Linux kernel version history

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Linux kernel versions timeline

The Linux kernel is a free and open-source, monolithic, Unix-like operating system kernel. It was conceived and created in 1991 by Linus Torvalds.[1]

Releases before 2.6.0[edit]

Version Original release date Current version Maintainer Support model
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.01 17 September 1991 0.03 Linus Torvalds EOL
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.02 5 October 1991 Linus Torvalds EOL; first "usable"; for wider distribution[2]
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.10 November 1991 0.12 Linus Torvalds EOL
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.95 8 March 1992 0.99.15 Linus Torvalds EOL
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.0 14 March 1994 1.0.9 Linus Torvalds EOL
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.1 6 April 1994 1.1.95 Linus Torvalds EOL
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.2 7 March 1995 1.2.13 Linus Torvalds EOL
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.3 12 June 1995 1.3.100[3] Linus Torvalds EOL
Old version, no longer maintained: pre2.0 12 May 1996 pre2.0.14 Linus Torvalds EOL
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.0 9 June 1996[4] 2.0.40[5] David Weinehall EOL (officially made obsolete with the kernel 2.2.0 release)[6]
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.2 26 January 1999[7] 2.2.26[8] Marc-Christian Petersen (formerly Alan Cox) EOL (unofficially obsolete with the 2.2.27-rc2)[9][10][11]
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.4 4 January 2001[12] 2.4.37.11[13] Willy Tarreau (formerly Marcelo Tosatti) EOL (maintained from December 2008 to December 2011), last stable release of the 2.4 kernel series.[13]
Legend:
Old version
Older version, still maintained
Latest version
Latest preview version
Future release

Releases 2.6.x.y[edit]

Versions 2.6.16 and 2.6.27 of the Linux kernel were unofficially supported in a long-term support (LTS) fashion,[14] before a 2011 working group in the Linux Foundation started a formal long-term support initiative.[15][16]

Version Original release date Current version Maintainer Support model
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.6 17 December 2003[17] 2.6.10[18] Linus Torvalds EOL (maintained from December 2003 to December 2004)[18]
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.6.11 2 March 2005[19] 2.6.11.12[20] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from March 2005 to June 2005)[20]
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.6.12 18 June 2005[21] 2.6.12.6[22][23] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from June 2005 to August 2005)[22]
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.6.13 28 August 2005[24] 2.6.13.5[25] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from August 2005 to December 2005)[25]
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.6.14 27 October 2005[26] 2.6.14.7[27] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from October 2005 to January 2006)[27]
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.6.15 2 January 2006[28] 2.6.15.7[29] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from January 2006 to May 2006)[29]
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.6.16 20 March 2006[30] 2.6.16.62[31] Adrian Bunk[32] (formerly Greg Kroah-Hartman)[33] EOL (1st LTS release, maintained from March 2006 to July 2008)[34][31]
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.6.17 17 June 2006[35] 2.6.17.14[36] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from September 2006 to October 2006)[36]
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.6.18 20 September 2006[37] 2.6.18.8[38] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from September 2006 to February 2007)[38]
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.6.19 26 November 2006[39] 2.6.19.7[40] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from November 2006 to March 2007)[40]
