British royal residences are palaces, castles and houses occupied by members of the British royal family in the United Kingdom. Some, like Buckingham Palace and Windsor Castle, are owned by the Crown; i.e. ownership by the British monarch is by virtue of his or her position as king or queen, while others like Balmoral Castle and Sandringham House are personally owned and have been passed down for generations. Some royal palaces, such as the Palace of Westminster are no longer residences. Some remain in irregular use for royal occasions, such as Hillsborough Castle in Northern Ireland.
The royal palaces enjoy certain legal privileges: for example, there is an exemption from levying duty on alcoholic beverages sold in the bars at the Palace of Westminster and there are exemptions from health and safety legislation. According to Halsbury's Laws of England , it is not possible to arrest a person within the "verges" of a royal palace (though this assertion is contradicted by a memorandum by the Clerk of the House of Commons in respect of the Palace of Westminster) and when a royal palace is used as a residence (regardless of whether the monarch is actually living there at the time)[ further explanation needed ], judicial processes cannot be executed within that palace.
The occupied royal residences are cared for and maintained by the Royal Household Property Section. The unoccupied royal palaces of England, along with Hillsborough Castle, are the responsibility of Historic Royal Palaces.
|Buckingham Palace||London, England||Crown||The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh||Official London residence|
|Windsor Castle||Windsor, Berkshire, England||Crown||The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh||Official country residence|
|Palace of Holyroodhouse||Edinburgh, Scotland||Crown||The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh||Official Scottish residence (whenever the royal family undertake official duties in Scotland: primarily Holyrood week in July)|
|Hillsborough Castle||County Down, Northern Ireland||Crown||The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh||Official residence in Northern Ireland (whenever the royal family undertake official duties in Northern Ireland)|
|Sandringham House||Sandringham, Norfolk, England||Private||The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh||Christmas until February, inherited from the current Queen's father|
|Balmoral Castle||Aberdeenshire, Scotland||Private||The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh||August and September, inherited from the current Queen's father|
|Craigowan Lodge||Balmoral, Aberdeenshire||Private||The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh||Inherited from the current Queen's father|
|Clarence House||London||Crown||The Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall||Official London residence, grace and favour|
|Highgrove House||Gloucestershire||Duchy of Cornwall||The Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall|
|Llwynywermod||Myddfai, Llandovery, Carmarthenshire, Wales||Duchy of Cornwall||The Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall||Usual country residence of the Prince of Wales in Wales|
|Tamarisk||Isles of Scilly||Duchy of Cornwall||The Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall|
|Birkhall||Balmoral, Aberdeenshire||Private||The Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall||Previously used by Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother; located on the estate of Balmoral Castle|
|Kensington Palace||London||Crown||The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge||Official London residence, also a Historic Royal Palace, grace and favour|
|Anmer Hall||Sandringham Estate, Norfolk||Private||The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge||Located on the grounds of Sandringham House|
|Buckingham Palace||London||Crown||The Duke and Duchess of Sussex||Official London residence, grace and favour|
|Frogmore Cottage||Windsor, Berkshire||Crown||The Duke and Duchess of Sussex||Official country residence, leased from the Crown Estate|
|St James's Palace||London||Crown||The Princess Royal||Official London residence, grace and favour|
