List of Hispanic and Latino Americans in the United States Congress

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This is a list of Hispanic and Latino Americans who have served in the United States Congress. Persons included are identified as having a lineage from Spain or Latin America, a definition that includes Brazil but not Portugal.

Entries shaded in gray refer to current members of the U.S. Congress.

Senate[edit]

Picture Senator
(lifespan)
Hispanic or Latino ancestry Party State Term start Term end Notes
Sen. Bouligny Dominique Bouligny
(1773–1833)
Spanish Democratic-Republican
(1824–1828)
Louisiana November 19, 1824 March 4, 1829 Retired
National Republican
(1828–1829)
Sen. Yulee David Levy Yulee
(1810–1886)
Spanish Democratic Florida July 1, 1845 March 4, 1851 Lost reelection
March 4, 1855 January 21, 1861 Resigned when Florida seceded from the Union
Sen. Benjamin Judah P. Benjamin
(1811–1884)
Spanish[1] Whig
(1853–1856)
Louisiana March 4, 1853 February 4, 1861 Resigned when Louisiana seceded from the Union
Democratic
(1856–1861)
Sen. Larrazolo Octaviano Larrazolo[2]
(1859–1930)
Mexican[3] Republican New Mexico December 7, 1928 March 4, 1929 Retired
Sen. Chávez Dennis Chávez
(1888–1962)
Mexican[4] Democratic New Mexico May 11, 1935 November 18, 1962 Died in office
Sen. Montoya Joseph Montoya
(1915–1978)
Mexican[5] Democratic New Mexico November 4, 1964 January 3, 1977 Lost reelection
Sen. Sununu John E. Sununu
(born 1964)
Salvadoran[6] Republican New Hampshire January 3, 2003 January 3, 2009 Lost reelection
Sen. Martínez Mel Martínez[7]
(born 1946)
Cuban[8] Republican Florida January 3, 2005 September 9, 2009 Resigned
Sen. Salazar Ken Salazar
(born 1955)
Mexican[9] Democratic Colorado January 3, 2005 January 20, 2009 Resigned to become U.S. Secretary of the Interior
Sen. Menendez Bob Menendez
(born 1954)
Cuban[10] Democratic New Jersey January 17, 2006 Incumbent
Sen. Rubio Marco Rubio
(born 1971)
Cuban[11] Republican Florida January 3, 2011 Incumbent
Sen. Cruz Ted Cruz
(born 1970)
Cuban[11] Republican Texas January 3, 2013 Incumbent
Sen. Cortez Masto Catherine Cortez Masto[12]
(born 1964)
Mexican[13] Democratic Nevada January 3, 2017 Incumbent
Sen. Luján Ben Ray Luján
(born 1972)
Mexican[14] Democratic New Mexico January 3, 2021 Incumbent
Sen. Padilla Alex Padilla
(born 1973)
Mexican[15] Democratic California January 20, 2021 Incumbent

Elected, but not seated[edit]

Picture Senator-elect
(lifespan)
Hispanic or Latino ancestry Party State Year elected Notes
Sen.-elect Gayarré Charles Gayarré
(1805–1895)
Spanish Democratic Louisiana 1834 Prior to being seated, resigned due to ill health

House of Representatives[edit]

Picture Representative
(lifespan)
Hispanic or Latino ancestry Party State Term start Term end Notes
No image.svg Alcée la Branche
(1806–1881)
Spanish Democratic Louisiana March 4, 1843 March 4, 1845 Retired
Rep. Bouligny John Edward Bouligny
(1824–1864)
Spanish American (Know-Nothing)
(1859–1860)
Louisiana March 4, 1859 March 4, 1861 Retired[16]
Constitutional Union
(1860–1861)
Rep. Pacheco Romualdo Pacheco[17]
(1831–1899)
Mexican Republican California March 4, 1877 February 7, 1878 Lost election contestation
March 4, 1879 March 4, 1883 Retired
Rep. Coombs Frank Coombs
(1853–1934)
Mexican Republican California March 4, 1901 March 4, 1903 Lost reelection
Rep. Estopinal Albert Estopinal
(1845–1919)