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.6.20 4 February 2007[41] 2.6.20.21[42] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from February 2007 to October 2007)[42]
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.6.21 25 April 2007[43] 2.6.21.7[44] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from April 2007 to August 2007)[44]
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.6.22 8 July 2007[45] 2.6.22.19[46] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from July 2007 to February 2008)[46]
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.6.23 9 October 2007[47] 2.6.23.17[48] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from October 2007 to February 2008)[48]
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.6.24 24 January 2008[49] 2.6.24.7[50] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from January 2008 to May 2008)[50]
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.6.25 16 April 2008[51] 2.6.25.20[52] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from April 2008 to November 2008)[52]
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.6.26 13 July 2008[53] 2.6.26.8[54] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from July 2008 to November 2008)[54]
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.6.27 9 October 2008[55] 2.6.27.62[56] Willy Tarreau[57] (formerly Adrian Bunk,[58] and formerly Greg Kroah-Hartman) EOL (2nd LTS release, maintained from October 2008 to March 2012)[58]
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.6.28 24 December 2008[59] 2.6.28.10[60] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from December 2008 to May 2009)[60]
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.6.29 23 March 2009[61] 2.6.29.6[62] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from March 2009 to July 2009)[62]
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.6.30 9 June 2009[63] 2.6.30.9[64] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from June 2009 to October 2009)[64]
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.6.31 9 September 2009[65] 2.6.31.14[66] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from September 2009 to July 2010)[66]
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.6.32 2 December 2009[67] 2.6.32.71[68] Willy Tarreau[69][70] (formerly Greg Kroah-Hartman)[33][71] EOL (3rd LTS release, maintained from December 2009 to March 2016,[69] used in Debian 6 Squeeze.[72] Canonical also provided support until April 2015.[73]
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.6.33 24 February 2010[74] 2.6.33.20[75] Greg Kroah-Hartman[76] EOL (4th LTS release, maintained from March 2011 to November 2011). It was the base for real-time-tree, replaced by 3.0.x.[75][76]
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.6.34 16 May 2010[77] 2.6.34.15[78] Paul Gortmaker[79] EOL (5th LTS release, maintained from January 2011 to February 2014)[78][79]
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.6.35 1 August 2010[80] 2.6.35.14[81] Andi Kleen[82] EOL (6th LTS release, maintained from December 2010 to March 2012)[82]
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.6.36 20 October 2010[83] 2.6.36.4[84] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from October 2010 to February 2011)[84]
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.6.37 4 January 2011[85] 2.6.37.6[86] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from January 2011 to March 2011)[86]
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.6.38 14 March 2011[87] 2.6.38.8[88] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from March 2011 to June 2011)[88]
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.6.39 18 May 2011[89] 2.6.39.4[90] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from May 2011 to August 2011), last stable release of the 2.6 kernel series.[90]
Legend:
Old version
Older version, still maintained
Latest version
Latest preview version
Future release