|Gatcombe Park||Minchinhampton, Gloucestershire||Private||The Princess Royal||Privately owned home|
|Buckingham Palace||London||Crown||The Duke of York||Official London residence, grace and favour|
|The Royal Lodge||Windsor, Berkshire||Crown||The Duke of York||Official country residence, leased from the Crown Estate|
|St James's Palace||London||Crown||Princess Beatrice||Current residence, leased from the Crown Estate|
|The Royal Lodge||Windsor, Berkshire||Crown||Princess Beatrice|
|Ivy Cottage||Kensington Palace, London||Crown||Princess Eugenie||Current residence, leased from the Crown Estate|
|The Royal Lodge||Windsor, Berkshire||Crown||Princess Eugenie|
|Buckingham Palace||London||Crown||The Earl and Countess of Wessex||Official London residence, grace and favour|
|Bagshot Park||Bagshot, Surrey||Crown||The Earl and Countess of Wessex||Official country residence, leased from the Crown Estate|
|Kensington Palace||London||Crown||The Duke and Duchess of Gloucester||Official London residence, also a Historic Royal Palace, grace and favour|
|Barnwell Manor||Barnwell, Northamptonshire||Private||The Duke and Duchess of Gloucester||Not in residence – as of 2017 it was occupied by Windsor House Antiques.|
|Wren House||Kensington Palace, London||Crown||The Duke and Duchess of Kent||Official London residence, also a Historic Royal Palace, grace and favour|
|St James's Palace||London||Crown||Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy||Official London residence, grace and favour|
|Thatched House Lodge||Richmond, London||Crown||Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy||Official country residence, leased from the Crown Estate|
|Kensington Palace||London||Crown||Prince and Princess Michael of Kent||Official London residence, also a Historic Royal Palace, leased from the Crown Estate|
|Residence||Location||Royals and Dates|
|Abergeldie Castle||Abergeldie, Aberdeenshire||Queen Victoria to Elizabeth II (1848–1970)|
|Albany||Piccadilly, London||Prince Frederick, Duke of York (1791–1802)|
|Allerton Castle||North Yorkshire||Prince Frederick, Duke of York (1786–1789)|
|Apethorpe Palace||Apthorp Park, in Apethorpe, Northamptonshire||Henry VIII to Charles I|
|Audley End House||Saffron Walden, Essex||Charles II (1668–1701)|
|Banqueting House||Whitehall, London||Last remaining property of the Palace of Whitehall, now a Historic Royal Palace|
|Barnwell Manor||Northamptonshire||Princes Henry and Richard, Dukes of Gloucester (1938–1995; still owned)|
|Palace of Beaulieu||Chelmsford, Essex||Henry VIII; Edward VI; Mary I; Elizabeth I (1517–1622)|
|Beaumont Palace||Oxford||Henry I to Edward II; 1130–1318)|
|Fort Belvedere||Windsor Great Park||Prince William, Duke of Cumberland; Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught; Edward VIII, Gerald and Angela Lascelles (1750–1976)|
|Bentley Priory||London||Queen Adelaide (leased 1846/8–1849)|
|Berkhamsted Castle||Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire||William the Conqueror (1066); Henry I (1123); Edward, the Black Prince (1337); a number of Queens consort (1191–1400); last occupied 1469–1496 by Cecily Neville, Duchess of York|
|Birch Hall||Surrey||Bought and sold in 1998 by the trustees representing Princesses Beatrice and Eugenie of York. Never occupied by the Princesses nor their mother, who claimed that financial difficulties prevented her from running the house (1998)|
|Brantridge Park||Balcombe, West Sussex||Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone; Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom (1919–1941)|
|Bridewell Palace||London||Henry VIII; Edward VI (1515–1523, owned until 1556)|
|Brill Palace||Brill, Buckinghamshire||Edward the Confessor; Harold Godwinson; William the Conqueror; William II; Henry I; Stephen; Henry II; John; Henry III; Edward I; Edward II; Edward III (c. 1042–1337; given to Sir John de Moleyns)|
|Bushy House||Teddington, London||William IV; the FitzClarences; Mrs Jordan; Queen Adelaide (1797–1849; still owned)|
|Cadzow Castle||South Lanarkshire, Scotland||Scottish crown (David I, Alexander II, Alexander III, John, Robert I); Mary, Queen of Scots (mid-early 12th century to early 14th century, early May 1568)|