Spanish Democratic Louisiana November 3, 1908 April 28, 1919 Died in office
Rep. Lazaro Ladislas Lazaro
(1872–1927)
Spanish Democratic Louisiana March 4, 1913 March 30, 1927 Died in office
Rep. Hernández Benigno C. Hernández
(1862–1954)
Mexican Republican New Mexico March 4, 1915 March 4, 1917 Lost reelection
March 4, 1919 March 4, 1921 Retired
Rep. Montoya Néstor Montoya
(1862–1923)
Mexican Republican New Mexico March 4, 1921 January 13, 1923 Died in office
Rep. Chávez Dennis Chávez
(1888–1962)
Mexican Democratic New Mexico March 4, 1931 January 3, 1935 Retired to run unsuccessfully for the U.S. Senate from New Mexico[18]
Rep. Fernández Joachim O. Fernández
(1896–1978)
Spanish Democratic Louisiana March 4, 1931 January 3, 1941 Lost reelection
Rep. Fernández Antonio M. Fernández
(1902–1956)
Mexican Democratic New Mexico January 3, 1943 November 7, 1956 Died in office
Rep. Montoya Joseph Montoya
(1915–1978)
Mexican Democratic New Mexico April 9, 1957 November 3, 1964 Retired to run successfully for the U.S. Senate from New Mexico
Rep. González Henry B. González
(1916–2000)
Mexican Democratic Texas November 4, 1961 January 3, 1999 Retired
Rep. Gill Thomas Ponce Gill
(1922–2009)
Cuban Democratic Hawaii January 3, 1963 January 3, 1965 Retired to run unsuccessfully for the U.S. Senate from Hawaii
Rep. Roybal Edward R. Roybal
(1916–2005)
Mexican Democratic California January 3, 1963 January 3, 1993 Retired
Rep. de la Garza Kika de la Garza
(1927–2017)
Mexican Democratic Texas January 3, 1965 January 3, 1997 Retired
Rep. Lujan Manuel Lujan
(1928–2019)
Mexican Republican New Mexico January 3, 1969 January 3, 1989 Retired[19]
Rep. Badillo Herman Badillo
(1929–2014)
Puerto Rican Democratic New York January 3, 1971 December 31, 1977 Resigned to become Deputy Mayor of New York City
Rep. Rangel Charles Rangel
(born 1930)
Puerto Rican Democratic New York January 3, 1971 January 3, 2017 Retired
Rep. García Robert Garcia
(1933–2017)
Puerto Rican Democratic New York February 21, 1978 January 7, 1990 Resigned[20]
Rep. Martínez Matthew Martínez
(1929–2011)
Mexican
Democratic
(1982–2000)
.
California July 13, 1982 January 3, 2001 Lost renomination as a Democrat and joined the Republican Party
Republican
(2000–2001)
Rep. Ortiz Solomon P. Ortiz
(born 1937)
Mexican Democratic Texas January 3, 1983 January 3, 2011 Lost reelection
Rep. Richardson Bill Richardson
(born 1947)
Mexican Democratic New Mexico January 3, 1983 February 13, 1997 Resigned to become U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations[21]
Rep. Torres Esteban E. Torres
(born 1930)
Mexican Democratic California January 3, 1983 January 3, 1999 Retired
Rep. Vucanovich Barbara Vucanovich[22]
(1921–2013)
Mexican Republican Nevada January 3, 1983 January 3, 1997 Retired
Rep. Bustamente Albert Bustamante
(born 1935)
Mexican Democratic Texas January 3, 1985 January 3, 1993 Lost reelection[23]
Rep. Ros-Lehtinen Ileana Ros-Lehtinen
(born 1952)
Cuban Republican Florida August 29, 1989 January 3, 2019 Retired
Rep. Serrano José E. Serrano
(born 1943)
Puerto Rican Democratic New York March 20, 1990 January 3, 2021 Retired
Rep. Pastor Ed Pastor
(1943–2018)
Mexican Democratic Arizona October 3, 1991 January 3, 2015 Retired
Rep. Becerra Xavier Becerra
(born 1958)
Mexican Democratic California January 3, 1993 January 24, 2017 Resigned to become Attorney General of California[24]
Rep. Bonilla Henry Bonilla
(born 1954)
Mexican Republican Texas January 3, 1993 January 3, 2007 Lost reelection
