers and gave the New York Yankees a 4-2 win over the Washington Senators[69]
  • Born: Adhemar Ferreira da Silva, Brazilian athlete, twice holder of world record for the triple jump in the 1950s, Olympic gold medalist in 1952 and 1956 (d. 2001)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Roger E. Bilstein, Flight Patterns: Trends of Aeronautical Development in the United States, 1918-1929 (University of Georgia Press, 2008) p53; J. G. Wensveen, Air Transportation: A Management Perspective (Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2007) p322
  2. ^ Dickson A. Mungazi, The Last Defenders of the Laager: Ian D. Smith and F.W. de Klerk (Greenwood Publishing Group, 1998) p62
  3. ^ "Blast Kills 11", Miami Daily News, September 2, 1927, p3
  4. ^ a b c Daniel Castro, Revolution and Revolutionaries: Guerrilla Movements in Latin America(Rowman & Littlefield, 1999) p50
  5. ^ "When Players Hit Their 400th Home Run", Baseball Digest (April 2004) p17
  6. ^ "Seven Killed as Foreigner Runs Amuck in Youngstown", Pittsburgh Press, September 3, 1927, p1
  7. ^ "Murderer of 8 Insane", Pittsburgh Press, September 22, 1927, p1
  8. ^ Denise Jordan, Harlem Renaissance Artists (Heinemann-Raintree Library, 2002) pp51-52; Theresa A. Leininger-Miller, New Negro Artists in Paris: African American Painters and Sculptors in the City of Light, 1922-1934 (Rutgers University Press, 2001)
  9. ^ Timothy S. Susanin, Diane Disney Miller, Walt Before Mickey: Disney's Early Years, 1919-1928 (University Press of Mississippi, 2011) p28
  10. ^ Donald W. McCaffrey, The Road to Comedy: The Films of Bob Hope (Greenwood Publishing, 2005) p4
  11. ^ "Marcus Loew, Film Magnate, Dies in Sleep", Milwaukee Sentinel, September 6, 1927, p1
  12. ^ "WAYNE B. WHEELER DEAD!", Milwaukee Sentinel, September 6, 1927, p1
  13. ^ "280 Koreans Die as Ferry Sinks", Miami Daily News, September 8, 1927, p1
  14. ^ David R. Goff, et al., Fiber Optic Video Transmission: The Complete Guide (Focal Press, 2003) p14
  15. ^ Leslie Alan Horvitz, Eureka!: Scientific Breakthroughs that Changed the World (John Wiley and Sons, 2002) p104
  16. ^ UFMG Diversa (May 2007)
  17. ^ "SEARCH FOR 'OLD GLORY' FAILS", Miami Daily News, September 7, 1927, p1
  18. ^ "OLD GLORY WRECK FOUND; NO TRACE OF 3 AVIATORS", Milwaukee Sentinel, September 13, 1927, p1
  19. ^ Donald M. Pattillo, A History in the Making: 80 Turbulent Years in the American General Aviation Industry (McGraw-Hill Professional, 1998) p12; Cessna History Archived 2011-08-30 at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ Michael Brecher and Jonathan Wilkenfeld, A Study of Crisis (University of Michigan Press, 1997) p152
  21. ^ "Lipton Retires As Active Chief Of Tea Company", Milwaukee Sentinel, September 9, 1927, p1
  22. ^ "Gov. Jackson Indicted by Graft Jury", Milwaukee Sentinel, September 10, 1927, p1; "Indiana Klan Disrobed by Indictments", Milwaukee Sentinel, September 11, 1927, p1
  23. ^ Donald M. Pattillo, Pushing the Envelope: The American Aircraft Industry (University of Michigan Press, 2001) p60
  24. ^ "Germany Pledges Aid to Movement for Peace", Miami Daily News, September 10, 1927, p3
  25. ^ "'Diet Craze Dead-- Nearly Ruined Us,' Says Doctor", Milwaukee Sentinel, September 11, 1927, p4
  26. ^ "Coolidge Home from Vacation in Black Hills", Milwaukee Sentinel, September 12, 1927, p1
  27. ^ "Nations Told to Keep Hands off in Panama", Milwaukee Sentinel, September 13, 1927, p2
  28. ^ "Wind, Water Bring Death to Thousands; Earthquakes Under Pacific Take Toll in Mexico and Japan", Milwaukee Sentinel, September 14, 1927, p1
  29. ^ Anthony Read, The Devil's Disciples: Hitler's Inner Circle (W. W. Norton & Company, 2004) p168
  30. ^ Steinberg, Steve; Spatz, Lyle (2015). The Colonel and Hug: The Partnership that Transformed the New York Yankees. University of Nebraska Press. p. 260. ISBN 9780803284159.