|Caernarfon Castle||Caernarfon, Wales||Edward I (until 1283; still owned)|
|Cambridge House||Piccadilly, London||Official London residence of Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge (1829–1850)|
|Carisbrooke Castle||Newport, Isle of Wight||Charles I; Princess Elizabeth; Henry Stuart, Duke of Gloucester and Princess Henrietta; Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom (1647 – c. 1652, 1896–1944; now managed by English Heritage)|
|Carlton House||London||George IV (1783–1827; now Carlton House Terrace, still owned by the Crown Estate)|
|Castle Hill Lodge||Ealing||Used by Maria Anne Fitzherbert from October 1795 and George, Prince of Wales then bought by Edward, Duke of Kent (father of Queen Victoria) who spent £100,000 enhancing the house. His aide-de-camp General Sir Frederick Augustus Wetherall bought the house to rescue the Duchess from creditors following the Duke of Kent's death. The house was demolished in 1845 by General Sir George Augustus Wetherall.[ dubious ]|
|Castlewood House||Egham, Surrey||Leased by The Duke and Duchess of York (1987–1990)|
|Chelsea Manor||London||Princess Elizabeth; Anne of Cleves (1536–1547, c. 1547–1557)|
|Chesterfield House||Westminster||London home of Princess Mary (1923–1937) – owned by the Estate of Harewood|
|Chevening||Kent||Owned by the Crown Estate and used as the official residence of the Foreign Secretary (since 1980)|
|Chideock Manor||Dorset||Rented by The Duke and Duchess of York (1986–1987)|
|Chiswick House||Burlington Lane, Chiswick, London||Acquired by English Heritage, 1929|
|Christ Church||Oxford||Charles I (1642–1649)|
|Claremont||Esher, Surrey||Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales and Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld; Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany and Princess Helena, Duchess of Albany (1816–1831; owned until 1865, 1882–1922)[ clarification needed ]|
|Clarendon Palace||Salisbury, Wiltshire||Used for hunting trips during the Middle Ages. Now ruined.|
|Cliveden||Buckinghamshire||George Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, 3rd Duke of Sutherland|
|Coombe Abbey||Warwickshire||Owned 16th century–?; Elizabeth of Bohemia (early 17th century)|
|Coppins||Buckinghamshire||Princess Victoria; Princes George and Edward, Dukes of Kent (1925–1973)|
|Crocker End House||Oxfordshire||Prince Edward, Duke of Kent (1990–?)|
|Crosby Hall||Chelsea, London||Richard, Duke of Gloucester (mid-late 15th century)|
|Cumberland House||Pall Mall, London||Prince Edward, Duke of York; Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland (c. 1760–1801; as York House until 1767)|
|Cumberland Lodge||Windsor Great Park||Princes William and Henry, Dukes of Cumberland; Anne, Duchess of Cumberland; Prince Augustus, Duke of Sussex; Princess Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein (1746–1803; 1830–1843; 1872–1923; still owned)|
|Dolphin Square||Embankment, London||The Princess Royal, at some point or other, but never owned|
|Doune Castle||Stirlingshire||Seat of the Duke of Albany (1380–1603)|
|Dover House||London||Prince Frederick, Duke of York (1788–1792)|
|Dublin Castle||Dublin, County Dublin, Republic of Ireland||Seat of Lords and Kings of Ireland (1171–1922)|
|Dunfermline Palace||Dunfermline, Fife||Seat of the King of Scots (1500–1650)|
|East Sheen Lodge||London||Princess Louise, Princess Royal (1889–1931)|
|Eastwell Park||Kent||Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh and Maria, Duchess of Edinburgh (rented 1874–1893)|
|Edinburgh Castle||Edinburgh||A residence of the Kings of Scots from the 11th to the 17th centuries, last used by Charles I in 1633 (now Historic Scotland)|
|Eltham Palace||Kent||The Crown (Edward II to Henry VIII; now managed by English Heritage)|
|Falkland Palace||Falkland, Fife||Various, including Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany; David Stewart, Duke of Rothesay (The Scottish Crown 14th century –; now National Trust for Scotland)|