Rep. Díaz-Balart Lincoln Díaz-Balart
(born 1954)
Cuban Republican Florida January 3, 1993 January 3, 2011 Retired
Rep. Gutiérrez Luis Gutiérrez
(born 1953)
Puerto Rican Democratic Illinois January 3, 1993 January 3, 2019 Retired
Rep. Menendez Bob Menendez
(born 1954)
Cuban Democratic New Jersey January 3, 1993 January 16, 2006 Resigned to accept appointment as U.S. Senator from New Jersey
Rep. Roybal-Allard Lucille Roybal-Allard
(born 1941)
Mexican Democratic California January 3, 1993 Incumbent
Rep. Tejeda Frank Tejeda
(1945–1997)
Mexican Democratic Texas January 3, 1993 January 30, 1997 Died in office
Rep. Velázquez Nydia Velázquez
(born 1953)
Puerto Rican Democratic New York January 3, 1993 Incumbent
Rep. Hinojosa Rubén Hinojosa
(born 1940)
Mexican Democratic Texas January 3, 1997 January 3, 2017 Retired
Rep. Reyes Silvestre Reyes
(born 1944)
Mexican Democratic Texas January 3, 1997 January 3, 2013 Lost renomination
Rep. Sánchez Loretta Sánchez
(born 1960)
Mexican Democratic California January 3, 1997 January 3, 2017 Retired to run unsuccessfully for the U.S. Senate from California
Rep. Sununu John E. Sununu
(born 1964)
Salvadoran Republican New Hampshire January 3, 1997 January 3, 2003 Retired to run successfully for the U.S. Senate from New Hampshire
Rep. Rodríguez Ciro Rodríguez
(born 1946)
Mexican Democratic Texas April 12, 1997 January 3, 2005 Lost renomination
January 3, 2007 January 3, 2011 Lost reelection
Rep. González Charlie González
(born 1945)
Mexican Democratic Texas January 3, 1999 January 3, 2013 Retired
Rep. Napolitano Grace Napolitano
(born 1936)
Mexican Democratic California January 3, 1999 Incumbent
Rep. Baca Joe Baca
(born 1947)
Mexican Democratic California November 16, 1999 January 3, 2013 Lost reelection
Rep. Solis Hilda Solis
(born 1957)
Mexican
Nicaraguan
Democratic California January 3, 2001 February 24, 2009 Resigned to become U.S. Secretary of Labor
Rep. Díaz-Balart Mario Díaz-Balart
(born 1961)
Cuban Republican Florida January 3, 2003 Incumbent
Rep. Grijalva Raúl Grijalva
(born 1948)
Mexican Democratic Arizona January 3, 2003 Incumbent
Rep. Sánchez Linda Sánchez
(born 1969)
Mexican Democratic California January 3, 2003 Incumbent
Rep. Cuellar Henry Cuellar
(born 1955)
Mexican Democratic Texas January 3, 2005 Incumbent
Rep. Salazar John Salazar
(born 1953)
Mexican Democratic Colorado January 3, 2005 January 3, 2011 Lost reelection
Rep. Sires Albio Sires
(born 1951)
Cuban Democratic New Jersey November 13, 2006 Incumbent
Rep. Luján Ben Ray Luján
(born 1972)
Mexican Democratic New Mexico January 3, 2009 January 3, 2021 Retired to run successfully for the U.S. Senate from New Mexico
Rep. Garamendi John Garamendi
(born 1945)
Spanish Democratic California November 3, 2009 Incumbent
Rep. Canseco Quico Canseco
(born 1949)
Mexican Republican Texas January 3, 2011 January 3, 2013 Lost reelection
Rep. Flores Bill Flores
(born 1954)
Spanish Republican Texas January 3, 2011 January 3, 2021 Retired
Rep. Herrera Beutler Jaime Herrera Beutler
(born 1978)
Mexican Republican Washington January 3, 2011 Incumbent
Rep. Labrador Raúl Labrador
(born 1967)
Puerto Rican Republican Idaho January 3, 2011 January 3, 2019 Retired to run unsuccessfully for the Republican nomination for Governor of Idaho
Rep. Rivera David Rivera
(born 1965)
Cuban Republican Florida January 3, 2011 January 3, 2013 Lost reelection
Rep. Cardena Tony Cárdenas
(born 1963)