  31. ^ Will Friedwald, A Biographical Guide to the Great Jazz and Pop Singers (Random House Digital, Inc., 2010) p25
  32. ^ "Isadora Duncan Killed by Auto— Shawl Caught On Car Hurls Her to Death— Dancer's Neck Broken when Body Hits Running Board", Milwaukee Sentinel, September 15, 1927, p1
  33. ^ Bob A. Nestor, Bob Jones University (Arcadia Publishing, 2008) p7
  34. ^ Guy Ball, Images of America: Tustin (Arcadia Publishing, 2011) p44
  35. ^ Anna M. Lawton, The Red Screen: Politics, Society, Art in Soviet Cinema (Routledge, 1992) p57, p65
  36. ^ "Young Is Governor of Reserve Board", Pittsburgh Press, September 22, 1927, p1
  37. ^ "Globe Flight Ends In Toko as Sea Hop Is Given Up", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, September 15, 1927, p1
  38. ^ John Canaday, The Nuclear Muse: Literature, Physics, and the First Atomic Bombs (University of Wisconsin Press, 2000) p58
  39. ^ https://www.newspapers.com/image/59900863
  40. ^ Edgar A. Haine, Disaster in the Air (Associated University Presses, 2000) p39
  41. ^ "7 Crash to Death, 5 Injured in Big Sight-Seeing Plane", Miami Daily News, September 18, 1927, p1
  42. ^ Flagship WOR (Newark); WEAN (Providence); WNAC (Boston); WFBL (Syracuse NY); WMAK (Buffalo), WCAU (Philadelphia); WJAS (Pittsburgh); WCAO (Baltimore); WKRC (Cincinnati); WGHP (Detroit); WOWO (Fort Wayne, IN); WMAQ (Chicago); WAIU (Columbus, O.); WADC (Akron); KOIL (Council Bluffs, IA/Omaha NE); and KMOX (St. Louis), "New Chain on Ether Sunday", Toledo News-Bee, September 17, 1927, p2
  43. ^ Peter W. Goodman, Morton Gould: American Salute (Hal Leonard Corporation, 2000) p86
  44. ^ "Columbia Chain in Debut Today; Sixteen Stations Will Radiate Gala Inaugural Program —- American Opera "The King's Henchman" on the Air Tonight", New York Times, September 19, 1927
  45. ^ Toledo News-Bee
  46. ^ "Von Hindenburg Speech Derides German 'Guilt'", Miami News, September 19, 1927, p1; Eric D. Weitz, Weimar Germany: Promise and Tragedy (Princeton University Press, 2007) p120
  47. ^ "Clash in Nicaragua", Montreal Gazette, September 21, 1927, p12
  48. ^ "19 Children Asleep Die in Mission Fire", Milwaukee Sentinel, September 22, 1927, p1
  49. ^ James Minahan, Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002) p377
  50. ^ Bruce J. Evensen, When Dempsey fought Tunney: Heroes, Hokum, and Storytelling in the Jazz Age (University of Tennessee Press, 1996); "TUNNEY WINS DECISION", Milwaukee Sentinel, September 23, 1927, p1
  51. ^ Daniel Eagan, America's Film Legacy: The Authoritative Guide to the Landmark Movies in the National Film Registry (Continuum International Publishing, 2010) pp131-133;
  52. ^ "The Screen", New York Times, September 24, 1927, p15
  53. ^ "Mussolini Movietones Message to America", Lewiston (ME) Evening Journal, September 17, 1927, pA-4
  54. ^ Sabine Hake, Topographies of Class: Modern Architecture and Mass Society in Weimar Berlin (University of Michigan Press, 2008) p242
  55. ^ "German Envoy to U.S. Killed", Pittsburgh Press, September 23, 1927, p1
  56. ^ Mauro Politi and Giuseppe Nesi, The International Criminal Court and the Crime of Aggression (Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2004) p244; "League Assembly Votes Outlawing of Aggressive War", New York Times, September 25, 1927, p1
  57. ^ "Vinnie Richards Wins First Pro Singles Title", Oakland Tribune, September 26, 1927, p12
  58. ^ U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Inflation Calculator
  59. ^ Winfried Zimmerle, H. Zimmerle, Petroleum Sedimentology (Springer, 1995) p72
  60. ^ David Beattie, Liechtenstein: A Modern History (I.B.Tauris, 2004) p73-74
  61. ^ Alan Redfern, Law and Practice of International Commercial Arbitration (Sweet & Maxwell, 2004) p68
  62. ^ Finn Seyersted, Common Law of International Organizations (BRILL, 2008) p258
  63. ^ "Trotsky", by Vladimir Iu. Cherniaev, in Critical Companion to the Russian Revolution, 1914-1921 (Indiana University Press, 1997) p192
  64. ^ John E. Lesch, The German Chemical Industry in the Twentieth Century (Springer, 2000) p186
  65. ^ Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization: Yearbook 1997 (Kluwer Law International, 1996) p64
  66. ^ Michael Aaron Rockland, The George Washington Bridge: Poetry in Steel (Rutgers University Press, 2008) p56
  67. ^ "BABE RUTH HITS TWO HOMERS TO TIE 1921 MARK", St. Petersburg (FL) Times, September 30, 1927, p9
  68. ^ "SPEED RELIEF WORK IN ST. LOUIS AS TORNADO DEATH TOLL MOUNTS", Pittsburgh Press, September 30, 1927, p1
  69. ^ Stuart Miller, The 100 Greatest Days in New York Sports (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2006); "BABE RUTH GETS HIS 60TH HOMERUN", Saskatoon Phoenix, October 1, 1927, p15