|Frogmore House||Windsor||Queen Charlotte and her then-unmarried daughters – Charlotte, Princess Royal, Princesses Princess Augusta, Elizabeth, Mary, Sophia, Amelia; Princess Augusta; Princess Victoria, Duchess of Kent (leased 1792–?)|
|Glamis Castle||Glamis, Angus||Residence of the Kings of Scots up to Robert II; much later, three rooms were let to George VI and Queen Elizabeth, The Queen Mother|
|Gloucester House||Weymouth||Summer residence of Prince William, Duke of Gloucester (later 18th century)|
|Gloucester House, London||Piccadilly, London||Prince William, Duke of Gloucester died here in 1805, as did his daughter-in-law Princess Mary, the last surviving child of George III, on 30 April 1857|
|Goldsborough Hall||North Yorkshire||Yorkshire home of Princess Mary (1923–1930) – owned by the Estate of Harewood|
|Gunnersbury Park||London||Summer retreat of Princess Amelia (1760–1786)|
|Hampton Court Palace||London||The Crown, since Henry VIII (1525), now a Historic Royal Palace)|
|Hanworth Manor||London||Henry VII; Henry VIII; Elizabeth I; also Anne Boleyn and Katherine Parr|
|Harewood House||West Yorkshire||Yorkshire home of Princess Mary (1930–1965) – owned by the Estate of Harewood|
|Hatfield House||Hertfordshire||The Crown (residents included Prince Edward and Princess Elizabeth; 16th century – 1607)|
|Havering Palace||Havering, Essex||c. 1050 – c. 1640|
|Ingestre House||Belgrave Square, London|
|Kent House||Isle of Wight||Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll (from 1901)|
|Kew House||Isle of Wight||Alejandro Combarro Martín|
|Kew Palace||London||Frederick, Prince of Wales; George III; The Crown since (mid-18th century –; now a Historic Royal Palace)|
|Kingsbourne House||Wentworth, Surrey||Leased by Sarah, Duchess of York (1994–1997)|
|Kings Langley Palace||Hertfordshire||Used by the Plantagenet to Tudor Kings (1276–1558)|
|Leeds Castle||Kent||King Edward I and Queen Eleanor of Castile (1278); King Edward II and Isabella of France (1321); King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon (1519)|
|Leicester House||Westminster||Frederick, Prince of Wales (c. 1730–1751)|
|Les Jolies Eaux||Mustique, St Vincent||Gift to Princess Margaret. Sold by her son Viscount Linley in 2000.|
|Linlithgow Palace||West Lothian|
|Tower of London||London||Now a Historic Royal Palace|
|Marlborough House||London||Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh; Queen Adelaide (1837–1849); Albert Edward, Prince of Wales and Alexandra, Princess of Wales (1863–1901); George, Prince of Wales and Mary, Princess of Wales (1901–1910). Occupied by Queen Mary 1945–1953.|
|The Castle of Mey||nr. John o' Groats||Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother (1952–2002)|
|Nether Lypiatt Manor||Stroud, Gloucestershire||Former country home of Prince and Princess Michael of Kent|
|Nonsuch Palace||London||Built by Henry VIII, later dismantled and sold-off by Barbara Palmer, 1st Duchess of Cleveland|
|Norfolk House||London||Frederick, Prince of Wales|
|Nottingham Cottage||Kensington Palace, London|
|Oak Grove House||Sandhurst|
|Oatlands Palace||Weybridge, Surrey||King Henry VIII; King Edward VI; Queen Mary I; Queen Elizabeth I (and the Stuart line)|
|Oatlands Park||Weybridge, Surrey|
|Osborne Cottage||Isle of Wight||Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom (1901–1912)|
|Osborne House||Isle of Wight||Queen Victoria and Prince Albert (1846–1901). Queen Victoria died there on 22 January 1901. Bequeathed to her successor King Edward VII, who gave it to the nation later that year.|
|Palace of Placentia||London||The Palace at Greenwich, acquired by Margaret of Anjou (consort to Henry VI), last used by Charles I|
|Queen Charlotte's Cottage||Kew|
|Queen's House||Greenwich||Built in the Gardens of the Palace of Greenwich for Anne of Denmark, consort to James I|
|Ribsden Holt||Windlesham, Surrey||Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll; Princess Patricia of Connaught|
|Richmond Palace||London||Also known as Palace of Sheen, Royal Residence 1327 to 1649, little remains|
|Romenda Lodge||Wentworth Estate, Surrey||Leased by the Duchess of York 1992–1994|
|The Royal Pavilion, Brighton||Brighton, East Sussex||George IV; William IV; Victoria (1786–1838)|
|Savile House||Leicester Square, London|