Releases 3.x.y[edit]

Version Original release date Current version Maintainer Support model
Old version, no longer maintained: 3.0 21 July 2011[91] 3.0.101[92] Greg Kroah-Hartman[93] EOL (7th LTS release, maintained from July 2011 to October 2013, providing the base for real-time tree)[92][93]
Old version, no longer maintained: 3.1 24 October 2011[94] 3.1.10[95] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from October 2011 to January 2012)[95]
Old version, no longer maintained: 3.2 4 January 2012[96] 3.2.102[97] Ben Hutchings[69][98] 8th LTS release, was "projected EOL" for May 2018,[99] and has been maintained from March 2012, used in Ubuntu 12.04 LTS[100] and optionally in 12.04 ESM,[101] Debian 7 "Wheezy" and Slackware 14.0.[69][98] Canonical promised to (at least) provide long-term support until April 2017;[73] Support has continued for months after.
Old version, no longer maintained: 3.3 18 March 2012[102] 3.3.8[103] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from March 2012 to June 2012)[103]
Old version, no longer maintained: 3.4 20 May 2012[104][105] 3.4.113[106] Li Zefan[69][107] (formerly Greg Kroah-Hartman) EOL (9th LTS release, maintained from May 2012 to October 2016).[108]
Old version, no longer maintained: 3.5 21 July 2012[109] 3.5.7[110] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from July 2012 to October 2012);[110] Canonical provided extended support until April 2014.[73][111]
Old version, no longer maintained: 3.6 30 September 2012[112] 3.6.11[113] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from October 2012 to December 2012)[113]
Old version, no longer maintained: 3.7 10 December 2012[114] 3.7.10[115] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from December 2012 to March 2013)[115][116]
Old version, no longer maintained: 3.8 18 February 2013[117] 3.8.13[118] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from February 2013 to May 2013);[118] Canonical provided extended support until August 2014.[73][119]
Old version, no longer maintained: 3.9 28 April 2013[120] 3.9.11[121] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from April 2013 to July 2013)[121]
Old version, no longer maintained: 3.10 30 June 2013[122] 3.10.108[123] Willy Tarreau[69][124] (formerly Greg Kroah-Hartman) EOL (10th LTS release, maintained from August 2013 to November 2017)[123]
Old version, no longer maintained: 3.11 2 September 2013[125] 3.11.10[126] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from September 2013 to November 2013);[126] Canonical provided extended support until August 2014.[73] The codename chosen for version 3.11 is "Linux for Workgroups".
Old version, no longer maintained: 3.12 3 November 2013[127] 3.12.74[128] Jiří Slabý[69][129] (formerly Greg Kroah-Hartman) EOL (11th LTS release, maintained from November 2013 to May 2017.)[129][128]
Old version, no longer maintained: 3.13 19 January 2014[130] 3.13.11[131] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from January 2014 to April 2014);[131] Canonical provided extended support until April 2016.[73][132]
Old version, no longer maintained: 3.14 30 March 2014[133] 3.14.79[134] Greg Kroah-Hartman[69] EOL (12th LTS release, maintained from March 2014 to August 2016)[134]
Old version, no longer maintained: 3.15 8 June 2014[135] 3.15.10[136] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from June 2014 to August 2014)[136]
Old version, no longer maintained: 3.16 3 August 2014[137] 3.16.85[138] Ben Hutchings[69][139] (formerly Greg Kroah-Hartman) EOL (13th LTS release, maintained from August 2014 to October 2014, May 2016 to June 2020)[69][140] Was used in Debian 8 "Jessie".[141] Canonical provided extended support until April 2016.[73][142]
Old version, no longer maintained: 3.17 5 October 2014[143] 3.17.8[144] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from October 2014 to January 2015)[144]
Old version, no longer maintained: 3.18 7 December 2014[145] 3.18.140[146] Greg Kroah-Hartman[147] (formerly Sasha Levin[148]) (formerly Greg Kroah-Hartman) EOL (14th LTS release, maintained from December 2014 to January 2017).[149] However Greg stated that he will release irregular updates to the 3.18 tree.[150] Starting with 3.18.140, this version will no longer be maintained on kernel.org, but on AOSP
Old version, no longer maintained: 3.19 8 February 2015[151] 3.19.8[152] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from February 2015 to May 2015);[152] last stable release of the 3.x.y kernel series;[153] Canonical provided extended support until July 2016.[73][154]
Legend:
Old version
Older version, still maintained
Latest version
Latest preview version
Future release

Releases 4.x.y[edit]