Mexican Democratic California January 3, 2013 Incumbent
Rep. Castro Joaquin Castro
(born 1974)
Mexican Democratic Texas January 3, 2013 Incumbent
Pete Gallego official portrait.jpg Pete Gallego
(born 1961)
Mexican Democratic Texas January 3, 2013 January 3, 2015 Lost reelection
Rep. Garcia Joe Garcia
(born 1963)
Cuban Democratic Florida January 3, 2013 January 3, 2015 Lost reelection
Rep. Lujan-Grisham Michelle Lujan Grisham
(born 1959)
Mexican Democratic New Mexico January 3, 2013 December 31, 2018 Resigned to become Governor of New Mexico
Rep. Negrete McLeod Gloria Negrete McLeod
(born 1941)
Mexican Democratic California January 3, 2013 January 3, 2015 Retired to run unsuccessfully for the Board of Supervisors of San Bernardino County, California
Rep. Ruiz Raul Ruiz
(born 1972)
Mexican Democratic California January 3, 2013 Incumbent
Rep. Vargas Juan Vargas
(born 1961)
Mexican Democratic California January 3, 2013 Incumbent
Rep. Vela Filemón Vela
(born 1963)
Mexican Democratic Texas January 3, 2013 Incumbent
Rep. Aguilar Pete Aguilar
(born 1979)
Mexican Democratic California January 3, 2015 Incumbent
Rep. Curbelo Carlos Curbelo
(born 1980)
Cuban Republican Florida January 3, 2015 January 3, 2019 Lost reelection
Rep. Gallego Ruben Gallego
(born 1979)
Mexican
Colombian
Democratic Arizona January 3, 2015 Incumbent
Rep. Mooney Alex Mooney
(born 1971)
Cuban Republican West Virginia January 3, 2015 Incumbent
Rep. Torres Norma Torres
(born 1965)
Guatemalan Democratic California January 3, 2015 Incumbent
Rep. Barragán Nanette Barragán
(born 1976)
Mexican Democratic California January 3, 2017 Incumbent
Rep. Carbajal Salud Carbajal
(born 1964)
Mexican Democratic California January 3, 2017 Incumbent
Rep. Correa Lou Correa
(born 1958)
Mexican Democratic California January 3, 2017 Incumbent
Rep. Espaillat Adriano Espaillat
(born 1954)
Dominican Democratic New York January 3, 2017 Incumbent
Rep. Gonzalez Vicente Gonzalez
(born 1967)
Mexican Democratic Texas January 3, 2017 Incumbent
Rep. Kihuen Rubén Kihuen
(born 1980)
Mexican Democratic Nevada January 3, 2017 January 3, 2019 Retired
Rep. Mast Brian Mast
(born 1980)
Mexican Republican Florida January 3, 2017 Incumbent
Rep. Soto Darren Soto
(born 1978)
Puerto Rican Democratic Florida January 3, 2017 Incumbent
Rep. Gomez Jimmy Gomez
(born 1974)
Mexican Democratic California July 11, 2017 Incumbent
Rep. Cisneros Gil Cisneros
(born 1971)
Mexican Democratic California January 3, 2019 January 3, 2021 Lost reelection
Rep. Delgado Antonio Delgado
(born 1977)
Puerto Rican Democratic New York January 3, 2019 Incumbent
Rep. Escobar Veronica Escobar
(born 1969)
Mexican Democratic Texas January 3, 2019 Incumbent
Rep. García Chuy García
(born 1956)
Mexican Democratic Illinois January 3, 2019 Incumbent
Rep. Garcia Sylvia Garcia
(born 1950)
Mexican Democratic Texas January 3, 2019 Incumbent
Anthony Gonzalez, official portrait, 116th Congress 2.jpg Anthony Gonzalez
(born 1984)
Cuban Republican Ohio January 3, 2019 Incumbent
Rep. Levin Mike Levin
(born 1978)
Mexican Democratic California January 3, 2019 Incumbent
Debbie Mucarsel-Powell, official portrait, 116h Congress.jpg Debbie Mucarsel-Powell
(born 1971)
Ecuadorian Democratic Florida January 3, 2019 January 3, 2021 Lost reelection
Rep. Ocasio-Cortez Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez
(born 1989)
Puerto Rican Democratic New York January 3, 2019 Incumbent
