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Maharashtra, state of India, occupying a substantial portion of the Deccan plateau in the western peninsular part of the subcontinent. Its shape roughly resembles a triangle, with the 450-mile (725-km) western coastline forming the base and its interior narrowing to a blunt apex some 500 miles (800 km) to the east. Maharashtra is bounded by the Indian states of Gujarat to the northwest, Madhya Pradesh to the north, Chhattisgarh to the east, Telangana to the southeast, Karnataka to the south, and Goa to the southwest and by the union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and the Arabian Sea to the west.
Maharashtra’s capital, Mumbai (formerly Bombay), is an island city on the western coast, connected to the mainland by roads and railways. Aptly called the gateway of India, Maharashtra is one of India’s biggest commercial and industrial centres, and it has played a significant role in the country’s social and political life.
Maharashtra is a leader among Indian states in terms of agricultural and industrial production, trade and transport, and education. Its ancient culture, at one stage considerably obscured by British dominance, survives largely through the medium of a strong literary heritage. A common literature in Marathi, the predominant language of the state, has in fact played an important role in nurturing a sense of unity among the Maharashtrians. Area 118,800 square miles (307,690 square km). Pop. (2011) 112,372,972.
Relief, drainage, and soils
Maharashtra presents a complex range of physical diversity. To the west is the narrow Konkan coastal lowland, which reaches its widest extent near Mumbai. Numerous minor hills dominate the relief. There are many small, swift, west-flowing streams, most of them less than 50 miles (80 km) long. The biggest, the Ulhas, rising in the Bhor Ghat, joins the sea after an 80-mile (130-km) course.
The Western Ghats (a mountain range at the western edge of the Deccan plateau; ghat means “pass” in Marathi) run almost continuously for 400 miles (640 km) north-south, with the foothills reaching to within 4 miles (6.4 km) of the Arabian Sea. Elevations increase northward to peaks of some 4,720 feet (1,440 metres). There are a few passes through which roads and railroads link the coast with the interior. The eastern slopes of the Ghats descend gently to the Deccan plateau and are sculptured by the wide mature valleys of the Krishna, Bhima, and Godavari rivers.
Between the Narmada River valley in the north, the Krishna basin in the south, and the western coast to as far east as the city of Nagpur, the Ghats and the triangular plateau inland are covered with extensive lava outpourings called traps. They reach a maximum thickness of some 10,000 feet (3,000 metres) near Mumbai. The differential erosion of lava has resulted in characteristic steppelike slopes, uniform crest lines, and a tabletop appearance of many hills in Maharashtra.
Around Nagpur, the Deccan Traps give way to undulating uplands (about 890 to 1,080 feet [270 to 330 metres] high) underlain by ancient crystalline rocks. The Wardha-Wainganga valley, part of the larger Godavari basin, trends southward and has many lakes.
A major part of Maharashtra is covered in black soils derived from decomposed lava rocks that are commonly called “black cotton soils” (because cotton often is grown in them). Drifts along the slopes have eroded into medium brown and light-coloured sandy soils. Saline soils in the river valleys are the results of impeded soil drainage followed by intense evaporation.
The climate is subtropical to tropical (depending on elevation) and characteristically monsoonal (i.e., wet-dry), with local variations. India’s southwest monsoonal rains break on the Mumbai coast usually in the first week of June and last until September, during which period they account for about four-fifths of the annual rainfall. Four seasons are normal: March–May (hot and dry), June–September (hot and wet), October–November (warm and dry), and December–February (cool and dry).
The Western Ghats and the ranges on the northern borders greatly influence the climate and separate the wet Konkan Coast from the dry interior upland, an area called the Desh. Rainfall is extremely heavy in Konkan, averaging about 100 inches (2,540 mm), with some of the wettest spots receiving up to 250 inches (6,350 mm), but rapidly diminishes to one-fifth of that amount east of the Ghats. Rainfall increases again in the eastern areas, reaching about 40 to 80 inches (1,000 to 2,000 mm) in the extreme east.
The coastal regions enjoy equable temperatures; monthly averages at Mumbai are in the low 80s F (about 27–28 °C). A change of more than about 13 °F (7 °C) between day and night temperatures is unusual. Pune (Poona), higher up on the plateau, benefits from cooler temperatures throughout the year. In the interior, average summer temperatures reach into the low 100s F (about 38–41 °C), and winter temperatures average in the low 70s F (about 21–23 °C).
Plant and animal life
Forests cover less than one-fifth of the state and are confined to the Western Ghats, mainly their transverse ranges, the Satpura Range in the north, and the Chandrapur region in the east. On the coast and adjoining slopes, plant forms are rich with lofty trees, variegated shrubs, and mango and coconut trees. The forests yield teak, bamboo, myrobalan (for dyeing), and other woods.
Thorny savanna-like vegetation occurs in areas of lesser rainfall, notably in upland Maharashtra. Subtropical vegetation is found on higher plateaus that receive heavy rain and have milder temperatures. Bamboo, chestnut, and magnolia are common. In the semiarid tracts, wild dates are found. Mangrove vegetation occurs in marshes and estuaries along the coast.
Wild animals include tigers, leopards, bison, and several species of antelope. The striped hyena, wild hog, and sloth bear are common. Monkeys and snakes occur in great variety, as do ducks and other game birds. The peacock is indigenous. Many of those animals can be viewed at the state’s national parks at Tadoba, Chikhaldara, and Borivli. The state’s abundant marine life in the waters off the western coast remains largely unexploited.