Version Original release date Current version Maintainer Support model
Old version, no longer maintained: 4.0 12 April 2015[155] 4.0.9[156] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from April 2015 to July 2015)[157]
Old version, no longer maintained: 4.1 22 June 2015[158] 4.1.52[159] Sasha Levin[69][160] (formerly Greg Kroah-Hartman)[161] EOL (15th LTS release, maintained from July 2015 to May 2018)[69][158]
Old version, no longer maintained: 4.2 30 August 2015[162] 4.2.8[163] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from August 2015 to December 2015);[163] Canonical provided extended support until July 2016.[73][164]
Old version, no longer maintained: 4.3 1 November 2015[165] 4.3.6[166] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from November 2015 to February 2016)[167]
Older version, yet still maintained: 4.4 10 January 2016[168] 4.4.228[169] Greg Kroah-Hartman & Sasha Levin[69] 16th LTS release, maintained from January 2016 to February 2022.[69][170] Canonical will provide extended support until April 2021.[171] As the first kernel selected for Super Long Term Support (SLTS), the Civil Infrastructure Platform will provide support until at least 2026, possibly until 2036.[172]
Old version, no longer maintained: 4.5 13 March 2016[173] 4.5.7[174] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from March 2016 to June 2016)[175]
Old version, no longer maintained: 4.6 15 May 2016[176] 4.6.7[177] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from May 2016 to August 2016)[177]
Old version, no longer maintained: 4.7 24 July 2016[178] 4.7.10[179] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from July 2016 to October 2016)[179]
Old version, no longer maintained: 4.8 25 September 2016[180] 4.8.17[181] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from September 2016 to January 2017)[181]
Older version, yet still maintained: 4.9 11 December 2016[182] 4.9.228[183] Greg Kroah-Hartman & Sasha Levin[69] 17th LTS release, maintained from December 2016 to January 2023.[69][184] Used in Debian 9 "Stretch".[185]
Old version, no longer maintained: 4.10 19 February 2017[186] 4.10.17[187] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from February 2017 to May 2017)[187]
Old version, no longer maintained: 4.11 30 April 2017[188] 4.11.12[189] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from April 2017 to July 2017)[189]
Old version, no longer maintained: 4.12 2 July 2017[190] 4.12.14[191] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from July 2017 to September 2017)[191]
Old version, no longer maintained: 4.13 3 September 2017[192] 4.13.16[193] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from September 2017 to November 2017)[193]
Older version, yet still maintained: 4.14 12 November 2017[194] 4.14.186[195] Greg Kroah-Hartman & Sasha Levin[69] 18th LTS release, maintained from November 2017 to January 2024[69][196]
Old version, no longer maintained: 4.15 28 January 2018[197] 4.15.18[198] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from January 2018 to April 2018)[198]
Old version, no longer maintained: 4.16 1 April 2018[199] 4.16.18[200] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from April 2018 to June 2018)[200]
Old version, no longer maintained: 4.17 3 June 2018[201] 4.17.19[202] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from June 2018 to August 2018)[202]
Old version, no longer maintained: 4.18 12 August 2018[203] 4.18.20[204] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from August 2018 to November 2018)[204]
Older version, yet still maintained: 4.19 22 October 2018[205] 4.19.130[206] Greg Kroah-Hartman & Sasha Levin[69] 19th LTS release, maintained from October 2018 to December 2024.[69][207] Used in Debian 10 "Buster".[208] Second SLTS release with support for ARM64 platform.[209]
Old version, no longer maintained: 4.20 23 December 2018[210] 4.20.17[211] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from December 2018 to March 2019)[211]
Legend:
Old version
Older version, still maintained
Latest version
Latest preview version
Future release

Releases 5.x.y[edit]

Version Original release date Current version Maintainer Support model
Old version, no longer maintained: 5.0 3 March 2019[212] 5.0.21[213] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from March 2019 to June 2019)[213]
Old version, no longer maintained: 5.1 5 May 2019[214] 5.1.21[215] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from May 2019 to July 2019)[215]
Old version, no longer maintained: 5.2 7 July 2019[216] 5.2.20[217] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from July 2019 to October 2019)[217]
Old version, no longer maintained: 5.3 15 September 2019[218] 5.3.18[219] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from September 2019 to December 2019)[219]
Older version, yet still maintained: 5.4 24 November 2019[220] 5.4.49[221] Greg Kroah-Hartman & Sasha Levin[69] 20th LTS release, maintained from November 2019 to December 2025[69]
Old version, no longer maintained: 5.5 26 January 2020[222] 5.5.19[223] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (maintained from January 2020 to April 2020)[223]
Old version, no longer maintained: 5.6 29 March 2020[224] 5.6.19[225] Greg Kroah-Hartman EOL (Stable release)
Current stable version: 5.7 31 May 2020[226] 5.7.7[227] (30 June 2020; 3 days ago (2020-06-30)) [±] Greg Kroah-Hartman Stable release
Latest preview version of a future release: 5.8 not yet released 5.8-rc3[228] (28 June 2020; 5 days ago (2020-06-28)) [±] Linus Torvalds Preview release
Legend:
Old version
Older version, still maintained
Latest version
Latest preview version
Future release

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Richardson, Marjorie (1 November 1999). "Interview: Linus Torvalds". Linux Journal. Retrieved 20 August 2009.
  2. ^ "Happy 25th once again to Linux, 'the little OS that definitely could'". PCWorld. 2016-10-05. Retrieved 2019-10-05.
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