Rep. Torres Small Xochitl Torres Small
(born 1984)
Mexican Democratic New Mexico January 3, 2019 January 3, 2021 Lost reelection
Rep. Garcia Mike Garcia
(born 1976)
Mexican Republican California May 19, 2020 Incumbent
Rep.-elect Giménez Carlos Giménez
(born 1954)
Cuban Republican Florida January 3, 2021 Incumbent
Tony-Gonzales-Congress.jpg Tony Gonzales
(born 1980)
Mexican Republican Texas January 3, 2021 Incumbent
Rep.-elect Leger Fernandez Teresa Leger Fernandez
(born 1959)
Mexican Democratic New Mexico January 3, 2021 Incumbent
Rep.-elect Malliotakis Nicole Malliotakis
(born 1980)
Cuban Republican New York January 3, 2021 Incumbent
Rep.-elect Salazar Maria Elvira Salazar
(born 1961)
Cuban Republican Florida January 3, 2021 Incumbent
Rep.-elect Torres Ritchie Torres
(born 1988)
Puerto Rican Democratic New York January 3, 2021 Incumbent

House delegates (non-voting members)[edit]

(Note: Delegates are organized first in chronological order according to their first term in office, then second in alphabetical order according to their surname.)

Picture Delegate[25]
(lifespan)
Hispanic or Latino ancestry Party Territory Term start Term end Notes
Del. Hernández Joseph Marion Hernández
(1788–1857)
Spanish Democratic-Republican Florida September 30, 1822 March 4, 1823 Retired
Del. Yulee David Levy Yulee
(1810–1886)
Spanish Democratic Florida March 4, 1841 March 3, 1845 Office eliminated when Territory of Florida was admitted to the Union as the State of Florida[26]
Del. Gallegos José Manuel Gallegos
(1815–1875)
Mexican Democratic New Mexico March 4, 1853 July 23, 1856 Lost election contestation
March 4, 1871 March 4, 1873 Lost reelection
Del. Otero Miguel Antonio Otero
(1829–1882)
Mexican Democratic New Mexico July 23, 1856 March 4, 1861 Retired
Del. Perea Francisco Perea
(1830–1913)
Mexican Republican New Mexico March 4, 1863 March 4, 1865 Lost reelection
Del. Chaves José Francisco Chaves
(1833–1904)
Mexican Republican New Mexico March 4, 1865 March 4, 1867 Lost reelection
February 20, 1869 March 4, 1871 Lost reelection
Del. Romero Trinidad Romero
(1835–1918)
Mexican Republican New Mexico March 4, 1877 March 4, 1879 Retired
Del. Otero Mariano S. Otero
(1844–1904)
Mexican Republican New Mexico March 4, 1879 March 4, 1881 Retired
Del. Luna Tranquilino Luna
(1849–1892)
Mexican Republican New Mexico March 4, 1881 March 5, 1884 Lost election contestation
Del. Manzanares Francisco Antonio Manzanares
(1843–1904)
Mexican Democratic New Mexico March 5, 1884 March 4, 1885 Retired
Del. Perea Pedro Perea
(1852–1906)
Mexican Republican New Mexico March 4, 1899 March 4, 1901 Retired
Res. Comm. Degetau Federico Degetau
(1862–1914)
Puerto Rican Republican Puerto Rico March 4, 1901 March 4, 1905 Retired
Res. Comm. Larrínaga Tulio Larrínaga
(1847–1917)
Puerto Rican Unionist Puerto Rico March 4, 1905 March 4, 1911 Lost reelection
Res. Comm. Legarda Benito Legarda
(1853–1915)
Spanish Federalist
(Republican)
Philippine Islands November 22, 1907 March 3, 1912 Retired
Res. Comm. Quezón Manuel L. Quezón
(1878–1944)
Spanish Nacionalista Philippine Islands November 23, 1909 October 15, 1916 Retired[27]
Res. Comm. Muñoz-Rivera Luis Muñoz-Rivera
(1859–1916)
Puerto Rican Unionist Puerto Rico March 4, 1911 November 15, 1916 Died in office
Res. Comm. Córdova-Dávila Félix Córdova-Dávila
(1878–1938)
Puerto Rican Unionist Puerto Rico August 7, 1917 April 11, 1932 Resigned to accept appointment as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico
Res. Comm. Gabaldón Isauro Gabaldón
(1875–1942)
Spanish Nacionalista Philippine Islands March 4, 1920 July 16, 1928 Resigned
Res. Comm. Pesquera José Lorenzo Pesquera
(1882–1950)
Puerto Rican Independent Puerto Rico April 15, 1932 March 4, 1933 Retired
Res. Comm. Iglesias Santiago Iglesias
(1872–1939)
Spanish Coalitionist Puerto Rico March 4, 1933 December 5, 1939 Died in office
Res. Comm. Delgado Francisco A. Delgado
(1886–1964)
Spanish Nacionalista Philippine Islands January 3, 1935 February 14, 1936 Retired
Res. Comm. Elizalde Joaquín Miguel Elizalde
(1896–1965)
Spanish Nonpartisan Philippines September 29, 1938 August 9, 1944 Resigned
Res. Comm. Pagán Bolívar Pagán
(1897–1961)
Puerto Rican Coalitionist Puerto Rico December 26, 1939 January 3, 1945 Lost reelection
Res. Comm. Piñero Jesús T. Piñero
(1897–1952)
Puerto Rican Popular
Democratic
Puerto Rico January 3, 1945 September 2, 1946 Resigned to accept appointment as Governor of Puerto Rico
Res. Comm. Fernós-Isern Antonio Fernós-Isern
(1895–1974)
Puerto Rican Popular
Democratic
Puerto Rico September 11, 1946 January 3, 1965 Retired to run successfully for the Puerto Rico Senate
Res. Comm. Polanco-Abreu Santiago Polanco-Abreu
(1920–1988)
Puerto Rican Popular
Democratic
Puerto Rico January 3, 1965 January 3, 1969 Lost reelection
Res. Comm. Córdova Jorge Luis Córdova
(1907–1994)
Puerto Rican New Progressive Puerto Rico January 3, 1969 January 3, 1973 Lost reelection
Res. Comm. Benítez Jaime Benítez
(1908–2001)
Puerto Rican Popular
Democratic
Puerto Rico January 3, 1973 January 3, 1977 Lost reelection
Del. de Lugo Ron de Lugo
(1930–2020)
Puerto Rican Democratic Virgin Islands January 3, 1973 January 3, 1979 Retired to run unsuccessfully for Governor of the U.S. Virgin Islands
January 3, 1981 January 3, 1995 Retired
Res. Comm. Corrada del Río Baltasar Corrada del Río
(1935–2018)
Puerto Rican New Progressive Puerto Rico January 3, 1977 January 3, 1985 Retired to run successfully for Mayor of San Juan, Puerto Rico
Res. Comm. Fuster Jaime Fuster
(1941–2007)
Puerto Rican Popular
Democratic
Puerto Rico January 3, 1985 March 4, 1992 Resigned to accept appointment as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico
Res. Comm. Colorado Antonio Colorado
(born 1939)
Puerto Rican Popular
Democratic
Puerto Rico March 4, 1992 January 3, 1993 Lost reelection
Res. Comm. Romero-Barceló Carlos Romero-Barceló[28]
(1932–2021)
Puerto Rican New Progressive Puerto Rico January 3, 1993 January 3, 2001 Lost reelection
Res. Comm. Acevedo-Vilá Aníbal Acevedo-Vilá
(born 1962)
Puerto Rican Popular
Democratic
Puerto Rico January 3, 2001 January 2, 2005 Retired to run successfully for Governor of Puerto Rico
Res. Comm. Fortuño Luis Fortuño
(born 1960)
Puerto Rican New Progressive Puerto Rico January 3, 2005 January 2, 2009 Retired to run successfully for Governor of Puerto Rico
Res. Comm. Pierluisi Pedro Pierluisi
(born 1959)
Puerto Rican New Progressive Puerto Rico January 3, 2009 January 3, 2017 Retired to run unsuccessfully for the nomination for Governor of Puerto Rico[29]
Res. Comm. González Jenniffer González
(born 1976)
Puerto Rican New Progressive Puerto Rico January 3, 2017 Incumbent

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Judah Philip Benjamin". U.S. National Park Service. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  2. ^ Larrazolo was the first Latino to serve in the U.S. Senate.