|Schomberg House||Pall Mall, London||Princess Helena (until 1923) and daughters Princess Helena Victoria and Princess Marie Louise (1920–1939)|
|Somerset House||London||Queen Elizabeth I; Queen Henrietta Maria|
|Stirling Castle||Stirling||Kings of Scots|
|Sunninghill Park||Ascot, Windsor||Prince Andrew, Duke of York and family (c. 1990–2004)|
|Sussex House||Upper Mall, Hammersmith, London||Prince Augustus, Duke of Sussex|
|Theobalds Palace||Hertfordshire||The Crown. James I exchanged it by Act of Parliament with Lord Burleigh; Charles I also lived there; granted in 1 & 2 William and Mary to William, Duke of Portland|
|Walmer Castle||Walmer, Kent|
|Westfield||Bonchurch, Isle of Wight||Built as hunting lodge for Queen Adelaide in 1825, now converted into apartments with most of gardens sold off|
|Palace of Westminster||London||Anglo-Saxon era – 1530|
|Palace of Whitehall||London||1530–1698|
|White Lodge||Richmond||Princess Amelia of Great Britain; King George III and Queen Charlotte; Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh; Albert Edward, Prince of Wales; Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge and family; Prince Albert George, Duke of York and Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon (c. 1740–1923)|
|The King's House||Winchester||Proposed royal residence for King Charles II|
|Windlesham Moor||Windsor||The Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh, Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (1947–4 July 1949 )|
|York Cottage||In the grounds of Sandringham House, Norfolk||Occupied by King George V and his wife Queen Mary as Duke and Duchess of York. They retained use of the small cottage after their accession in 1910. It was later given to George V's son, Prince Albert, Duke of York and Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon.|
|York House, St James's Palace||London||Various royal residents|
Buckingham Palace is the London residence and administrative headquarters of the monarch of the United Kingdom. Located in the City of Westminster, the palace is often at the centre of state occasions and royal hospitality. It has been a focal point for the British people at times of national rejoicing and mourning.
Westminster is a government district, based in London, which was the former adminstrative capital of the Kingdom of England and is today part of the wider City of Westminster on the north bank of the River Thames. It is home to one of the highest concentrations of visitor attractions and historic landmarks in London, including: the Palace of Westminster, Buckingham Palace, Westminster Abbey and Westminster Cathedral.
The British royal family comprises Queen Elizabeth II and her close relations. There is no strict legal or formal definition of who is or is not a member of the British royal family.
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories. The current monarch and head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who ascended the throne in 1952.
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, is the husband of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms.
The House of Windsor is the reigning royal house of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. In 1901, the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha succeeded the House of Hanover to the British monarchy with the accession of King Edward VII, son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. In 1917, the name of the royal house was changed from the German Saxe-Coburg and Gotha to the English Windsor because of anti-German sentiment in the United Kingdom during World War I. There have been four British monarchs of the House of Windsor since then: George V, Edward VIII, George VI, and Elizabeth II.
The Royal Standards of the United Kingdom refers to either one of two similar flags used by Queen Elizabeth II in her capacity as Sovereign of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and the British Overseas Territories. Two versions of the flag exist, one for general use in England, Northern Ireland, Wales, the Crown dependencies and the British Overseas Territories; and the other for use in Scotland.