  3. ^ "Octaviano Larrazolo". Library of Congress. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  4. ^ "New Mexico lawmaker proposes holiday to honor Cesar Chavez, Dennis Chavez". NBC News. January 7, 2019. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  5. ^ "Joseph Manuel Montoya". Library of Congress. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  6. ^ Lauter, David (August 27, 2012). "Sununu urges comprehensive action on immigration". Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  7. ^ Martinez previously served as United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.
  8. ^ "Mel Martinez on President's Cuba Speech, RNC Resignation". NPR. October 25, 2007. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  9. ^ Johnson, Kirk (June 11, 2006). "At Fore on Immigration, Senator Has a Story to Tell". The New York Times. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  10. ^ Gambino, Lauren (July 8, 2014). "New Jersey senator Robert Menendez alleges Cuba behind sex allegations". The Guardian. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  11. ^ a b Glenza, Jessica (November 27, 2016). "Cruz and Rubio condemn Castro as questions remain over Cuba-US ties". The Guardian. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  12. ^ Cortez Masto is the first Latina to serve in the U.S. Senate.
  13. ^ Gamboa, Suzanne (January 3, 2017). "'It's About Time': Catherine Cortez Masto, 1st Latina U.S. Senator Sworn In". NBC News. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  14. ^ Bernal, Rafael (November 4, 2020). "Democrat Ben Ray Luján wins open Senate seat in New Mexico". The Hill. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  15. ^ Kumar, Maria Teresa (December 28, 2020). "Padilla's California nomination helps heal America's historical omission of the Latino experience". MSNBC. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  16. ^ Bouligny was the only congressman from Louisiana not to resign when the state seceded from the Union.
  17. ^ Pacheco was the first Latino to serve in Congress, and previously served as the first (and, to date, only) Hispanic Governor of the State of California.
  18. ^ Chávez later was appointed as United States Senator from New Mexico.
  19. ^ Lujan later served as United States Secretary of the Interior.
  20. ^ Garcia later was jailed due to the Wedtech scandal, but his conviction ultimately was reversed by an appellate court.
  21. ^ Richardson later served as United States Secretary of Energy and Governor of New Mexico.
  22. ^ Though Ileana Ros-Lehtinen is widely credited as the first Hispanic woman in Congress, Vucanovich's mother was of partial Mexican Hispanic heritage.
  23. ^ Bustamante later was jailed for bribery.
  24. ^ Becerra later served as United States Secretary of Health and Human Services.
  25. ^ Delegates from Puerto Rico (since 1901) and from the Philippines (from 1907 to 1946) officially are known as Resident Commissioners.
  26. ^ Yulee later was elected as United States Senator from Florida.
  27. ^ Quezón later served as President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines.
  28. ^ Romero-Barceló previously served as Governor of Puerto Rico.
  29. ^ Pierluisi later served as Governor of Puerto Rico.