St James's Palace is the most senior royal palace in the United Kingdom. It gives the name, Court of St James's, to the monarch's royal court and is located in the City of Westminster in London. Although no longer the principal residence of the monarch, it is the ceremonial meeting place of the Accession Council, the office of the Marshal of the Diplomatic Corps, and the London residence of several minor members of the royal family.
Clarence House is a British royal residence on The Mall in the City of Westminster, London. It is attached to St James's Palace and shares the palace's garden. From 1953 until 2002, it was home to Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother. It has since been the official residence of Charles, Prince of Wales, and his wife Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall.
The Privy Purse is the British Sovereign's private income, mostly from the Duchy of Lancaster. This amounted to £20.1 million in net income for the year to 31 March 2018. The Duchy is a landed estate of approximately 46,000 acres held in trust for the Sovereign since 1399. It also has 190 miles of foreshore. The Duchy was valued at approximately £533 million in 2018. The land is organised into the Lancashire Survey, the Yorkshire Survey, the Crewe Survey, the Nedwood Estate and the South Survey. The Sovereign is not entitled to the Duchy's capital, but the net revenues of the Duchy are the property of the Sovereign in right of the Duchy of Lancaster. While the income is private, the Queen uses the larger part of it to meet official expenses incurred by other members of the British Royal Family. Only the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh receive payments from Parliament that are not reimbursed by the Queen.
Sandringham House is a country house in the parish of Sandringham, Norfolk, England. It is the private home of Elizabeth II, whose father, George VI, and grandfather, George V, both died there. The house stands in a 20,000-acre (8,100 ha) estate in the Norfolk Coast Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. The house is listed as Grade II* on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens, along with its landscaped gardens, park, and woodlands.
The Queen's Guard and Queen's Life Guard are the names given to contingents of infantry and cavalry soldiers charged with guarding the official royal residences in the United Kingdom. The British Army has regiments of both Horse Guards and Foot Guards predating the English Restoration (1660), and since the reign of King Charles II these regiments have been responsible for guarding the Sovereign's palaces. The Guards are fully operational soldiers.
Historic Royal Palaces is an independent charity that manages some of the United Kingdom's unoccupied royal palaces.
A throne room or throne hall is the room, often rather a hall, in the official residence of the crown, either a palace or a fortified castle, where the throne of a senior figure is set up with elaborate pomp—usually raised, often with steps, and under a canopy, both of which are part of the original notion of the Greek word thronos.
A grace-and-favour home is a residential property owned by a monarch by virtue of his or her position as head of state and leased, often rent-free, to persons as part of an employment package or in gratitude for past services rendered.
Paul Kevin Whybrew, LVO, RVM is Page of the Backstairs to Queen Elizabeth II. He is an employee of the Royal Households of the United Kingdom.
The Royal Collection of the British Royal family is the largest private art collection in the world.
The Diamond Jubilee State Coach is an enclosed, six-horse-drawn carriage that was made to commemorate Queen Elizabeth II's 80th birthday, but completion was delayed for nearly eight years. Eventually, it became a commemoration for the Queen's Diamond Jubilee.
The finances of the British royal family come from a number of sources. The British government supports the monarch and some other members of the House of Windsor financially by means of the Sovereign Grant, a percentage of the annual profits of the Crown Estate which is intended to meet the costs of the sovereign's official expenditures. This includes the costs of the upkeep of the various royal residences, staffing, travel and state visits, public engagements, and official entertainment. Other sources of income include revenues from the Duchies of Lancaster and Cornwall, a parliamentary annuity, and income from private investments. The Keeper of the Privy Purse is Head of the Privy Purse and Treasurer's Office and has overall responsibility for the management of the sovereign's financial affairs.
Operation London Bridge has been a codename that referred to the plan for what will happen in the days after the death of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. The plan was originally devised in the 1960s and is updated several times each year. It involves planning from government departments, the Church of England, Metropolitan Police Service, the British Armed Forces, the media, the Royal Parks, London boroughs, the Greater London Authority and Transport for London. Some critical decisions relating to the plan were made by the Queen herself, although some can only be made by her successor, after her death.